Magden, Orhan; Tayfur, Volkan; Edizer, Mete; Atabey, Atay
Gracilis muscle flap is commonly used in reconstructive surgery. The gracilis muscles of 15 formalin-fixed adult cadavers (30 cases) were dissected with 4× loupe magnification. The most proximal pedicle of gracilis muscle was the deep branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery. It was located 60 mm from the pubic tubercle and had a diameter of 0.9 m on the average. The second pedicle was the medial circumflex femoral artery. It was the dominant pedicle in 13% of the cases. The mean diameter of the artery was 1.2 mm, and it entered the muscle 98 mm from the pubic tubercle. The third artery that nourished the muscle was deep femoral artery. It was the dominant pedicle in 87% of the cases. It had a mean diameter of 1.6 mm with a length of 54 mm. The most distant pedicles originated from the superficial femoral artery. They were present in all cases and were double in 77% of the cases. Mean diameter and length of the artery were 1.4 and 52 mm, respectively. They entered the muscle 266 mm from the pubic tubercle. These distal pedicles seem to be large enough to elevate the middle part of the muscle as a free flap.
Del Frari, Barbara; Schoeller, Thomas; Wechselberger, Gottfried
Microvascular free flaps continue to revolutionize coverage options in head and neck reconstruction. The authors describe their experience with the gracilis free flap and the myocutaneous gracilis free flap with reconstruction of head and neck defects. Eleven patients underwent 12 free tissue transfer to the head and neck region. The reconstruction was performed with the transverse myocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap (n = 7) and the gracilis muscle flap with skin graft (n = 5). The average patient age was 63.4 years (range, 17-82 years). The indications for this procedure were tumor and haemangioma resections. The average patient follow-up was 20.7 months (range, 1 month-5.7 years). Total flap survival was 100%. There were no partial flap losses. Primary wound healing occurred in all cases. Recipient site morbidities included one hematoma. In our experience for reconstruction of moderate volume and surface area defects, muscle flaps with skin graft provide a better color match and skin texture relative to myocutaneous or fasciocutaneous flaps. The gracilis muscle free flap is not widely used for head and neck reconstruction but has the potential to give good results. As a filling substance for large cavities, the transverse myocutaneus gracilis flap has many advantages including reliable vascular anatomy, relatively great plasticity and a concealed donor area.
Chong, Tae W; Balch, Glen C; Kehoe, Siobhan M; Margulis, Vitaly; Saint-Cyr, Michel
The reconstruction of large defects after abdominoperineal resections and pelvic exenterations has traditionally been accomplished with vertical rectus myocutaneous flaps (VRAMs). For patients requiring two ostomies, robot-assisted abdominoperineal resections (APRs), and to avoid the morbidity of a VRAM harvest, the authors have used the gracilis muscle flap to reconstruct the large dead space in these patients. A retrospective analysis of 16 consecutive APRs (10 with concomitant pelvic exenterations) reconstructed with gracilis flaps during a 2-year period was performed. Gracilis muscle flaps were used to obliterate the dead space after primary skin closure was ensured with adduction of the legs. All 16 patients had locally advanced cancers and had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Of these 16 patients, 10 had pelvic exenterations. All the patients had reconstruction with gracilis flaps (6 bilateral flaps). One major wound complication in the perineum occurred as a result of an anastomotic leak in the pelvis, but this was managed with conservative dressing changes. Three patients had skin separation in the perineum greater than 5 mm with intact subcutaneous closure. No patients required operative debridement or revision of their perineal reconstruction. No perineal hernias or gross dehiscence of the skin closure occurred. Large pelvic and perineal reconstructions can be safely accomplished with gracilis muscle flaps and should be considered as an alternative to abdominal-based flaps.
Zhou, Jianhong; Huang, Xin; Ren, Changqun; Guo, Xiaodan
To study the anatomic features of the gracilis muscle flap and its clinical application in tongue reconstruction. Thirty gracilis muscles in 15 cadavers were dissected, and the morphometric parameter of the gracilis muscle and the origin, length, diameter of the vascular and nerve pedicle were observed and measured. The length of the total gracilis and the muscle belly was 41.8±3.9 cm and 31.0±3.6 cm respectively, and the width and thickness of the muscle was 3.2±0.7 cm and 1.7±0.2 cm respectively. The blood supply to the gracilis originated from multiple source vessles, and two to five pedicles supplied the gracilis from its deep surface and entered the muscle near its anterior border, of which the dominant pedicle and the first distal pedicle were consistent in their anatomy which originated from the profunda femoris vessels and the femoris vessels respectively. The length and external diameter of these vessels were suitable for microvascular anastomosis, while other vessel pedicles were neither consistent in their anatomy nor the length and external diamiter suitable for microvascular anastomosis. The nerve to the gracilis arose from the anterior division of the obturator nerve consistently and its length and external diameter was suitable for anastomosis with the hypoglossal nerve. Because of superficial location, excellent morphological match for tongue, consistency in its vascular and neural pedicle's anatomy and suitability of neurovascular pedicle's length and external diameter for microsurgical anastomoses, possibility of regaining tongue movements, the gracilis flap is a ideal option for tongue reconstruction.
Yo, Toeki; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Hanasaki, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Yukako; Togo, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Nojima, Michio; Yamamoto, Shingo; Okuyama, Hiroomi
A man in his 50s was referred to our hospital after recurrent severe urinary tract infection. He had undergone anoplasty for anorectal malformation during early infancy. He noticed urinary leakage from the anus for a long time. Under diagnosis of congenital rectourethral fistula, we performed fistula closure. The fistula was transsected via transperineal incision and each stump was closed. A gracilis muscle flap approximately 30 cm long was harvested from the left thigh, brought into the deepest part between the separated rectum and urethra through a subcutaneous tunnel and fixed there. The urinary leakage from the anus disappeared, and the infection resolved. Application of gracilis muscle flap for congenital diseases is rare, but was useful in the present case.
Lee, Su-Shin; Huang, Shu-Hung; Chen, Meng-Chum; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw
Inappropriate seating has been implicated as a major contributing factor in ischial pressure-sore recurrence. During their lifetime, paraplegic patients may require several flaps for closure of the same or some other adjacent pressure sore. Despite a wide variety of flap reconstruction options being described, the ischium remains the most difficult pressure-sore site to treat. From June 1998 to July 2006, there were 253 pressure-sore patients operated upon at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Ten patients (eight men and two women) suffered from recurrent ischial pressure sores, and all of them received more than one flap reconstruction for the ischial defect. For the treatment of the recurrent ischial pressure sore, gracilis muscle flap and readvancement of the V-Y profunda femoris artery perforator-based flap were used to fill the dead space as well as cover the defect. Among these 10 recurrent ischial pressure-sore patients, six of them had suffered bilateral ischial ulcers. Eight of them had previous sacral pressure sores. In all, 32 flap reconstruction procedures were performed on these 10 patients. Unfortunately, one patient had recurrent grade II bilateral ischial pressure sores after 11 months of ulcer-free period. The other nine patients had no recurrence noted, and enjoyed their lives with an average 27.2 months ulcer-free period (range 9-53 months). The fasciocutaneous flap provides a higher mechanical resistance than the detached and transposed muscle. However, for the recurrent ischial ulcer patients, readvancement of the perforator-based fasciocutaneous flap alone cannot provide adequate bulk to obliterate the 'dead space' after debridement of the bursa and the surrounding necrotic tissue. By combining the readvancement of V-Y profunda femoris artery perforator-based fasciocutaneous flap and gracilis muscle flap, these recurrent ischial ulcers will heal without complication. Recurrence of ulceration often develops despite successful flap closure
Pavlov, V N; Bakirov, A A; Kabirov, I R; Izmajlov, A A; Kutlijarov, L M; Safiullin, R L; Urmancev, M F; Sultanov, I M; Abdrahimov, R V
Evisceration of the pelvic organs (EPO) is a fairly uncommon surgical treatment that removes all organs from a patient's pelvic cavity. We use gracilis musculocutaneous flap to repair pelvic floor after EPO. Over the period from November 2013 to December 2014 we carried out EPO with reconstructive repair of the pelvic floor with gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 10 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors. We describe the surgical procedure and surgical outcomes in these patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years. Mean duration of EPO with the pelvic floor repair was 285 min., mean blood loss--595 mL and the average length of hospital stay--19 days. Gracilis musculocutaneous flap has a sufficient arterial supply and mobility for pelvic floor reconstruction. Necrosis of flap's distal edge occurred in one of the 10 clinical cases, while the remaining flaps were fully preserved. Complete healing of wounds with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor muscles was observed in all cases. Pelvic floor reconstruction is an essential procedure in order to reduce complications associated with the evisceration of the pelvic organs. The Gracilis musculocutaneous flap is the logical alternative to repair pelvic floor defect. It does not contribute to complications like functional deficiency of the lower limbs, complications of stoma formation or weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall.
Kalra, Guru Dayal Singh; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Shende, Kaustubh Sharad
Background/Purpose: Anal incontinence is one of the most psychologically and socially debilitating conditions in an otherwise healthy individual. It can lead to social isolation, loss of self-esteem, self-confidence and depression. This study is devoted to the problem of anal incontinence in the adult patients. The aim of our study is to analyse the results of gracilis muscle transposition for anal incontinence and improvement in quality of life (QOL) of patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. A total of 18 patients with complaint of anal incontinence were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with gracilis muscle transposition. Results: All patients are continent, and there is an improvement in their QOL. Conclusion: Gracilis muscle transposition is a good option for patients of anal incontinence who are not treated by non-surgical means. PMID:28216815
Jai, Shrikant; Ganpule, Arvind; Singh, Abhishek; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar; Bopaiah, Vinod; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has come forward as alternative treatment for carcinoma of the prostate. Though minimally invasive,HIFUhas potential side effects. Urethrorectal fistula is one such rare side effect. Management of these fistulas has been described by Vanni et al. This case report describes points of technique that will help successful management of resilient rectourethral fistula. Urinary and faecal diversion in the form of suprapubic catheter and colostomy is vital. Adequate time between stoma formation, fistula closure and then finally stoma closure is needed. Lithotomy position and perineal approach gives best exposure to the fistula. The rectum should be dissected 2cm above the fistula; this aids in tension free closure of the rectal defect. Similarly buccal mucosal graft was used on the urethra to achieve tension free closure. A good vascular pedicle gracilis muscle flap is used to interpose between the two repairs. This not only provides a physical barrier but also provides a vascular bed for BMG uptake. Perfect haemostasis is essential, as any collection may become a site of infection thus compromising results. We strongly recommend rectourethral fistula be directly repaired with gracilis muscle flap with reinforced buccal mucosa graft without attempting any less invasive repairs because the “first chance is the best chance”. PMID:28299181
An, Xiaochun; Yue, Bin; Lee, Je-Hun; Lin, Chenghe; Han, Seung-Ho
The gracilis muscle is widely used in reconstructive surgery, either as a pedicled flap or as a free microsurgical flap. The aim of this study was to demonstrate in detail the arterial anatomy of the gracilis muscle, particularly its intramuscular artery distribution, by using a method involving red latex injection and glycerin transparency, which makes muscle tissues quite transparent and allows direct visualization of the arterial anatomy. Twenty-four specimens of gracilis muscle were harvested after injecting 12 cadavers with red latex. The different patterns of blood supply of the gracilis muscle were counted. A complete arterial system formed by anastomoses of intramuscular arterial branches was observed in each specimen. The existence of several arterial branches at the proximal origin of each muscle was observed. The results of this study provide reconstructive surgeons with useful information regarding gracilis muscle flap design. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Snyder, J R; Ilkiw, J
Dissection, injection, and surgical studies in feline cadavers and in anesthetized cats were conducted to determine the feasibility of using the gracilis muscle as the basis for a free musculocutaneous flap. The vascular pedicle of the flap consisted of the femoral artery and vein. Mean length (1.6 +/- 0.2 cm) of the vascular pedicle and mean artery (1.33 +/- 0.19 mm) and vein (2.55 +/- 0.38 mm) diameters were satisfactory for microvascular transfer. Fluorometry revealed overlying cutaneous perfusion in the flaps on the basis of their muscle vascular pedicles. To ensure survival of the flap, the muscular branches of the femoral artery and vein supplying the gracilis muscle had to be carefully preserved during surgical elevation of the flap.
Doménech Juan, Ivan; Tornero, Jordi; Cruz Toro, Paula; Ortiz Laredo, Nuria; Vega Celiz, Jorge; Junyent, Josefina; Maños Pujol, Manel
Micro-neurovascular free muscle flap transfer is currently the procedure of choice for long-standing facial paralysis. We present a case series of patients treated with gracilis muscle free flap with motor innervation by the masseteric nerve. We discuss the surgical technique and quantify the movement granted by the muscle, the improvement in quality of life and aesthetic results. We report ten patients with unilateral facial paralysis who underwent free gracilis muscle flap, between the years 2010 and 2012 in two tertiary hospitals. It is not reported any failure of the microsuture with survival of all flaps. The muscle movement was quantified by vectors at rest and contraction with an average of 1.7 cm that initiated around the fourth month after surgery. Patients also reported a significant improvement in symmetry at rest as well as oral and ocular competition. As currently presented in literature, microvascular free flaps are the technique of choice for facial reanimation. In our experience, we believe that gracilis muscle flap innervated by the masseteric nerve is a reliable and secure technique that provides adequate functional and aesthetic results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Huemer, George M; Puelzl, Petra; Schoeller, Thomas
Poland syndrome is a complex chest wall deformity with unilateral hypoplasia of the breast and pectoralis muscle, with a missing anterior axillary fold in its most common form. The authors report their combined experience and technique with the transverse myocutaneous gracilis flap to reconstruct the chest wall and breast either alone or simultaneously. Between June of 2004 and July of 2010, 11 patients (two male patients) were operated on and 14 flaps were transplanted. The authors found that the transverse myocutaneous gracilis flap proved to be a very valuable microsurgical alternative for reconstructing the chest wall and female breast in Poland syndrome with autologous tissue. The flap provides the surgeon maximal freedom of flap insetting for optimal symmetry together with a very inconspicuous donor site regardless of unilateral or bilateral harvesting.
Cavadas, Pedro C; Sanz-Giménez-Rico, Juan R; Landín, Luis; Martínez-Soriano, Francisco
The gracilis muscle has been used extensively in reconstructive surgery, based on the proximal dominant pedicle. In the literature, little attention has been paid to the secondary distal pedicles. The distribution of the secondary pedicles of the gracilis muscle was investigated in 20 cadaver thighs. The mean number of secondary pedicles was 2.2 (range, two to three). When two pedicles were present-the most common situation-they were located at a mean distance of 12.4 and 17.5 cm from the knee joint line. The most proximal secondary pedicle was injected with barium sulfate in five specimens, and constant and abundant connections with the main pedicle were noted. A series of seven clinical cases of segmental gracilis free muscle flaps based on a secondary pedicle is reported. The flaps were successfully transferred to reconstruct traumatic defects of limited size, with one case of partial necrosis caused by a technical error. The morbidity of this flap is minimal, the scar is well hidden, the muscle need not be sacrificed, elevation is fast and straightforward under tourniquet control, and the pedicle is sizable. This flap should be considered a viable option when a small, straightforward free flap is needed.
Tremp, M; Oranges, C M; Wang, W J; Wettstein, R; Zhang, Y X; Schaefer, D J; Kalbermatten, D F
Little attention has been given to the segmental free gracilis muscle flap supplied by secondary proximal pedicles. We introduce a technical refinement for small-sized three-dimensional defect reconstruction on the foot. Between November 2013 and August 2016, three patients with a mean age of 66 years (range 47-70 years) were included. A segmental gracilis free flap supplied by the most proximal secondary pedicle was harvested according to a modified "nugget design" to treat small-sized defects on the lower extremity requiring dead space reconstruction. Minor and major complications, sensitivity with Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test, soft tissue stability and patient satisfaction at final follow-up were recorded. In one case, a segmental gracilis muscle was used for dorsal foot reconstruction after debridement of metatarsal phalanx I with osteomyelitis. In two cases, the segmental gracilis free muscle was harvested for defect reconstruction on the right plantar foot after excision of a melanoma. The first patient required revision after partial failure of the initial segmental gracilis free muscle flap. Overall, good results in foot function and a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved (Likert scale 9.7, range 9-10) after a mean follow-up of 13 months (range 3-24 months). Taken from the very proximal dorsal part of the gracilis muscle supplied by the most proximal secondary pedicle and leaving the vast majority of the muscle intact preserves the option to harvest a normal gracilis flap. This technique is especially suitable for small, three-dimensional defects on the lower extremity. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Koblik, P D; Patz, J D
Dissection and injection studies in canine cadavers and in anesthetized dogs were conducted to determine the feasibility of using the latissimus dorsi, gracilis, and rectus abdominus muscles as musculocutaneous free flaps. Lengths of vascular pedicles for the latissimus dorsi (2 +/- 0.8 cm), gracilis (1.8 +/- 0.8 cm), and rectus abdominus (1.9 +/- 0.9-cm cranial deep epigastric, 1.7 +/- 0.5-cm caudal deep epigastric), as well as arterial diameters (1.28 +/- 0.31-mm thoracodorsal for the latissimus dorsi, 1.10 +/- 0.33-mm muscular branch for the gracilis, 1.25 +/- 0.25-mm cranial deep epigastric and 1.26 +/- 0.32-mm caudal deep epigastric for the rectus abdominus) were considered satisfactory for microvascular transfer. Fluorometry demonstrated overlying cutaneous perfusion in all flaps based on their muscle vascular pedicles, with the exception of the rectus abdominus flap based on the caudal deep epigastric artery. In this instance, up to 20% of the cutaneous element had questionable or no perfusion.
McKane, Brice W; Korn, Peter T
We evaluated a fleur-de-lis design for the gracilis myocutaneous flap to improve flap volume for breast reconstruction. Thirty-one flaps were used in 17 consecutive patients undergoing the procedure for either thin body habitus (23 flaps) or prior abdominal surgery (8 flaps). The flap success rate was 100%. The fleur-de-lis flap provided proportionate breast reconstructions in all patients. Complications included 6 (19.3%) donor-site dehiscence and 4 (12.9%) episodes of cellulitis. Applying a negative pressure dressing to the donor site (n=26) significantly reduced the initially high dehiscence rate to 7.7% (P<0.01). There was no incidence of lower extremity edema or sensory loss. The fleur-de-lis gracilis flap can be performed with a low flap related complication rate and acceptable donor-site morbidity. Because of its standardized flap design, improved volume, and favorable breast shaping, it may allow autologous breast reconstruction to be offered to a greater number of patients.
Lheureux-Portmann, A; Lapalus-Curtoud, Q; Robert, M; Tankéré, F; Disant, F; Pasche, P; Lamas, G; Gatignol, P
The facial palsy cause serious consequences for patients. Studies have also shown that in these patients, the inability to produce an appropriate and spontaneous smile would be a key factor of depression. When facial palsy is considered complete and the nerve cannot be repaired, the patient can benefit from palliative surgery to regain a better quality of life in the aesthetic, functional, and psychological aspects. The hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (AHF), temporal myoplasty (MAT) and gracilis transposition (TG) are the major surgeries currently used for this purpose. The aim of our study is to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of each of these surgeries on the lip mobility and production of smile. From this perspective, we proposed a protocol of an evaluation of facial motricity, of quality of life, and more particularly on the quality and the analysis of the smile. The results underline that there is no significant difference in the recovery of the facial motricity according to the surgery. Only the slower, deferred deadline of recovery at the patients AHF and TG who have to wait several months, it is for the same levels as that of the patients' MAT. A premature and intensive rehabilitation such as the patients of our protocol benefited from it what is nevertheless essential to a good recovery whatever is the surgery.
Cherubino, Mario; Maggiulli, Francesca; Pellegatta, Igor; Valdatta, Luigi
Poland's syndrome (PS) is a congenital monolateral deformity that may involve breast, chest wall, and upper limb with different degrees of clinical expressions. In some cases, the problem is mainly cosmetic, and the reconstruction should be performed to achieve minimal scarring and donor site morbidity. The authors describe a case report of a male patient with PS who developed a severe capsular contraction after 25 years implant reconstruction, who was treated after explantation using free gracilis flap (FGF). In this patient, only the pectoralis major muscle was missing. An FGF was performed to reconstruct the anterior axillary fold and the soft tissue defect. There was no flap loss, the patient had a clearly improved appearance of the chest wall, and the pain syndrome was solved. In this case report, we demonstrate our experience with the use of an FGF for chest wall reconstruction in male patients with PS after prosthesis explantation.
Cherubino, Mario; Maggiulli, Francesca; Pellegatta, Igor; Valdatta, Luigi
Poland's syndrome (PS) is a congenital monolateral deformity that may involve breast, chest wall, and upper limb with different degrees of clinical expressions. In some cases, the problem is mainly cosmetic, and the reconstruction should be performed to achieve minimal scarring and donor site morbidity. The authors describe a case report of a male patient with PS who developed a severe capsular contraction after 25 years implant reconstruction, who was treated after explantation using free gracilis flap (FGF). In this patient, only the pectoralis major muscle was missing. An FGF was performed to reconstruct the anterior axillary fold and the soft tissue defect. There was no flap loss, the patient had a clearly improved appearance of the chest wall, and the pain syndrome was solved. In this case report, we demonstrate our experience with the use of an FGF for chest wall reconstruction in male patients with PS after prosthesis explantation. PMID:27833290
Pülzl, Petra; Huemer, Georg M; Schoeller, Thomas
Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation leading to pain, displacement, and rupture. After capsulectomy and implant exchange, the problem often reappears. We performed 52 deepithelialized free transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flaps in 33 patients for tertiary breast reconstruction or augmentation of small- and medium-sized breasts. The indications for implant removal were unnatural feel and emotion of their breasts with foreign body feel, asymmetry, pain, and sensation of cold. Anyway, most of the patients did not have a severe capsular contracture deformity. The TMG flap is formed into a cone shape by bringing the tips of the ellipse together. Depending on the contralateral breast, the muscle can also be shaped in an S-form to get more projection if needed. The operating time for unilateral TMG flap breast reconstruction or augmentation was on average 3 hours and for bilateral procedure 5 hours. One patient had a secondary revision of the donor site due to disruption of the normal gluteal fold. Eighty percent of the unilateral TMG flap reconstructions had a lipofilling procedure afterward to correct small irregularities or asymmetry. The advantages of the TMG flap such as short harvesting time, inconspicuous donor site, and the possibility of having a natural breast shape make it our first choice to treat capsular contracture after breast reconstruction and augmentation.
Gabert, Pierre-Elliott; Bodin, Frederic; Aljudaibi, Nawaf; Duquennoy-Martinot, Veronique; Guerreschi, Pierre
The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap is a valuable choice for autologous tissue, unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction. This procedure is an excellent and customized option for immediate or delayed breast reconstruction in patients with small to moderate size breasts. Few descriptions of flap dissection and breast mound shaping are available. In this first educational video, the authors report the original dissection of the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap used for breast reconstruction. Virtual animations insist on surgical key points and relevant details of the harvesting of the flap.
Prica, S; Donati, O F; Schaefer, D J; Peltzer, J
Genital elephantiasis is an illness leading to serious functional and aesthetic as well as psychosocial impairment. Since the 19th century there have been articles describing methods for surgical ablative treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema. However, most of these methods ignore the creation a new drainage for the lymph. We now describe a new technique using a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap for the reconstruction of the soft tissue damage resulting from radical excision, thus ensuring drainage of the lymph into the deep muscle compartment of the thigh. In the District Hospital "Mettu-Karl Hospital" in the Ethiopian rain forest region of Illubabor, during a period of 6 months the described surgical procedure was applied to 9 patients suffering from severe forms of this grotesquely disfiguring disease. Two patients presented with combined penoscrotal oedema, while the other 7 patients were suffering from isolated scrotal lymphoedema alone. All patients benefited from reconstruction with a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap after radical excision of the affected tissue. All patients were evaluated after 3 and 12 months postoperatively in the presence of a translator. All nine patients showed a functionally and aesthetically satisfying result after 3 months without postoperative occurrence of infection. The evaluation 12 months postoperatively showed no recurrence of genitoscrotal lymphoedema. All patients reported on having regained normal ability for sexual intercourse and no occurrence of urinary tract infections since the operation. Concerning fertility, no statements could be made. A significant improvement in the quality of life was observed by the regained ability to walk and work and consequently the reintegration of the patients into their socio-economic environment. Radical excision of the affected tissue followed by transferring a functioning lymphatic drainage into the deep muscle compartment of the ipsilateral thigh using a proximally based
Wechselberger, Gottfried; Traintinger, Heike; Larcher, Lorenz; Russe, Elisabeth; Edelbauer, Monika; Ensat, Florian
In secondary autologous breast reconstruction, the current standard is a flap derived from the lower abdomen or the back. If these donor sites are not available because of lack of tissue, prior operations, or simply the patient's desire to avoid these donor sites, the authors use the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap if feasible. The authors retrospectively evaluated only patients where secondary autologous breast reconstruction was performed with a transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap because of the prior mentioned reasons. Indications, limitations, advantages, and technique are discussed by sharing the authors' experience in 23 patients using 26 transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flaps. No flap loss could be observed in this series. In four patients, minimal lateral skin necrosis could easily be managed by débridement and primary wound closure. In 12 cases, subsequent lipofilling was performed for a better breast shape. On average, patient satisfaction was high. Secondary reconstruction after simple mastectomy using the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap requires a little more experience than after skin-sparing mastectomy but, especially combined with later lipofilling, can lead to an optimally shaped breast in selected patients with substantial skin laxity and fat distribution at the inner thigh. Therapeutic, IV.
Biochem Cytol. 1961;9:493 495. 42. Sola OM, Christensen DL, Martin AW. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adult chicken anterior latissimus dorsi muscles ...TECHNICAL TRICK The Gradual Expansion Muscle Flap Michael J. Beltran, MD,* James A. Blair, MD,* Christopher R. Rathbone, PhD,† and Joseph R. Hsu, MD...acute shortening and angulation of the tibia and rotational muscle flap coverage and split thickness skin grafting of the soft tissue defect
Bodin, Frédéric; Dissaux, Caroline; Dupret-Bories, Agnes; Schohn, Thomas; Fiquet, Caroline; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine
The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has become a common solution for breast reconstruction. However, the safe skin paddle limits are not yet understood. In this study, we attempted to address this issue based on our experiences with inferior and posterior skin paddle extension. Forty-four breast reconstructions with TMG flaps performed between November 2010 and January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. For the first 20 cases, the flap skin paddle was extended 3 cm posteriorly to the middle thigh (group 1). For the next 20 flaps (group 2), the posterior tip was limited to this line, whereas more fat was recruited inferiorly. In the four cases of group 3, the skin flap was extended posteriorly with a second vascular pedicle from the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap. The weights and the dimensions of the flaps, operating durations, and postoperative complications of the entire series were analyzed. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically compared. Flap complications were statistically more frequent in group 1 compared with group 2 (45 vs. 0%, P = 0.0012); 40% posterior flap tip necrosis was observed in group 1. Conversely, donor site complications were statistically more frequent in group 2 than in group 1 (40 vs. 5%, P = 0.019) with 35% inner thigh dehiscence. In the TMG with extended PAP flap group, the operating duration was 77 min longer compared with the rest of the series with no donor site complications. In one case, limited necrosis occurred at the anterior skin tip. Harvesting the posterior portion of the TMG up to the middle of the posterior thigh may lead to partial flap necrosis. Extending subcutaneous fat removal under the inferior skin incision may increase the risk of donor site complications. Adding a second vascular pedicle from the PAP flap may improve posterior TMG tip perfusion at the expense of a longer operation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Locke, Michelle B; Zhong, Toni; Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P
Autologous tissue microsurgical breast reconstruction is increasingly requested by women following mastectomy. While the abdomen is the most frequently used donor site, not all women have enough abdominal tissue excess for a unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction. A secondary choice in such women may be the transverse upper gracilis (TUG) myocutaneous flap. This study reviews our experience with TUG flap breast reconstruction looking specifically at reconstructive success rate and the requirement for secondary surgery. A total of 16 free TUG flaps were performed to reconstruct 15 breasts in eight patients over a period of five years. Data were collected retrospectively by chart review. Follow up ranged from 14 to 41 months. During the follow up period, there was one (6.3%) complete flap loss in an immediate breast reconstruction patient. Four further flaps (25%) failed in their primary aim of breast reconstruction, as they required additional significant reconstruction with either deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps (two flaps (12.5%), one patient) or augmentation with silicone breast implants (two flaps (12.5%), one patient), giving a successful breast reconstruction rate with the TUG flap of only 66.7%. In all of the remaining reconstructed breasts, deficient flap volume or breast contour was seen. Eight flaps were augmented by lipofilling. A total of 62.5% of the donor sites had complications, namely sensory disturbance of the medial thigh (25%) and poor scar (37.5%) requiring revision. This series demonstrates a high rate of reconstructive failure and unsatisfactory outcomes from TUG flap breast reconstruction. We feel this reinforces the necessity of adequate pre-operative patient assessment and counselling, including discussion regarding the likelihood of subsequent revisional surgery, before embarking on this form of autologous breast reconstruction.
Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun
Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores. PMID:25075362
Advancements in medicine have allowed surgeons a menu of options in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. A conundrum exists, however, in flap selection when faced with varying patient body types. In the case of the athletic patient who does not have the appropriate amount of donor site tissue to warrant a Transverse Rectus Abdominus Musculocutaneuos Flap (TRAM) the Transverse Musculocutaneous Gracilis Flap (TMG) is an appropriate alternative due to its functional and aesthetic benefits. An intricate and timely process, the TMG procedure can be difficult to understand for the layperson. Therefore, a need for a condensed and standardized description exists. By breaking the process down and illustrating the procedure one can effectively deliver the information for use across all realms of publication and education.
Irons, G B; Arnold, P G; Masson, J K; Woods, J E
One hundred muscule flap transfers performed at the Mayo Clinic from 1975 to 1978 are reviewed and assessed as to the cause and location of the defects, muscles used, complications, and results. We found the muscle flaps very versatile for covering for a wide variety of difficult soft tissue and bony defects. The complication rate was very low, considering the severity and chronic nature of the problem. Ninety-two percent of patients showed healing after surgery, and 82% remained healed at the time of this follow-up survey.
Su, W G; Li, D P; Xing, P P; Xu, L G; Shi, F C; Wen, B; Niu, X H
Objective: To explore effects of perforator flaps combined with muscle flaps for repairing grade Ⅳ pressure ulcers in ischial tuberosity of elderly patients. Methods: Nine elderly patients with grade Ⅳ pressure ulcers in ischial tuberosity were hospitalized in our burn ward from April 2014 to April 2017. Size of wounds ranged from 5 cm×3 cm to 12 cm×7 cm, and depth of sinus ranged from 6 to 22 cm. After admission, emergency debridement or debridement in selective time was performed. After debridement, the wounds were treated with continuous vacuum assisted closure therapy. After the treatment for 1 to 2 weeks, tissue flaps repair operations were performed. Four patients were repaired with inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps combined with long head of biceps femoris muscle flaps. Three patients were repaired with inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps combined with semimembranous muscle flaps. One patient was repaired with inferior gluteal artery perforator flap combined with gracilis muscle flap. One patient was repaired with femoral profound artery perforator flap combined with gluteus maximus muscle flap, and the distal area of femoral profound artery perforator flap of the patient which showed intraoperative cyanosis of 6 cm×4 cm was thinned to medium thickness skin to cover the muscle flap. The other eight patients showed no abnormality during operation. Size of perforator flaps ranged from 7 cm×5 cm to 14 cm×12 cm, and size of muscle flaps ranged from 11 cm×4 cm to 24 cm×6 cm. The donor sites of flaps were all sutured directly. Results: The tissue flaps and skin graft of all patients survived well after operation. During follow-up of 8 to 35 weeks, operative area of all patients showed good shape and texture, with no local diabrosis or recurrence of pressure ulcers. Conclusions: The combination of perforator flaps and muscle flaps is effective in repairing and reducing recurrence of grade Ⅳ pressure ulcers in ischial tuberosity of elderly
Braig, David; Bannasch, Holger; Stark, G Björn; Eisenhardt, Steffen U
Free functional muscle transfers represent the 'criterion standard' for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis. The gracilis muscle is a common donor muscle; however, no data exist regarding the volume of the muscle tissue that is necessary for symmetric commissure excursion. All patients with facial paralysis receiving a free functional muscle transfer for facial reanimation surgery between January 2009 and November 2015 were retrospectively analysed. Only patients with unilateral facial paralysis and documented weight of the muscle portion were included. The extent of oral commissure amplitude was determined from standardised photographs. In total, 42 free functional gracilis transfers were performed during the study period, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Eight muscles were innervated by a cross-facial nerve graft (CFNG) and 14 by the masseteric nerve. Segments between 19 and 50 g of weight (mean: CFNG, 33.9 g and masseteric nerve, 31.7 g; p = 0.59) were transferred. Coaptation to the masseteric nerve led to increased commissure excursion compared to coaptation to the CFNG. We observed a significant increase in commissure excursion with increasing muscle weight in the masseteric nerve group. In this group, four patients underwent secondary flap debulking in flaps weighing ≥27 g. In the CFNG group, only one patient, who had an initial flap weight of 50 g, underwent secondary flap reduction. Thinning reduced the oral commissure movement but improved the symmetry of commissure excursion and the aesthetic result. The ideal muscle weight depends on the donor nerve and should be smaller for masseteric nerve than for CFNG coaptation in adults. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guo, Hailin; Sa, Yinglong; Fu, Qiang; Jin, Chongrui; Wang, Lin
Pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas are rare and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition for the repair of pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. We identified 32 patients who underwent transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition to repair pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. Patient demographics as well as preoperative, operative and postoperative data were obtained. Mean followup was 33 months (range 6 to 64). The overall success rate was 91% (29 of 32 cases). One-stage repair was successful in 17 of 18 patients (94%) using perineal anastomosis with separation of the corporeal body and in 12 of 14 (86%) using perineal anastomosis with inferior pubectomy and separation of the corporeal body. All 22 patients (100%) without a previous history of repair were successfully treated. However, only 7 of 10 patients (70%) with a previous history of failed urethroplasty and urethrorectal fistula repair were cured. Recurrent urethral strictures developed in 2 cases. One patient was treated successfully with optical internal urethrotomy and the other was treated successfully with tubed perineoscrotal flap urethroplasty. Recurrent urethrorectal fistulas associated with urethral strictures developed in an additional patient. Transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition is a safe and effective surgical procedure for most pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. Several other factors may affect its postoperative efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abolhoda, Amir; Bui, Trung D.; Milliken, Jeffrey C.; Wirth, Garrett A.
Bronchopleural fistula and empyema are serious complications after thoracic surgical procedures, and their prevention is paramount. Herein, we review our experience with routine prophylactic use of the pedicled ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle flap. From January 2004 through February 2006, 10 surgically high-risk patients underwent intrathoracic transposition of this muscle flap for reinforcement of bronchial-stump closure or obliteration of empyema cavities. Seven of the patients were chronically immunosuppressed, 5 were severely malnourished (median preoperative serum albumin level, 2.4 g/dL), and 5 had severe underlying obstructive pulmonary disease (median forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 44% of predicted level). Three upper lobectomies and 1 completion pneumonectomy were performed in order to treat massive hemoptysis that was secondary to complex aspergilloma. One patient underwent left pneumonectomy due to ruptured-cavitary primary lung lymphoma. One upper lobectomy was performed because of necrotizing, localized Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. One patient underwent right upper lobectomy and main-stem bronchoplasty for carcinoma after chemoradiation therapy. In 3 patients, the pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle was used to obliterate chronic empyema cavities and to buttress the closure of underlying bronchopleural fistulas. No operative deaths or recurrent empyemas resulted. Two patients retained peri-flap air that required no surgical intervention. We conclude that the use of transposed pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap effectively and reliably prevents clinically overt bronchopleural fistula and recurrent empyema. We advocate its routine use in first-time and selected reoperative thoracotomies in patients who are undergoing high-risk lung resection or reparative procedures. PMID:19693302
Lam, Din; Carlson, Eric R
The temporal arterial system provides reliable vascular anatomy for the temporalis muscle flap and temporoparietal fascial flap that can support multiple reconstructive needs of the oral and maxillofacial region. The minimal donor site morbidity and ease of development of these flaps result in their predictable and successful transfer for reconstructive surgery of the oral and maxillofacial region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Morsi
Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation) and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%), and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%), although only 1 (9%) subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with a mean of 1.55 ± 0.93; the scores from the blinded evaluators ranged from 1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 ± 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:26491478
Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Morsi
Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation) and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%), and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%), although only 1 (9%) subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with a mean of 1.55 ± 0.93; the scores from the blinded evaluators ranged from 1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 ± 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve.
In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976
Hallock, Geoffrey G
Descriptions of muscle perforator flaps incorporating the same skin territory of almost all known musculocutaneous flaps reflect their versatility. The pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap is a proven "workhorse" flap, especially for head and neck reconstruction. Yet, the corresponding thoracoacromial artery muscle perforator flap has been relatively overlooked, with few clinical experiences reported, presumably because of the highly variable and diminutive perforators emanating from this source vessel. However, in certain circumstances, this can be another alternative as a local muscle perforator flap for the transfer of chest skin to adjacent defects. Two clinical examples using the island thoracoacromial artery perforator flap prove that this can sometimes be a viable option also for head and neck reconstruction.
Hou, Yi; Yang, Jiantao; Yang, Yi; Qin, Bengang; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiangming; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Qingtang; Qi, Jian
OBJECTIVE: In gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation, the limited caliber of the dominant vascular pedicle increases the complexity of the anastomosis and the risk of vascular compromise. The purpose of this study was to characterize the results of using a T-shaped vascular pedicle for flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury. METHODS: The outcomes of patients with brachial plexus injury who received gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation with either conventional end-to-end anastomosis or flow-through anastomosis from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively compared. In the flow-through group, the pedicle comprised a segment of the profunda femoris and the nutrient artery of the gracilis. The recipient artery was interposed by the T-shaped pedicle. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients received flow-through anastomosis, and 25 patients received conventional end-to-end anastomosis. The surgical time was similar between the groups. The diameter of the arterial anastomosis in the flow-through group was significantly larger than that in the end-to-end group (3.87 mm vs. 2.06 mm, respectively, p<0.001), and there were significantly fewer cases of vascular compromise in the flow-through group (2 [4.35%] vs. 6 [24%], respectively, p=0.019). All flaps in the flow-through group survived, whereas 2 in the end-to-end group failed. Minimal donor-site morbidity was noted in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury can decrease the complexity of anastomosis, reduce the risk of flap loss, and allow for more variation in muscle placement. PMID:26247666
Khalil, I M; Sudarsky, L
Coverage of the femoral vessels with viable muscle flap after vascular reconstruction in the presence of infection is essential to prevent serious complications. Necrosis of the muscle flap as a result of interruption of its vascular pedicle can lead to complications that jeopardize the patient's life and limb. Our simple technique prevents such complications by preserving the muscle blood supply. We have used this method routinely during the past 6 years in patients with groin sepsis and did not encounter any case of muscle necrosis.
Paprottka, Felix J; Krezdorn, Nicco; Lohmeyer, Jörn A; Young, Katie; Kuhbier, Jörn; Keck, Maike; Rösler, Stefan Klaus; Dohse, Nils-Kristian; Hebebrand, Detlev
Urogenital fistulas are devastating complications occurring after tumors or trauma. Surgical treatment is challenging. Thus, further surgical repair options are needed for treatment of complex fistulas within the pelvic region. Twelve patients with urogenital fistulas were surgically treated in our department from 2004 to 2012. These selected cases fulfilled eligibility criteria for continence-preserving surgery - a history of fistula recurrences with ongoing incontinence after receiving at least two surgical attempts. Five VRAM and eight gracilis flaps were used to cover up given tissue defects and to perform functional continence-preserving reconstruction with mean follow-up of 6.3 years. Data were retrospectively reviewed, and standardized survey was performed to evaluate quality of life of all living patients (n = 10). In all cases, final surgical treatment of the given fistulae by VRAM or gracilis flaps could be achieved, with mean operating time of 5:31 h (range: 4:50-6:48 h) for VRAM flap and 3:11 h (range: 2:04-4:42 h) for gracilis flap. Outcome measures were primarily to avoid fistula recurrence after plastic surgical treatment, and secondary quality of life and survival. All patients had their continence preserved, but two patients died during follow-up period. Postoperative assessment revealed the following: VRAM flap patients (n = 3) showed slight incontinence during the follow-up period, whereas continence was restored in all patients with gracilis flap reconstruction (n = 7). Quality-of-life assessment indicated restoration of quality of life in comparison to general population (women > men). Furthermore, key points of the two presented surgical techniques are demonstrated in detail. With preformed VRAM or gracilis flaps, complex urogenital fistulas can be successfully eradicated and continence is restored. The main focus should be the recovery of quality of life, which could be successfully regained. Nevertheless, the continence success rate has to
Sforza, Chiarella; Frigerio, Alice; Mapelli, Andrea; Tarabbia, Filippo; Annoni, Isabella; Colombo, Valeria; Latiff, Mahfuz; Pimenta Ferreira, Claudia L; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Zago, Matteo; Biglioli, Federico
The choice of the motor donor nerve is a crucial point in free flap transfer algorithms. In the case of unilateral facial paralysis, the contralateral healthy facial nerve can provide coordinated smile animation and spontaneous emotional expression, but with unpredictable axonal ingrowth into the recipient muscle. Otherwise, the masseteric nerve ipsilateral to the paralysis can provide a powerful neural input, without a spontaneous trigger of the smile. Harvesting a bulky muscular free flap may enhance the quantity of contraction but esthetic results are unpleasant. Therefore, the logical solution for obtaining high amplitude of smiling combined with spontaneity of movement is to couple the neural input: the contralateral facial nerve plus the ipsilateral masseteric nerve. Thirteen patients with unilateral dense facial paralysis underwent a one-stage facial reanimation with a gracilis flap powered by a double donor neural input, provided by both the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (coaptation by an end-to-end neurorrhaphy with the obturator nerve) and the contralateral facial nerve (coaptation through a cross-face nerve graft: end-to-end neurorrhaphy on the healthy side and end-to-side neurorrhaphy on the obturator nerve, distal to the masseteric/obturator neurorrhaphy). Their facial movements were evaluated with an optoelectronic motion analyzer. Before surgery, on average, the paretic side exhibited a smaller total three-dimensional mobility than the healthy side, with a 52% activation ratio and >30% of asymmetry. After surgery, the differences significantly decreased (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p < 0.05), with an activation ratio between 75% (maximum smile) and 91% (maximum smile with teeth clenching), and <20% of asymmetry. Similar modifications were seen for the performance of spontaneous smiles. The significant presurgical asymmetry of labial movements reduced after surgery. The use of a double donor neural input permitted both movements that were similar
Kaartinen, Ilkka S; Vuento, Maarit H; Hyöty, Marja K; Kallio, Jukka; Kuokkanen, Hannu O
Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) is a rare operation in which the pelvic contents are removed entirely. Several options for pelvic floor and vaginal reconstruction have been described including transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) or deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has been introduced for breast reconstruction as a free flap. We adopted the pedicled TMG flap for reconstructions after TPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this method in the literature. Between November 2011 and February 2014, 12 patients underwent TPE and reconstruction with unilateral (six patients) or bilateral (six patients) pedicled TMG flaps. Five patients underwent vaginal reconstruction with bilateral TMG flaps. We describe the operative procedure and the outcome of the operation in these patients. The total mean operative times for TPE with or without vaginal reconstruction were 467 ± 12 and 386 ± 59 min, respectively. The TMG flaps had enough vascular tissue and mobility for reconstructing the TPE defects. There was distal edge necrosis in one out of 18 flaps, while the rest survived completely. During the follow-up, complete wound healing with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor was observed in all cases. Soft-tissue reconstructions are needed to reduce complications associated with TPE, to secure the pelvic floor and to reconstruct the vagina in select patients. The TMG flap is a logical flap choice that does not lead to functional deficits, complicate the abdominal ostomies or weaken the abdominal wall. It reduces the length of operation compared to that of abdominal flaps. IV, therapeutic. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schultze-Mosgau, S; Rödel, F; Keilholz, L; Grabenbauer, G G; Wiltfang, J; Radespiel-Tröger, M; Sauer, R; Neukam, F W
Following preoperative radiotherapy prior to ablative surgery of squamous epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck region, inflammatory changes to the connective tissue and vascular endothelium are observed. These processes may lead to a delay in healing of free flaps in the irradiated transplant bed. The aim of the study was to investigate qualitative and quantitative changes in vascularization in irradiated and regular transplant beds. In Wistar rats (male, weight 300 to 500 g) undergoing preoperative irradiation of the neck region with 3 times 10 Gy (30 animals) and 5 times 10 Gy (30 animals) and non-irradiated rats (42 animals), a free myocutaneous gracilis flap taken from the groin was transplanted to the irradiated region of the neck. The time interval between irradiation and transplantation was 4 weeks. On day 3, 4, 5, 7, 14 and 28 post operation, the capillary sprouting, structural changes and the distribution patterns were analyzed by H & E and immunohistochemical staining (goat-F[ab]-2-anti-von Willebrand factor antibody). Three histological sections (2 to 4 microns) per sample were investigated histomorphometrically, qualitatively and quantitatively (ratio capillary area/total area, and capillary lumen) by NH-image-digitized measurement. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. In contrast to non-irradiated rats, irradiated animals showed a qualitatively reduced and a more irregular capillary distribution with more marked pericapillary fibrosis in the irradiated transplant bed. Quantitatively, the ratio capillary area/total area, as a marker of improved capillarization was significantly reduced in the transition area transplant/irradiated transplant bed and in irradiated transplant bed tissues in contrast to the non-irradiated control group (p = 0.004). Also, from day 14 to 28 a significant decrease was found in the transition area between transplanted tissues and irradiated transplant bed tissues in irradiated animals (p = 0
Background: Despite the most heroic efforts, sometimes free flaps fail. Perforator free flaps are not invincible and can suffer the same fate. The real challenge is how to decide what is the next best choice for achieving the desired outcome. Methods: Over the past decade, 298 free perforator flaps were used in our institution. Total failure occurred in 16 patients, and partial failure requiring a second free flap occurred in an additional 6 patients for a true success rate of 93%. All failures had some form of secondary vascularized tissue transfer, which included the use of muscle flaps in 9 (41%) different patients. Results: Initial flap salvage after a failed perforator free flap was attempted with 12 perforator and 5 muscle free flaps as well as 1 perforator and 2 muscle local flaps. These were not all successful, with loss of 3 muscle free flaps and 3 perforator flaps. Tertiary free flap coverage was successful in 3 cases using 2 muscle flaps and 1 perforator free flap. Local fasciocutaneous flaps or primary wound closure was used in the remaining individuals. Conclusions: Microsurgical tissue transfers can be the most rewarding and at the same time the most challenging reconstructive endeavor. Persistence in achieving the desired outcome can require multiple steps. Perforator flaps are an important asset to obtain this goal. However, muscle flaps can still be a useful alternative, and the message is that they should not be overlooked as sometimes a viable option. PMID:26893989
Poucher, S M; Nowell, C G; Collis, M G
1. A number of metabolites have been proposed to control the vascular tone of skeletal muscle during exercise. The present study was designed to investigate the role of adenosine in this response by determining the effect of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline. 2. The gracilis muscle of anaesthetized cats was exposed and made to contract by stimulating the obturator nerve (at 1 Hz, 5 V, 0.1 ms) for 20 min. Gracilis muscle blood flow and tension were measured during exercise and for 20 min following exercise. Initially this was performed in each animal during the infusion of a vehicle solution (50% polyethylene glycol 400, 50% 0.1 M-NaOH, 0.1 ml min-1 I.V.). Exercise was then repeated during infusion of either further vehicle (group I), 8-phenyltheophylline (group II) or 3-propylxanthine (group III), both at 2.7 x 10(7) mol min-1 kg-1. 3. In group 1 (n = 4) gracilis muscle blood flow during the first exercise period increased by 47.5 +/- 11.3 ml min-1 (110 g)-1 and gracilis muscle tension by 8.6 +/- 1.3 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1 at 20 min of exercise. These responses were not significantly different when repeated. 4. In group II (n = 5), blood flow increased by 46.9 +/- 9.9 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 and tension by 6.5 +/- 0.7 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1 during vehicle infusion. Infusion of 8-phenyltheophylline at a rate which abolished the vasodilatation response to 2-chloroadenosine, significantly reduced the muscle blood flow increase to 19.8 +/- 2.7 ml min-1 (100 g muscle mass)-1 (P less than 0.05) but the tension response was unaffected (increased by 7.0 +/- 0.8 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1). 8-Phenyltheophylline did not affect gracilis muscle blood flow or tension at rest. 5. Administration of 3-propylxanthine, which did not modify the vasodilatation response to 2-chloroadenosine, failed to alter the vascular responses to muscle contraction. 6. These results suggest that activation of adenosine receptors can contribute to up to 40% of the vasodilatation
Alam, Daniel S
This article discusses the use of the sternohyoid muscle for facial reanimation. The report outlines the rationale for use, the technical aspects of flap harvest, and early clinical outcomes. The utility of the flap and its comparative attributes relative to the gracilis flap are discussed.
Seccia, M; Banti, P; Zocco, G; Viacava, P
A 27-year-old woman who had undergone a Pickrell's operation at the age of 10 years, was observed for severe incontinence to solid and liquid stools. Physical examination and physiological tests revealed poor resting anal tone but a very good response of the transposed gracilis to percutaneous electrostimulation, which showed that the gracilis ability to contract was maintained in spite of 17 years of only occasional and unplanned muscular activity. Examination also demonstrated that the muscle had followed body growth during the patient's development. Restoration of continence by continuous electrostimulation of the gracilis muscle was then planned. To allow muscular resistance to this stimulation a fast-to-slow twitch fiber conversion was first obtained by low-frequency electrostimulation. A subcutaneous abdominal implant of a pulse generator connected to the gracilis by intramuscular platinum-iridium electrodes was carried out. After a period of muscular training, fiber conversion was achieved, and continuous electrostimulation led to complete restoration of continence with stable results at the 36 month follow-up evaluation. This case demonstrates that even such a long period of muscular inactivity does not affect the possibility of recovering a failed Pickrell's operation using electrostimulation. This easy and safe procedure can be applied to all previously failed graciloplasties provided that muscle contractility is maintained.
Shandalov, Yulia; Egozi, Dana; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Levenberg, Shulamit
Abdominal wall reconstruction following extensive tissue loss is essential and can be achieved using autologous flaps. However, their use is limited due to their inadequate availability and due to post-operative donor site scarification. This work presents a step-by-step technique for fabrication of a vascularized muscle flap, to be applied in full-thickness abdominal wall defect reconstruction. Poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds, prepared using a salt leaching technique, were used as the supporting matrix in vitro for simultaneously seeded endothelial cells, fibroblasts and myoblasts. The cell-embedded graft was then implanted around femoral artery and vein vessels, which provided a central blood supply. Vascularization and perfusion were achieved by capillary sprouting from the main host vessel into the graft. A thick and vascularized tissue was formed within one week, and was then transferred as an autologous flap together with its main vessels, to a full-thickness abdominal wall defect. The flap remained viable after transfer and featured sufficient mechanical strength to support the abdominal viscera. Thus, this engineered muscle flap can be used as an alternative source for autologous flaps to reconstruct full-thickness abdominal wall defects.
Lindsay, Robin W; Bhama, Prabhat; Weinberg, Julie; Hadlock, Tessa A
Development of synkinesis, hypertonicity, and poor smile excursion after facial nerve insult and recovery contribute to disfigurement, psychological difficulties, and an inability to convey emotion via facial expression. Despite treatment with physical therapy and chemodenervation, some patients who recover from transient flaccid facial paralysis never spontaneously regain the ability to perform a meaningful smile. Prospective evaluation was performed on 20 patients with nonflaccid facial paralysis who underwent free gracilis muscle transfer. Patients were evaluated using the quality-of-life (QOL) FaCE survey, Facial Nerve Grading Scale, and Facegram to quantify QOL improvement, smile excursion, and symmetry after muscle transfer. A statistically significant increase in the FaCE score was seen after muscle transfer (paired 2-tailed t test, P < 0.039). In addition, there was a statistically significant improvement in the smile score on the Facial Nerve Grading Scale (P < 0.002), in the lower lip length at rest (P = 0.01) and with smile (P = 0.0001), and with smile symmetry (P = 0.0077) after surgery. Free gracilis muscle transfer has become a mainstay in the management armamentarium for patients who develop severe reduction in oral commissure movement after facial nerve insult and recovery. The operation achieves a high overall success rate, and innovations involving transplanting thinner segments of muscle avoid a cosmetic deformity secondary to excess bulk. This study demonstrates a quantitative improvement in QOL and facial function after free gracilis muscle transfer in patients who failed to achieve a meaningful smile after physical therapy.
Van Campenhout, Anja; Bar-On, Lynn; Desloovere, Kaat; Huenaerts, Catherine; Molenaers, Guy
Intramuscular botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) injections reduce spasticity by blocking neurotransmission at the motor endplate (MEP). The goal of this study was to assess the reduction in spasticity achieved by injecting BoNT-A at different sites of the gracilis muscle. Thirty-four gracilis muscles, in 27 children (10 females and 17 males, mean age of 8.6y [SD 2.5y]) with spastic cerebral palsy (unilateral and bilateral, Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-IV), were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In one group BoNT-A was injected proximally (at a site 25% of the distance from the pubic tubercle and the medial epicondyle) and in the other it was injected at the MEP zones (half of the dose was administered at 30% of this distance and half at 60%). Spasticity was assessed before and after BoNT-A injection using simultaneous measurements of surface electromyography (sEMG) and angular velocity during passive muscle stretch applied at different velocities. The primary outcome measure included the velocity-dependent change in average root mean square electromyography (RMS-EMG). Secondary outcome was assessed with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS). Spasticity decreased more in MEP-targeted muscles than in proximally injected muscles, as demonstrated by a larger reduction in average RMS-EMG values (p=0.04), though this difference was not found with the MAS or MTS. The results suggest that BoNT-A injection of the gracilis at sites with a high concentration of MEPs is effective at reducing spasticity. These preliminary findings should be confirmed by larger studies. In the case of long muscles, such as the gracilis, the injection site is important. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Carroll, C M; Carroll, S M; Overgoor, M L; Tobin, G; Barker, J H
Ischemic preconditioning of the myocardium with repeated brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion prior to prolonged ischemia significantly reduces subsequent myocardial infarction. Following ischemic preconditioning, two "windows of opportunity" (early and late) exist, during which time prolonged ischemia can occur with reduced infarction size. The early window occurs at approximately 4 hours and the late window at 24 hours following ischemic preconditioning of the myocardium. We investigated if ischemic preconditioning of skeletal muscle prior to flap creation improved subsequent flap survival and perfusion immediately or 24 hours following ischemic preconditioning. Currently, no data exist on the utilization of ischemic preconditioning in this fashion. The animal model used was the latissimus dorsi muscle of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were assigned to three groups, and the right or left latissimus dorsi muscle was chosen randomly in each animal. Group 1 (n = 12) was the control group, in which the entire latissimus dorsi muscle was elevated acutely without ischemic preconditioning. Group 2 (n = 8) investigated the effects of ischemic preconditioning in the early window. In this group, the latissimus dorsi muscle was elevated immediately following preconditioning. Group 3 (n = 8) investigated the effects of ischemic preconditioning in the late window, with elevation of the latissimus dorsi muscle 24 hours following ischemic preconditioning. The preconditioning regimen used in groups 2 and 3 was two 30-minute episodes of normothermic global ischemia with intervening 10-minute episodes of reperfusion. Latissimus dorsi muscle ischemia was created by occlusion of the thoracodorsal artery and vein and the intercostal perforators, after isolation of the muscle on these vessels. Muscle perfusion was assessed by a laser-Doppler perfusion imager. One week after flap elevation, muscle necrosis was quantified in all groups by means of computer-assisted digital
Tayfur, Volkan; Magden, Orhan; Edizer, Mete; Atabey, Atay
A vastus lateralis muscle flap is used as a pedicled and free flap. In this study, the vastus lateralis muscles of 15 adult formalin-fixed cadavers (30 cases) were dissected. The dominant pedicle was found to be descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. The mean diameter of the artery was found to be 2.1 mm. This pedicle was located 119.4 mm distal to the pubic symphysis. The mean length of the major pedicle was found to be 56.8 mm when the dominant pedicle was chosen to nourish the flap. The dominant pedicle entered the muscle 155.8 and 213.7 mm from the greater trochanter and the anterior superior iliac spine, respectively. The muscle had proximal minor pedicles from the ascending and transverse branches of lateral circumflex femoral artery. These arteries had mean diameters of 1.8 and 2.0 mm, respectively. The distal minor branches were present in all of the dissections. The distal branch had a mean diameter of 1.8 mm. The origin of this distal branch was located 83.7 mm proximal to the intercondylar line. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis was found to be originating from femoral nerve. The nerve entered the muscle 194.6 mm from the anterior superior iliac spine.
Chen, Xiao-Bing; Wang, You-Xin; Jiang, Hua; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Yu, Jun-Hui; Luo, Cheng-Hua
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage irrigation-suction in the treatment of complex rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) and rectourethral fistulas (RUFs). METHODS: Between May 2009 and March 2012, 11 female patients with complex RVFs and 8 male patients with RUFs were prospectively enrolled. Gracilis muscle transposition was undertaken in all patients and postoperative wound irrigation-suction was performed in patients with early leakage. Efficacy was assessed in terms of the success rate and surgical complications. SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scores and Wexner fecal incontinence scores were compared before and after surgery. RESULTS: The fistulas healed in 14 patients after gracilis muscle transposition; the initial healing rate was 73.7%. Postoperative leakage occurred and continuous irrigation-suction of wounds was undertaken in 5 patients: 4 healed and 1 failed, and postoperative fecal diversions were performed for the patient whose treatment failed. At a median follow-up of 17 mo, the overall healing rate was 94.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 cases. Significant improvement was observed in the quality outcomes framework scores (P < 0.001) and Wexner fecal incontinence scores (P = 0.002) after the successful healing of complex RVFs or RUFs. There was no significant difference in SF-36 QOL scores between the initial healing group and irrigation-suction-assisted healing group. CONCLUSION: Gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage wound irrigation-suction gained a high success rate in the treatment of complex RVFs and RUFs. QOL and fecal incontinence were significantly improved after the successful healing of RVFs and RUFs. PMID:24151391
Chen, Xiao-Bing; Wang, You-Xin; Jiang, Hua; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Yu, Jun-Hui; Luo, Cheng-Hua
To evaluate the efficacy of gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage irrigation-suction in the treatment of complex rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) and rectourethral fistulas (RUFs). Between May 2009 and March 2012, 11 female patients with complex RVFs and 8 male patients with RUFs were prospectively enrolled. Gracilis muscle transposition was undertaken in all patients and postoperative wound irrigation-suction was performed in patients with early leakage. Efficacy was assessed in terms of the success rate and surgical complications. SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scores and Wexner fecal incontinence scores were compared before and after surgery. The fistulas healed in 14 patients after gracilis muscle transposition; the initial healing rate was 73.7%. Postoperative leakage occurred and continuous irrigation-suction of wounds was undertaken in 5 patients: 4 healed and 1 failed, and postoperative fecal diversions were performed for the patient whose treatment failed. At a median follow-up of 17 mo, the overall healing rate was 94.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 cases. Significant improvement was observed in the quality outcomes framework scores (P < 0.001) and Wexner fecal incontinence scores (P = 0.002) after the successful healing of complex RVFs or RUFs. There was no significant difference in SF-36 QOL scores between the initial healing group and irrigation-suction-assisted healing group. Gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage wound irrigation-suction gained a high success rate in the treatment of complex RVFs and RUFs. QOL and fecal incontinence were significantly improved after the successful healing of RVFs and RUFs.
Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.
A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.
Klebuc, Michael; Menn, Zachary
Muscle flaps have proved to be a valuable and versatile tool in the surgical treatment of the severely compromised lower extremity. Utilized as both local pedicle flaps and free tissue transfers, muscles have been successfully employed to cover complex wounds, manage osteomyelitis, salvage infected vascular grafts, treat recalcitrant venous stasis ulcers, preserve amputation levels, and restore motion following compartment syndrome. Free flap pedicles have also been used in a flow-through fashion to create a distal arterial bypass. This article explores the multipurpose role of muscle flaps in limb salvage surgery and their beneficial physiologic characteristics in hostile wound environments. PMID:23805342
Avci, Gulden; Akan, Mithat; Akoz, Tayfun; Kuzon, William; Gul, Aylin Ege
We tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic vascular plexus of the motor nerve could support viability in a rat hindlimb muscle flap. In a preliminary study, we examined the course and vascularity of the sciatic nerve, the peroneal nerve, and the peroneous longus muscle in the rat hindlimb via anatomic dissection, microangiography, and histologic study (n = 10 animals). On the basis of this examination, the peroneous longus muscle was chosen as our experimental model in this study. In 12 animals, the peroneus longus was acutely elevated, which severed all tendinous and vascular structures, this left the muscle pedicled on the motor nerve only (Group I). Animals in Group II underwent a staged elevation of the flap with division of the vascular pedicle, the tendon of insertion, and the tendon of origin during separate procedures that were 5 days apart (n = 12). Muscle viability was evaluated by gross inspection, measurement of muscle weight and length, nitroblue tetrazlium (NBT) staining, microangiography, and histology. NBT staining demonstrated that immediate elevation of the peroneus longus muscle flaps led to an average necrotic area of 80.6% +/- 9.8% (Group I). A significant improvement in viability was observed for muscle flaps of animals in Group II, with peroneus longus muscle necrosis averaging 25.6% +/- 9.3%. Microangiography demonstrated that the intrinsic vascularity of nerve was increased dramatically in Group II. These data support the hypothesis that the intrinsic vascular plexus of the motor nerve of a skeletal muscle can support at least partial viability of a muscle flap. However, this vascular axis is inadequate to support complete viability of a muscle flap if the flap is elevated immediately. If a staged elevation affects a surgical delay, the viability of a muscle flap elevated on a neural pedicle can be increased significantly. With adjustments in the delay procedure, this strategy may allow transfer of muscle flaps when maintenance or
Koul, Ashok Raj; Patil, Rahul Krishnarao; Philip, Vinoth
Although numerous reconstructive options for covering defects over distal third of leg and dorsum of foot have been suggested, obtaining satisfactory cover remains difficult problem. Extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap as proximally or distally based island flap has been well described to be a promising alternative. Between 2004 and 2005, 10 defects over dorsum of foot and around malleoli were reconstructed with extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap. Six were proximally based and four were distally based flaps. Retrospectively, data were collected from these patients records like age, gender, type of injury, flap used, flap survival, complications, hospital stay, return to work. Mean follow-up period was 17.5 months (26-12 months). Of 10 flaps, one flap had failed (approximately 10%). Minor donor site problem presented in one case (10%). All patients returned to work after variable periods of rest (average 1(1/2) month). First web hypoesthesia was present only in two patients. This flap provides an excellent local option for small defects around ankle and over dorsum of foot. The advantages of this flap are its easy dissection, reliable blood supply. Disadvantages related to donor site can be minimized with careful technique.
Snyder, Ned; Craven, Cameron; Phillips, Linda G
The concept of delaying a skin flap is well established and has been implemented into plastic surgery practice for years. Some investigators have delayed musculocutaneous flaps to improve the perforator inflow. To our knowledge, the concept of delaying a muscle flap had previously never been tested in a model with segmental pedicles. Five cats each underwent 3 sequential operations providing them with a sartorius muscle whose blood supply was a single distal pedicle. The opposite leg was used as a control. Our delayed type IV muscle flap demonstrated perfusion to the proximal tip of the sartorius muscle without necrosis or loss of muscle mass (P < 0.0001). The control showed no evidence of perfusion beyond the distal portion of the muscle when infused through the distal pedicle. The delayed flap can survive on a distal blood supply that would not be adequate in a single-stage procedure. This flap has an increased arc of rotation that may provide solutions to difficult reconstructive problems in the groin, lower abdomen, genitalia, knee, proximal leg, and might be suitable as a free flap.
Bhama, Prabhat K; Weinberg, Julie S; Lindsay, Robin W; Hohman, Marc H; Cheney, Mack L; Hadlock, Tessa A
IMPORTANCE Objective assessment of smile outcome after microvascular free gracilis transfer is challenging, and quantification of smile outcomes in the literature is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To report objective excursion and symmetry outcomes from a series of free gracilis cases and investigate the predictive value of intraoperative measurements on final outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical chart review was undertaken of all patients who underwent microvascular free gracilis transfer for smile at our institution over the past 10 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures included the following: smile excursion, angle of smile with respect to the vertical midline, and facial symmetry during repose and with smile. Measurements were obtained using an automated tool for assessment of facial landmarks (FACE-Gram). An exhaustive set of intraoperative parameters including degree of recoil of the gracilis muscle following harvest, the degree to which the muscle foreshortened during stimulation of the obturator nerve, final stretched length of the inset muscle, surgeon assessment of neurorrhaphy and pulse pressure, ischemia time, number of sutures used during neurorrhaphy, nerve used to innervate the flap, and surgeon assessment of oral commissure overcorrection were recorded and placed into a linear regression model to investigate correlations with smile. RESULTS From March 2003 to March 2013, 154 microvascular free gracilis transfers were performed for facial reanimation at our institution, 14 (9%) of which were deemed failures. Of the remaining 140 flaps, 127 fulfilled inclusion criteria and constituted the study cohort. Smile excursion, angle excursion, and symmetry of the oral commissure at repose and with smile all improved following gracilis free flap (P < .05). Associations between selected outcomes measures and intraoperative gracilis measurements were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Facial reanimation using free
Zhang, Elizabeth W; Fang, Taolin; Arnold, Peter B; Songcharoen, Somjade Jay; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is often the final and irreversible factor causing flap failure in microsurgery. The salvage of a microsurgical flap with an ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes to the success of microsurgical flap transfers. Activated protein C (APC), a serine protease with anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, has been shown to improve ischemic flap survival. To date, APC has yet to be applied to models of free flap with ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of APC on gracilis flap ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by gracilis vessels clamping and reopening. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. After 4 hours of clamping for ischemia, flaps were reperfused and recombinant human APC (25 μg/kg) or saline was injected in the flaps through pedicles. At 0, 1, 4, 18, and 24 hours after injection (n = 6 for each time point), the tissue samples were harvested. The muscle viability at 24 hours in saline group was 54.8% (15.1%), whereas the APC-treated group was 90.0% (4.3%) (P < 0.05). The induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased with the time after reperfusion, which were 0.93 (0.25) to 2.09 (0.22) in saline group, and 0.197 (0.15) to 0.711 (0.15) in the APC-treated group. iNOS mRNA expression in the APC-treated group was significantly higher than the saline group at 1, 18, and 24 hours (P < 0.05). Numerous inflammatory cells were observed infiltrating and invading the muscle fibers in the saline group more than the APC-treated group. Increased number of polymorphonuclear cells was also noted in the saline group compared with the APC-treated group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, APC treatment can significantly attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury and increase the survival of the free flap through down-regulating iNOS mRNA expression and reducing the inflammatory cells. Further research is still needed to be done on various mechanisms in which APC is
Garvey, Patrick B.; Clemens, Mark W.; Hoy, Austin E.; Smith, Benjamin; Zhang, Hong; Kronowitz, Steven J.; Butler, Charles E.
BACKGROUND Radiation to free flaps following immediate breast reconstruction has been shown to compromise outcomes. We hypothesized that irradiated muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (MS FTRAM) flaps experience less fat necrosis than irradiated deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. METHODS We performed a retrospective study of all consecutive patients undergoing immediate, autologous, abdominal-based free flap breast reconstruction with MS FTRAM or DIEP flaps over a 10-year period at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Irradiated flaps (external-beam radiation therapy) after immediate breast reconstruction were compared to non-irradiated flaps. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential associations between patient, tumor, and reconstructive characteristics and surgical outcomes. RESULTS A total of 625 flaps were included in the analysis: 40 (6.4%) irradiated vs. 585 (93.6%) non-irradiated. Mean follow-up for the irradiated vs. non-irradiated flaps was 60.0 months and 48.5 months, respectively (p=0.02). Overall complication rates were similar for both the irradiated and non-irradiated flaps. Irradiated flaps (i.e., both DIEP and MS FTRAM flaps) developed fat necrosis at a significantly higher rate (22.5%) than the non-irradiated flaps (9.2%; p=0.009). There were no differences in fat necrosis rates between the DIEP and MS FTRAM flaps in both the irradiated and non-irradiated groups. CONCLUSIONS Both DIEP and MS FTRAM flap reconstructions had much higher rates of fat necrosis when irradiated. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that immediate breast reconstruction with an MS FTRAM flap does not result in a lower rate of fat necrosis than reconstruction with a DIEP flap. PMID:24469158
Kim, Sang Wha; Jeon, Seung Bae; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan
Amputation of the extremities is a definitive reconstructive option, and surgeons should aim to preserve maximum overall function. If the exposed bone cannot be adequately covered using local tissues, the stump can be reconstructed using a number of well-described free flap transfer techniques. Between January 2002 and December 2011, 31 patients with severe injuries to the lower extremities underwent above-the-knee, below-the-knee, and Chopart and Ray amputations. Bony stumps were covered using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps alone (group 1), or together with serratus anterior muscle flaps (group 2). The groups were compared with respect to age, flap survival, skin flap size, immediate complications, wound sloughing, deep ulceration, need for bone amputation, limb visual analog scale score, time to prosthesis, and follow-up duration. The mean area of the latissimus dorsi skin flap was 255.9 cm, and immediate complications occurred in 8 (25.8%) patients. In the double-padding group, there were fewer cases of deep ulceration than in the single-flap group, and prostheses could be worn sooner. There were no statistically significant differences in other parameters. Successful reconstruction of amputation stumps requires an adequate, durable, weight-bearing, and well-contoured soft tissue cover. A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap together with a serratus anterior muscle flap provides well-vascularized muscle tissue and a durable skin paddle, leading to less ulceration than conventional flap techniques.
muscle, as in a Gil- lies-type temporalis flap for facial reanimation (Figs. 1 and 2). A strip of muscle measuring 5 cm wide is then raised from superior...formed procedure. DISCUSSION The temporalis muscle is a robust flap, and its transfer has long had a place in the history of facial reanimation ...temporalis turndown flaps for dynamic lower lip reanimation in 1934.4 McLaughlin de- scribed disinsertion of the muscle from the coro- noid through a
Bianchi, Bernardo; Ferri, Andrea; Poddi, Valentina; Varazzani, Andrea; Ferrari, Silvano; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Sesenna, Enrico
Gracilis muscle reinnervated by the contralateral facial nerve via cross-graft technique is nowadays considered to be a first-line procedure for facial animation in unilateral palsies. Despite the wide number of papers published analyzing technical aspects, refinements, functional results, and cosmetic outcomes, only a few authors have focused their publications on the patient's perspective and impact on QOL of these procedures. Changes in quality of life in 42 patients treated with gracilis muscle transplant reinnervated via cross-face graft were analyzed through a comparison of preoperative and postoperative items on the Facial Disability Index questionnaire. Statistical evaluation with a paired t-test was performed concerning overall results and specific items modifications. Overall improvement of QOL was found to be highly significant (p = 0.001). Mouth and eye functions were the most improved (p = 0.001), whereas isolation (p = 0.004) and feeling calm and peaceful (p = 0.001) were the most improved among the social functions. Facial animation with gracilis neuromuscular transplantation reinnervated with contralateral healthy facial nerve via a cross-graft procedure has been demonstrated to be a safe and reliable procedure in the treatment of congenital or established facial palsies. Our results on quality of life impact support that these operations are not only reliable and safe but also of primary relevance to patients' everyday lives. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Open window thoracostomy for thoracic empyema: Open window thoracostomy is a simple, certain and final drainage procedure for thoracic empyema. It is most useful to drain purulent effusion from empyema space, especially for cases with broncho-pleural fistulas, and to clean up purulent necrotic debris on surface of empyema sac. For changing of packing gauzes in empyema space through a window once or twice every day after this procedure, thoracostomy will have to be made on the suitable position to empyema space. Usually skin incision will be layed along the costal bone just at the most expanded position of empyema. Following muscle splitting to thoracic wall, a costal bone just under the incision will be removed as 8-10 cm as long, and opened the empyema space through a costal bed. After the extension of empyema space will be preliminarily examined through a primary window by a finger or a long forceps, it will be decided costal bones must be removed how many (usually 2 or 3 totally) and how long (6-8 cm) to make a window up to 5 cm in diameter. Thickened empyema wall will be cut out just according to a window size, and finally skin edge and empyema wall will be sutured roughly along circular edge. Muscle flap transposition for empyema space: Pediclued muscle flap transposition is one of space-reducing operations for (chronic) empyema Usually this will be co-performed with other several procedures as curettages on empyema surface, closure of bronchopleural fistula and thoracoplasty. This is radically curable for primarily non fistulous empyema or secondarily empyema after open window thoracostomy done for fistula. Furthermore this is less invasive than other radical operations as like pleuro-pneumonectomy, decortication or air-plombage for empyema. There are 2 important points to do this technique. One is a volume of muscle flap and another is good blood flow in flap. The former suitable muscle volume is need to impact empyema space or to close fistula, and the
Dalmia, Deepak; Behera, Sanjaya Kumar; Bhatia, Jas Simran Singh
The anteriorly based partial thickness sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flap is among the various methods described to correct parotidectomy defects, but its indications and limitations are not clearly demonstrated in several reports. This study was done to test the aesthetic outcome of this method, its indications and limitations. At Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Memorial hospital, Mumbai, 20 patients presenting with benign parotid tumors underwent parotidectomy. 16 underwent superficial parotidectomy and 3 underwent adequate parotidectomy, 1 had total parotidectomy. The anteriorly based partial thickness SCM muscle flap was used to correct the contour deformity and to prevent Frey syndrome. The aesthetic result was evaluated by assessing and scoring the overall appearance of the scar, the degree of symmetry of the reconstructed parotid region and the site of the donor muscle in comparison to their contralateral normal sides. The overall aesthetic appearance was good in 17 patients, and moderate in 3 patients. 17/20 patients had an overall deep satisfaction with the result. The residual hollowness following total parotidectomy defect and the poor quality of scars were the main reasons affecting the aesthetic outcome. Superficial parotidectomy through modified Blair's incision with immediate reconstruction with anteriorly based partial thickness SCM flap allows a satisfactory aesthetic outcome and minimal donor site morbidity. Scores of the above two parameters were accessed. Patients' satisfaction was assessed by patients questionnaire.
Hata, Yoshinobu; Otsuka, Hajime; Makino, Takashi; Koezuka, Satoshi; Sugino, Keishi; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Tochigi, Naobumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Homma, Sakae; Iyoda, Akira
Surgery for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is often technically risky. The choice of immediate thoracoplasty or muscle flap plombage to prevent postoperative space problems remains controversial. This study focused on the use of muscle flaps to prevent postoperative complications. During an 8-year period (2004 to 2012), all patients surgically treated for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. Concomitant intrathoracic transposition of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap has been performed since 2011. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively. From 2004 to 2012, 16 patients were treated for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Fifteen patients received lobectomies and one had a partial resection. A preventive latissimus dorsi muscle flap was used in 6 patients (37 %). No postoperative deaths occurred. Prolonged air leaks appeared in 2 patients without muscle flaps, resulting in empyema in both. None of the patients with preventive muscle flaps suffered prolonged air leaks and subsequent empyema. In the outpatient clinic, late onset air leaks developed in 2 patients, one of whom had a lobectomy with muscle flap while the other had a lobectomy without muscle flap. Residual pleural space persisted in these two patients and Aspergillus infection later recurred. Concomitant latissimus dorsi muscle flaps may be effective for the prevention of prolonged air leaks and subsequent empyema. Late onset air leaks are problematic.
Daigeler, Adrien; Drücke, Daniel; Tatar, Karl; Homann, Heinz-Herbert; Goertz, Ole; Tilkorn, Daniel; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich
Data regarding donor-site morbidity, postoperative clinical course, and functional and aesthetic outcome after gastrocnemius muscle flaps are rare. Data regarding 218 consecutive patients treated with gastrocnemius muscle flaps were acquired from patients' charts and from contact with patients, with special reference to treatment and clinical course. Eighty-two were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire, 40 were examined physically, and 34 underwent dynamometric muscle function tests. The authors observed wound-healing difficulties in 7 percent, wound infections in 4 percent, and one flap loss; 4.5 percent of the lateral gastrocnemius patients suffered from postoperative palsy of the peroneal nerve. Eighty-seven percent were not significantly limited walking on even ground, but only 42 percent could run, and 40 percent complained about pain when walking more than 200 m. The average range-of-motion deficit in the ankle joint for flexion and extension was 11 percent and 10 percent, respectively. The maximal plantar flexion force in the ankle joint of the operated leg was 76.2 percent. Strength endurance was reduced approximately 24.4 percent in the operated leg compared with the nonaffected side. Gastrocnemius muscle transfer represents a safe and simple procedure in the treatment of lower leg defects and in limb preservation. The strength loss and functional impairment (and sensation disorders) are considerable but may not be exclusively attributable to the muscle transfer but rather the result of the preceding trauma, infection, or tumor resection. The donor-site morbidity is well tolerated by the majority of the patients.
Lindsay, Robin W; Bhama, Prabhat; Hadlock, Tessa A
Facial paralysis can contribute to disfigurement, psychological difficulties, and an inability to convey emotion via facial expression. In patients unable to perform a meaningful smile, free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) can often restore smile function. However, little is known about the impact on disease-specific quality of life. To determine quantitatively whether FGMT improves quality of life in patients with facial paralysis. Prospective evaluation of 154 FGMTs performed at a facial nerve center on 148 patients with facial paralysis. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) survey and Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation software (FACE-gram) were used to quantify quality-of-life improvement, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. Free gracilis muscle transfer. Change in FaCE score, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. There were 127 successful FGMTs on 124 patients and 14 failed procedures on 13 patients. Mean (SD) FaCE score increased significantly after successful FGMT (42.30 [15.9] vs 58.5 [17.60]; paired 2-tailed t test, P < .001). Mean (SD) FACE scores improved significantly in all subgroups (nonflaccid cohort, 37.8 [19.9] vs 52.9 [19.3]; P = .02; flaccid cohort, 43.1 [15.1] vs 59.6 [17.2]; P < .001; trigeminal innervation cohort, 38.9 [14.6] vs 55.2 [18.2]; P < .001; cross-face nerve graft cohort, 47.3 [16.6] vs 61.7 [16.9]; P < .001) except the failure cohort (36.5 [20.8] vs 33.5 [17.9]; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = .15). Analysis of 40 patients' photographs revealed a mean (SD) preoperative and postoperative excursion on the affected side of -0.88 (3.79) and 7.68 (3.38), respectively (P < .001); symmetry with smile improved from a mean (SD) of 13.8 (7.46) to 4.88 (3.47) (P < .001). Free gracilis muscle transfer has become a mainstay in the management armamentarium for patients with severe reduction in oral commissure movement after facial nerve insult and recovery. We found a
Nahabedian, Maurice Y; Dooley, William; Singh, Navin; Manson, Paul N
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether contour abnormalities of the abdomen after breast reconstruction with abdominal flaps are related to the harvest of the rectus abdominis muscle. Abdominal contour was analyzed in 155 women who had breast reconstruction with abdominal flaps; 108 women had free transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flaps, 37 had pedicled TRAM flaps, and 10 had deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. The reconstruction was unilateral in 110 women and bilateral in 45 women. Three methods of muscle-sparing were used; they are classified as preservation of the lateral muscle, preservation of the medial and lateral muscle, or preservation of the entire muscle. One of these three methods of muscle-sparing was used in 91 women (59 percent) and no muscle-sparing was used in 64 women (41 percent). Postoperative contour abnormalities occurred in 15 woman and included epigastric fullness in five, upper bulge in three, and lower bulge in 10. One woman experienced two abnormalities, one woman experienced three, and no woman developed a hernia. Of these abnormalities, 11 occurred after the free TRAM flap, seven after the pedicled TRAM flap, and none after the DIEP flap. Bilateral reconstruction resulted in 11 abnormalities in nine women, and unilateral reconstruction resulted in seven abnormalities in six women. chi2 analysis of the free and pedicled TRAM flaps demonstrates that muscle-sparing explains the observed differences in upper bulge and upper fullness (p = 0.02), with a trend toward significance for lower bulge (p = 0.06). chi2 analysis of the free TRAM and DIEP flaps does not explain the observed difference in abnormal abdominal contour. Analysis of muscle-sparing and non-muscle-sparing methods demonstrates that the observed difference between the techniques is only explained for a lower bulge after the bilateral free TRAM flap (p = 0.04).
Gigante, Antonio; Bottegoni, Carlo; Milano, Giuseppe; Riccio, Michele; Dei Giudici, Luca
Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity.
Raab, Edward L; Ackert, Jessica M; Ostrovsky, Ann
Most published cases of rectus muscle flap tear have been associated with orbital trauma of various degrees of severity. When they accompany an orbital fracture, however, it is difficult to determine whether the flap tear is merely an incidental additional finding or a major contributing cause of the resulting restriction. How to treat the flap itself remains an open question. We report a 24-year-old man with an inferior rectus muscle flap tear caused by direct laceration of the muscle. The major finding was a "reverse leash" vertical restriction. Discarding the flap instead of reattaching it did not prevent a successful result. Our case supports the proposition that rectus muscle flap tear can be a restriction-producing entity. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Purnell, Chad A.; Lewis, Kevin C.; Mioton, Lauren M.; Hanwright, Philip J.; Galiano, Robert D.; Dumanian, Gregory A.; Alghoul, Mohammed S.
Background: Free and pedicled medial and lateral thigh-based flaps are common reconstructive procedures. However, there have been no comparative studies of morbidity between medial and lateral donor sites. Methods: We conducted an Enterprise Data Warehouse-based review of all the senior authors’ (R.D.G., G.A.D., and M.S.A.) thigh-based free and pedicled flaps. Patient demographic data, donor-site complications, drain duration, and number of postoperative visits were collected and compared. Complications were also compared between fasciocutaneous flaps and muscle or myocutaneous flaps, and skin grafted donor sites. Results: We analyzed 352 flap donor sites, with 155 medial and 197 lateral. Two hundred seventeen (217) flaps were pedicled. Flap types included 127 gracilis, 27 rectus femoris, 134 anterolateral thigh, and 36 vastus lateralis-only flaps. There were no significant differences in complications between medial (17.4%) and lateral thigh (21.3%) donor sites, although lateral thigh flaps had a mean of 1 additional postoperative visit. Rates of wound dehiscence/healing issues were significantly higher in both gracilis myocutaneous flaps (25.9%) and flaps requiring a skin grafted donor site (31.2%). Postoperative therapeutic anticoagulation was the only significant risk factor for a donor-site complication. Flap complications resulted in increased drain duration and postoperative office visits. Conclusions: Donor-site morbidity is similar in both lateral and medial thigh-based flaps. The inclusion of muscle in the flap from either donor site does not seem to increase complications, but the inclusion of a skin paddle with gracilis muscle, or a skin grafted lateral thigh donor site, results in increased wound healing complications. PMID:27975004
Kim, Sang Wha; Kwon, Young Hun; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan
The free flap failure rate for the lower extremities is high, which adversely affects limb salvage efforts. In this article, we report a case of failure of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, which was simultaneously reconstructed with a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. A 56-year-old male patient had infected wound for 3 months due to Achilles tendon rupture. We reconstructed the defect using a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap. However, 2 days after the operation, we found the congested flap. We were obliged to discard the whole flap and harvested a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. The patient's foot healed uneventfully. After flap failure, the use of a second free flap from the same donor site may be an effective and safe procedure in specific cases.
Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Akcal, Arzu; Dagdelen, Daghan; Yazar, Memet; Yesilada, Aysin
In patients with moderate lower lid laxity, the lower orbicularis oculi muscle becomes atonic or ptotic. Hence, in such patient populations, with periorbital fractures, additional vertical support endorsement either by lateral canthopexy or orbicularis oculi muscle suspension flap must accompany plate and screw fixations. In this report, we shared our experience in applying prophylactic suspension to the lower lid with turnover orbicularis oculi transposition muscle flap in zygomatic fractures treated by subciliary approach in 98 patients. Our results show that turnover orbicularis oculi muscle suspension flap avoids the rounding of the lateral canthal angle more successfully and prevents ectropion better than the resuspension orbicularis oculi muscle flap does. We advocate using this flap where zygomatic fractures are approached via the subciliary incision. We foresee that it is a reliable and easily executed technique especially in middle-aged patients with moderate lower lid laxity for the prevention of ectropion.
This study sought to determine the efficacy of interpositional arthroplasty with temporalis muscle and fascia flap in the treatment of unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in adults. This retrospective study of seven cases evaluated the postoperative results of interpositional arthroplasty on temporalis muscle and fascia flap in adults. The operative protocol for unilateral TMJ ankylosis entailed, (1) resection of ankylotic mass, (2) intraoral ipsilateral coronoidectomy, (3) contralateral coronoidectomy when necessary, (4) interpositional tissue transfer to the TMJ with temporalis muscle and fascia flap, (5) maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), and (6) early mobilization and aggressive physiotherapy. The results of this protocol were encouraging, while the functional results of interpositional arthroplasty on temporalis muscle and fascia flap were satisfactory. The findings of this study support the use of temporalis muscle and fascia flap in adult patients with unilateral TMJ ankylosis. Early postoperative initial exercise, physiotherapy, and strict follow-up play an important role in preventing postoperative adhesions.
Yang, Hee Jun; Kim, Yang Woo; Lee, Sang Gu
Background The trapezius muscle flap is not usually the first reconstructive option for skin and soft tissue defects in the posterior neck and scalp due to surgeons' unfamiliarity with the surgical anatomy and developments in free tissue transfer techniques. The goals of this study were to describe the clinical use of trapezius flaps in posterior neck and scalp reconstruction, and to investigate the vascular anatomy of trapezius flaps in Asians in order to obtain information facilitating the safe design and elevation of flaps in which most of the muscle is preserved. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of 10 patients who underwent trapezius muscle flap for posterior neck and scalp defects. We also performed an anatomical study of 16 flaps harvested from 8 preserved Asian adult cadavers and evaluated the main landmarks relevant for trapezius muscle flap. Results In the anatomical study, the mean vertical height from the inferior angle of the scapula to the point at which the superficial cervical artery penetrated the trapezius was 4.31±2.14 cm. The mean vertical height of the trapezius muscle flap pivot point was 9.53±2.08 cm from the external occipital protuberance. Among the 10 flaps, partial necrosis on the overlaid skin graft occurred in 1 patient and postoperative seroma occurred in another patient. Conclusions Vascular variations in the trapezius muscle flap are uncommon in Asians, but when present, such variations appear to have little impact on harvesting the flap or on its circulation. The trapezius muscle flap is a viable alternative for posterior neck and scalp reconstruction. PMID:27896183
Algan, Said; Tan, Onder; Kara, Murat; Inaloz, Akin; Cakmak, Mehmet Akif; Aydin, Osman Enver
Volumetric or multiplane defects of the upper and midface remain a challenge for reconstruction because of limited regional flap options. In this study, the authors harvested the reverse temporalis muscle flap and pericranial flap (RTMP flap) based on the same vascular pedicle, the superficial temporal artery, in a chimeric manner to obtain double-layer closure of deep facial defects. This study was a prospective case series performed in the Department of Plastic Surgery of Ataturk University (Erzurum, Turkey). The outcomes, including flap survival, postoperative complications, reconstructive success, esthetic appearance, and donor site morbidity, were clinically evaluated. Fourteen patients (10 male and 4 female) with deep defects of the middle third of the face underwent reconstruction using the chimeric RTMP flap. All chimeric RTMP flaps survived without postoperative complications. All defects were successfully repaired and covered with chimeric RTMP flaps. Patients were satisfied with the esthetic results. The chimeric RTMP flap is a good reconstruction option and can be used safely for moderate to large 3-dimensional defects of the middle and upper face. Smooth and durable coverage over the bulky muscle flap used to fill the volume defect and a larger flap for larger volume defects can be obtained by including the pericranial segment of the chimeric RTMP flap. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koshima, Isao; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Mihara, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Iida, Takuya; Uchida, Gentaro
The facial muscles of a 28-year-old woman with left acoustic neuroma were successfully protected with a vascularised cross-face nerve flap using a vascularised lateral femoral cutaneous nerve along with a perforator of the lateral circumflex femoral system. It was transferred as a vascularised cross-face nerve flap to bridge a 15-cm-long defect between the bilateral buccal branches. Three months after the nerve flap transfer, the total tumour including the facial nerve was resected. Postoperatively, rapid nerve sprouting through the nerve flap and excellent facial reanimation were obtained 3-6 months after resection. This method is a one-stage reconstruction procedure, has minimal donor-site morbidity and results in strong postoperative muscle contraction. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a prophylactic cross-face nerve flap technique for the protection of facial muscles before facial nerve transection, and also the usefulness of vascularised lateral femoral cutaneous nerve flap.
Mortari, A C; Rahal, S C; Resende, L A L; Dal-pai-silva, M; Mamprim, M J; Corrêa, M A; Antunes, S H S
The aim of this study was to evaluate modifications occurring in semitendinous muscle after transposition as a ventral perineal muscle flap using electromyography, ultrasonography, and morphological studies. Ten male crossbreed dogs of 3-4 year old were used. The left semitendinous muscle was cut close to the popliteus lymph node, rotated and sutured at the perineal region. The contralateral muscle was considered as control. Motor nerve conduction studies of both sciatic-tibial nerves, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic examinations of both semitendinous muscles were performed before surgery and 15, 30, 60, and 90 days postoperatively. Semitendinous muscle samples were collected for morphological analysis 90 days after surgery. No alterations were observed in clinical gait examinations, or in goniometrical and electroneuromyographical studies in pelvic limbs after surgery. Electromyography demonstrated that the transposed muscle was able to contract, but atrophy was detected by ultrasonography and morphological analysis.
Ryu, Dong Yeon; Jung, Hyuk Jae; Ramaiah, Venkaesh G; Rodriguez-Lopez, Julio A; Lee, Sang Su
The purpose of this study was to review the natural history, clinical outcome and safety in patients undergoing sartorius muscle flap (SMF) for groin infection, including lymphocele. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent SMF in a single center between 2000 and 2009. Thirty patients (17 male, 13 female) underwent SMF for groin infection, which included infections of 22 artificial femoral bypass grafts (including 2 cryoveins) and 5 common femoral patch grafts, and 3 lymphocele infections (2 cardiac catheterizations and 1 penile cancer lymph node dissection). Wound isolates were most commonly Gram-positive organisms (n=22) with Gram-negative isolates and mixed infections accounting for 4 and 3 cases, respectively. In 9 patients there was no growth of organisms. Adjunctive wound vacuum-asssisted wound closure therapy was performed in 18 patients. Follow-up duration ranged from 8 days to 56 months (mean 14.1 months) after SMF. Reoperation was performed in 3 patients due to wound bleeding (n=1) and reinfection (n=1). One patient underwent graft excision with external bypass operation. There was 1 mortality case due to sepsis during the study period. We found that muscle flap surgery provides successful single-intervention therapy for groin infections including lymphocele. Graft ligation or aggressive excision with bypass surgery should be reserved for patients requiring rapid control of sepsis for lifesaving.
Biglioli, Federico; Colombo, Valeria; Tarabbia, Filippo; Autelitano, Luca; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Colletti, Giacomo; Giovanditto, Federica; Battista, Valeria; Frigerio, Alice
Long-standing unilateral facial palsy is treated primarily with free-flap surgery using the masseteric or contralateral facial nerve as a motor source. The use of a gracilis muscle flap innervated by the masseteric nerve restores the smiling function, without obtaining spontaneity. Because emotional smiling is an important factor in facial reanimation, the facial nerve must serve as the motor source to achieve this fundamental target. From October 1998 to October 2009, 50 patients affected by long-standing unilateral facial paralysis underwent single-stage free-flap reanimation procedures to recover smiling function. A latissimus dorsi flap innervated by the contralateral facial nerve was transplanted in 40 patients, and a gracilis muscle flap innervated by the masseteric nerve in 10 patients. All patients underwent a clinical examination that analyzed voluntary and spontaneous smiling. All patients who received a latissimus dorsi flap innervated by the contralateral facial nerve and recovered muscle function (92.5%) showed voluntary and spontaneous smiling abilities. All patients who received a gracilis free flap innervated by the masseteric nerve recovered function, but only 1 (10%) showed occasional spontaneous flap activation. During those rare activations, much less movement was visible on the operated side than when the patient was asked to smile voluntarily. The masseteric nerve is a powerful motor source that guarantees free voluntary gracilis muscle activation; however, it does not guarantee any spontaneous smiling. Single-stage procedures that use a latissimus dorsi flap innervated by the contralateral facial nerve have a lower success rate and obtain less movement; however, spontaneous smiling is always observed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Livaoğlu, Murat; Arvas, Leyla; Karaçal, Naci; Menteşe, Ahmet; Karahan, S Caner; Sözen, Emrah
Ischemia is a major cause of flap failure in reconstructive surgery. To detect circulatory compromise, many flap monitoring methods are used; however, there is no any optimal standard method. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is an ischemia marker, which has recently been investigated in many studies and largely validated for early detection of ischemia. In this study, we investigated possible relationship between muscle flap viability and serum IMA levels in experimental flap model. The rectus abdominis muscle flap model was used in 18 New Zealand white rabbits. The study was planned using 3 groups. In group 1, the rectus abdominis muscle flap was harvested as a superior pedicle-based flap in which the inferior pedicle was sacrificed. In group 2, the flap was harvested by severing the superior pedicle. Both pedicles were harvested in group 3. Serum IMA levels were measured before the procedure and 1 hour, 6 hours, and 7 days postoperatively and then compared. In group 3, in which the ischemia was evident, and in group 1, IMA levels were significantly high 1 hour postoperatively (P < 0.05). There was no other significant difference in any of the other studied parameters between the groups. In conclusion, IMA can be used as a biochemical parameter for monitoring muscle flap viability.
Wu, Chun-Yu; Yeh, Yu-Chang; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Chao, Anne; Sun, Wei-Zen; Cheng, Ya-Jung
Hemorrhagic shock induces both macrocirculatory and microcirculatory impairment. Persistent microcirculatory dysfunction is associated with the dysfunction of multiple organs, especially in the splanchnic organs. However, few studies have simultaneously investigated microcirculation in multiple organs. In the present study, we used laser speckle contrast imaging to simultaneously investigate microcirculatory changes secondary to hemorrhagic shock and after fluid resuscitation among multiple splanchnic organs and the gracilis muscle. 72 male Wistar rats were subjected to sham operation, hemorrhagic shock (total blood loss of 30mL/kg) and saline resuscitation. Macrocirculatory parameters, including the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate, and microcirculatory parameters, including microcirculatory blood flow intensity and tissue oxygen saturation in the liver, kidney, intestine (mucosa, serosal muscular layer, and Peyer's patch), and gracilis muscle were compared in a period of 3h. Hemorrhagic shock induced a significant reduction of microcirculatory blood flow intensity in the kidney and intestine (especially the mucosa). Tissue oxygen saturation reduction secondary to hemorrhagic shock was comparable among the various splanchnic organs but lower than the gracilis muscle. Fluid resuscitation restored the MAP but not the microcirculatory blood flow in the intestine and the tissue oxygen saturation in each splanchnic organ. Hemorrhagic shock induced the largest reduction in microcirculatory blood flow intensity in the intestinal mucosa. By comparison, the reduction of tissue oxygen saturation was not significantly different among the various splanchnic organs. Although fluid resuscitation restored the MAP, the intestinal microcirculation remained damaged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sugarbaker, Paul H.; Chretien, Paul A.
Hemipelvectomy utilizing an anterior myocutaneous flap is indicated for aggressive tumors of the buttock and proximal portion of the posterior thigh. A large operative defect created posteriorly by amputation of the lower extremity, hemipelvis, and buttock is covered by a myocutaneous flap of quadriceps femoris muscle and overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. The superficial femoral artery is preserved to sustain the myocutaneous flap. ImagesFig. 2A,B,C.Fig. 2A,B,C. PMID:6848048
Wei, Wang; Linbo, Liu; Ximei, Wang; Xiamei, Zhai
To investigate the application and therapeutic effect of frontal muscle fascia compound flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis in children. From July 2010 to March 2012, 21 children (23 eyes) with congenital blepharoptosis were treated with frontal muscle fascia compound flap suspension. The therapeutic effect was observed and followed up. 17 patients were followed up for 3-6 months with relapse in one case. The ptosis was corrected in the other 1 cases. The frontal muscle fascia compound flap suspension is effective and practical with minimal morbidity and lower complication for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis.
al-Obaidi, M; Karim, F
1. In chloralose-anaesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs, the carotid sinus regions were vascularly isolated and perfused either with arterial or mixed (arterial and venous) blood (partial pressure of O2 (PO2) 43.8 +/- 2.4 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.M. n = 14) to stimulate the carotid chemoreceptors. The carotid sinus pressure was held constant at 142.0 +/- 2.8 mmHg. Measurements were made of renal and gracilis muscle blood flow by wrap-round electromagnetic flow probes placed around the renal and gracilis arteries, glomerular filtration rate by creatine clearance, urinary sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. 2. In ten dogs, with intact cervical vagosympathetic trunks, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation produced significant increases in aortic pressure (AoP) of 12.7 +/- 1.1% (n = 10, P < 0.001), in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 14.7 +/- 4.1% (P < 0.001), urine flow rate (V) of 16.5 +/- 3.5% (P < 0.002), in urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) of 17.5 +/- 2.5% (P < 0.005) and in urinary osmolar excretion (UosmV) of 13.2 +/- 2.2% (P < 0.001), but a significant decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) of 5.8 +/- 1.8% (P < 0.02). In six of these dogs in which gracilis muscle blood flow (MBF) was also recorded, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation caused significant increases in AoP of 12.8 +/- 1.4% (n = 6, P < 0.001) and in MBF of 10.0 +/- 1.6% (P < 0.002), and a small but significant decrease in RBF of 3.6 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.02). 3. In fourteen dogs, with sectioned cervical vagosympathetic trunks, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation produced increases in AoP of 22.0 +/- 2.6% (n = 14, P < 0.001), in GFR of 36.9 +/- 4.2% (P < 0.001), in V of 30.1 +/- 4.4% (P < 0.001), in UNaV of 31.4 +/- 5.3% (P < 0.001), and in UosmV of 25.7 +/- 5.8% (P < 0.001). However, it produced a greater decrease in RBF of 10.5 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.001). In ten of these dogs, where MBF was recorded, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation caused greater increase in AoP of 22.4 +/- 3
Garcia-Tutor, Emilio; Yeste, Luis; Murillo, Julio; Aubá, Cristina; Sanjulian, Mikel; Torre, Wenceslao
Technically we can divide full-thickness thoracic reconstruction into 2 parts: providing a rigid support and ensuring well-vascularized coverage. Since 1986, the authors' center has had ample experience with bone banks and the use of cryopreserved bone grafts, which led them to consider the possibility of using these grafts for full-thickness chest wall reconstruction. They describe 3 patients in whom resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the thorax were carried out using iliac bone allografts covered with muscle flaps (1 pectoralis major and 2 rectus abdominis). None of the patients experienced breathing difficulties, pain, or instability after 14 months, 18 months, and 11 years of follow-up. The result of the reconstruction was excellent in all 3 patients in terms of function and aesthetics. The advantage of allografts compared with synthetic materials is their potential integration; they can become part of the host patient's living tissue.
Demirci, Ugur; Basut, Oguz; Noyan, Behzat; Demir, Uygar Levent; Afsin Ozmen, O; Kasapoglu, Fikret; Hakan Coskun, H; Onart, Selcuk
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flap on preventing Frey's syndrome by using, Galvanic skin responses (GSR). Fourty-three patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy were randomly divided into two groups and their GSR were recorded. SCM muscle flap was applied over the surgical area only in one group. Six months after the surgery, GSRs were remeasured. In addition, the patients completed a questionnaire regarding their complaints about clinical Frey's syndrome. Four patients had symptoms of clinical Frey's syndrome. Postoperative GSR measurements revealed no significant difference between two sides in flap group (p = 0.426) but higher in without flap group (p = 0.003). The patients with clinical Frey syndrome had significantly higher GSR values than the remaining patients. The SCM muscle flap was an effective method in preventing Frey's syndrome. Moreover, GSR test was highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis.
Ludwig, Irene H; Brown, Mark S
To present an avulsion injury of the rectus muscle after orbital trauma, usually the inferior rectus, and detail its diagnosis and operative repair. Forty-three patients underwent repair of flap tears of 62 rectus muscles. During surgery, we found the muscle abnormality was often subtle, with narrowing or thinning of the remaining attached global layer of muscle. The detached flap of external (orbital) muscle was found embedded in surrounding orbital fat and connective tissue. Retrieval and repair were performed in each case. The causes of orbital trauma were as follows: orbital fractures (15 patients), blunt trauma with no fracture (11 patients), suspected trauma but did not undergo computerized tomographic scan (12 patients), and status after retinal detachment repair (5 patients). Of note, 15 of the 43 patients (35%) underwent repair of the flap tear alone, without any additional orbital or strabismus surgery. Diagnostically, the predominant motility defect in 45 muscles was limitation toward the field of action of the muscle, presumably as a result of a tether created by the torn flap; these tethers simulated muscle palsy. Seventeen muscles were restricted away from their field of action, simulating entrapment. The direction taken by the flap during healing determined the resultant strabismus pattern. All patients with gaze limitation toward an orbital fracture had flap tears. The worst results after flap tear repair were seen in patients (1) who had undergone orbital fracture repair before presentation, (2) who had undergone previous attempts at strabismus repair, and (3) who had the longest intervals between the precipitating event and the repair. The best results were obtained in patients who underwent simultaneous fracture and strabismus repair or early strabismus repair alone. Avulsion-type flap tears of the extraocular muscles are a common cause of posttraumatic strabismus. Early repair produces the best results, but improvement is possible despite long
GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; MILANO, GIUSEPPE; RICCIO, MICHELE; DEI GIUDICI, LUCA
Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:27900313
Haas, F; Pierer, G; Weiglein, A; Moshammer, H; Schwarzl, F; Scharnagl, E
Up to now, there is no uniform anatomic description neither of the branches of the subclavian artery nor of the pedicle of the lower myocutaneous trapezius flap. A dissection study was carried out on 140 necks in 70 cadavers. Variations of the subclavian artery and its branches, vessel diameter at different levels, the course of the pedicle under the levator scapulae muscle, the arc of rotation of the island flap, and the variations of the segmental intercostal branches to the lower part of the trapezius muscle were examined. Results of this study enable us to suggest a new nomenclature for the branches of the subclavian artery, a proper pedicle definition, and a technique for safe flap elevation. The lower trapezius island flap is a thin and pliable myocutaneous flap with a constant pedicle which ensures safe flap elevation. This flap has the potential for a wider acceptance due to minor donor site morbidity, large arc of rotation, and an ample range of clinical applications in the head and neck area as an island flap as well as a free flap.
Nasr, Ahmed; Struijs, Marie-Chantal; Ein, Sigmund H; Langer, Jacob C; Chiu, Priscilla P L
Repair of large congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) defects still pose a significant challenge, as the defects cannot be repaired primarily. Two techniques have been widely used: autologous anterior abdominal wall muscle flap and prosthetic patch. The latter has been used more often. Our goal was to compare the short-term and long-term outcomes of these 2 approaches. This is a retrospective review of all neonates undergoing CDH repair at our institution from 1969 to 2006. Of 188 children undergoing surgery for CDH, primary repair could not be accomplished in 51 infants (27%). Nineteen had muscle flap repair, and 32 had prosthetic patch repair (Gore-Tex [W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ], n = 15; Marlex [Bard Inc, Cranston, NJ], n = 9; Surgisis [Cook, Bloomington, IN], n = 5; SILASTIC [Dow Corning, Midland, MI], n = 3). There was no significant difference in gestational age or birth weight between groups. Three patients developed an abdominal wall defect at the muscle flap donor site, but none required surgical intervention. Chest wall deformities were found in 9 patients, 3 after a muscle flap and 6 after a prosthetic patch (P = .7). Postoperative bowel obstruction occurred in 3 muscle flap patients and 1 patch patient (P = .2). There were 10 recurrences among survivors: 2 after a muscle flap and 8 after a prosthetic patch (P = .3) There were 2 deaths among the muscle flap patients (10%), and 3 deaths among the prosthetic patch repair patients (9%) (P = .1). Results were confirmed after controlling for age and comorbidities between both groups in a multivariate logistic regression. These results suggest that autologous anterior abdominal wall muscle flap and prosthetic patch repairs provide similar short-term and long-term outcomes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Avendano-Peza, Héctor; Novitsky, Yuri W.
Summary: Breast reconstruction with a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. Although the pedicled TRAM flap donor area reinforced with mesh results in decreased rates of postoperative abdominal bulging and hernias, the best technique to accomplish that is yet to be elucidated. We present our novel technique of posterior components separation with transversus abdominis muscle release and retromuscular mesh reinforcement for donor-area closure during pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:27757337
Lau, Gih-Keong; Chin, Yao-Wei; La, Thanh-Giang
Common drivers of flapping wings are a motorized crank mechanisms, which convert the motor rotation into wing reciprocation. Energetic efficiency of the motorized wing flappers can be quite low due to the lack of elastic storage and high friction. This paper relook into the flapping flight apparatus of natural flyers and draw inspiration to develop flight muscles capable of elastic storage, in addition to the frictionless thoracic compliant mechanisms. We review the recent findings on the use of dielectric elastomer actuators as flight muscles. We also discuss the challenges and the prospects of using dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure to create large and fast bending/unbending, possibly for wing flapping.
Shandalov, Yulia; Egozi, Dana; Koffler, Jacob; Dado-Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Freiman, Alina; Shor, Erez; Kabala, Aviva; Levenberg, Shulamit
Large soft tissue defects involve significant tissue loss, requiring surgical reconstruction. Autologous flaps are occasionally scant, demand prolonged transfer surgery, and induce donor site morbidity. The present work set out to fabricate an engineered muscle flap bearing its own functional vascular pedicle for repair of a large soft tissue defect in mice. Full-thickness abdominal wall defect was reconstructed using this engineered vascular muscle flap. A 3D engineered tissue constructed of a porous, biodegradable polymer scaffold embedded with endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and/or myoblasts was cultured in vitro and then implanted around the femoral artery and veins before being transferred, as an axial flap, with its vascular pedicle to reconstruct a full-thickness abdominal wall defect in the same mouse. Within 1 wk of implantation, scaffolds showed extensive functional vascular density and perfusion and anastomosis with host vessels. At 1 wk posttransfer, the engineered muscle flaps were highly vascularized, were well-integrated within the surrounding tissue, and featured sufficient mechanical strength to support the abdominal viscera. Thus, the described engineered muscle flap, equipped with an autologous vascular pedicle, constitutes an effective tool for reconstruction of large defects, thereby circumventing the need for both harvesting autologous flaps and postoperative scarification. PMID:24711414
Shandalov, Yulia; Egozi, Dana; Koffler, Jacob; Dado-Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Freiman, Alina; Shor, Erez; Kabala, Aviva; Levenberg, Shulamit
Large soft tissue defects involve significant tissue loss, requiring surgical reconstruction. Autologous flaps are occasionally scant, demand prolonged transfer surgery, and induce donor site morbidity. The present work set out to fabricate an engineered muscle flap bearing its own functional vascular pedicle for repair of a large soft tissue defect in mice. Full-thickness abdominal wall defect was reconstructed using this engineered vascular muscle flap. A 3D engineered tissue constructed of a porous, biodegradable polymer scaffold embedded with endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and/or myoblasts was cultured in vitro and then implanted around the femoral artery and veins before being transferred, as an axial flap, with its vascular pedicle to reconstruct a full-thickness abdominal wall defect in the same mouse. Within 1 wk of implantation, scaffolds showed extensive functional vascular density and perfusion and anastomosis with host vessels. At 1 wk posttransfer, the engineered muscle flaps were highly vascularized, were well-integrated within the surrounding tissue, and featured sufficient mechanical strength to support the abdominal viscera. Thus, the described engineered muscle flap, equipped with an autologous vascular pedicle, constitutes an effective tool for reconstruction of large defects, thereby circumventing the need for both harvesting autologous flaps and postoperative scarification.
Demirseren, Mustafa Erol; Ceran, Candemir; Aksam, Berrak; Demiralp, Cemil Ozerk
The reconstruction of ischial pressure ulcers is problematic because of the distinctive anatomical properties of the region and high recurrence rates. To date, no single technique has been proven to be effective in reducing recurrence of the ulcers. We present our experience with the combination of a biceps femoris muscle turnover flap and a posterior thigh fasciocutaneous hatchet flap and discuss the long-term results. A retrospective clinical analysis of 15 patients with grade 4 ischial pressure ulcers reconstructed with biceps femoris muscle turnover flaps and laterally based posterior thigh fasciocutaneous hatchet flaps was carried out between January 2010 and January 2013. Debridement and reconstruction of the ulcers were accomplished in a single stage. The posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap was elevated in a hatchet style. The long and/or short head of the biceps femoris muscle were dissected from their insertions, turned over on their major pedicles, and their distal portions were used to obliterate the cavitary defect. The skin defect over the muscles was covered by the fasciocutaneous hatchet flap. The average age of the patients was 42.6 years and the mean follow-up time was 27.2 months. Three patients had the following early postoperative complications: hematoma, suture dehiscence, and the necrosis of the short head of biceps muscle. Only 1 patient had a recurrent ulcer 15 months after surgery, which was treated with debridement and the readvancement of the fasciocutaneous flap. The overall recurrence rate was 6.6%. The biceps femoris muscle turnover flap combined with the posterior thigh fasciocutaneous hatchet flap is a worthwhile option to consider for the reconstruction of ischial pressure ulcers and this technique produces favorable results in terms of the lack of recurrence and complications. The use of the muscle and fasciocutaneous tissue as 2 different flaps, which have different roles in the early and late postoperative period, reduces the
May, Brian L.; Zelenski, Nicole A.; Daluvoy, Sanjay V.; Blanton, Matthew W.; Shortell, Cynthia K.
Background: Peripheral vascular surgery may be complicated by wound infection and potential graft exposure in the groin area. Muscle flap coverage of the graft has been promoted to address these wound complications. The authors present their findings regarding graft salvage rates and patient outcomes using local muscle flaps to address vascular graft complications of the groin. Methods: Data were obtained by retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent a local muscle flap procedure by a single surgeon following vascular graft complication in the groin. Results: Seventeen patients undergoing local muscle flap coverage of a vascular graft were reviewed. Six men and 9 women, 51–80 years old, were included in the study. Wound complications in the groin occurred anywhere from 3 days to 3.5 years following graft placement. Graft exposure was the most common presenting complication (14 of 17 patients). Muscle flap coverage occurred within 15 days of complication presentation in all patients (average, 6.4 days). Seven of the 15 patients experienced postoperative complications within 6 months of the procedure, most commonly wound dehiscence. However, analysis demonstrated that vascular grafts were successfully salvaged in 10 of the 17 patients (59%) over the course of follow-up (range, 104–1748 days). Average time to muscle flap coverage was 4.2 days in patients who retained the graft and 9.6 days in patients who ultimately lost their vascular graft. Conclusion: The authors demonstrate improved vascular graft salvage rate when local muscle flap procedure is performed early after initial wound complication presentation. PMID:26495227
Xipoleas, George D.; Woods, Daniel; Batac, Joseph; Addona, Tommaso
Summary: Upper extremity reconstruction is most often encountered in trauma patients. Although the rate of complications from elective orthopedic procedures remains relatively low, these complications are oftentimes in the form of open joints or joint infections that can be devastating. Classically, wounds of the shoulder girdle have been treated with large muscles such as the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and latissimus dorsi. Flaps more local to the area including the deltoid muscle flap have been overlooked due to their small size. Despite its size, the anterior deltoid can be used for shoulder girdle reconstruction with minimal functional deficit and allows for reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint without sacrifice of the larger muscles of the upper trunk. This study reports a case of a chronic shoulder girdle wound and successful management with the use of an anterior deltoid muscle flap. PMID:27826470
Maldonado, Andrés A; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y
After complete five-level root brachial plexus injury, free functional muscle transfer and intercostal nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve are two potential reconstructive options for elbow flexion. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of free functional muscle transfer versus intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfers with respect to strength. Sixty-two patients who underwent free functional muscle transfer reconstruction or intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfer for elbow flexion following a pan-plexus injury were included. The two groups were compared with respect to postoperative elbow flexion strength according to the British Medical Research Council grading system; preoperative and postoperative Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire scores. In the free functional muscle transfer group, 67.7 percent of patients achieved M3 or M4 elbow flexion. In the intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfer group, 41.9 percent of patients achieved M3 or M4 elbow flexion. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Changes in Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire scores were not statistically significant. Average time from injury to surgery was significantly different (p < 0.01) in both groups. The number of intercostal nerves used for the musculocutaneous nerve transfer did not correlate with better elbow flexion grade. Based on this study, gracilis free functional muscle transfer reconstruction achieves better elbow flexion strength than intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfer for elbow flexion after pan-plexus injury. The role of gracilis free functional muscle transfer should be carefully considered in acute reconstruction. Therapeutic, III.
Chan, James K-K; Harry, Lorraine; Williams, Garry; Nanchahal, Jagdeep
Early vascularized soft tissue closure has long been recognized to be essential in achieving eventual infection free union. The question of whether muscle or fasciocutaneous tissue is superior in terms of promoting fracture healing remains unresolved. Here we review the experimental and clinical evidence for the different tissue types and advocate that the biological role of flaps should be included as a key consideration during flap selection. PMID:22842425
Abstract Background: Large soft-tissue defects in the lower leg and ankle are a major problem for plastic surgeons. Many local flaps that are either proximally or distally based have been previously described to cover small defects. Larger defects may require a distant flap that is either pedicled or free. The peroneus brevis muscle flap is a well-known distally based safe flap that is used to cover a small defect. Methods: Ten distally based peroneus brevis muscle flaps were elevated in 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) with major lower third leg and ankle defects that were 6–12 cm in length and 6–10 cm in width, with open-book splitting of the proximal portion of the muscle to cover these large defects. Results: Flap survival was excellent, and partial skin graft loss in two cases healed with dressing. The average flap length was 10 cm, ranging between 6 and 12 cm. The average flap width was 8 cm, ranging between 6 and 10 cm. The donor site also healed uneventful. Conclusions: Open-book splitting of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap is ideally suited for moderate to large defects in the distal third of the lower leg and ankle. This modification of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap offers a convincing alternative for covering large defects of up to 12 × 10 cm in the distal leg and ankle region. PMID:26893997
Okazaki, Mutsumi; Mutsumi, Okazaki; Kentaro, Tanaka; Noriko, Uemura; Satoshi, Usami; Tsutomu, Homma; Alisa, Okubo; Mayuko, Hamanaga; Hiroki, Mori
Various types of neurovascular free-muscle transfers have been reported as surgical treatments for long-standing facial paralysis. Among one-stage methods, two approaches, that is, latissimus dorsi transfer with nerve suturing to the contralateral facial nerve and gracilis transfer with nerve suturing to the ipsilateral masseteric nerve, have recently become popular. The former method has the advantage of making spontaneous smiling possible, but the contraction strength of the transferred muscle varies, whereas the latter approach has the advantage of guaranteeing voluntary contraction of the transferred muscle, but makes spontaneous smiling difficult. Recently, dual innervation methods have also been reported, but uncertainty remains about the utility of such approaches. To overcome these drawbacks, we devised a hybrid method combining the two previously established techniques. Two latissimus dorsi muscle flaps containing the thoracodorsal vessels from one side are transferred with a pair of vascular anastomoses. The true trunk of the thoracodorsal nerve, which innervates one of the muscle flaps, is sutured to the contralateral facial nerve, while the short branch of the thoracodorsal nerve, which innervates the other muscle flap, is sutured to the ipsilateral masseteric nerve. From November 2011 to October 2013, we used this method in four patients with long-standing facial paralysis. Smiling was assessed in the three patients who were followed up for more than 1 year, and satisfactory results were obtained (Harii score: 4-5). In one patient, the movement mediated via the contralateral facial nerve was a little weak, but this was compensated for by the muscles controlled by the ipsilateral masseteric nerve. Our novel one-stage method, which involves a combination of two previously established methods, guarantees early voluntary smiling, and spontaneous smiling becomes possible later. In addition, it is free from the uncertainty associated with double innervation
Muesse, Jason L.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Ellsworth, Warren A.; Kim, Min P.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various treatment options for sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis. We evaluated patients with a diagnosis of sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis, treated at our hospital from 2002 to 2012. Four treatment options were compared. Three out of twelve patients were successfully cured with antibiotics alone (25%). Debridement with or without negative pressure therapy was successful for one of three patients (33%). Simultaneous debridement, bone resection, and muscle flap coverage of the acquired defect successfully treated one of two patients (50%). Debridement with delayed bone resection and muscle flap coverage was successful in five of five patients (100%). Osteomyelitis of the sternoclavicular joint is a rare disease that has become more prevalent in recent years and can be associated with increasing use of long-term indwelling catheters. Initial debridement with delayed bone resection and pectoralis major muscle flap coverage can effectively treat sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis. PMID:25379557
Uyar, Yavuz; Yıldırım, Güven; Kuzdere, Mustafa; Arbağ, Hamdi; Jorayev, Chary; Kılıç, Mehmet Vefa; Gümrükçü, Said Serdar
Objectives This study presents the role of the temporalis muscle flap in primary reconstruction after orbital exenteration. Methods A retrospective nonrandomized study of orbital exenterations performed between 1990 and 2010 for malignant tumors of the skin, paranasal sinus, and nasal cavity is presented. Results The study included 13 patients (nine men, four women; age range, 30-82 years) with paranasal sinus, nasal cavity, or skin carcinomas. Primary reconstruction of the cavity was performed in all patients after orbital exenteration. No visible defects in the muscle flap donor site were present. Local recurrences were readily followed up with nasal endoscopy, whereas radiology helped to diagnose intracranial involvement in three patients. Two patients died of systemic metastases and five died for other reasons Conclusion The temporalis muscle flap is readily used to close the defect after orbital exenteration, and does not prevent the detection of recurrence. PMID:25729496
Eisenhardt, S U; Schmidt, Y; Thiele, J R; Iblher, N; Penna, V; Torio-Padron, N; Stark, G B; Bannasch, H
We recently established negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as a safe postoperative care concept for free muscle flaps; however, the molecular effects of NPWT on free muscle flaps remain elusive. Here we investigated the effects of NPWT on pathological changes associated with ischaemia/reperfusion injury in free flap tissue. From July 2008 to September 2010, 30 patients receiving skin-grafted free muscle transfer for defect coverage were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: In one group the skin-grafted free flap was covered by a vacuum dressing (NPWT); in the second group, flaps were covered by conventional petroleum gauze dressings (conv). Biopsies were taken intra-operatively prior to clipping of the pedicle and on postoperative day 5. Samples were analysed by immunohistochemistry for infiltration of inflammatory cells, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the analysis of expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as markers of inflammation. Histological samples were also examined for interstitial oedema formation, and apoptosis was detected by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. NPWT leads to a significantly reduced tissue infiltration of CD68 + macrophages and reduced expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα. None of these parameters was significantly elevated in the pre-ischaemic biopsies. Furthermore, NPWT reduced the interstitial oedema formation and the number of apoptotic cells in free flap tissue. NPWT of skin-grafted free muscle flaps leads to a reduced inflammatory response following ischaemia/reperfusion, resulting in reduced oedema formation improving the microcirculation and ultimately reduced tissue damage. We thereby deliver new insight into the effects of NPWT. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ersoy, Burak; Sönmez, Ahmet; Bayramiçli, Mehmet
Free serratus anterior muscle flap, classified as Mathes-Nahai type III, is a versatile and frequently preferred choice for soft tissue coverage of small to moderate-sized defects owing to its reliable circulation pattern; however, some anatomic variations in the flap vascularity can result in partial flap loss. Here we present two cases with free serratus anterior muscle transfer where the distalmost portion of the flap was not perfused by the thoracodorsal pedicle. The most likely explanation seems to be the large flap size and the lack of distal interconnections between lateral thoracic artery and thoracodorsal artery branches. Our clinical experience suggests that anatomic variations of serratus anterior muscle circulation might end up with distal perfusion loss if a large flap is to be harvested.
Georgescu, Alexandru V; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Ileana, Matei; Irina, Capota; Filip, Ardelean; Olariu, Radu
The authors present the long-term results in a series of 44 cases with post-traumatic bone defects solved with muscle-rib flaps, between March 1997 and December 2007. In these cases, we performed 21 serratus anterior-rib flaps (SA-R), 10 latissimus dorsi-rib flaps (LD-R), and 13 LD-SA-R. The flaps were used in upper limb in 18 cases and in lower limb in 26 cases. With an overall immediate success rate of 95.4% (42 of 44 cases) and a primary bone union rate of 97.7% (43 of 44 cases), and despite the few partisans of this method, we consider that this procedure still remains very usefully for small and medium bone defects accompanied by large soft tissue defects.
Hayashida, Kenji; Endo, Yoshie; Kamebuchi, Katsuhiko
Objective: It is difficult to cover a large skin and soft tissue defect with exposure of the ilium. We therefore performed a new reconstruction technique, using a reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap fed by perforating branches of only the 10th intercostal artery. Methods: A 45-year-old man had a large traumatic defect located on the hip with exposure of the iliac crest. After confirming and preserving perforating branches of the 10th intercostal artery, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap was turned over just proximal to the perforating branch, and a split-thickness skin graft was performed over the flap. Results: The skin graft took place well and there were no circulation problems. Conclusions: This flap covered a larger area on the hip than the musculocutaneous flap. Furthermore, this is easier to perform and is less invasive than a vascularized free flap. Skin and soft tissue defects that expose bones of the lumbar or hip region can be reconstructed with a local flap; however, the deficit is small for this coverage and usually there is little skin and soft tissue to cover the wound defect in the surrounding area. Thus, it is often difficult to deal with large defects. We performed a reconstruction, using a reverse latissimus dorsi flap fed by perforating branches of the 10th intercostal artery for a large skin and soft tissue defect of the hip with exposure of the iliac crest, resulting in a good outcome. This technique is thought to be useful for reconstruction when the ilium is exposed, and we report the case and surgical procedure. PMID:21559059
Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae
The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity. PMID:27366755
Mojallal, Ali; Boucher, Fabien; Shipkov, Hristo; Saint-Cyr, Michel; Braye, Fabienne
The medial thigh has been infrequently studied as a donor site for pedicled or free flaps. In their previous studies, the authors observed a direct cutaneous branch from the superficial femoral artery. This study aimed to investigate the anatomy and potential possibility for flap elevation (the midmedial thigh flap) on this direct branch of the superficial femoral vessels. Circumferential adipocutaneous thigh flaps were harvested from 14 fresh adult cadaver legs. The direct cutaneous branch from the superficial femoral vessels was located between the sartorius and gracilis muscles. Pedicle location, diameter, and length and position of the great saphenous vein and saphenous nerve were recorded. A flap based on this vessel was designed. Height, width, and surface of the skin paddle were recorded. Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography was used to analyze the area of cutaneous territory supplied by the studied perforator. The pedicle was located at an average distance of 22.79 ± 1.55 cm below the pubic tubercle on the medial axis of the thigh, and it was found in 100 percent of dissections. It was always located between the sartorius and gracilis muscles, with a mean diameter of 2.82 ± 0.69 mm and mean length of 4.79 ± 0.52 cm. The average area of skin perfused was 182.24 cm, located preferentially distal and posterior to the perforator pedicle. Two clinical cases illustrate the feasibility of the midmedial thigh perforator flap. The superficial femoral artery perforator flap appears to be reliable and has a constant vascular anatomy. Donor-site morbidity is low, resulting in only a vertical scar on the medial thigh. Therapeutic, V.
Ramadhan, Anwar; Han, Dong Gil; Shim, Jeong Su; Lee, Yong Jig; Ha, Won Ho; Lee, Byung Kwon
Background: Treatments for severe blepharoptosis are well documented and include the most common operations for restoring upper eyelid ptosis, which are levator surgery and frontal muscle transfers; however, the choice of treatment is still controversial. There are different approaches to the restoration of upper eyelid ptosis, and the choice will be based on ptosis severity and the surgeon’s skill and experience. Methods: Two hundred and fourteen patients presenting with a levator function of between 2 and 4 mm received ptosis correction between 1991 and 2010 at our clinic. Of these, 71 patients underwent Müller aponeurosis composite flap advancement for correction of 89 eyelids, and frontalis muscle transfer was performed on 143 patients (217 eyelids). Postoperative results were evaluated with an average follow-up period of 23 months. Results: The preoperative average for marginal reflex distance (MRD1) in the Müller aponeurosis composite flap advancement group was 1.25 mm, and in the frontal muscle transfer group, it was 0.59 mm. The area of corneal exposure (ACE) was 57.2% in the Müller aponeurosis composite flap advancement group and 53.6% in the frontal muscle transfer group. The postoperative average distance was not significantly different for the 2 techniques. In the Müller aponeurosis composite flap advancement group, MRD1 was 2.7 mm and ACE was improved to 73.5%. In the frontal muscle transfer group, MRD1 was 2.3 mm and ACE was 71.2%. Undercorrection and eyelid asymmetry were the most frequently observed postoperative complications for both techniques. Conclusions: In our study, we confirmed that Müller aponeurosis composite flap advancement and the frontalis transfer technique are both effective in the correction of severe blepharoptosis; our results showed no significant differences between the 2 techniques. PMID:25426383
Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego; Cabello, Alvaro
Longstanding unilateral facial paralysis is best addressed with microneurovascular muscle transplantation. Neurotization can be obtained from the cross-facial or the masseter nerve. The authors present a quantitative comparison of both procedures using the FACIAL CLIMA system. Forty-seven patients with complete unilateral facial paralysis underwent reanimation with a free gracilis transplant neurotized to either a cross-facial nerve graft (group I, n=20) or to the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (group II, n=27). Commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity were measured using the FACIAL CLIMA system. Postoperative intragroup commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity means of the reanimated versus the normal side were first compared using the independent samples t test. Mean percentage of recovery of both parameters were compared between the groups using the independent samples t test. Significant differences of mean commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity between the reanimated side and the normal side were observed in group I (p=0.001 and p=0.014, respectively) but not in group II. Intergroup comparisons showed that both commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity were higher in group II, with significant differences for commissural displacement (p=0.048). Mean percentage of recovery of both parameters was higher in group II, with significant differences for commissural displacement (p=0.042). Free gracilis muscle transfer neurotized by the masseteric nerve is a reliable technique for reanimation of longstanding facial paralysis. Compared with cross-facial nerve graft neurotization, this technique provides better symmetry and a higher degree of recovery. Therapeutic, III.
Botianu, Petre Vlah-Horea; Botianu, Alexandru Mihail; Bacarea, Vladimir Constantin
The role of muscle flaps and thoracomyoplasty in the treatment of postoperative empyema is controversial. The major difficulty is given by the sectioning of the muscular masses during the previous thoracotomy/thoracotomies, resulting in a limitation of the volume and mobility of the available neighborhood flaps. Between January 1, 2004, and January 1, 2012, we used muscle flaps and thoracomyoplasty as a re-redo procedure in seven patients having a history of at least two major procedures performed through thoracotomy (without considering tube thoracostomy and open thoracic window). In all the cases, the indication for thoracomyoplasty was the presence of an empyema which could not be controlled by the previous procedures. The principle of our procedure was to perform a complete obliteration of the cavity, closure reinforcement of the bronchial fistulae using muscle flaps (in four cases), drainage, and primary closure of the new operative wound. We encountered no mortality, one bronchopneumonia requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment, and one intermuscular seroma; there was no need for prolonged mechanical ventilation or major inotropic support. In all the patients, we achieved complete obliteration of the cavity and per primam wound healing, with postoperative hospitalizations ranging between 30 and 51 days. At late follow-up (1-8 years), we encountered no recurrence and no major functional sequelae. Thoracomyoplasty may be a definitive solution in cases with recurrent postoperative complications. A careful analysis of the local anatomy allows the use of muscle flaps even after more procedures involving opening of the chest. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Hung; Huang, Shu-Hung; Sun, I-Feng; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lee, Su-Shin; Lin, Sin-Daw
Operation techniques for blepharoptosis have been a great challenge for plastic surgeons. Complications and recurrence in conventional operations of eyelid ptosis cannot be neglected. The finding of the close linkage between the longitudinal-oriented frontalis muscle (FM) and the horizontal-orientated orbicularis oculi (OOM) muscle convinced us of the efficacy to develop the dynamic and powerful Frontalis-Orbicularis Oculi Muscle (FOOM) flap-shortening technique which corrects blepharoptosis with good biomechanics in place of the traditional frontalis muscle sling. From January 2003 to September 2007, the FOOM flap shortening technique was applied on 35 ptotic eyelids of 31 patients, age ranging from 18 year to 77 years. All FOOM flaps were harvested and adjusted depending on the severity of the blepharoptosis. The follow up period ranged from 5 to 55 months. Thirty eyelids had good results, with the degree of ptosis less than 2mm. There were only five recurrent ptotic eyelids due to technical undercorrection. The estimation of resected length is measured when the FOOM flap is fully stretched and the length is approximately 22.0-23.0 mm for mild cases, 23.0-24.0 mm for moderate cases, and 25.0-26.0 mm for severe blepharoptosis. The FOOM flap-shortening technique was developed and corrected blepharoptosis with good results compared to conventional operation techniques. It achieves antagonistic equilibrium with ideal biomechanics by debilitating eye-closing power and enhancing eye-opening power. 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seckel, B R; Upton, J; Freidberg, S R; Gilbert, K P; Murray, J E
Three cases are presented demonstrating the use of a pedicled myocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi muscle to reconstruct large defects of the anterior and middle skull after ablative surgery for carcinoma. This method is proposed as an alternative to reconstruction with a free myocutaneous flap in selected patients.
Villarreal, P M; Monje, F; Gañán, Y; Junquera, L M; Morillo, A J
This anatomical study was carried out in order to discover the etiology of partial necrosis of the peroneus longus and brevis muscles after fibular osteocutaneous flap harvest. The vascular supply to the lateral compartment peroneal muscles was investigated in 10 fresh cadaveric lower limbs. The peroneal muscles are supplied by two principal sources arteries, the anterior tibial artery (ATA) and the peroneal artery (PA). The ATA is the dominant artery and supplies the proximal and middle thirds of these muscles. The PA is considered to be a supplementary vascular source and supplies the distal thirds of these muscles. After harvesting the PA in a fibular flap, regions of the peroneal muscles preoperatively vascularized by its branches become supplied through the anastomotic "choke" vessels between the ATA and the PA. Primary closure of the cutaneous defect increases the possibility of developing a pseudo-compartment syndrome with necrosis of the more precariously vascularized portions of the peroneal muscles. This complication is difficult to diagnosis early and the reason why we advocate that direct skin closure following composite harvest must be avoided. Moreover, conservation of the inferior and superior lateral branches of the ATA is imperative in order to preserve the peroneal muscles vascularization.
Aijaz, Tabish; Singhal, Dhruv; Tan, Sanda A.; Iqbal, Atif
The rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) is a workhorse flap to fill or repair abdominal defects. A drawback of an open RAM harvest is donor site morbidity, and minimally invasive techniques for flap harvesting have been previously proposed but involve vertical division of the rectus fascia. We present a case of a 52-year-old woman with a recurrent rectovaginal fistula in a radiated field treated with a laparoscopic low anterior resection with simultaneous RAM flap harvest utilising a single Pfannenstiel incision. Our novel modified laparoscopic-assisted RAM harvest technique prevents longitudinal violation of the anterior and posterior rectus sheaths, thereby promoting a quick recovery, improved cosmesis and decreased post-operative morbidity. PMID:28281481
Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lee, Su-Shin; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Lai, Hsin-Ti; Huang, Yu-Hao; Lai, Ya-Wei
On the basis of the close anatomical interdigitation between the longitudinal-oriented frontalis muscle and the horizontal-oriented orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM), frontalis OOM (FOOM) flap was developed to treat blepharoptosis. Retrospective study during an 11-year period, 66 patients with 81 poor levator function ptotic eyelids accepted FOOM flap shortening (65 lids; 80.2%) or double-breasted FOOM flap advancement (16 lids; 19.8%) to correct blepharoptosis. There were 51 (77.3%) patients with unilateral ptosis and 15 (22.7%) patients with bilateral ptosis. Severity of blepharoptosis included severe type in 72 (88.9%) lids, moderate type in 5 (6.2%) lids, and mild type in 4 (4.9%) lids. The underlying etiology included congenital origin in 43 (65.1%) patients, involutional change in 19 (28.8%) patients, and neurologic origin in 4 (6.1%) patients. Marginal reflex distance 1 and lid slit distance improved from -1.6 (2.0) to 3.3 (1.2) and 3.2 (2.0) to 7.2 (1.4) mm, respectively, after operation. The postoperative outcome includes good results in 54 (81.8%) patients, fair results in 10 (15.2%) patients, and poor results in 2 (3.0%) patients. The undercorrection or recurrence rate is 14.8%, and secondary revision rate is 11.1%. Positive Hering law is 17.6% among patients with unilateral ptosis. Overall patients' satisfaction rate is 95.1%. Both FOOM flap shortening and double-breasted FOOM flap advancement are effective to treat poor levator function blepharoptosis. Double-breasted FOOM flap advancement is highly recommended because of the more natural contour and minimal lagophthalmos postoperatively, because of the maximal preservation of OOM.
Lorenzetti, Fulvio; Giordano, Salvatore; Tukiainen, Erkki
The aim of this study was to assess intraoperatively the hemodynamic changes in the donor vessel of free latissimus dorsi (LD) flap before and after denervation and to analyze flow changes after flap transfer. Twenty-seven patients underwent LD muscle microvascular reconstruction for lower-limb soft tissue defects. Measurements of blood flow were performed intraoperatively by using a 2- to 5-mm probe ultrasonic transit-time flowmeter around the dissected vessels. Registrations were made in the thoracodorsal artery before and after harvesting the flap, after compressing and cutting the motor nerve, and after anastomosis. Mean blood flow of in situ harvested thoracodorsal artery as measured intraoperatively by transit-time flowmeter was (mean ± standard deviation) 16.6 ± 11 mL/min and was significantly increased after raising the flap to 24.0 ± 22 mL/min (p <0.05); it was 25.6 ± 23 mL/min after compressing the motor nerve and was significantly increased after cutting the motor nerve to 32.5 ± 26 mL/min (p <0.05). A significant increase of blood flow to 28.1 ± 19 mL/min was also detected in the thoracodorsal artery after flap transplantation with end-to-side anastomosis (p <0.05). Vascular resistance in the thoracodorsal artery significantly decreased after flap raising and anastomosis (from 7.5 ± 3.4 to 4.0 ± 1.9 and to 4.5 ± 2.4, respectively, p <0.05). LD flap harvesting increases blood flow and decreases resistance in the thoracodorsal artery, especially after denervation.
Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Sirohi, Jayant; Wereley, Norman M.
In this study a novel aircraft trailing edge flap actuation system was developed and tested. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) were used as the driving elements of this system to demonstrate their feasibility and utility as an alternative aerospace actuation technology. A prototype flap/actuator system was integrated into a model wing section and tested on the bench-top under simulated airloads for flight at 100 m s-1 (M = 0.3) and in an open-jet wind tunnel at free stream velocities ranging up to 45 m s-1 (M = 0.13). Testing was performed for actuator pressures ranging from 0.069 to 0.62 MPa (10-90 psi) and actuation frequencies from 0.1 to 31 Hz. Results show that the PAM-driven trailing edge flap system can generate substantial and sustainable dynamic deflections, thereby proving the feasibility of using pneumatic artificial muscle actuators in a trailing edge flap system. Key issues limiting system performance are identified, that should be resolved in future research.
Iida, Takuya; Mihara, Makoto; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Todokoro, Takeshi; Hara, Hisako; Yoshimatu, Hidehiko; Koshima, Isao; Kadono, Takafumi
Reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects remains a difficult surgical challenge. Although various reconstructive methods, including artificial mesh, pedicled and free flaps, have been reported, most reported reconstruction of only the fascia layer, leaving the resected rectus abdominis muscle unreconstructed. However, recent studies suggested the importance of dynamic reconstruction with functional muscle in preventing abdominal hernia in the long-term. According to the principle of reconstructive surgery, "replace lost tissue with similar tissue," a functionally and aesthetically ideal reconstruction is to reconstruct all components of the abdominal wall structure, including skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, and muscle. We present 2 cases with full-thickness abdominal wall defects in the upper abdominal region, which we reconstructed with a free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis muscle was sutured with the intercostal nerve, and reinnervation was confirmed by electromyography. This method allows reconstruction of all components of the abdominal wall with a single flap, and dynamic reconstruction is achieved which will reduce the risk of postoperative hernia. We believe this method can be a good option for reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects with long-term stability.
Zhang, Fan; Wang, Mong-Heng; Wang, Ji-Shi; Zand, Barbara; Gopal, V Raj; Falck, John R; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Nasjletti, Alberto
Cytochrome P-450-4A1 (CYP4A1) is an omega-hydroxylase that catalyzes the metabolism of arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). The goal of this study was to determine the vasomotor consequences of vascular overexpression of CYP4A1. Isolated rat gracilis muscle arterioles transfected ex vivo with an expression plasmid containing CYP4A1 cDNA expressed more CYP4A protein than vessels transfected with the control plasmid. In arterioles pressurized to 80 mmHg, the internal diameter of vessels transfected with CYP4A1 cDNA (55 +/- 3 microm) was surpassed (P < 0.05) by that of vessels transfected with control plasmid (97 +/- 4 microm). Treatment with a CYP4A inhibitor (N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide; DDMS) or with an antagonist of 20-HETE actions [20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid; 20-HEDE] elicited robust dilation of arterioles transfected with CYP4A1 cDNA, whereas the treatment had little or no effect in vessels transfected with control plasmid. Examination of the intraluminal pressure-internal diameter relationship revealed that pressure increments over the range of 40-100 mmHg elicited a more intense (P < 0.05) myogenic constrictor response in arterioles transfected with CYP4A1 cDNA than in those with control plasmid. Arterioles transfected with CYP4A1 cDNA also displayed enhanced sensitivity to the constrictor action of phenylephrine. Treatment with DDMS or 20-HEDE greatly attenuated the constrictor responsiveness to both constrictor stimuli in vessels overexpressing CYP4A1, whereas the treatment had much less effect in control vessels. These data suggest that CYP4A1 overexpression promotes constriction of gracilis muscle arterioles by intensifying the responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle to constrictor stimuli. This effect of CYP4A1 overexpression appears to be mediated by a CYP4A1 product.
Giessler, Goetz A; Schmidt, Andreas B; Germann, Guenter; Pelzer, Michael
Devastating hand and forearm injuries almost exclusively need free flap transfer if reconstruction is attempted. Early active and passive motion is only possible with aggressive, early, and comprehensive reconstruction. Despite recent advances in compound flaps, in selected cases it might be wise to harvest several smaller flaps and microsurgically combine them to one "chain-linked" flap "system." Four microsurgically fabricated chimeric free flaps were used in four patients for complex hand and forearm injuries. The combinations were sensate anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap plus sensate extended lateral arm flap (2x), ALT plus free fibula, and ALT plus functional musculocutaneous gracilis muscle. All flaps survived completely. Functional rehabilitation was possible immediately after flap transfer. There were no donor-site complications except two widened scars. The microsurgical fabrication of chimeric free flaps, as well established in head and neck reconstruction, can be successfully adapted to massive hand injuries as well. Individual placement of selected tissue components, early comprehensive reconstruction, and reduction of the number of operations are beneficial in cases that need more than one free flap.
Sood, Rajiv; Ranieri, Jaime; Murthy, Vimal; Weber, Karen
Full-thickness burn wounds to the tibia present a challenging coverage problem. If skin grafting fails, few local options exist, and free tissue transfer may be required for coverage. We report on the use of the tibialis anterior muscle flap to cover longitudinal tibial defects in five extremities in four patients. These patients sustained 80, 55, 40, and 11% total body surface area burns. Postoperatively, all five extremity wounds healed with full coverage of the tibia. Minimal deficits in ankle inversion and eversion resulted, but all patients are fully capable of walking and able to bear weight. We feel that the tibialis anterior muscle flap is a safe, reliable, technically simple alternative for coverage of the burned tibia.
Cohen, Leslie E; Fullerton, Natalia; Mundy, Lily R; Weinstein, Andrew L; Fu, Kai-Ming; Ketner, Jill J; Härtl, Roger; Spector, Jason A
Postoperative wound complications in patients undergoing complex spinal surgery can have devastating sequelae, including hardware exposure, meningitis, and unplanned reoperation. The literature shows that wound complication rates in this patient population approach 19 percent and, in very high-risk patients (i.e., prior spinal surgery, existing spinal wound infection, cerebrospinal fluid leak, malignancy, or history of radiation therapy), as high as 40 percent and with reoperation rates as high as 12 percent. The authors investigated whether prophylactic closure of spinal wounds with muscle flaps improves outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of 102 reconstructions (in 96 patients) in which spinal wound closure was performed by means of paraspinous, trapezius, or latissimus muscle advancement flaps by a single plastic surgeon (J.A.S.) from 2006 to 2014. Data regarding presurgical diagnosis, patient demographics, and incidence of postoperative complications were recorded. One hundred two reconstructions were included, with follow-up ranging from 2 to 60 months. Eighty-eight reconstructions were classified as very high-risk for wound complications, defined as those having prior spinal surgery, existing spinal wound infection, cerebrospinal fluid leak, malignancy, or prior radiation therapy. Within the very high-risk group, there were six wound complications (6.8 percent), three of which (3.4 percent) required reoperation. In this study, there is a markedly lower rate (6.8 percent) of postoperative wound complications compared with historical controls after closure of spinal wounds with local muscle flaps in very high-risk patients. These data encourage safe and routine use of muscle flaps for closure in this cohort of patients undergoing spinal surgery. Therapeutic, IV.
Siemionow, M; Mee, J; Porvasnik, S; Krapohl, B D; Ozer, K; Piza, P; Zins, J E
Combination of radical excision and radiation has been used as a treatment modality for cancer patients. As a result, in reconstructive surgery there is often a need to harvest flaps in the vicinity of previously irradiated tissues. Radiation has been shown to cause progressive injury to the macrocirculation and microcirculation, often jeopardizing flap survival. The purpose of this study was to examine whether radiation significantly affects the sequence of leukocyte-endothelial interactions or the hemodynamics of the muscle flap in both acute and chronic situations. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 42) were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Rats in group I were not irradiated. Groups II through VII received 8-Gy radiation to the right groin and scrotum. Groups II, III, and IV were examined at 4, 24 and 72 hours, respectively, and groups V, VI, and VII were examined at 1, 2 and 12 weeks. For intravital microscopy, the cremaster muscle was dissected on its neurovascular pedicle. Vessel diameters and red blood cell velocities were measured in the central cremasteric branches and branch arterioles. Capillary perfusion was evaluated in 27 visual fields of each flap. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were evaluated by numbers of rolling, adhering, and transmigrating leukocytes in post-capillary venules. In the same postcapillary venule, we measured the endothelial edema index (constriction index). The hemodynamics of irradiated flaps did not differ significantly from those of controls. Diameter and red blood cell velocity were increased in the first- and second-order arterioles and were highest at 72 hours and 1 week. After irradiation, third-order arterioles were constricted. Radiation reduced capillary perfusion by 4.3, percent. None of the differences were statistically significant. Neither leukocyte behavior nor the constriction indices differed among the groups. In conclusion, low-dose radiation of 8 Gy does not affect hemodynamics or leukocyte
Li, Jinzhong; Han, Zhengxue
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication followed neck dissection and dead space is a common reason of SSI. The present study is aimed to explore whether the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap transposition to repair the dead space in level II of neck could decrease the postoperative SSI in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) underwent supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOND). Ninety-six patients with cT2-3N0 OSCC who underwent extended resection of primary cancer combined SOND and reconstructed with free flap from March 2011 to October 2014 in our department were included. Forty-eight cases underwent SCM transposition to repair the potential dead space in level II of the neck, the other 48 cases did not. The two groups were matched at age, gender, concomitant diseases, and perioperative treatments. All the patients underwent exhaustive hemostasis and careful placement of negative pressure drainage. The wound healing was observed on 7 days postoperatively. The SSI rates of neck between the two groups were compared using Fisher's exact test. The dead space in level II was observed in all the neck wounds after SOND. The neck wounds healed by primary intention in 46 cases underwent SCM flap transposition, and in 39 cases underwent routine SOND only. Two cases with SCM flap transposition and 9 cases in the group without SCM flap transposition presented SSI in neck. There was significant difference in the SSI rate between the two groups (P = 0.0248). The dead space in level II could be an important cause of SSI in neck followed SOND. Repairing of the dead space in level II using SCM flap transposition reduce the SSI rate of neck followed SOND.
Li, Jinzhong; Han, Zhengxue
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication followed neck dissection and dead space is a common reason of SSI. The present study is aimed to explore whether the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap transposition to repair the dead space in level II of neck could decrease the postoperative SSI in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) underwent supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOND). Ninety-six patients with cT2-3N0 OSCC who underwent extended resection of primary cancer combined SOND and reconstructed with free flap from March 2011 to October 2014 in our department were included. Forty-eight cases underwent SCM transposition to repair the potential dead space in level II of the neck, the other 48 cases did not. The two groups were matched at age, gender, concomitant diseases, and perioperative treatments. All the patients underwent exhaustive hemostasis and careful placement of negative pressure drainage. The wound healing was observed on 7 days postoperatively. The SSI rates of neck between the two groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test. The dead space in level II was observed in all the neck wounds after SOND. The neck wounds healed by primary intention in 46 cases underwent SCM flap transposition, and in 39 cases underwent routine SOND only. Two cases with SCM flap transposition and 9 cases in the group without SCM flap transposition presented SSI in neck. There was significant difference in the SSI rate between the two groups (P = 0.0248). The dead space in level II could be an important cause of SSI in neck followed SOND. Repairing of the dead space in level II using SCM flap transposition reduce the SSI rate of neck followed SOND. PMID:25785129
Elliott, L Franklyn; Seify, Hisham; Bergey, Patti
The muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap is a reliable technique that provides great versatility, with potentially decreased donor-site morbidity. However, because of the inherent nature of microvascular techniques, it is still regarded as a time-consuming and technically difficult procedure. The goal of this retrospective study was to document the validity of this technique in the private practice setting. Data were reviewed retrospectively and included patient demographics, total operative time, choice of recipient vessels, outcome, and perioperative morbidities. One hundred one consecutive patients underwent 111 muscle-sparing free TRAM flap procedures for breast reconstruction (immediate, 89 patients; delayed, 12 patients). The internal mammary artery was used in 75 cases and the thoracodorsal artery was used in 36 cases. Average operative time was 185 minutes (3 hours 5 minutes). Average blood loss was 195 cc. There was no total flap loss. Revision of the microvascular anastomosis was performed in four patients, with flap salvage in all of them. Thirteen patients (13 percent) required primary mesh for abdominal wall closure. Fourteen (14 percent) had fat necrosis. Two patients had hematoma that required surgical evacuation. Abdominal wall weakness was detected in two patients (2 percent) and required mesh repair. The technical difficulties associated with the free TRAM flap have been ameliorated using a well-designed surgical plan and consistent technique performed by a team familiar with the procedure to achieve an acceptable average 3-hour operating time, with minimal complications. The authors advocate the muscle-sparing free TRAM flap as the operation of choice for unilateral breast reconstruction using autogenous tissue. The technique is expeditious and relatively safe.
Veber, Michaël; Vaz, Gualter; Braye, Fabienne; Carret, Jean-Paul; Saint-Cyr, Michel; Rohrich, Rod J; Mojallal, Ali
The authors compared the arc of rotation of medial gastrocnemius flaps according to three methods: standard harvesting, dissection of the "pes anserinus" muscle, and dissection of the medial condyle. This study was performed using 20 fresh cadavers in two anatomy laboratories in Lyon, France; and Dallas, Texas. The area covered by each flap was calculated. The arc of rotation was calculated using distance from a fixed point, the anterior tibial tuberosity, to the distal flap (segment 1), to the lateral knee (segment 2), to the upper knee (segment 3), and to the medial thigh (segment 4). All measurements were done with leg stretched, applying a tensile strength of 1 daN on the muscle. The average surface of the flaps (32.5 ± 8.55 cm) did not vary with the technique used; neither did the length of segment 1 (19.6 ± 3.53 cm). Segment 2 (9.6 ± 3.1 cm) and segment 3 (13.6 ± 2.76 cm) were increased by 7.3 ± 11.1 percent and 21.3 ± 13.9 percent, respectively, when using pes anserinus dissection; and by 30.2 ± 23 percent and 49.3 ± 34 percent when combining with medial condyle dissection. Segment 4 (22.9 ± 2.21 cm) increased by 15.3 ± 12.8 percent with pes anserinus dissection alone and 36.2 ± 13 percent when combining with medial condyle dissection. This study allowed precise measurement of the flaps and arcs of rotation according to the type of harvest. A marked length gain was achieved by pes anserinus dissection alone or the combination with medial condyle dissection. The authors' results support the importance of assessing the benefit/risk balance between different techniques according to the type and extent of soft-tissue loss requiring reconstruction.
Singh, Harjeet; Talukder, Shibojit; Verma, Ganga Ram
Proximal enteroatmospheric fistulae are difficult to manage and carry high mortality from sepsis and electrolyte imbalances. Conservative management with total parenteral nutrition, exclusion of fistula, resection and anastomosis are conventional methods of treatment with low success rate. Providing muscle cover to manage an enteroatmospheric fistula is a noble concept. A postoperative high-output gastroatmospheric fistula (GAF) was repaired by superior epigastric artery-based rectus abdominis muscle flap (RAMF). Postoperative recovery was uneventful. This technique may be useful for closure of proximal enteroatmospheric fistulae that fail to heal through medical and conventional surgical management. PMID:25819831
Wu, Song; Wan, Feng; Gao, Yong-shun; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Hong; Cui, Zhong-qi; Xie, Ji-yan
To assess clinical effectiveness of using bilateral pectoralis major or plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps in treating deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) following median sternotomy. Between January 2009 and December 2013, 19 patients with DSWI after median sternotomy for cardiac surgery were admitted to our hospital, including 14 males (73.7%) and 5 females (26.3%), aged 55±13 (18-78) years. According to the Pairolero classification of infected median sternotomies, 3 (15.8%) patients were type II, and the other 16 (84.2%) were type III. Surgical procedure consisted of adequate debridement of infected sternum, costal cartilage, granulation, steel wires, suture residues and other foreign substances. Sternal reconstruction used the bilateral pectoralis major or plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps to obliterate dead space. The drainage tubes were placed and connected to a negative pressure generator for adequate drainage. There were no intraoperative deaths. In 15 patients (78.9%), bilateral pectoral muscle flaps were mobilized sufficiently to cover and stabilize the defect created by wound debridement. 4 patients (21.0%) needed bilateral pectoral muscle flaps plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps because their pectoralis major muscle flaps could not reach the lowest portion of the wound. 2 patients (10.5%) presented with subcutaneous infection, and 3 patients (15.8%) had hematoma. They recovered following local debridement and medication. 17 patients (89.5%) were examined at follow-up 12 months later, all healed and having stable sternum. No patients showed infection recurrence during the follow-up period over 12 months. DSWI following median sternotomy may be effectively managed with adequate debridement of infected tissues and reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis major muscle or plus rectus abdominis muscle flap transposition.
Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.
This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.
Payne, Diane E S; Kaufman, Adam M; Wysocki, Robert W; Richard, Marc J; Ruch, David S; Leversedge, Fraser J
The use of a pedicled flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle proximal turnover flap has been described previously for soft tissue reconstruction at the posterior elbow. Whereas consistent arterial supply to the FCU has been reported, the reliability of distal flap perfusion has not been confirmed. This study evaluated the vascular perfusion of an FCU turnover flap, based on the most proximal primary vascular pedicle that would permit a proximal turnover flap reconstruction to include the olecranon tip. In 12 fresh-frozen, proximal humeral human amputation specimens, the FCU flap was elevated from distal to proximal, preserving the most proximal primary vascular pedicle to the muscle belly that would permit flap coverage of the olecranon tip. The axillary artery was injected with India ink after ligation of radial and ulnar arteries at the wrist. After injection, each specimen was sectioned transversely at 0.5-cm increments to assess vascular perfusion of the muscle using loupe magnification. The distance from the olecranon tip to the distal FCU muscle belly was 25.9 cm. The primary vascular pedicle that would facilitate creation of a proximal turnover flap was, on average, 5.9 cm distal to the olecranon tip. Perfusion of FCU muscle as measured distal to this primary pedicle was present in 50% to 100% of the muscle belly at an average of 8.9 cm beyond the pedicle. Perfusion of 25% to 50% of the FCU muscle belly was present at an average of 11.1 cm beyond the pedicle. Perfusion became less consistent (<25%) within the muscle belly at an average distance of 11.6 cm. Use of a proximally based, pedicled FCU muscle turnover flap provides a reliable option for soft tissue reconstruction at the posterior elbow. We observed consistent arterial perfusion of the muscle flap when preserving a proximal vascular pedicle 5.9 cm distal to the olecranon tip. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meccariello, Giuseppe; Montevecchi, Filippo; Deganello, Alberto; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Bellini, Chiara; Zeccardo, Ermelinda; Vicini, Claudio
Trans Oral robotic surgery (TORS) is a prominent surgical approach for the resection of oropharyngeal tumors without division of the lip and mandible. The current practice following TORS is to allow the defect to heal by secondary intention, but some defects following TORS are large and complex enough to benefit soft-tissue coverage. In the free flap era, regional flaps are often overlooked albeit they still represent a valid alternative. In terms of cost-effectiveness, the use of alternative pedicled flaps in TORS framework probably reduced the risks of postoperative complications, with consequent expenditure restraints and reducing treatment costs arising from operating room duration and double surgical team. In this report we described the successfully use of the pedicled temporalis muscle flap for the reconstruction of the soft palate and lateral pharyngeal wall following TORS. This versatile and reliable flap may be a valid option in TORS framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sassu, Paolo; Acland, Robert D; Salgado, Christopher John; Mardini, Samir; Ozyurekoglu, Tuna
Contracture as well as weakness of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) are possible complications following free fibula flap harvest. Possible causes have been related to fibrotic change of the muscle either due to devascularization or compartment-like syndrome after a tight wound closure. This study elucidates the vascularization and nerve supply of the FHL muscle after fibula flap harvest in a fresh cadaver model.A fibula bone flap was harvested through a lateral approach in 20 fresh limbs. The popliteal artery was isolated and injected with a silicone compound, the muscle isolated, and its neurovascular supply visualized.The distal third and fourth portion of the FHL muscle was always found to be located in a more compressed and deeper compartment. The peroneal artery was entirely filled by the silicone compound in 17 fresh cadaver limbs with at least one branch supplying the distal fourth of the FHL. The posterior tibialis artery was filled in all limbs and an average of 2 branches was found to supply the muscle. In all dissections, the nerve supplying the FHL originated from the tibialis nerve with an average of three branches perforating the muscle.Following fibula harvest, the FHL muscle will maintain vascular supply through the distal portion of the peroneal artery and the posterior tibialis artery. Nerve injury to the FHL muscle is unlikely during flap harvest.
Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Asato, Hirotaka; Ueda, Kazuki; Yamada, Atsushi
Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for facial reanimation was performed as a secondary reconstructive procedure for 45 patients with facial paralysis resulting from ablative surgery in the parotid region. This intervention differs from neurovascular free-muscle transfer for treatment of established facial paralysis resulting from conditions such as congenital dysfunction, unresolved Bell palsy, Hunt syndrome, or intracranial morbidity, with difficulties including selection of recipient vessels and nerves, and requirements for soft-tissue augmentation. This article describes the authors' operative procedure for neurovascular free-muscle transfer after ablative surgery in the parotid region. Gracilis muscle (n = 24) or latissimus dorsi muscle (n = 21) was used for transfer. With gracilis transfer, recipient vessels comprised the superficial temporal vessels in 12 patients and the facial vessels in 12. For latissimus dorsi transfer, recipient vessels comprised the facial vessels in 16 patients and the superior thyroid artery and superior thyroid or internal jugular vein in four. Facial vessels on the contralateral side were used with interpositional graft of radial vessels in the remaining patient with latissimus dorsi transfer. Cross-face nerve grafting was performed before muscle transfer in 22 patients undergoing gracilis transfer. In the remaining two gracilis patients, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the primary recipient nerve. Dermal fat flap overlying the gracilis muscle was used for cheek augmentation in one patient. In the other 23 patients, only the gracilis muscle was used. With latissimus dorsi transfer, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the recipient nerve in three patients, and a cross-face nerve graft was selected as the recipient nerve in six. The contralateral facial nerve was selected as the recipient nerve in 12 patients, and a thoracodorsal nerve from the latissimus dorsi muscle segment was crossed through the upper lip
Ellabban, Mohamed A
A primary repair of external penetrating injury to hypopharyngeal-cervical esophageal (HP-CE) funnel without reinforcement has more complications if compared with muscle reinforcement. The aim of the present study was to assess the outcome of using sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flap for reinforcement of primary repair of HP-CE funnel injury. The study proposed an algorithm for different uses of SCM flap repair according to site and size of funnel perforation. A prospective analysis of 12 patients, who had surgical treatment for external penetrating injuries of HP-CE funnel between January 2011 and September 2014, was recorded. The following factors were studied for each case: demographic data, Revised Trauma Score (RTS), mechanism of injury, time interval between injury and definitive surgical care, injury morphology, any associated injuries, technique of SCM flap used, length of hospital stay, and surgical outcome and complications. They were 10 males and 2 females and the mean age was 31.9 years. The cause of injury was stab wound in 5 (41.7 %) cases, gunshot injury in 4 (33.3 %) cases and 3 (25 %) cases after anterior cervical spine surgery. Isolated injury to HP and CE was recorded in 5 cases (41.7 %) for each site. However, 2 (16.7 %) cases had injury to both HP and CE. Cranially based SCM flap was mainly used in cases with HP injury and caudally based flap in CE cases with some limitations. The whole muscle flap was used in large (≥ 1 cm) defects while and the split muscle flap in small (<1 cm) defects. Oral intake started 7 days postoperatively with only one (8.3 %) case of small leakage, which was treated conservatively. The SCM flap is a very useful and versatile tool in reinforcement of HP-CE funnel injury with the advantages of high success rates of leakage prevention.
Zeitani, Jacob; Russo, Marco; Pompeo, Eugenio; Sergiacomi, Gian Luigi; Chiariello, Luigi
Background The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in patients with chronic complex sternum dehiscence, the use of muscle flap repair minimizes the occurrence of paradoxical motion of the chest wall (CWPM) when compared to sternal rewiring, eventually leading to better respiratory function and clinical outcomes during follow-up. Methods In a propensity score matching analysis, out of 94 patients who underwent sternal reconstruction, 20 patients were selected: 10 patients underwent sternal reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis muscle flaps (group 1) and 10 underwent sternal rewiring (group 2). Eligibility criteria included the presence of hemisternum diastases associated with multiple (≥3) bone fractures and radiologic evidence of synchronous chest wall motion (CWSM). We compared radiologically assessed (volumetric computed tomography) ventilatory mechanic indices such as single lung and global vital capacity (VC), diaphragm excursion, synchronous and paradoxical chest wall motion. Results Follow-up was 100% complete (mean 85±24 months). CWPM was inversely correlated with single lung VC (Spearman R=−0.72, p=0.0003), global VC (R=−0.51, p=0.02) and diaphragm excursion (R=−0.80, p=0.0003), whereas it proved directly correlated with dyspnea grade (Spearman R=0.51, p=0.02) and pain (R=0.59, p=0.005). Mean CWPM and single lung VC were both better in group 1, whereas there was no difference in CWSM, diaphragm excursion and global VC. Conclusion Our study suggests that in patients with complex chronic sternal dehiscence, pectoralis muscle flap reconstruction guarantees lower CWPM and greater single-lung VC when compared with sternal rewiring and it is associated with better clinical outcomes with less pain and dyspnea. PMID:27733997
Summary: A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112
Olvera-Caballero, Carlos; Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel
A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results.
Fujioka, Masaki; Ishiyama, Satoko
The purpose of abdominal wall reconstruction is to prevent hernias and protect the abdominal viscera. In cases involving full-thickness defects of the rectus abdominis muscle, the muscle layer should be repaired. We present 2 cases in which full-thickness lower rectus abdominis muscle defects were reconstructed using vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flaps. The pedicled vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flap provides skin, fascia, and muscle tissue. Furthermore, it has a long neurovascular pedicle and can reach up to the periumbilical area and cover large defects. We consider that this muscle flap is a good option for repairing full-thickness lower abdominal defects. PMID:28074168
Economides, James M.; DeFazio, Michael V.; Golshani, Kayvon; Cinque, Mark; Anghel, Ersilia L.; Attinger, Christopher E.
Background In cases of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) threatened by potential hardware exposure, flap-based reconstruction is indicated to provide durable coverage. Historically, muscle flaps were favored as they provide vascular tissue to an infected wound bed. However, data comparing the performance of muscle versus fasciocutaneous flaps are limited and reflect a lack of consensus regarding the optimal management of these wounds. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of muscle versus fasciocutaneous flaps following the salvage of compromised TKA. Methods A systematic search and meta-analysis were performed to identify patients with TKA who underwent either pedicled muscle or fasciocutaneous flap coverage of periprosthetic knee defects. Studies evaluating implant/limb salvage rates, ambulatory function, complications, and donor-site morbidity were included in the comparative analysis. Results A total of 18 articles, corresponding to 172 flaps (119 muscle flaps and 53 fasciocutaneous flaps) were reviewed. Rates of implant salvage (88.8% vs. 90.1%, P=0.05) and limb salvage (89.8% vs. 100%, P=0.14) were comparable in each cohort. While overall complication rates were similar (47.3% vs. 44%, P=0.78), the rates of persistent infection (16.4% vs. 0%, P=0.14) and recurrent infection (9.1% vs. 4%, P=0.94) tended to be higher in the muscle flap cohort. Notably, functional outcomes and ambulation rates were sparingly reported. Conclusions Rates of limb and prosthetic salvage were comparable following muscle or fasciocutaneous flap coverage of compromised TKA. The functional morbidity associated with muscle flap harvest, however, may support the use of fasciocutaneous flaps for coverage of these defects, particularly in young patients and/or high-performance athletes. PMID:28352601
Willner, A; Velez, F J
Congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) is an uncommon congenital anomaly that presents early in life with symptoms of biphasic stridor. Most cases require surgical correction. Techniques have included dilation, resection of the involved segment, and tracheoplasty. Today pericardium and costal cartilage are the most frequently used materials for tracheoplasty, but patients still often encounter problems with the graft, with the procedure, or with late complications. This preliminary study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a rib-intercostal muscle pedicle flap for the treatment of CTS. Tracheoplasties were performed on seven 3.5- to 5.5-kg piglets with a pedicled segment of the right fourth rib via a lateral thoracotomy incision. The method was found to be technically feasible, and pedicles of greater than 2.5 cm were easily developed. The repair provided good structural support and an airtight seal at high ventilator pressures. Histologic examination after 2 weeks showed the flap to be incorporating into the native trachea and to be without degenerative changes. This "vital" composite flap has several real and theoretic advantages over current methods of repair and may prove to be valuable in the treatment of CTS. The clinical application of this myo-osseous pedicle graft in the treatment of patients with stenoses not amenable to surgical resection and primary anastomosis should be explored.
Johnstone, Mark Scott
Plastic surgical reconstruction of the perineum is often required after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Options for this reconstruction include a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap, gluteal fasciocutaneous flap, and gracilis myocutaneous flap. Although the VRAM flap is well established at most centers, less experience exists with the gluteal and gracilis flaps. In the era of laparoscopic colorectal resection, plastic surgeons are being forced to use gluteal and gracilis flaps because the VRAM flap must be tunnelled intra-abdominally requiring laparotomy. We therefore aimed to systematically review the evidence comparing VRAM, gluteal, and gracilis flaps. A comprehensive, structured literature search was conducted using Medline, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. Studies included were randomized control trials and observational studies documenting complication rates associated with the VRAM, gluteal, or gracilis flap. Eleven studies meeting all inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. When meta-analyzed, the overall rate of any perineal wound or flap complication among VRAM patients (35.8%) was significantly lower than gluteal flap (43.7%) and gracilis flap patients (52.9%) (P = 0.041). The VRAM flap is well established for perineal reconstruction, and this study suggests that it may be superior to the gluteal and gracilis flaps in terms perineal wound and flap complication rates. This should be taken into account when weighing up the risks and benefits of a laparoscopic approach to abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Large studies making direct comparisons between the flap options should be conducted.
Hallock, G G
Coverage of any lower extremity amputation stump must be durable to resist external forces, well contoured, and thin enough for proper shoewear or prothesis fitting. Preservation of bone length to maximise the ability to ambulate is also of paramount importance. If local soft tissues are inadequate to fulfil these prerequisites, consideration of a microsurgical tissue transfer is a reasonable option, especially to cover bone or save a major joint. Muscle perforator free flaps, as shown in this series of eight patients using four different donor sites, are a versatile alternative for the necessary soft tissue augmentation. Multiple choices are available and often even from the involved lower extremity to minimise further morbidity. The vascular pedicles of this genré of flaps are relatively exceedingly long and of respectable calibre to facilitate reaching an appropriate recipient site. They can be sensate if desired. Of course, muscle function is by definition preserved. Complications are minimal and usually related to the reason for the amputation in the first place.
Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Lin, Sin-Daw; Guo, Lan-Yuen; Hou, Yi-You; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsu, Ar-Tyan
A muscle-sparing (MS) procedure using a full-width pedicled transverse rectus abdominis (RA) myocutaneous (TRAM) flap was developed to reduce abdominal morbidities after breast reconstruction. However, the effects of this procedure on the morphology of the remnant RA muscle and other abdominal muscles remain unclear. Ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the morphology of the remnant RA muscle and other abdominal muscles in women with the MS pedicled TRAM flap procedure. A case-control, cross-sectional design was used. Thirty-four women with an MS unilateral pedicled TRAM flap procedure after mastectomy (TRAM group) and 25 women who were healthy and matched for age (control group) participated. The curl-up test measured trunk flexor muscle strength. Ultrasound imaging measured the thickness of all abdominal muscles in all participants and the cross-sectional area of the RA muscle at rest and in an isometric position with the head raised in women in the TRAM group. Acoustic echogenicity and border visibility assessed the tissue composition of the remnant RA muscle. Trunk flexor muscle strength was weaker in the TRAM group than in the control group. Compared with the remnant RA muscle in the contracted state, the remnant RA muscle in the relaxed state was thinner and had a smaller cross-sectional area. The remnant RA muscle in the relaxed state also was thinner, more echoic, and less visible than its contralateral counterpart. No differences in the thickness of the other abdominal muscles were found between the sides. The abdominal muscles in the TRAM group were smaller than those in the control group. Because a prospective, longitudinal design was not used, a definite cause-effect relationship could not be determined. In women with an MS unilateral pedicled TRAM flap procedure, the remnant RA muscle retains its ability to change in size during contraction, albeit at reduced levels. Muscular atrophy occurs in other ipsilateral and contralateral abdominal muscles as
Wagner, Till; Hupkens, Pieter; Slater, Nicholas J; Ulrich, Dietmar J O
Coverage of soft-tissue defects of the knee due to multiple operations, trauma, and infection remains a surgical challenge. Often, these defects are repaired using free tissue transfer. The aim of this study was to find an easy and reliable local method of repair for small to medium-sized defects. The authors describe a new surgical option for tissue coverage using a proximally based long peroneal muscle turnover flap (LPTF) with split-thickness skin graft. Proximally based LPTFs were harvested and transposed into same-size created defects in five cadavers. After optimizing this technique, it was clinically used in two patients with defects secondary to total knee replacement revisions. Average cadaver flap size was 4.7 × 15.8 cm allowing reach of all knee joint areas and was based consistently on a sufficient (2-mm-diameter average) proximal arterial branch of the anterior tibial artery. Donor sites were closed without tension. Subsequent application of the flap on two patients resulted in good functional outcome. The proximally based LPTF is a new option available in the reconstruction of knee defects and should be added to the reconstructive surgeon's armamentarium of pedicled flaps, providing short operating time and promising clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gomez, Manuel Macemino; Casal, Diogo
In cases of extensive damage to the foot, with significant bone loss, it is generally accepted that reconstruction must include bone flaps or grafts either in the emergency setting or subsequently. In this report, we describe the case of an 18-year-old student with an avulsion injury of the dorsum of his right foot. Consequently, he lost most of the soft tissue over the dorsum of the foot and the cuboid, navicular, and cuneiform bones. A latissimus dorsi free flap was used to reconstruct the defect. A functional pseudoarthrosis developed between the remaining bones of the foot, and the patient experienced satisfactory foot function after rehabilitation. For this reason, no additional reconstructive procedure was undertaken. This case suggests that it might be adequate to use the latissimus dorsi muscle flap more liberally than previously reported in the reconstruction of extensive defects of the dorsum of the foot, including cases with significant bone loss. This option could avoid the morbidity and inconvenience of a second surgery and the need to harvest a bone flap or graft.
Overgoor, Max L E; Carroll, Sean M; Papanicolau, George; Carroll, Camilla M A; Ustüner, Tuncay E T; Stremel, Richard W; Anderson, Gary L; Franken, Ralph J P M; Kon, Moshe; Barker, John H
In cardiomyoplasty, the latissimus dorsi muscle is lifted on its primary neurovascular pedicle and wrapped around a failing heart. After 2 weeks, it is trained for 6 weeks using chronic electrical stimulation, which transforms the latissimus dorsi muscle into a fatigue-resistant muscle that can contract in synchrony with the beating heart without tiring. In over 600 cardiomyoplasty procedures performed clinically to date, the outcomes have varied. Given the data obtained in animal experiments, the authors believe these variable outcomes are attributable to distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap necrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the chronic electrical stimulation training used to transform the latissimus dorsi muscle into fatigue-resistant muscle could also be used to induce angiogenesis, increase perfusion, and thus protect the latissimus dorsi muscle flap from distal necrosis. After 14 days of chronic electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 330 microsec, 4 to 6 V continuous, 8 hours/day) of the right or left latissimus dorsi muscle (randomly selected) in 11 rats, both latissimus dorsi muscles were lifted on their thoracodorsal pedicles and returned to their anatomical beds. Four days later, the resulting amount of distal flap necrosis was measured. Also, at predetermined time intervals throughout the experiment, muscle surface blood perfusion was measured using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Finally, latissimus dorsi muscles were excised in four additional stimulated rats, to measure angiogenesis (capillary-to-fiber ratio), fiber type (oxidative or glycolytic), and fiber size using histologic specimens. The authors found that chronic electrical stimulation (1) significantly (p < 0.05) increased angiogenesis (mean capillary-to-fiber ratio) by 82 percent and blood perfusion by 36 percent; (2) did not reduce the amount of distal flap necrosis compared with nonchronic electrical stimulation controls (29 +/- 5.3 percent versus 26.6 +/- 5
Carruthers, Katherine H; During, Matthew J; Muravlev, Alexander; Wang, Chuansong; Kocak, Ergun
The combination of gene therapy and plastic surgery may have the potential to improve the specificity that is needed to achieve clinically applicable treatment regimens. Our goal was to develop a method for gene modification that would yield sustainable production of gene products but would be less time consuming than existing protocols. An adenoassociated virus was used to deliver gene products to pectoralis muscle flaps. Gene modification was accomplished via either direct injection or novel fat grafting techniques. The production of gene product was observable by both in vivo imaging and immunohistochemical staining. Gene products were not detected in tissues that were not in contact with the fat grafts that were incubated with the viral vector, indicating that the transduction stayed local to the flap. Using novel recombinant adenoassociated virus vectors, we have developed a method for gene delivery that is highly efficient and applicable to muscle flaps.
Grinsell, Damien; Di Bella, Claudia; Choong, Peter F. M.
Soft-tissue reconstruction following preoperative radiotherapy and wide resection of soft tissue sarcoma remains a challenge. Pedicled and free tissue transfers are an essential part of limb sparing surgery. We report 22 cases of sarcoma treated with radiotherapy and wide excision followed by one-stage innervated free or pedicled musculocutaneous flap transfers. The resection involved the upper limb in 3 cases, the lower limb in 17, and the abdominal wall in 2. The flaps used for the reconstruction were mainly latissimus dorsi and gracilis. The range of motion was restored fully in 14 patients. The muscle strength of the compartment reconstructed was of grades 4 and 5 in all patients except one. The overall function was excellent in all the cases with functional scores of 71.2% in the upper limb and 84% in the lower limb. The only 2 major complications were flap necrosis, both revised with another flap, one of which was innervated with restoration of function. Innervated flaps are valuable alternatives for reconstruction after sarcoma resection in the extremity and in the abdominal wall. The excellent functional results are encouraging, and we believe that innervated muscle reconstruction should be encouraged in the treatment of sarcoma after radiotherapy and wide resection. PMID:22969309
Ganapathy, Preethi S; Chundury, Rao V; Perry, Julian D
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a frontalis muscle transposition flap for treatment of lateral eyebrow ptosis. The charts of all patients undergoing frontalis muscle transposition flap eyebrow ptosis repair from December 2013 to September 2014 were reviewed. Charts with inadequate photographs were excluded. Charts were reviewed for demographics, preoperative and postoperative photographs, surgical technique, and complications. The following parameters were assessed on preoperative and postoperative photographs: corneal diameter, central brow height, and lateral brow height. Measurements were normalized to a standard corneal diameter of 11.5 mm. Statistical analysis was performed in conjunction with the Cleveland Health Institute Biostatistics Department. Forty-six total patients underwent frontalis muscle transposition flap eyebrow ptosis repair and the charts of 31 patients (53 cases) were reviewed. There were 20 female and 11 male patients. Average age was 69.1 ± 7.7 years (range: 50 - 86 years). There were 9 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases. Concomitant surgeries included upper blepharoplasty (33 cases), conjunctival-Mullerectomy blepharoptosis repair (3 cases), and intralesional tetracycline injection for festoons (3 cases). Average follow-up interval between surgery and the final postoperative photograph was 10.2 weeks (range: 6-26 weeks). Overall, lateral brow height increased postoperatively by 1.78 mm (p < 0.05). In patients that underwent frontalis muscle transposition flap alone, lateral brow height increased by 2.86 mm (p < 0.05). Scalp hypesthesia was documented in 10/31 patients, and resolved in 8/10 patients at last follow up. A frontalis muscle transposition flap effectively addresses lateral eyebrow ptosis repair through a small, relatively concealed incision. It produces temporary scalp hypesthesia in a significant number of patients, and long-term results remain unknown.
Pia, Francesco; Aluffi, Paolo; Crespi, Maria Cristina; Arcuri, Francesco; Brucoli, Matteo; Benech, Arnaldo
Despite the recent advances of sophisticated reconstructive surgical techniques, management of maxillectomy defects continues to be challenging. For a selected group of patients, who cannot sustain a sophisticated microsurgical reconstructive procedure, a prosthetic obturator is indicated to separate the oral cavity from the sinonasal cavities. After the development of the osseointegration concept, dental implants have proven to be indicated for the rehabilitation of patients who underwent maxillectomy. Recently, surgeons can use a computer-assisted software package, which enables them to insert implants after a detailed analysis of the residual bone. For some patients with limited amount of residual maxillary bone, unusual surgical sites such as the zygomatic complex have been tested. We introduce a successful 2-step surgical procedure using a pedicled temporalis muscle flap and zygomatic implant placement to reconstruct a maxillary defect after oncological resection.
Yamashita, Yutaro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Goishi, Keiichi; Fukunaga, Yutaka; Abe, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Hideki
Severe traumatic bone and soft-tissue defects are often treated by lower leg amputation. The amputation level becomes a very important factor with respect to the patient's basic daily activities. We report the case of a 51-year-old man who was referred to us with severe traumatic metatarsal bone and dorsum pedis skin and soft-tissue defects. To avoid amputation, a free fibular osteomyocutaneous flap incorporating the soleus muscle was used to reconstruct the second and third metatarsal bones and the soft-tissue defect, respectively. Now, 2 years after the procedure, the patient is able to walk independently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of use of such a composite transfer for a complex midfoot defect.
Liang, Weizhong; Zhou, Zheng; Zhao, Zuojun
The purpose of this study was to study the clinical effect of split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture in the treatment of decubitus ulcers. Thirty-one cases of sacrococcygeal decubitus ulcers were repaired by split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap. The surface of flaps ranged from 5×6 cm to 7×8 cm. The skin was then closed, primarily using subcutaneous tension-reducing suture. Eighty-eight percent of the flaps (27 of 31) healed primarily. The split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture technique was found to be a highly efficient method of repairing decubitus ulcers with a relatively low ratio of recurrence.
Potts, Matthew B; McGrath, Mary H; Chin, Cynthia T; Garcia, Roxanna M; Weinstein, Philip R
Sacral Tarlov cysts are rare causes of sciatic and sacrococcygeal pain and neurologic deficits. Although several microsurgical treatments have been described, the optimal treatment has yet to be determined. We describe our initial experience with symptomatic lesions combining 1) cyst fenestration and imbrication and 2) filling the epidural space using vascularized paraspinous muscle flaps rotated into the cystic cavity. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive cases of symptomatic giant sacral Tarlov cysts treated with microsurgery at our institution between 2003 and 2011. The main outcome measure was self-reported symptom relief. Postoperative imaging, surgical complications, and subsequent treatments were also recorded. Thirty-five patients were treated. Mean age was 52 years. All patients presented with a chief complaint of sacral-perineal pain. The mean cyst size was 3.6 cm (largest diameter). Follow-up beyond the initial hospital stay was available in 86% (median 8 months). Ninety-three percent reported improvement in pain at some point during the postoperative course but 50% of those developed recurrent pain symptoms. Postoperative imaging was available in 69% of the patients in whom 92% showed complete obliteration (25%) or reduction in cyst size (67%). The combination of microsurgical cyst fenestration and the use of vascularized muscle pedicle flaps to fill the cystic cavity and the epidural space results in obliteration or reduction in size of the majority of cysts and is associated with initial improvement in pain in most patients. However, delayed recurrence of pain was common with this technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hou, Dianju; Li, Gehong; Fang, Lin; Li, Bing
We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls) with an average age of 6 years (range, 3-10 years) with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%); the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%); blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results.
Hou, Dianju; Li, Gehong; Fang, Lin; Li, Bing
Background We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. Methods This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls) with an average age of 6 years (range, 3–10 years) with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. Results The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%); the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%); blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. Conclusion Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results. PMID:23308158
Dodakundi, Chaitanya; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Yuki
Free gracilis transfers are done for reanimation of the upper limb in traumatic total brachial plexus palsy. Because of buried nature of the free muscle and monitoring skin flap in the axillary or infraclavicular region, it is always a tricky situation for continuous and repeated monitoring to assess vascular status. Critical ischemia times vary between the muscle and monitoring skin flap because of which signs of ischemic changes in the monitoring skin flap are always delayed with respect to the muscle. We describe a novel method that uses the principle of evoked potentials from the muscle to assess the vascular status of the free muscle and detects vascular compromise early before the skin changes are apparent.
Niedeggen, Andreas; Todt, Ingo; Westhofen, Martin; Ernst, Arne
A report of our experiences involving the treatment six male patients with a new method of closing perforations in the pharynx and upper esophagus, following surgery of the cervical spine region. Perforation of the pharynx and upper esophagus are rare complications following cervical spine surgery. The grave consequences of these complications necessitate in most cases immediate surgical therapy. In most cases, the first step involves the removal of the cervical plate and screws. The defect was then closed using a vascular pedicled musculofascia flap derived from the infrahyoid musculature. In all cases, the flap healed into place without complications. The patients began taking oral nutrients after an average of seven postoperative (5–12) days. In none of the cases did functional disorders or complications arise during the follow-up period (1–5 years). The infrahyoid muscle flap is well suited for reconstruction of the posterior pharyngeal wall and the upper esophagus. PMID:16927070
d'Alcontres, F Stagno; Cuccia, G; Lupo, F; Delia, G; Romeo, M
The management of lagophthalmos in patients with long-standing facial palsy is difficult, since the immobility and scleral show have to be corrected to protect the vision. In this article, the authors describe the treatment of paralytic eye with a static technique using a medially based orbicularis oculi muscle flap (OOMF) from the upper eyelid in patients with lagophthalmos. From April 2006 to May 2008, five Caucasian patients with ages ranging from 45 to 71 years (mean, 61 years) were treated at the Plastic Surgery Unit of Messina University. All patients underwent orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) transposition flap to support the lower orbicularis oculi and create a suspension of the eyelid. To validate the anatomical features of the OOM transposition flap, four fresh cadaver heads (eight eyelids) were dissected to demonstrate flap viability, feasibility and suspension effect. We achieved resolution of the lagophthalmos and good cosmetic appearance in all cases. The distance between the upper and lower eyelid points during eye closing (as for sleep) was reduced postoperatively on the paralysed side compared to the contralateral healthy side. Follow-up time ranged from 3 to 25 months (mean, 12 months). All patients healed well with no complications of the flaps. There was no flap contraction, recurrent deformity or significant donor-site morbidity in the follow-up period. The incision scars were almost invisible. The authors believe that the switching of upper blepharoplasty technique from the upper eyelid to the paralysed and scarred lower lid can be used as a tool to treat lagophthalmos. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tan, Bien-Keem; Chen, Hung-Chi; Wei, Fu-Chan; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Lan, Chyn-Tair; See, Lai-Chu; Wan, Yung-Liang
Reconstruction of the pharyngoesophagus with free jejunal transfer is a major challenge when recipient neck vessels are absent because of previous surgery or irradiation. In such instances, jejunal transfer using a muscle flap as a "vascular carrier" may be a problem-solving alternative. Pretransfer vascularization of the jejunum is achieved by wrapping the muscle flap around the small bowel segment. After a short staging period, the mesenteric pedicle is divided and the bowel segment is transferred up to the neck based on its new blood supply. The objectives of this study were to develop an animal model for prefabricating independently revascularized jejunal segments using the rectus abdominis muscle flap and to determine the minimal time required for independent bowel survival. Twenty-four mature (500-g to 700-g) rats were divided into six experimental groups of four animals each. In each animal, a 1.5-cm segment of proximal jejunum was isolated on two jejunal arteries and wrapped with a superior pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap. To determine the time of neovascular takeover, the mesenteric pedicles were ligated on postoperative day 2 (group I), day 3 (group II), day 4 (group III), day 5 (group IV), day 6 (group V), and day 7 (group VI). At the time of pedicle ligation, the composite flap was transposed to a new subcutaneous position. Viability of bowel was assessed according to gross appearance and histologic examination 48 hours after transfer. Complete survival of revascularized jejunum in 11 of 12 animals was obtained after pedicle ligation on postoperative day 5 and beyond (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). These bowel segments demonstrated luminal patency, intact pink mucosa, mucus production, and visible peristalsis. Histologic examination showed healthy intestinal epithelium and tissue integration along the serosa-muscle interphase. In contrast, pedicle ligation on day 4 and earlier resulted in varying degrees of bowel necrosis characterized by
Selber, Jesse C; Nelson, Jonas; Fosnot, Joshua; Goldstein, Jesse; Bergey, Meredith; Sonnad, Seema S; Serletti, Joseph M
The purpose of this two-part study was to demonstrate the impact of free flap breast reconstruction on the abdominal wall. In Part I, the authors present the results for unilateral techniques. A blinded, prospective, cohort study was performed involving 234 free flap breast reconstruction patients. Patients were evaluated preoperatively, and followed for 1 year. At each encounter, patients underwent abdominal strength testing using the Upper and Lower Rectus Abdominis Manual Muscle Function Test, the Functional Independence Measure, and psychometric testing using the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Patients also completed a satisfaction questionnaire specific to breast reconstruction. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Two-hundred thirty-four patients were enrolled. Of these, 157 underwent reconstruction (75 of which were unilateral), completed follow-up, and were included in the analysis. There was a significantly greater decline in upper abdominal strength in patients undergoing muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery compared with deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgery at early (p = 0.01) and late follow-up (p = 0.02). Unilateral superficial inferior epigastric artery flap procedures (n = 3) were too few for a meaningful conclusion to be reached. Lower abdominal and Functional Independence Measure scores showed no significant differences. Psychometric testing showed that there was a significant decline in physical health within the free TRAM flap group. No significant difference among groups was appreciable. In unilateral cases, the impact of the muscle-sparing free TRAM flap versus the DIEP flap follows theoretical predictions based on the degree of muscle sacrifice: the muscle-sparing free TRAM flap demonstrated a greater decline than the DIEP flap in certain measurable parameters.
Kay, S; Pinder, R; Wiper, J; Hart, A; Jones, F; Yates, A
The loss of elbow flexion is an uncommon, but devastating consequence of injury to the upper limb and a complex problem to manage. This paper describes our experience with free functioning gracilis muscle transfer (FFGMT) to the upper limb for elbow flexion. 33 patients were followed up after FFGMT for elbow flexion. 26 patients were male, and 20 were children. Indications for FFGMT included obstetric brachial palsy (n=13) and adult brachial plexus injury (n=12), arthrogryposis (n=4), sarcoma, polio and radial dysplasia. Seventy percent (n=23) of patients had a successful outcome. Power comparable to the other side (M5) was recorded in two patients, 19 patients scored M4, and three scored M3. FFGMT in the OBP group alone (n=13) was the most successful; all had a pre-operative score of M2 or less and post-operatively 12 (92%) achieved a score of M4 or greater. A greater increase in Medical Research Council (MRC) grade for elbow flexion was achieved when intercostal nerves (ICN) were transferred to innervate the gracilis flap (mean gain three points, SD1.3), than ulnar fascicles (mean gain 1.75 points, SD2.3), P=0.05. With a multidisciplinary team approach involving experienced surgeons, theatre staff and therapists, a significant, reproducible and measurable improvement in elbow flexion can be achieved by FFGMT. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Serra-Renom, José M; Serra-Mestre, José M; Martinez, Lourdes; D'Andrea, Francesco
Results obtained with breast-conserving therapy are not always satisfactory. Reconstruction with a pure latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a useful option. The techniques described for endoscopic dissection of the flap create several scars on the back. As a result, they do not improve on the open approach, which causes a horizontal scar at the level of the bra strap. The authors' technique avoids all scars on the back using a single incision in the highest folds of the axilla, which also is used for the sentinel node biopsy or lymphadectomy and quadrantectomy. The study was performed with 23 patients. The tumor was extracted via a clockwise downward periareolar incision and via another incision in a fold of the axilla. Through this axillary incision, the sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymphadectomy was performed, and the external part of the latissimus dorsi muscle was harvested endoscopically for the reconstruction. Both the medical team and the patients reported high satisfaction with the aesthetic and functional results due to the preservation of the breast shape and the absence of any scarring on the back. Endoscopy-assisted techniques make either three small scars on the back or one long scar, with the muscle sectioned distally, or a vertical incision in the midaxillary line, which may form a hypertrophic or keloid scar. The authors' approach avoids the creation of these scars on the back because the endoscopy and the distal sectioning of the muscle flap are performed through the single axillary incision.
Lasserre, G; Cornu, J-Y; Vidal, C; Laveaux, C; Lepage, D; Obert, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y
The triceps surae muscle is a major donor-site for muscle-flap to cover soft-tissue defects of the leg. There are very limited datas on the functional donor-site morbidity in the literature. From a retrospective study on 14 patients, we realized a baropodometric analysis comparing the operated lower limb with the healthy non operated side and a functional evaluation by a questionary. The modified functional score of Kitatoka was good (87/100). Ninety percent of the patients were able to resume a professional activity and 2/3 to resume the sport. The baropodometric analysis did not show statistically significant difference of propulsion and absorption between the healthy side and the operated side, but a modification of the programming of the step. The absence of important functional donor-site morbidity is probably bound to a compensation of the remaining triceps surae muscles and/or to mechanisms of adaptation. Our study confirms the little functional donor-site morbidity of the partial triceps surae muscle-flap procedure. These flaps remain a good solution for the coverage of the soft-tissue defects of the leg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rivera, Angela R. V.; Blob, Richard W.
Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation—the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns—has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions. PMID:23966596
Rivera, Angela R V; Blob, Richard W
Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation-the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns-has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions.
Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Longo, Benedetto; Laporta, Rosaria; Pagnoni, Marco; Cavalieri, Enrico
Currently, the choice for recipient vessels in microvascular breast reconstruction is made between axillary and internal mammary regions. The authors report their experience with anastomosis to a new, unconventional, axillary recipient vessel, the serratus anterior muscle vascular pedicle. Among 340 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstructions performed between 2004 and 2013, 11 were successfully revascularised to the serratus anterior (SA) pedicle: In three cases, complications led to a salvage procedure, while in eight cases, anastomosis to this recipient site was electively planned. The pedicle was constantly present, with calibre always comparable to that of flap's pedicle. At the mean 24-month follow-up, no recipient site complications were observed. The SA muscle pedicle resulted as a reliable choice in salvage procedures and a suitable option for recipient vessel selection in elective cases.
Grosheva, Maria; Horstmann, Luisa; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Holler, Claudia; Ludwig, Laura; Weiß, Verena; Finkensieper, Mira; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Beutner, Dirk
The prevalence of Frey's syndrome (FS) after superficial parotidectomy in correlation to the sternocleidomastoid muscle flap (SCMMF) interposition is analyzed. A prospective nonrandomized controlled multicenter trial included 130 patients. During superficial parotidectomy, SCMMF was dissected, if excised specimens' volume exceeded 25 mL (SCMMF group). Follow-up examinations took place after 6, 12, and 24 months and included a Minor's test. SCMMF was dissected in 30 (23.1%) patients. A total of 104, 80, and 68 patients completed the 1st, 2nd, and the 3rd follow-up, respectively. FS was detectable with nonvarying prevalence (46.3%, 45.6%, and 43.4%, respectively) during follow-up. The prevalence was higher in the SCMMF group (59.9%) than in the non-SCMMF group (41.8%; P = .92). The sweating area increased during follow-up (P = .12). Overall, 89.5% of patients characterized FS as not disturbing after 2 years. FS occurred with a steady and high prevalence after superficial parotidectomy. In particular, SCMMF did not lower the risk of FS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Selber, Jesse C; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas; Goldstein, Jesse; Bergey, Meredith; Sonnad, Seema; Serletti, Joseph M
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of bilateral free flap breast reconstruction on the abdominal wall. This is the second installation of a two-part series. Presented here are bilateral combinations of three techniques: the muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap, deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, and superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap. A blinded prospective cohort study was performed involving 234 patients. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and for 1 year postoperatively. At each encounter, patients underwent objective abdominal strength testing using the Manual Muscle Function Test and Functional Independence Measure and psychometric testing using the Short Form 36 questionnaire. At postoperative visits, patients also completed a questionnaire specific to breast reconstruction. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. A total of 234 patients were enrolled. Of these, 157 underwent reconstruction, 82 of which were bilateral. There was a significant decline in upper (p=0.02) and lower (p=0.05) abdominal strength from bilateral free TRAM flaps compared with bilateral DIEP flaps. Likewise, there was a significant decline in upper (p=0.055) and lower (p=0.04) abdominal strength from bilateral free TRAM flaps compared with bilateral SIEA flaps. For combinations, the most muscle impairment to least was as follows: free TRAM/free TRAM, free TRAM/DIEP, DIEP/DIEP, DIEP/SIEA, and SIEA/SIEA. The free TRAM/SIEA data were not significant. Although psychometric testing showed trends, there was no significant difference among treatment groups. Abdominal wall strength following various combinations of bilateral free flap breast reconstruction techniques closely adheres to theoretical predictions based on the degree of surgical muscle sacrifice.
Piwkowski, Cezary; Gabryel, Piotr; Gąsiorowskia, Łukasz; Zieliński, Paweł; Murawa, Dawid; Roszak, Magdalena; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech
The pedicled intercostal muscle flap (IMF) is a high quality vascularized tissue commonly used to buttress the bronchial stump after pneumonectomy or bronchial anastomosis after sleeve lobectomy in order to prevent bronchopleural fistula formation. The evaluation of the viability of the muscle flap is difficult. The aim of this study was the assessment of the application of indicyanine green fluorescence for the evaluation of IMF perfusion. The study included 27 patients (10 males and 17 females), mean age 62.6 years (47-77 years). Indocyanine green fluorescence (ICG) was used for objective assessment of the IMF quality by a near-infrared camera system (Photodynamic Eye(®), Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan). The following factors that may have an impact on the quality of the IMF were assessed: age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities, IMF length and thickness and timing of the harvesting during the procedure. The following surgical pulmonary resections with IMF harvesting were performed: 12 pneumonectomies, 2 sleeve lobectomies and 13 lobectomies. Intercostal muscle flap (IMF) was harvested before rib spreader insertion in 23 patients (85%) and at the end of the surgery in 4 patients (15%). The mean length and thickness of the harvested intercostal muscle were 19.9 ± 2.9 cm (range 13-24 cm) and 2.4 cm ± 0.7 cm (range 1.0-3.5 cm), respectively. Indocyanine green angiography showed ischaemia in the distal part of the muscle in all cases, despite the lack of obvious macroscopic signs. Median length of the ischaemic part was 4 cm (range 0.5-20 cm). The IMF length and thickness had a significant impact on the length of the ischaemic segment. In 24 patients, the ischaemic part of the muscle flap was severed. In 3 patients with the longest ischaemic segment (11, 13 and 20 cm), an alternative tissue was used to cover the bronchial stump. No major complications occurred. Our preliminary results confirmed the simplicity and high efficacy of ICG in the assessment of
David, Sylvain; Balaguer, Thierry; Baque, Patrick; Peretti, Fernand de; Valla, Maxime; Lebreton, Elisabeth; Chignon-Sicard, Berengere
In many plastic surgeries, a detailed understanding of the pectoral nerve anatomy is often required. However, the information available on the anatomy of pectoral nerves is sparse and unclear. The purpose of this study is to provide detailed anatomical information on the pectoral nerves to allow for their easy intra-operative localisation and to improve the understanding of the pectoral muscle innervation. We dissected 26 brachial plexuses from 15 fresh cadavers. The origins, locations, courses and branches of the pectoral nerves were recorded. We found three constant branches of the pectoral nerve. The superior branch travelled in a straight course to the pectoralis major to innervate the clavicular aspect. The middle branch coursed on the under-surface of the pectoralis major near the pectoral branch of the thoraco-acromial artery to innervate the muscle's sternal aspect. The inferior branch passed beneath the pectoralis minor muscle to innervate the pectoralis minor muscle and the costal aspect of the pectoralis major muscle. Knowing the pectoral nerves' origins, courses and connections, in addition to understanding the functional consequences of iatrogenically severing these nerves, leads to a better understanding of the pectoral muscle's innervation. Precise anatomical data on the pectoral nerve allow for its easy localisation during axillary breast augmentation, axillary dissection, removal of the pectoralis minor muscle and harvesting the pectoralis major muscle island flap. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naghibzadeh, Masoud; Zojaji, Ramin; Mokhtari Amir Majdi, Nematollah; Mazloum Farsi Baf, Morteza
Complications of total laryngectomy can have serious implications for the final outcome of treatment, including pharyngocutaneous fistula. We conducted a retrospective study of surgical techniques to determine how to best prevent or decrease the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula following total laryngectomy. We reviewed the hospital records of all patients who had undergone total laryngectomy for laryngeal carcinoma at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, from March 1989 through February 2005. We identified 88 such patients-80 men and 8 women. We divided this cohort into two groups according to the type of pharyngeal defect closure they received. A total of 37 patients-31 men and 6 women (mean age: 61.4 ± 5.9 yr) underwent primary closure along with a sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCMM) flap (flap group). The other 51 patients-49 men and 2 women (mean age: 61.3 ± 4.4 yr)-underwent standard primary closure without creation of an SCMM flap (nonflap group). Overall, postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula occurred in 9 of the 88 patients (10.2%)-1 case in the flap group (2.7%) and 8 cases in the nonflap group (15.7%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 0.612, 95% confidence interval = 0.451 to 0.832), independent of other factors. We found no correlation between fistula development and age (p = 0.073), sex (p = 0.065), or tumor location (p = 0.435). Likewise, we found no correlation between tumor location and either sex (p = 0.140) or age (p = 0.241). We conclude that including an SCMM flap in the surgical process would significantly decrease the development of fistula, regardless of age, sex, and tumor site.
Foltínová, P; Lahitová, N; Ebringer, L
The genotoxic effect of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and furadantine (Fu) was significantly decreased by standard antimutagens (ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, chlorophyllin and sodium selenite) in the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis. The effects of these compounds were verified also by a bacterial test in which three strains of Salmonella typhimurium, TA97, TA100, and TA102, were used. The above compounds were antimutagenic in strains of bacteria used, except for chlorophyllin which had no effect on strain TA102.
Healy, Claragh; Allen, Robert J
It is over 20 years since the inaugural deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. We review the type of flap utilized and indications in 2,850 microvascular breast reconstruction over the subsequent 20 years in the senior author's practice (Robert J. Allen). Data were extracted from a personal logbook of all microsurgical free flap breast reconstructions performed between August 1992 and August 2012. Indication for surgery; mastectomy pattern in primary reconstruction; flap type, whether unilateral or bilateral; recipient vessels; and adjunctive procedures were recorded. The DIEP was the most commonly performed flap (66%), followed by the superior gluteal artery perforator flap (12%), superficial inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (9%), inferior gluteal artery perforator flap (6%), profunda artery perforator flap (3%), and transverse upper gracilis flap (3%). Primary reconstruction accounted for 1,430 flaps (50%), secondary 992 (35%), and tertiary 425 (15%). As simultaneous bilateral reconstructions, 59% flaps were performed. With each flap, there typically ensues a period of enthusiasm which translated into surge in flap numbers. However, each flap has its own nuances and characteristics that influence patient and physician choice. Of note, each newly introduced flap, either buttock or thigh, results in a sharp decline in its predecessor. In this practice, the DIEP flap has remained the first choice in autologous breast reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Squaquara, Roberto; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Spanio di Spilimbergo, Stefano; Mardini, Samir
Choosing a pedicled flap to reconstruct an intraoral defect depends on the size and the anatomic position of the tissue defect. The goals are to restore form and function and minimize donor site morbidity. Regional pedicled flaps available for intraoral reconstruction are the buccal fat pad flap, facial artery musculomucosal flap, platysma, pectoralis major, temporalis muscle flap, and trapezius flaps. We give a concise illustration of anatomy, our harvesting technique, indications, and eventual pitfalls for each of the six flaps. PMID:22550440
Bagheri, Abbas; Ahadi, Hashem; Babsharif, Babak; Salour, Hossein; Yazdani, Shahin
To report the outcomes of ptosis surgery in patients with weak levator function utilizing the direct tarsus to frontalis muscle sling technique without creation of a flap. In a prospective nonrandomized case series over a 3-year period, patients with ptosis and weak (less than 4 mm) levator function underwent direct sling of the tarsus to frontalis muscle without creating any flap. Success was defined as upper lid margin to central corneal reflex distance of at least 3 mm in bilateral cases and a difference of less than 1 mm in unilateral cases. Overall, 26 eyes of 22 patients with mean age of 15.4 ± 9.4 years were operated and followed up for 13.5 ± 8.4 months. The ptosis was congenital in 15 patients (68.2%) and acquired in 7 patients (31.8%). Twelve patients (54.5%) had a history of ptosis surgery. The procedure was judged as successful in 77.3% of patients after initial surgery and in 100% after reoperation. Surgical success after initial surgery was directly correlated with the amount of levator function (P = 0.02). However, success was not associated with age (P = 0.9) or history of surgery (P = 0.9). None of the patients developed eyelid hematoma, lagophthalmus or dry eye. Direct sling of the upper tarsus to the frontalis muscle without creation of flap is an effective procedure for correction of ptosis in patients with weak levator function. Minimal dissection and preservation of the orbicularis oculi prevents lagophthalmus and its consequences.
Cavanaugh, Ryan P; Farese, James P; Bacon, Nicholas J; Lurie, David M; Milner, Rowan J
A 9 yr old spayed female cocker spaniel presented for evaluation of an invasive maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Curative intent surgery and radiation therapy allowed for local control of the neoplasm; however, the development of a persistent oronasal fistula prevented a complete recovery. A temporalis myofascial rotation flap allowed for successful resolution of the maxillary defect. Implementation of the flap was relatively simple and was associated with few complications.
Zhou, Mingshu; Zhong, Mingshu; Jin, Rui; Li, Qingfeng; Duan, Yongan; Huang, Li; Li, L; Yu, Dong; Huang, Dong
Congenital blepharoptosis is a common pediatric disease. Frontalis muscle flap advancement is an effective surgical technique to treat patients with severe ptosis and poor levator function. However, since eye position changes under general anesthesia, it is necessary to adjust the position of the upper eyelid to achieve a better surgical outcome. A total of 162 children with severe congenital blepharoptosis underwent frontalis muscle flap advancement under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups according to the different positions of eyelid suspension. The eyelid position of 82 children (96 eyes) in group A was adjusted to set at the superior limbus under general anesthesia, while the eyelid level of 80 children (94 eyes) in group B was adjusted according to the level labeled before anesthesia or the orthophoria level predicted using Krimsky's test. Lid level, ptosis recurrence, cosmetic appearance, and complications were evaluated 12 months after surgery. Excellent functional and cosmetic results were achieved in 61 (63.5 %) children from group A and 85 (90.4 %) from group B. Fewer complications were observed in group B (36.5 vs. 9.6 %). To achieve better surgical results after frontalis flap advancement for severe ptosis, it is necessary to adjust the eyelid level according to eye position changes that occur when the patient is under general anesthesia. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Ersoy, Burak; Sönmez, Ahmet; Bayramiçli, Mehmet
In the treatment of head and neck carcinoma, radical cervical lymphadenectomy leaves the affected side of the neck devoid of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, thus more vulnerable to the unwanted side effects of the adjuvant radiotherapy. It also causes asymmetry and cosmetically unpleasant appearance of the cervical region. In the reported case with widely ulcerated squamous-cell carcinoma over mandible, hemimandibulectomy and radical neck dissection was performed. Following the mandibular reconstruction, the lateral hemisoleus muscle of the harvested osteomyocutaneous fibula flap was utilized to restore the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid region. This new application promises to be a useful method, which can aid in the restoration of the aesthetic contour of the neck and provide protection against unwanted effects of the adjuvant radiotherapy on the ipsilateral carotid artery.
Kwok, Alvin C; Agarwal, Jayant P
We sought to use the NSQIP database to determine the national rate and predictors of free flap failure based upon flap sites and flap types. Free flaps were identified using the 2005-2010 NSQIP database. We examined overall flap failure rates as well as failure rates based upon flap sites (head and neck, extremities, trunk, and breast) and flap types (muscle, fascial, skin, bone, and bowel flaps). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictors of flap failure. There were 1,187 microvascular free tissue transfers identified. The overall flap failure rate was 5.1%. Head and neck flaps had the highest rate of free flap failure at 7.7%. Prolonged operative time is an independent predictor of flap failure for all free flaps (OR: 2.383, P = 0.0013). When examining predictors of failure by flap site, free flaps to the breast with prolonged operative time are independently associated with flap failure (OR: 2.288, P = 0.0152). When examining predictors of flap failure by flap type, muscle based free flaps with an ASA classification ≥3 are associated with flap failure (P = 0.0441). Risk factors for free flap failure differ based upon flap site and flap type. Prolonged operative time is an independent risk factor for the failure of free flaps used for breast reconstruction. An ASA classification ≥3 is associated with the failure of free muscle based flaps. Our findings identify actionable areas that may help to improve free flap success. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Martinet, X; Forli, A; Guinard, D; Corcella, D; Moutet, F
The authors report their experience about a 15 cases series of ankle and foot soft tissues defects reconstruction with the extensor digitorum brevis flap which demonstrates its advantages. The flap was elevated in 9 cases on the tibial artery while the 6 others were raised on the distal dorsalis pedis artery with a retrograde flow. Healing was obtained for all cases with a complete resolution of septic problems for the 8 concerned cases. The outcome was uneventful for all but one which presented with a partial skin donor site secondary necrosis. No functional or trophic problems were noticed in other cases. Elevation of the extensor digitorum brevis flap is simple without note-worthy sequelaes. It is a reliable technique either for skin coverage or osteitis cure at level of the ankle. When raised with a retrograde arterial flow, it also appears as a useful alternative for the fore-foot reconstruction, location recognized difficult to treat by local means.
Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Somayaji, Nagabhooshana S.; Rao, Mohandas K. G.; Bhat, Kumar M. R.
The extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) is a practical option for use as an island flap or free flap when reconstructing soft tissue defects in the ankle as well as in the entire lower limb. It is frequently used to correct crossover toe deformity and other painful toe disorders. We evaluated the morphometry of the EDB in 44 formalin-fixed limbs. Length and width of the muscles were measured. Surface area was calculated as the product of length and width of the muscle. The length of each tendon was also measured from its origin to the point of distal attachment. Presence of any additional tendons was noted. Mean length, width, and surface area of the muscle were 7.39±0.71 cm, 4.1±0.37 cm, and 30.5±4.78 cm2 on the right side and 7.2±0.84 cm, 3.9±0.37 cm, and 28.4±5.35 cm2 on the left side, respectively. Morphometry of the tendons revealed that the tendon of the great toe had the highest mean length (9.5 cm) and the tendon of the fourth toe had the lowest mean length (6.3 cm). Four of the limbs studied (9.09%) had only three tendons. Three of the limbs studied (6.81%) had five tendons, and in one exceptional case (2.27%), six tendons were detected. These observations have significant value and are applicable to plastic and orthopedic surgery. PMID:24179695
McNally, Richard; Rimler, Jonathan; Laurence, Vincent; Z Paydar, Keyianoosh; A Wirth, Garrett
Current teaching suggests increased perfusion in free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps over pedicled TRAM flaps, broadening indications for its use in high risk patients. This study compared perfusion analysis of free muscle-sparing versus pedicle TRAM flaps in vivo in the peri-operative and late post-operative periods. The SPY-Elite system using indocyanine green dye was used to analyze flap perfusion intra-operatively and at 1 week and 3 months post-operatively. Image analysis was completed by evaluating the perfusion maps from the SPY- Elite system with Image J software calculate maximum, minimum, and average luminescence over the surface area of the flaps. Student's T-test was used for statistical analysis. Intra-operatively, we found a 73.4% greater perfusion in the free muscle-sparing as compared to the pedicled TRAM. This increase in free muscle-sparing TRAM perfusion was not evident 1 week post-operatively, due to a relative increase in pedicle flap perfusion that coincided with a revision of the pedicled flap due to distal flap necrosis. At 3 months, the free muscle-sparing TRAM flap once again showed superior perfusion with a 15.7% increase over the pedicled flap. We showed superior free muscle-sparing TRAM perfusion in the early peri-operative period which coincided with the time framein which flap loss was most common. Local swelling, pedicle rotation, tunneling, and dominance of the deep inferior epigastric circulation were potential causes of initial decreased pedicled TRAM perfusion. This analysis adds more objective data to the question of indications and relative strengths between free and pedicled TRAM flaps.
Shen, Yuming; Hu, Xiaohua; Wen, Chunquan; Ning, Fanggang; Yu, Dongning; Qin, Fengjun
To investigate the effectiveness of distally pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps and reverse sural neurovascular island flaps for post-traumatic chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis and soft tissue defects. Between January 2008 and January 2012, 9 patients suffering from post-traumatic chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis and soft tissue defects were treated, including 8 males and 1 female with an average age of 33 years (range, 18-46 years). The left heel was involved in 4 cases, and right heel in 5 cases. Infection occurred after reduction and internal fixation of closed fractures of the calcaneus in 7 cases, and open calcaneal fracture and soft tissue defect in 2 cases. The disease duration was 2 months to 3 years (mean, 5 months). Purulent secretion, tissue necrosis, or sinus formation was observed in all wounds. The results of bacterial culture were positive. X-ray and CT examination showed uneven density of calcaneus and bone cavity or dead bone formation. After thorough debridement, the size of bone defect ranged from 3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm to 6 cm x 4 cm x 3 cm; the size of soft tissue defect ranged from 7 cm x 3 cm to 12 cm x 7 cm. The distally pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps (11 cm x 3 cm-16 cm x 4 cm) were used for bone defect repair, and reverse sural neurovascular island flaps (8 cm x 4 cm-14 cm x 8 cm) for soft tissue defect. The donor site was directly sutured in 6 cases and repaired by skin graft in 3 cases. After operation, reverse sural neurovascular island flaps survived in 9 cases, and all wounds healed by first intention. No necrosis or liquefaction of distally pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps was observed. Incision at donor site healed by first intention, and skin grafts at donor site survived. All cases were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 13.5 months). The flaps had good texture. No recurrence of osteomyelitis was observed. Basic weight-bearing walking function was restorated. No obvious calcaneal collapse happened. The distally pedicled
Khodaparast, Omeed; Coberly, Dana M; Mathey, Jonathon; Rohrich, Rod J; Levin, L Scott; Brown, Spencer A
The effect of sepsis on neovascularization in fractures that follows open fractures is important to the understanding of bone and soft-tissue healing. An animal model was designed that mimics the open fracture and the clinical repair of the human, high-energy open fracture. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels in canine bone samples were determined in samples from days 0 and 7. Canine right tibiae were fractured with a penetrating, captive-bolt device and then repaired in a standard clinical fashion using an interlocking intramedullary nail. Animals were subject to one of the following experimental protocols: tibial fracture (group I, n = 3); tibial fracture and Staphylococcus aureus inoculation at the fracture site (group II, n = 3); and tibial fracture and S. aureus inoculation with a rotational gastrocnemius muscle flap (group III, n = 3). Bone samples were harvested on days 0 and 7 and prepared for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Primers for VEGF were commercially prepared and assay products were sequenced. The assay products were associated with Genebank VEGF mRNA sequences. VEGF mRNA levels increased significantly in the fracture-alone group from day 0 to day 7 (n = 3, p < 0.05). In the fracture and S. aureus group (group I), VEGF mRNA expression decreased 79 percent (p < 0.05). In animals with fractures inoculated with S. aureus and a transpositional muscle flap (group III), VEGF mRNA expression was increased 38 percent from day 0 to day 7 (p < 0.05) and was similar to the increase observed in the fracture-alone group. These results demonstrate that S. aureus decreased the normal increase of VEGF mRNA expression during bone wound healing. Use of the transpositional muscle flap in the presence of S. aureus increased VEGF mRNA expression over time to the expression pattern observed in the fracture-alone group. This experimental model demonstrates that specific biological signals and cellular pathways are influenced by
Sværdborg, Mille; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne
In reconstructive microsurgery, flap failure can be catastrophic to the patient. Different monitoring methods have been implemented in an attempt to recognize secondary ischemia during its early stages. However, the exact onset of secondary ischemia can be difficult to determine because there are no well-documented and reliable monitoring techniques that offer true continuous monitoring in a clinical setting. Because of the uncertain time in terms of the onset of secondary ischemia, the exact length of ischemia before revascularization, the secondary ischemia time, cannot be obtained. This is probably part of the reason why not much has been published regarding the effect of secondary ischemia time in reference to flap survival. We present a case of a free gracilis muscle flap that was salvaged despite more than 11 hours of arterial ischemia. The flap was monitored using microdialysis and at no time was the ischemia clearly demonstrated by clinical inspection. We conclude that clinical monitoring in some cases can be an unreliable method for monitoring free muscle transfers suffering from arterial ischemia and that further studies are needed for more specific guidelines regarding the critical secondary ischemia time in muscle flaps.
Avery, C M E
The conventional pedicled sternocleidomastoid (SCM) flap has a poor arc of rotation, limited volume and precarious vascularity. This report describes a new technique for raising a SCM flap based on the perforating vessels of the superior thyroid vascular pedicle. The upper and lower attachments of the sternocleidomastoid muscle are divided. Four medically and/or surgically compromised patients have successfully undergone reconstruction of hemiglossectomy (1), partial glossectomy (1) and rim of mandible (2) defects for malignancy. The arc of rotation of the SCM flap is greatly increased and the potential applications for the flap expanded.
Iglesias, Martin; Gonzalez-Chapa, Diego R
Some authors have mentioned that the endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap for breast reconstruction is an uncommon technique that has been abandoned due to its technical complexity. Therefore, its use for immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing total mastectomies is reported for only a few patients, without clinical images of the reconstructed breast or of the donor site. This report describes 14 breast reconstructions using the aforementioned approach, with the latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvested by endoscopy plus the insertion of a breast implant in a single surgical procedure. The objective is to show images of the long-range clinical aesthetic results, both in the reconstructed breast and at the donor site as well as the complications so the reader can evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the technique. From 2008 to 2011, 12 women who experienced skin-sparing total mastectomy and 2 women who underwent modified radical mastectomy were reconstructed using the aforementioned technique. The average age was 42 years (range 30-58 years), and the average body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) (range 22-34 kg/m(2)). Three patients were heavy smokers: one had undergone a previous abdominoplasty; one had hepatitis C; and one had undergone massive weight loss. Immediate reconstructions were performed for 11 patients, and 3 reconstructions were delayed. The implant volume ranged from 355 to 640 ml. The average endoscopic harvesting time was 163.5 min (range 120-240 min), and the average bleeding was 300 ml. Four patients experienced seromas at the donor site. Acceptance of the reconstructed breast was good in six cases, moderate in seven cases, and poor in one case. Acceptance of the donor site was good in 13 cases and moderate for 1 case. Endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle has technical difficulties that have limited its acceptance. However, this technique offers the same quality of breast reconstruction as the
Furst, Stephen J.; Bunget, George; Seelecke, Stefan
This work focuses on the development of a concept for a micro-air vehicle (MAV) based on a bio-inspired flapping motion that is generated from integrated smart materials. Since many smart materials have their own biomimetic characteristics and the potential to be highly efficient, lightweight, and streamlined, they are ideal candidates for use in structural or actuator components in MAVs. In this work, shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator wires are used as analogs for biological muscles, and super-elastic SMAs are implemented as flexible joints capable of large bending angles. While biological organisms have an intrinsic sensing array composed of nerves, the SMA wires also provide self-sensing by virtue of a phase-dependent resistance change. Study of the biology and flight characteristics of natural fliers concluded that the bat provides an ideal platform for SMA muscle wires because of its comparatively low wingbeat frequency and superb maneuverability. A first-generation prototype is built to further the understanding of fabricating Nature’s designs. The engineering design is then improved further in a second-generation prototype that combines 3D printing and new techniques for embedding SMA wires and shaping SMA joints for improved robustness, reproducibility, and lifetime. These prototypes are on display at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Science’s Nature Research Center, which has the goal of bridging the gaps between biology and engineering.
Klima, G; Papp, C
The examination of the coverage of vascular defects with intercostal muscles showed during an observation period of 7 weeks the development of cartilage tissue with thick elastic fiber nettings running between the chondroma.
Asakura, T; Aoki, K; Tadokoro, M; Nakagawa, T; Furuta, S
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcome of refractory infected mediastinitis managed primarily with mobilization of pectoral muscle flaps and omental transposition. From January 1992 to December 1995, infected mediastinitis occurred in 11 (2.5%) of 447 consecutive patients. All patients required sternal debridement. The wound was thoroughly irrigated with a solution of 0.5% povidone-iodine in physiological saline after debridement and then the defect was repaired. Reconstruction of the chest wall was attained using pectoral muscle flaps in seven patients and pectoral muscle flaps and omental transposition in four. Antibiotic therapy was provided for 6 weeks or more according to the regimen in North America. No hospital deaths occurred after surgery. Significant early complications occurred in four patients. The reasons for the prolonged hospitalization were a recurrent wound infection, prosthetic valve endocarditis and saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm formation caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). Length of stay in ICU after surgical treatment was range 1 to 140 days (an average of 11 +/- 3 days in 9 patients without complications in ICU). Duration between surgical treatment and discharge was range 47 to 300 days (an average of 58 +/- 8 days in 7 patients without significant early complications). At the time of this report, the patients are doing well with no signs of recurrence of infection. The mean follow-up was 28.8 months (range 8 to 48 months). We conclude that single-stage mobilization of pectoral muscle flaps together with omental transposition is very usefull for managing refractory infected mediastinitis. But careful follow-up is needed after this procedure in case of MRSA-caused mediastinitis because of its tendency to recur.
Greensmith, A; Januszkiewicz, J; Poole, G
Previous reports of endoscopic rectus abdominis muscle harvest have described techniques that are hampered by the need for anterior rectus sheath division or mechanical devices to maintain the optical cavity. The authors report the first successful clinical case of a laparoscopic sheath-sparing rectus abdominis muscle harvest for free tissue transfer. It offers considerable advantages over the traditional open method and, with the help of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, it should add little to operative time.
Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva
Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.
Niimi, Aya; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao; Homma, Yukio
Hemipelvectomy is surgery for pelvic bone neoplasms. In the case of pubic bone osteosarcoma, the distal end of the rectus abdominis muscle is severed from the pubic and ischium bones, and the pelvic floor muscles are resected en bloc with the bone, which leads to stress urinary incontinence. Cancer control is prioritized over complications, and stress urinary incontinence is generally disregarded. A 25-year-old woman presented with stress urinary incontinence. She had undergone a hemipelvectomy for left pubic bone osteosarcoma, and stress urinary incontinence appeared and persisted since the surgery. We carried out a reconstruction of the tissue deficit of the rectus abdominis using the tensor fascia lata muscle flap simultaneously with a midurethral autologous fascial sling anchoring to the tensor fascia lata flap. Stress incontinence was successfully improved without morbidity. This is the first reported case of midurethral suspension with reconstruction of the lower abdominal wall with the tensor fascia lata flap for post-hemipelvectomy stress urinary incontinence. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.
Ionac, M; Schaefer, D; Geishauser, M
Several studies have implicated enhanced eicosanoid production in reperfusion injury. The reported study investigated the use of microdialysis in the in vivo measurement of thromboxane levels during reperfusion in ischemic and reperfused experimental free muscle flaps. Microdialysis probes were inserted, via a guide, into the gracilis and semitendinosus free flap in the rat. The probe was perfused at a flow of 5 microl/min, with samples collected at intervals of 20 min, and analyzed by the ELISA technique. Animals were randomly distributed into three groups. After ischemic periods of 2, 4, and 6 hr, respectively, the free muscle flaps were revascularized on the contralateral femoral vessels. The mean thromboxane level during ischemia was 1785.34 +/- 124.81 pg/ml. The mean levels of thromboxane rose significantly (p < 0.05), compared to base level, with 151.65 percent in the 2-hr ischemia group, 192.33 percent in the 4-hr ischemia group, and 294.69 percent in the 6-hr ischemia group, and correlated well with histologic observations. The results suggest that a microdialysis technique, combined with a sensitive assay for measuring thromboxane, is a useful method for in vivo monitoring of inflammatory processes during ischemia and reperfusion. The evolution of thromboxane release following 6 hr of ischemia indicates that this mediator may be involved in facilitation of cell death, following ischemia and reperfusion, since its tissue level correlates with histologic tissue damage.
Lanfrey, E; Grolleau, J L; Glock, Y; Chavoin, J P; Costagliola, M
Reconstruction of the chest wall after balistic or other trauma requires good and muscle cover and creation of a new, stable and airtight wall. The authors present a case of balistic trauma of the right anterolateral chest wall which was urgently debrided and subsequently reconstructed by sandwich combination of a latissimus dorsi muscle flap and synthetic material composed of a sheet of PTFE and creation of two methylmethylacrylate ribs. The advantage of this technique is that it avoids the use of autologous tissue from an already weakened chest wall and confers a new chest stability in several sites corresponding to the wall defect with easily available and easy-to-use materials.
Internal mammary perforators as recipient vessels for deep inferior epigastric perforator and muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap breast reconstruction in an Asian population.
Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Alwi, Akmal Azim
The use of internal mammary perforators (IMPs) as recipient vessels in autologous free flap breast reconstruction has many additional benefits compared with the internal mammary or thoracodorsal vessels. Our goals were to analyze the characteristics of these vessels and to evaluate the reliability of using them in an Asian population. Thirty-five consecutive patients were prospectively studied between November 2000 and December 2010. Twelve patients underwent muscle-sparing-2 transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, and 23 had deep inferior epigastric perforator flap reconstructions. Internal mammary perforator vessels were used in 29 patients (83%). Most (75%) of the vessels were located in the subcutaneous plane, and 85% were in the second and third intercostal spaces. There were significantly more usable IMP vessels in the immediate than in the delayed reconstructions (P = 0.049). All the flaps in the study were successful despite 1 requiring emergency re-exploration because of venous congestion. Most of the IMP vessels are small; however, they are still reliable and safe for use as recipient vessels in selected Asian patients. Most are located in the subcutaneous plane, which further facilitates dissection and also reduces recipient-site morbidity.
Ng, Zhi Yang; Ramachandran, Savitha; Tan, Bien-Keem; Foo, Leon; Ng, Siew-Weng
Background: The goals of limb-sparing surgery in the setting of extremity malignancies are 2-fold: oncological clearance and the rehabilitation of function and aesthetics. Treatment success should be defined by the extent of restoration of the patient’s premorbid function for reintegration into society. Methods: We would like to report an unusual case of a patient with a chronically ankylosed elbow with joint invasion by basal cell carcinoma which resulted from malignant transformation of an overlying, long-standing wound due to inadequately treated septic arthritis from his childhood years. Results: Following R0 resection, upper limb shortening and compression plate elbow arthrodesis were performed with the aim of restoring the degree of upper limb function that the patient had been accustomed to preoperatively. The resultant circumferential defect was then closed with a contralateral, free muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap. Conclusions: Functional preservation may therefore be more important than the mere restoration of anatomical defects in these especially challenging situations. PMID:27418897
Sowa, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kushida, Rie; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki
Several investigators have evaluated the impaired function of the shoulder after removal of the latissimus dorsi muscle for breast reconstruction. However, a few investigators have studied whether including radiotherapy has a negative effect on functional recovery of the shoulder by a long-term follow-up after surgery. In this study, we compared objective measurements of shoulder function preoperatively and postoperatively for 3 years after latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) flap transfer and postoperative radiotherapy (PRT). Eighteen patients who underwent unilateral transfer of a pedicled LDM flap and PRT within 2 months of breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in this study. Range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength in exhaustive shoulder movements were measured before surgery, and at 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 3 years. The results of ROM measurements at 3months postsurgery showed significant decreases in both flexion and abduction by 7.1 and 9.2 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 4.7 and 5.7 %. The muscle strength measurements at 3 months postsurgery showed statistically significant decreases both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation by 30.7 and 25.9 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 36.4 and 20.4 %. A significant improvement in these impairments was not observed for 3 years after surgery compared with that at 3 months after surgery. A combination of the LDM flap procedure and PRT could be associated with a higher incidence of tissue adhesions in both flexion and abduction and muscle deficit both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation.
Kappos, Elisabeth A; Jaskolka, Jeff; Butler, Kate; O'Neill, Anne C; Hofer, Stefan O P; Zhong, Toni
A major shortcoming associated with abdominal tissue breast reconstruction is long-term abdominal wall morbidity. Although abdominal muscle size on computed tomographic angiography has been correlated with morbidity following many abdominal operations, it has not been studied for breast reconstruction. Therefore, the authors evaluated the association between preoperative computed tomography angiography-derived measurements of abdominal core muscles and postoperative abdominal wall morbidity after abdominal tissue breast reconstruction. In this retrospective matched case-control study of women who underwent microsurgical abdominal flap breast reconstruction at one institution between January 2011 and June 2015, the authors evaluated all cases of postoperative bulge/hernia, matched by type of abdominal flap and body mass index in a ratio of 1:2 to controls without bulge/hernia. The authors obtained morphometric measurements of abdominal core muscles on preoperative computed tomographic angiographs. Using univariable and multivariable logistic regressions, the authors examined the effects of clinical risk factors and computed tomographic angiography morphometric measurements on postoperative bulge/hernia formation. Of the 589 patients who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction, symptomatic bulges/hernias were identified in 35 patients (5.9 percent). When compared to the 70 matched controls, multivariable analysis showed that decreased area of rectus abdominis muscle (OR, 0.18; p < 0.01) and increased inter-rectus abdominis distance (OR, 1.14; p < 0.01) on computed tomographic angiography were significant risk factors associated with postoperative bulge/hernia. Preoperative computed tomographic angiography allows objective measurements of the patient's abdominal muscle anatomy that provide valuable prognostic information on the risk of bulge/hernia formation following abdominally based microsurgical breast reconstruction. Risk, III.
Chana, Jagdeep S.; Odili, Joy
Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complex head and neck defects. Perforator flaps represent the most recent advance in the development of free flap surgery. These flaps are based on perforating vessels and can be harvested without significant damage to associated muscles, thereby reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with muscle-based flaps. Elevation of perforator flaps requires meticulous technique and can be more challenging than raising muscle-based flaps. Use of a Doppler device enables reliable identification of the perforating vessels and aids in the design of free-style free flaps, where the flaps are designed purely according to the perforator located. The major advantage of free-style free flaps is that an unlimited number of flaps can potentially be designed on much shorter pedicles. The anterolateral thigh flap is the most commonly used perforator flap in head and neck reconstruction. Its use is described in detail, as is use of other less common perforator flaps. This article also describes head and neck reconstruction in a region-specific manner and gives a short-list of suitable flaps based on the location of the defect. PMID:22550446
Muellner, Thomas; Kumar, Sandeep; Singla, Amit
The complete proximal hamstring avulsion is relatively uncommon injury and predominantly occurs in young athletes but causes significant functional impairment. In chronic cases, the muscle mass is so much retracted that primary repair is not possible. A surgical technique for reconstruction of chronic proximal hamstring avulsion using contralateral semitendinosus and gracilis autograft is described in this case report. V.
Liu, Dong; Wang, Wenzhang; Cai, Aibing; Han, Zhiyi; Li, Xiyuan; Ma, Jiagui
To analyze and summarize the clinical features and experience in surgical treatment of deep sternal infection (DSWI). This was a retrospective study. From January 2008 to December 2013, 189 patients with secondary DSWI after cardiac surgery underwent the pectoralis major muscle flap transposition in our department. There were 116 male and 73 female patients. The mean age was (54 ± 21) years, the body mass index was (26. 1 ± 1. 3) kg/m2. The incidence of postoperation DSWI were after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 93 patients, after other heart surgery plus CABG in 13 patients, after valve surgery in 47 patients, after thoracic aortic surgery in 16 patients, after congenital heart disease in 18 patients, and after cardiac injury in 2 patients. Clean patients' wound and extract secretions, clear the infection thoroughly by surgery and select antibiotics based on susceptibility results, and then repair the wound with appropriate muscle flap, place drain tube with negative pressure. Of all the 189 patients, 184 used isolate pectoralis, 1 used isolate rectus, and 4 used pectoralis plus rectus. The operative wounds of 179 patients were primary healing (94. 7%). Hospital discharge was postponed by 1 week for 7 patients, due to subcutaneous wound infection. Subcutaneous wound infection occurred again in 8 patients 1 week after hospital discharge, and their wounds healed after wound dressing. Nine patients (4. 7%) did not recover, due to residue of the sequestrum and costal chondritis, whom were later cured by undergoing a second treatment of debridement and pectoralis major muscle flap transposition. Eight patients died, in which 2 died of respiratory failure, 2 died of bacterial endocarditis with septicemia, 2 died of renal failure, 1 died of intraoperative bleeding leading to brain death and the 1 died of heart failure. The mortality rate was 4. 2% . The average length of postoperative hospital stay was (14 ± 5) days. The longest postoperative
Zhao, S; Sun, X; Lu, S
The purpose is to radical treatment for late glottic cancer by surgery, to restore the essential function of the larynx, 62 patients of late (T3 and T4) glottic cancer were treated by extended vertical partial and subtotal laryngectomy. At the same time, an appropriate method of reconstruction of laryngeal function by bi-pedical rotatory door muscle-skin flap was presented. The decannulation rate was 87.1% and 85.0% cases enjoyed satisfactory voice. All cases resumed normal mouth-food-taking. The conclusion is that selective treated with extended partial laryngectomy is effective for T3 and T4 glottic cancer.
Saikia, Manuj Kumar; Handique, Akash; Topno, Noor; Sarma, Kalyan
The incidence of bronchoesophageal fistula in presence of benign pathology of tracheal tree or oesophagus is rare. It is encountered in thoracic diseases like tuberculosis, syphilis or histoplasmosis due to erosion by infected lymph node or abscess to adjoining structures. The source of primary pathology has to be eliminated followed by appropriate steps of fistula tract closure is essential for optimal result. We report a 25-year-old patient with left sided bronchoesophageal fistula. He had a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis. A left lower lobectomy followed by repair of oesophageal fistula opening was performed by primary closure and reinforcement with an intercostal muscle flap based on posterior intercostal artery. Postoperative oesophagogram showed short diverticula, which was occluded with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue under radiological guidance. Feeding was started one week after application of glue without further complication. Reports on intercostals muscle flap repair and intervention of residual oesophageal diverticula with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue under radiological guidance are scanty. PMID:27656500
Hadlock, Tessa A; Malo, Juan S; Cheney, Mack L; Henstrom, Douglas K
Free muscle transfer for facial reanimation has become the standard of care in recent decades and is now the cornerstone intervention for dynamic smile reanimation. We sought to quantify smile excursion and quality-of-life (QOL) changes in our pediatric free gracilis recipients following reanimation. We quantified gracilis muscle excursion in 17 pediatric patients undergoing 19 consecutive pediatric free gracilis transplantation operations, using our validated SMILE program, as an objective measure of functional outcome. These were compared against excursion measured the same way in a cohort of 17 adults with 19 free gracilis operations. In addition, we prospectively evaluated QOL outcomes in these children using the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) instrument. The mean gracilis excursion in our pediatric free gracilis recipients was 8.8 mm ± 5.0 mm, which matched adult results, but with fewer complete failures of less than 2-mm excursion, with 2 (11%) and 4 (21%), respectively. Quality-of-life measures indicated statistically significant improvements following dynamic smile reanimation (P = .01). Dynamic facial reanimation using free gracilis transfer in children has an acceptable success rate, yields improved commissure excursion, and improves QOL in the pediatric population. It should be considered first-line therapy for children with lack of a meaningful smile secondary to facial paralysis.
Mowlavi, Arian; Reynolds, Christopher; Neumeister, Michael W; Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Song, Yao-Hua; Naffziger, Ryan; Glatz, Frank R; Russell, Robert C
Free tissue transfers and replantation of amputated limbs are better tolerated by young adolescents than mature adults. The authors hypothesized that this observation may be, in part, because of an attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in younger patients. Because neutrophils have been identified as a critical cell line responsible for IR injury, the authors investigated the effects of animal age on the degree of neutrophil activation in a rat model. Activation was evaluated by monitoring expression of integrin surface markers (mean fluorescence intensity [MFI] of CD11b) and oxidative burst potential (MFI of dihydrorhodamine [DHR] oxidation) by flow cytometry in neutrophils analyzed after 4 hours of ischemia and 1, 4, and 16 hours of reperfusion in a gracilis muscle flap model in mature adult and young adolescent rats. Neutrophil activation was also evaluated in control sham-operated animals, which underwent elevation of gracilis muscle flaps without exposure to an ischemic insult. Muscle edema, determined by wet-to-dry muscle weight ratio, and muscle viability, determined by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining, were completed for gracilis muscles exposed to ischemia after 24 hours of reperfusion for each of the groups. Integrin expression, assessed by MFI of CD11b, was increased significantly in ischemic muscles of mature adult rats at 4 hours of reperfusion (71.10+/-3.53 MFI vs. 54.88+/-12.73 MFI, p=0.025). Neutrophil oxidative potential, assessed by MFI of DHR oxidation, was increased significantly in ischemic muscles of mature adult rats compared with young adolescent rats at 1 hour of reperfusion (78.10+/-9.53 MFI vs. 51.78+/-16.91 MFI, p=0.035) and 4 hours of reperfusion (83.69+/-15.29 MFI vs. 46.55+/-8.09 MFI, p=0.005). Increased edema formation was observed in the ischemic muscles of mature adult rats when compared with young adolescent rats (1.25+/-0.04 vs. 1.12+/-0.05, p=0.031) after 24 hours of reperfusion. A trend toward decreased muscle
Bodin, Frédéric; Diana, Michele; Koutsomanis, Alexandre; Robert, Emeric; Marescaux, Jacques; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine
Free-flap breast reconstruction is a challenging surgical procedure with a steep learning curve. A reproducible large animal model could be relevant for free-flap harvesting and microsurgical anastomosis training. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a porcine model for free-flap breast reconstruction. Three female pigs were placed under general anesthesia in order to study feasibility and estimate relevance for training. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap, and the superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap were harvested and anastomosed to the internal thoracic vessels. Differences were noted between pig and human anatomy, and the surgical procedure was adapted to build training models. Under a more prominent anterior thoracic wall, the internal thoracic vessels were slightly deeper and larger than in human anatomy. The DIEP flap was never feasible in the porcine model. However, the superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flap showed anatomical similarity with the human DIEP flap, and it proved to be suitable for an inverted training model. The porcine TMG flap harvesting was close to the human one, reproducing specific dissection and anastomotic difficulties. The SGAP flap was not a muscular perforator flap in pigs but a septocutaneous flap. Because of the thinness of the hypodermal fat, porcine flaps were not considered adequate training models for breast-mound shaping. Despite any anatomical variations, the pig has proven to be a suitable training model for free-flap harvesting and transfer in the field of breast reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fansa, H; Schirmer, S; Frerichs, O; Gehl, H B
Muscle sparing TRAM flaps and DIEA perforator flaps are standard procedures for breast reconstruction. Recently CT-angiography has been established to evaluate perforator vessels pre-operatively. CT-angiography was introduced to our department in July 2009. In a retrospective analysis data of the last 20 patients (altogether 22 flaps) before CT-angiography introduction and the following 20 (also 22 flaps) patients after introduction of CT-angiography were analysed with regard to the ratio of TRAM to DIEP flaps, and the time required to raise the flaps. The same surgeon raised all flaps. As different surgeons performed dissection of the recipient site, anastomoses, and insertion of flaps, and patients received primary (with sentinel or complete lymphadenctomy) or secondary reconstructions, only the time required harvesting the flap was compared. Thus other influences on raising the flap were eliminated. DIEP flaps were harvested with one single perforator. If perfusion or was considered not to be safe via one single perforator a muscle sparing TRAM flap (ms2) was raised. Angiography was performed using a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner. CT-angiography did not lead to an increased rate of DIEP flaps in relation to ms2-TRAM flaps. Harvesting time of all flap types with CT-angiography on average was 121 min, without CT-angiography 135 min. This was not significantly different. However, separate analysis of DIEP flaps and ms2-TRAM flaps revealed a significant advantage of CT-angiography based harvesting of DIEP flaps of 26 min: with CT-angiography 101 min vs. 127 min without CT-angiography (p<0.028). There were no significant differences for ms2-TRAM flaps. All scans showed course and branching, diameter and size of the inferior epigastric artery. If evident the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) was marked. Dosage was 292 mGy-606 mGy×cm dependent on body weight. CTDI was 6.8-14.7 mGy. CT-angiography is a reproducible and observer independent procedure
Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.
Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.
The aim of this paper was to review the origins and history of deltopectoral flaps and the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.The first published paper on the deltopectoral flap was written by Aymard in 1917. He described raising a medially based fasciocutaneous flap from the shoulder skin, which was then tubed and used for staged nasal reconstruction. Conley introduced the laterally based deltopectoral flap, which was supplied by the lateral thoracic and thoracocranial branches. Bakamjian used a medially based deltopectoral flap for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction; this was an axial flap based medially on the intercostal perforating vessels of the internal mammary artery. Krizek reviewed the literature and stated that Aymard flap was the keystone to the conception and execution of Bakamjian flap. Hueston was the first to combine a skin flap and pectoralis major muscle for repair of the large defects of the chest wall. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps described by Ariyan and Baek are a hybrid of Conley's laterally based deltopectoral flap and Hueston's inclusion of the pectoralis major muscle in the skin flap.When the authors develop what appears to be a new surgical technique, the authors are prone to be excited. However, at such a moment the authors must perform a literature review. In most patients, the authors will realize that the previous authors have already developed a given concept. The authors must not commit plagiarism due to their ignorance or laziness in conducting a literature review.
Fisher, J.; Wood, M.B.
Revascularization, one of the major components of bone healing, was examined in an experimental model. The radioactive microsphere technique demonstrated that after 4 weeks beneath a musculocutaneous flap, isolated bone segments had significant blood flow, whereas bone beneath a cutaneous flap did not. The muscle flap bone had a blood flow approximately half that of normal control bone. The muscle of the musculocutaneous flap had a blood flow three times that of the skin of the cutaneous flap. The bipedicle cutaneous flap used was designed to have a healthy blood supply, and at 4 weeks it had a blood flow twice that of control skin. Despite this, there was essentially no demonstrable blood flow in the cutaneous flap bone segments at 4 weeks. Only 3 of 17 bone segments underneath cutaneous flaps showed medullary vascularization, whereas 10 of 11 muscle flap bones did. All bone segments underneath muscle flaps showed osteoblasts and osteoclasts at 4 weeks; neither were seen in the cutaneous bone segments. The process of revascularization occurred through an intact cortex and penetrated into the cancellous bone. Because the bone segments were surrounded by an impervious barrier except for one cortical surface, the cellular activity seen is attributed to revascularization by the overlying flap. In this model, a muscle flap was superior to a cutaneous flap in revascularizing isolated bone segments at 4 weeks. This was documented by blood flow measured by the radioactive microsphere technique and by bone histology.
Kruter, Laura; Rohrer, Thomas
Advancement flaps are random-pattern flaps frequently used in the reconstruction of surgical defects on the face after the removal of skin cancer. Proper design and meticulous execution is crucial in achieving reproducible esthetic results. To review the design and execution of advancement flaps in facial reconstruction. A review of the literature on the use of advancement flaps in facial reconstruction was performed and curated with the authors' experience. Many factors come into play when using local flaps to reconstruct surgical defects on the face. Close attention must be given to the tissue surrounding the surgical defect and any free margin in the area. Designing the flap closure lines along cosmetic unit junctions and or relaxed skin tension lines, preserving both the form and function of the surrounding structures, and using excellent surgical techniques during the closure will all together help in providing reproducibly outstanding results.
Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chew, Khong-Yik; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Lin, Pao-Yuan
Pressure sore reconstruction remains a significant challenge for plastic surgeons due to its high postoperative complication and recurrence rates. Free-style perforator flap, fasciocutaeous flap, and musculocutaneous flap are the most common options in pressure sore reconstructions. Our study compared the postoperative complications among these three flaps at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. From 2003 to 2012, 99 patients (54 men and 45 women) with grade III or IV pressure sores received regional flap reconstruction, consisting of three cohorts: group A, 35 free-style perforator-based flaps; group B, 37 gluteal rotation fasciocutaneous flaps; and group C, 27 musculocutaneous or muscle combined with fasciocutaneous flap. Wound complications such as wound infection, dehiscence, seroma formation of the donor site, partial or complete flap loss, and recurrence were reviewed. The mean follow-up period for group A was 24.2 months, 20.8 months in group B, and 19.0 months for group C. The overall complication rate was 22.9%, 32.4%, and 22.2% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The flap necrosis rate was 11.4%, 13.5%, and 0% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There was no statistical significance regarding complication rate and flap necrosis rate among different groups. In our study, the differences of complication rates and flap necrosis rate between these groups were not statistically significant. Further investigations should be conducted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Chung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung
Background For large tongue defects, reconstructive surgeons have devised a variety of feasible options, such as radial forearm free flap and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. In our institution, peroneal flap has been the workhorse flap for the soft tissue defect in head and neck reconstruction. We present our experience using peroneal flap in tongue reconstruction. Patients and Methods The study included 47 patients who had undergone tongue reconstructions with peroneal flaps after tumor resection. The size and location of the defect after tumor resection determined whether the peroneal flaps could be harvested as pure septocutaneous flaps to solely reconstruct the neotongue or to carry an additional muscle bulk to fill the adjacent defect. Retrospective chart review was used to look for postoperative complications and to perform functional assessments (which were also performed through telephone inquiry). Results Of the 47 patients, 3 (6%) had flap failure and 1 (2.1%) had partial flap necrosis. The hemiglossectomy group had better results than the total glossectomy group with respect to speech and diet, but neither of these results reached statistical significance (p = 1.0 for speech and p = 0.06 for diet). The results of the subtotal glossectomy group were better than those of the total glossectomy group with respect to diet (p = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted among the three groups with respect to cosmetic aspect (p = 0.64). Conclusions Considering its reasonable postoperative complication rates and functional results, peroneal flap can be considered a feasible option for tongue reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G
From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.
Bellidenty, L; Chastel, R; Pluvy, I; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y
Authors analyzed 89 cases (86 patients) of lower limb extensive soft tissue defects reconstruction during 1978 to 2013. The mean age is 37 years and 2 months old (range: 5-84 years old). A total of 71 males and 15 female were included. Free flaps were used in emergency in 23 cases for principally covering Gustilo 3B open lower limb fracture and in a later stage for 66 cases all referred from their center for coverage of exposed bone, with frequently osteomyelitis. About the selection of free flaps, in 47 cases we used a latissimus dorsi flaps, 12 cases of epiploon free transfer (in septic area), 10 cases of gracilis transfer and 10 serratus anterior flaps. There are one medial gastrocnemius flap, 2 composite soleus and fibular free flap, 2 antebrachial flap, one inguinal myoosteocutaneous flap, 1 transferred from the other lower limb and one inguinal cutaneous flap. There are 18 free flap losses: one in emergency and 17 after delayed reconstruction. Authors retrospectively analyzed the results (complications, osteomyelitis) according to the timing for lower extremity reconstruction. They found a low infection and flap failure rates (4%) when the coverage is made in the same operating time than initial fracture fixation, they increase to 60% for osteomyelitis and to 23% for flap failure when the reconstruction is delayed.
Danino, Alain M; Guberman, Daniel S; Robe, Nicolas
Mitek or Arim anchors were developed for use in orthopaedic surgery to facilitate soft tissue fixation to bone. We believe this tool can be useful in difficult cases when securing various flaps to bone, we present a retrospective study of deep thickness burns patients. We conducted a retrospective study, including severely burned patients who underwent flap reconstruction with Mitek or Arim anchor fixation between 1999 and 2007 in our unit. Characteristics analysed included indications for surgery, and postoperative complications. Nine patients (nine flaps) were included, seven men and two women with age ranging from 22 to 59 years old. Flaps were as follows: one gracilis, two latissimus dorsi, four medial gastrocnemius and two lateral gastrocnemius flaps. Indications for reconstruction were: open fractures or joint exposure in severely burned patient. Only one complication was noted: partial flap necrosis with infection of the bone anchor necessitating ablation and a new mobilisation of the flap. Mitek anchors are a useful tool in plastic surgery. Suture anchors are used when coverage poses a risk of shearing away from the bone or adequate periosteum and soft tissue is not available for standard suture techniques. The anchor system provides a simple, fast, and efficient technique for flap fixation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Schachner, Emma R; Manning, Phillip L; Dodson, Peter
The discovery of a largely complete and well preserved specimen of Poposaurus gracilis has provided the opportunity to generate the first phylogenetically based reconstruction of pelvic and hindlimb musculature of an extinct nondinosaurian archosaur. As in dinosaurs, multiple lineages of basal archosaurs convergently evolved parasagittally erect limbs. However, in contrast to the laterally projecting acetabulum, or "buttress erect" hip morphology of ornithodirans, basal archosaurs evolved a very different, ventrally projecting acetabulum, or "pillar erect" hip. Reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb musculotendinous system in a bipedal suchian archosaur clarifies how the anatomical transformations associated with the evolution of bipedalism in basal archosaurs differed from that of bipedal dinosaurs and birds. This reconstruction is based on the direct examination of the osteology and myology of phylogenetically relevant extant taxa in conjunction with osteological correlates from the skeleton of P. gracilis. This data set includes a series of inferences (presence/absence of a structure, number of components, and origin/insertion sites) regarding 26 individual muscles or muscle groups, three pelvic ligaments, and two connective tissue structures in the pelvis, hindlimb, and pes of P. gracilis. These data provide a foundation for subsequent examination of variation in myological orientation and function based on pelvic and hindlimb morphology, across the basal archosaur lineage leading to extant crocodilians.
Brown, Rodger H; Sharabi, Safa E; Kania, Katarzyna E; Hollier, Larry H; Izaddoost, Shayan A
The pectoralis major is a versatile flap used as an advancement or turnover flap for sternal wound treatment. The advancement flap provides suboptimal inferior sternal coverage and poorly fills mediastinal dead space. The turnover flap covers the inferior sternum and fills dead space but requires disinsertion of the muscle from the humerus, resulting in functional loss and cosmetic deformity. The authors describe a new technique of splitting the pectoralis muscle along its fibers, using the superior portion as an advancement flap and the inferior portion as a turnover flap. Eleven patients underwent the described technique. Nine patients healed without complications or repeated operations. One patient had a recurrent aortic graft infection requiring reoperation. One patient had a postoperative seroma requiring incision and drainage. Using the pectoralis as an advancement and turnover flap allows inferior sternum and mediastinum coverage using one donor site and maintaining the function of the muscle and preventing cosmetic deformity.
Fox, Paige; Endress, Ryan; Sen, Subhro; Chang, James
The ability to use the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap as a vascularized fascial flap, without skin or muscle, was first documented by Koshima et al in 1989. The authors mention the possibility of using the fascia alone for dural reconstruction. Despite its description more than 20 years ago, little literature exists on the application of the ALT flap as a vascularized fascial flap. In our experience, the ALT flap can be used as a fascia-only flap for thin, pliable coverage in extremity reconstruction. After approval from the institutional review board, the medical records and photographs of patients who had undergone fascia-only ALT free flaps for extremity reconstruction were reviewed. Photographic images of patients were then matched to patients who had undergone either a muscle-only or a fasciocutaneous free flap reconstruction of an extremity. Photographs of the final reconstruction were then given to medical and nonmedical personnel for analysis, focusing on aesthetics including color and contour. Review of cases performed over a 2-year period demonstrated similar ease of harvest for fascia-only ALT flaps compared to standard fasciocutaneous ALT flaps. Fascia-only flaps were used for thin, pliable coverage in the upper and lower extremities. There was no need for secondary procedures for debulking or aesthetic flap revision. In contrast to muscle flaps, which require muscle atrophy over time to achieve their final appearance, there was a similar flap contour from approximately 1 month postoperatively throughout the duration of follow-up. When a large flap is required, the fascia-only ALT has the advantage of a single-line donor-site scar. Photograph comparison to muscle flaps with skin grafts and fasciocutaneous flaps demonstrated improved color, contour, and overall aesthetic appearance of the fascia-only ALT over muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. The fascia-only ALT flap provides reliable, thin, and pliable coverage with improved contour and color over
Levine, Steven; Garfein, Evan S; Weiner, Howard; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Saadeh, Pierre B; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Levine, Jamie P; Warren, Stephen M
Large acquired intracranial defects can result from trauma or surgery. When reoperation is required because of infection or tumor recurrence, management of the intracranial dead space can be challenging. By providing well-vascularized bulky tissue, intracranial microvascular free flaps offer potential solutions to these life-threatening complications. A multi-institutional retrospective chart and radiographic review was performed of all patients who underwent microvascular free-flap surgery for salvage treatment of postoperative intracranial infections between 1998 and 2006. A total of six patients were identified with large intracranial defects and postoperative intracranial infections. Four patients had parenchymal resections for tumor or seizure and two patients had posttraumatic encephalomalacia. All patients underwent operative debridement and intracranial free-flap reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi muscle (N=2), rectus abdominis muscle (N=2), or omentum (N=2). All patients had titanium (N=4) or Medpor (N=2) cranioplasties. We concluded that surgery or trauma can result in significant intracranial dead space. Treatment of postoperative intracranial infection can be challenging. Vascularized free tissue transfer not only fills the void, but also provides a delivery system for immune cells, antibodies, and systemically administered antibiotics. The early use of this technique when intracranial dead space and infection coexist is beneficial.
A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap. PMID:19881020
Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.
For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of ‘stacked’ bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791
Clifton, Marisa M; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Javier; Baker, Todd; Vasavada, Sandip P
Vaginal stenosis is an unfortunate complication that can occur after pelvic radiation therapy for gynecologic or colorectal malignancies. Treatment is challenging and can require significant reconstructive surgery. The objective of this video is to present a case of vaginal stenosis after radiation and describe vaginal reconstruction with a fasciocutaneous Singapore flap. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of stage 3 colorectal cancer who underwent partial colectomy, chemotherapy, and pelvic radiation. She subsequently developed a rectovaginal fistula requiring repair with a right-sided gracilis flap. When her stenosis recurred, she underwent vaginal reconstruction with a medial thigh flap. The Singapore flap is a pudendal thigh flap centered on the labial crural fold with a base at the perineal body. As the cutaneous innervation is spared, this flap is sensate. This technique is one option for patients with complex vaginal stenosis who have failed conservative management. However, it is imperative the patient perform vaginal dilation postoperatively and maintain close follow-up with her surgeon, as vaginal stenosis can recur. Postradiation vaginal stenosis is a complex condition to treat; however, vaginal reconstruction with a thigh flap can provide excellent cosmetic and functional results.
Holmes, A D; Marshall, K A
We report the use of the temporalis muscle as a transposition flap to obliterate the orbit in 5 patients. In 4 of the cases we split the muscle coronally and passed the anterior part through a window in the lateral orbital wall. In two of these patients, skin grafts were put on both sides of the temporalis muscle-fascia flap, to restore nasal lining and to cover the facial surface simultaneously. In the remaining patients, the muscle was split sagittally to provide a large surface for coverage. The temporalis muscle flap is a versatile one for filling orbits after exenteration.
A.B. Carey; J.E. Kershner
During surveys of upland forests in the Tsuga heterophylla Zone in Washington and Oregon, 1986 to 1996, we caught 192 S. gracilis. In the Oregon Coast Range, more (85%) S. gracilis were caught in oldeilar to Coast Range old growth (P = 0.60) with no differences between seral stages (P = 0.74). No S....
Cavadas, P C; Sanz-Giménez-Rico, J R; Gutierrez-de la Cámara, A; Navarro-Monzonís, A; Soler-Nomdedeu, S; Martínez-Soriano, F
The medial sural artery supplies the medial gastrocnemius muscle and sends perforating branches to the skin. The possible use of these musculocutaneous perforators as the source of a perforator-based free flap was investigated in cadavers. Ten legs were dissected, and the topography of significant perforating musculocutaneous vessels on both the medial and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles was recorded. A mean of 2.2 perforators (range, 1 to 4) was noted over the medial gastrocnemius muscle, whereas in only 20 percent of the specimens was a perforator of moderate size noted over the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. The perforating vessels from the medial sural artery clustered about 9 to 18 cm from the popliteal crease. When two perforators were present (the most frequent case), the perforators were located at a mean of 11.8 cm (range, 8.5 to 15 cm) and 17 cm (range, 15 to 19 cm) from the popliteal crease. A series of six successful clinical cases is reported, including five free flaps and one pedicled flap for ipsilateral lower-leg and foot reconstruction. The dissection is somewhat tedious, but the vascular pedicle can be considerably long and of suitable caliber. Donor-site morbidity was minimal because the muscle was not included in the flap. Although the present series is short, it seems that the medial sural artery perforator flap can be a useful flap for free and pedicled transfer in lower-limb reconstruction.
Del Corral, Gabriel A; Wes, Ari M; Fischer, John P; Serletti, Joseph M; Wu, Liza C
For patients with BRCA mutations, a simultaneous procedure that combines risk-reducing operation of the ovaries with mastectomy and breast reconstruction is an attractive option. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes and associated cost of performing simultaneous mastectomy, free flap breast reconstruction (FFR), and gynecologic procedure. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent bilateral FFR from 2005 to 2012. Four hundred twenty-two patients were identified who underwent bilateral breast reconstruction without a simultaneous gynecologic procedure. Forty-two patients were identified who underwent simultaneous FFR and gynecologic procedure. Clinical outcomes, medical and surgical complications, and hospital costs were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups. A total of 928 free flaps were performed on 464 patients. Forty-two patients had a simultaneous gynecologic procedure at the time of breast reconstruction. Twenty-three (54.8%) patients within the study group underwent simultaneous bilateral salpingo oophorectomy (BSO), whereas the other 19 (45.2%) underwent both total abdominal hysterectomy and BSO. Eighty-four free flaps were performed in this cohort (n = 48 muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous, n = 28 deep inferior epigastric perforator, n = 4 superficial inferior epigastric perforator, n = 4 transverse upper gracilis). Mean operative time was 573 minutes. Mean hospitalization was 5.3 days. Postoperatively, 4 patients experienced an anastomotic thrombosis; 2 patients had an arterial thrombosis and 2 patients had a venous thrombosis. There were 2 flap failures, 2 patients with mastectomy skin flap necrosis, 11 patients who developed breast wound healing complications, and 6 patients who developed abdominal wound healing complications. Surgical and medical complication rates did not differ significantly between those who had simultaneous procedures, and those who did not. There was a
Sagebiel, Tara L; Faria, Silvana C; Balachandran, Aparna; Butler, Charles E; Garvey, Patrick B; Bhosale, Priya R
This article will describe and illustrate the relevant anatomy and surgical techniques used in pelvic reconstruction using regional pedicled thigh flaps, which is often necessary in oncologic surgeries. Examples of normal postoperative imaging and common complications that can accompany pelvic reconstruction with anterolateral, gracilis myocutaneous, and posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flaps will be provided. Pelvic reconstruction using regional pedicled thigh flaps is often needed with extirpative oncologic surgeries to eliminate dead space, provide pelvic organ support, restore form and function, and introduce vascularized tissue to promote wound healing. Radiologists need to be aware of the normal postoperative appearance of these flaps so that the flaps are not mistaken for residual or recurrent disease and so that residual or recurrent disease can be identified and treated.
Yang, Yi; Yang, Jian-Tao; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiang-Ming; Qin, Ben-Gang; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang
In the study, the functional recovery and relative comprehensive quality of life of cases of global brachial plexus treated with free functioning muscle transfers were investigated. Patients who received functioning gracilis muscle transfer between August 1999 and October 2014 to reconstruct elbow flexion, wrist and fingers extension were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 26.36 (range, 16–42) years. The mean period of time from gracilis transfer to the last follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 12–185 months). Muscle power, active range of motion of the elbow flexion, wrist extension, and total active fingers extension were recorded. SDS, SAS and DASH questionnaires were given to estimate patients’ quality of life. 35.71% reported good elbow flexion and 50.00% reported excellent elbow flexion. The average ROM of the elbow flexion was 106.5° (range, 0–142°) and was 17.00° (range, 0–72°) for wrist extension. The average DASH score was 51.14 (range, 17.5–90.8). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.86% and 45.24%. Thrombosis and bowstringing were the most common short and long-term complications. Based on these findings, free gracilis transfer using accessory nerve as donor nerve is a satisfactory treatment to reconstruct the elbow flexion and wrist extension in global-brachial-plexus-injured patients. PMID:26935173
Liu, Dong Yan; Tian, Xiao Jiao; Li, Cheng; Sun, Shao Shan; Xiong, Ying Hui; Zeng, Xian-Tao
Approximately 34-86% of neoplasms of the salivary glands are located in the parotid gland and parotidectomy is the first-line treatment for parotid gland tumors. Frey syndrome and cosmetic deformity are common complications experienced by patients following parotidectomy and the sternocleidomastoid muscle flap (SCMF) is used to prevent them. Numerous studies have been performed to examine the effectiveness of the SCMF for the prevention of cosmetic deformity and Frey syndrome, however, they provide contradictory results and possess small sample sizes with consequently low statistical power. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the SCMF for the prevention of Frey syndrome and cosmetic deformity following parotidectomy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were identified using PubMed and CNKI databases, and references of studies up to August 2012 were included. Using these criteria, we yielded 11 RCTs. Following an independent assessment of the methodological quality of these studies and the extraction of data, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that there was a significant trend towards a lower risk of objective incidence [67%; risk ratio (RR), 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.67; P<0.01] and subjective incidence (66%; RR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.16-0.75; P= 0.01) of Frey syndrome in the SCMF group. The sensitivity analysis also indicated that this result was significant. Due to the considerable variation between the included studies, a meta-analysis was not applicable to assess cosmetic deformity. Two RCTs demonstrated that the difference between the SCMF and no SCMF group was not statistically significant, while the other seven RCTs detected a statistically significant difference between the two groups. Publication bias was detected. In conclusion, based on currently available evidence, the use of the SCMF is benefical
Severe, traumatic soft-tissue loss in the antecubital fossa and proximal forearm associated with radial and/or median nerve palsy: nerve recovery after coverage with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap.
Al-Qattan, M M
A total of 6 patients with complex, traumatic wounds of the antecubital fossa and proximal forearm were included in this study. All patients presented with radial and/or median nerve palsies in addition to their soft-tissue defect. Except for 1 patient with a 15-cm defect of the radial nerve, all other traumatized nerves appeared in-continuity at the time of surgery. However, the nerve injury was severe enough to induce Wallerian degeneration (i.e., axonotmesis in traumatized nerves in-continuity). Three patients required brachial artery reconstruction with a reverse saphenous vein graft. Wound coverage was accomplished using a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, which was covered with a split-thickness skin graft. Successful reconstruction was obtained in all patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 6 years. The range of motion at the elbow and forearm was considered excellent in 5 patients and good in the remaining patient who had an intra-articular fracture. Motor recovery of traumatized nerves in-continuity was observed in all but 1 patient who had persistent partial anterior interosseous nerve palsy. The grip strength of the injured hand measured 70% to 85% of the contralateral uninjured hand. Median nerve sensory recovery was excellent in all patients. The versatility of the pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap for coverage of these complex wounds with traumatized neurovascular bundles around the elbow is discussed.
Morice, Anne; Kolb, Frédéric; Picard, Arnaud; Kadlub, Natacha; Puget, Stéphanie
Reconstruction of complex skull defects requires collaboration between neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons to choose the most appropriate procedure, especially in growing children. The authors describe herein the reconstruction of an extensive traumatic bone and soft tissue defect of the cranial vault in an 11-year-old boy. The size of the defect, quality of the tissues, and patient's initial condition required a 2-stage approach. Ten months after an initial emergency procedure in which lacerated bone and soft tissue were excised, reconstruction was performed. The bone defect, situated on the left frontoparietal region, was 85 cm(2) and was filled by a custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant. The quality of the overlying soft tissue did not allow the use of classic local and locoregional coverage techniques. A free latissimus dorsi muscle flap branched on the contralateral superficial temporal pedicle was used and left for secondary healing to take advantage of scar retraction and to minimize alopecia. Stable well-vascularized implant coverage as well as an esthetically pleasing skull shape was achieved. Results in this case suggest that concomitant reconstruction of large calvarial defects by cranioplasty with a custom-made hydroxyapatite implant covered by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a safe and efficient procedure in children, provided that there is no underlying infection of the operative site.
Pshenisnov, K P; Pulin, A G
A study of the morphologic and physiologic adaptations of orthotopic microneurovascular gracilis musculocutaneous transplantations was done on dogs, using postoperative electrostimulation or prior denervation, compared to controls. Postoperative electrostimulation helped preserve enzyme activity at muscle synapses. Prior denervation demonstrated the enhancement of nerve-fiber penetration into the transplanted muscle, producing better restoration of transplant contraction than in controls. These techniques maximize the functional results of dynamic gracilis musculocutaneous microneurovascular transplantation in the dog model.
Ren, Zhen-Hu; Wu, Han-Jiang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Sheng; Tan, Hong Yu; Gong, Zhao Jian
The anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap is one of the most commonly used flaps in reconstructive procedures, but its application in oral and maxillofacial defects has not been fully determined. Herein, we summarize the application of 1212 anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps in the repair of oral and maxillofacial defects and examine their benefits in maxillofacial reconstruction of these defects. Patients were recruited from February 2002 to June 2013 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Central South University. All patients underwent reconstructive surgery employing anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps. Patient ages ranged from 6 to 82 years with a mean age of 51.2 years. There are 1015 flaps showing single lobe and 197 flaps showing a multi-island pedicle and one of which carries the iliac bone. The largest area among the single flaps was 28 × 12 cm(2), and the smallest was 3 × 2 cm(2). Among the 1212 transferred flaps, 1176 survived and 36 showed necrosis, a survival rate of about 97.0%. The common complications at flap donor site were poor wound healing (10.1%), localized paraesthesia (50.1%), and altered quadriceps force (11.0%). No cases presented with local serious complications, and 90% of patients achieved good functional recovery and aesthetically acceptable results after reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects at various locations using anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps. The time (23-121 min; average 51 min) for anastomosis of one vein and one artery was significantly less than that for two veins and one artery (45-153 min, average 83 min; p = 0.0003), which indicates one vein anastomosis can significantly reduce the operating time. The anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps can be easily obtained and can provide a good amount of muscle for filling dead space and fascia lata. These flaps can be prepared into a separate fat flap, multi-island fascia with iliac bone, and other composite pedicle flaps to meet the
Nisanci, Mustafa; Sahin, Ismail; Eski, Muhitdin; Alhan, Dogan
Management of long-term bedridden patients experiencing pressure sores still represents a surgical challenge due to limited flap alternatives and high recurrence rates after the treatment. Fasciocutaneous, musculocutaneous, local perforator-based flaps, and free flaps have all been used for treatment of trochanteric pressure sores. This study presents a new use of distal gluteus maximus (GM) muscle as an advancement musculocutaneous flap for coverage of trochanteric pressure sores in 7 patients. The technique involves design of a long V-shaped skin island over the distal fibers of the GM muscle, beginning from the inferoposterior wound edge and extending inferomedially, almost parallel to the gluteal crease. After its harvest as an island flap on the distal fibers of the GM muscle, the skin paddle can be advanced onto the trochanteric defect, whereas the muscle itself is rotated after severing its insertion to femur. If a second triangular skin island is designed on the proximal fibers of GM muscle to cover an associated sacral defect, 2 coexisting pressure sores can be reconstructed concomitantly with 2 skin paddles on a single muscle belly at 1 surgical setting. Of the 7 patients, 3 had 3 (bilateral trochanteric and sacral), 2 had 2 (sacral and trochanteric), and 2 had 1 (only trochanteric) pressure sores. All ulcers were closed successfully and all of the flaps survived totally without any complication except the one in which we experienced minimal wound dehiscence in the early postoperative period. Conclusively, our current surgical method provided a reliable coverage for trochanteric pressure sores although it was technically straightforward and fast. Additionally, it offers simultaneous closure of 2 pressure ulcers with 2 skin islands on a single muscle flap.
Koshima, I; Hosoda, M; Inagawa, K; Moriguchi, T; Orita, Y
The medial thigh flap is a perforator-based flap nourished with septocutaneous or muscle perforators originating from the femoral vessels. To date, 8 patients have been repaired with this flap and extended or connected flaps including this flap: 4 patients with lower leg defects and 4 patients with intraoral and neck defects. The advantages of this flap are (1) several pedicle perforators exist for this flap, which makes possible duplicated vascular anastomoses to establish reliable circulation of the transferred flap; (2) the flap can be extended or connected to other neighboring flaps in the anterior thigh, so that extensively wide defects can be closed in one stage; (3) the great saphenous vein can be simultaneously used as a vein graft or for venous drainage for the flap; (4) the anterior branch of the femoral nerve can be used for sensory potential; and (5) there is minimum morbidity of the donor defect and a large dominant vessel for the leg can be preserved. The suitable indications for this flap are defects after removal of skin cancer in the foot or lower leg and wide defects after resection of head and neck cancer, which can be reconstructed with the flap connected to neighboring skin flaps. The disadvantages of this flap are that it has a small, short vascular pedicle and the bulkiness of the flap's fatty tissue often requires thinning.
Sönmez, Ahmet; Bayramiçli, Mehmet; Sönmez, Burcu; Numanoğlu, Ayhan
Neurotized fasciocutaneous flaps and split-skin grafted muscle flaps are the most frequently used free flap alternatives for the reconstruction of weight-bearing surfaces of the foot. An objective comparison of the innate characteristics of these two flap types, with respect to long-term stability, has not been possible because sensory reinnervation in the fasciocutaneous flaps has been a confounding factor. This study compares nonsensate fasciocutaneous flaps (n = 9) with nonsensate split-skin grafted muscle flaps (n = 11), with mean follow-up periods of 34.3 and 31.3 months, respectively. Patients completed a form that included questions regarding degree of pain at the operative site, presence of ulcers, ability to wear normal shoes, employment status, and time spent standing on foot. Touch and deep sensation were evaluated with Semmes-Weinstein and vibration tests, respectively. Significantly less pain and less ulceration (p < 0.05) were observed in the fasciocutaneous group. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests revealed poorer results with split-skin grafted muscle flaps, compared with fasciocutaneous flaps. These results indicate that even if the sensory protection of fasciocutaneous flaps is not considered, these flaps have superior properties, compared with split-skin grafted muscle flaps.
Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea
Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173
The protective efficacy and safety of bandage contact lenses in children aged 5 to 11 after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis: A single-center randomized controlled trial.
Chen, Lin; Pi, Lianhong; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xinke; Liu, Qing
Postoperative complications, lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy sometimes occur after surgery for congenital blepharoptosis. Bandage contact lenses (BCL) can help prevent some ocular surface disorders. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BCL for protection of the ocular surface in children aged 5 to 11 years after frontalis muscle flap suspension for congenital blepharoptosis. We conducted a prospective randomized clinical study of 30 eyes of 30 patients with congenital blepharoptosis consecutively enrolled at the Ophthalmology Ward of the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China from September 1, 2016, to February 30, 2017. After frontalis muscle flap suspension surgery, patients were randomly assigned to undergo BCL application (BCL group, 15 eyes) or no BCL application (control group, 15 eyes). All patients were treated with bramycin 0.3% and polyvinyl alcohol drops after surgery. The primary outcomes were dry eye assessed by tear film break time (TFBUT), fluoresce in corneal staining (FCS) on slit-lamp on days 1, 3, and 15 postoperatively, and lower tear meniscus height (LTMH) on optical coherence tomography on days 1 and 15 postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were pairwise correlation of TFBUT, FCS and LTMH. In the BCL group, abnormal TFBUT and FCS were only found in 2 patients (13.33%) on postoperative day 15. In the control group, the incidence of dry eye assessed by TFBUT was 67.00% (10/15 eyes) on day 1, 73.33% (11/15 eyes) on day 3, and 53.33% (8/15 eyes) on day 15 (P < .001). LTMH were significantly higher in the BCL group than the control group postoperatively (P < .001). Significant positive correlations were found between LTMH and TFBUT pre-operation and on days 1 and 15 post-operation. For LTMH and FCSS (R = -0.815, P < .001), and TFBUT and FCS (R = -0.837, P < .001), the Pearson coefficient was negative on postoperative day 1, but not correlated on day 15. Silicone hydrogel BCL were
Flaps from the forearm are often used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects in the hand. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap has the advantage that it does not sacrifice a major vascular axis. The anatomic bases of this flap are the proximal and distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery. The distal branch is partially accompanied with the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, and arrives under the abductor digiti quinti muscle making anastomoses with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. The proximal branch reaching the proximal third of the forearm, and anastomose with perforating branches of the ulnar artery. I used this island flap in 12 patients with coverage defects on the hand. The biggest flap was 13×6 cm. Only 1 flap had partial necrosis which did not lead to problems. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap is a flap designed with reverse flow from the distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery, and which does not sacrifice the ulnar artery. The donor defect on the forearm ulnar side had a greater esthetic acceptance. Knowing other distal anastomoses, described by other authors later, dorsal at the base of the fourth interdigital space grant greater security to the retrograde ulnar dorsal flap. It is worth highlighting the importance of preserving the adipofascial tissue around the pedicle. Experience with this flap permits us to state that it is a safe and reproducible flap to cover any defect on the dorsal of the hand as well as the first web space.
Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Sang Wha; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Youn Hwan
Microsurgical free tissue transfer is regarded as the best available method of tissue reconstruction for intractable defects. The ideal soft tissue flap is thought to be the anterolateral thigh flap. On the basis of 334 procedures involving the latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, we discuss the advantages of the LD flap over the current universal option, and we aimed to establish whether the LD could also gain universal status in all reconstructive fields.Three hundred thirty-four reconstructive procedures using the LD flap were performed in 322 patients between September 2002 and July 2012. In accordance with defect characteristics, we performed 334 procedures using flaps, which included the LD muscle flap with skin graft, the myocutaneous flap, the muscle-sparing flap, the perforator flap, the chimeric flap, and the 2-flap technique using the serratus anterior branch.Flap-related complications occurred in 21 patients (6.3%), including total and partial flap failure. In 253 cases, the donor site was closed primarily, and in the remaining cases, we used split-thickness skin grafts. Donor-site complications occurred in 20 cases (6%). In 11 of the 182 cases, no suitable perforators were identified during surgery.The advantages of the LD as a donor site include the possibility of various harvesting positions without position change, versatility of components, availability of muscle to fill extensive defects, and presence of thick fascia to enable full abdominal reconstruction. On the basis of our experience, we concluded that this flap has the potential to be used as widely as, or in preference to, the anterolateral thigh flap in most reconstructive areas.
Ishiwata, Sho; Yanagawa, Takashi; Saito, Kenichi; Takagishi, Kenji
Developments in radiation therapy modalities offer alternative treatments for unresectable malignant tumors in the pelvis and trunk. However, poor vascularity as a result of radiation therapy makes the treated lesion susceptible to infection, and there are no established treatments for pelvic osteomyelitis with a large dead space after radiation therapy. The authors report 2 cases of sacral osteomyelitis after radiation therapy that were treated successfully with a gluteus maximus turnover flap. To create the flap, the distal portion of the lower third of the muscle was detached from the trochanter. The distal edge of the flap was turned toward the sacral defect and sewn to the remnant of the sacrum, which filled the dead space with the muscle bulk. A 68-year-old man with a recurrent sacral chordoma was treated with carbon ion radiation therapy; however, a sacral infection developed 5 months later. Debridement and a course of antibiotics could not control the infection and did not induce sufficient formation of granulation tissue in the large and deep dead space. The turnover flap with both gluteus maximus muscles cured the deep-seated infection and closed the wound. A 58-year-old woman had sacral osteoradionecrosis with infection. A turnover flap created with the left gluteus maximus muscle controlled the infection and closed the wound after the first operation, a V-Y flap, failed. This study showed that a gluteus maximus muscle turnover flap effectively controlled infectious lesions with large and deep dead space around the sacrum. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Häder, D.-P.; Lebert, M.; Richter, P.
Gravitactic orientation in the flagellate Euglena gracilis is mediated by an active physiological receptor rather than a passive alignment of the cells. During a recent space flight on the American shuttle Columbia the cells were subjected to different accelerations between 0 and 1.5 x g and tracked by computerized real-time image analysis. The dependence of orientation on acceleration followed a sigmoidal curve with a threshold at <=0.16 x g and a saturation at about 0.32 x g. No adaptation of the cells to the conditions of weightlessness was observed over the duration of the space mission (12 days). Under terrestrial conditions graviorientation was eliminated when the cells were suspended in a medium the density of which (Ficoll) equaled that of the cell body (1.04 g/ml) and was reversed at higher densities indicating that the whole cytoplasm exerts a pressure on the respective lower membrane. There it probably activates stretch-sensitive calcium specific ion channels since gravitaxis can be affected by gadolinium which is a specific inhibitor of calcium transport in these structures. The sensory transduction chain could involve modulation of the membrane potential since ion channel blockers, ionophores and ATPase inhibitors impair graviperception.
Hallick, R B; Hong, L; Drager, R G; Favreau, M R; Monfort, A; Orsat, B; Spielmann, A; Stutz, E
We report the complete DNA sequence of the Euglena gracilis, Pringsheim strain Z chloroplast genome. This circular DNA is 143,170 bp, counting only one copy of a 54 bp tandem repeat sequence that is present in variable copy number within a single culture. The overall organization of the genome involves a tandem array of three complete and one partial ribosomal RNA operons, and a large single copy region. There are genes for the 16S, 5S, and 23S rRNAs of the 70S chloroplast ribosomes, 27 different tRNA species, 21 ribosomal proteins plus the gene for elongation factor EF-Tu, three RNA polymerase subunits, and 27 known photosynthesis-related polypeptides. Several putative genes of unknown function have also been identified, including five within large introns, and five with amino acid sequence similarity to genes in other organisms. This genome contains at least 149 introns. There are 72 individual group II introns, 46 individual group III introns, 10 group II introns and 18 group III introns that are components of twintrons (introns-within-introns), and three additional introns suspected to be twintrons composed of multiple group II and/or group III introns, but not yet characterized. At least 54,804 bp, or 38.3% of the total DNA content is represented by introns. PMID:8346031
Vien, Le Thi; Ngoan, Bui Thi; Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Vinh, Le Ba; Thung, Do Cong; Thao, Do Thi; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van
Using combined chromatographic separations, two new steroid glycosides namely pentacerosides A (1) and B (2), and four known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the starfish Pentaceraster gracilis. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data ((1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, ROESY, and FT-ICR-MS) and by comparing obtained results to the literature values. Among the isolated compounds, only maculatoside (5) showed significant cytotoxic effect against Hep-G2 (IC50 = 16.75 ± 0.69 μM) and SK-Mel2 (IC50 = 19.44 ± 1.45 μM) cell lines and moderate effect on KB (IC50 = 36.53 ± 0.78 μM), LNCaP (IC50 = 39.75 ± 3.34 μM), and MCF7 (IC50 = 47.34 ± 7.01 μM) cell lines.
Hallock, Geoffrey G
Incredibly complicated multidimensional defects have always strained the ingenuity of the reconstructive surgeon. Secondary perhaps to vascularized composite allotransplantation as a solution to this dilemma, the compound flap has been developed to be a more useful and available alternative. Their greatest versatility has been proven by its subtype, the chimera flap. The chimera flap itself consists of multiple flaps, the latter possibly composed of bone, skin, muscle, and so on, where each part has an independent vascular supply, and each part is independent of any physical interconnection whatsoever with the other components, except where joined ultimately only to a common vascular pedicle. An appellation for this concept was first introduced a quarter century ago in this very journal, a time frame now the impetus for a recapitulation of its origin and subsequent history that proves that it has eventually withstood the test of time and has been successfully assimilated into the reconstructive repertoire.
Ramirez, Carlos A; Fernandes, Rui P
The supraclavicular artery island flap can be readily used to reconstruct defects within the neck, parotid, lateral temporal region, and lower third of the face. Benefits of the supraclavicular flap include good color and texture match, an ease of harvest, and minimal donor site morbidity; there is also no significant post-operative monitoring required. The trapezius muscle serves as a source for multiple myocutaneous flaps of which most are considered to be salvage flaps among head and neck reconstructive surgeons.
Estrella, Emmanuel P; Montales, Tristram D
Restoration of elbow function in traumatic brachial plexus injury patients remains the priority in the reconstruction of the involved extremity. In cases of complete nerve root injuries and in delayed cases, the only option for elbow reconstruction is the functional free muscle transfer. The purpose of this paper was to present the clinical outcomes and complications of functioning free muscle transfers using the gracilis muscle for the restoration of elbow flexion in brachial plexus injury patients in a tertiary institution from January 1, 2005 to January 31, 2014. A retrospective review of all patients who had functioning free muscle transfers for elbow flexion was done with a minimum of 12 months follow-up. Outcome measures were elbow flexion in terms of range of motion in degrees, muscle strength of the transferred muscle, VAS (visual analogue scale) for pain, postoperative DASH scores and complications of the procedure. There were 39 males and three females. The average age at the time of surgery was 28.6 (SD, 8.5) years. The average delay to surgery was 16 months (range, 3-120 months). The flap success rate for viability was achieved in 38 of 42 patients. The average follow-up for the 38 patients was 30 months (range, 12-103 months, SD 19 months). Success rate of at least M3/5 muscle strength was achieved in 37 of 42 patients with an average range of elbow flexion of 107° (SD, 20.4°). The average post-operative VAS for pain was 3.6 (SD, 3.0). The average post-operative DASH score was 43.09 (SD, 14.9). There were a total of 10 minor complications and five major complications. Functioning free muscle transfer using the gracilis muscle was a reliable procedure in the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with incomplete brachial plexus injury treated beyond 6 months from the time of injury and in patients with complete injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chuang, Shu-Chun; Chen, Jiun-Hong
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to photooxidation in various organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is lethal for particular species of earthworms, but the mechanisms responsible for the lethality are unclear. In our current study, we investigated that ultraviolet light causes photooxidative damage and reduces antioxidant responses in the earthworm Amynthas gracilis. Intact earthworms and skin/muscle tissue extracts were exposed to UV-B radiation for in vivo and in vitro studies. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that the products of photooxidative damage, MDA and H(2)O(2), increased after UV-B exposure. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were inhibited immediately after exposure to high doses (3000J/m(2)) of UV-B radiation in vivo. Catalase activity was increased following a low UV-B dose (500J/m(2)) in vivo, but decreased in response to all dosage levels in vitro. These data indicate that a relationship exists between UV-B induced damage and photooxidation and also that catalase and GPx act as important antioxidants to prevent photooxidation. According to these data, A. gracilis exhibits high sensitivity to environmental levels of UV-B. Therefore, A. gracilis represents a sensitive and cost-effective model organism for investigations of UV-radiation damage and environmental UV stress.
Snyder‐Mackler, Lynn; Axe, Michael J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.
Purpose/Background: The semitendinosus‐gracilis tendon autograft is often used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. Tendon regeneration appears to occur for most individuals in the short term, but little is known about the long‐term effects of graft harvest. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of semitendinosis‐gracilis tendon graft harvest on muscle and tendon morphology at least five years following reconstruction in a case series. Methods: Magnetic resonance images were taken of the knees of three subjects at least five years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. These subjects represented the different regeneration patterns at the time of return‐to‐sport. Muscle and tendon morphology were analyzed by calculating the volume, peak cross‐sectional area, and length of the knee flexors. Muscle and tendon morphological changes were analyzed individually, and then in combination as defined as a knee flexor group. Results: Muscle and tendon regeneration continued in those tendons that had begun regeneration at the time of return‐to‐sports in two subjects. There was significant additional muscle degeneration in those muscles whose tendons had not regenerated at the time of return‐to‐sports, in the remaining subject. Compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining knee flexors restored the knee flexor group to near preoperative peak cross‐sectional area and volume across the each of the three case subjects. Conclusions: Knee flexor morphology at the time of return‐to‐sports foreshadowed the long‐term outcome in the three studied subjects. Preservation of the tendon sheath in situ may play a role in tendon regeneration. When tendon regeneration did not occur, fatty infiltration of the muscle may be a worst‐case outcome. Semitendinosus‐gracilis muscle synergists demonstrated hypertrophy, perhaps in an effort to compensate for knee flexor group morphology deficits that existed after Semitendinosus gracilis
Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Ferreira, H; Moore, P F; Imondi, K A; Patz, J D; Gregory, T A; Pedersen, N C
The gracilis musculocutaneous flap was developed as an allograft model to study acute rejection and immunosuppression in the cat. Twelve adult cats received a MLC incompatible flap. Six of the cats received cyclosporine oral solution and prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/24 hr) for 100 days and six cats were not treated. Trough whole-blood levels of cyclosporine in the treatment group were maintained at approximately 750 ng/ml for 70 days, then 500 ng/ml for the remaining 30 days. Three flaps failed due to technical problems; 5 flaps were studied in the treatment group and 4 in the untreated group. All 5 flaps in the treatment group survived the 100 day treatment period and were rejected 30 +/- 26 days following cessation of treatment. Prior to discontinuation of treatment, with the exception of one cat, inflammatory changes associated with rejection were not observed in biopsy specimen. The flaps in the untreated group survived 13 +/- 1.5 days. Histopathologic examination of the flaps revealed little difference in the appearance of acute rejection and rejection after cessation of therapy. The most prominent lesion was a vasculitis with extensive perivascular lymphohistocytic inflammation. The lymphoid infiltrates consisted predominantly of T cells of both major classes (CD4 and CD8). Full-thickness epidermal necrosis and subsequent bacterial invasion followed vascular compromise.
Huang, Y.; Kanso, E.
Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. The maximum power output of these flight muscles is insufficient to maintain such wing oscillations unless there is good elastic storage of energy in the insect flight system. Here, we explore the intrinsic self-oscillatory behavior of an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring. We study the wings behavior as a function of the total energy and spring stiffness. Three types of behavior are identified: end-over-end rotation, chaotic motion, and periodic flapping. Interestingly, the region of periodic flapping decreases as energy increases but is favored as stiffness increases. These findings are consistent with the fact that insect wings and flight muscles are stiff. They further imply that, by adjusting their muscle stiffness to the energy level at which they are operating, insects can maintain periodic flapping mechanically for a range of operating conditions.
Mulvey, Carolyn L; Cooney, Carisa M; Daily, Francis F; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ogbuago, Onyebuchi U; Cooney, Damon S; Rad, Ariel N; Manahan, Michele A; Rosson, Gedge D; Sacks, Justin M
Compromised perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction results in fat necrosis and flap loss. Increased flap weight with fewer perforator vessels may exacerbate imbalances in flap perfusion. We studied deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS-TRAM) flaps to assess this concept. Data from patients who underwent reconstruction with DIEP and/or MS-TRAM flaps between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 (n = 123) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were collected, including flap fat necrosis and donor/recipient site complications. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine effects of flap weight and perforator number on breast flap fat necrosis. One hundred twenty-three patients who underwent 179 total flap reconstructions (166 DIEP, 13 MS-TRAM) were included. Mean flap weight was 658 ± 289 g; 132 (73.7%) were single perforator flaps. Thirteen flaps (7.5%) developed fat necrosis. African American patients had increased odds of fat necrosis (odds ratio, 11.58; P < 0.001). Odds of developing fat necrosis significantly increased with flap weight (odds ratio, 1.5 per 100 g increase; P < 0.001). In single perforator flaps weighing more than 1000 g, six (42.9%) developed fat necrosis, compared to 14.3% of large multiple perforator flaps. Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.
Mulvey, Carolyn L.; Cooney, Carisa M.; Daily, Francis F.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ogbuago, Onyebuchi U.; Cooney, Damon S.; Rad, Ariel N.; Manahan, Michele A.; Rosson, Gedge D.
Background: Compromised perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction results in fat necrosis and flap loss. Increased flap weight with fewer perforator vessels may exacerbate imbalances in flap perfusion. We studied deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS-TRAM) flaps to assess this concept. Methods: Data from patients who underwent reconstruction with DIEP and/or MS-TRAM flaps between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 (n = 123) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were collected, including flap fat necrosis and donor/recipient site complications. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine effects of flap weight and perforator number on breast flap fat necrosis. Results: One hundred twenty-three patients who underwent 179 total flap reconstructions (166 DIEP, 13 MS-TRAM) were included. Mean flap weight was 658 ± 289 g; 132 (73.7%) were single perforator flaps. Thirteen flaps (7.5%) developed fat necrosis. African American patients had increased odds of fat necrosis (odds ratio, 11.58; P < 0.001). Odds of developing fat necrosis significantly increased with flap weight (odds ratio, 1.5 per 100 g increase; P < 0.001). In single perforator flaps weighing more than 1000 g, six (42.9%) developed fat necrosis, compared to 14.3% of large multiple perforator flaps. Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes. PMID:25289212
Tan, Wei; Guli Zhaer, Abudurexiti; Huang, Wenhua; Jiang, Xiaorong
To explore the blood supply of the reverse arterial arch at the superior border of the hallucal abductor island flap and provide an anatomical basis for repairing fore foot skin defect using this flap. The constitution, course, distribution, and external diameter of the arterial arch at the superior border of the hallucal abductor, and the concomitant veins and nerves were observed on 12 sides of formaldehyde-fixed and 12 fresh adult foot specimens perfused with red latex. The surgical approach using the arterial arch at the superior border of the hallucal abductor for repairing fore foot skin defect were designed. The arterial arch at the superior border of the hallucal abductor, constituted by the branch of the medial tarsal artery or the branch of the anterior medial malleolus artery anastomosed with the superficial branch of the medial basal hallucal artery or the branch of the superficial branch of the medial plantar artery or the all the four branches, functioned as the axis of the medial tarsal, the medialis pedis and the medial plantar. The external diameters of the anterior medial malleolus artery, the medial tarsal artery, the branch of the superficial branch of the medial plantar artery, and the distal arterial arch at the superior border of the hallucal abductor were 1.02∓0.03 mm, 0.73∓0.04 mm, 0.56∓0.02 mm, and 0.53∓0.14 mm, respectively. Most of the arteries (91.67%) had one concomitant vein with the external diameters of 1.01∓0.03 mm, 0.81∓0.04 mm, 0.57∓0.01 mm, and 0.61∓0.02, respectively, and only a small fraction of them (8.33%) had two concomitant veins. The fore foot skin defect can be repaired using this flap supplied by the branch of the anterior medial malleolus artery and the medial tarsal artery, the superficial branch of the medial plantar artery, or all the three. The pivot point formed by the neck of the first metatarsal or metatarsophalangeal joint allows for long vessel pedicles and larger flap areas to increase the
Ono, Masashi; Takanari, Keisuke; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Shunjiro; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Sawamura, Hisashi; Kambe, Miki; Murotani, Kenta; Kamei, Yuzuru
Background A successful free flap transfer is achieved, in part, by having a thorough understanding of vascular anatomy and blood flow dynamics. We previously reported that vascular resistance differs by type of free flap. To test the hypothesis that the difference reflects the proportion of tissue components within free flaps, we calculated blood flow and vascular resistance for free flaps in which we determined the volume of each tissue component. Methods Measurements and calculations were made for 40 free flap transfers performed at our hospital: 7 radial forearm flaps, 14 anterolateral thigh flaps, and 19 rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. Results The vascular resistance of free flaps was inversely related to the volume of each tissue component. Univariate regression analysis revealed that muscle volume correlated most closely with resistance (r = 0.881), followed by skin (r = 0.622), and fat (r = 0.577). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the relationship between combined muscle and fat volume and resistance (R(2) = 0.865). Conclusions A strong inverse correlation exists between vascular resistance and combined muscle and fat tissue volume in flaps. It may be helpful to consider these relationships when making decisions regarding choice of free flap and recipient vessels.
Liu, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei
Ammonia is among the common contaminants in aquatic environments. The present study aimed at evaluation of the toxicity of ammonia at high concentration by detecting its effects on the growth, pigment contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and DNA damage (comet assay) of a unicellular microalga, Euglena gracilis. Ammonia restrained the growth of E. gracilis, while at higher concentrations, ammonia showed notable inhibition effect, the growth at 2 000 mg x L(-1) was restrained to 55.7% compared with that of the control; The contents of photosynthetic pigments and protein went up with increasing ammonia dosage and decreased when the ammonia concentration was above 1000 mg x L(-1); In addition, there was an obvious increase in SOD and POD activities, at higher concentration (2 000 mg x L(-1)), activities of SOD and POD increased by 30.7% and 49.4% compared with those of the control, indicating that ammonia could promote activities of antioxidant enzymes in E. gracilis; The degree of DNA damage observed in the comet assay increased with increasing ammonia concentration, which suggested that high dose of ammonia may have potential mutagenicity on E. gracilis.
Song, Bo; Cheng, Shifeng; Sun, Yanbo; Zhong, Xiao; Jin, Jieqiong; Guan, Rui; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Xin
Transition from a lizard-like to a snake-like body form is one of the most important transformations in reptilian evolution. The increasing number of sequenced reptilian genomes is enabling a deeper understanding of vertebrate evolution, although the genetic basis of the loss of limbs in reptiles remains enigmatic. Here we report genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation for the Asian glass lizard Ophisaurus gracilis, a limbless lizard species with an elongated snake-like body form. Addition of this species to the genome repository will provide an excellent resource for studying the genetic basis of limb loss and trunk elongation. O. gracilis genome sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform resulted in 274.20 Gbp of raw data that was filtered and assembled to a final size of 1.78 Gbp, comprising 6,717 scaffolds with N50 = 1.27 Mbp. Based on the k-mer estimated genome size of 1.71 Gbp, the assembly appears to be nearly 100% complete. A total of 19,513 protein-coding genes were predicted, and 884.06 Mbp of repeat sequences (approximately half of the genome) were annotated. The draft genome of O. gracilis has similar characteristics to both lizard and snake genomes. We report the first genome of a lizard from the family Anguidae, O. gracilis. This supplements currently available genetic and genomic resources for amniote vertebrates, representing a major increase in comparative genome data available for squamate reptiles in particular.
The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...
Sawhney, Raja; Young, Lindsay; Ducic, Yadranko
To describe a new surgical procedure in the reconstruction of composite oral cavity resections. Retrospective chart review for all patients who received mylohyoid pull through muscle flap for reconstruction of oral composite resection with marginal mandibulectomy by the senior author between 1999 and 2008. Data gathered from the chart review included demographics, pathologic diagnosis, tumor margins, use of reconstruction plate, exposure to radiotherapy, need for gastrostomy tube, flap viability, and flap complications. Twenty-nine patients received composite resection, marginal mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with the mylohyoid muscle flap between 1999 and 2008. Twenty-four of the 29 patients (82.7%) had a partial glossectomy as part of the resection. Flap success was 100%. Complications included partial skin graft loss (2 of 29) and partial flap dehiscence (2 of 29). Total complication rate was 13.8%. Twenty-five patients (86%) were exposed to external-beam radiotherapy. Two patients required supplemental alimentation with a gastrostomy tube. There were no cases of osteoradionecrosis. The mylohyoid flap is a valuable addition to the armamentarium of anterior oral cavity closures. The procedure is intuitive, and surgical time is miniscule. This procedure can often be used in cases previously requiring free flap closure. It allows a quick return to oral alimentation and has minimal donor site morbidity. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Eburdery, H; Grolleau, J L; Berthier, C; Bertheuil, N; Chaput, B
The management of sternal wound infections often requires pedicled flaps. In recent years, the emergence of perforator flaps has changed our management of wounds involving tissue loss. For sternal wounds, the superior epigastric artery perforator (SEAP) flap can be used with the propeller procedure with minimal donor site morbidity. In our practice, this flap has replaced the traditional latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps in the treatment of many sternal wounds. We report our experience with 4 patients with large sternal wound infection after cardiothoracic operations. The SEAP flap appears a safe alternative for low-morbidity coverage of sternal infections. Moreover, muscle flaps remain available in case the SEAP flap fails. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ntefidou, Maria; Iseki, Mineo; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Lebert, Michael; Häder, Donat-Peter
Euglena gracilis, a unicellular freshwater protist exhibits different photomovement responses, such as phototaxis (oriented movement toward or away from the light source) and photophobic (abrupt turn in response to a rapid increase [step-up] or decrease [step-down] in the light fluence rate) responses. Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) has been isolated from whole-cell preparations and identified by RNA interference (RNAi) to be the photoreceptor for step-up photophobic responses but not for step-down photophobic responses (M. Iseki, S. Matsunaga, A. Murakami, K. Ohno, K. Shiga, C. Yoshida, M. Sugai, T. Takahashi, T. Hori, M. Watanabe  Nature 415: 1047-1051). The present study shows that knockdown of PAC by RNAi also effectively suppresses both positive and negative phototaxis, indicating for the first time that PAC or a PAC homolog is also the photoreceptor for photoorientation of wild-type E. gracilis. Recovery from RNAi occurred earlier for step-up photophobic responses than for positive and negative phototaxis. In addition, we investigated several phototaxis mutant strains of E. gracilis with different cytological features regarding the stigma and paraxonemal body (PAB; believed to be the location for the phototaxis photoreceptor) as well as Astasia longa, a close relative of E. gracilis. All of the E. gracilis mutant strains had PAC mRNAs, whereas in A. longa, a different but similar mRNA was found and designated AlPAC. Consistently, all of these strains showed no phototaxis but performed step-up photophobic responses, which were suppressed by RNAi of the PAC mRNA. The fact that some of these strains possess a cytologically altered or no PAB demonstrates that at least in these strains, the PAC photoreceptor responsible for the step-up photophobic responses is not located in the PAB.
Ntefidou, Maria; Iseki, Mineo; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Lebert, Michael; Häder, Donat-Peter
Euglena gracilis, a unicellular freshwater protist exhibits different photomovement responses, such as phototaxis (oriented movement toward or away from the light source) and photophobic (abrupt turn in response to a rapid increase [step-up] or decrease [step-down] in the light fluence rate) responses. Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) has been isolated from whole-cell preparations and identified by RNA interference (RNAi) to be the photoreceptor for step-up photophobic responses but not for step-down photophobic responses (M. Iseki, S. Matsunaga, A. Murakami, K. Ohno, K. Shiga, C. Yoshida, M. Sugai, T. Takahashi, T. Hori, M. Watanabe  Nature 415: 1047-1051). The present study shows that knockdown of PAC by RNAi also effectively suppresses both positive and negative phototaxis, indicating for the first time that PAC or a PAC homolog is also the photoreceptor for photoorientation of wild-type E. gracilis. Recovery from RNAi occurred earlier for step-up photophobic responses than for positive and negative phototaxis. In addition, we investigated several phototaxis mutant strains of E. gracilis with different cytological features regarding the stigma and paraxonemal body (PAB; believed to be the location for the phototaxis photoreceptor) as well as Astasia longa, a close relative of E. gracilis. All of the E. gracilis mutant strains had PAC mRNAs, whereas in A. longa, a different but similar mRNA was found and designated AlPAC. Consistently, all of these strains showed no phototaxis but performed step-up photophobic responses, which were suppressed by RNAi of the PAC mRNA. The fact that some of these strains possess a cytologically altered or no PAB demonstrates that at least in these strains, the PAC photoreceptor responsible for the step-up photophobic responses is not located in the PAB. PMID:14630964
Hart, A M; Tollan, C J; Dabernig, J; Acland, R; Taggart, I
Free flaps have been used for over 30 years. During this period, improved anatomical understanding has increased donor options and available pedicle lengths, permitting safer, single-stage reconstructions with simpler anastomoses. Refinements, such as perforator flaps in particular, have greatly improved donor morbidity, recipient site cosmesis, and the ability to replace 'like with like' while retaining options for innervation. This case highlights the evolution from one of Europe's first free tissue transfers, effectively a perforator flap, through the advent of free muscle flaps to the current generation of contourable perforator flaps. Free flap transfer has become increasingly sophisticated, safer, and more predictable, yet the potential quality of reconstructive outcome has changed little.
Posch, N A S; Mureau, M A M; Flood, S J; Hofer, S O P
Myocutaneous (MC) free flaps are useful for many reconstructive indications. Perforator flaps have become standard of care. The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) donor site is popular. With the ALT flap varying sizes of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle can be harvested as a MC flap. The skin islands of these flaps have a great range of freedom when dissected on their perforator. It was hypothesised that the VL-ALT perforator flap would offer adequate tissue volume combining maximal freedom in planning with minimal donor site morbidity. From November 2001 to February 2003 a free partial VL with ALT perforator flap was used in 11 patients to reconstruct large defects. Indications for adding a muscular component were exposed bone, skull base, (artificial) dura, or osteosynthesis material, open sinuses, and lack of muscular bulk. Flaps were planned as standard ALT flaps, after which three types of dissection were performed: I. true MC flap; II. muscle flap with a skin island on one perforator, which could be rotated up to 180 degrees ; III. chimera skin perforator flap with muscle being harvested on a separate branch from the source vessel or on a side branch of the skin perforator. Mean skin size of the MC-ALT flaps was 131 cm2. Mean muscle part size of the MC-ALT flaps was 268 cm3. Muscular parts were custom designed for all defects. No total or partial flap failures were seen. Colour mismatch was seen in 6 of 8 patients, when skin was used in the facial area in this all white population. Excessive flap bulk was found in 8 of 11 patients at 6 weeks, however, only in 2 of 11 patients after 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the functional result (8 of 11 patients) as well as the cosmetic result of their reconstruction (7 of 11 patients). All less satisfied patients had received their flap for external facial skin reconstruction. Donor site morbidity was minimal. The combined free partial VL with ALT perforator flap proved valuable as a (chimera type) MC flap with maximal
Wang, Qianwen; Wang, Jiaqi
Various types of anterior chest flaps can be recruited in the reconstruction of faciocervical region. Most of them were created based on the internal mammary artery and the lateral thoracic artery, and the thoracoacromial artery (TAA) is usually used in pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap. An anterior chest flap with TAA perforator (TAAP) will have no sacrifice of the pectoralis major muscle, but less reports, especially expanded pedicled one, can be reviewed. Here, we reported a case using expanded pedicled TAAP flap to reconstruct the perioral scar contracture. In this technique, expanded TAAP flap could be easily harvested without the sophisticated microsurgical technology. Acceptable esthetic and functional results were achieved.
Knight, K R; Gumley, G J; Rogers, I W; O'Brien, B M
The purpose of this study was to elucidate tissue changes occurring within an ischaemic flap by monitoring the blood biochemistry, and to evaluate these changes in relation to ultimate flap viability. A rabbit epigastric free flap was made ischaemic for 4 days at 6 degrees C, then revascularized by anastomosis of its femoral artery and vein. An identical free flap immediately revascularized in another group of rabbits served as a control. The viability of the free flap, as well as various biochemical parameters studied by drawing blood from a catheter in the ear vein, were observed daily. Immediately after the revascularization of ischaemic flaps, there was a 16-fold increase in the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK) and a smaller but significant 1.5-fold to 2.0-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In flaps which ultimately failed by 7 days post-ischaemia, the plasma levels of CK, LDH and AST peaked at day 2 post-ischaemia at 68, 13 and 8 times normal respectively, whereas in flaps which survived, the levels of these enzymes recovered to normal by day 3 post-ischaemia. These enzymic changes are probably due to a combination of ischaemic changes in the flap vasculature, ischaemic changes in the flap muscle, and inflammatory changes in the surrounding abdominal tissue. The plasma levels of CK at any time post-ischaemia, and particularly in the first 24 h, were significantly higher in ischaemic flaps which failed compared with those which survived. This parameter is therefore proposed as a possible means of predicting potential flap failure after ischaemic insult, in time to make appropriate surgical intervention.
Edgecombe, Gregory D
An anomalocaridid from the Ordovician exposes a second set of body flaps and reopens the question of how the two branches of arthropod legs evolved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An alcoholic 50-year-old male patient with a history of schizophrenia sustained stab wounds into both ventricles and left lung, and survived following an emergency department thoracotomy. The EDT wound, however became infected requiring serial debridements of soft tissue, rib cartilage and sternum. Regional flap options such as pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps could not be employed due to inadequate reach of these flaps. Additionally, bilateral transection of the internal mammary arteries during emergency thoracotomy eliminated the use of rectus abdominis muscles as pedicled flaps based on the superior epigastric vasculature. Therefore, the EDT wound was reconstructed by using the right rectus abdominis muscle as a free flap. The deep inferior epigastric vessels of the flap were anastomosed to the right internal mammary vessels proximal to their transection level in the third-forth intercostal space. The flap healed with no further wound complications. PMID:20459668
Gilman, Kaitlyn; Ipaktchi, Kyros; Moore, Ernest E; Barnett, Carlton; Gurunluoglu, Raffi
An alcoholic 50-year-old male patient with a history of schizophrenia sustained stab wounds into both ventricles and left lung, and survived following an emergency department thoracotomy. The EDT wound, however became infected requiring serial debridements of soft tissue, rib cartilage and sternum. Regional flap options such as pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps could not be employed due to inadequate reach of these flaps. Additionally, bilateral transection of the internal mammary arteries during emergency thoracotomy eliminated the use of rectus abdominis muscles as pedicled flaps based on the superior epigastric vasculature. Therefore, the EDT wound was reconstructed by using the right rectus abdominis muscle as a free flap. The deep inferior epigastric vessels of the flap were anastomosed to the right internal mammary vessels proximal to their transection level in the third-forth intercostal space. The flap healed with no further wound complications.
Pompei, S; Caravelli, G; Vigili, M G; Ducci, M; Marzetti, F
In modern multi-disciplinary cancer treatment, rehabilitation and functional results represent utmost intent in reconstructive surgery of the oral cavity. Even in cases where the stage of disease is advanced) and the perspective of survival is limited, it is possible to achieve an acceptable quality of life. The authors report, in this study, the morpho-functional results and the morbidity observed in glossectomies in which the reconstruction was performed using three different methods. In a total of 264 reconstructive flaps of the head and neck regions, the authors considered three groups of 15 patients that had had reconstruction after the demolitive procedure. Respectively these groups were divided by the followed methods: free forearm flap, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and nasolabial flap. The morbidity showed an extremely low rate of flap loss in all the groups, but "minor" complications, such as fistulas and leakages, were significantly more frequent in the myocutaneous flaps group. Functional evaluation for speech and deglutition showed good results in most patients. Extremely severe postoperative conditions as a permanent NG tube or incomprehensible speech had been observed in less than 15% of the cases. Particularly, the pectoralis major flap, showed its best functional performances in the total or subtotal glossectomies with a sacrifice of the muscles of the oral floor. The free forearm flap is reliable and safe with its low thickness and pliability, especially for partial glossectomies. The nasolabial flap was confirmed to be the first reconstructive choice for selected limited resections of the tongue and of the antero-lateral floor. With this experience it is possible, even in more complex free flaps, to reduce the time consumption and the complication rate. Free flaps do not substitute routinely myocutaneous and conventional flaps, but they represent the "ideal" reconstructive alternatives for specific and selected indications.
Lee, Sanglim; Kim, Min Bom; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Jeong Kook; Baek, Goo Hyun
Soft tissue and bone defects of the lower leg, ankle, and heel region often require coverage by local or distant flaps. The authors successfully used the distally based adipomuscular abductor hallucis flap for the treatment of 7 patients with soft tissue defect on the plantar forefoot after diabetic ulcer (n = 2), excision of melanoma at the medial forefoot (n = 3), and posttraumatic defects of the plantar forefoot (n = 2). The size of the defects ranged from 6 to 36 cm. All defects were covered successfully without major complications. The distally based adipomuscular flap from the abductor hallucis muscle provides a reliable coverage for small and moderate defects of the plantar and medial forefoot. This flap is often preferable to the use of free flaps because the surgery is rapidly performed and does not require microsurgical expertise.
Zang, Mengqing; Yu, Shengji; Xu, Libin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Zhu, Shan; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Yuanbo
Trunk defects following soft tissue sarcoma resection are usually managed by myocutaneous flaps or free flaps. However, harvesting muscle will cause functional morbidities and some trunk regions lack reliable recipient vessels. The intercostal arteries give off multiple perforators, which distribute widely over the trunk and can supply various pedicle flaps. Our purpose is to use various intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps for trunk oncologic reconstruction. Between November 2013 and July 2014, nine intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps were performed in seven patients to reconstruct the defects following sarcoma resection in different regions of the trunk, including the back, lumbar, chest, and abdomen. Two perforators from intercostal arteries were identified for each flap using Doppler ultrasound probe adjacent to the defect. The perforator with visible pulsation was chosen as the pedicle vessel. An elliptical flap was raised and rotated in a propeller fashion to repair the defects. There were one dorsal intercostal artery perforator flap, four dorsolateral intercostal artery perforator flaps, three lateral intercostal artery perforator flaps, and one anterior intercostal artery perforator flap. The mean skin paddle dimension was 9.38 cm in width (range 6-14 cm) and 21.22 cm in length (range 13-28 cm). All intercostal artery perforator flaps survived completely, except for marginal necrosis in one flap harvested close to the previous flap donor site. The intercostal artery perforator propeller flap provides various and valuable options in our reconstructive armamentarium for trunk oncologic reconstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first case series of using intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps for trunk oncologic reconstruction and clinical application of dorsolateral intercostal artery perforator flaps. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Abstract Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, eukaryotic flagellate. It can adapt autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of growth and respond to different stimuli, this makes it an organism of choice for different research disciplines. It swims to reach a suitable niche by employing different stimuli such as oxygen, light, gravity and different chemicals. Among these stimuli light and gravity are the most important. Phototaxis (locomotion under light stimulus) and gravitaxis (locomotion under gravity stimulus) synergistically help cells to attain an optimal niche in the environment. However, in the complete absence of light or under scarcity of detectable light, cells can totally depend on gravity to find its swimming path. Therefore gravity has certain advantages over other stimuli.Unlike phototatic signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis no clear primary gravity receptor has been identified in Euglena cells so far. However, there are some convincing evidence that TRP like channels act as a primary gravity receptor in Euglena gracilis.Use of different inhibitors gave rise to the involvement of protein kinase and calmodulin proteins in signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis. Recently, specific calmodulin (Calmodulin 2) and protein kinase (PKA) have been identified as potential candidates of gravitactic signal transduction chain. Further characterization and investigation of these candidates was required. Therefore a combination of biochemical and genetic techniques was employed to localize proteins in cells and also to find interacting partners. For localization studies, specific antibodies were raised and characterized. Specificity of antibodies was validated by knockdown mutants, Invitro-translated proteins and heterologously expressed proteins. Cell fractionation studies, involving separation of the cell body and flagella for western blot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence studies were performed for subcellular localization. In order to find
Zenga, Joseph; Nussenbaum, Brian; Rich, Jason T; Sclaroff, Allen; Diaz, Jason A
Reconstruction of composite oral cavity defects in the setting of prior surgery and radiotherapy presents a significant challenge. Although free tissue transfer has shown success in such situations, it is not without considerable risk. Regional pedicled flaps may provide a more suitable alternative. In certain patients, however, severe soft tissue fibrosis makes more conventional regional flaps impractical or impossible. In these situations, temporalis flaps (temporalis muscle and temporoparietal fascia flaps) are versatile options for coverage of complex defects. To report our experience using pedicled temporalis flaps for reconstruction of composite oral cavity defects in patients with significant co-morbidities and prior treatment. Three patients were identified and their medical records were reviewed. Their clinical courses and functional outcomes are described. We include a discussion of the operative technique and relevant literature. All patients had previously undergone extensive treatment. One patient needed reconstruction after resection of a third head and neck malignancy and two patients presented for treatment of osteoradionecrosis. A temporalis muscle flap was used to reconstruct composite oral cavity defects in two patients and a combined temporalis muscle and temporoparietal fascia flap was used for independent defects in one patient. All flaps survived. Functional status and pain improved or stabilized in all patients. There were no major or minor complications. In previously treated fields, where more conventional flaps are impractical, temporalis flaps are a suitable alternative to achieve a stable healing wound and prevent worsening of functional status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sano, Kazufumi; Hallock, Geoffrey G; Hamazaki, Masahiro; Daicyo, Yoshihiro
The prototypical conjoint or so-called "chimeric" free flap heretofore has been composed of several large independent flaps, each supplied by a separate major branch, that ultimately arise from a common source vessel. The perforator-based type of chimeric flap is a relatively new concept, usually involving multiple muscle perforator flaps each based on a solitary musculocutaneous perforator, but still arising from the same "mother" vessel. This principle of split cutaneous perforator flaps has been now successfully adapted to the medial suralMEDIAL GASTROCNEMIUS perforator free flap on 2 separate occasions. As a chimeric flap, there was greater flexibility in insetting, and overall flap width may be larger but still narrow enough to allow primary donor site closure; and yet, by definition, only a single recipient site was needed for any microanastomoses. This is further proof that the perforator-based chimeric free flap may be an option for any muscle perforator flap donor site, so that potential donor territories for conjoint flaps have become virtually unlimited.
Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F
The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.
Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo
Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding.
Deganello, Alberto; Leemans, C René
The infrahyoid flap is a myocutaneous pedicled flap mainly nourished by the superior thyroid vessels through the perforators of the infrahyoid muscles. This thin and pliable flap provides a skin island of about 7 by 4 cm from the central part of the anterior neck. The flap can be transferred on its pedicle of superior thyroid artery and vein to reconstruct medium sized head and neck defects created after cancer ablation. We have successfully used this flap in a series of 40 cases with no total flap loss and with 1 case of superficial skin necrosis. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinical usefulness of this pedicled flap even in the microvascular free flap era. A comprehensive review of the available literature reporting on the infrahyoid flap has been carried out using a web search. The history of the infrahyoid flap, the surgical technique with technical innovations, the clinical utility and limitations of this flap, are reported and discussed. Among the 7 larger series (cohort larger than 50 cases) a total of 956 flaps were performed, and the global success rate was 91.7%, with failures being mainly related to partial skin necrosis, as the rate of total (skin and muscle) flap necrosis was only 1%. This flap is reliable, easy to harvest during neck dissection, oncologically safe, it does carry a negligible donor site morbidity. This paper highlights how the infrahyoid flap can represent an excellent reconstructive solution in selected patients and head and neck sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pang, C.Y.; Neligan, P.C.; Nakatsuka, T.; Sasaki, G.H.
The vascular effects of isoxsuprine, diazoxide, and isoproterenol were studied in arterial buttock flaps and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in pigs. Capillary blood flow to the skin and muscles of these flaps was measured by the radioactive microsphere (15-mu diameter) technique 6 hours postoperatively under pentobarbital anesthesia. It was observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, was not effective in augmentation of skin blood flow in the arterial buttock flaps. However, isoproterenol significantly increased capillary blood flow to the arterialized portion of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps compared with controls. Isoxsuprine and diazoxide (vascular smooth muscle relaxants) significantly (p less than 0.05) increased total capillary blood flow to the skin of arterial buttock flaps and to the skin and muscles of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps. However, the increase in capillary blood flow occurred mainly in the arterialized portion of these flaps. The capillary blood flow, which was supplied by the small arteries in the distal portion of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps, was not increased by treatment with isoxsuprine or diazoxide. Therefore, there was also no increase in the maximum distance of capillary blood flow from the pedicle to the distal end of the flaps. These observations led the authors to hypothesize that different sizes (diameters) of arteries in the skin and muscle have different reactivity (or sensitivity) to vasodilatory drugs. In the present experiment, the large dominant artery of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps responded to isoxsuprine or diazoxide (vascular smooth-muscle relaxants), resulting in an increase in blood supply to the capillaries in the proximal portion of the flaps.
Bandi, Susmitha; Koteswara Rao, Rayidi Venkata; Reddy, Damalacheruvu Mukunda
Introduction: Primary microvascular reconstruction of multiple defects is challenging particularly if it has to be simultaneous. In trauma cases, harvesting two independent free flaps from different sites is very time-consuming and adds to morbidity. To eliminate these disadvantages, we sought to find out a reliable alternative method of harvesting two independent free flaps based on the descending branch of circumflex femoral artery, i.e., one anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and one rectus femoris muscle flap. Aim: To study the feasibility of transferring two free flaps, i.e., ALT and rectus femoris muscle flap simultaneously from the same thigh for coverage of two different limb defects. Materials and Methods: From 2003 to 2012, five patients with two defects each were managed with a total of ten flaps harvested from five donor sites based on independent pedicles of descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery and used to cover severe injuries of extremities. Three cases had both lower limb defects and two cases had one upper limb and one lower limb defect. In each case, one ALT flap and one rectus femoris muscle flap were used for coverage. Results: All reconstructive procedures were completed without any major complications. All flaps survived well. There were no re-explorations and no complications related to donor sites. Conclusion: We conclude that our approach of simultaneous harvest of ALT and rectus femoris muscle from the same thigh offers two flaps for two different defects in terms of economy of donor site and operating time. PMID:27833281
Battiston, Bruno; Ciclamini, Davide; Tang, Jin Bo
Novel and combined tissue transfers from the lower extremity provide new tools to combat soft tissue defects of the hand, foot, and ankle, or fracture nonunion. Flaps can be designed for special purposes, such as providing a gliding bed for a grafted or repaired tendon or for thumb or finger reconstruction. Propeller flaps can cover soft tissue defects of the leg and foot. In repairing severe bone and soft tissue defects of the lower extremity, combined approaches, including external fixators, one-stage vascularized bone grafting, and skin or muscle flap coverage of the traumatized leg and foot, have become popular.
Barque, J.P.; Abahamid, A.; Chacun, H.
This work is a preliminary characterization of two adapted Euglena gracilis cell lines, one to cadmium and the other to pentachlorophenol. Growth curve analysis indicate that tolerance to one pollutant did not protect against the second pollutant. These suggest that metabolic pathways that are induced by one pollutant are specific for this pollutant. This specificity is detectable at the level of gene expression. 16 refs., 6 figs.
Li, Jun; Zhong, Liang-Jun; Mu, Hetaer-Huojia; Duo, Li-Kun; Yan, Guang-Peng
To observe the cellular morphological and histological changes of the reconstructed tongue defect by rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flap of dogs with or without nerve. 12 Beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups. Group A made rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flap with the intercostal nerve while group B without the intercostal nerve. Nerve anastomosis was performed in Group A while not in Group B in the repairment. 12 weeks later, the length, width, surface area and cellular morphology and histological changes of the two transfer flaps were observed. The length, width, surface area of transplanted rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flaps in group A were greater than those in Group B, and the differences were statistically significant at 12th week (P < 0.01). The microscope study found that the transplanted rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flaps of group A had part of muscle fiber atrophy with some connective and adipose tissue, loose muscle fiber arrangement, while the transplanted rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flaps of Group B had muscle cells atrophy with some adipocyte. The structure of muscle cells in Group A was basically normal, but it was disorder in Group B. The type II muscle fibers of Group B was atrophy and substituted by a lot of connective tissue. After tongue defect reconstructed by rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flap with nerve, the changes of muscle fibers could be similar to tongue muscles, providing a basis for the dynamic recovery of the tongue.
Francavilla, Matteo; Franchi, Massimo; Monteleone, Massimo; Caroppo, Carmela
In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy), was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6), proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds. PMID:24084791
Francavilla, Matteo; Franchi, Massimo; Monteleone, Massimo; Caroppo, Carmela
In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy), was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6), proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds.
Schaller, Andreas; van Afferden, Manfred; Windhofer, Volker; Bülow, Sven; Abel, Gernot; Schmid, Jürg; Amrhein, Nikolaus
Chorismate synthase was purified 1200-fold from Euglena gracilis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme is in the range of 110 to 138 kilodaltons as judged by gel filtration. The molecular mass of the subunit was determined to be 41.7 kilodaltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified chorismate synthase is associated with an NADPH-dependent flavin mononucleotide reductase that provides in vivo the reduced flavin necessary for catalytic activity. In vitro, flavin reduction can be mediated by either dithionite or light. The enzyme obtained from E. gracilis was compared with chorismate synthases purified from a higher plant (Corydalis sempervirens), a bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a fungus (Neurospora crassa). These four chorismate synthases were found to be very similar in terms of cofactor specificity, kinetic properties, isoelectric points, and pH optima. All four enzymes react with polyclonal antisera directed against chorismate synthases from C. sempervirens and E. coli. The closely associated flavin mononucleotide reductase that is present in chorismate synthase preparations from E. gracilis and N. crassa is the main difference between those synthases and the monofunctional enzymes from C. sempervirens and E. coli. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668543
Shelef, Ilan; Golan, Haim; Merkin, Vladimir; Melamed, Israel; Benifla, Mony
There are currently two accepted neurosurgical methods to perform a bony flap. In an osteoplastic flap, the flap is attached to surrounding muscle. In a free flap, the flap is not attached to adjacent tissues. The former is less common due to its complexity and the extensive time required for the surgery; yet the rate of infection is significantly lower, a clear explanation for which is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the osteoplastic flap acts as a live implant that resumes its blood flow and metabolic activity; contrasting with the free flap, which does not have sufficient blood flow, and therefore acts as a foreign body. Seven patients who underwent craniotomy with osteoplastic flaps and five with free flaps had planar bone and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of the skull at 3-7days postoperative, after injection of the radioisotope, 99m-technetium-methylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc-MDP). We compared radioactive uptake as a measure of metabolic activity between osteoplastic and free flaps. Mean normalized radioactive uptakes in the centers of the flaps, calculated as the ratios of uptakes in the flap centers to uptakes in normal contralateral bone, were [mean: 1.7 (SD: 0.8)] and [0.6 (0.1)] for the osteoplastic and free flap groups respectively and were [2.4 (0.8)] and [1.3 (0.4)] in the borders of the flaps. Our analyses suggest that in craniotomy, the use of an osteoplastic flap, in contrast to free flap, retains bone viability.
Koul, Ashok Raj; Patil, Rahul K; Philip, Vinoth Kumar
Reconstruction of the distal foot, especially of the toe has always been a challenging problem. Various methods have been tried with variable success rates and limitations. Presented here is a series of four cases, where distally based flaps were used. Two of them were Extensor Digitorum Brevis (EDB) muscle flaps and the other two were first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) based skin flaps. One in each of the two was augmented with a plantar V-Y advancement flap. All flaps survived completely without any flap- or donor site-related complications. The patients were ambulated two weeks following the reconstruction and were symptom-free after an average follow-up of thirteen months. Distal flaps based on the dorsalis pedis system provide a reliable cover for distal foot defects.
Koul, Ashok Raj; Patil, Rahul K.; Philip, Vinoth Kumar
Reconstruction of the distal foot, especially of the toe has always been a challenging problem. Various methods have been tried with variable success rates and limitations. Presented here is a series of four cases, where distally based flaps were used. Two of them were Extensor Digitorum Brevis (EDB) muscle flaps and the other two were first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) based skin flaps. One in each of the two was augmented with a plantar V-Y advancement flap. All flaps survived completely without any flap- or donor site-related complications. The patients were ambulated two weeks following the reconstruction and were symptom-free after an average follow-up of thirteen months. Distal flaps based on the dorsalis pedis system provide a reliable cover for distal foot defects. PMID:19753204
Ramsay, John W; Barrance, Peter J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Higginson, Jill S
Muscle atrophy is one of many factors contributing to post-stroke hemiparetic weakness. Since muscle force is a function of muscle size, the amount of muscle atrophy an individual muscle undergoes has implications for its overall force-generating capability post-stroke. In this study, post-stroke atrophy was determined bilaterally in fifteen leg muscles with volumes quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All muscle volumes were adjusted to exclude non-contractile tissue content, and muscle atrophy was quantified by comparing the volumes between paretic and non-paretic sides. Non-contractile tissue or intramuscular fat was calculated by determining the amount of tissue excluded from the muscle volume measurement. With the exception of the gracilis, all individual paretic muscles examined had smaller volumes in the non-paretic side. The average decrease in volume for these paretic muscles was 23%. The gracilis volume, on the other hand, was approximately 11% larger on the paretic side. The amount of non-contractile tissue was higher in all paretic muscles except the gracilis, where no difference was observed between sides. To compensate for paretic plantar flexor weakness, one idea might be that use of the paretic gracilis actually causes the muscle to increase in size and not develop intramuscular fat. By eliminating non-contractile tissue from our volume calculations, we have presented volume data that more appropriately represents force-generating muscle tissue. Non-uniform muscle atrophy was observed across muscles and may provide important clues when assessing the effect of muscle atrophy on post-stroke gait. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei
The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps.
Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei
The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps. PMID:28387356
Hough, G. R.
A study of the blown flap/jet flap analogy has been undertaken. Analytical predictions were made using both improved lifting line and optimized vortex lattice models for the jet flap. Results were compared with experimental data for three propulsive lift systems; the jet augmented flap, the externally blown flap, and the upper surface blown flap. Force increments due to changes in geometry and jet parameters were well approximated in most cases, although the absolute values of the aerodynamic forces were usually underestimated. The relatively simple jet-flap models gave performance predictions of accuracy comparable to more complex analyses.
Maciel-Miranda, Alejandro; Morris, Steven F; Hallock, Geoffrey G
After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Discuss the types of local flaps. 2. Analyze the advantages, disadvantages, and applications for each kind of flap. 3. Perform appropriate design and dissection techniques of local flaps. 4. Describe appropriate design and dissection techniques of local perforator and propeller flaps. The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the topic of local flaps. Local flaps are those that are elevated nearby and then transferred to an adjacent wound. Options include geometric local flaps, axial pattern local flaps and a new exciting group of flaps, local perforator flaps. The principles, advantages, disadvantages, and applications for each are carefully analyzed. Local perforator flaps can be harvested virtually anywhere in the body and represent a significant clinical advance, as these can solve a wide variety of clinical challenges. These flaps do require gentle microsurgical dissection technique with careful handling for inset of the flap and simultaneously provide the same advantages of other types of local flaps because they also use nearby tissues with a similar color match, thickness, and texture, with primary donor-site closure possible. Local perforator flaps are another very useful option that undoubtedly will become more popular as more surgeons become more familiar with their use and advantages.
Seo, Mi Hyun; Kim, Soung Min; Huan, Fan; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Lee, Suk Keun
Microvascular flap reconstruction is known as successful technique, although vascular thrombosis can cause free flap failure. To analyze the histologic characteristics and causes of free flap failure, this clinical study examined failed free flaps, including the microanastomosed sites. This study included a total of 5 failed flaps, including 3 radial forearm free flaps, 1 latissimus dorsi free flap, and 1 fibular free flap, all performed with microvascular reconstruction surgery from 2009 to 2011 at Seoul National University Dental Hospital. At the resection surgeries of the failed nonviable flaps, histologic specimens including the microanastomosed vessels were acquired. For light microscope observation, the slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and also with Masson trichrome. Selected portions of graft tissue were also observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the cause of flap failure was the occlusion of vessels because of thrombi formation. During the microanastomosis, damage to the vessel endothelium occurred, followed by intimal hyperplasia and medial necrosis at the anastomosed site. In the TEM findings, some smooth muscle cells beneath endothelium were atrophied and degenerated. The formation of thrombi and the degeneration of the smooth muscle cells were coincident with vascular dysfunction of graft vessel. The damaged endothelium and the exposed connective tissue elements might initiate the extrinsic pathway of thrombosis at the microanastomotic site. Therefore, it is suggested that accurate surgical planning, adequate postoperative monitoring, and skillful technique for minimizing vascular injury are required for successful microvascular transfer.
Somintara, Ongart; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Kongdan, Youwanush; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Sukpanich, Rupporn
Background There are several techniques for harvesting the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. We examined the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique and determined factors associated with its complications and oncological outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of 168 TRAM flaps performed between January 2003 and December 2010, focusing on complications and oncologic outcomes. Results Among the 168 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 158 patients, flap complications occurred in 34%. Most of the flap complications included some degree of fat necrosis. There was no total flap loss. Flap complications were associated with elderly patients and the presence of major donor site complications. Abdominal bulging and hernia occurred in 12% of patients. The bi-pedicled TRAM flap and higher body mass index (BMI) were significant factors associated with increased donor site complications. Seven patients (4%) developed loco-regional recurrence. Within a median follow-up of 27 months, distant metastasis and death occurred in 6% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The pedicled TRAM flap using the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique in the present study is consistent with the results from previous studies in flap complication rates and oncological outcomes. PMID:27563562
Memarzadeh, Khashayar; Sheikh, Rafi; Blohmé, Jonas; Torbrand, Christian
Objective: The aim was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions (length, width, and thickness) of random advancement skin flaps and retained tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Methods: Flaps were raised on the flanks of pigs. The flaps were either 0.5 or 1.0 cm wide, thin (dissected halfway through the subcutaneous tissue) or thick (dissected down to the muscle fascia). Tissue perfusion was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, and tissue oxygenation (pO2) was measured using a Licox system, every 0.5 cm along the flaps’ length. Tissue temperature was visualized by high-resolution infrared camera. Results: Perfusion and oxygenation decreased gradually from the base to the tip of the flap, reaching approximately 40% of presurgical values (2.0 cm) and approximately 20% (2.5 cm) from the base of the flap. There was virtually no blood flow, nor oxygen tension, 3.0 cm from the base of the flap. The width to length ratio of the flap did not determine blood flow or oxygenation, being approximately 30% in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap, and 0% in a 1.0 cm wide and 4 cm long flap, both with a width to length ratio of 1:4. Blood flow and oxygenation were preserved to a greater extent in the thick flaps (∼40%) than in the thin flaps (∼20%), in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap. Conclusions: The dissection of a random advancement flap results in hypoperfusion and oxygenation that cannot be predicted by the width to length ratio but depend on the length and thickness of the flap. PMID:26958105
El-Gammal, Tarek A; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed M; Saleh, Waleed Riad; Ragheb, Yasser Farouk; Refai, Omar; Morsy, Mohamed Mohamed
In late obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), restoration of elbow and hand functions is a difficult challenge. The use of free functioning muscle transplantation in late OBPP was very scarcely reported. In this study, we present our experience on the use of free functioning gracilis transfer for restoration of elbow and hand functions in late cases of OBPP. Eighteen patients with late OBPP underwent free gracilis transfer for reconstruction of elbow and/or hand functions. The procedure was indicated when there was no evidence of reinnervation on EMG and in the absence of local donors. Average age at surgery was 102.5 months. Patients were evaluated using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system and the Toronto Active Movement Scale. Hand function was evaluated by the Raimondi scoring system. The average follow-up was 65.8 ± 41.7 months. Contraction of the transferred gracilis started at an average of 4.5 ± 1.03 months. Average range of elbow flexion significantly improved from 30 ± 55.7 to 104 ± 31.6 degrees (P <0.001). Elbow flexion power significantly increased with an average of 3.8 grades (P = 0.000147). Passive elbow range of motion significantly decreased from an average of 147 to 117 degrees (P = 0.003). Active finger flexion significantly improved from 5 ± 8.3 to 63 ± 39.9 degrees (P < 0.001). Finger flexion power significantly increased with an average 2.7 grades (P < 0.001). Only 17% achieved useful hand (grade 3) on Raimondi hand score. Triceps reconstruction resulted in an average of M4 power and 45 degrees elbow extension. Free gracilis transfer may be a useful option for reconstruction of elbow and/or hand functions in late OBPP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Onoda, Satoshi; Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi; Onoda, Tomoo
The purpose of this study was to determine whether free flap volume decreases or increases in the long-term postoperative period. We used a retrospective analysis of 17 patients to measure muscle and fat volume in free flap with 3-dimensional (3D) images using the AZE Virtual Place Lexus64. Seventeen patients underwent free flap reconstruction with rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps (n = 11) or anterolateral thigh flaps (n = 6). Median follow-up was 28.9 months (range, 2.1-48.4 months). Total flap volume was significantly decreased in flaps including ≥40% muscle (p = .011). Mean final muscle volume was 50% at an average of 12 months. Final fat volume was significantly higher for cases with no evidence of disease (mean, 116.7%) than for died-of-the-disease cases (mean, 70.3%; p = .007). Use of free flaps with a high ratio of fat to muscle is sustainable and can gain volume over time, as transplanted fat can increase depending on host condition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Deep sacral wounds are best covered by flaps. Posterior thigh flaps have routinely been used to cover such wounds. The flap can however be modified as an island flap. Two patients with extensive sacral wounds were managed with island posterior thigh flaps. Both patients were admitted secondary to road traffic accident with subsequent soft tissue loss of the sacral area. The sacral defects in both patients were approximately 17 cm by 23 cm in dimensions. Unilateral island posterior thigh flap was raised and used to cover the wounds. Postoperatively both patients did well; the donor site and recipient sites healed without any complications. Island posterior thigh flap is thus an option in covering extensive defects of the sacral area. The flap is reliable and easy to raise and has minimal donor site morbidity. By raising it as an island flap the dog ear defect is avoided and the flap is able to be tunneled under the gluteal muscle. This maneuver enables the flap to be advanced further allowing it to cover more distal and extensive defects. PMID:28321356
Chen, Yongfeng; Zhang, Kai; Li, Jiancheng; Xu, Jingcheng; Liao, Shengkai; Xu, Tao
To investigate the method of combining radial forearm free flap and adjacent tissue flap in reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects and its effectiveness. Between March 2005 and May 2010, 17 patients with palatomaxillary defects were treated. There were 11 males and 6 females with an age range of 45-74 years (mean, 62.5 years), including 1 case of benign tumor and 16 cases of malignant tumors (7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of palate, 1 case of recurring squamous cell carcinoma of palate, 1 case of malignant melanoma of palate, 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of palate, 1 case of malignant melanoma of maxilla, 1 case of ductal carcinoma of maxilla, and 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla). The maxillectomy defect ranged from 7.0 cm x 5.5 cm to 10.0 cm x 7.5 cm. According to Brown's classification for the maxillectomy defect, there were type II in 15 cases, type III in 2 cases. Palatomaxillary defects were repaired with radial forearm free flap and buccal fat pad in 11 cases, and with radial forearm free flap, buccal fat pad, and mandibular osteomuscular flap pedicled with temporal muscle in 6 cases. The effectiveness was evaluated after operation by observing the vitality of the flap, the functions of speech, swallowing, breath, and the facial appearance. All cases were followed up 6-12 months without tumor recurrence. All flaps and skin grafts at donor sites survived. The functions of speech, swallowing, and breath were normal without obvious opening limitation. The facial appearance was satisfactory without obvious maxillofacial deformity. No enophthalmos occurred in patients with orbital floor and infraorbital rim defects. The patients had no oronasal fistula with satisfactory oral and nasal functions. According to the type of palatomaxillary defects, it can have good early effectiveness to select combining radial forearm free flap and buccal fat pad or combining radial forearm free flap, buccal fat pad, and mandibular osteomuscular flap for
Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. )
A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.
Barsanti, Laura; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Walne, Patricia L.; Gualtieri, Paolo
We present the light-induced photocycle of the paraflagellar swelling of Euglena gracilis. The kinetics of this process was reconstructed by sampling its fluorescence emission and switching the excitation light from 365 nm to 436 nm. Stable intermediates in the photocycle were manifested. The measured millisecond resolution kinetics best fits a Michaelis-Menten equation. The data provide strong evidence that the paraflagellar swelling, a three-dimensional natural crystal of a light-detecting protein, is the true Euglena photoreceptor. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 5FIGURE 6 PMID:9017185
Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh
Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473
Kuo, Y R; Jeng, S F; Kuo, M H; Huang, M N; Liu, Y T; Chiang, Y C; Yeh, M C; Wei, F C
From August of 1995 through July of 1998, 38 free anterolateral thigh flaps were transferred to reconstruct soft-tissue defects. The overall success rate was 97 percent. Among 38 anterolateral thigh flaps, four were elevated as cutaneous flaps based on the septocutaneous perforators. The other 34 were harvested as myocutaneous flaps including a cuff of vastus lateralis muscle (15 to 40 cm3), either because of bulk requirements (33 cases) or because of the absence of a septocutaneous perforator (one case). However, vastus lateralis muscle is the largest compartment of the quadriceps, which is the prime extensor of the knee. Losing a portion of the vastus lateralis muscle may affect knee stability. Objective functional assessments of the donor sites were performed at least 6 months postoperatively in 20 patients who had a cuff of vastus lateralis muscle incorporated as part of the myocutaneous flap; assessments were made using a kinetic communicator machine. The isometric power test of the ratios of quadriceps muscle at 30 and 60 degrees of flexion between donor and normal thighs revealed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The isokinetic peak torque ratio of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, including concentric and eccentric contraction tests, showed no significant difference (p > 0.05), except the concentric contraction test of the quadriceps muscle, which revealed mild weakness of the donor thigh (p < 0.05). In summary, the functional impairment of the donor thighs was minimal after free anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap transfer.
Rodríguez Fernández, Javier; Mateos Micas, Mario; Galán, Ramón; Cobos, Pedro; Jové, Montserrat; Jové, Margarita; Aguilera, Laura; Vázquez, Olga; Mommsen, Jens; Forteza, Gabriel; Piera, Verónica
The iliac crest flap is commonly used in reconstructions of the head and neck. The vascularisation of this region depends on the deep circumflex iliac artery and vein (ACIP/VCIP). The present study describes for the first time, the simultaneous use of the deep and superficial circumflex iliac systems to obtain an iliac crest flap for head and neck reconstructions. Ten inguinal regions were dissected in five cadavers in the Human Anatomy and Embryology Unit of the Faculty of Medicine of the Rovira i Virgili University. In the period 2005-2007, three patients required mandibular reconstruction with a microvascularised iliac crest osteocutaneous flap at the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Joan XXIII University Hospital. The 3 cases showed a favourable outcome. This "supercharging" variation guarantees the perfusion to the skin flap, provides a better three-dimensional arrangement of the soft tissue and lowers the morbidity at the donor site, as much less internal oblique muscle cuff is harvested. This technique may be of great interest in the reconstruction of complex maxillofacial defects instead of having to carry out a vascular dissection and its extra anastomosis.
Barbour, John; Saunders, Stuart; Hartsock, Langdon; Schimpf, Dennis; O'Neill, Patrick
Due to the role of the calcaneus in weight bearing, soft tissue coverage along with proper reduction of the fracture is the treatment following open calcaneal injury. Intra-articular calcaneal fractures present a very difficult management problem, as the lack of soft tissue and the intricate vascularity in this area pose a risk of complications. Coverage with local and free muscle flaps following excision of infected structures is a common approach for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. However, it is unknown which type of flap is optimal for the treatment of lateral foot wounds, especially when complicated by calcaneal osteomyelitis. A patient presented with an open wound over the lateral aspect of the heel with exposed hardware and chronic osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. Following multiple debridements, an ipsilateral osteocutaneous free fibular flap was transferred to the bony defect. Weight bearing was initiated at 2 months postoperatively, and he now ambulates with a normal gait, has normal plantar sensation, and has no difficulty maneuvering stairs. The patient has done well postoperatively and has recovered full range of motion and complete mobility. In this case report, an osteocutaneous free flap provided an excellent outcome for an active patient with a very complex and complicated condition. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Tang, Wei; Long, Jie; Feng, Fan; Guo, Lijuan; Gao, Chao; Tian, Weidong
Large area defects in the maxillofacial field are difficult to restore with sufficient esthetic and functional outcome. This study was to assess the feasibility of using serratus anterior composite flaps for reconstruction of large-area oral and maxillofacial tissue defects and to determine subsequent effects on neuromuscular function. Six patients with severe maxillofacial deformities were treated with serratus anterior composite flaps. The neurovascularized pedicle of each flap retained the long thoracic nerve to supply motor innervation. The long thoracic nerve was anastomosed with a branch of the facial nerve. The remaining fine branches of the facial nerve were separated interfascicularly and intrafascicularly, and then implanted within the border of the serratus anterior muscle. Transplanted flaps survived in all patients without vascular crisis. At the 12-month follow-up examinations, patients were able to close their eyes, wrinkle their forehead, and blow through pursed lips using the reconstructed mimetic muscles. The free serratus anterior composite flap has different digitations of the serratus anterior and motor nerve innervations, which is an attractive choice for reconstruction of large defects of oral and maxillofacial tissue. The nerve anastomosis and facial nerve replantation technique may protect the pedicle from atrophy of the transferred flap. Facial motion can be animated by neurotization or reinnervation in-growth in the neurotized slips of the serratus.
Gravvanis, Andreas; Kyriakopoulos, Antonios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis
A literature search focusing on flap knee reconstruction revealed much controversy regarding the optimal management of around the knee defects. Muscle flaps are the preferred option, mainly in infected wounds. Perforator flaps have recently been introduced in knee coverage with significant advantages due to low donor morbidity and long pedicles with wide arc of rotation. In the case of free flap the choice of recipient vessels is the key point to the reconstruction. Taking the published experience into account, a reconstructive algorithm is proposed according to the size and location of the wound, the presence of infection and/or 3-dimensional defect. PMID:25405089
A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.
[Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocation and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part I: The effect of open myotenotomy of the gracilis muscle and of the long and short adductor muscles in connection with total extrapelvine resection of the obturator nerve, on the hip joints and static function (author's transl)].
Spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles involve, on the one hand, danger in respect of the development of a dislocation of the hip, and are a serious impediment to a walking ability on the other. Hence, surgery is often necessary. The article reports on the results of consequent weakening of the adductor muscles as a result of open myotenotomy in association with complete extrapelvine resection of the obturator nerve. 27 patients were subjected to surgery--in most cases bilaterally--at an age between 2 years and 5 months and 18 years, with a follow-up period of up to 15 years. The study does not include patients with spastic dislocation of the hip in whom this method was applied on the non-dislocated side and on the dislocated side in combination with iliopsoas tenotomy. This method makes it possible to achieve regression of existing defective positions of the hip joints. In a few cases, the valgus position of the neck of the femur was corrected to some extent. In two patients it was not possible to prevent the progress of a developing dislocation of the hip. These results show that, whereas the adductor muscles represent an essential factor for the occurrence of a spastic dislocation of the hip, other forces are most probably also involved. In the majority of cases, results were favourable in respect of the static function, although in some cases the success became evident after several years only, especially in mentally retarded patients and in apathetic individuals. Important for therapeutic success is the follow-up. The principles of its therapy are thoroughly discussed. Surgery is indicated only in special cases. Indications must be observed very strictly, since the risk of excessive weakening of the adductor muscles should not be underestimated.
Chen, Jie; Huang, Wenxiao; Li, Zan; Zhou, Xiao; Yu, Jianjun; Bao, Ronghua; Zhang, Hailin; Ling, Hang
To report the experience of use of modified pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps in reconstruction of head and neck postoperative defects. A total of 107 patients who underwent head and neck defect reconstruction using modified PMMC flaps after tumor rescetion between Jan 2008 and Dec 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The success rate of reconstruction with modified PMMC flaps was 94.4% (101/107). Five patients had partial flap necrosis and their wounds healed with dressing change. One patient (0.9%) had total flap necrosis, followed by the second reconstruction using contralateral PMMC flap. The modified falcate PMMC flap can obtain optimum quantity of the skin in the chest and decreasing the closing tension of the donnor site in favor of wound healing. The pedicle without muscle will not only maintain the partial function of the pectoralis major, but also help to avoid pressing the vascular pedicle within the subclavian tunnel. The muscular element the pedicled muscles of the PMMC flap can increase the ability of the flap to resist infection, which can use for covering an exposed carotid artery and improving the neck fibrosis of irradiated patients.
Hu, Changwei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Lizhi; Guo, Shaofen; Li, Xiuling
Potential environmental risks posed by nanomaterials increase with their extensive production and application. As a newly emerging carbon material, graphene oxide (GO) exhibits excellent electrochemical properties and has promising applications in many areas. However, the ecotoxicity of GO to organisms, especially aquatic organisms, remains poorly understood. Accordingly, this study examined the toxicity of GO with protozoa Euglena gracilis as test organism. Growth inhibition test was initially performed to investigate acute toxic effects. Protozoa were subsequently exposed to GO ranging from 0.5 mg L(-1) to 5 mg L(-1) for 10 d. The growth, photosynthetic pigment content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, ultrastructure of the protozoa, as well as the shading effect of GO, were analyzed to determine the mechanism of the toxicity effect. Results showed that the 96 h EC50 value of GO in E. gracilis was 3.76±0.74 mg L(-1). GO at a concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1) exerted significant (P<0.01) adverse effects on the organism. These effects were evidenced by the inhibition of growth and the enhancement of malondialdehyde content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Shading effect and oxidative stress may be responsible for GO toxicity.
Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea
Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis' phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller-Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized "receptor law," a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells' accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors.
Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius
In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the excavate flagellate Euglena gracilis. Its gene complement is reduced as compared with the well-studied sister groups Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. We have identified seven protein-coding genes: Three subunits of respiratory complex I (nad1, nad4, and nad5), one subunit of complex III (cob), and three subunits of complex IV (cox1, cox2, and a highly divergent cox3). Moreover, fragments of ribosomal RNA genes have also been identified. Genes encoding subunits of complex V, ribosomal proteins and tRNAs were missing, and are likely located in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial genomes of diplonemids and kinetoplastids possess the most complex RNA processing machineries known, including trans-splicing and editing of the uridine insertion/deletion type, respectively, our transcriptomic data suggest their total absence in E. gracilis. This finding supports a scenario in which the complex mitochondrial processing machineries of both sister groups evolved relatively late in evolution from a streamlined genome and transcriptome of their common predecessor.
Guimarães, Adriana G; Gomes, Silvana V F; Moraes, Valéria R S; Nogueira, Paulo C L; Ferreira, Antônio G; Blank, Arie F; Santos, Alan D C; Viana, Monalisa D; Silva, Geraldo H; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo J
Lippia gracilis Schauer is an aromatic plant widely found in Northeastern Brazil. The leaf infusions or decoctions and alcoholic macerate are used for some inflammatory diseases and headache. This paper reports the isolation of naringenin by semi-preparative liquid chromatography from the methanolic extract of L. gracilis (ELg) and the evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of this extract by measuring nociception through acetic acid, formalin, and hot-plate tests in carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice. Following oral administration, ELg (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of writhes in the writhing test and the time of paw licks in both phases of the formalin test when compared to the control group animals. Mice treated with ELg did not exhibit any behavioral alteration during the hot plate and rota-rod tests, suggesting non-participation of the supraspinal components in the modulation of pain by ELg and no motor abnormality. The oral administration of 400 mg/kg of ELg produced an anti-inflammatory effect on peritonitis induced by carrageenan. These effects can be associated with a decrease of inflammatory mediator synthesis by compounds of ELg, such as naringenin, which has anti-inflammatory action as already described.
Color changes in Chameleo gracilis are under neuroendocrine control. Denervation of the limbs, by removal of the sciatic or brachial nerves, does not interfere with the normal color changes in the affected limbs. Denervated skins, placed back onto C. gracilis, show color changes in synchrony with the rest of the animal. Pieces of isolated skin turn very dark or black in alpha-melanophore stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and green in adrenaline, but do not show any color changes in physiological saline. Hypophysectomized animals turn green but never turn dark. Injections of alpha-MSH cause intact or hypophysectomized animals to turn dark or black, while injections of adrenaline cause them to turn light green. Injections of physiological saline have no effect. Crude pituitary extracts cause darkening of isolated skins or of intact animals injected with such extracts. Similar treatment with crude extracts of adrenal glands causes the skins to become light green. Electrical stimulation of transected spinal cord leads to localized lightening of the skin but never to darkening of the same. Light, temperature, darkness, and color of the surroundings influence color change. Color change to green at night and to darker colors in the daytime suggests a possible circadian rhythm in the phenomenon.
Collins, Jessica; Ayeni, Olubimpe; Thoma, Achilleas
PURPOSE: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is widely used in reconstruction. Its advantage over other flaps is its purported minimal donor site morbidity. The present systematic review summarizes the types of complications and their incidence with this flap. A secondary objective is to delineate factors that influence these complications and make recommendations to avoid them. METHOD: Two independent assessors undertook a systematic review of the literature using multiple databases. All patients with ALT flap reconstruction for any defect were included. Donor site complications including lateral thigh paresthesia, musculoskeletal dysfunction, hypertrophic scarring, wound breakdown, infection, donor site pain, seroma, hematoma, compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis were extracted from identified articles and tabulated. Based on the number of pooled events and the number of cases performed, an incidence rate was calculated. RESULTS: Forty-two relevant articles were identified that included 2324 flaps. Of the 2324 flaps, the majority were fasciocutaneous (n=737), and 1303 of the flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction. The incidence of complications were: lateral thigh paresthesia (24.0%); musculoskeletal dysfunction (4.8%); hypertrophic scarring or wound dehiscence (4.8%); donor site pain (3.3%); seroma (2.4%); infection (2.2%); hematoma (0.7%); compartment syndrome (0.09%); and partial muscle necrosis (0.09%). CONCLUSION: Lateral thigh paresthesia is the most common complication. Severe complications such as compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis can occur, but are rare. Preservation of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, femoral motor nerve branches and deep fascia decreases the risk of complications. The degree of vastus lateralis disruption did not show a significant impact on musculoskeletal dysfunction. PMID:23598761
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.
PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.
Blake, Brett P; Simonetta, Cassandra J; Maher, Ian A
Transposition flaps are frequently used to repair defects of the head and neck after tumor extirpation with Mohs micrographic surgery. To review the basic principles underlying single-stage transposition flaps and also their utility relative to location on the head and neck. A review of the literature on transposition flaps was performed with specific reference to the principles of single-stage transposition flaps, including rhomboid flaps and their variations, multilobed flaps, and the locations where transposition flaps are frequently executed on the head and neck. Numerous articles have been written with regard to the techniques for designing and executing transposition flaps. The primary advantages of transposition flaps include less undermining as compared to large sliding flaps and the superior ability to displace tension away from the defect and from free margins. Optimal cosmesis with these flaps can be achieved with appropriate sizing of flaps (or lobes), appropriate undermining, and meticulous suturing. The versatility of transposition flaps makes them optimal for repair of defects on the head and neck and utilization of the outlined key principles and techniques aid in achieving an aesthetic result.
Batdorf, Niles J.; Lettieri, Salvatore C.
Summary: Proximal, posterior thigh wounds from oncologic or traumatic defects can be difficult wounds to reconstruct if local flap options have been sacrificed during the trauma or oncologic resection. Free flap options to cover these defects are also difficult because of the lack of convenient recipient vessels in the region. The authors present 2 cases (oncologic and traumatic) wherein a myocutaneous anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was harvested and tunneled from the anterior muscle compartment to the posterior muscle compartment of the thigh through a medially based transmuscular tunnel, decreasing the required pedicle distance to the wound. This technique of transmuscular tunneling of the ALT flap expands the indications and utility of the ALT flap to cover posterior thigh wounds. PMID:25289275
Acland, R D; Schusterman, M; Godina, M; Eder, E; Taylor, G I; Carlisle, I
A new neurovascular free-flap donor area on the medial side of the knee is described. The flap is supplied by the saphenous artery, a branch of the descending genicular artery. It is drained both by the long saphenous vein and by the saphenous venae comitantes. Its nerve supply is from the medial femoral cutaneous nerve above the knee and the saphenous nerve below the knee. The flap is thin, has a long vascular pedicle (up to 15 cm) and a dependable nerve supply, and can be made quite large. The principal disadvantage is the donor wound, which requires grafting in most cases. We describe the anatomy of the saphenous flap, the method of raising it, and our early clinical experience with it both as a free flap and as a pedicled flap. Potential uses of the saphenous flap and its broader significance in relation to flaps on the lower extremity are briefly discussed.
Breast reconstruction with flap surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... breast tissue to treat or prevent breast cancer. Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is a type of breast ...
Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.
Tests of the noise produced by the impingement of the jet exhaust on the wing and flap for an externally blown flap system were conducted with a CF700 turbofan engine and an F-111B wing panel. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The presence of the wing next to the test nozzles increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection angle. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested. Tests showed that the single-slotted flap deflected 60 deg, produced less noise than the double-slotted flaps. Also, maintaining the maximum distance between the exit nozzle and flap system resulted in a minor reduction in noise.
Zhu, Jing-min; Hao, Tian-zhi; Sun, Zhi-gang; He, Li-xin; Cao, Yu-jue; Lu, Gang
To explore the methods and effects of repair of occipital and nuchal wounds with inferior trapezius myocutaneous flap after deep electrical bum. Twelve patients with high-voltage electrical burn in occipital and nuchal regions were hospitalized to our ward from March 2003 to September 2007. They were repaired with improved inferior trapezius myocutaneous flaps after debridement. Flaps were of two types: (1) blood supply from cutaneous and perforator branches of the original segment of the superficial descending branch of transverse cervical artery. (2) combined blood supply from both superficial and deep descending branches of transverse cervical artery C, i.e., dorsal scapular artery). All flaps carried segmental and limited trapezius muscle cuff surrounding the vascular pedicle of the flap similar to a perforator flap. Flaps survived completely primarily in eight cases. In two patients, infection developed in flaps adjacent to wounds with lignification; they healed after dress change. Necrosis appeared in distal end of flap (one case), it healed after re-operation. One patient with surviving flaps died of sepsis and multiple organ failure 21 days after operation. The flaps which survived were not swollen ; the donor sites at scapular region looked normal without pterygoid or pendulous scapula deformities. Inferior trapezius myocutaneous flaps can be used to repair occipital and nuchal wounds, with the advantages of constant blood vessels, reliable blood supply, convenience for application.
Guerra, Aldo Benjamin; Gill, Paul Singh; Trahan, Chris G; Ruiz, Bernardo; Lund, Kerstin M; Delaune, Christie L; Thibodeaux, Brett A; Metzinger, Stephen Eric
Muscle and musculocutaneous flaps have been used reliably in reconstruction of soft-tissue defects for many years. Previous experimental studies have shown musculocutaneous flaps to be superior to the random pattern and fasciocutaneous flaps in the management of infected wounds. Over the past decade, perforator flaps have gained acceptance as alternative methods of reconstruction in the clinical setting that can decrease donor-site morbidity and hospital stay, and increase patient satisfaction. The authors theorized that perforator flaps may be able to handle infected wounds better than random pattern and fasciocutaneous flaps because their blood supply is essentially the same as many of their musculocutaneous counterparts. The goal of this study was to compare the S1 perforator-based skin flap and latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in the dorsal flank of the rabbit with the introduction of bacteria to simulate both superficial and deep wound infection. Measurements of oxygen tension and regional perfusion index were performed on both types of flaps to ascertain their viability and capacity to heal. The authors found no statistical significance between latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous and S1 perforator flaps in the rabbit with respect to superficial and deep wound infections. The regional perfusion index was calculated for postoperative days 1, 2, and 4. No statistically significant difference between the two flaps using the regional perfusion index could be identified. Additionally, regional perfusion for both types of flaps was greater than 0.6, indicating that their capacity to heal wounds is similar.
Khan, Mohemmed N; Rodriguez, Laureano Giraldez; Pool, Christopher D; Laitman, Benjamin; Hernandez, Christopher; Erovic, Boban M; Teng, Marita S; Genden, Eric M; Miles, Brett A
Review the literature on the use of the serratus anterior free flap in the head and neck reconstruction and describe new applications of the serratus anterior free flap. Case series with retrospective chart review and literature review. A PubMed literature review was performed using the search terms "serratus free flap," "serratus skull base," "serratus scalp," and "serratus free tissue transfer." One hundred and seventy-six articles were identified, 22 of which included at least one head and neck reconstructive case utilizing the serratus free flap. Twenty-two articles were identified since 1982 that discussed the use of the serratus anterior free flap for reconstruction in the head and neck. However, most of these were harvested in conjunction with latissimus muscle. We present a case series of 15 patients in whom the serratus anterior muscle free flap was used alone for head and neck reconstruction. In seven of these patients, we used the serratus for coverage of the newly created pharynx after total laryngectomy, which has not previously been reported. The serratus anterior free muscle flap has great versatility in reconstruction of the head and neck. Because of its low donor site morbidity, thinness, and pliability, as well as its ease of harvest, it is ideal for reconstruction of the skull base and scalp. We have also found that it is ideal for muscle coverage of the newly reconstructed pharynx after total laryngectomy. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:568-573, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Bianchi, Bernardo; Copelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Silvano; Ferri, Andrea; Sesenna, Enrico
Facial paralysis is either congenital or acquired, and of varying severity, which leads to an asymmetrical or absent facial expression. It is an important disability both from the aesthetic and functional points of view. Between 2003 and 2008, at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Parma, Italy, 21 patients with facial paralysis had their faces reanimated with a gracilis transplant reinnervated by the masseter motor nerve. All free-muscle transplants survived the transfer, and no flap was lost. Facial symmetry at rest and while smiling was excellent or good in most cases, and we found an appreciable improvement in both speech and oral competence. We consider that the masseter motor nerve is a powerful and reliable donor nerve, which allows us to obtain movement of the commissure and upper lip similar to those of the normal site for degree and direction. There may be a role for the masseter motor nerve in innervation of patients with facial paralysis. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanchez-Conejo-Mir, J.; Bueno Montes, J.; Moreno Gimenez, J.C.; Camacho-Martinez, F.
The bilobed flap is a simple reconstructive technique principally used to correct substantial defects in the facial region. The authors present their experience with this local flap in the difficult plantar area, with excellent short-term functional results. They describe the special characteristics of the bilobed flap in this zone, and comment on its indications and possible complications.
Ma, Xianjie; Li, Yang; Wang, Lu; Li, Weiyang; Dong, Liwei; Xia, Wei; Su, Yingjun
Cervical scar contracture causes both physical and psychological distress for burn patients. Many pedicle flaps or skin grafting have been suggested for reconstruction of cervical scar contracture with variable results in the literature. The authors present the axial thoracic flap based on the thoracic branch of the supraclavicular artery (TBSA) for reconstruction of cervical scar contracture. Postburn scar contractures in anterior neck region of 66 patients had been reconstructed with the axial pattern thoracic flaps based on the TBSA, including 1 expanded and 10 nonexpanded pedicle flaps, and 9 expanded and 46 nonexpanded island pedicle flaps, during 1988 through 2012. After removing and releasing the cervical scar contracture, the flap was designed in the thoracic region. The axial artery of the flap is the TBSA bifurcating from the intersection point of sternocleidomastoid muscle and omohyoid muscle with several concomitant veins as the axial veins. The flap can be designed in a large area within the borders of the anterior border of the trapezius muscle superiorly, the middle part of the deltoid muscle laterally, the midsternal line medially, and the level 3 to 4 cm below nipples inferiorly. After incisions were made along the medial, inferior, and lateral border, dissection was performed toward the pedicle. Donor site was closed directly in expanded cases and with skin grafting in nonexpanded cases. Cervical scar contractures were repaired with good functional and cosmetic results in 64 cases among this cohort. Flap tip necrosis in other 2 cases, caused by postoperative hematoma, was repaired by skin grafting. The color and texture of all flaps were fitted with those of the surrounding skin. The donor sites all healed primarily. The flap sensation in the thoracic region regained in the early stage postoperatively and that in cervical area recovered completely after 6 months according to the report of the patients. With reliable blood supply based on the
Reddy, N. N.
Theoretical and experimental developments of flow-surface interaction noise with a particular emphasis on blown-flap noise were reviewed. Several blown-flap noise prediction methods were evaluated by comparing predicted acoustic levels, directivity, and spectra with a recently obtained data base. A prediction method was selected and a detailed step-by-step description of this method was provided to develop a computer module to calculate one-third octave band frequency spectra at any given location in the far-field for under-the-wing and upper surface blown configurations as a function of geometric and operational parameters.
Kim, Peter; Lee, Kwan Stephen
Excisional surgery of the ear, such as that following a skin cancer excision, often produces a smaller ear postoperatively. This article describes the various uses of a retroauricular cutaneous advancement flap to repair surgical defects of the ear following a skin cancer excision, without miniaturising the ear. A retroauricular cutaneous advancement flap is an option for patients who require cosmetically satisfying reconstruction of the ear post skin cancer excision. The technique can avoid the miniaturisation of the ear that may occur with other techniques.
Antonyshyn, O.; Colcleugh, R.G.; Hurst, L.N.; Anderson, C.
The present paper investigates the anatomy and vascularization of the temporalis myo-osseous flap. This is a calvarial bone flap that employs temporalis muscle and its distal pericranial extension as a pedicle. In six human cadavers the flap was raised as an island on the anterior deep temporal artery after transecting the zygomatic arch and coronoid process. Maximal mobilization was thus obtained, allowing rotation of the flap into the mouth for intraoral reconstruction. The arc of rotation and potential surgical applications were noted. A comparative study of the temporalis myo-osseous flap and free calvarial bone graft was then conducted in a rabbit model. Vascularization of the calvarial bone flap was confirmed by technetium scintigraphy performed on the first postoperative day. The uptake of fluorochrome labels immediately after transfer verified the adequacy of the periosteal circulation in maintaining viability and new osteoid formation throughout the full thickness of calvarial bone. The transplantation of free calvarial bone grafts was followed by necrosis of most cellular elements. This was demonstrated by an absence of fluorochrome uptake up to 19 days postoperatively and a predominance of empty lacunae and nonviable marrow.
Kashimura, Tsutomu; Soejima, Kazutaka; Asami, Takashi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki
Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells, isolated from mature adipose cell, have high proliferative potential and pluripotency. We report on the expansion of flap survival areas on the back of rats administrating DFAT cells. Intraperitoneal adipose tissue was collected from a male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. The mature fat cells were cultured on the ceiling surface of culture flask to isolate DFAT cells. On day 7 of the culture, the flask was inverted to allow normal adherent culture. A dorsal caudal-based random pattern flap measuring 2 × 9 cm was raised on each SD rat. We prepared a control group (n = 10) and a flap base injection group in which DFAT cells were injected 2 cm from the flap base (n = 10) and a flap center DFAT injection group (n = 10). In which DFAT cells at 1 × 106 cells/0.1 ml were injected beneath the skin muscle layers of the flap. The flap survival areas were assessed on day 14 after surgery. The mean flap survival rates of the control group, flap center injection group and flap base injection group were 53.6 ± 6.1%, 50.6 ± 6.4% and 65.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. The flap survival areas significantly expanded in the flap base injection group (p < .05). In H-E staining beneath the skin muscle layer connective tissue thickened in the flap base injection group. In the India ink staining, abundant neovascularization was observed inside the thickened parts. The injection of DFAT cells into the flap base promoted the expansion of survival areas.
Romanczuk, P.; Romensky, M.; Scholz, D.; Lobaskin, V.; Schimansky-Geier, L.
We study the velocity distribution of unicellular swimming algae Euglena gracilis using optical microscopy and active Brownian particle theory. To characterize a peculiar feature of the experimentally observed distribution at small velocities we use the concept of active fluctuations, which was recently proposed for the description of stochastically self-propelled particles [Romanczuk, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230601 (2011)]. In this concept, the fluctuating forces arise due to internal random performance of the propulsive motor. The fluctuating forces are directed in parallel to the heading direction, in which the propulsion acts. In the theory, we introduce the active motion via the depot model [Schweitzer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5044 (1998)]. We demonstrate that the theoretical predictions based on the depot model with active fluctuations are consistent with the experimentally observed velocity distributions. In addition to the model with additive active noise, we obtain theoretical results for a constant propulsion with multiplicative noise.
Glinkova, E; Zhuchkina, N I; Koltovoĭ, N A; Koltovaia, N A
Considering the potentials of algae Euglena to constitute a part of biological systems of human life support, effects of low radiation doses on algal cells and radiosensitivity dependence on their genotype were studied. In experiments with gamma-irradiation (60Co) of Euglena gracilis, the highest radioresistance was demonstrated by strain Z. OFL; the chloroplasts lacking Z-derived strain showed hypersensitivity to radiation. E. bacillaris and derived chlorophyll-lacking strains W3 and W10 had intermediate radiosensitivity. Irradiation with the doses of up to 10 Gy produced a hormetic effect in the stock strains. Cells death was observed only after irradiation by doses above 100 Gy. The stimulating effect was exerted both on radioresistance and growth rate. Dyes made possible rapid evaluation of the proportion of living and dead cells. Comparison of two survival tests showed that the classic medium inoculation overestimates cell deaths as it disregards the living non-proliferating cells.
Reddy, Kommidi Devendar; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Braca, Alessandra; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwar; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa
Phytochemical investigation of Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora (Asclepiadaceae) whole plant extracts allowed to isolate one pregnane glycoside and two pregnanes characterized as 12β,20-O-dibenzoyl-5α,6-dihydrosarcostin β-oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-digitoxypyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranoside (1), 12β-O-benzoyl-3β,11α,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (2), and 11α-O-benzoyl-3β,12β,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (3), respectively. Their structural characterization was obtained on the basis of extensive NMR spectral studies. Three known pregnane glycosides along with lupeol and β-sitosterol were also isolated and characterized.
Vasconcelos, Aurea C.
Intact Euglena gracilis chloroplasts, which had been purified on gradients of silica sol, incorporated [35S]methionine or [3H]leucine into soluble and membrane-bound products, using light as the only source of energy. The chloroplasts were osmotically shocked, fractionated on discontinuous gradients of sucrose, and the products of protein synthesis of the different fractions characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The soluble fraction resolved into three zones of radioactivity, the major one corresponding to the large subunit or ribulose diphosphate carboxylase. The thylakoid membrane fraction contained nine labeled polypeptides, the two most prominent in the region of 31 and 42 kilodaltons. The envelope fraction contained a major radioactive peak of about 48 kilodaltons and four other minor peaks. The patterns of protein synthesis by isolated Euglena chloroplasts are broadly similar to those observed with chloroplasts of spinach and pea. PMID:16659752
Porst, M; Lebert, M; Hader, D P
Euglena gracilis, a unicellular photosynthetic flagellate, serves as a model system in signal transduction research. To further study its complex gravitaxis, experiments under microgravity are desirable. In preparation for long-term experiments on a space station, an autonomous cultivation unit has been developed and the culture conditions and surveillance methods have been established. The running time of more than 600 d under closed conditions with light as the only source of energy confirmed the stability of the Euglena population and gave new insights into its behavior. Physicochemical parameters such as oxygen concentration, temperature and pH as well as physiological parameters including cell density, motility, gravitactic orientation and pigmentation were recorded on a frequent basis. The suitability of the botanical bioreaction to serve as an oxygen supplier for animals in a closed system was demonstrated.
Houde, M; Sarhan, F
Different fractionation procedures were used to determine the location of vitamin B12 binding sites in Euglena gracilis. Using uptake measurements, cell fractionation, and light and electron microscopy, the cuticle of the cell was found to be the fraction containing the majority of B12 binding sites. The apparent distribution of vitamin binding sites differed according to the cell lysis method used. The cuticle fraction was responsible for the binding of 80% of the vitamin taken up by the cell during both the rapid and the slow phase of uptake. These results suggest that vitamin B12 binding is regulated, in part, at the cuticle level, and support our previous conclusion that the secondary phase of uptake represents the synthesis of new receptor sites and not the unloading of vitamin inside the cell.
Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.
An investigation of externally blown flap impingement noise was conducted using a full-scale turbofan engine and aircraft wing. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine exhaust system was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The daisy nozzle caused the jet velocity to decay about 35 percent at the flap. The presence of the wing next to the conical nozzle increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested.
Kim, Jihoon; Nguyen, Vu Dat; Byun, Doyoung
Recently, there has been growing interests in micro or nano-scale biological organisms for the micro-robotics to develop actively controlled micro or nano-level machines. The Euglena gracilis is a genus of unicellular protists, whose body size ranges from 30 to 70 μm. The Euglena gracilis contains an eyespot, a primitive organelle that filters sunlight into the light-detecting, photo-sensitive structures. It actively swims at the base of the flagellum. In this study, we investigated the controllability of Euglena gracilis for transporting a structure attaching itself. When a LED light is detected, the Euglena gracilis accordingly adjust its position to enhance photosynthesis. Using the phototactic control, we achieved the efficient transportation of a micro-structure. Partially funded by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF, 2011-0016461) and the Industrial Core Technology Development Project through the Ministry of Knowledge and Commerce.
Nowitzki, Ulrich; Gelius-Dietrich, Gabriel; Schwieger, Maike; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William
Two chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase isoforms from the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis were purified to homogeneity, partially sequenced, and subsequently cDNAs encoding phosphoglycerate kinase isoenzymes from both the chloroplast and cytosol of E. gracilis were cloned and sequenced. Chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase, a monomeric enzyme, was encoded as a polyprotein precursor of at least four mature subunits that were separated by conserved tetrapeptides. In a Neighbor-Net analysis of sequence similarity with homologues from numerous prokaryotes and eukaryotes, cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase of E. gracilis showed the highest similarity to cytosolic and glycosomal homologues from the Kinetoplastida. The chloroplast isoenzyme of E. gracilis did not show a close relationship to sequences from other photosynthetic organisms but was most closely related to cytosolic homologues from animals and fungi.
Zenn, Michael R; Heitmann, Christoph
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a superiorly based TRAM flap for breast reconstruction with its superior border abutting the inframammary fold. This flap would have a primary blood supply from the superior epigastric vessels, similar to a free flap attached to the mammary system. This flap, however, would not require microsurgery. Instead, it would have its superior epigastric pedicle lengthened by partial rib resection. Donor site closure would be accomplished by reverse abdominoplasty and the donor scar hidden in the inframammary fold. The surgical anatomy of such an extended TRAM flap (eTRAM) was investigated by cannulation of the internal mammary artery (IMA) in 10 fresh human cadavers bilaterally, injection with latex, and then dissection throughout its intrathoracic course. At the level of the third intercostal space, the mean external diameters of the right and left IMA were found to be 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. The diameter of the vessel decreased until the IMA bifurcated into the superior epigastric artery and the musculophrenic artery, usually at the sixth intercostal space. The superior epigastric artery, having a mean diameter of 1.6 mm at its origin, descended caudally behind the seventh costal cartilage and could be followed until it entered the posterior rectus sheath and the rectus abdominis muscle. On its downward course, it was not embedded in the diaphragm muscle and was easily separated without violation of the thoracic cavity. From this anatomic study, it seems to be possible to raise an eTRAM after partial rib resection. Some technical considerations of such a flap are discussed. This modification of the TRAM would be helpful to surgeons commonly performing pedicled TRAM flaps and might extend its applicability beyond breast reconstruction to chest wall, intrathoracic, and head and neck reconstruction.
Richter, Peter R.; Schuster, Martin; Lebert, Michael; Streb, Christine; Häder, Donat-Peter
In darkness, the unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a pronounced negative gravitactic behavior, and the cells swim actively upward in the water column. Up to now it was unclear whether this behavior is based on a passive (physical) alignment mechanism (e.g., buoyancy due to a fore-aft asymmetry of the cell body) or on an active physiological mechanism. A sounding rocket experiment was performed in which the effect of sub-1g-accelerations (0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.2g) on untreated living cells and immobilized (fixation with liquid nitrogen) cells was observed. By means of computerized image analysis the angles of the cells long axis with respect to the acceleration vector were analyzed in order to calculate and compare the reorientation kinetics of the immobilized cells versus that of the controls. In both groups, the reorientation kinetics depended on the dose, but the reorientation of the living cells was about five times faster than that of the immobilized cells. This indicates that in young cells gravitaxis can be explained by a physical mechanism only to a small extend. In older cultures, in which the cells often have a drop shaped cell body, the physical reorientation is considerably faster, and a more pronounced influence of passive alignment caused by fore/aft asymmetry (drag-gravity model) can not be excluded. In addition to these results, Euglena gracilis cells seem to respond very sensitively to small accelerations when they are applied after a longer microgravity period. The data indicate that gravitactic orientation occurred at an acceleration as low as 0.05g.
Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.
Synopsis A local flap consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue that is harvested from a site nearby a given defect while maintaining its intrinsic blood supply. When a soft tissue defect of the hand is not amenable to primary closure or skin grafting, local skin flaps can be a used as a reliable source of soft tissue replacement that replaces like with like. Flaps are categorized based on their composition, method of transfer, flap design and blood supply, yet flap circulation is considered the most critical factor for the flap survival. This article reviews the classification of local skin flaps of the hand and offers a practical reconstructive approach for several soft tissue defects of the hand and digits. PMID:24731606
Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)
A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.
Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana
Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis and suggested the possibility of it being a species complex. In order to assess the speciation patterns within the putative S. gracilis complex, we undertook species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses on 61 specimens morphologically ascribed to Syllis gracilis and closely related species using a multilocus molecular dataset (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). Our results suggest high levels of genetic differentiation between the S. gracilis populations analyzed, some of which have morphologically distinctive features. Five to eight distinct lineages (depending on the analysis) were identified, all with geographically restricted distributions. Although the presence of ypsiloid chaetae has been traditionally considered the main character to identify S. gracilis, we conclude that this feature is homoplastic. Instead, we propose that characters such as the degree of fusion of blades and shafts in chaetae, the morphology of the posterior chaetae or the animal color pattern should be considered to differentiate lineages within the S. gracilis species complex. Our study does not support the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis, and instead provides morphological and molecular evidence of the existence of a complex of pseudo-cryptic species.
Tomita, Yuko; Yoshioka, Kazumasa; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakashima, Ayaka; Iwata, Osamu; Suzuki, Kengo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi
Euglena gracilis is a eukaryotic, unicellular phytoflagellate that has been widely studied in basic science and applied science. Under dark, anaerobic conditions, the cells of E. gracilis produce a wax ester that can be converted into biofuel. Here, we demonstrate that under dark, anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis excretes organic acids, such as succinate and lactate, which are bulk chemicals used in the production of bioplastics. The levels of succinate were altered by changes in the medium and temperature during dark, anaerobic incubation. Succinate production was enhanced when cells were incubated in CM medium in the presence of NaHCO3. Excretion of lactate was minimal in the absence of external carbon sources, but lactate was produced in the presence of glucose during dark, anaerobic incubation. E. gracilis predominantly produced L-lactate; however, the percentage of D-lactate increased to 28.4% in CM medium at 30°C. Finally, we used a commercial strain of E. gracilis for succinate production and found that nitrogen-starved cells, incubated under dark, anaerobic conditions, produced 869.6 mg/L succinate over a 3-day incubation period, which was 70-fold higher than the amount produced by nitrogen-replete cells. This is the first study to demonstrate organic acid excretion by E. gracilis cells and to reveal novel aspects of primary carbon metabolism in this organism. PMID:28066371
Li, Ming; Muñoz, Hector Enrique; Goda, Keisuke; Di Carlo, Dino
Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has been proposed as one of the most attractive microalgae species for biodiesel and biomass production, which exhibits a number of shapes, such as spherical, spindle-shaped, and elongated. Shape is an important biomarker for E. gracilis, serving as an indicator of biological clock status, photosynthetic and respiratory capacity, cell-cycle phase, and environmental condition. The ability to prepare E. gracilis of uniform shape at high purities has significant implications for various applications in biological research and industrial processes. Here, we adopt a label-free, high-throughput, and continuous technique utilizing inertial microfluidics to separate E. gracilis by a key shape parameter-cell aspect ratio (AR). The microfluidic device consists of a straight rectangular microchannel, a gradually expanding region, and five outlets with fluidic resistors, allowing for inertial focusing and ordering, enhancement of the differences in cell lateral positions, and accurate separation, respectively. By making use of the shape-activated differences in lateral inertial focusing dynamic equilibrium positions, E. gracilis with different ARs ranging from 1 to 7 are directed to different outlets.
Tomita, Yuko; Yoshioka, Kazumasa; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakashima, Ayaka; Iwata, Osamu; Suzuki, Kengo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi
Euglena gracilis is a eukaryotic, unicellular phytoflagellate that has been widely studied in basic science and applied science. Under dark, anaerobic conditions, the cells of E. gracilis produce a wax ester that can be converted into biofuel. Here, we demonstrate that under dark, anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis excretes organic acids, such as succinate and lactate, which are bulk chemicals used in the production of bioplastics. The levels of succinate were altered by changes in the medium and temperature during dark, anaerobic incubation. Succinate production was enhanced when cells were incubated in CM medium in the presence of NaHCO3. Excretion of lactate was minimal in the absence of external carbon sources, but lactate was produced in the presence of glucose during dark, anaerobic incubation. E. gracilis predominantly produced L-lactate; however, the percentage of D-lactate increased to 28.4% in CM medium at 30°C. Finally, we used a commercial strain of E. gracilis for succinate production and found that nitrogen-starved cells, incubated under dark, anaerobic conditions, produced 869.6 mg/L succinate over a 3-day incubation period, which was 70-fold higher than the amount produced by nitrogen-replete cells. This is the first study to demonstrate organic acid excretion by E. gracilis cells and to reveal novel aspects of primary carbon metabolism in this organism.
Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen
Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 35.88 μg/mL) and CVA16 (IC50 = 42.91 μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293
Basut, Oguz; Noyan, Behzat; Demirci, Ugur
In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of flaps via measurement of galvanic skin responses (GSR) in patients who had undergone superficial parotidectomy either with or without sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flaps. Retrospective study design was used. The setting included University of Uludag School of Medicine Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Eleven patients who had undergone superficial parotidectomy for benign diseases in our clinic between June 2003 and August 2006 were included in the study. SCM muscle flaps were used in four patients. The GSR of the patients were measured using a MP 30 System. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for the analysis of data. There were complaints that resembled Frey's syndrome in three patients in whom flaps had not been performed. Patients with flaps had no complaints. In patients with flaps, no significant GSR changes were observed between the control and operated sides (P > 0.05). In patients without flaps, the GSR levels were significantly higher on the operated side compared to the control side (P < 0.05). GSR values on the control side did not show any differences between patients with and without a flap. However, there were significantly higher GSR values for the operated side in patients without flaps compared to patients with flaps (P < 0.05). Application of a SCM flap is an efficient method by which to prevent Frey's syndrome, and the GSR test is beneficial both in diagnosiing and determining the severity of the disease as well as evaluating the efficacy of surgical techniques used to prevent Frey's syndrome.
Chieng, Lee Onn; Hubbard, Zachary; Salgado, Christopher J; Levi, Allan D; Chim, Harvey
OBJECT A systematic review of the available evidence on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of flaps for the coverage of complex spinal soft-tissue defects was performed to determine if the use of flaps reduces postoperative complications and improves patient outcomes. METHODS A PubMed database search was performed to identify English-language articles published between 1990 and 2014 that contained the following phrases to describe postoperative wounds ("wound," "complex back wound," "postoperative wound," "spine surgery") and intervention ("flap closure," "flap coverage," "soft tissue reconstruction," "muscle flap"). RESULTS In total, 532 articles were reviewed with 17 articles meeting the inclusion criteria of this study. The risk factors from the pooled analysis of 262 patients for the development of postoperative complex back wounds that necessitated muscle flap coverage included the involvement of instrumentation (77.6%), a previous history of radiotherapy (33.2%), smoking (20.6%), and diabetes mellitus (17.2%). In patients with instrumentation, prophylactic coverage of the wound with a well-vascularized flap was shown to result in a lower incidence of wound complications. One study showed a statistically significant decrease in complications compared with patients where prophylactic coverage was not performed (20% vs 45%). The indications for flap coverage after onset of wound complications included hardware exposure, wound infection, dehiscence, seroma, and hematoma. Flap coverage was shown to decrease the number of surgical debridements needed and also salvage hardware, with the rate of hardware removal after flap coverage ranging from 0% to 41.9% in 4 studies. CONCLUSIONS Prophylactic coverage with flaps in high-risk patients undergoing spine surgery reduces complications, while therapeutic coverage following wound complications allows the salvage of hardware in the majority of patients.
Ibrahim, Amir; Atiyeh, Bishara; Karami, Reem; Adelman, David M; Papazian, Nazareth J
Pharyngo-esophageal and tracheostomal defects pose a challenge in head and neck reconstruction whenever microanastomosis is extremely difficult in hostile neck that is previously dissected and irradiated. The deltopectoral (DP) flap was initially described as a pedicled flap for such reconstruction with acceptable postoperative results. A major drawback is still that the DP flap is based on 3 perforator vessels leading to a decreased arc of rotation. The DP flap also left contour deformities in the donor site. The internal mammary artery perforator flap was described as a refinement of the deltopectoral flap. It is a pedicled fasciocutaneous flap based on a single perforator, with comparable and reliable blood supply compared with the DP flap, giving it the benefit of having a wide arc of rotation. It is both thin and pliable, with good skin color match and texture. The donor site can be closed primarily with no esthetic deformity and minimal morbidity. The procedure is relatively simple and does not require microvascular expertise. In this report, the authors describe a patient in whom bilateral internal mammary artery perforator flaps were used for subtotal pharyngo-esophageal reconstruction and neck resurfacing. The flaps healed uneventfully bilaterally with no postoperative complications.
Wang, Jiang-Xin; Shi, Zhi-Xin; Gan, Xiao-Ni; Xie, Shu-Lian
Although both Astasia longa and Euglena gracilis belong to different genera, they share many morphological characters except that A. longa has no chloroplast. In the 1940's, on the basis of the finding that in darkness or upon addition of some chemicals, E. gracilis would fade reversibly or irreversibly, some scholars hypothesised that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis by losing chloroplast. The author's use of RAPD and cladistic analyses in a study on the evolutionary relationship between A. longa and E. gracilis showed that the A. longa's relationship with E. gracilis was closer than that with other green euglenoids. This proves the hypothesis that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis is reasonable. The results of this study suggest that saprophytic colorless euglenoids were transformed from green euglenoids by losing their choroplasts.
Monticciolo, D L; Ross, D; Bostwick, J; Eaves, F; Styblo, T
The objective of this study was to define and evaluate mammographic changes in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy and a new reconstructive technique that uses autologous tissue from a latissimus dorsi musculosubcutaneous flap. Of 20 patients who underwent either immediate or delayed endoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle flap reconstruction after lumpectomy, 13 also had postsurgery mammograms available for review. Radiographic findings assessed included skin thickening, density or radiolucency at the reconstruction site, density around the flap, fat necrosis, calcifications, and the presence of surgical clips. Mammograms for three patients (23%) revealed thickening that we believed was attributable to radiation therapy. No patient had increased density in the flap itself; all flaps were relatively radiolucent centrally (13/13; 100%). Mammograms revealed density around the rim of the flap in four patients (31%). This density was most likely secondary to latissimus dorsi muscle fibers and did not limit radiographic evaluation. One patient had calcifications, probably secondary to fat necrosis. No oil cysts were seen. In the majority of patients (11/13; 85%), surgical clips were visible. Endoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle flap reconstruction, previously used only for mastectomy patients, is now being used for improved esthetic outcome in selected patients who desire breast conservation. Our results indicate that the mammographic findings are predictable. The most common findings are relative radiolucency centrally, with or without density from muscle fibers around the edges of the area of tissue transfer. The transplanted musculosubcutaneous flap does not interfere with mammographic evaluation.
repaired groups (Table 1). Further, when isometric torque was normalized to TA muscle wet weight (an estimate of specific torque ), BAM-treated... physical rehabilitation; however, neither are effective in pro- moting regeneration of skeletal muscle to replace the tissue that was lost. Toward...involves the use of free muscle transfer (i.e., muscle flaps) followed by exten- sive physical rehabilitation. However, free muscle flaps do not
Demirtas, Yener; Neimetzade, Tale; Kelahmetoglu, Osman; Guneren, Ethem
Grade IV and V car tire injuries occurring in children cause extensive soft tissue defects with exposure or loss of tendons and bone on the dorsum of the foot. Free tissue transfer is indicated for reconstruction of these defects because of the limited local tissue available. We describe our management of high-grade car tire foot injuries in children with free anterolateral thigh flap (ALT). Five pre-school children with car tire injuries (one grade IV and four grade V) were treated with free ALT flap in the last 4 years. The mean age was 4.8 years. In four patients, immediate flap coverage after initial debridement was performed and delayed reconstruction was used as a secondary procedure in one patient. One of the flaps was re-explored for hematoma evacuation and salvaged. All of the flaps survived completely and there were no donor site complications. None of the flaps required a debulking procedure and custom shoe wear has not been necessary in any of the patients. Minor gait abnormalities were detected in two of the patients. With minimal donor site morbidity, long vascular pedicle allowing anastomosis outside of the trauma zone, we believe free ALT flap provides the ideal soft tissue reconstruction for high grade car tire injuries of foot in children. ALT flap can be further thinned to adapt to the defect, contracts less than muscle flaps and contains a vascularized fascia which can be used for extensor tendon reconstruction.
Moody, Lisa; Hunter, Cedric; Nazerali, Rahim; Lee, Gordon K
Esophageal reconstruction after tumor extirpation or ingestion injury is a difficult problem for the reconstructive plastic surgeon. Free tubed fasciocutaneous flaps and intestinal flaps have become the mainstay for reconstruction. The free jejunal flap has the advantage of replacing like-with-like tissue and having lower fistula rates. Additionally, the "mesenteric wrap" modification and prophylactic pectoralis major muscle have been described to further decrease anastomotic leaks and fistulae. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of the prophylactic pedicled sternocleidomastoid (SCM) flap for prevention of anastomotic leaks and fistulae. A retrospective review of patients who underwent reconstruction of circumferential pharyngoesophageal defects with a free jejunal flap by a single surgeon from 2008 to 2012 was performed. Those who received a prophylactic pedicled SCM flap to reinforce one of their jejunal anastomoses were selected for this study, and their outcomes were analyzed. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, complications, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed. Three patients underwent reinforcement of one jejunal anastomosis with a pedicled SCM flap. The mean age was 60 years, and average follow-up was 27 months. Two patients received postoperative radiation, and one patient received both preoperative and postoperative radiation. The recipient vessels included the facial artery, internal jugular vein, and facial vein. The flap survival rate was 100%. There was 1 stricture and 1 fistula that occurred at the anastomoses without the SCM muscle reinforcement. There were no complications at the jejunal anastomotic sites that were reinforced with the SCM muscle. Of the 6 anastomotic sites in 3 patients, there was a 0% fistula rate and 0% stricture rate at the sites reinforced with the SCM muscle versus a 33% fistula rate and a 33% stricture rate at the sites without the SCM muscle flap. One patient was diagnosed with local tumor
Pang, Mengru; Xiao, Haitao; Wang, Huaisheng; Liu, Xiaoxue; Chen, Junjie; Cen, Ying
To evaluate the effectiveness of different flaps for repair of severe palm scar contracture deformity. Between February 2013 and March 2015, thirteen cases of severe palm scar contracture deformity were included in the retrospective review. There were 10 males and 3 females, aged from 14 to 54 years (mean, 39 years). The causes included burn in 9 cases, hot-crush injury in 2 cases, chemical burn in 1 case, and electric burn in 1 case. The disease duration was 6 months to 6 years (mean, 2.3 years). After excising scar, releasing contracture and interrupting adherent muscle and tendon, the soft tissues and skin defects ranged from 6.0 cm x 4.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 7.5 cm. The radial artery retrograde island flap was used in 2 cases, the pedicled abdominal flaps in 4 cases, the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap in 2 cases, the anterolateral thigh flap in 1 case, and the scapular free flap in 4 cases. The size of flap ranged from 6.0 cm x 4.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 7.5 cm. All flaps survived well. Venous thrombosis of the pedicled abdominal flaps occurred in 1 case, which was cured after dressing change, and healing by first intention was obtained in the others. The mean follow-up time was 8 months (range, 6-14 months). Eight cases underwent operation for 1-3 times to make the flap thinner. At last follow-up, the flaps had good color, and the results of appearance and function were satisfactory. Severe palm scar contracture deformity can be effectively repaired by proper application of different flaps.
When traditional flap techniques are not feasible, we apply flap prefabrication, which is more complicated and sophisticated but supplies large and thin flaps. There are some disadvantages to the technique that require improvement, such as venous congestion after flap transfer, which requires months for neoangiogenesis and necessitates a vascular carrier. Here, the author presents a new technique, called as ‘microdissected prefabricated flap,’ to successfully produce a safe, large, and thin flap. This technique is based on the microdissection of the perforators to the greatest extent possible, spreading them out into the subdermal level and using them as a carrier. The details and the application of this technique are presented and reported. PMID:27896196
Nuri, Takashi; Ueda, Koichi; Yamada, Akira; Okada, Masashi; Hara, Mai
We attempted to reconstruct dynamic palatal function using a radial forearm-palmaris longus tenocutaneous free flap in conjunction with a pharyngeal flap for a postoncologic total-palate defect in a 67-year-old male patient. This reconstruction involved 3 important tasks, namely, separating the oral and nasal cavities, preserving the velopharyngeal space to avoid sleep apnea, and maintaining velopharyngeal closure to avoid nasal regurgitation during swallowing. In our technique, the radial forearm flap separates the oral and nasal cavities with an open rhinopharyngeal space, and a superiorly based pharyngeal flap, which is sutured to the posterior end of the forearm flap, limits the rhinopharyngeal space, and forms the bilateral velopharyngeal port. Furthermore, the palmaris longus tendon, which is attached to the forearm flap, is secured to the superior constrictor muscle to create a horizontal muscle sling. Contraction of the superior constrictor muscle leads to shrinkage of the sling, resulting in velopharyngeal closure. Swallowing therapy was started 4 weeks after the surgery. The patient could resume oral intake without any difficulties 6 months after the surgery. Speech intelligibility changed from severe to minimal hypernasality.
Ahmad, Quazi Ghazwan; Shankhdhar, Vinay Kant
The head and neck region is important both functionally and aesthetically and its reconstruction poses a formidable challenge for plastic surgeons. A perforator flap is a flap of skin or subcutaneous tissue supplied by a vessel that perforates the deep fascia to gain access to flap. With improvement in our knowledge of the anatomy of blood supply to the skin, the perforator flaps have opened a whole new horizon for the plastic surgeon to choose flaps with better function and cosmesis. The locally available perforators enable flaps to be designed with excellent match in tissue characteristics. Perforator flaps limit donor site morbidity and as they are islanded complete insetting is possible in a single stage. The principal perforator flaps such as facial artery perforator flap, platysma flap and its variant the submental flap and supra-clavicular artery flap used in the head and neck reconstruction are discussed. The more commonly used flaps are the free radial artery forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap while the novel ones are the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, medial sural artery perforator flap and the toe-web flap for commissure reconstruction. The indications, reach and drawbacks of these flaps have been discussed in this review.
Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir; Evans, Karen K.; Carlsen, Brian T.; Arnold, Phillip G.
Large and life-threatening thoracic cage defects can result from the treatment of traumatic injuries, tumors, infection, congenital anomalies, and radiation injury and require prompt reconstruction to restore respiratory function and soft tissue closure. Important factors for consideration are coverage with healthy tissue to heal a wound, the potential alteration in respiratory mechanics created by large extirpations or nonhealing thoracic wounds, and the need for immediate coverage for vital structures. The choice of technique depends on the size and extent of the defect, its location, and donor site availability with consideration to previous thoracic or abdominal operations. The focus of this article is specifically to describe the use of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominis muscle flaps for reconstruction of thoracic defects, as these are the workhorse flaps commonly used for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:22294942
... Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer skin flap self-care; Burns skin flap self- ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that DO NOT heal After ...
Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni
Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions.
Mastroianni, Melissa; Leto Barone, Angelo A; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Leonard, David A; Di Rosa, Luigi; Feingold, Randall S; Israeli, Ron; Cetrulo, Curtis L
Reconstruction of limb-threatening lower extremity defects presents unique challenges. The selected method must provide adequate coverage of exposed bone, joints, and tendons while maximizing function of the limb. The traditional workhorse flaps, the free latissimus dorsi and rectus abdominis flaps, have been associated with donor site morbidity and bulkiness that can impair rehabilitation. We report a case series (n = 18) in which the free serratus anterior muscle flap and split thickness skin graft (STSG) was used for lower limb soft tissue coverage. Injuries were due to diabetes (9/18), trauma (7/18), and chronic venous stasis (2/18). A 94% flap survival rate was observed and all but one patient was ambulatory. No donor site morbidity was reported. Our series demonstrates that serratus anterior is an advantageous, reliable free flap with minimal donor site morbidity.
Pellini, R; De Virgilio, A; Mercante, G; Pichi, B; Manciocco, V; Marchesi, P; Ferreli, F; Spriano, G
In the last decade, the antero-lateral thigh free flap (ALT) has become the most popular free flap for tongue reconstruction because of less donor site morbidity and better cosmetic outcomes. However, fascio-cutaneous ALT may be insufficient to reconstruct major tongue defects, while its muscular-cutaneous variant (using the vastus lateralis muscle) may be too bulky. The present study describes our preliminary experience of tongue reconstruction with vastus lateralis myofascial flap, which could potentially offer unique advantages in head and neck reconstruction including adequate bulk when needed, optimal functional results and obliteration of dead space thus preventing fistulas and infections with minimal morbidity. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.
Naidoo, Rene K; Rafudeen, Muhammad S; Coyne, Vernon E
Inorganic nitrogen has been identified as the major growth-limiting nutritional factor affecting Gracilaria gracilis populations in South Africa. Although the physiological mechanisms implemented by G. gracilis for adaption to low nitrogen environments have been investigated, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these adaptions. This study provides the first investigation of G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and subsequent recovery. A differential proteomics approach employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery. The putative identity of 22 proteins that changed significantly (P < 0.05) in abundance in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery was determined. The identified proteins function in a range of biological processes including glycolysis, photosynthesis, ATP synthesis, galactose metabolism, protein-refolding and biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and cytoskeleton remodeling. The identity of fructose 1,6 biphosphate (FBP) aldolase was confirmed by western blot analysis and the decreased abundance of FBP aldolase observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was validated by enzyme assays and western blots. The identification of key proteins and pathways involved in the G. gracilis nitrogen stress response provide a better understanding of G. gracilis proteome responses to varying degrees of nitrogen limitation and is the first step in the identification of biomarkers for monitoring the nitrogen status of cultivated G. gracilis populations.
Li, M; Muñoz, H E; Schmidt, A; Guo, B; Lei, C; Goda, K; Di Carlo, D
Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently been attracting attention as a potential renewable source for the production of biofuels, livestock feed, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. Research has focused on strain isolation, productivity improvement, nutrient and resource allocation, and co-product production, key steps that ultimately determine the economic viability and compatibility of the biomass produced. To achieve these characteristics, approaches to select E. gracilis mutants with desirable properties, such as high wax ester content, high growth rate, and high environmental tolerance for biodiesel and biomass production, are needed. Flow-based analysis and sorting can be rapid and highly automated but calls for techniques that can precisely control the position of E. gracilis with varying sizes and shapes in a tightly focused stream in a high-throughput manner. In this work, we use a stepped microchannel consisting of a low-aspect-ratio straight channel and a series of expansion regions along the channel height. We study horizontal and vertical focusing, orientation, rotational, and translational behaviors of E. gracilis as a function of aspect ratio (AR) and channel Reynolds number (Re). By making use of inertial focusing and local secondary flows, E. gracilis with diverse shapes are directed to a single equilibrium position in a single focal stream. As an application of on-chip flow cytometry, we integrate a focusing microchip with a custom laser-two-focus (L2F) optical system and demonstrate the detection of chlorophyll autofluorescence as well as the measurement of the velocity of E. gracilis cells flowing through the microchannel.
Shibata, H; Gardiner, W E; Schwartzbach, S D
A rapid three-step procedure utilizing heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and affinity chromatography on Matrex gel Orange A purified fumarase (EC 188.8.131.52) 632-fold with an 18% yield from crude extracts of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris. The apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme was 120,000 as determined by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The preparation was over 95% pure, and the subunit molecular weight was 60,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme is a dimer composed of two identical subunits. The pH optimum for E. gracilis fumarase was 8.4. The Km values for malate and fumarate were 1.4 and 0.031 mM, respectively. Preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to further purify the enzyme for antibody production. On Ouchterlony double-immunodiffusion gels, the antifumarase serum gave a sharp precipitin line against total E. gracilis protein and purified E. gracilis fumarase. It did not cross-react with purified pig heart fumarase. On immunoblots of purified E. gracilis fumarase and crude cell extracts of E. gracilis, the antibody recognized a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 60,000, indicating that the antibody is monospecific. This polypeptide was found in E. gracilis mitochondria. The antibody cross-reacted with an Escherichia coli protein whose molecular weight was approximately 60,000, the reported molecular weight of the fumA gene product of E. coli, but it failed to cross-react with proteins found in crude mouse cell extracts, Bacillus subtilis extracts, or purified pig heart fumarase. Images PMID:3932328
Blebea, J.; Kerr, J.C.; Franco, C.D.; Padberg, F.T. Jr.; Hobson, R.W. 2d.
The study of ischemia and reperfusion injury in the extremity has been hampered by lack of an accurate method of measuring skeletal muscle injury. We used a bilateral isolated in vivo canine gracilis muscle model in 15 anesthetized dogs. The experimental muscles had 4, 6, or 8 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion. The contralateral gracilis muscle served as a control. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), an agent which localizes in injured muscle cells, was used to quantitate canine skeletal muscle damage. After 6 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion, there was a significant increase of 215% of 99mTc-PYP uptake in the experimental vs the control muscle. Experimental muscle uptake was 8% greater than control after 4 hours and 405% more after 8 hours of ischemia and reperfusion. Segmental distribution of 99mTc-PYP uptake showed localization to be greatest in the middle of the muscle at the entry site of the gracilis artery. Electron microscopic evaluation also documented this area to have undergone the most severe injury. Distal portions of the muscle did not show increased damage. Our results show that 99mTc-PYP effectively quantitates skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury. The pattern of 99mTc-PYP uptake suggests that considerable injury is caused during reperfusion.
Pavletic, M M
A skin flap (pedicle graft) is a partially detached segment of skin and subcutaneous tissue that includes a blood supply essential to its survival. As a result, skin flaps are capable of closing a variety of defects, including poorly vascularized wound beds that are incapable of maintaining free grafts. In many cases, skin flaps can bypass economically many of the potential problems associated with healing by second intention. This article presents an overview of pedicle grafts, with emphasis on the clinical use of local flap techniques.
Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo
Background: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our experience using freestyle facial perforator flaps, we have located areas where perforators are consistently found. This study is focused on a particular perforator lateral to the angle of the mouth; the modiolus and the versatile modiolus perforator flap. Methods: A cohort case series of 14 modiolus perforator flap reconstructions in 14 patients and a color Doppler ultrasonography localization of the modiolus perforator in 10 volunteers. Results: All 14 flaps were successfully used to reconstruct the defects involved, and the location of the perforator was at the level of the modiolus as predicted. The color Doppler ultrasonography study detected a sizeable perforator at the level of the modiolus lateral to the angle of the mouth within a radius of 1 cm. This confirms the anatomical findings of previous authors and indicates that the modiolus perforator is a consistent anatomical finding, and flaps based on it can be recommended for several indications from the reconstruction of defects in the perioral area, cheek and nose. Conclusions: The modiolus is a well-described anatomical area containing a sizeable perforator that is consistently present and readily visualized using color Doppler ultrasonography. We have used the modiolus perforator flap successfully for several indications, and it is our first choice for perioral reconstruction. PMID:27257591
Speech velopharyngeal sphincter restoration is generally performed by pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty. Evaluate pharyngeal muscle physiology after pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty using simultaneous electromyography and videonasopharyngoscopy. Forty patients were studied. Twenty patients were operated on with an upper base pharyngeal flap. Twenty patients were operated on with sphincter pharyngoplasty. The following muscles were studied: superior constrictor pharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, and levator veli palatini. None of the patients studied showed electromyographic activity in the lateral flaps of tile pharyngoplasties. None showed electromyographic activity of the upper base pharyngeal flaps. All patients demonstrated strong electromyographic activity on the superior constrictor pharyngeus and the levator veli palatini. Lateral pharyngeal flaps in cases of sphincter pharyngoplasties and the central pharyngeal flap in cases of pharyngeal flaps, do not create new sphincters for velopharyngeal closure. The participation of these structures is passive, increasing tissue volume in specific areas, whereas their movements are caused by the contraction of the superior constrictor pharyngeus and the levator veli palatini.
Wilson, Stelios C.; Stranix, John T.; Khurana, Kiranpreet; Morrison, Shane D.; Levine, Jamie P.; Zhao, Lee C.
Background: Urethral strictures or fistulas are common complications after phalloplasty. Neourethral defects pose a difficult reconstructive challenge using standard techniques as there is generally insufficient ventral tissue to support a graft urethroplasty. We report our experience with local fasciocutaneous flaps for support of ventrally-placed buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in phalloplasty. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent phalloplasty and subsequently required revision urethroplasty using BMGs between 2011 and 2015 was completed. Techniques, complications, additional procedures, and outcomes were examined. Results: A total of three patients previously underwent phalloplasty with sensate radial forearm free flaps (RFFFs): two female-to-male (FTM) gender reassignment, and one oncologic penectomy. Mean age at revision urethroplasty was 41 years (range 31–47). Indications for surgery were: one meatal stenosis, four urethral strictures (mean length 3.6 ± 2.9 cm), and two urethrocutaneous fistulas. The urethral anastomosis at the base of the neophallus was the predominant location for complications: 3/4 strictures, and 2/2 fistulas. Medial thigh (2) or scrotal (1) fasciocutaneous flaps were used to support the BMG for urethroplasty. One stricture recurrence at 3 years required single-stage ventral BMG urethroplasty supported by a gracilis musculocutaneous flap. All patients were able to void from standing at mean follow up of 8.7 months (range 6–13). A total of two patients (66%) subsequently had successful placement of a penile prosthesis. Conclusions: Our early results indicate that local or regional fasciocutaneous flaps enable ventral placement of BMGs for revision urethroplasty after phalloplasty. PMID:27904649
Semple, J L
Modern trends in breast reconstruction with the TRAM flap have promoted adequate blood supply to the flap while minimizing the donor-site defect in the anterior abdominal wall. Preservation of the rectus abdominis muscle (both unipedicled and bipedicled), supercharging, delayed, and free-flap techniques all have promoted these principles. A new technique is presented utilizing the single pedicle with a transmidline retrograde microvascular loop anastomosis of the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein. The turbocharging allows increased blood flow to the remote areas of the flap as well as augmented venous outflow. In addition, the abdominal-wall donor site is similar to that of a single pedicle. This technique is ideal for reconstruction where the entire flap is required, a lower abdominal scar is present, or the recipient vessels for the free flap are absent or damaged.
Tamaki, Shun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro
Euglena gracilis lacks catalase and contains ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which is localized exclusively in the cytosol. Other enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Euglena have not yet been identified; therefore, ROS metabolism, especially in organelles, remains unclear in Euglena. The full-length cDNAs of four Euglena peroxiredoxins (EgPrxs) were isolated in this study. EgPrx1 and -4 were predicted to be localized in the cytosol, and EgPrx2 and -3 in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies of recombinant EgPrxs were similar to those of plant thiol-peroxidases, but were markedly lower than those of APX from Euglena. However, transcript levels of EgPrx1, -2, and -3 were markedly higher than those of APX. The growth rate of Euglena cells, in which the expression of EgPrx1 and -4 was suppressed by gene silencing, was markedly reduced under normal conditions, indicating physiological significance of Prx proteins.
Garrido, Francisco; Estrela, Sylvie; Alves, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Gabino F; Sillero, Antonio; Pajares, María A
Methionine adenosyltransferase from Euglena gracilis (MATX) is a recently discovered member of the MAT family of proteins that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine. Heterologous overexpression of MATX in Escherichia coli rendered the protein mostly in inclusion bodies under all conditions tested. Therefore, a refolding and purification procedure from these aggregates was developed to characterize the enzyme. Maximal recovery was obtained using inclusion bodies devoid of extraneous proteins by washing under mild urea (2M) and detergent (5%) concentrations. Refolding was achieved in two steps following solubilization in the presence of Mg(2+); chaotrope dilution to <1M and dialysis under reducing conditions. Purified MATX is a homodimer that exhibits Michaelis kinetics with a V(max) of 1.46 μmol/min/mg and K(m) values of approximately 85 and 260 μM for methionine and ATP, respectively. The activity is dependent on Mg(2+) and K(+) ions, but is not stimulated by dimethylsulfoxide. MATX exhibits tripolyphosphatase activity that is stimulated in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine. Far-UV circular dichroism revealed β-sheet and random coil as the main secondary structure elements of the protein. The high level of sequence conservation allowed construction of a structural model that preserved the main features of the MAT family, the major changes involving the N-terminal domain.
Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.
The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.
Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.
The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.
Turpeenniemi, Tuomo A.
The structure of coelomocytes in the adenophorean aquatic nematode Sphaerolaimus gracilis de Man 1876 was studied with light and electron microscopes. Acid phosphatase and catalase activities were demonstrated by electron microscopy. Two pairs of coelomocytes occurred laterally posterior to the esophagointestinaljunction. The anterior pair of the coelomocytes, with the renette cell and gonad, lay in either the left or the right lateral side of the body. The posterior pair of coelomocytes was in the opposite side of the body, usually posterior to the renette. A long, thin, cell-extension-like structure appeared to originate from the coelomocytes. Coelomocytes were characterized by specialized organelles (CC-organelle) and large vacuoles. The CC-organelle contained crystalline structures like those in peroxisomes. Acid phosphatase and catalase activities were detected in the matrix of CC-organelles and catalase activity in the vacuoles. It was assumed that vacuoles originate from the CC-organelles. Coelomocytes showed pinocytotic activities, and numerous vesicles were observed between the cell membranes and the vacuoles. PMID:19279818
Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea
Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis’ phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller–Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized “receptor law,” a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells’ accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors. PMID:25964338
Russell, George K.; Lyman, Harvard
Four mutant strains of Euglena gracilis have been isolated after treatment of wild type cells with ultraviolet light or the chemical mutagen nitrosoguanidine. None of the mutants is capable of autotrophic growth or photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation. The mutant strains contain normal amounts of the enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and are qualitatively similar to the wild type in pigment composition, but are unable to carry out the Hill reaction (light induced reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol). Isolated mutant plastids cannot photoreduce NADP with water as the electron donor but can carry out this reaction when the electron donating system is ascorbate and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. Whole cells of the mutants show the light induced oxidation of cytochrome f by light reaction I but are unable to bring about cytochrome f reduction by light reaction II. The mutants appear to be blocked at or near light reaction II in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The mutants may represent alterations of the chloroplast genome since the mutation isolation was carried out under conditions where chloroplast viability was severely impaired, but cell viability was unaffected. PMID:5700022
Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D
The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.
Hjortdal, V E; Awwad, A M; Gottrup, F; Kirkegaard, L; Gellett, S
In pigs, latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous island flaps and buttock skin island flaps were raised. Subcutaneous (PscO2) and intramuscular oxygen tension (PimO2) were measured using a non-heated needle electrode before, during and after repeated occlusion of the supplying artery or the draining vein. During arterial and venous occlusion, the tissue oxygen tension in the musculocutaneous flap dropped rapidly. A plateau was reached after 15 min. After arterial occlusion the mean value was 20 mmHg (SEM = +/- 5 mmHg, N = 6) in the subcutis and 16 mmHg in the muscle (SEM = +/- 4 mmHg, N = 10). After venous occlusion the mean value was 11 mmHg (SEM = +/- 3 mmHg, N = 6) in the subcutis. In the skin flap the drop of PscO2 was slower, and after 30 min of arterial occlusion the mean value was 29 mmHg (SEM = +/- 9 mmHg, N = 6). This study has shown that tissue oxygen tension measurement can be used as a sensitive indicator of acute impairment of the supplying vessels in island flaps. The method seems to have potential for monitoring free tissue transfers. A comparable decrease in PscO2 was found for arterial and venous impairment.
Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P
Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
The scope of microvascular tissue transfer in the Head and Neck reaches from coverage of simple soft tissue defects to complex 3-D reconstructions using multiple or chimeric flaps. This paper summarises the presentation given at the Congress of the French Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Marseille 2017. It was the aim of our work to add further elements to this wide spectrum of reconstructive possibilities. For patients with small intraoral soft tissue defects in whom the use of a radial forearm flap would not be justified because of its donor site morbidity, but who nevertheless would take a benefit from a small free flap, we used mini-perforator flaps from the lower leg. These flaps were raised with negligible morbidity. Moreover, for patients necessarily needing a free flap, but having vessel depleted, irradiated necks, we have developed a first idea of extracorporeal flap perfusion to make microvascular anastomoses unnecessary. Using donor sites from the lower leg, mini-soleus and medial sural perforator flaps were raised to cover defects of 2×3 to 2×4cm at the anterior floor of the mouth or lateral tongue. The success rate was 91%, and despite their small size, the flaps helped to maintain the mobility of the tongue. The donor site morbidity was minimal. After extensive experimental work on small animals and human tissue, four flaps could successfully be transferred so far by means of extracorporeal perfusion. In these patients, autonomisation took place between 5 and 12 days. Although microvascular tissue transfer already allows for reconstruction in almost any possible defect constellation, mini-perforator flaps and machine-perfused transplants seem to represent new aspects of free flap surgery, being useful extensions of the reconstructive surgeon's armament. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ersoy, Burak; Çevik, Özge; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe
Background Being an inevitable component of free tissue transfer, ischemia-reperfusion injury tends to contribute to flap failure. TNF-α is an important proinflammatory cytokine and a prominent mediator of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-α binding protein, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in animal models of renal and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of etanercept on myocutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury on transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model in rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: In group 1 (sham), the TRAM flap was raised and sutured back without further intervention. In group 2 (control), the flap was raised and the ischemia-reperfusion protocol was followed. In group 3, etanercept (10 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histolopathological evaluations were performed on serum and tissue samples. Results In the etanercept group the IMA and 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively) were found significantly lower, and the GSH and SOD levels (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) significantly higher in comparison to the control group. The histopathological analysis has revealed a lower degree of hyalinization, degenerated muscle fibers and nuclear change in the etanercept group compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of our experimental study indicate that etanercept offers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle tissue, enhancing the TRAM flap viability. The ability of etanercept to induce ischemic tolerance suggests that it may be applicable in free-flap surgery.
Peng, Cheng; Lee, Jong-Wha; Sichani, Homa Teimouri; Ng, Jack C
BTEX is a group of volatile organic compounds consisting of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Environmental contamination of BTEX can occur in the groundwater with their effects on the aquatic organisms and ecosystem being sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of individual and mixed BTEX on Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis). We examined the growth rate, morphological changes and chlorophyll contents in E. gracilis Z and its mutant SMZ cells treated with single and mixture of BTEX. BTEX induced morphological change, formation of lipofuscin, and decreased chlorophyll content of E. gracilis Z in a dose response manner. The toxicity of individual BTEX on cell growth and chlorophyll inhibition is in the order of xylenes>ethylbenzene>toluene>benzene. SMZ was found more sensitive to BTEX than Z at much lower concentrations between 0.005 and 5 μM. The combined effect of mixed BTEX on chlorophyll contents was shown to be concentration addition (CA). Results from this study suggested that E. gracilis could be a suitable model for monitoring BTEX in the groundwater and predicting the combined effects on aqueous ecosystem.
Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu
Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions–a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY505/515, and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384
Suzuki, Y.; Wakisaka, Y.; Iwata, O.; Nakashima, A.; Ito, T.; Hirose, M.; Domon, R.; Sugawara, M.; Tsumura, N.; Watarai, H.; Shimobaba, T.; Suzuki, K.; Goda, K.; Ozeki, Y.
Microalgae have been receiving great attention for their ability to produce biomaterials that are applicable for food supplements, drugs, biodegradable plastics, and biofuels. Among such microalgae, Euglena gracilis has become a popular species by virtue of its capability of accumulating useful metabolites including paramylon and lipids. In order to maximize the production of desired metabolites, it is essential to find ideal culturing conditions and to develop efficient methods for genetic transformation. To achieve this, understanding and controlling cell-to-cell variations in response to external stress is essential, with chemically specific analysis of microalgal cells including E. gracilis. However, conventional analytical tools such as fluorescence microscopy and spontaneous Raman scattering are not suitable for evaluation of diverse populations of motile microalgae, being restricted either by the requirement for fluorescent labels or a limited imaging speed, respectively. Here we demonstrate video-rate label-free metabolite imaging of live E. gracilis using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) - an optical spectroscopic method for probing the vibrational signatures of molecules with orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman scattering. Our SRS's highspeed image acquisition (27 metabolite images per second) allows for population analysis of live E. gracilis cells cultured under nitrogen-deficiency - a technique for promoting the accumulation of paramylon and lipids within the cell body. Thus, our SRS system's fast imaging capability enables quantification and analysis of previously unresolvable cell-to-cell variations in the metabolite accumulation of large motile E. gracilis cell populations.
Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu
Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel.
Ogawa, Takuma; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto
The motion of individual Euglena gracilis was experimentally analyzed. The flow field of E. gracilis during free swimming was visualized by the particle image velocimetry method to show that the time-averaged flow field is well represented by two Stokeslets, suggesting that the flow around E. gracilis is categorized as the typical puller type. The orbit of swimming E. gracilis in a uniform environment was also analyzed. The orbit was classified into two modes, "moving" and "stationary", to obtain statistics on waiting time, swimming length during a single motion, and the directional change between two successive swimming directions. For the distribution of waiting time and swimming length, power laws were obtained. On the basis of the results, biased random walk models were constructed to discuss the long-time diffusion behavior of an individual motion. The swimming behavior of E. gracilis in a nonuniform light environment was analyzed by focusing on the directional change behavior, whereby a Markov chain model was proposed to reproduce the observed behavior.
Bodin, Frédéric; Dissaux, Caroline; Steib, Jean-Paul; Massard, Gilbert
Radical resection of an extended malignant sarcoma of the chest wall requires full-thickness thoracic chest wall reconstruction. Reconstruction is tedious in the case of posteriorly located tumours, because the ipsilateral pedicled myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap is involved and hence not usable for soft tissue coverage. We report an original case of a left giant dorsal chondrosarcoma originating from the 11th costovertebral joint. After extended resection and skeletal reconstruction, soft tissue coverage was achieved with an original contralateral free flap encompassing both latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles. The flap pedicle was anastomosed to the ipsilateral thoracodorsal vessels.
Takahashi, Noboru; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Saito, Keiichi; Tominaga, Teiji
In pterional craniotomy, fixation plates cause artifacts on postoperative radiological images; furthermore, they often disfigure the scalp in hairless areas. The authors describe a simple technique to fix a cranial bone flap with only a single plate underneath the temporalis muscle in an area with hair, rather than using a plate in a hairless area. The key to this technique is to cut the anterior site of the bone flap at alternate angles on the cut surface. Interdigitation between the bone flap and skull enables single-plate fixation in the area with hair, which reduces artifacts on postoperative radiological images and provides excellent postoperative cosmetic results.
Edsander-Nord, Asa; Röjdmark, Jonas; Wickman, Marie
The most common complication in flap surgery is of a circulatory nature. Impeded blood flow leads to altered metabolism in the tissue. Possible metabolic differences between different zones of the transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap were studied and the metabolism of pedicled and free TRAM flaps was compared intraoperatively and postoperatively. The method used was microdialysis, which is a useful technique for following local metabolic changes continuously in various tissues.Twenty-two patients with a pedicled or free TRAM flap were monitored using the microdialysis technique. Two microdialysis catheters were placed subcutaneously in the flap (zone I and zone II), and a third one was placed subcutaneously in the flank to serve as a control. The flaps were monitored intraoperatively and postoperatively for 3 days with repeated analyses of extracellular glucose, lactate, and glycerol concentrations. An additional analysis of pyruvate was performed in some patients to calculate the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. This study showed that glucose, lactate, and glycerol change in a characteristic way when complete ischemia (i.e., complete inhibition of the blood circulation) is present. A slower stabilization with prolonged metabolic signs of ischemia, such as lower glucose and higher lactate and glycerol concentrations, was seen in zone II compared with zone I, and more pronounced metabolic signs of ischemia, but with a faster recovery, were detected in the free TRAM flap group than in the pedicled TRAM flap group. The fact that the metabolites returned to normal earlier in free flaps than in pedicled flaps may indicate that free TRAM flaps sustain less ischemic damage because of better and more vigorous perfusion.
Huang, Jen-Wu; Lin, Yi-Ying; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Yen, David Hung-Tsang
The endoscopy-assisted technique has been demonstrated in harvesting muscle flaps; however, for pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps, few studies have applied this technique. We present a surgical procedure utilizing endoscopic-assisted method to identify the perforators of pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. From August to December 2012, 9 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic-assisted harvesting of fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. All of the defects were caused by trauma with tendon or bone exposure. Postoperatively, all patients were requested to return for outpatient follow-up visits for at least 3 months. The age of the 9 patients (8 men and 1 woman) ranged from 20 to 79 years (median 59 years). The defects ranged in size from 2 × 2 to 6 × 8 cm2. Two patients received anterolateral thigh transmuscular perforator flaps, 5 patients received fibular septocutaneous perforator flaps, and 2 patients received medial gastrocnemius transmuscular perforator flaps. The median incision length was 10 cm, and the median operative time was 120 minutes. None of the patients had intraoperative complications, and intraoperative bleeding was minimal (<50 mL). At the end of the 3-month follow-up period, none of the patients had any complications on either recipient or donor site, including total or partial necrosis of the flaps, flap dehiscence, hematomas, seromas, wound infections, or any conditions that indicated additional unplanned operative procedures. All of the patients had surviving flaps. Our results demonstrated that the endoscopic-assisted method could be a valuable and reliable alternative in harvesting pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps.
Huang, Jen-Wu; Lin, Yi-Ying; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Yen, David Hung-Tsang
Abstract The endoscopy-assisted technique has been demonstrated in harvesting muscle flaps; however, for pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps, few studies have applied this technique. We present a surgical procedure utilizing endoscopic-assisted method to identify the perforators of pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. From August to December 2012, 9 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic-assisted harvesting of fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. All of the defects were caused by trauma with tendon or bone exposure. Postoperatively, all patients were requested to return for outpatient follow-up visits for at least 3 months. The age of the 9 patients (8 men and 1 woman) ranged from 20 to 79 years (median 59 years). The defects ranged in size from 2 × 2 to 6 × 8 cm2. Two patients received anterolateral thigh transmuscular perforator flaps, 5 patients received fibular septocutaneous perforator flaps, and 2 patients received medial gastrocnemius transmuscular perforator flaps. The median incision length was 10 cm, and the median operative time was 120 minutes. None of the patients had intraoperative complications, and intraoperative bleeding was minimal (<50 mL). At the end of the 3-month follow-up period, none of the patients had any complications on either recipient or donor site, including total or partial necrosis of the flaps, flap dehiscence, hematomas, seromas, wound infections, or any conditions that indicated additional unplanned operative procedures. All of the patients had surviving flaps. Our results demonstrated that the endoscopic-assisted method could be a valuable and reliable alternative in harvesting pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps. PMID:25715266
Kim, Jeong Tae; Ho, Samuel Y M; Kim, Youn Hwan
Postoperative flap monitoring is a vital aspect of free tissue transfer in order to detect early vascular compromise and to enable early flap salvage. The implantable Doppler monitoring system is one of many monitoring devices used to ensure accuracy and reduce unnecessary flap explorations. However, there are a number of concerns with its use, namely tension on the anastomosis, possible vessel constriction and false-negative detection. This study aimed to alleviate these concerns, by introducing a new method of placing the implantable Doppler probe on the adjacent vessel limb of a chimaeric flap. This is illustrated by a case series of chimaeric free tissue flaps that allow this surrogate placement of the Doppler probe. The flap is raised in a chimaeric fashion, with a main perforator pedicle to the skin or muscle paddle for the main reconstructive purpose and a side branch from the main pedicle going to a smaller adipofascial or muscle flap for monitoring. This branch vascular pedicle leading to the chimaeric tissue is kept sufficiently long to enable placement of the Doppler cuff and prevent turbulence. The probe of a Cook-Swartz implantable Doppler system is placed around the branch pedicle, approximately 5 mm from the branching point, and secured with a vessel clip. This is then secured away from the major vessels of the main free flap. Removal of the probe's crystal and wire is easily done with a single gentle traction on postoperative day 7. Five cases of chimaeric free flaps were performed with this manoeuvre: three thoracodorsal perforator chimaeric flaps for head-and-neck or extremity reconstruction, one latissimus dorsi neuromuscular chimaeric flap for facial reanimation and one digastric lymph node transfer for the treatment of lower limb lymphoedema. The Doppler system showed a low but sustained oscillating flow in all cases indicating vascular patency, with minimal flow interference from other large-calibre vessels. There was no discernible kinking on
Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.
A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.
De Greef, C
Autologous breast reconstruction was stigmatised because the muscular sacrifice of the rectus abdominis muscle. This problem could be avoided by the DIEP flap as much for immediate as delayed reconstruction with the creation of an aesthetic and natural shaped reconstructed breast. This retrospective study about 100 cases performed between January 1997 and June 2002 concern 94 patients, 88 unilateral reconstructions and six bilateral. The reconstruction was delayed in 83%, immediate in 8% or realised after failed attempt to reconstruct the breast with implant in 9%. Risk factors were also present: smokers (66%), one or more abdominal scars (40%), obesity (30%). The recipient vessels were the internal mammary vessels (86%), the circumflex scapular vessels (10%) and the subscapular vessels (4%). We noted four total flap loss, 5% of partial loss and 2% localized liponecrosis. Mean operating time was 6 hours 28 minutes for unilateral reconstruction and 9 hours 30 minutes for bilateral reconstruction. Mean hospital stay was 7,3 days. Two moderated abdominal bulging were noted. The tedious dissection of small vessels of the DIEP flap allowed for a similar rate of complication as the free TRAM flap, by respecting of the integrity of the rectus abdominis muscle, to reduce morbidity of harvest with less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and faster recovery.
Güven, Erdem; Uğurlu, Alper Mete; Başaran, Karaca; Basat, Salih Onur; Yiğit, Bariş; Hafiz, Günter; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi
In this article, we present the use of the superior labial artery musculo-mucosal (SLAMM) flap for intraoral reconstruction. The study included five patients (2 females, 3 males; mean age 36 years; range 11 to 56 years) who consulted at our clinic between October 2008 and January 2010. Five oral defects were reconstructed with the SLAMM flap. Three patients underwent reconstruction with SLAMM flap following oncologic resection. The other two patients had traumatic defects in the oral cavity which necessitated flap application. First, the distal end of the flap was incised and the superior labial artery was identified after dissection. After ligation of the artery, the mucosa, submucosa and the cuff of orbicularis oris muscle were elevated. The dissection was extended laterally and anteriorly, depending on the necessary flap size. None of the patients had partial or total flap necrosis. During the follow-up period, contracture developed in only one patient. Successful reconstruction was observed in all patients. The superior labial artery musculo-mucosal flap is a simple and feasible technique which can be used for reconstruction of intraoral defects.
Hýža, P; Veselý, J; Streit, L; Schwarz, D; Kubek, T; Catalano, F; Lombardo, G A G
The abdominal tissue is an ideal source for autologous breast reconstruction. We propose a new approach for intramuscular dissection of a DIEP flap in this paper. A total of 84 women underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy. From this group, 49 patients were treated with traditional DIEP flap of which 21 had unilateral procedure and 28 had bilateral procedure. This new type of dissection was performed in 35 women, with unilateral approach in 14 cases and bilateral approach in 21 cases. The statistical differences are not significant in the two groups with regards to complications (p > 0.1). Mean operative time in this new approach was 3 hours and 10 minutes per flap. Mean operative time in the traditional dissection of DIEP was 3 hours and 41 minutes per flap. The operative time of the new approach is significantly shorter than the dissection of the traditional DIEP flap (p < 0.01). The approach to DIEP flap dissection proposed by the authors is a new concept in autologous breast reconstruction. In this type of dissection no fascia is resected and it is more reliable than a traditional DIEP flap for the ease of dissection and for the presence of a small protective cuff of muscle around the vessel with a lower risk of perforator injury.It is a reproducible option of dissection, useful also in less experienced hands and it is a time reducing technique compared with the traditional DIEP flap.
Ugurlu, Kemal; Karsidag, Tamer; Akcal, Arzu; Karsidag, Semra; Yazar, Memet; Seven, Hüseyin
Reconstruction of defects of the cervical esophagus is a challenge in head and neck surgery. Several methods have been used: flaps with local tissues, pharyngogastric anastomosis, deltopectoral skin flaps, skin muscle transplant from the pectoralis major, and microvascularized free skin fascial and small intestine flaps. A 81-year-old patient who has a partial pharyngoesophageal defect after resection of laryngeal carcinoma underwent reconstruction with bare serratus anterior fascial free flap. The subscapular artery and vein were anastomosed to the superior thyroid artery and vein. The patient's postoperative recovery went uneventfully. In the endoscopic examination, the defect was completely covered with native mucosa 8 weeks after surgery, and also, there were no stricture and fistula tract in the reconstructed area.Serratus fascial flap is a thin and pliable flap with good and reliable vascularity; it can be used in the reconstruction of partial cervical esophageal defect with its long pedicle. Serratus fascial flap can provide significant epithelialization that cannot be differentiated from native esophagus. We propose that serratus fascial free flap is an important alternative in esophageal reconstructions because it creates minimal donor-site morbidity and it can easily adapt to the defect.
Ebrahiem, Ahmed Ali; Manas, Raj Kumar
Background: Reconstruction of soft-tissue defects in lower third of leg, ankle, and foot has been a challenge and reconstructive surgeons have been trying to innovate different flaps. To solve this issue, we propose a distally based sural artery peroneus flap (DBSPF) in which we include superficial portion of the peroneus brevis muscle and its blood supply with the peroneal artery distally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and its usefulness over conventional distal sural artery flap or other local options available. Methods: This is a case series of 20 patients that include a DBSPF that was done for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot caused by trauma or tumor ablation within the period of June 2013 to March 2015 in Kasralainy Hospital, Cairo. All cases were evaluated according to flap vascularity, distal reach of flap, aesthetic outcome, and donor-site morbidity. Results: All flaps survived. One flap developed venous congestion that subsided spontaneously with limb elevation. The flap dimension ranged from 42 cm to 442 cm2, and it reached the midfoot easily. The pivot point was kept as low as 2–6 cm from lateral malleolus according to location of perforators. The ankle stability was maintained, and the desired aesthetic outcome was achieved. Conclusions: The DBSPF is an addition to the armamentarium in plastic surgery for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot. It is an easy and swift procedure as compared with complex microsurgical reconstruction. PMID:28507850
Ebrahiem, Ahmed Ali; Manas, Raj Kumar; Vinagre, Gustavo
Reconstruction of soft-tissue defects in lower third of leg, ankle, and foot has been a challenge and reconstructive surgeons have been trying to innovate different flaps. To solve this issue, we propose a distally based sural artery peroneus flap (DBSPF) in which we include superficial portion of the peroneus brevis muscle and its blood supply with the peroneal artery distally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and its usefulness over conventional distal sural artery flap or other local options available. This is a case series of 20 patients that include a DBSPF that was done for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot caused by trauma or tumor ablation within the period of June 2013 to March 2015 in Kasralainy Hospital, Cairo. All cases were evaluated according to flap vascularity, distal reach of flap, aesthetic outcome, and donor-site morbidity. All flaps survived. One flap developed venous congestion that subsided spontaneously with limb elevation. The flap dimension ranged from 42 cm to 442 cm(2), and it reached the midfoot easily. The pivot point was kept as low as 2-6 cm from lateral malleolus according to location of perforators. The ankle stability was maintained, and the desired aesthetic outcome was achieved. The DBSPF is an addition to the armamentarium in plastic surgery for defects around ankle, distal leg, and foot. It is an easy and swift procedure as compared with complex microsurgical reconstruction.
Sun, Guangfeng; Nie, Kaiyu; Jin, Wenhu; Wei, Zairong; Qi, Jianping; Wang, Dali
So far it has been difficult to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. Saphenous artery flap has been widely used to repair complex wounds, but the design and clinical application of composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery were not reported. In this research, we design a new composite tissue flap by carrying fascial flap in the medial gastrocnemius muscle with perforators flap in saphenous artery to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. By anatomic observation and analysis, we find that there exists blood-supply in netty form among saphenous arteries, medial artery below the knee, intermuscular branch in high-order position of posterior tibial artery and perforating branch in medial artery of calf. We chose saphenous artery as blood-supplying artery; utilized the netty blood-supplying mode in middle-up and medial part of shank; cut the composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle; reconstructed the ligamentum patellae using medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles's tendon; and covered the wounds at front side of knee with flap. Composite tissues were survived completely, free from infection at wounds and exosmosis of joint fluid. Motion function of knee-joint proved satisfactory, and ambulatory function was recovered. There was no complication in donor site. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle is one of the most ideal solutions for repairing the composite tissue defects at front side of knee joint.
Nakashima, Ayaka; Suzuki, Kengo; Asayama, Yuta; Konno, Makoto; Saito, Keita; Yamazaki, Noriyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki
Euglena gracilis Z is a micro-algae that is used as a food or nutritional supplement. Paramylon, the carbohydrate storage substance of Euglena gracilis Z has β-1, 3-glucan structure. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon are reported to affect the immune system. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon against influenza virus infection in mice. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon were administered to mice as a 2% dietary mixture ad libitum. At 2 weeks after initiation of dietary administration, mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Survival rate was monitored 10 days after infection. In adition, we performed virus titer and cytokine profiles in the lung. High survival rates were observed for Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group. Significantly lower virus titer in the lung was observed in the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group from day 1 after infection. Higher amount of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ, and IL-10 was observed in the paramylon groups compared to the control group. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon which provides protection against influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Moffett, T R; Madison, S A; Derr, J W; Acland, R D
We present an extension of the surgical approach for harvesting the lateral upper arm free flap by which an additional 6 to 8 cm of pedicle length may be gained. First, the flap is raised by the standard lateral approach. Then, by proceeding proximally and posteriorly, the triceps muscle is split between its lateral and long heads to expose the entire length of the profunda brachii vessels in the spiral groove. A tunnel is developed beneath the lateral head of the triceps, and the flap or its pedicle is delivered through this. We describe the surgical technique and present details of a dissection study on 25 fresh cadaver limbs. The nerve branches to the lateral head of the triceps, which are close to the vessels of the flap, are highly variable in number and location. When unusually short and distally placed, they are at risk of damage, but damage can be avoided if the tunnel is not unduly widened. We present our early clinical experience in 10 consecutive cases using the extended-pedicle lateral arm flap. The free pedicle length in this series ranged from 8 to 13 cm. The maximum flap size was 5 x 19 cm. All cases were successful, although one required reoperation for venous thrombosis. Although postoperative testing of upper arm muscle function showed some weakness and impaired endurance, this was found equally in the surgically disturbed triceps and in the untouched elbow flexors and thus could not be attributed to motor nerve damage to the triceps muscle.
Osti, M F; Scattoni Padovan, F; Ricciardi, D; De Angelis D'Ossat, M; Sbarbati, S; Pirolli, C; Maurizi Enrici, R; Anaveri, G
January, 1992, to October, 1995, sixty-four patients with advanced head and neck cancer underwent head and neck reconstructive surgery using myocutaneous or revascularized flaps; in the same period, all patients were consecutively examined with CT and MRI. Myocutaneous flaps wer used in 26 patients: 12 flaps were tubular and 14 linear. Revascularized flaps were used in 38 patients: to repair a large defect in 26 patients (14 latissimus dorsi flaps and 12 temporal muscle flaps) and to repair an oral damage in 12 patients (5 revascularized radial and 7 jejunal flaps). CT and MR images of myocutaneous flaps showed the flaps as fatty areas, repairing large surgical defects, hypodense at CT and hyperintense at MRI, with no post-contrast enhancement. The postoperative scar around the flap exhibited soft-tissue density with slight post-contrast enhancement at CT and slightly hypodense on T2-weighted MR images. Post-contrast CT and MRI showed slight scar enhancement with no signal changes in the fatty component. The appearance of revascularized flaps at CT and MRI depends on the characteristics of the structure used to repair the surgical defect: jejunal and radial flaps appeared as mostly fatty thickened layers with both imaging methods. Temporal and latissimus dorsi flaps are made basically of muscular tissue, fatty tissue and occasionally skin (used to repair a mucosal defect): consequently, CT showed a structure with mostly parenchymal density in all cases and MRI depicted intermediate signal intensity. MRI was useful to detect 12 revascularized jejunal or radial flaps thanks to its higher contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities showing even such thin structures as these flaps. Moreover, MRI permitted to study skull base reconstruction with revascularized (latissimus dorsi) flaps in 5 of our patients.
Gaeta, R. J.; Englar, R. J.; Ahuja, K. K.
This Appendix documents the salient results from an effort to mitigate the so-called flap-edge noise generated at the split between a flap edge that is deployed and the undeployed flap. Utilizing a Coanda surface installed at the flap edge, steady blowing was used in an attempt to diminish the vortex strength resulting from the uneven lift distribution. The strength of this lifting vortex was augmented by steady blowing over the deployed flap. The test article for this study was the same 2D airfoil used in the steady blowing program reported earlier (also used in pulsed blowing tests, see Appendix G), however its trailing edge geometry was modified. An exact duplicate of the airfoil shape was made out of fiberglass with no flap, and in the clean configuration. It was attached to the existing airfoil to make an airfoil that has half of its flap deployed and half un-deployed. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the planform showing the two areas where steady blowing was introduced. The flap-edge blowing or the auxiliary blowing was in the direction normal to the freestream velocity vector. Slot heights for the blowing chambers were on the order of 0.0 14 inches.
Kehrer, Andreas; Lamby, Philipp; Miranda, Benjamin H; Prantl, Lukas; Dolderer, Juergen H
Radical excisions of the rectum often result in large perineal and intrapelvic defects. Compromised wound healing can delay adjuvant therapies and limit the patient's prognosis. With current treatment, integrity of the abdominal wall may be maintained. The defect geometry is unique and requires extensive volume for reconstruction. This study describes the surgical technique and reports clinical outcomes of fasciocutaneous posterior thigh flaps as preliminary data for this indication. Thirteen posterior thigh flaps were used in eleven patients between 2013-2015. Patients were prospectively followed-up for the pursposes of this case series. Flap dimensions and volume were measured in two representative cases. The surgical technique is described in detail. Dead space occlusion was achieved in 100% of cases. No intestinal herniation was detected. Vaginal wall defects were concurrently reconstructed in two patients. Total flap volume was calculated as 315-360 cm3. The fasciocutaneous flaps were easy to harvest, versatile to manipulate and did not result in significant function deficits. In contrast to classic Vertical Rectus Abdominis Muscle (VRAM) flaps, the posterior thigh flaps preserve abdominal wall function and should be considered as a reliable alternative option in reconstruction of intrapelvic defects including neighboring organs. Future studies of larger patient series should be executed to verify our findings and determine the optimal point in time for reconstruction.
Shoji, Erika; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto
Localized patterns of bioconvection in Euglena gracilis suspensions were experimentally analyzed in an annular container. Near the critical mean density of convection, we succeeded in isolating two basic types of localized convection patterns. One was an almost stationary pattern consisting of two convection cells centered by an isolated high-density region of the microorganism where a downflow was generated, which we call a "bioconvection unit". The other was a traveling wave pattern consisting of an array of moving high-density waves bounded in a certain area. The effect of the mean density of E. gracilis on the emergence of the localized convection pattern was also examined. Near the critical mean density, we found that the emergence probability of the localized convection pattern depends on the initial state, i.e., whether E. gracilis has a uniform or localized distribution, which suggests that the system is bistable. Such bistability is often accompanied by localized structures in spatially extended dissipative systems.
Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Jamil, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter
Chronic toxicity of the common laundry detergent Ariel on the freshwater alga Euglena gracilis was investigated by growing the alga in a medium containing the detergent for 7 days. Cell density, motility, swimming velocity, gravitactic orientation, cell shape, photosynthesis and concentration of light-harvesting pigments were used as end point parameters for the assessment of toxicity. Cell density was significantly reduced at a concentration of 1 mg l(-1) or above. Among the other tested parameters, with the exception of cell shape, gravitaxis and chlorophyll b, all were adversely affected by the detergent at concentrations exceeding 1 mg l(-1). It is concluded that long-term (7-days) exposure to the detergent caused significant toxicity to E. gracilis. Furthermore, long-term tests with E. gracilis can be used as sensitive indicator for the toxicity assessment of laundry detergents in aquatic environments.
Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto
Euglena gracilis is a unicellular phototactic flagellate; it escapes from light sources if the light intensity is higher than 200 W/m2 (negative phototaxis). When the suspension of E. gracilis is illuminated from the bottom by strong light, bioconvection patterns are generated. In the case of E. gracilis, the patterns can be spatially localized. The localization mechanism has not been clarified. We report experimental results related to the localization mechanism. In particular, we experimentally measured the strength of the phototaxis in the lateral direction as well as vertical direction. We prepared a thin container in which the suspension is included, and gave the linearly-changing light intensity. We found the number density gets a peak at a particular light intensity, which never happens if the suspension has the vertical phototaxis only. Further, we succeeded in getting the function representing lateral phototaxis. The relationship between the measured functions and the localized convection cells will be also reported.
Gao, Jian-Hua; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Lu, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Qi; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Ling; Feng, Chuanbo
The authors introduced the "Super-thin flap" concept, which is sometimes called the subdermal vascular network (SVN) flap, in 1994. Since 1994, we have reconstructed face and neck scar contractures using various types of "Super-thin flaps." In this report, we introduce expanded "Super-thin flaps" for reconstruction of the face and neck for the first time in a patient. Since 2000 we have used 21 expanded flaps to reconstruct 21 face or neck scar cases in nine males and 12 females. In the first operation, an expander was inserted on the fascia of the pectoralis major muscle, and then about 1,000 cc of saline was injected during a 2-month period. In the second operation, the flap was thinned primarily and applied to the recipient site. Three weeks after the second operation, the pedicle of the flap was cut down and sutured. Flap size ranged from 4 cm x 14 cm to 10 cm x 22 cm. Expanded volume ranged from 800 cc to 1,200 cc. All flaps survived completely and scar tissues were replaced with normal skin. Flaps did not shrink after the operations, and contractures did not recur. Advantages of the expanded flaps are presented: (1) Large flaps can be harvested because of the expander; (2) Extremely thin flaps can be safely employed; (3) Texture and color match are good; (4) Donor site can be closed primarily; and (5) Microsurgery is not required. However, the disadvantage of the method is the requirement for two or three operations.
Sisti, Andrea; D'Aniello, Carlo; Fortezza, Leonardo; Tassinari, Juri; Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe
Since their introduction in 1991, propeller flaps are increasingly used as a surgical approach to loss of substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications and to verify the outcomes and the complication rates using this reconstructing technique through a literature review. A search on PubMed was performed using "propeller flap", "fasciocutaneous flap", "local flap" or "pedicled flap" as key words. We selected clinical studies using propeller flaps as a reconstructing technique. We found 119 studies from 1991 to 2015. Overall, 1,315 propeller flaps were reported in 1,242 patients. Most frequent indications included loss of substance following tumor excision, repair of trauma-induced injuries, burn scar contractures, pressure sores and chronic infections. Complications were observed in 281/1242 patients (22.6%) occurring more frequently in the lower limbs (31.8%). Partial flap necrosis and venous congestion were the most frequent complications. The complications' rate was significantly higher in infants (<10 years old) and in the older population (>70 years old) but there was not a significant difference between the sexes. Trend of complication rate has not improved during the last years. Propeller flaps showed a great success rate with low morbidity, quick recovery, good aesthetic outcomes and reduced cost. The quality and volume of the transferred soft tissue, the scar orientation and the possibility of direct donor site closure should be considered in order to avoid complications. Indications for propeller flaps are small- or medium-sized defects located in a well-vascularized area with healthy surrounding tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Rehkämper, G; Welsch, U; Dilly, P N
The ganglion of Cephalodiscus gracilis M'Intosh 1882 is entirely intraepithelial and located in the dorsal epidermis immediately behind the tentacular apparatus that is formed by the mesosome (collar). A characteristic feature of the ganglion is a well-developed neuropile in which different types of nerve fibres can be discerned, many of which contain small granules with electron-dense contents. There are no glia-like cells in association with these fibres. Only slender basal processes of epidermal epithelial cells traverse the neuropile. In the depth of the epithelium the neuropile borders the epidermal basal lamina; apically it is covered by a layer of cell bodies, the majority of which belong to what appear to be ordinary ciliated epidermal cells. Besides these epidermal cells the perikarya of two additional types of cells, which are considered to be neurons, can be discerned. One type is characterised by many rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and mitochondria, the other by abundant small, electron-dense granules. The nuclei of these cells are comparatively pale and contain a prominent nucleolus. The neuron cell bodies do not form a distinct layer; but they are loosely distributed somewhat deeper than those of the ordinary epidermal cells. They probably send off an apical process to the epidermal surface and a basally directed one into the neuropile. The ganglion has been compared to the nervous systems in cnidarians, some spiralians, and especially other hemichordates, echinoderms, and chordates; it is found to be of primitive rather than degenerate nature. Furthermore, the possible functional significance of its close connection to the food-capturing tentacular apparatus is discussed.
Wang, Ruwen; Zhou, Jinghai; Deng, Bo
Stomach and colon are always used to reconstruct esophagus after esophagectomy. However, alternative procedures to reconstruct or repair esophagus are required if the patients suffered from gastric or colonic diseases, underwent gastric colonic operations or had severe local esophageal stricture. More than ten kinds of skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps, which are classified into free or pedicled ones, are used to reconstruct or repair esophagus. Microvascular anastomosis is required while using free flaps. Necrosis of the free flaps is prone to developing once the vascular occlusion occurs. The pectoralis major myocutaneous and latissimus dorsi pedicled flaps have sufficient blood supplies. However, both are bulky and difficult to reconstruct a circumferential esophagus through contouring a tube. Platysma myocutaneous flaps have a large surface area and are supplied from multiple vessels. Single lateral and bilateral platysma myocutaenous flap can be applied to repair the cervical esophageal defect and circumferential cervical esophagus, respectively. The use of platysma myocutaneous to repair and reconstruct cervical esophagus is a procedure easy to perform and confer excellent outcomes. There is no development of ulcer and hair growth after long-term follow-up and resistance to radiotherapy.
Záhonová, Kristína; Hadariová, Lucia; Vacula, Rostislav; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Eliáš, Marek; Krajčovič, Juraj; Vesteg, Matej
Euglena gracilis possesses secondary plastids of green algal origin. In this study, E. gracilis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from polyA-selected mRNA were searched and several ESTs corresponding to plastid genes were found. PCR experiments failed to detect SL sequence at the 5'-end of any of these transcripts, suggesting plastid origin of these polyadenylated molecules. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed that polyadenylation of transcripts occurs in the Euglena plastids. Such transcripts have been previously observed in primary plastids of plants and algae as low-abundance intermediates of transcript degradation. Our results suggest that a similar mechanism exists in secondary plastids.
Krajčovič, Juraj; Ebringer, Libor
Inhibitors of eubacterial and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerases type II exhibited different effects on chloroplasts of the flagellateEuglena gracilis. Antibacterial agents (cinoxacin, nalidixic and oxolinic acids, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) from the group of quinolones and coumarins (coumermycin A1, clorobiocin and novobiocin) — all inhibitors of prokaryotic DNA topoisomerase II — were very potent eliminators of chloroplasts fromE. gracilis. In contrast, antitumor drugs (adriamycin, etoposide, teniposide and mitoxantrone) — antagonists of the eukaryotic counterpart — did not affect these semiautonomous photosynthetic organelles. These findings point out again the close evolutionary relationships between eubacteria and chloroplasts and are in agreement with the hypothesis of an endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts.
Bariaud, A.; Mestre, J.C.
The authors have previously described some aspects of the cadmium toxic action on Euglena gracilis cells in vitro cultured. They showed the acquisition by the Euglena populations of a Cd/sup 2 +/ resistance to toxic concentrations. In this paper, the growth of a Cd-resistant and a non-resistant strain of Euglena gracilis in media containing Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/ or Co/sup 2 +/ is compared, in order to ascertain the mechanism to tolerance in this alga.
I devised a method to correct the inverted nipple considering the preservation of the lactiferous ducts, sensory fibers to the nipple, and the contracting function of the areolar muscle. Excision of the excess skin at the base of the nipple was done in three diamonds fashion, and they were located at 2, 6, and 10 o'clock positions not to jeopardize the sensory fibers to the nipple. To release the fastened nipple, the periductal fibrous tissue was thoroughly dissected and made into three flaps pedicled inferiorly. These three flaps were sutured to the dermis of the periareolar skin to pull up the nipple base by means of traction in three directions. The purse-string suture, the dermal stitch on the shorter diagonals of the diamond-shaped defects, anchors the skin-muscle bridges caught at the base of the ductal column, makes the nipple base narrower, obtains stable anchoring, helps the areolar muscle contraction to resume, and prevents the recurrence of the inversion. The use of the periductal tissue as flaps to bring in areolar skin for easier anchoring and for more prominent eversion of the nipple has not been described in the literature.
Ogawa, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Tomomi
Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can be used in combination with autologous flaps such as a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap to achieve symmetry. However, the LD and TDAP flaps require a different skin incision from that which is used for the mastectomy. As a new autologous flap for use in combination with prosthetic-based breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), we used an inframammary adipofascial flap. The patient was a 27-year-old female with moderate ptotic breasts, who had ductal carcinoma in situ in the lower outer quadrant of her left breast. After NSM through the inframammary fold (IMF) incision, the subcutaneous fat of the intended inframammary area was undermined, and the tongue shaped adipofascial flap was pulled up in the intended area. After inserting a tissue expander under the major pectoral muscle, this adipofascial flap was reflected back to the inferior portion of the breast area. After modeling the breast mound with this flap, the inframammary skin incision was sutured. Eleven months later, the patient underwent surgery to replace the expander with a permanent implant. Eight months after the replacement with an implant, the cosmetic result is good. This procedure can be performed through the same skin incision on the IMF as NSM. Total breast reconstruction using the inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant can be an alternative approach to achieving symmetry in some patients. This method is useful for breast reconstruction after NSM for young patients with moderate-ptotic breasts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wettstein, R; Helmy, N; Kalbermatten, D F
Defect reconstruction over the olecranon should be reliable, quick, relatively simple and with minimal complications. More recently, perforator flaps have been described with the benefit of minimal donor site morbidity when compared with muscle flaps or flaps relying on the major arteries of the upper extremity. So far, most of these flaps were harvested on the upper arm and rotated 180° into the defect. The aim of the present study was to analyse the results with the proximally based, distally extended lateral arm flap for soft-tissue reconstruction over the olecranon. The subcutaneous tissue layer in this area is thinner than in the upper arm, and less rotation of the pedicle is necessary. The location of the perforator just proximal to the lateral epicondyle and the precise territory of the flap are well known. Nine consecutive male patients with a mean age of 57±27 years presenting with soft-tissue defects after surgical treatment of bursitis (eight cases) or a pressure sore (one case) were operated on. The mean operation time was 60±15 min. In eight of the nine cases, the flap healed uneventfully or with a minor complication (fistula). One patient underwent revision surgery due to marginal flap necrosis. The defect was closed with a local advancement flap. In conclusion, the flap was reliable, relatively simple and quick to harvest, and yielded acceptable aesthetic results with minimal bulging over the olecranon. Postoperative recovery was relatively painless and short. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ogawa, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Tomomi
Introduction Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can be used in combination with autologous flaps such as a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap to achieve symmetry. However, the LD and TDAP flaps require a different skin incision from that which is used for the mastectomy. As a new autologous flap for use in combination with prosthetic-based breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), we used an inframammary adipofascial flap. Presentation of case The patient was a 27-year-old female with moderate ptotic breasts, who had ductal carcinoma in situ in the lower outer quadrant of her left breast. After NSM through the inframammary fold (IMF) incision, the subcutaneous fat of the intended inframammary area was undermined, and the tongue shaped adipofascial flap was pulled up in the intended area. After inserting a tissue expander under the major pectoral muscle, this adipofascial flap was reflected back to the inferior portion of the breast area. After modeling the breast mound with this flap, the inframammary skin incision was sutured. Eleven months later, the patient underwent surgery to replace the expander with a permanent implant. Eight months after the replacement with an implant, the cosmetic result is good. Discussion This procedure can be performed through the same skin incision on the IMF as NSM. Total breast reconstruction using the inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant can be an alternative approach to achieving symmetry in some patients. Conclusion This method is useful for breast reconstruction after NSM for young patients with moderate-ptotic breasts. PMID:27107500
Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)
A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.
To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.
Mitra, Avir; Spears, Julie; Newsome, Edward; McCampbell, Beth; Kiran, Ravi; Mitra, Amit
Turnover flaps are often utilized as alternatives to more traditional flaps, especially in situations where traditional flap viability is limited. Most turnover flaps are currently used in the lower extremities. This study examined the senior author's use of the turnover flap in 103 cases between 1987 and 2004. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 months to 10 years, with an average follow-up of 9 months. The majority (n = 90) of the cases involved the lower extremities and carried high success rates; there were 72 successful operations (complete graft take), 10 partial flap losses (partial graft take that could be treated postoperatively without surgery), and eight complete flap losses (no graft take and the necessity of additional surgery). Three of the partial flap losses and two of the complete flap losses involved patients with end-stage vascular disease. End-stage vascular disease cases represented 20.0 percent of the lower extremity cases and carried a significantly higher percentage of partial or complete flap loss (27.8 percent). These circumstances were examined in detail; the authors found that the turnover flap provided improved outcome to such end-stage patients who otherwise would have undergone amputation. In 13 cases, turnover flaps were utilized in nontraditional regions, such as the chest wall, abdominal wall, head and neck region, and upper extremities, with a high degree of success (zero partial or complete flap losses). These approaches are discussed in detail. The surgical approach is examined with recommendations regarding preferred wound size and type and overall flap design. This study indicates that turnover flaps are effective and useful as an alternative and, in some cases, primary procedure. In addition, the results serve to expand the present scope of the turnover flap by examining nontraditional regions in which the flap was highly successful. The authors believe the turnover flap should be given higher priority as a reconstructive
Miot, Jennyfer; Morin, Guillaume; Skouri-Panet, Fériel; Férard, Céline; Aubry, Emmanuel; Briand, Joël; Wang, Yuheng; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E
Among the few eukaryotes adapted to the extreme conditions prevailing in acid mine drainage, Euglenae are ubiquitous in these metal(loid)-impacted environments, where they can be exposed to As(III) concentrations up to a few hundreds of mg x L(-1). In order to evaluate their resistance to this toxic metalloid and to identify associated detoxification mechanisms, we investigated arsenic coordination in the model photosynthetic protozoan, Euglena gracilis, cultured at pH 3.2 and exposed to As(III) at concentrations ranging from 10 to 500 mg x L(-1). E. gracilis is shown to tolerate As(III) concentrations up to 200 mg * L(-1), without accumulating this metalloid. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the As K-edge shows that, in the cells, arsenic mainly binds to sulfur ligands, likely in the form of arsenic-trisglutathione (As-(GS)3) or arsenic-phytochelatin (As-PC) complexes, and to a much lesser extent to carbon ligands, presumably in the form of methylated As(III)-compounds. The key role of the glutathione pathway in As(III) detoxification is confirmed by the lower growth rate of E. gracilis cultures exposed to arsenic, in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. This study provides the first investigation at the molecular scale of intracellular arsenic speciation in E. gracilis and thus contributes to the understanding of arsenic detoxification mechanisms in a eukaryotic microorganism under extreme acid mine drainage conditions.
Ivušić, Franjo; Šantek, Božidar
Heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis was carried out on synthetic (Hutner medium) and complex cultivation media in order to optimize production of β-1,3-glucan (paramylon). For preparation of complex media, various industrial by-products (e.g., molasses, corn steep solid, yeast extract, and beef extract) were used with or without addition of pure compounds [glucose, galactose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and (NH4)2HPO4]. Heterotrophic cultivation of E. gracilis was performed in Erlenmeyer flasks and additionally confirmed during research in the stirred tank bioreactor. The results clearly show that E. gracilis can easily metabolize glucose and fructose as carbon sources and corn steep solid as complex nitrogen and growth factors source for biomass growth and paramylon synthesis. Furthermore, it was also proved that addition of (NH4)2HPO4, beef extract, or gibberellic acid did not have positive effect on the biomass growth and paramylon synthesis. After optimization of complex medium composition and verification in the stirred tank bioreactor, it was concluded that medium composed of glucose (20 g/L) and corn steep solid (30 g/L) is the most suitable complex medium for industrial cultivation of E. gracilis and paramylon production.
Simon, Ryan R; Vo, Trung D; Levine, Robert
Euglena gracilis is a microalga capable of synthesizing various nutrients of interest in human and animal nutrition. When cultivated aerobically in the dark, Euglena synthesize paramylon, a storage polysaccharide comprised of high molecular weight beta-1,3-D-glucose polymers organized in cytoplasmic granules. Beta-glucans have been shown to have immune modulation effects, including anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties, and metabolic effects, such as regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Preparations of E. gracilis and paramylon may therefore have potential utility as functional food ingredients for human and animal nutrition. A battery of toxicological studies was conducted on a dried preparation of E. gracilis and paramylon to support their safe food use. The dried alga was not genotoxic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and mammalian micronucleus test. In the subchronic toxicity study, rats were provided E. gracilis in the diet at levels of 0, 12,500, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm. Paramylon was provided at a concentration of 50,000 ppm. No effects that could be attributable to treatment were observed in clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, hematology and clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and macroscopic and microscopic findings. A NOAEL of 50,000 ppm in the diet was determined for both ingredients.
Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean
The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90 - 99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5 - 22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2 - 20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2 - 12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6 - 37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2 - 12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3 - 9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.
Dos Santos Ferreira, Verónica; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Bench, Shellie; Feldman, Robert; Levin, Mariano J