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Sample records for gracilis muscle flap

  1. Reconstruction of large head and neck deformities: experience with free gracilis muscle and myocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Del Frari, Barbara; Schoeller, Thomas; Wechselberger, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Microvascular free flaps continue to revolutionize coverage options in head and neck reconstruction. The authors describe their experience with the gracilis free flap and the myocutaneous gracilis free flap with reconstruction of head and neck defects. Eleven patients underwent 12 free tissue transfer to the head and neck region. The reconstruction was performed with the transverse myocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap (n = 7) and the gracilis muscle flap with skin graft (n = 5). The average patient age was 63.4 years (range, 17-82 years). The indications for this procedure were tumor and haemangioma resections. The average patient follow-up was 20.7 months (range, 1 month-5.7 years). Total flap survival was 100%. There were no partial flap losses. Primary wound healing occurred in all cases. Recipient site morbidities included one hematoma. In our experience for reconstruction of moderate volume and surface area defects, muscle flaps with skin graft provide a better color match and skin texture relative to myocutaneous or fasciocutaneous flaps. The gracilis muscle free flap is not widely used for head and neck reconstruction but has the potential to give good results. As a filling substance for large cavities, the transverse myocutaneus gracilis flap has many advantages including reliable vascular anatomy, relatively great plasticity and a concealed donor area.

  2. [An Adult Case of Transperineal Repair of Congenital Rectourethral Fistula Using Gracilis Muscle Flap Interposition].

    PubMed

    Yo, Toeki; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Hanasaki, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Yukako; Togo, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Nojima, Michio; Yamamoto, Shingo; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2015-07-01

    A man in his 50s was referred to our hospital after recurrent severe urinary tract infection. He had undergone anoplasty for anorectal malformation during early infancy. He noticed urinary leakage from the anus for a long time. Under diagnosis of congenital rectourethral fistula, we performed fistula closure. The fistula was transsected via transperineal incision and each stump was closed. A gracilis muscle flap approximately 30 cm long was harvested from the left thigh, brought into the deepest part between the separated rectum and urethra through a subcutaneous tunnel and fixed there. The urinary leakage from the anus disappeared, and the infection resolved. Application of gracilis muscle flap for congenital diseases is rare, but was useful in the present case.

  3. Gracilis muscle transposition as a workhorse flap for anal incontinence: Quality of life and functional outcome in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Guru Dayal Singh; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Shende, Kaustubh Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Anal incontinence is one of the most psychologically and socially debilitating conditions in an otherwise healthy individual. It can lead to social isolation, loss of self-esteem, self-confidence and depression. This study is devoted to the problem of anal incontinence in the adult patients. The aim of our study is to analyse the results of gracilis muscle transposition for anal incontinence and improvement in quality of life (QOL) of patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. A total of 18 patients with complaint of anal incontinence were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with gracilis muscle transposition. Results: All patients are continent, and there is an improvement in their QOL. Conclusion: Gracilis muscle transposition is a good option for patients of anal incontinence who are not treated by non-surgical means. PMID:28216815

  4. Case Report: Use of reinforced buccal mucosa graft over gracilis muscle flap in management of post high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) rectourethral fistula

    PubMed Central

    Jai, Shrikant; Ganpule, Arvind; Singh, Abhishek; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar; Bopaiah, Vinod; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has come forward as alternative treatment for carcinoma of the prostate. Though minimally invasive,HIFUhas potential side effects. Urethrorectal fistula is one such rare side effect. Management of these fistulas has been described by Vanni et al. This case report describes points of technique that will help successful management of resilient rectourethral fistula. Urinary and faecal diversion in the form of suprapubic catheter and colostomy is vital. Adequate time between stoma formation, fistula closure and then finally stoma closure is needed. Lithotomy position and perineal approach gives best exposure to the fistula. The rectum should be dissected 2cm above the fistula; this aids in tension free closure of the rectal defect. Similarly buccal mucosal graft was used on the urethra to achieve tension free closure. A good vascular pedicle gracilis muscle flap is used to interpose between the two repairs. This not only provides a physical barrier but also provides a vascular bed for BMG uptake. Perfect haemostasis is essential, as any collection may become a site of infection thus compromising results.  We strongly recommend rectourethral fistula be directly repaired with gracilis muscle flap with reinforced buccal mucosa graft without attempting any less invasive repairs because the “first chance is the best chance”. PMID:28299181

  5. Definition of the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for distant transfer in cats.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Snyder, J R; Ilkiw, J

    1992-01-01

    Dissection, injection, and surgical studies in feline cadavers and in anesthetized cats were conducted to determine the feasibility of using the gracilis muscle as the basis for a free musculocutaneous flap. The vascular pedicle of the flap consisted of the femoral artery and vein. Mean length (1.6 +/- 0.2 cm) of the vascular pedicle and mean artery (1.33 +/- 0.19 mm) and vein (2.55 +/- 0.38 mm) diameters were satisfactory for microvascular transfer. Fluorometry revealed overlying cutaneous perfusion in the flaps on the basis of their muscle vascular pedicles. To ensure survival of the flap, the muscular branches of the femoral artery and vein supplying the gracilis muscle had to be carefully preserved during surgical elevation of the flap.

  6. Segmental gracilis free flap based on secondary pedicles: anatomical study and clinical series.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Sanz-Giménez-Rico, Juan R; Landín, Luis; Martínez-Soriano, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    The gracilis muscle has been used extensively in reconstructive surgery, based on the proximal dominant pedicle. In the literature, little attention has been paid to the secondary distal pedicles. The distribution of the secondary pedicles of the gracilis muscle was investigated in 20 cadaver thighs. The mean number of secondary pedicles was 2.2 (range, two to three). When two pedicles were present-the most common situation-they were located at a mean distance of 12.4 and 17.5 cm from the knee joint line. The most proximal secondary pedicle was injected with barium sulfate in five specimens, and constant and abundant connections with the main pedicle were noted. A series of seven clinical cases of segmental gracilis free muscle flaps based on a secondary pedicle is reported. The flaps were successfully transferred to reconstruct traumatic defects of limited size, with one case of partial necrosis caused by a technical error. The morbidity of this flap is minimal, the scar is well hidden, the muscle need not be sacrificed, elevation is fast and straightforward under tourniquet control, and the pedicle is sizable. This flap should be considered a viable option when a small, straightforward free flap is needed.

  7. Experimental definition of latissimus dorsi, gracilis, and rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flaps in the dog.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Koblik, P D; Patz, J D

    1988-06-01

    Dissection and injection studies in canine cadavers and in anesthetized dogs were conducted to determine the feasibility of using the latissimus dorsi, gracilis, and rectus abdominus muscles as musculocutaneous free flaps. Lengths of vascular pedicles for the latissimus dorsi (2 +/- 0.8 cm), gracilis (1.8 +/- 0.8 cm), and rectus abdominus (1.9 +/- 0.9-cm cranial deep epigastric, 1.7 +/- 0.5-cm caudal deep epigastric), as well as arterial diameters (1.28 +/- 0.31-mm thoracodorsal for the latissimus dorsi, 1.10 +/- 0.33-mm muscular branch for the gracilis, 1.25 +/- 0.25-mm cranial deep epigastric and 1.26 +/- 0.32-mm caudal deep epigastric for the rectus abdominus) were considered satisfactory for microvascular transfer. Fluorometry demonstrated overlying cutaneous perfusion in all flaps based on their muscle vascular pedicles, with the exception of the rectus abdominus flap based on the caudal deep epigastric artery. In this instance, up to 20% of the cutaneous element had questionable or no perfusion.

  8. The fleur-de-lis upper gracilis flap for breast reconstruction: flap design and outcome.

    PubMed

    McKane, Brice W; Korn, Peter T

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated a fleur-de-lis design for the gracilis myocutaneous flap to improve flap volume for breast reconstruction. Thirty-one flaps were used in 17 consecutive patients undergoing the procedure for either thin body habitus (23 flaps) or prior abdominal surgery (8 flaps). The flap success rate was 100%. The fleur-de-lis flap provided proportionate breast reconstructions in all patients. Complications included 6 (19.3%) donor-site dehiscence and 4 (12.9%) episodes of cellulitis. Applying a negative pressure dressing to the donor site (n=26) significantly reduced the initially high dehiscence rate to 7.7% (P<0.01). There was no incidence of lower extremity edema or sensory loss. The fleur-de-lis gracilis flap can be performed with a low flap related complication rate and acceptable donor-site morbidity. Because of its standardized flap design, improved volume, and favorable breast shaping, it may allow autologous breast reconstruction to be offered to a greater number of patients.

  9. [Smile "forced" smile versus "spontaneous": comparison of 3 techniques of reconstructive surgery of the face. Myoplasty temporal muscle, hypoglossal facial anastomosis and gracilis muscle free flap].

    PubMed

    Lheureux-Portmann, A; Lapalus-Curtoud, Q; Robert, M; Tankéré, F; Disant, F; Pasche, P; Lamas, G; Gatignol, P

    2013-01-01

    The facial palsy cause serious consequences for patients. Studies have also shown that in these patients, the inability to produce an appropriate and spontaneous smile would be a key factor of depression. When facial palsy is considered complete and the nerve cannot be repaired, the patient can benefit from palliative surgery to regain a better quality of life in the aesthetic, functional, and psychological aspects. The hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (AHF), temporal myoplasty (MAT) and gracilis transposition (TG) are the major surgeries currently used for this purpose. The aim of our study is to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of each of these surgeries on the lip mobility and production of smile. From this perspective, we proposed a protocol of an evaluation of facial motricity, of quality of life, and more particularly on the quality and the analysis of the smile. The results underline that there is no significant difference in the recovery of the facial motricity according to the surgery. Only the slower, deferred deadline of recovery at the patients AHF and TG who have to wait several months, it is for the same levels as that of the patients' MAT. A premature and intensive rehabilitation such as the patients of our protocol benefited from it what is nevertheless essential to a good recovery whatever is the surgery.

  10. Free gracilis flap for chest wall reconstruction in male patient with Poland syndrome after implant failure

    PubMed Central

    Cherubino, Mario; Maggiulli, Francesca; Pellegatta, Igor; Valdatta, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Poland's syndrome (PS) is a congenital monolateral deformity that may involve breast, chest wall, and upper limb with different degrees of clinical expressions. In some cases, the problem is mainly cosmetic, and the reconstruction should be performed to achieve minimal scarring and donor site morbidity. The authors describe a case report of a male patient with PS who developed a severe capsular contraction after 25 years implant reconstruction, who was treated after explantation using free gracilis flap (FGF). In this patient, only the pectoralis major muscle was missing. An FGF was performed to reconstruct the anterior axillary fold and the soft tissue defect. There was no flap loss, the patient had a clearly improved appearance of the chest wall, and the pain syndrome was solved. In this case report, we demonstrate our experience with the use of an FGF for chest wall reconstruction in male patients with PS after prosthesis explantation. PMID:27833290

  11. Transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for treatment of capsular contracture in tertiary breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pülzl, Petra; Huemer, Georg M; Schoeller, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation leading to pain, displacement, and rupture. After capsulectomy and implant exchange, the problem often reappears. We performed 52 deepithelialized free transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flaps in 33 patients for tertiary breast reconstruction or augmentation of small- and medium-sized breasts. The indications for implant removal were unnatural feel and emotion of their breasts with foreign body feel, asymmetry, pain, and sensation of cold. Anyway, most of the patients did not have a severe capsular contracture deformity. The TMG flap is formed into a cone shape by bringing the tips of the ellipse together. Depending on the contralateral breast, the muscle can also be shaped in an S-form to get more projection if needed. The operating time for unilateral TMG flap breast reconstruction or augmentation was on average 3 hours and for bilateral procedure 5 hours. One patient had a secondary revision of the donor site due to disruption of the normal gluteal fold. Eighty percent of the unilateral TMG flap reconstructions had a lipofilling procedure afterward to correct small irregularities or asymmetry. The advantages of the TMG flap such as short harvesting time, inconspicuous donor site, and the possibility of having a natural breast shape make it our first choice to treat capsular contracture after breast reconstruction and augmentation.

  12. The Transverse Musculocutaneous Gracilis Free Flap: Virtual Animation-Assisted Dissection and Application in Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gabert, Pierre-Elliott; Bodin, Frederic; Aljudaibi, Nawaf; Duquennoy-Martinot, Veronique; Guerreschi, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap is a valuable choice for autologous tissue, unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction. This procedure is an excellent and customized option for immediate or delayed breast reconstruction in patients with small to moderate size breasts. Few descriptions of flap dissection and breast mound shaping are available. In this first educational video, the authors report the original dissection of the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap used for breast reconstruction. Virtual animations insist on surgical key points and relevant details of the harvesting of the flap.

  13. Tug 'O' war: challenges of transverse upper gracilis (TUG) myocutaneous free flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Locke, Michelle B; Zhong, Toni; Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2012-08-01

    Autologous tissue microsurgical breast reconstruction is increasingly requested by women following mastectomy. While the abdomen is the most frequently used donor site, not all women have enough abdominal tissue excess for a unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction. A secondary choice in such women may be the transverse upper gracilis (TUG) myocutaneous flap. This study reviews our experience with TUG flap breast reconstruction looking specifically at reconstructive success rate and the requirement for secondary surgery. A total of 16 free TUG flaps were performed to reconstruct 15 breasts in eight patients over a period of five years. Data were collected retrospectively by chart review. Follow up ranged from 14 to 41 months. During the follow up period, there was one (6.3%) complete flap loss in an immediate breast reconstruction patient. Four further flaps (25%) failed in their primary aim of breast reconstruction, as they required additional significant reconstruction with either deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps (two flaps (12.5%), one patient) or augmentation with silicone breast implants (two flaps (12.5%), one patient), giving a successful breast reconstruction rate with the TUG flap of only 66.7%. In all of the remaining reconstructed breasts, deficient flap volume or breast contour was seen. Eight flaps were augmented by lipofilling. A total of 62.5% of the donor sites had complications, namely sensory disturbance of the medial thigh (25%) and poor scar (37.5%) requiring revision. This series demonstrates a high rate of reconstructive failure and unsatisfactory outcomes from TUG flap breast reconstruction. We feel this reinforces the necessity of adequate pre-operative patient assessment and counselling, including discussion regarding the likelihood of subsequent revisional surgery, before embarking on this form of autologous breast reconstruction.

  14. Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap after Parotidectomy.

    PubMed

    Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Morsi

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation) and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%), and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%), although only 1 (9%) subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with a mean of 1.55 ± 0.93; the scores from the blinded evaluators ranged from 1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 ± 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve.

  15. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  16. Flow-through anastomosis using a T-shaped vascular pedicle for gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation in brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi; Yang, Jiantao; Yang, Yi; Qin, Bengang; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiangming; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Qingtang; Qi, Jian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation, the limited caliber of the dominant vascular pedicle increases the complexity of the anastomosis and the risk of vascular compromise. The purpose of this study was to characterize the results of using a T-shaped vascular pedicle for flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury. METHODS: The outcomes of patients with brachial plexus injury who received gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation with either conventional end-to-end anastomosis or flow-through anastomosis from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively compared. In the flow-through group, the pedicle comprised a segment of the profunda femoris and the nutrient artery of the gracilis. The recipient artery was interposed by the T-shaped pedicle. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients received flow-through anastomosis, and 25 patients received conventional end-to-end anastomosis. The surgical time was similar between the groups. The diameter of the arterial anastomosis in the flow-through group was significantly larger than that in the end-to-end group (3.87 mm vs. 2.06 mm, respectively, p<0.001), and there were significantly fewer cases of vascular compromise in the flow-through group (2 [4.35%] vs. 6 [24%], respectively, p=0.019). All flaps in the flow-through group survived, whereas 2 in the end-to-end group failed. Minimal donor-site morbidity was noted in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-through anastomosis in gracilis functioning free muscle transplantation for brachial plexus injury can decrease the complexity of anastomosis, reduce the risk of flap loss, and allow for more variation in muscle placement. PMID:26247666

  17. Double-powered free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation: A longitudinal optoelectronic study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Frigerio, Alice; Mapelli, Andrea; Tarabbia, Filippo; Annoni, Isabella; Colombo, Valeria; Latiff, Mahfuz; Pimenta Ferreira, Claudia L; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Zago, Matteo; Biglioli, Federico

    2015-07-01

    The choice of the motor donor nerve is a crucial point in free flap transfer algorithms. In the case of unilateral facial paralysis, the contralateral healthy facial nerve can provide coordinated smile animation and spontaneous emotional expression, but with unpredictable axonal ingrowth into the recipient muscle. Otherwise, the masseteric nerve ipsilateral to the paralysis can provide a powerful neural input, without a spontaneous trigger of the smile. Harvesting a bulky muscular free flap may enhance the quantity of contraction but esthetic results are unpleasant. Therefore, the logical solution for obtaining high amplitude of smiling combined with spontaneity of movement is to couple the neural input: the contralateral facial nerve plus the ipsilateral masseteric nerve. Thirteen patients with unilateral dense facial paralysis underwent a one-stage facial reanimation with a gracilis flap powered by a double donor neural input, provided by both the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (coaptation by an end-to-end neurorrhaphy with the obturator nerve) and the contralateral facial nerve (coaptation through a cross-face nerve graft: end-to-end neurorrhaphy on the healthy side and end-to-side neurorrhaphy on the obturator nerve, distal to the masseteric/obturator neurorrhaphy). Their facial movements were evaluated with an optoelectronic motion analyzer. Before surgery, on average, the paretic side exhibited a smaller total three-dimensional mobility than the healthy side, with a 52% activation ratio and >30% of asymmetry. After surgery, the differences significantly decreased (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p < 0.05), with an activation ratio between 75% (maximum smile) and 91% (maximum smile with teeth clenching), and <20% of asymmetry. Similar modifications were seen for the performance of spontaneous smiles. The significant presurgical asymmetry of labial movements reduced after surgery. The use of a double donor neural input permitted both movements that were similar

  18. The Role of Muscle Flaps for Salvage of Failed Perforator Free Flaps

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the most heroic efforts, sometimes free flaps fail. Perforator free flaps are not invincible and can suffer the same fate. The real challenge is how to decide what is the next best choice for achieving the desired outcome. Methods: Over the past decade, 298 free perforator flaps were used in our institution. Total failure occurred in 16 patients, and partial failure requiring a second free flap occurred in an additional 6 patients for a true success rate of 93%. All failures had some form of secondary vascularized tissue transfer, which included the use of muscle flaps in 9 (41%) different patients. Results: Initial flap salvage after a failed perforator free flap was attempted with 12 perforator and 5 muscle free flaps as well as 1 perforator and 2 muscle local flaps. These were not all successful, with loss of 3 muscle free flaps and 3 perforator flaps. Tertiary free flap coverage was successful in 3 cases using 2 muscle flaps and 1 perforator free flap. Local fasciocutaneous flaps or primary wound closure was used in the remaining individuals. Conclusions: Microsurgical tissue transfers can be the most rewarding and at the same time the most challenging reconstructive endeavor. Persistence in achieving the desired outcome can require multiple steps. Perforator flaps are an important asset to obtain this goal. However, muscle flaps can still be a useful alternative, and the message is that they should not be overlooked as sometimes a viable option. PMID:26893989

  19. The Sternohyoid Flap for Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Alam, Daniel S

    2016-02-01

    This article discusses the use of the sternohyoid muscle for facial reanimation. The report outlines the rationale for use, the technical aspects of flap harvest, and early clinical outcomes. The utility of the flap and its comparative attributes relative to the gracilis flap are discussed.

  20. A method for constructing vascularized muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Shandalov, Yulia; Egozi, Dana; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction following extensive tissue loss is essential and can be achieved using autologous flaps. However, their use is limited due to their inadequate availability and due to post-operative donor site scarification. This work presents a step-by-step technique for fabrication of a vascularized muscle flap, to be applied in full-thickness abdominal wall defect reconstruction. Poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds, prepared using a salt leaching technique, were used as the supporting matrix in vitro for simultaneously seeded endothelial cells, fibroblasts and myoblasts. The cell-embedded graft was then implanted around femoral artery and vein vessels, which provided a central blood supply. Vascularization and perfusion were achieved by capillary sprouting from the main host vessel into the graft. A thick and vascularized tissue was formed within one week, and was then transferred as an autologous flap together with its main vessels, to a full-thickness abdominal wall defect. The flap remained viable after transfer and featured sufficient mechanical strength to support the abdominal viscera. Thus, this engineered muscle flap can be used as an alternative source for autologous flaps to reconstruct full-thickness abdominal wall defects.

  1. The role of adenosine in exercise hyperaemia of the gracilis muscle in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Poucher, S M; Nowell, C G; Collis, M G

    1990-01-01

    1. A number of metabolites have been proposed to control the vascular tone of skeletal muscle during exercise. The present study was designed to investigate the role of adenosine in this response by determining the effect of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline. 2. The gracilis muscle of anaesthetized cats was exposed and made to contract by stimulating the obturator nerve (at 1 Hz, 5 V, 0.1 ms) for 20 min. Gracilis muscle blood flow and tension were measured during exercise and for 20 min following exercise. Initially this was performed in each animal during the infusion of a vehicle solution (50% polyethylene glycol 400, 50% 0.1 M-NaOH, 0.1 ml min-1 I.V.). Exercise was then repeated during infusion of either further vehicle (group I), 8-phenyltheophylline (group II) or 3-propylxanthine (group III), both at 2.7 x 10(7) mol min-1 kg-1. 3. In group 1 (n = 4) gracilis muscle blood flow during the first exercise period increased by 47.5 +/- 11.3 ml min-1 (110 g)-1 and gracilis muscle tension by 8.6 +/- 1.3 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1 at 20 min of exercise. These responses were not significantly different when repeated. 4. In group II (n = 5), blood flow increased by 46.9 +/- 9.9 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 and tension by 6.5 +/- 0.7 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1 during vehicle infusion. Infusion of 8-phenyltheophylline at a rate which abolished the vasodilatation response to 2-chloroadenosine, significantly reduced the muscle blood flow increase to 19.8 +/- 2.7 ml min-1 (100 g muscle mass)-1 (P less than 0.05) but the tension response was unaffected (increased by 7.0 +/- 0.8 kg (100 g muscle mass)-1). 8-Phenyltheophylline did not affect gracilis muscle blood flow or tension at rest. 5. Administration of 3-propylxanthine, which did not modify the vasodilatation response to 2-chloroadenosine, failed to alter the vascular responses to muscle contraction. 6. These results suggest that activation of adenosine receptors can contribute to up to 40% of the vasodilatation

  2. Acute ischemic preconditioning of skeletal muscle prior to flap elevation augments muscle-flap survival.

    PubMed

    Carroll, C M; Carroll, S M; Overgoor, M L; Tobin, G; Barker, J H

    1997-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning of the myocardium with repeated brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion prior to prolonged ischemia significantly reduces subsequent myocardial infarction. Following ischemic preconditioning, two "windows of opportunity" (early and late) exist, during which time prolonged ischemia can occur with reduced infarction size. The early window occurs at approximately 4 hours and the late window at 24 hours following ischemic preconditioning of the myocardium. We investigated if ischemic preconditioning of skeletal muscle prior to flap creation improved subsequent flap survival and perfusion immediately or 24 hours following ischemic preconditioning. Currently, no data exist on the utilization of ischemic preconditioning in this fashion. The animal model used was the latissimus dorsi muscle of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were assigned to three groups, and the right or left latissimus dorsi muscle was chosen randomly in each animal. Group 1 (n = 12) was the control group, in which the entire latissimus dorsi muscle was elevated acutely without ischemic preconditioning. Group 2 (n = 8) investigated the effects of ischemic preconditioning in the early window. In this group, the latissimus dorsi muscle was elevated immediately following preconditioning. Group 3 (n = 8) investigated the effects of ischemic preconditioning in the late window, with elevation of the latissimus dorsi muscle 24 hours following ischemic preconditioning. The preconditioning regimen used in groups 2 and 3 was two 30-minute episodes of normothermic global ischemia with intervening 10-minute episodes of reperfusion. Latissimus dorsi muscle ischemia was created by occlusion of the thoracodorsal artery and vein and the intercostal perforators, after isolation of the muscle on these vessels. Muscle perfusion was assessed by a laser-Doppler perfusion imager. One week after flap elevation, muscle necrosis was quantified in all groups by means of computer-assisted digital

  3. The Gradual Expansion Muscle Flap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High energy open fractures of the tibia have traditionally been fraught with challenges to include bone comminution or loss, soft tissue...and subsequent case series that obviates the need of free tissue transfer while treating high energy type IIIB open tibia fractures by performing an...Key Words: shortening and angulation, Taylor Spatial Frame, III B tibia fracture , flap coverage (J Orthop Trauma 2014;28:e15 e20) INTRODUCTION High

  4. Restoration of fecal continence with chronic electrostimulation of gracilis muscle 17 years after a Pickrell's operation.

    PubMed

    Seccia, M; Banti, P; Zocco, G; Viacava, P

    2001-11-01

    A 27-year-old woman who had undergone a Pickrell's operation at the age of 10 years, was observed for severe incontinence to solid and liquid stools. Physical examination and physiological tests revealed poor resting anal tone but a very good response of the transposed gracilis to percutaneous electrostimulation, which showed that the gracilis ability to contract was maintained in spite of 17 years of only occasional and unplanned muscular activity. Examination also demonstrated that the muscle had followed body growth during the patient's development. Restoration of continence by continuous electrostimulation of the gracilis muscle was then planned. To allow muscular resistance to this stimulation a fast-to-slow twitch fiber conversion was first obtained by low-frequency electrostimulation. A subcutaneous abdominal implant of a pulse generator connected to the gracilis by intramuscular platinum-iridium electrodes was carried out. After a period of muscular training, fiber conversion was achieved, and continuous electrostimulation led to complete restoration of continence with stable results at the 36 month follow-up evaluation. This case demonstrates that even such a long period of muscular inactivity does not affect the possibility of recovering a failed Pickrell's operation using electrostimulation. This easy and safe procedure can be applied to all previously failed graciloplasties provided that muscle contractility is maintained.

  5. A pedicled muscle flap based solely on a neural pedicle.

    PubMed

    Avci, Gulden; Akan, Mithat; Akoz, Tayfun; Kuzon, William; Gul, Aylin Ege

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic vascular plexus of the motor nerve could support viability in a rat hindlimb muscle flap. In a preliminary study, we examined the course and vascularity of the sciatic nerve, the peroneal nerve, and the peroneous longus muscle in the rat hindlimb via anatomic dissection, microangiography, and histologic study (n = 10 animals). On the basis of this examination, the peroneous longus muscle was chosen as our experimental model in this study. In 12 animals, the peroneus longus was acutely elevated, which severed all tendinous and vascular structures, this left the muscle pedicled on the motor nerve only (Group I). Animals in Group II underwent a staged elevation of the flap with division of the vascular pedicle, the tendon of insertion, and the tendon of origin during separate procedures that were 5 days apart (n = 12). Muscle viability was evaluated by gross inspection, measurement of muscle weight and length, nitroblue tetrazlium (NBT) staining, microangiography, and histology. NBT staining demonstrated that immediate elevation of the peroneus longus muscle flaps led to an average necrotic area of 80.6% +/- 9.8% (Group I). A significant improvement in viability was observed for muscle flaps of animals in Group II, with peroneus longus muscle necrosis averaging 25.6% +/- 9.3%. Microangiography demonstrated that the intrinsic vascularity of nerve was increased dramatically in Group II. These data support the hypothesis that the intrinsic vascular plexus of the motor nerve of a skeletal muscle can support at least partial viability of a muscle flap. However, this vascular axis is inadequate to support complete viability of a muscle flap if the flap is elevated immediately. If a staged elevation affects a surgical delay, the viability of a muscle flap elevated on a neural pedicle can be increased significantly. With adjustments in the delay procedure, this strategy may allow transfer of muscle flaps when maintenance or

  6. Delayed type IV muscle flap in a feline model.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Ned; Craven, Cameron; Phillips, Linda G

    2006-03-01

    The concept of delaying a skin flap is well established and has been implemented into plastic surgery practice for years. Some investigators have delayed musculocutaneous flaps to improve the perforator inflow. To our knowledge, the concept of delaying a muscle flap had previously never been tested in a model with segmental pedicles. Five cats each underwent 3 sequential operations providing them with a sartorius muscle whose blood supply was a single distal pedicle. The opposite leg was used as a control. Our delayed type IV muscle flap demonstrated perfusion to the proximal tip of the sartorius muscle without necrosis or loss of muscle mass (P < 0.0001). The control showed no evidence of perfusion beyond the distal portion of the muscle when infused through the distal pedicle. The delayed flap can survive on a distal blood supply that would not be adequate in a single-stage procedure. This flap has an increased arc of rotation that may provide solutions to difficult reconstructive problems in the groin, lower abdomen, genitalia, knee, proximal leg, and might be suitable as a free flap.

  7. The Effect of Activated Protein C on Attenuation of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Muscle Flap Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Elizabeth W; Fang, Taolin; Arnold, Peter B; Songcharoen, Somjade Jay; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is often the final and irreversible factor causing flap failure in microsurgery. The salvage of a microsurgical flap with an ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes to the success of microsurgical flap transfers. Activated protein C (APC), a serine protease with anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, has been shown to improve ischemic flap survival. To date, APC has yet to be applied to models of free flap with ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of APC on gracilis flap ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by gracilis vessels clamping and reopening. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. After 4 hours of clamping for ischemia, flaps were reperfused and recombinant human APC (25 μg/kg) or saline was injected in the flaps through pedicles. At 0, 1, 4, 18, and 24 hours after injection (n = 6 for each time point), the tissue samples were harvested. The muscle viability at 24 hours in saline group was 54.8% (15.1%), whereas the APC-treated group was 90.0% (4.3%) (P < 0.05). The induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased with the time after reperfusion, which were 0.93 (0.25) to 2.09 (0.22) in saline group, and 0.197 (0.15) to 0.711 (0.15) in the APC-treated group. iNOS mRNA expression in the APC-treated group was significantly higher than the saline group at 1, 18, and 24 hours (P < 0.05). Numerous inflammatory cells were observed infiltrating and invading the muscle fibers in the saline group more than the APC-treated group. Increased number of polymorphonuclear cells was also noted in the saline group compared with the APC-treated group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, APC treatment can significantly attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury and increase the survival of the free flap through down-regulating iNOS mRNA expression and reducing the inflammatory cells. Further research is still needed to be done on various mechanisms in which APC is

  8. Objective outcomes analysis following microvascular gracilis transfer for facial reanimation: a review of 10 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Weinberg, Julie S; Lindsay, Robin W; Hohman, Marc H; Cheney, Mack L; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Objective assessment of smile outcome after microvascular free gracilis transfer is challenging, and quantification of smile outcomes in the literature is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To report objective excursion and symmetry outcomes from a series of free gracilis cases and investigate the predictive value of intraoperative measurements on final outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical chart review was undertaken of all patients who underwent microvascular free gracilis transfer for smile at our institution over the past 10 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures included the following: smile excursion, angle of smile with respect to the vertical midline, and facial symmetry during repose and with smile. Measurements were obtained using an automated tool for assessment of facial landmarks (FACE-Gram). An exhaustive set of intraoperative parameters including degree of recoil of the gracilis muscle following harvest, the degree to which the muscle foreshortened during stimulation of the obturator nerve, final stretched length of the inset muscle, surgeon assessment of neurorrhaphy and pulse pressure, ischemia time, number of sutures used during neurorrhaphy, nerve used to innervate the flap, and surgeon assessment of oral commissure overcorrection were recorded and placed into a linear regression model to investigate correlations with smile. RESULTS From March 2003 to March 2013, 154 microvascular free gracilis transfers were performed for facial reanimation at our institution, 14 (9%) of which were deemed failures. Of the remaining 140 flaps, 127 fulfilled inclusion criteria and constituted the study cohort. Smile excursion, angle excursion, and symmetry of the oral commissure at repose and with smile all improved following gracilis free flap (P < .05). Associations between selected outcomes measures and intraoperative gracilis measurements were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Facial reanimation using free

  9. The effects of gracilis muscle transplantation on speech in children with Moebius syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Cory; DeLorie, Raylene; Zuker, Ronald M; Manktelow, Ralph T

    2003-09-01

    Speech and communication are major problems for children with Moebius syndrome, a congenital anomaly that includes facial and abducens nerve paralysis and, often, other cranial nerve deficits. In addition, these children frequently have severe functional problems such as drooling as well as poor self-esteem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of speech with bilateral gracilis muscle transplants innervated by the masseteric nerve in children with Moebius syndrome. The outcome of this two-stage procedure was investigated in 12 patients. Assessments were done before and after surgery, and additional data were collected from video records. After surgery, the children showed improved intelligibility of speech with a significantly lower frequency of all compensatory phonemes, including the sounds of /p/, /b/, /m/, /w/, "sh", /f/, and /v/. This procedure had evident positive impact in all problematic areas and is the procedure of choice for these unfortunate children.

  10. Coverage of Amputation Stumps Using a Latissimus Dorsi Flap With a Serratus Anterior Muscle Flap: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Jeon, Seung Bae; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Amputation of the extremities is a definitive reconstructive option, and surgeons should aim to preserve maximum overall function. If the exposed bone cannot be adequately covered using local tissues, the stump can be reconstructed using a number of well-described free flap transfer techniques. Between January 2002 and December 2011, 31 patients with severe injuries to the lower extremities underwent above-the-knee, below-the-knee, and Chopart and Ray amputations. Bony stumps were covered using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps alone (group 1), or together with serratus anterior muscle flaps (group 2). The groups were compared with respect to age, flap survival, skin flap size, immediate complications, wound sloughing, deep ulceration, need for bone amputation, limb visual analog scale score, time to prosthesis, and follow-up duration. The mean area of the latissimus dorsi skin flap was 255.9 cm, and immediate complications occurred in 8 (25.8%) patients. In the double-padding group, there were fewer cases of deep ulceration than in the single-flap group, and prostheses could be worn sooner. There were no statistically significant differences in other parameters. Successful reconstruction of amputation stumps requires an adequate, durable, weight-bearing, and well-contoured soft tissue cover. A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap together with a serratus anterior muscle flap provides well-vascularized muscle tissue and a durable skin paddle, leading to less ulceration than conventional flap techniques.

  11. Lower Lip Suspension Using Bilateral Temporalis Muscle Flaps and Fascia Lata Grafts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    muscle, as in a Gil- lies-type temporalis flap for facial reanimation (Figs. 1 and 2). A strip of muscle measuring 5 cm wide is then raised from superior...formed procedure. DISCUSSION The temporalis muscle is a robust flap, and its transfer has long had a place in the history of facial reanimation ...temporalis turndown flaps for dynamic lower lip reanimation in 1934.4 McLaughlin de- scribed disinsertion of the muscle from the coro- noid through a

  12. Anteriorly Based Partial Thickness Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap Following Parotidectomy.

    PubMed

    Dalmia, Deepak; Behera, Sanjaya Kumar; Bhatia, Jas Simran Singh

    2016-03-01

    The anteriorly based partial thickness sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flap is among the various methods described to correct parotidectomy defects, but its indications and limitations are not clearly demonstrated in several reports. This study was done to test the aesthetic outcome of this method, its indications and limitations. At Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Memorial hospital, Mumbai, 20 patients presenting with benign parotid tumors underwent parotidectomy. 16 underwent superficial parotidectomy and 3 underwent adequate parotidectomy, 1 had total parotidectomy. The anteriorly based partial thickness SCM muscle flap was used to correct the contour deformity and to prevent Frey syndrome. The aesthetic result was evaluated by assessing and scoring the overall appearance of the scar, the degree of symmetry of the reconstructed parotid region and the site of the donor muscle in comparison to their contralateral normal sides. The overall aesthetic appearance was good in 17 patients, and moderate in 3 patients. 17/20 patients had an overall deep satisfaction with the result. The residual hollowness following total parotidectomy defect and the poor quality of scars were the main reasons affecting the aesthetic outcome. Superficial parotidectomy through modified Blair's incision with immediate reconstruction with anteriorly based partial thickness SCM flap allows a satisfactory aesthetic outcome and minimal donor site morbidity. Scores of the above two parameters were accessed. Patients' satisfaction was assessed by patients questionnaire.

  13. Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis with temporalis muscle and fascia flap.

    PubMed

    Su-Gwan, K

    2001-06-01

    This study sought to determine the efficacy of interpositional arthroplasty with temporalis muscle and fascia flap in the treatment of unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in adults. This retrospective study of seven cases evaluated the postoperative results of interpositional arthroplasty on temporalis muscle and fascia flap in adults. The operative protocol for unilateral TMJ ankylosis entailed, (1) resection of ankylotic mass, (2) intraoral ipsilateral coronoidectomy, (3) contralateral coronoidectomy when necessary, (4) interpositional tissue transfer to the TMJ with temporalis muscle and fascia flap, (5) maxillomandibular fixation (MMF), and (6) early mobilization and aggressive physiotherapy. The results of this protocol were encouraging, while the functional results of interpositional arthroplasty on temporalis muscle and fascia flap were satisfactory. The findings of this study support the use of temporalis muscle and fascia flap in adult patients with unilateral TMJ ankylosis. Early postoperative initial exercise, physiotherapy, and strict follow-up play an important role in preventing postoperative adhesions.

  14. Foot reconstruction using a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site after failure of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Kwon, Young Hun; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-02-01

    The free flap failure rate for the lower extremities is high, which adversely affects limb salvage efforts. In this article, we report a case of failure of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, which was simultaneously reconstructed with a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. A 56-year-old male patient had infected wound for 3 months due to Achilles tendon rupture. We reconstructed the defect using a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap. However, 2 days after the operation, we found the congested flap. We were obliged to discard the whole flap and harvested a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. The patient's foot healed uneventfully. After flap failure, the use of a second free flap from the same donor site may be an effective and safe procedure in specific cases.

  15. The Trapezius Muscle Flap: A Viable Alternative for Posterior Scalp and Neck Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jun; Kim, Yang Woo; Lee, Sang Gu

    2016-01-01

    Background The trapezius muscle flap is not usually the first reconstructive option for skin and soft tissue defects in the posterior neck and scalp due to surgeons' unfamiliarity with the surgical anatomy and developments in free tissue transfer techniques. The goals of this study were to describe the clinical use of trapezius flaps in posterior neck and scalp reconstruction, and to investigate the vascular anatomy of trapezius flaps in Asians in order to obtain information facilitating the safe design and elevation of flaps in which most of the muscle is preserved. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of 10 patients who underwent trapezius muscle flap for posterior neck and scalp defects. We also performed an anatomical study of 16 flaps harvested from 8 preserved Asian adult cadavers and evaluated the main landmarks relevant for trapezius muscle flap. Results In the anatomical study, the mean vertical height from the inferior angle of the scapula to the point at which the superficial cervical artery penetrated the trapezius was 4.31±2.14 cm. The mean vertical height of the trapezius muscle flap pivot point was 9.53±2.08 cm from the external occipital protuberance. Among the 10 flaps, partial necrosis on the overlaid skin graft occurred in 1 patient and postoperative seroma occurred in another patient. Conclusions Vascular variations in the trapezius muscle flap are uncommon in Asians, but when present, such variations appear to have little impact on harvesting the flap or on its circulation. The trapezius muscle flap is a viable alternative for posterior neck and scalp reconstruction. PMID:27896183

  16. Electromyographical, ultrasonographical and morphological modifications in semitendinous muscle after transposition as ventral perineal muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Mortari, A C; Rahal, S C; Resende, L A L; Dal-pai-silva, M; Mamprim, M J; Corrêa, M A; Antunes, S H S

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate modifications occurring in semitendinous muscle after transposition as a ventral perineal muscle flap using electromyography, ultrasonography, and morphological studies. Ten male crossbreed dogs of 3-4 year old were used. The left semitendinous muscle was cut close to the popliteus lymph node, rotated and sutured at the perineal region. The contralateral muscle was considered as control. Motor nerve conduction studies of both sciatic-tibial nerves, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic examinations of both semitendinous muscles were performed before surgery and 15, 30, 60, and 90 days postoperatively. Semitendinous muscle samples were collected for morphological analysis 90 days after surgery. No alterations were observed in clinical gait examinations, or in goniometrical and electroneuromyographical studies in pelvic limbs after surgery. Electromyography demonstrated that the transposed muscle was able to contract, but atrophy was detected by ultrasonography and morphological analysis.

  17. Prophylactic cross-face nerve flap for muscle protection prior to facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Koshima, Isao; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Mihara, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Iida, Takuya; Uchida, Gentaro

    2011-02-01

    The facial muscles of a 28-year-old woman with left acoustic neuroma were successfully protected with a vascularised cross-face nerve flap using a vascularised lateral femoral cutaneous nerve along with a perforator of the lateral circumflex femoral system. It was transferred as a vascularised cross-face nerve flap to bridge a 15-cm-long defect between the bilateral buccal branches. Three months after the nerve flap transfer, the total tumour including the facial nerve was resected. Postoperatively, rapid nerve sprouting through the nerve flap and excellent facial reanimation were obtained 3-6 months after resection. This method is a one-stage reconstruction procedure, has minimal donor-site morbidity and results in strong postoperative muscle contraction. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a prophylactic cross-face nerve flap technique for the protection of facial muscles before facial nerve transection, and also the usefulness of vascularised lateral femoral cutaneous nerve flap.

  18. Donor-site Morbidity of Medial and Lateral Thigh-based Flaps: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Chad A.; Lewis, Kevin C.; Mioton, Lauren M.; Hanwright, Philip J.; Galiano, Robert D.; Dumanian, Gregory A.; Alghoul, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Free and pedicled medial and lateral thigh-based flaps are common reconstructive procedures. However, there have been no comparative studies of morbidity between medial and lateral donor sites. Methods: We conducted an Enterprise Data Warehouse-based review of all the senior authors’ (R.D.G., G.A.D., and M.S.A.) thigh-based free and pedicled flaps. Patient demographic data, donor-site complications, drain duration, and number of postoperative visits were collected and compared. Complications were also compared between fasciocutaneous flaps and muscle or myocutaneous flaps, and skin grafted donor sites. Results: We analyzed 352 flap donor sites, with 155 medial and 197 lateral. Two hundred seventeen (217) flaps were pedicled. Flap types included 127 gracilis, 27 rectus femoris, 134 anterolateral thigh, and 36 vastus lateralis-only flaps. There were no significant differences in complications between medial (17.4%) and lateral thigh (21.3%) donor sites, although lateral thigh flaps had a mean of 1 additional postoperative visit. Rates of wound dehiscence/healing issues were significantly higher in both gracilis myocutaneous flaps (25.9%) and flaps requiring a skin grafted donor site (31.2%). Postoperative therapeutic anticoagulation was the only significant risk factor for a donor-site complication. Flap complications resulted in increased drain duration and postoperative office visits. Conclusions: Donor-site morbidity is similar in both lateral and medial thigh-based flaps. The inclusion of muscle in the flap from either donor site does not seem to increase complications, but the inclusion of a skin paddle with gracilis muscle, or a skin grafted lateral thigh donor site, results in increased wound healing complications. PMID:27975004

  19. Relation between serum ischemia-modified albumin levels and rectus abdominis muscle flap viability.

    PubMed

    Livaoğlu, Murat; Arvas, Leyla; Karaçal, Naci; Menteşe, Ahmet; Karahan, S Caner; Sözen, Emrah

    2011-05-01

    Ischemia is a major cause of flap failure in reconstructive surgery. To detect circulatory compromise, many flap monitoring methods are used; however, there is no any optimal standard method. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is an ischemia marker, which has recently been investigated in many studies and largely validated for early detection of ischemia. In this study, we investigated possible relationship between muscle flap viability and serum IMA levels in experimental flap model. The rectus abdominis muscle flap model was used in 18 New Zealand white rabbits. The study was planned using 3 groups. In group 1, the rectus abdominis muscle flap was harvested as a superior pedicle-based flap in which the inferior pedicle was sacrificed. In group 2, the flap was harvested by severing the superior pedicle. Both pedicles were harvested in group 3. Serum IMA levels were measured before the procedure and 1 hour, 6 hours, and 7 days postoperatively and then compared. In group 3, in which the ischemia was evident, and in group 1, IMA levels were significantly high 1 hour postoperatively (P < 0.05). There was no other significant difference in any of the other studied parameters between the groups. In conclusion, IMA can be used as a biochemical parameter for monitoring muscle flap viability.

  20. Hemipelvectomy for Buttock Tumors Utilizing an Anterior Myocutaneous Flap of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, Paul H.; Chretien, Paul A.

    1983-01-01

    Hemipelvectomy utilizing an anterior myocutaneous flap is indicated for aggressive tumors of the buttock and proximal portion of the posterior thigh. A large operative defect created posteriorly by amputation of the lower extremity, hemipelvis, and buttock is covered by a myocutaneous flap of quadriceps femoris muscle and overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. The superficial femoral artery is preserved to sustain the myocutaneous flap. ImagesFig. 2A,B,C.Fig. 2A,B,C. PMID:6848048

  1. Chest wall reconstruction using iliac bone allografts and muscle flaps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tutor, Emilio; Yeste, Luis; Murillo, Julio; Aubá, Cristina; Sanjulian, Mikel; Torre, Wenceslao

    2004-01-01

    Technically we can divide full-thickness thoracic reconstruction into 2 parts: providing a rigid support and ensuring well-vascularized coverage. Since 1986, the authors' center has had ample experience with bone banks and the use of cryopreserved bone grafts, which led them to consider the possibility of using these grafts for full-thickness chest wall reconstruction. They describe 3 patients in whom resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the thorax were carried out using iliac bone allografts covered with muscle flaps (1 pectoralis major and 2 rectus abdominis). None of the patients experienced breathing difficulties, pain, or instability after 14 months, 18 months, and 11 years of follow-up. The result of the reconstruction was excellent in all 3 patients in terms of function and aesthetics. The advantage of allografts compared with synthetic materials is their potential integration; they can become part of the host patient's living tissue.

  2. The Efficiacy of Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap on Frey's Syndrome via a Novel Test: Galvanic Skin Response.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Ugur; Basut, Oguz; Noyan, Behzat; Demir, Uygar Levent; Afsin Ozmen, O; Kasapoglu, Fikret; Hakan Coskun, H; Onart, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flap on preventing Frey's syndrome by using, Galvanic skin responses (GSR). Fourty-three patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy were randomly divided into two groups and their GSR were recorded. SCM muscle flap was applied over the surgical area only in one group. Six months after the surgery, GSRs were remeasured. In addition, the patients completed a questionnaire regarding their complaints about clinical Frey's syndrome. Four patients had symptoms of clinical Frey's syndrome. Postoperative GSR measurements revealed no significant difference between two sides in flap group (p = 0.426) but higher in without flap group (p = 0.003). The patients with clinical Frey syndrome had significantly higher GSR values than the remaining patients. The SCM muscle flap was an effective method in preventing Frey's syndrome. Moreover, GSR test was highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis.

  3. [The lower trapezius muscle island flap. Anatomic principles and clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Haas, F; Pierer, G; Weiglein, A; Moshammer, H; Schwarzl, F; Scharnagl, E

    1999-01-01

    Up to now, there is no uniform anatomic description neither of the branches of the subclavian artery nor of the pedicle of the lower myocutaneous trapezius flap. A dissection study was carried out on 140 necks in 70 cadavers. Variations of the subclavian artery and its branches, vessel diameter at different levels, the course of the pedicle under the levator scapulae muscle, the arc of rotation of the island flap, and the variations of the segmental intercostal branches to the lower part of the trapezius muscle were examined. Results of this study enable us to suggest a new nomenclature for the branches of the subclavian artery, a proper pedicle definition, and a technique for safe flap elevation. The lower trapezius island flap is a thin and pliable myocutaneous flap with a constant pedicle which ensures safe flap elevation. This flap has the potential for a wider acceptance due to minor donor site morbidity, large arc of rotation, and an ample range of clinical applications in the head and neck area as an island flap as well as a free flap.

  4. Abdominal Closure after TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction with Transversus Abdominis Muscle Release and Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Avendano-Peza, Héctor; Novitsky, Yuri W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Breast reconstruction with a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. Although the pedicled TRAM flap donor area reinforced with mesh results in decreased rates of postoperative abdominal bulging and hernias, the best technique to accomplish that is yet to be elucidated. We present our novel technique of posterior components separation with transversus abdominis muscle release and retromuscular mesh reinforcement for donor-area closure during pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:27757337

  5. An engineered muscle flap for reconstruction of large soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Shandalov, Yulia; Egozi, Dana; Koffler, Jacob; Dado-Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Freiman, Alina; Shor, Erez; Kabala, Aviva; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2014-04-22

    Large soft tissue defects involve significant tissue loss, requiring surgical reconstruction. Autologous flaps are occasionally scant, demand prolonged transfer surgery, and induce donor site morbidity. The present work set out to fabricate an engineered muscle flap bearing its own functional vascular pedicle for repair of a large soft tissue defect in mice. Full-thickness abdominal wall defect was reconstructed using this engineered vascular muscle flap. A 3D engineered tissue constructed of a porous, biodegradable polymer scaffold embedded with endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and/or myoblasts was cultured in vitro and then implanted around the femoral artery and veins before being transferred, as an axial flap, with its vascular pedicle to reconstruct a full-thickness abdominal wall defect in the same mouse. Within 1 wk of implantation, scaffolds showed extensive functional vascular density and perfusion and anastomosis with host vessels. At 1 wk posttransfer, the engineered muscle flaps were highly vascularized, were well-integrated within the surrounding tissue, and featured sufficient mechanical strength to support the abdominal viscera. Thus, the described engineered muscle flap, equipped with an autologous vascular pedicle, constitutes an effective tool for reconstruction of large defects, thereby circumventing the need for both harvesting autologous flaps and postoperative scarification.

  6. Primary effects of carotid chemoreceptor stimulation on gracilis muscle and renal blood flow and renal function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    al-Obaidi, M; Karim, F

    1992-01-01

    1. In chloralose-anaesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs, the carotid sinus regions were vascularly isolated and perfused either with arterial or mixed (arterial and venous) blood (partial pressure of O2 (PO2) 43.8 +/- 2.4 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.M. n = 14) to stimulate the carotid chemoreceptors. The carotid sinus pressure was held constant at 142.0 +/- 2.8 mmHg. Measurements were made of renal and gracilis muscle blood flow by wrap-round electromagnetic flow probes placed around the renal and gracilis arteries, glomerular filtration rate by creatine clearance, urinary sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. 2. In ten dogs, with intact cervical vagosympathetic trunks, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation produced significant increases in aortic pressure (AoP) of 12.7 +/- 1.1% (n = 10, P < 0.001), in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 14.7 +/- 4.1% (P < 0.001), urine flow rate (V) of 16.5 +/- 3.5% (P < 0.002), in urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) of 17.5 +/- 2.5% (P < 0.005) and in urinary osmolar excretion (UosmV) of 13.2 +/- 2.2% (P < 0.001), but a significant decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) of 5.8 +/- 1.8% (P < 0.02). In six of these dogs in which gracilis muscle blood flow (MBF) was also recorded, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation caused significant increases in AoP of 12.8 +/- 1.4% (n = 6, P < 0.001) and in MBF of 10.0 +/- 1.6% (P < 0.002), and a small but significant decrease in RBF of 3.6 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.02). 3. In fourteen dogs, with sectioned cervical vagosympathetic trunks, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation produced increases in AoP of 22.0 +/- 2.6% (n = 14, P < 0.001), in GFR of 36.9 +/- 4.2% (P < 0.001), in V of 30.1 +/- 4.4% (P < 0.001), in UNaV of 31.4 +/- 5.3% (P < 0.001), and in UosmV of 25.7 +/- 5.8% (P < 0.001). However, it produced a greater decrease in RBF of 10.5 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.001). In ten of these dogs, where MBF was recorded, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation caused greater increase in AoP of 22.4 +/- 3

  7. Semitendinosus and gracilis free muscle-tendon graft for repair of massive rotator cuff tears: surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; MILANO, GIUSEPPE; RICCIO, MICHELE; DEI GIUDICI, LUCA

    2016-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:27900313

  8. Treatment of the Open Glenohumeral Joint with the Anterior Deltoid Muscle Flap

    PubMed Central

    Xipoleas, George D.; Woods, Daniel; Batac, Joseph; Addona, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Upper extremity reconstruction is most often encountered in trauma patients. Although the rate of complications from elective orthopedic procedures remains relatively low, these complications are oftentimes in the form of open joints or joint infections that can be devastating. Classically, wounds of the shoulder girdle have been treated with large muscles such as the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and latissimus dorsi. Flaps more local to the area including the deltoid muscle flap have been overlooked due to their small size. Despite its size, the anterior deltoid can be used for shoulder girdle reconstruction with minimal functional deficit and allows for reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint without sacrifice of the larger muscles of the upper trunk. This study reports a case of a chronic shoulder girdle wound and successful management with the use of an anterior deltoid muscle flap. PMID:27826470

  9. Open-book Splitting of a Distally Based Peroneus Brevis Muscle Flap to Cover Large Leg and Ankle Defects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Large soft-tissue defects in the lower leg and ankle are a major problem for plastic surgeons. Many local flaps that are either proximally or distally based have been previously described to cover small defects. Larger defects may require a distant flap that is either pedicled or free. The peroneus brevis muscle flap is a well-known distally based safe flap that is used to cover a small defect. Methods: Ten distally based peroneus brevis muscle flaps were elevated in 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) with major lower third leg and ankle defects that were 6–12 cm in length and 6–10 cm in width, with open-book splitting of the proximal portion of the muscle to cover these large defects. Results: Flap survival was excellent, and partial skin graft loss in two cases healed with dressing. The average flap length was 10 cm, ranging between 6 and 12 cm. The average flap width was 8 cm, ranging between 6 and 10 cm. The donor site also healed uneventful. Conclusions: Open-book splitting of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap is ideally suited for moderate to large defects in the distal third of the lower leg and ankle. This modification of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap offers a convincing alternative for covering large defects of up to 12 × 10 cm in the distal leg and ankle region. PMID:26893997

  10. Reconstruction of the Orbit With a Temporalis Muscle Flap After Orbital Exenteration

    PubMed Central

    Uyar, Yavuz; Yıldırım, Güven; Kuzdere, Mustafa; Arbağ, Hamdi; Jorayev, Chary; Kılıç, Mehmet Vefa; Gümrükçü, Said Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the role of the temporalis muscle flap in primary reconstruction after orbital exenteration. Methods A retrospective nonrandomized study of orbital exenterations performed between 1990 and 2010 for malignant tumors of the skin, paranasal sinus, and nasal cavity is presented. Results The study included 13 patients (nine men, four women; age range, 30-82 years) with paranasal sinus, nasal cavity, or skin carcinomas. Primary reconstruction of the cavity was performed in all patients after orbital exenteration. No visible defects in the muscle flap donor site were present. Local recurrences were readily followed up with nasal endoscopy, whereas radiology helped to diagnose intracranial involvement in three patients. Two patients died of systemic metastases and five died for other reasons Conclusion The temporalis muscle flap is readily used to close the defect after orbital exenteration, and does not prevent the detection of recurrence. PMID:25729496

  11. Treatment of Sternoclavicular Joint Osteomyelitis with Debridement and Delayed Resection with Muscle Flap Coverage Improves Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Muesse, Jason L.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Ellsworth, Warren A.; Kim, Min P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various treatment options for sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis. We evaluated patients with a diagnosis of sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis, treated at our hospital from 2002 to 2012. Four treatment options were compared. Three out of twelve patients were successfully cured with antibiotics alone (25%). Debridement with or without negative pressure therapy was successful for one of three patients (33%). Simultaneous debridement, bone resection, and muscle flap coverage of the acquired defect successfully treated one of two patients (50%). Debridement with delayed bone resection and muscle flap coverage was successful in five of five patients (100%). Osteomyelitis of the sternoclavicular joint is a rare disease that has become more prevalent in recent years and can be associated with increasing use of long-term indwelling catheters. Initial debridement with delayed bone resection and pectoralis major muscle flap coverage can effectively treat sternoclavicular joint osteomyelitis. PMID:25379557

  12. Aberrant perfusion of the serratus anterior muscle flap: report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Sönmez, Ahmet; Bayramiçli, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Free serratus anterior muscle flap, classified as Mathes-Nahai type III, is a versatile and frequently preferred choice for soft tissue coverage of small to moderate-sized defects owing to its reliable circulation pattern; however, some anatomic variations in the flap vascularity can result in partial flap loss. Here we present two cases with free serratus anterior muscle transfer where the distalmost portion of the flap was not perfused by the thoracodorsal pedicle. The most likely explanation seems to be the large flap size and the lack of distal interconnections between lateral thoracic artery and thoracodorsal artery branches. Our clinical experience suggests that anatomic variations of serratus anterior muscle circulation might end up with distal perfusion loss if a large flap is to be harvested.

  13. Long-term results after muscle-rib flap transfer for reconstruction of composite limb defects.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Alexandru V; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Ileana, Matei; Irina, Capota; Filip, Ardelean; Olariu, Radu

    2011-03-01

    The authors present the long-term results in a series of 44 cases with post-traumatic bone defects solved with muscle-rib flaps, between March 1997 and December 2007. In these cases, we performed 21 serratus anterior-rib flaps (SA-R), 10 latissimus dorsi-rib flaps (LD-R), and 13 LD-SA-R. The flaps were used in upper limb in 18 cases and in lower limb in 26 cases. With an overall immediate success rate of 95.4% (42 of 44 cases) and a primary bone union rate of 97.7% (43 of 44 cases), and despite the few partisans of this method, we consider that this procedure still remains very usefully for small and medium bone defects accompanied by large soft tissue defects.

  14. Case Report Reconstruction of Exposed Ilium With Reverse Turnover Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kenji; Endo, Yoshie; Kamebuchi, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: It is difficult to cover a large skin and soft tissue defect with exposure of the ilium. We therefore performed a new reconstruction technique, using a reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap fed by perforating branches of only the 10th intercostal artery. Methods: A 45-year-old man had a large traumatic defect located on the hip with exposure of the iliac crest. After confirming and preserving perforating branches of the 10th intercostal artery, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap was turned over just proximal to the perforating branch, and a split-thickness skin graft was performed over the flap. Results: The skin graft took place well and there were no circulation problems. Conclusions: This flap covered a larger area on the hip than the musculocutaneous flap. Furthermore, this is easier to perform and is less invasive than a vascularized free flap. Skin and soft tissue defects that expose bones of the lumbar or hip region can be reconstructed with a local flap; however, the deficit is small for this coverage and usually there is little skin and soft tissue to cover the wound defect in the surrounding area. Thus, it is often difficult to deal with large defects. We performed a reconstruction, using a reverse latissimus dorsi flap fed by perforating branches of the 10th intercostal artery for a large skin and soft tissue defect of the hip with exposure of the iliac crest, resulting in a good outcome. This technique is thought to be useful for reconstruction when the ilium is exposed, and we report the case and surgical procedure. PMID:21559059

  15. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2016-01-01

    The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity. PMID:27366755

  16. Vascularization of the peroneal muscles. Critical evaluation in fibular free flap harvesting.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, P M; Monje, F; Gañán, Y; Junquera, L M; Morillo, A J

    2004-12-01

    This anatomical study was carried out in order to discover the etiology of partial necrosis of the peroneus longus and brevis muscles after fibular osteocutaneous flap harvest. The vascular supply to the lateral compartment peroneal muscles was investigated in 10 fresh cadaveric lower limbs. The peroneal muscles are supplied by two principal sources arteries, the anterior tibial artery (ATA) and the peroneal artery (PA). The ATA is the dominant artery and supplies the proximal and middle thirds of these muscles. The PA is considered to be a supplementary vascular source and supplies the distal thirds of these muscles. After harvesting the PA in a fibular flap, regions of the peroneal muscles preoperatively vascularized by its branches become supplied through the anastomotic "choke" vessels between the ATA and the PA. Primary closure of the cutaneous defect increases the possibility of developing a pseudo-compartment syndrome with necrosis of the more precariously vascularized portions of the peroneal muscles. This complication is difficult to diagnosis early and the reason why we advocate that direct skin closure following composite harvest must be avoided. Moreover, conservation of the inferior and superior lateral branches of the ATA is imperative in order to preserve the peroneal muscles vascularization.

  17. Pedicled myocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi muscle for reconstruction of anterior and middle skull defects: an alternative.

    PubMed

    Seckel, B R; Upton, J; Freidberg, S R; Gilbert, K P; Murray, J E

    1986-01-01

    Three cases are presented demonstrating the use of a pedicled myocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi muscle to reconstruct large defects of the anterior and middle skull after ablative surgery for carcinoma. This method is proposed as an alternative to reconstruction with a free myocutaneous flap in selected patients.

  18. A novel method of minimally invasive rectus abdominis muscle flap harvest: Laparoscopic surgeons take note

    PubMed Central

    Aijaz, Tabish; Singhal, Dhruv; Tan, Sanda A.; Iqbal, Atif

    2017-01-01

    The rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) is a workhorse flap to fill or repair abdominal defects. A drawback of an open RAM harvest is donor site morbidity, and minimally invasive techniques for flap harvesting have been previously proposed but involve vertical division of the rectus fascia. We present a case of a 52-year-old woman with a recurrent rectovaginal fistula in a radiated field treated with a laparoscopic low anterior resection with simultaneous RAM flap harvest utilising a single Pfannenstiel incision. Our novel modified laparoscopic-assisted RAM harvest technique prevents longitudinal violation of the anterior and posterior rectus sheaths, thereby promoting a quick recovery, improved cosmesis and decreased post-operative morbidity. PMID:28281481

  19. Intraoperative hemodynamic evaluation of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Fulvio; Giordano, Salvatore; Tukiainen, Erkki

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess intraoperatively the hemodynamic changes in the donor vessel of free latissimus dorsi (LD) flap before and after denervation and to analyze flow changes after flap transfer. Twenty-seven patients underwent LD muscle microvascular reconstruction for lower-limb soft tissue defects. Measurements of blood flow were performed intraoperatively by using a 2- to 5-mm probe ultrasonic transit-time flowmeter around the dissected vessels. Registrations were made in the thoracodorsal artery before and after harvesting the flap, after compressing and cutting the motor nerve, and after anastomosis. Mean blood flow of in situ harvested thoracodorsal artery as measured intraoperatively by transit-time flowmeter was (mean ± standard deviation) 16.6 ± 11 mL/min and was significantly increased after raising the flap to 24.0 ± 22 mL/min (p <0.05); it was 25.6 ± 23 mL/min after compressing the motor nerve and was significantly increased after cutting the motor nerve to 32.5 ± 26 mL/min (p <0.05). A significant increase of blood flow to 28.1 ± 19 mL/min was also detected in the thoracodorsal artery after flap transplantation with end-to-side anastomosis (p <0.05). Vascular resistance in the thoracodorsal artery significantly decreased after flap raising and anastomosis (from 7.5 ± 3.4 to 4.0 ± 1.9 and to 4.5 ± 2.4, respectively, p <0.05). LD flap harvesting increases blood flow and decreases resistance in the thoracodorsal artery, especially after denervation.

  20. Pneumatic artificial muscles for trailing edge flap actuation: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Sirohi, Jayant; Wereley, Norman M.

    2011-10-01

    In this study a novel aircraft trailing edge flap actuation system was developed and tested. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) were used as the driving elements of this system to demonstrate their feasibility and utility as an alternative aerospace actuation technology. A prototype flap/actuator system was integrated into a model wing section and tested on the bench-top under simulated airloads for flight at 100 m s-1 (M = 0.3) and in an open-jet wind tunnel at free stream velocities ranging up to 45 m s-1 (M = 0.13). Testing was performed for actuator pressures ranging from 0.069 to 0.62 MPa (10-90 psi) and actuation frequencies from 0.1 to 31 Hz. Results show that the PAM-driven trailing edge flap system can generate substantial and sustainable dynamic deflections, thereby proving the feasibility of using pneumatic artificial muscle actuators in a trailing edge flap system. Key issues limiting system performance are identified, that should be resolved in future research.

  1. Dynamic reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects using free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takuya; Mihara, Makoto; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Todokoro, Takeshi; Hara, Hisako; Yoshimatu, Hidehiko; Koshima, Isao; Kadono, Takafumi

    2013-03-01

    Reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects remains a difficult surgical challenge. Although various reconstructive methods, including artificial mesh, pedicled and free flaps, have been reported, most reported reconstruction of only the fascia layer, leaving the resected rectus abdominis muscle unreconstructed. However, recent studies suggested the importance of dynamic reconstruction with functional muscle in preventing abdominal hernia in the long-term. According to the principle of reconstructive surgery, "replace lost tissue with similar tissue," a functionally and aesthetically ideal reconstruction is to reconstruct all components of the abdominal wall structure, including skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, and muscle. We present 2 cases with full-thickness abdominal wall defects in the upper abdominal region, which we reconstructed with a free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis muscle was sutured with the intercostal nerve, and reinnervation was confirmed by electromyography. This method allows reconstruction of all components of the abdominal wall with a single flap, and dynamic reconstruction is achieved which will reduce the risk of postoperative hernia. We believe this method can be a good option for reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects with long-term stability.

  2. Effects of 8-Gy radiation on the microcirculation of muscle flaps in the rat.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, M; Mee, J; Porvasnik, S; Krapohl, B D; Ozer, K; Piza, P; Zins, J E

    1999-10-01

    Combination of radical excision and radiation has been used as a treatment modality for cancer patients. As a result, in reconstructive surgery there is often a need to harvest flaps in the vicinity of previously irradiated tissues. Radiation has been shown to cause progressive injury to the macrocirculation and microcirculation, often jeopardizing flap survival. The purpose of this study was to examine whether radiation significantly affects the sequence of leukocyte-endothelial interactions or the hemodynamics of the muscle flap in both acute and chronic situations. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 42) were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Rats in group I were not irradiated. Groups II through VII received 8-Gy radiation to the right groin and scrotum. Groups II, III, and IV were examined at 4, 24 and 72 hours, respectively, and groups V, VI, and VII were examined at 1, 2 and 12 weeks. For intravital microscopy, the cremaster muscle was dissected on its neurovascular pedicle. Vessel diameters and red blood cell velocities were measured in the central cremasteric branches and branch arterioles. Capillary perfusion was evaluated in 27 visual fields of each flap. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were evaluated by numbers of rolling, adhering, and transmigrating leukocytes in post-capillary venules. In the same postcapillary venule, we measured the endothelial edema index (constriction index). The hemodynamics of irradiated flaps did not differ significantly from those of controls. Diameter and red blood cell velocity were increased in the first- and second-order arterioles and were highest at 72 hours and 1 week. After irradiation, third-order arterioles were constricted. Radiation reduced capillary perfusion by 4.3, percent. None of the differences were statistically significant. Neither leukocyte behavior nor the constriction indices differed among the groups. In conclusion, low-dose radiation of 8 Gy does not affect hemodynamics or leukocyte

  3. The role of fabricated chimeric free flaps in reconstruction of devastating hand and forearm injuries.

    PubMed

    Giessler, Goetz A; Schmidt, Andreas B; Germann, Guenter; Pelzer, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Devastating hand and forearm injuries almost exclusively need free flap transfer if reconstruction is attempted. Early active and passive motion is only possible with aggressive, early, and comprehensive reconstruction. Despite recent advances in compound flaps, in selected cases it might be wise to harvest several smaller flaps and microsurgically combine them to one "chain-linked" flap "system." Four microsurgically fabricated chimeric free flaps were used in four patients for complex hand and forearm injuries. The combinations were sensate anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap plus sensate extended lateral arm flap (2x), ALT plus free fibula, and ALT plus functional musculocutaneous gracilis muscle. All flaps survived completely. Functional rehabilitation was possible immediately after flap transfer. There were no donor-site complications except two widened scars. The microsurgical fabrication of chimeric free flaps, as well established in head and neck reconstruction, can be successfully adapted to massive hand injuries as well. Individual placement of selected tissue components, early comprehensive reconstruction, and reduction of the number of operations are beneficial in cases that need more than one free flap.

  4. Sternocleidomastoid muscle flap used for repairing the dead space after supraomohyoid neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinzhong; Han, Zhengxue

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication followed neck dissection and dead space is a common reason of SSI. The present study is aimed to explore whether the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap transposition to repair the dead space in level II of neck could decrease the postoperative SSI in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) underwent supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOND). Ninety-six patients with cT2-3N0 OSCC who underwent extended resection of primary cancer combined SOND and reconstructed with free flap from March 2011 to October 2014 in our department were included. Forty-eight cases underwent SCM transposition to repair the potential dead space in level II of the neck, the other 48 cases did not. The two groups were matched at age, gender, concomitant diseases, and perioperative treatments. All the patients underwent exhaustive hemostasis and careful placement of negative pressure drainage. The wound healing was observed on 7 days postoperatively. The SSI rates of neck between the two groups were compared using Fisher's exact test. The dead space in level II was observed in all the neck wounds after SOND. The neck wounds healed by primary intention in 46 cases underwent SCM flap transposition, and in 39 cases underwent routine SOND only. Two cases with SCM flap transposition and 9 cases in the group without SCM flap transposition presented SSI in neck. There was significant difference in the SSI rate between the two groups (P = 0.0248). The dead space in level II could be an important cause of SSI in neck followed SOND. Repairing of the dead space in level II using SCM flap transposition reduce the SSI rate of neck followed SOND.

  5. A new technique of closing a gastroatmospheric fistula with a rectus abdominis muscle flap

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjeet; Talukder, Shibojit; Verma, Ganga Ram

    2015-01-01

    Proximal enteroatmospheric fistulae are difficult to manage and carry high mortality from sepsis and electrolyte imbalances. Conservative management with total parenteral nutrition, exclusion of fistula, resection and anastomosis are conventional methods of treatment with low success rate. Providing muscle cover to manage an enteroatmospheric fistula is a noble concept. A postoperative high-output gastroatmospheric fistula (GAF) was repaired by superior epigastric artery-based rectus abdominis muscle flap (RAMF). Postoperative recovery was uneventful. This technique may be useful for closure of proximal enteroatmospheric fistulae that fail to heal through medical and conventional surgical management. PMID:25819831

  6. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

  7. Anatomy and vascularization of the flexor hallucis longus muscle and its implication in free fibula flap transfer: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Sassu, Paolo; Acland, Robert D; Salgado, Christopher John; Mardini, Samir; Ozyurekoglu, Tuna

    2010-02-01

    Contracture as well as weakness of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) are possible complications following free fibula flap harvest. Possible causes have been related to fibrotic change of the muscle either due to devascularization or compartment-like syndrome after a tight wound closure. This study elucidates the vascularization and nerve supply of the FHL muscle after fibula flap harvest in a fresh cadaver model.A fibula bone flap was harvested through a lateral approach in 20 fresh limbs. The popliteal artery was isolated and injected with a silicone compound, the muscle isolated, and its neurovascular supply visualized.The distal third and fourth portion of the FHL muscle was always found to be located in a more compressed and deeper compartment. The peroneal artery was entirely filled by the silicone compound in 17 fresh cadaver limbs with at least one branch supplying the distal fourth of the FHL. The posterior tibialis artery was filled in all limbs and an average of 2 branches was found to supply the muscle. In all dissections, the nerve supplying the FHL originated from the tibialis nerve with an average of three branches perforating the muscle.Following fibula harvest, the FHL muscle will maintain vascular supply through the distal portion of the peroneal artery and the posterior tibialis artery. Nerve injury to the FHL muscle is unlikely during flap harvest.

  8. Pectoralis Muscle Flap Repair Reduces Paradoxical Motion of the Chest Wall in Complex Sternal Wound Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Zeitani, Jacob; Russo, Marco; Pompeo, Eugenio; Sergiacomi, Gian Luigi; Chiariello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in patients with chronic complex sternum dehiscence, the use of muscle flap repair minimizes the occurrence of paradoxical motion of the chest wall (CWPM) when compared to sternal rewiring, eventually leading to better respiratory function and clinical outcomes during follow-up. Methods In a propensity score matching analysis, out of 94 patients who underwent sternal reconstruction, 20 patients were selected: 10 patients underwent sternal reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis muscle flaps (group 1) and 10 underwent sternal rewiring (group 2). Eligibility criteria included the presence of hemisternum diastases associated with multiple (≥3) bone fractures and radiologic evidence of synchronous chest wall motion (CWSM). We compared radiologically assessed (volumetric computed tomography) ventilatory mechanic indices such as single lung and global vital capacity (VC), diaphragm excursion, synchronous and paradoxical chest wall motion. Results Follow-up was 100% complete (mean 85±24 months). CWPM was inversely correlated with single lung VC (Spearman R=−0.72, p=0.0003), global VC (R=−0.51, p=0.02) and diaphragm excursion (R=−0.80, p=0.0003), whereas it proved directly correlated with dyspnea grade (Spearman R=0.51, p=0.02) and pain (R=0.59, p=0.005). Mean CWPM and single lung VC were both better in group 1, whereas there was no difference in CWSM, diaphragm excursion and global VC. Conclusion Our study suggests that in patients with complex chronic sternal dehiscence, pectoralis muscle flap reconstruction guarantees lower CWPM and greater single-lung VC when compared with sternal rewiring and it is associated with better clinical outcomes with less pain and dyspnea. PMID:27733997

  9. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall Defects Using a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap including the Vastus Lateralis Muscle: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Masaki; Ishiyama, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of abdominal wall reconstruction is to prevent hernias and protect the abdominal viscera. In cases involving full-thickness defects of the rectus abdominis muscle, the muscle layer should be repaired. We present 2 cases in which full-thickness lower rectus abdominis muscle defects were reconstructed using vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flaps. The pedicled vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flap provides skin, fascia, and muscle tissue. Furthermore, it has a long neurovascular pedicle and can reach up to the periumbilical area and cover large defects. We consider that this muscle flap is a good option for repairing full-thickness lower abdominal defects. PMID:28074168

  10. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112

  11. Systematic Review and Comparative Meta-Analysis of Outcomes Following Pedicled Muscle versus Fasciocutaneous Flap Coverage for Complex Periprosthetic Wounds in Patients with Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Economides, James M.; DeFazio, Michael V.; Golshani, Kayvon; Cinque, Mark; Anghel, Ersilia L.; Attinger, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    Background In cases of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) threatened by potential hardware exposure, flap-based reconstruction is indicated to provide durable coverage. Historically, muscle flaps were favored as they provide vascular tissue to an infected wound bed. However, data comparing the performance of muscle versus fasciocutaneous flaps are limited and reflect a lack of consensus regarding the optimal management of these wounds. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of muscle versus fasciocutaneous flaps following the salvage of compromised TKA. Methods A systematic search and meta-analysis were performed to identify patients with TKA who underwent either pedicled muscle or fasciocutaneous flap coverage of periprosthetic knee defects. Studies evaluating implant/limb salvage rates, ambulatory function, complications, and donor-site morbidity were included in the comparative analysis. Results A total of 18 articles, corresponding to 172 flaps (119 muscle flaps and 53 fasciocutaneous flaps) were reviewed. Rates of implant salvage (88.8% vs. 90.1%, P=0.05) and limb salvage (89.8% vs. 100%, P=0.14) were comparable in each cohort. While overall complication rates were similar (47.3% vs. 44%, P=0.78), the rates of persistent infection (16.4% vs. 0%, P=0.14) and recurrent infection (9.1% vs. 4%, P=0.94) tended to be higher in the muscle flap cohort. Notably, functional outcomes and ambulation rates were sparingly reported. Conclusions Rates of limb and prosthetic salvage were comparable following muscle or fasciocutaneous flap coverage of compromised TKA. The functional morbidity associated with muscle flap harvest, however, may support the use of fasciocutaneous flaps for coverage of these defects, particularly in young patients and/or high-performance athletes. PMID:28352601

  12. Preservation of lower extremity amputation length using muscle perforator free flaps.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    2008-06-01

    Coverage of any lower extremity amputation stump must be durable to resist external forces, well contoured, and thin enough for proper shoewear or prothesis fitting. Preservation of bone length to maximise the ability to ambulate is also of paramount importance. If local soft tissues are inadequate to fulfil these prerequisites, consideration of a microsurgical tissue transfer is a reasonable option, especially to cover bone or save a major joint. Muscle perforator free flaps, as shown in this series of eight patients using four different donor sites, are a versatile alternative for the necessary soft tissue augmentation. Multiple choices are available and often even from the involved lower extremity to minimise further morbidity. The vascular pedicles of this genré of flaps are relatively exceedingly long and of respectable calibre to facilitate reaching an appropriate recipient site. They can be sensate if desired. Of course, muscle function is by definition preserved. Complications are minimal and usually related to the reason for the amputation in the first place.

  13. Reconstruction of large defect of foot with extensive bone loss exclusively using a latissimus dorsi muscle free flap: a potential new indication for this flap.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Manuel Macemino; Casal, Diogo

    2012-01-01

    In cases of extensive damage to the foot, with significant bone loss, it is generally accepted that reconstruction must include bone flaps or grafts either in the emergency setting or subsequently. In this report, we describe the case of an 18-year-old student with an avulsion injury of the dorsum of his right foot. Consequently, he lost most of the soft tissue over the dorsum of the foot and the cuboid, navicular, and cuneiform bones. A latissimus dorsi free flap was used to reconstruct the defect. A functional pseudoarthrosis developed between the remaining bones of the foot, and the patient experienced satisfactory foot function after rehabilitation. For this reason, no additional reconstructive procedure was undertaken. This case suggests that it might be adequate to use the latissimus dorsi muscle flap more liberally than previously reported in the reconstruction of extensive defects of the dorsum of the foot, including cases with significant bone loss. This option could avoid the morbidity and inconvenience of a second surgery and the need to harvest a bone flap or graft.

  14. Functional Reconstruction of Sarcoma Defects Utilising Innervated Free Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Grinsell, Damien; Di Bella, Claudia; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Soft-tissue reconstruction following preoperative radiotherapy and wide resection of soft tissue sarcoma remains a challenge. Pedicled and free tissue transfers are an essential part of limb sparing surgery. We report 22 cases of sarcoma treated with radiotherapy and wide excision followed by one-stage innervated free or pedicled musculocutaneous flap transfers. The resection involved the upper limb in 3 cases, the lower limb in 17, and the abdominal wall in 2. The flaps used for the reconstruction were mainly latissimus dorsi and gracilis. The range of motion was restored fully in 14 patients. The muscle strength of the compartment reconstructed was of grades 4 and 5 in all patients except one. The overall function was excellent in all the cases with functional scores of 71.2% in the upper limb and 84% in the lower limb. The only 2 major complications were flap necrosis, both revised with another flap, one of which was innervated with restoration of function. Innervated flaps are valuable alternatives for reconstruction after sarcoma resection in the extremity and in the abdominal wall. The excellent functional results are encouraging, and we believe that innervated muscle reconstruction should be encouraged in the treatment of sarcoma after radiotherapy and wide resection. PMID:22969309

  15. Reconstruction of metatarsal bone defects with a free fibular osteomyocutaneous flap incorporating soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yutaro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Goishi, Keiichi; Fukunaga, Yutaka; Abe, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2013-02-01

    Severe traumatic bone and soft-tissue defects are often treated by lower leg amputation. The amputation level becomes a very important factor with respect to the patient's basic daily activities. We report the case of a 51-year-old man who was referred to us with severe traumatic metatarsal bone and dorsum pedis skin and soft-tissue defects. To avoid amputation, a free fibular osteomyocutaneous flap incorporating the soleus muscle was used to reconstruct the second and third metatarsal bones and the soft-tissue defect, respectively. Now, 2 years after the procedure, the patient is able to walk independently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of use of such a composite transfer for a complex midfoot defect.

  16. Infrahyoid muscle flap for pharyngeal fistulae after cervical spine surgery: a novel approach—Report of six cases

    PubMed Central

    Niedeggen, Andreas; Todt, Ingo; Westhofen, Martin; Ernst, Arne

    2006-01-01

    A report of our experiences involving the treatment six male patients with a new method of closing perforations in the pharynx and upper esophagus, following surgery of the cervical spine region. Perforation of the pharynx and upper esophagus are rare complications following cervical spine surgery. The grave consequences of these complications necessitate in most cases immediate surgical therapy. In most cases, the first step involves the removal of the cervical plate and screws. The defect was then closed using a vascular pedicled musculofascia flap derived from the infrahyoid musculature. In all cases, the flap healed into place without complications. The patients began taking oral nutrients after an average of seven postoperative (5–12) days. In none of the cases did functional disorders or complications arise during the follow-up period (1–5 years). The infrahyoid muscle flap is well suited for reconstruction of the posterior pharyngeal wall and the upper esophagus. PMID:16927070

  17. Postoperative monitoring in free muscle transfers for reconstruction in brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Dodakundi, Chaitanya; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Yuki

    2012-03-01

    Free gracilis transfers are done for reanimation of the upper limb in traumatic total brachial plexus palsy. Because of buried nature of the free muscle and monitoring skin flap in the axillary or infraclavicular region, it is always a tricky situation for continuous and repeated monitoring to assess vascular status. Critical ischemia times vary between the muscle and monitoring skin flap because of which signs of ischemic changes in the monitoring skin flap are always delayed with respect to the muscle. We describe a novel method that uses the principle of evoked potentials from the muscle to assess the vascular status of the free muscle and detects vascular compromise early before the skin changes are apparent.

  18. Formation of independently revascularized bowel segments using the rectus abdominis muscle flap: a rat model for jejunal prefabrication.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bien-Keem; Chen, Hung-Chi; Wei, Fu-Chan; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Lan, Chyn-Tair; See, Lai-Chu; Wan, Yung-Liang

    2002-02-01

    Reconstruction of the pharyngoesophagus with free jejunal transfer is a major challenge when recipient neck vessels are absent because of previous surgery or irradiation. In such instances, jejunal transfer using a muscle flap as a "vascular carrier" may be a problem-solving alternative. Pretransfer vascularization of the jejunum is achieved by wrapping the muscle flap around the small bowel segment. After a short staging period, the mesenteric pedicle is divided and the bowel segment is transferred up to the neck based on its new blood supply. The objectives of this study were to develop an animal model for prefabricating independently revascularized jejunal segments using the rectus abdominis muscle flap and to determine the minimal time required for independent bowel survival. Twenty-four mature (500-g to 700-g) rats were divided into six experimental groups of four animals each. In each animal, a 1.5-cm segment of proximal jejunum was isolated on two jejunal arteries and wrapped with a superior pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap. To determine the time of neovascular takeover, the mesenteric pedicles were ligated on postoperative day 2 (group I), day 3 (group II), day 4 (group III), day 5 (group IV), day 6 (group V), and day 7 (group VI). At the time of pedicle ligation, the composite flap was transposed to a new subcutaneous position. Viability of bowel was assessed according to gross appearance and histologic examination 48 hours after transfer. Complete survival of revascularized jejunum in 11 of 12 animals was obtained after pedicle ligation on postoperative day 5 and beyond (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). These bowel segments demonstrated luminal patency, intact pink mucosa, mucus production, and visible peristalsis. Histologic examination showed healthy intestinal epithelium and tissue integration along the serosa-muscle interphase. In contrast, pedicle ligation on day 4 and earlier resulted in varying degrees of bowel necrosis characterized by

  19. Forelimb muscle function in pig-nosed turtles, Carettochelys insculpta: testing neuromotor conservation between rowing and flapping in swimming turtles.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Angela R V; Blob, Richard W

    2013-10-23

    Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation-the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns-has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions.

  20. Forelimb muscle function in pig-nosed turtles, Carettochelys insculpta: testing neuromotor conservation between rowing and flapping in swimming turtles

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Angela R. V.; Blob, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation—the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns—has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions. PMID:23966596

  1. The use of the serratus anterior muscle vascular pedicle as recipient site in DIEP flap transfer for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Longo, Benedetto; Laporta, Rosaria; Pagnoni, Marco; Cavalieri, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Currently, the choice for recipient vessels in microvascular breast reconstruction is made between axillary and internal mammary regions. The authors report their experience with anastomosis to a new, unconventional, axillary recipient vessel, the serratus anterior muscle vascular pedicle. Among 340 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstructions performed between 2004 and 2013, 11 were successfully revascularised to the serratus anterior (SA) pedicle: In three cases, complications led to a salvage procedure, while in eight cases, anastomosis to this recipient site was electively planned. The pedicle was constantly present, with calibre always comparable to that of flap's pedicle. At the mean 24-month follow-up, no recipient site complications were observed. The SA muscle pedicle resulted as a reliable choice in salvage procedures and a suitable option for recipient vessel selection in elective cases.

  2. Radiological Assessment of Bioengineered Bone in a Muscle Flap for the Reconstruction of Critical-Size Mandibular Defect

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fotawei, Randa; Ayoub, Ashraf F.; Heath, Neil; Naudi, Kurt B.; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Dalby, Matthew J.; McMahon, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive radiographic evaluation of bone regeneration within a pedicled muscle flap for the reconstruction of critical size mandibular defect. The surgical defect (20 mm×15 mm) was created in the mandible of ten experimental rabbits. The masseter muscle was adapted to fill the surgical defect, a combination of calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite cement (CERAMENT™ |SPINE SUPPORT), BMP-7 and rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells (rMSCs) was injected inside the muscle tissue. Radiographic assessment was carried out on the day of surgery and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. At 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scanning and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) were carried out. Clinically, a clear layer of bone tissue was identified closely adherent to the border of the surgical defect. Sporadic radio-opaque areas within the surgical defect were detected radiographically. In comparison with the opposite non operated control side, the estimated quantitative scoring of the radio-opacity was 46.6% ±15, the mean volume of the radio-opaque areas was 63.4% ±20. Areas of a bone density higher than that of the mandibular bone (+35% ±25%) were detected at the borders of the surgical defect. The micro-CT analysis revealed thinner trabeculae of the regenerated bone with a more condensed trabecular pattern than the surrounding native bone. These findings suggest a rapid deposition rate of the mineralised tissue and an active remodelling process of the newly regenerated bone within the muscle flap. The novel surgical model of this study has potential clinical application; the assessment of bone regeneration using the presented radiolographic protocol is descriptive and comprehensive. The findings of this research confirm the remarkable potential of local muscle flaps as local bioreactors to induce bone formation for reconstruction of maxillofacial bony defects. PMID:25226170

  3. The pediculated gastrocnemius muscle flap as a treatment for soft tissue problems of the knee - indication, placement and results.

    PubMed

    Moebius, Boris; Scheller, Eike Eric

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of endoprosthetic knee replacements, there is also an increase of critical wounds to the knee due to a high incidence of soft tissue problems (ranging from wound healing defects to severe wound infections). The literature describes a general rate of soft tissue complications of up to 20% [1], [2], with 5% [3] involving exposed bone. These complications are an increasingly important problem for surgeons. Since sufficient coverage of bones, tendons and prosthetic material with soft tissue is a necessity, the use of a pediculated muscle flap is the only solution in some cases. The gastrocnemius muscle is very useful for this purpose. It is an elaborate procedure which is associated with a high rate of complications. However, this procedure can establish a secure coverage with soft tissue, and the function of the prosthesis and the patient's extremity can be saved. We have treated 23 patients with a gastrocnemius rotation flap after knee prosthesis or knee arthrodesis infection with consecutive soft tissue damage at our hospital from 8/2004 through 3/2011. The overall rate of healing of the knee infections with stable soft tissue status is almost 87%. The revision rate with lifting of the flap and revision of the sutures at the point of insertion as well as the point of extraction was about 35% with long-term conservative or additional surgical treatments.

  4. The pediculated gastrocnemius muscle flap as a treatment for soft tissue problems of the knee – indication, placement and results

    PubMed Central

    Moebius, Boris; Scheller, Eike Eric

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of endoprosthetic knee replacements, there is also an increase of critical wounds to the knee due to a high incidence of soft tissue problems (ranging from wound healing defects to severe wound infections). The literature describes a general rate of soft tissue complications of up to 20% [1], [2], with 5% [3] involving exposed bone. These complications are an increasingly important problem for surgeons. Since sufficient coverage of bones, tendons and prosthetic material with soft tissue is a necessity, the use of a pediculated muscle flap is the only solution in some cases. The gastrocnemius muscle is very useful for this purpose. It is an elaborate procedure which is associated with a high rate of complications. However, this procedure can establish a secure coverage with soft tissue, and the function of the prosthesis and the patient’s extremity can be saved. We have treated 23 patients with a gastrocnemius rotation flap after knee prosthesis or knee arthrodesis infection with consecutive soft tissue damage at our hospital from 8/2004 through 3/2011. The overall rate of healing of the knee infections with stable soft tissue status is almost 87%. The revision rate with lifting of the flap and revision of the sutures at the point of insertion as well as the point of extraction was about 35% with long-term conservative or additional surgical treatments. PMID:26504691

  5. Using a sternocleidomastoid muscle flap to prevent postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy: a study of 88 cases.

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, Masoud; Zojaji, Ramin; Mokhtari Amir Majdi, Nematollah; Mazloum Farsi Baf, Morteza

    2014-08-01

    Complications of total laryngectomy can have serious implications for the final outcome of treatment, including pharyngocutaneous fistula. We conducted a retrospective study of surgical techniques to determine how to best prevent or decrease the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula following total laryngectomy. We reviewed the hospital records of all patients who had undergone total laryngectomy for laryngeal carcinoma at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, from March 1989 through February 2005. We identified 88 such patients-80 men and 8 women. We divided this cohort into two groups according to the type of pharyngeal defect closure they received. A total of 37 patients-31 men and 6 women (mean age: 61.4 ± 5.9 yr) underwent primary closure along with a sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCMM) flap (flap group). The other 51 patients-49 men and 2 women (mean age: 61.3 ± 4.4 yr)-underwent standard primary closure without creation of an SCMM flap (nonflap group). Overall, postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula occurred in 9 of the 88 patients (10.2%)-1 case in the flap group (2.7%) and 8 cases in the nonflap group (15.7%). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 0.612, 95% confidence interval = 0.451 to 0.832), independent of other factors. We found no correlation between fistula development and age (p = 0.073), sex (p = 0.065), or tumor location (p = 0.435). Likewise, we found no correlation between tumor location and either sex (p = 0.140) or age (p = 0.241). We conclude that including an SCMM flap in the surgical process would significantly decrease the development of fistula, regardless of age, sex, and tumor site.

  6. Oronasal fistula repair utilizing a temporalis muscle flap in a dog with severe trismus.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Ryan P; Farese, James P; Bacon, Nicholas J; Lurie, David M; Milner, Rowan J

    2011-01-01

    A 9 yr old spayed female cocker spaniel presented for evaluation of an invasive maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Curative intent surgery and radiation therapy allowed for local control of the neoplasm; however, the development of a persistent oronasal fistula prevented a complete recovery. A temporalis myofascial rotation flap allowed for successful resolution of the maxillary defect. Implementation of the flap was relatively simple and was associated with few complications.

  7. Sternocleidomastoid region restoration with lateral hemisoleus muscle incorporatied in free fibular flap for reconstruction of radical neck dissection and hemimandibulectomy.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Sönmez, Ahmet; Bayramiçli, Mehmet

    2011-07-01

    In the treatment of head and neck carcinoma, radical cervical lymphadenectomy leaves the affected side of the neck devoid of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, thus more vulnerable to the unwanted side effects of the adjuvant radiotherapy. It also causes asymmetry and cosmetically unpleasant appearance of the cervical region. In the reported case with widely ulcerated squamous-cell carcinoma over mandible, hemimandibulectomy and radical neck dissection was performed. Following the mandibular reconstruction, the lateral hemisoleus muscle of the harvested osteomyocutaneous fibula flap was utilized to restore the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid region. This new application promises to be a useful method, which can aid in the restoration of the aesthetic contour of the neck and provide protection against unwanted effects of the adjuvant radiotherapy on the ipsilateral carotid artery.

  8. Effect of a transpositional muscle flap on VEGF mRNA expression in a canine fracture model.

    PubMed

    Khodaparast, Omeed; Coberly, Dana M; Mathey, Jonathon; Rohrich, Rod J; Levin, L Scott; Brown, Spencer A

    2003-07-01

    The effect of sepsis on neovascularization in fractures that follows open fractures is important to the understanding of bone and soft-tissue healing. An animal model was designed that mimics the open fracture and the clinical repair of the human, high-energy open fracture. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels in canine bone samples were determined in samples from days 0 and 7. Canine right tibiae were fractured with a penetrating, captive-bolt device and then repaired in a standard clinical fashion using an interlocking intramedullary nail. Animals were subject to one of the following experimental protocols: tibial fracture (group I, n = 3); tibial fracture and Staphylococcus aureus inoculation at the fracture site (group II, n = 3); and tibial fracture and S. aureus inoculation with a rotational gastrocnemius muscle flap (group III, n = 3). Bone samples were harvested on days 0 and 7 and prepared for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Primers for VEGF were commercially prepared and assay products were sequenced. The assay products were associated with Genebank VEGF mRNA sequences. VEGF mRNA levels increased significantly in the fracture-alone group from day 0 to day 7 (n = 3, p < 0.05). In the fracture and S. aureus group (group I), VEGF mRNA expression decreased 79 percent (p < 0.05). In animals with fractures inoculated with S. aureus and a transpositional muscle flap (group III), VEGF mRNA expression was increased 38 percent from day 0 to day 7 (p < 0.05) and was similar to the increase observed in the fracture-alone group. These results demonstrate that S. aureus decreased the normal increase of VEGF mRNA expression during bone wound healing. Use of the transpositional muscle flap in the presence of S. aureus increased VEGF mRNA expression over time to the expression pattern observed in the fracture-alone group. This experimental model demonstrates that specific biological signals and cellular pathways are influenced by

  9. Monitored extended secondary arterial ischemia in a free muscle transfer.

    PubMed

    Sværdborg, Mille; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne

    2012-02-01

    In reconstructive microsurgery, flap failure can be catastrophic to the patient. Different monitoring methods have been implemented in an attempt to recognize secondary ischemia during its early stages. However, the exact onset of secondary ischemia can be difficult to determine because there are no well-documented and reliable monitoring techniques that offer true continuous monitoring in a clinical setting. Because of the uncertain time in terms of the onset of secondary ischemia, the exact length of ischemia before revascularization, the secondary ischemia time, cannot be obtained. This is probably part of the reason why not much has been published regarding the effect of secondary ischemia time in reference to flap survival. We present a case of a free gracilis muscle flap that was salvaged despite more than 11 hours of arterial ischemia. The flap was monitored using microdialysis and at no time was the ischemia clearly demonstrated by clinical inspection. We conclude that clinical monitoring in some cases can be an unreliable method for monitoring free muscle transfers suffering from arterial ischemia and that further studies are needed for more specific guidelines regarding the critical secondary ischemia time in muscle flaps.

  10. The sternocleidomastoid perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Avery, C M E

    2011-10-01

    The conventional pedicled sternocleidomastoid (SCM) flap has a poor arc of rotation, limited volume and precarious vascularity. This report describes a new technique for raising a SCM flap based on the perforating vessels of the superior thyroid vascular pedicle. The upper and lower attachments of the sternocleidomastoid muscle are divided. Four medically and/or surgically compromised patients have successfully undergone reconstruction of hemiglossectomy (1), partial glossectomy (1) and rim of mandible (2) defects for malignancy. The arc of rotation of the SCM flap is greatly increased and the potential applications for the flap expanded.

  11. Design and fabrication of a bat-inspired flapping-flight platform using shape memory alloy muscles and joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Stephen J.; Bunget, George; Seelecke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on the development of a concept for a micro-air vehicle (MAV) based on a bio-inspired flapping motion that is generated from integrated smart materials. Since many smart materials have their own biomimetic characteristics and the potential to be highly efficient, lightweight, and streamlined, they are ideal candidates for use in structural or actuator components in MAVs. In this work, shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator wires are used as analogs for biological muscles, and super-elastic SMAs are implemented as flexible joints capable of large bending angles. While biological organisms have an intrinsic sensing array composed of nerves, the SMA wires also provide self-sensing by virtue of a phase-dependent resistance change. Study of the biology and flight characteristics of natural fliers concluded that the bat provides an ideal platform for SMA muscle wires because of its comparatively low wingbeat frequency and superb maneuverability. A first-generation prototype is built to further the understanding of fabricating Nature’s designs. The engineering design is then improved further in a second-generation prototype that combines 3D printing and new techniques for embedding SMA wires and shaping SMA joints for improved robustness, reproducibility, and lifetime. These prototypes are on display at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Science’s Nature Research Center, which has the goal of bridging the gaps between biology and engineering.

  12. Rectus abdominis muscle free flap harvest by laparoscopic sheath-sparing technique.

    PubMed

    Greensmith, A; Januszkiewicz, J; Poole, G

    2000-04-01

    Previous reports of endoscopic rectus abdominis muscle harvest have described techniques that are hampered by the need for anterior rectus sheath division or mechanical devices to maintain the optical cavity. The authors report the first successful clinical case of a laparoscopic sheath-sparing rectus abdominis muscle harvest for free tissue transfer. It offers considerable advantages over the traditional open method and, with the help of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, it should add little to operative time.

  13. Flapping of Insectile Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.

  14. Thromboxane A2 release in ischemia and reperfusion of free flaps in rats, studied by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Ionac, M; Schaefer, D; Geishauser, M

    2001-02-01

    Several studies have implicated enhanced eicosanoid production in reperfusion injury. The reported study investigated the use of microdialysis in the in vivo measurement of thromboxane levels during reperfusion in ischemic and reperfused experimental free muscle flaps. Microdialysis probes were inserted, via a guide, into the gracilis and semitendinosus free flap in the rat. The probe was perfused at a flow of 5 microl/min, with samples collected at intervals of 20 min, and analyzed by the ELISA technique. Animals were randomly distributed into three groups. After ischemic periods of 2, 4, and 6 hr, respectively, the free muscle flaps were revascularized on the contralateral femoral vessels. The mean thromboxane level during ischemia was 1785.34 +/- 124.81 pg/ml. The mean levels of thromboxane rose significantly (p < 0.05), compared to base level, with 151.65 percent in the 2-hr ischemia group, 192.33 percent in the 4-hr ischemia group, and 294.69 percent in the 6-hr ischemia group, and correlated well with histologic observations. The results suggest that a microdialysis technique, combined with a sensitive assay for measuring thromboxane, is a useful method for in vivo monitoring of inflammatory processes during ischemia and reperfusion. The evolution of thromboxane release following 6 hr of ischemia indicates that this mediator may be involved in facilitation of cell death, following ischemia and reperfusion, since its tissue level correlates with histologic tissue damage.

  15. Elbow Reconstruction With Compression Plate Arthrodesis and Circumferential Muscle-Sparing Latissimus Dorsi Flap After Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Zhi Yang; Ramachandran, Savitha; Tan, Bien-Keem; Foo, Leon; Ng, Siew-Weng

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of limb-sparing surgery in the setting of extremity malignancies are 2-fold: oncological clearance and the rehabilitation of function and aesthetics. Treatment success should be defined by the extent of restoration of the patient’s premorbid function for reintegration into society. Methods: We would like to report an unusual case of a patient with a chronically ankylosed elbow with joint invasion by basal cell carcinoma which resulted from malignant transformation of an overlying, long-standing wound due to inadequately treated septic arthritis from his childhood years. Results: Following R0 resection, upper limb shortening and compression plate elbow arthrodesis were performed with the aim of restoring the degree of upper limb function that the patient had been accustomed to preoperatively. The resultant circumferential defect was then closed with a contralateral, free muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap. Conclusions: Functional preservation may therefore be more important than the mere restoration of anatomical defects in these especially challenging situations. PMID:27418897

  16. [The use of bi-pedical rotatory door muscle-skin flap reconstruction in extended partial laryngectomy for late (T3 and T4) glottic cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Sun, X; Lu, S

    1998-12-01

    The purpose is to radical treatment for late glottic cancer by surgery, to restore the essential function of the larynx, 62 patients of late (T3 and T4) glottic cancer were treated by extended vertical partial and subtotal laryngectomy. At the same time, an appropriate method of reconstruction of laryngeal function by bi-pedical rotatory door muscle-skin flap was presented. The decannulation rate was 87.1% and 85.0% cases enjoyed satisfactory voice. All cases resumed normal mouth-food-taking. The conclusion is that selective treated with extended partial laryngectomy is effective for T3 and T4 glottic cancer.

  17. Bronchoesophageal Fistula Repair with Intercostal Muscle Flap Followed by Occlusion of Residual Diverticula with N-butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) Glue: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Manuj Kumar; Handique, Akash; Topno, Noor; Sarma, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bronchoesophageal fistula in presence of benign pathology of tracheal tree or oesophagus is rare. It is encountered in thoracic diseases like tuberculosis, syphilis or histoplasmosis due to erosion by infected lymph node or abscess to adjoining structures. The source of primary pathology has to be eliminated followed by appropriate steps of fistula tract closure is essential for optimal result. We report a 25-year-old patient with left sided bronchoesophageal fistula. He had a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis. A left lower lobectomy followed by repair of oesophageal fistula opening was performed by primary closure and reinforcement with an intercostal muscle flap based on posterior intercostal artery. Postoperative oesophagogram showed short diverticula, which was occluded with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue under radiological guidance. Feeding was started one week after application of glue without further complication. Reports on intercostals muscle flap repair and intervention of residual oesophageal diverticula with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue under radiological guidance are scanty. PMID:27656500

  18. [Significance of abdominal wall CT-angiography in planning DIEA perforator flaps, TRAM flaps and SIEA flaps].

    PubMed

    Fansa, H; Schirmer, S; Frerichs, O; Gehl, H B

    2011-04-01

    Muscle sparing TRAM flaps and DIEA perforator flaps are standard procedures for breast reconstruction. Recently CT-angiography has been established to evaluate perforator vessels pre-operatively. CT-angiography was introduced to our department in July 2009. In a retrospective analysis data of the last 20 patients (altogether 22 flaps) before CT-angiography introduction and the following 20 (also 22 flaps) patients after introduction of CT-angiography were analysed with regard to the ratio of TRAM to DIEP flaps, and the time required to raise the flaps. The same surgeon raised all flaps. As different surgeons performed dissection of the recipient site, anastomoses, and insertion of flaps, and patients received primary (with sentinel or complete lymphadenctomy) or secondary reconstructions, only the time required harvesting the flap was compared. Thus other influences on raising the flap were eliminated. DIEP flaps were harvested with one single perforator. If perfusion or was considered not to be safe via one single perforator a muscle sparing TRAM flap (ms2) was raised. Angiography was performed using a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner. CT-angiography did not lead to an increased rate of DIEP flaps in relation to ms2-TRAM flaps. Harvesting time of all flap types with CT-angiography on average was 121 min, without CT-angiography 135 min. This was not significantly different. However, separate analysis of DIEP flaps and ms2-TRAM flaps revealed a significant advantage of CT-angiography based harvesting of DIEP flaps of 26 min: with CT-angiography 101 min vs. 127 min without CT-angiography (p<0.028). There were no significant differences for ms2-TRAM flaps. All scans showed course and branching, diameter and size of the inferior epigastric artery. If evident the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) was marked. Dosage was 292 mGy-606 mGy×cm dependent on body weight. CTDI was 6.8-14.7 mGy. CT-angiography is a reproducible and observer independent procedure

  19. Age-related differences of neutrophil activation in a skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Arian; Reynolds, Christopher; Neumeister, Michael W; Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Song, Yao-Hua; Naffziger, Ryan; Glatz, Frank R; Russell, Robert C

    2003-04-01

    Free tissue transfers and replantation of amputated limbs are better tolerated by young adolescents than mature adults. The authors hypothesized that this observation may be, in part, because of an attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in younger patients. Because neutrophils have been identified as a critical cell line responsible for IR injury, the authors investigated the effects of animal age on the degree of neutrophil activation in a rat model. Activation was evaluated by monitoring expression of integrin surface markers (mean fluorescence intensity [MFI] of CD11b) and oxidative burst potential (MFI of dihydrorhodamine [DHR] oxidation) by flow cytometry in neutrophils analyzed after 4 hours of ischemia and 1, 4, and 16 hours of reperfusion in a gracilis muscle flap model in mature adult and young adolescent rats. Neutrophil activation was also evaluated in control sham-operated animals, which underwent elevation of gracilis muscle flaps without exposure to an ischemic insult. Muscle edema, determined by wet-to-dry muscle weight ratio, and muscle viability, determined by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining, were completed for gracilis muscles exposed to ischemia after 24 hours of reperfusion for each of the groups. Integrin expression, assessed by MFI of CD11b, was increased significantly in ischemic muscles of mature adult rats at 4 hours of reperfusion (71.10+/-3.53 MFI vs. 54.88+/-12.73 MFI, p=0.025). Neutrophil oxidative potential, assessed by MFI of DHR oxidation, was increased significantly in ischemic muscles of mature adult rats compared with young adolescent rats at 1 hour of reperfusion (78.10+/-9.53 MFI vs. 51.78+/-16.91 MFI, p=0.035) and 4 hours of reperfusion (83.69+/-15.29 MFI vs. 46.55+/-8.09 MFI, p=0.005). Increased edema formation was observed in the ischemic muscles of mature adult rats when compared with young adolescent rats (1.25+/-0.04 vs. 1.12+/-0.05, p=0.031) after 24 hours of reperfusion. A trend toward decreased muscle

  20. Experimental comparison of bone revascularization by musculocutaneous and cutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.; Wood, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Revascularization, one of the major components of bone healing, was examined in an experimental model. The radioactive microsphere technique demonstrated that after 4 weeks beneath a musculocutaneous flap, isolated bone segments had significant blood flow, whereas bone beneath a cutaneous flap did not. The muscle flap bone had a blood flow approximately half that of normal control bone. The muscle of the musculocutaneous flap had a blood flow three times that of the skin of the cutaneous flap. The bipedicle cutaneous flap used was designed to have a healthy blood supply, and at 4 weeks it had a blood flow twice that of control skin. Despite this, there was essentially no demonstrable blood flow in the cutaneous flap bone segments at 4 weeks. Only 3 of 17 bone segments underneath cutaneous flaps showed medullary vascularization, whereas 10 of 11 muscle flap bones did. All bone segments underneath muscle flaps showed osteoblasts and osteoclasts at 4 weeks; neither were seen in the cutaneous bone segments. The process of revascularization occurred through an intact cortex and penetrated into the cancellous bone. Because the bone segments were surrounded by an impervious barrier except for one cortical surface, the cellular activity seen is attributed to revascularization by the overlying flap. In this model, a muscle flap was superior to a cutaneous flap in revascularizing isolated bone segments at 4 weeks. This was documented by blood flow measured by the radioactive microsphere technique and by bone histology.

  1. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  2. Geographical distribution of Musa gracilis Holttum in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.

  3. [Emergency free flap in reconstruction of the lower limb. Thirty-five years of experience].

    PubMed

    Bellidenty, L; Chastel, R; Pluvy, I; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y

    2014-02-01

    Authors analyzed 89 cases (86 patients) of lower limb extensive soft tissue defects reconstruction during 1978 to 2013. The mean age is 37 years and 2 months old (range: 5-84 years old). A total of 71 males and 15 female were included. Free flaps were used in emergency in 23 cases for principally covering Gustilo 3B open lower limb fracture and in a later stage for 66 cases all referred from their center for coverage of exposed bone, with frequently osteomyelitis. About the selection of free flaps, in 47 cases we used a latissimus dorsi flaps, 12 cases of epiploon free transfer (in septic area), 10 cases of gracilis transfer and 10 serratus anterior flaps. There are one medial gastrocnemius flap, 2 composite soleus and fibular free flap, 2 antebrachial flap, one inguinal myoosteocutaneous flap, 1 transferred from the other lower limb and one inguinal cutaneous flap. There are 18 free flap losses: one in emergency and 17 after delayed reconstruction. Authors retrospectively analyzed the results (complications, osteomyelitis) according to the timing for lower extremity reconstruction. They found a low infection and flap failure rates (4%) when the coverage is made in the same operating time than initial fracture fixation, they increase to 60% for osteomyelitis and to 23% for flap failure when the reconstruction is delayed.

  4. Intracranial microvascular free flaps.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven; Garfein, Evan S; Weiner, Howard; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Saadeh, Pierre B; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Levine, Jamie P; Warren, Stephen M

    2009-02-01

    Large acquired intracranial defects can result from trauma or surgery. When reoperation is required because of infection or tumor recurrence, management of the intracranial dead space can be challenging. By providing well-vascularized bulky tissue, intracranial microvascular free flaps offer potential solutions to these life-threatening complications. A multi-institutional retrospective chart and radiographic review was performed of all patients who underwent microvascular free-flap surgery for salvage treatment of postoperative intracranial infections between 1998 and 2006. A total of six patients were identified with large intracranial defects and postoperative intracranial infections. Four patients had parenchymal resections for tumor or seizure and two patients had posttraumatic encephalomalacia. All patients underwent operative debridement and intracranial free-flap reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi muscle (N=2), rectus abdominis muscle (N=2), or omentum (N=2). All patients had titanium (N=4) or Medpor (N=2) cranioplasties. We concluded that surgery or trauma can result in significant intracranial dead space. Treatment of postoperative intracranial infection can be challenging. Vascularized free tissue transfer not only fills the void, but also provides a delivery system for immune cells, antibodies, and systemically administered antibiotics. The early use of this technique when intracranial dead space and infection coexist is beneficial.

  5. Increasing options in autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction: four free flaps for ‘stacked’ bilateral breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of ‘stacked’ bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791

  6. The medial sural artery perforator free flap.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, P C; Sanz-Giménez-Rico, J R; Gutierrez-de la Cámara, A; Navarro-Monzonís, A; Soler-Nomdedeu, S; Martínez-Soriano, F

    2001-11-01

    The medial sural artery supplies the medial gastrocnemius muscle and sends perforating branches to the skin. The possible use of these musculocutaneous perforators as the source of a perforator-based free flap was investigated in cadavers. Ten legs were dissected, and the topography of significant perforating musculocutaneous vessels on both the medial and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles was recorded. A mean of 2.2 perforators (range, 1 to 4) was noted over the medial gastrocnemius muscle, whereas in only 20 percent of the specimens was a perforator of moderate size noted over the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. The perforating vessels from the medial sural artery clustered about 9 to 18 cm from the popliteal crease. When two perforators were present (the most frequent case), the perforators were located at a mean of 11.8 cm (range, 8.5 to 15 cm) and 17 cm (range, 15 to 19 cm) from the popliteal crease. A series of six successful clinical cases is reported, including five free flaps and one pedicled flap for ipsilateral lower-leg and foot reconstruction. The dissection is somewhat tedious, but the vascular pedicle can be considerably long and of suitable caliber. Donor-site morbidity was minimal because the muscle was not included in the flap. Although the present series is short, it seems that the medial sural artery perforator flap can be a useful flap for free and pedicled transfer in lower-limb reconstruction.

  7. Pelvic and hindlimb myology of the basal Archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Poposauroidea).

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Manning, Phillip L; Dodson, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of a largely complete and well preserved specimen of Poposaurus gracilis has provided the opportunity to generate the first phylogenetically based reconstruction of pelvic and hindlimb musculature of an extinct nondinosaurian archosaur. As in dinosaurs, multiple lineages of basal archosaurs convergently evolved parasagittally erect limbs. However, in contrast to the laterally projecting acetabulum, or "buttress erect" hip morphology of ornithodirans, basal archosaurs evolved a very different, ventrally projecting acetabulum, or "pillar erect" hip. Reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb musculotendinous system in a bipedal suchian archosaur clarifies how the anatomical transformations associated with the evolution of bipedalism in basal archosaurs differed from that of bipedal dinosaurs and birds. This reconstruction is based on the direct examination of the osteology and myology of phylogenetically relevant extant taxa in conjunction with osteological correlates from the skeleton of P. gracilis. This data set includes a series of inferences (presence/absence of a structure, number of components, and origin/insertion sites) regarding 26 individual muscles or muscle groups, three pelvic ligaments, and two connective tissue structures in the pelvis, hindlimb, and pes of P. gracilis. These data provide a foundation for subsequent examination of variation in myological orientation and function based on pelvic and hindlimb morphology, across the basal archosaur lineage leading to extant crocodilians.

  8. The sternocleidomastoid muscle flap for the prevention of Frey syndrome and cosmetic deformity following parotidectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong Yan; Tian, Xiao Jiao; Li, Cheng; Sun, Shao Shan; Xiong, Ying Hui; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 34-86% of neoplasms of the salivary glands are located in the parotid gland and parotidectomy is the first-line treatment for parotid gland tumors. Frey syndrome and cosmetic deformity are common complications experienced by patients following parotidectomy and the sternocleidomastoid muscle flap (SCMF) is used to prevent them. Numerous studies have been performed to examine the effectiveness of the SCMF for the prevention of cosmetic deformity and Frey syndrome, however, they provide contradictory results and possess small sample sizes with consequently low statistical power. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the SCMF for the prevention of Frey syndrome and cosmetic deformity following parotidectomy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were identified using PubMed and CNKI databases, and references of studies up to August 2012 were included. Using these criteria, we yielded 11 RCTs. Following an independent assessment of the methodological quality of these studies and the extraction of data, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that there was a significant trend towards a lower risk of objective incidence [67%; risk ratio (RR), 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.67; P<0.01] and subjective incidence (66%; RR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.16-0.75; P= 0.01) of Frey syndrome in the SCMF group. The sensitivity analysis also indicated that this result was significant. Due to the considerable variation between the included studies, a meta-analysis was not applicable to assess cosmetic deformity. Two RCTs demonstrated that the difference between the SCMF and no SCMF group was not statistically significant, while the other seven RCTs detected a statistically significant difference between the two groups. Publication bias was detected. In conclusion, based on currently available evidence, the use of the SCMF is benefical

  9. Reconstruction of a large calvarial traumatic defect using a custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant covered by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap in an 11-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Morice, Anne; Kolb, Frédéric; Picard, Arnaud; Kadlub, Natacha; Puget, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex skull defects requires collaboration between neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons to choose the most appropriate procedure, especially in growing children. The authors describe herein the reconstruction of an extensive traumatic bone and soft tissue defect of the cranial vault in an 11-year-old boy. The size of the defect, quality of the tissues, and patient's initial condition required a 2-stage approach. Ten months after an initial emergency procedure in which lacerated bone and soft tissue were excised, reconstruction was performed. The bone defect, situated on the left frontoparietal region, was 85 cm(2) and was filled by a custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant. The quality of the overlying soft tissue did not allow the use of classic local and locoregional coverage techniques. A free latissimus dorsi muscle flap branched on the contralateral superficial temporal pedicle was used and left for secondary healing to take advantage of scar retraction and to minimize alopecia. Stable well-vascularized implant coverage as well as an esthetically pleasing skull shape was achieved. Results in this case suggest that concomitant reconstruction of large calvarial defects by cranioplasty with a custom-made hydroxyapatite implant covered by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a safe and efficient procedure in children, provided that there is no underlying infection of the operative site.

  10. Free medial thigh perforator-based flaps: new definition of the pedicle vessels and versatile application.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Hosoda, M; Inagawa, K; Moriguchi, T; Orita, Y

    1996-11-01

    The medial thigh flap is a perforator-based flap nourished with septocutaneous or muscle perforators originating from the femoral vessels. To date, 8 patients have been repaired with this flap and extended or connected flaps including this flap: 4 patients with lower leg defects and 4 patients with intraoral and neck defects. The advantages of this flap are (1) several pedicle perforators exist for this flap, which makes possible duplicated vascular anastomoses to establish reliable circulation of the transferred flap; (2) the flap can be extended or connected to other neighboring flaps in the anterior thigh, so that extensively wide defects can be closed in one stage; (3) the great saphenous vein can be simultaneously used as a vein graft or for venous drainage for the flap; (4) the anterior branch of the femoral nerve can be used for sensory potential; and (5) there is minimum morbidity of the donor defect and a large dominant vessel for the leg can be preserved. The suitable indications for this flap are defects after removal of skin cancer in the foot or lower leg and wide defects after resection of head and neck cancer, which can be reconstructed with the flap connected to neighboring skin flaps. The disadvantages of this flap are that it has a small, short vascular pedicle and the bulkiness of the flap's fatty tissue often requires thinning.

  11. Functioning free gracilis transfer to reconstruct elbow flexion and quality of life in global brachial plexus injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Jian-Tao; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiang-Ming; Qin, Ben-Gang; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In the study, the functional recovery and relative comprehensive quality of life of cases of global brachial plexus treated with free functioning muscle transfers were investigated. Patients who received functioning gracilis muscle transfer between August 1999 and October 2014 to reconstruct elbow flexion, wrist and fingers extension were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 26.36 (range, 16–42) years. The mean period of time from gracilis transfer to the last follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 12–185 months). Muscle power, active range of motion of the elbow flexion, wrist extension, and total active fingers extension were recorded. SDS, SAS and DASH questionnaires were given to estimate patients’ quality of life. 35.71% reported good elbow flexion and 50.00% reported excellent elbow flexion. The average ROM of the elbow flexion was 106.5° (range, 0–142°) and was 17.00° (range, 0–72°) for wrist extension. The average DASH score was 51.14 (range, 17.5–90.8). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.86% and 45.24%. Thrombosis and bowstringing were the most common short and long-term complications. Based on these findings, free gracilis transfer using accessory nerve as donor nerve is a satisfactory treatment to reconstruct the elbow flexion and wrist extension in global-brachial-plexus-injured patients. PMID:26935173

  12. The use of preoperative muscle denervation and postoperative electrostimulation to maximize functional results in microneurovascular muscle transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pshenisnov, K P; Pulin, A G

    1994-03-01

    A study of the morphologic and physiologic adaptations of orthotopic microneurovascular gracilis musculocutaneous transplantations was done on dogs, using postoperative electrostimulation or prior denervation, compared to controls. Postoperative electrostimulation helped preserve enzyme activity at muscle synapses. Prior denervation demonstrated the enhancement of nerve-fiber penetration into the transplanted muscle, producing better restoration of transplant contraction than in controls. These techniques maximize the functional results of dynamic gracilis musculocutaneous microneurovascular transplantation in the dog model.

  13. What Is the Ideal Free Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction? A Ten-Year Experience of Microsurgical Reconstruction Using 334 Latissimus Dorsi Flaps From a Universal Donor Site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Sang Wha; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2015-07-01

    Microsurgical free tissue transfer is regarded as the best available method of tissue reconstruction for intractable defects. The ideal soft tissue flap is thought to be the anterolateral thigh flap. On the basis of 334 procedures involving the latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, we discuss the advantages of the LD flap over the current universal option, and we aimed to establish whether the LD could also gain universal status in all reconstructive fields.Three hundred thirty-four reconstructive procedures using the LD flap were performed in 322 patients between September 2002 and July 2012. In accordance with defect characteristics, we performed 334 procedures using flaps, which included the LD muscle flap with skin graft, the myocutaneous flap, the muscle-sparing flap, the perforator flap, the chimeric flap, and the 2-flap technique using the serratus anterior branch.Flap-related complications occurred in 21 patients (6.3%), including total and partial flap failure. In 253 cases, the donor site was closed primarily, and in the remaining cases, we used split-thickness skin grafts. Donor-site complications occurred in 20 cases (6%). In 11 of the 182 cases, no suitable perforators were identified during surgery.The advantages of the LD as a donor site include the possibility of various harvesting positions without position change, versatility of components, availability of muscle to fill extensive defects, and presence of thick fascia to enable full abdominal reconstruction. On the basis of our experience, we concluded that this flap has the potential to be used as widely as, or in preference to, the anterolateral thigh flap in most reconstructive areas.

  14. The supraclavicular artery island and trapezius myocutaneous flaps in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Carlos A; Fernandes, Rui P

    2014-08-01

    The supraclavicular artery island flap can be readily used to reconstruct defects within the neck, parotid, lateral temporal region, and lower third of the face. Benefits of the supraclavicular flap include good color and texture match, an ease of harvest, and minimal donor site morbidity; there is also no significant post-operative monitoring required. The trapezius muscle serves as a source for multiple myocutaneous flaps of which most are considered to be salvage flaps among head and neck reconstructive surgeons.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RESULTS ACHIEVED IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH TWO KINDS OF AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTS: PATELLAR TENDON VERSUS SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173

  16. Pathologic studies of acute rejection of mismatched feline musculocutaneous flaps. Effect of cyclosporine and prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Ferreira, H; Moore, P F; Imondi, K A; Patz, J D; Gregory, T A; Pedersen, N C

    1991-06-01

    The gracilis musculocutaneous flap was developed as an allograft model to study acute rejection and immunosuppression in the cat. Twelve adult cats received a MLC incompatible flap. Six of the cats received cyclosporine oral solution and prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/24 hr) for 100 days and six cats were not treated. Trough whole-blood levels of cyclosporine in the treatment group were maintained at approximately 750 ng/ml for 70 days, then 500 ng/ml for the remaining 30 days. Three flaps failed due to technical problems; 5 flaps were studied in the treatment group and 4 in the untreated group. All 5 flaps in the treatment group survived the 100 day treatment period and were rejected 30 +/- 26 days following cessation of treatment. Prior to discontinuation of treatment, with the exception of one cat, inflammatory changes associated with rejection were not observed in biopsy specimen. The flaps in the untreated group survived 13 +/- 1.5 days. Histopathologic examination of the flaps revealed little difference in the appearance of acute rejection and rejection after cessation of therapy. The most prominent lesion was a vasculitis with extensive perivascular lymphohistocytic inflammation. The lymphoid infiltrates consisted predominantly of T cells of both major classes (CD4 and CD8). Full-thickness epidermal necrosis and subsequent bacterial invasion followed vascular compromise.

  17. Effects of Tissue Component Volumes on Vascular Resistance in Free Flaps.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masashi; Takanari, Keisuke; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Shunjiro; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Sawamura, Hisashi; Kambe, Miki; Murotani, Kenta; Kamei, Yuzuru

    2017-01-01

    Background A successful free flap transfer is achieved, in part, by having a thorough understanding of vascular anatomy and blood flow dynamics. We previously reported that vascular resistance differs by type of free flap. To test the hypothesis that the difference reflects the proportion of tissue components within free flaps, we calculated blood flow and vascular resistance for free flaps in which we determined the volume of each tissue component. Methods Measurements and calculations were made for 40 free flap transfers performed at our hospital: 7 radial forearm flaps, 14 anterolateral thigh flaps, and 19 rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. Results The vascular resistance of free flaps was inversely related to the volume of each tissue component. Univariate regression analysis revealed that muscle volume correlated most closely with resistance (r = 0.881), followed by skin (r = 0.622), and fat (r = 0.577). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the relationship between combined muscle and fat volume and resistance (R(2) = 0.865). Conclusions A strong inverse correlation exists between vascular resistance and combined muscle and fat tissue volume in flaps. It may be helpful to consider these relationships when making decisions regarding choice of free flap and recipient vessels.

  18. Photooxidation and antioxidant responses in the earthworm Amynthas gracilis exposed to environmental levels of ultraviolet B radiation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Chen, Jiun-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to photooxidation in various organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is lethal for particular species of earthworms, but the mechanisms responsible for the lethality are unclear. In our current study, we investigated that ultraviolet light causes photooxidative damage and reduces antioxidant responses in the earthworm Amynthas gracilis. Intact earthworms and skin/muscle tissue extracts were exposed to UV-B radiation for in vivo and in vitro studies. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that the products of photooxidative damage, MDA and H(2)O(2), increased after UV-B exposure. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were inhibited immediately after exposure to high doses (3000J/m(2)) of UV-B radiation in vivo. Catalase activity was increased following a low UV-B dose (500J/m(2)) in vivo, but decreased in response to all dosage levels in vitro. These data indicate that a relationship exists between UV-B induced damage and photooxidation and also that catalase and GPx act as important antioxidants to prevent photooxidation. According to these data, A. gracilis exhibits high sensitivity to environmental levels of UV-B. Therefore, A. gracilis represents a sensitive and cost-effective model organism for investigations of UV-radiation damage and environmental UV stress.

  19. Complete sequence of Euglena gracilis chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hallick, R B; Hong, L; Drager, R G; Favreau, M R; Monfort, A; Orsat, B; Spielmann, A; Stutz, E

    1993-01-01

    We report the complete DNA sequence of the Euglena gracilis, Pringsheim strain Z chloroplast genome. This circular DNA is 143,170 bp, counting only one copy of a 54 bp tandem repeat sequence that is present in variable copy number within a single culture. The overall organization of the genome involves a tandem array of three complete and one partial ribosomal RNA operons, and a large single copy region. There are genes for the 16S, 5S, and 23S rRNAs of the 70S chloroplast ribosomes, 27 different tRNA species, 21 ribosomal proteins plus the gene for elongation factor EF-Tu, three RNA polymerase subunits, and 27 known photosynthesis-related polypeptides. Several putative genes of unknown function have also been identified, including five within large introns, and five with amino acid sequence similarity to genes in other organisms. This genome contains at least 149 introns. There are 72 individual group II introns, 46 individual group III introns, 10 group II introns and 18 group III introns that are components of twintrons (introns-within-introns), and three additional introns suspected to be twintrons composed of multiple group II and/or group III introns, but not yet characterized. At least 54,804 bp, or 38.3% of the total DNA content is represented by introns. PMID:8346031

  20. Gravitaxis and graviperception in Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.; Lebert, M.; Richter, P.

    Gravitactic orientation in the flagellate Euglena gracilis is mediated by an active physiological receptor rather than a passive alignment of the cells. During a recent space flight on the American shuttle Columbia the cells were subjected to different accelerations between 0 and 1.5 x g and tracked by computerized real-time image analysis. The dependence of orientation on acceleration followed a sigmoidal curve with a threshold at <=0.16 x g and a saturation at about 0.32 x g. No adaptation of the cells to the conditions of weightlessness was observed over the duration of the space mission (12 days). Under terrestrial conditions graviorientation was eliminated when the cells were suspended in a medium the density of which (Ficoll) equaled that of the cell body (1.04 g/ml) and was reversed at higher densities indicating that the whole cytoplasm exerts a pressure on the respective lower membrane. There it probably activates stretch-sensitive calcium specific ion channels since gravitaxis can be affected by gadolinium which is a specific inhibitor of calcium transport in these structures. The sensory transduction chain could involve modulation of the membrane potential since ion channel blockers, ionophores and ATPase inhibitors impair graviperception.

  1. EARLY REGENERATION DETERMINES LONG‐TERM GRAFT SITE MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION AFTER RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH SEMITENDINOSUS‐GRACILIS AUTOGRAFT: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Snyder‐Mackler, Lynn; Axe, Michael J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: The semitendinosus‐gracilis tendon autograft is often used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. Tendon regeneration appears to occur for most individuals in the short term, but little is known about the long‐term effects of graft harvest. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of semitendinosis‐gracilis tendon graft harvest on muscle and tendon morphology at least five years following reconstruction in a case series. Methods: Magnetic resonance images were taken of the knees of three subjects at least five years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. These subjects represented the different regeneration patterns at the time of return‐to‐sport. Muscle and tendon morphology were analyzed by calculating the volume, peak cross‐sectional area, and length of the knee flexors. Muscle and tendon morphological changes were analyzed individually, and then in combination as defined as a knee flexor group. Results: Muscle and tendon regeneration continued in those tendons that had begun regeneration at the time of return‐to‐sports in two subjects. There was significant additional muscle degeneration in those muscles whose tendons had not regenerated at the time of return‐to‐sports, in the remaining subject. Compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining knee flexors restored the knee flexor group to near preoperative peak cross‐sectional area and volume across the each of the three case subjects. Conclusions: Knee flexor morphology at the time of return‐to‐sports foreshadowed the long‐term outcome in the three studied subjects. Preservation of the tendon sheath in situ may play a role in tendon regeneration. When tendon regeneration did not occur, fatty infiltration of the muscle may be a worst‐case outcome. Semitendinosus‐gracilis muscle synergists demonstrated hypertrophy, perhaps in an effort to compensate for knee flexor group morphology deficits that existed after Semitendinosus gracilis

  2. Tertiary resurfacing after one of the first free flaps in Europe, a reflection on 30 years of microsurgical progress.

    PubMed

    Hart, A M; Tollan, C J; Dabernig, J; Acland, R; Taggart, I

    2007-01-01

    Free flaps have been used for over 30 years. During this period, improved anatomical understanding has increased donor options and available pedicle lengths, permitting safer, single-stage reconstructions with simpler anastomoses. Refinements, such as perforator flaps in particular, have greatly improved donor morbidity, recipient site cosmesis, and the ability to replace 'like with like' while retaining options for innervation. This case highlights the evolution from one of Europe's first free tissue transfers, effectively a perforator flap, through the advent of free muscle flaps to the current generation of contourable perforator flaps. Free flap transfer has become increasingly sophisticated, safer, and more predictable, yet the potential quality of reconstructive outcome has changed little.

  3. The combined free partial vastus lateralis with anterolateral thigh perforator flap reconstruction of extensive composite defects.

    PubMed

    Posch, N A S; Mureau, M A M; Flood, S J; Hofer, S O P

    2005-12-01

    Myocutaneous (MC) free flaps are useful for many reconstructive indications. Perforator flaps have become standard of care. The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) donor site is popular. With the ALT flap varying sizes of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle can be harvested as a MC flap. The skin islands of these flaps have a great range of freedom when dissected on their perforator. It was hypothesised that the VL-ALT perforator flap would offer adequate tissue volume combining maximal freedom in planning with minimal donor site morbidity. From November 2001 to February 2003 a free partial VL with ALT perforator flap was used in 11 patients to reconstruct large defects. Indications for adding a muscular component were exposed bone, skull base, (artificial) dura, or osteosynthesis material, open sinuses, and lack of muscular bulk. Flaps were planned as standard ALT flaps, after which three types of dissection were performed: I. true MC flap; II. muscle flap with a skin island on one perforator, which could be rotated up to 180 degrees ; III. chimera skin perforator flap with muscle being harvested on a separate branch from the source vessel or on a side branch of the skin perforator. Mean skin size of the MC-ALT flaps was 131 cm2. Mean muscle part size of the MC-ALT flaps was 268 cm3. Muscular parts were custom designed for all defects. No total or partial flap failures were seen. Colour mismatch was seen in 6 of 8 patients, when skin was used in the facial area in this all white population. Excessive flap bulk was found in 8 of 11 patients at 6 weeks, however, only in 2 of 11 patients after 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the functional result (8 of 11 patients) as well as the cosmetic result of their reconstruction (7 of 11 patients). All less satisfied patients had received their flap for external facial skin reconstruction. Donor site morbidity was minimal. The combined free partial VL with ALT perforator flap proved valuable as a (chimera type) MC flap with maximal

  4. Expanded thoracoacromial artery perforator flap for reconstruction of full-perioral scar contracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianwen; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-03-01

    Various types of anterior chest flaps can be recruited in the reconstruction of faciocervical region. Most of them were created based on the internal mammary artery and the lateral thoracic artery, and the thoracoacromial artery (TAA) is usually used in pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap. An anterior chest flap with TAA perforator (TAAP) will have no sacrifice of the pectoralis major muscle, but less reports, especially expanded pedicled one, can be reviewed. Here, we reported a case using expanded pedicled TAAP flap to reconstruct the perioral scar contracture. In this technique, expanded TAAP flap could be easily harvested without the sophisticated microsurgical technology. Acceptable esthetic and functional results were achieved.

  5. Changes in the blood biochemistry following experimental flap ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Knight, K R; Gumley, G J; Rogers, I W; O'Brien, B M

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate tissue changes occurring within an ischaemic flap by monitoring the blood biochemistry, and to evaluate these changes in relation to ultimate flap viability. A rabbit epigastric free flap was made ischaemic for 4 days at 6 degrees C, then revascularized by anastomosis of its femoral artery and vein. An identical free flap immediately revascularized in another group of rabbits served as a control. The viability of the free flap, as well as various biochemical parameters studied by drawing blood from a catheter in the ear vein, were observed daily. Immediately after the revascularization of ischaemic flaps, there was a 16-fold increase in the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK) and a smaller but significant 1.5-fold to 2.0-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In flaps which ultimately failed by 7 days post-ischaemia, the plasma levels of CK, LDH and AST peaked at day 2 post-ischaemia at 68, 13 and 8 times normal respectively, whereas in flaps which survived, the levels of these enzymes recovered to normal by day 3 post-ischaemia. These enzymic changes are probably due to a combination of ischaemic changes in the flap vasculature, ischaemic changes in the flap muscle, and inflammatory changes in the surrounding abdominal tissue. The plasma levels of CK at any time post-ischaemia, and particularly in the first 24 h, were significantly higher in ischaemic flaps which failed compared with those which survived. This parameter is therefore proposed as a possible means of predicting potential flap failure after ischaemic insult, in time to make appropriate surgical intervention.

  6. Distally Based Abductor Hallucis Adipomuscular Flap for Forefoot Plantar Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanglim; Kim, Min Bom; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Jeong Kook; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Soft tissue and bone defects of the lower leg, ankle, and heel region often require coverage by local or distant flaps. The authors successfully used the distally based adipomuscular abductor hallucis flap for the treatment of 7 patients with soft tissue defect on the plantar forefoot after diabetic ulcer (n = 2), excision of melanoma at the medial forefoot (n = 3), and posttraumatic defects of the plantar forefoot (n = 2). The size of the defects ranged from 6 to 36 cm. All defects were covered successfully without major complications. The distally based adipomuscular flap from the abductor hallucis muscle provides a reliable coverage for small and moderate defects of the plantar and medial forefoot. This flap is often preferable to the use of free flaps because the surgery is rapidly performed and does not require microsurgical expertise.

  7. The perforator-based conjoint (chimeric) medial Sural(MEDIAL GASTROCNEMIUS) free flap.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazufumi; Hallock, Geoffrey G; Hamazaki, Masahiro; Daicyo, Yoshihiro

    2004-12-01

    The prototypical conjoint or so-called "chimeric" free flap heretofore has been composed of several large independent flaps, each supplied by a separate major branch, that ultimately arise from a common source vessel. The perforator-based type of chimeric flap is a relatively new concept, usually involving multiple muscle perforator flaps each based on a solitary musculocutaneous perforator, but still arising from the same "mother" vessel. This principle of split cutaneous perforator flaps has been now successfully adapted to the medial suralMEDIAL GASTROCNEMIUS perforator free flap on 2 separate occasions. As a chimeric flap, there was greater flexibility in insetting, and overall flap width may be larger but still narrow enough to allow primary donor site closure; and yet, by definition, only a single recipient site was needed for any microanastomoses. This is further proof that the perforator-based chimeric free flap may be an option for any muscle perforator flap donor site, so that potential donor territories for conjoint flaps have become virtually unlimited.

  8. The submental island flap.

    PubMed

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  9. One plus one: Two free flaps from same donor thigh for simultaneous coverage of two different defects

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Susmitha; Koteswara Rao, Rayidi Venkata; Reddy, Damalacheruvu Mukunda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary microvascular reconstruction of multiple defects is challenging particularly if it has to be simultaneous. In trauma cases, harvesting two independent free flaps from different sites is very time-consuming and adds to morbidity. To eliminate these disadvantages, we sought to find out a reliable alternative method of harvesting two independent free flaps based on the descending branch of circumflex femoral artery, i.e., one anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and one rectus femoris muscle flap. Aim: To study the feasibility of transferring two free flaps, i.e., ALT and rectus femoris muscle flap simultaneously from the same thigh for coverage of two different limb defects. Materials and Methods: From 2003 to 2012, five patients with two defects each were managed with a total of ten flaps harvested from five donor sites based on independent pedicles of descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery and used to cover severe injuries of extremities. Three cases had both lower limb defects and two cases had one upper limb and one lower limb defect. In each case, one ALT flap and one rectus femoris muscle flap were used for coverage. Results: All reconstructive procedures were completed without any major complications. All flaps survived well. There were no re-explorations and no complications related to donor sites. Conclusion: We conclude that our approach of simultaneous harvest of ALT and rectus femoris muscle from the same thigh offers two flaps for two different defects in terms of economy of donor site and operating time. PMID:27833281

  10. Compound or Specially Designed Flaps in the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Ciclamini, Davide; Tang, Jin Bo

    2017-04-01

    Novel and combined tissue transfers from the lower extremity provide new tools to combat soft tissue defects of the hand, foot, and ankle, or fracture nonunion. Flaps can be designed for special purposes, such as providing a gliding bed for a grafted or repaired tendon or for thumb or finger reconstruction. Propeller flaps can cover soft tissue defects of the leg and foot. In repairing severe bone and soft tissue defects of the lower extremity, combined approaches, including external fixators, one-stage vascularized bone grafting, and skin or muscle flap coverage of the traumatized leg and foot, have become popular.

  11. Free craniotomy versus osteoplastic craniotomy, assessment of flap viability using 99mTC MDP SPECT.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Ilan; Golan, Haim; Merkin, Vladimir; Melamed, Israel; Benifla, Mony

    2016-09-01

    There are currently two accepted neurosurgical methods to perform a bony flap. In an osteoplastic flap, the flap is attached to surrounding muscle. In a free flap, the flap is not attached to adjacent tissues. The former is less common due to its complexity and the extensive time required for the surgery; yet the rate of infection is significantly lower, a clear explanation for which is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the osteoplastic flap acts as a live implant that resumes its blood flow and metabolic activity; contrasting with the free flap, which does not have sufficient blood flow, and therefore acts as a foreign body. Seven patients who underwent craniotomy with osteoplastic flaps and five with free flaps had planar bone and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of the skull at 3-7days postoperative, after injection of the radioisotope, 99m-technetium-methylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc-MDP). We compared radioactive uptake as a measure of metabolic activity between osteoplastic and free flaps. Mean normalized radioactive uptakes in the centers of the flaps, calculated as the ratios of uptakes in the flap centers to uptakes in normal contralateral bone, were [mean: 1.7 (SD: 0.8)] and [0.6 (0.1)] for the osteoplastic and free flap groups respectively and were [2.4 (0.8)] and [1.3 (0.4)] in the borders of the flaps. Our analyses suggest that in craniotomy, the use of an osteoplastic flap, in contrast to free flap, retains bone viability.

  12. Coverage of defects over toes with distally based local flaps: A report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashok Raj; Patil, Rahul K; Philip, Vinoth Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of the distal foot, especially of the toe has always been a challenging problem. Various methods have been tried with variable success rates and limitations. Presented here is a series of four cases, where distally based flaps were used. Two of them were Extensor Digitorum Brevis (EDB) muscle flaps and the other two were first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) based skin flaps. One in each of the two was augmented with a plantar V-Y advancement flap. All flaps survived completely without any flap- or donor site-related complications. The patients were ambulated two weeks following the reconstruction and were symptom-free after an average follow-up of thirteen months. Distal flaps based on the dorsalis pedis system provide a reliable cover for distal foot defects.

  13. [Toxic effects of high concentrations of ammonia on Euglena gracilis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia is among the common contaminants in aquatic environments. The present study aimed at evaluation of the toxicity of ammonia at high concentration by detecting its effects on the growth, pigment contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and DNA damage (comet assay) of a unicellular microalga, Euglena gracilis. Ammonia restrained the growth of E. gracilis, while at higher concentrations, ammonia showed notable inhibition effect, the growth at 2 000 mg x L(-1) was restrained to 55.7% compared with that of the control; The contents of photosynthetic pigments and protein went up with increasing ammonia dosage and decreased when the ammonia concentration was above 1000 mg x L(-1); In addition, there was an obvious increase in SOD and POD activities, at higher concentration (2 000 mg x L(-1)), activities of SOD and POD increased by 30.7% and 49.4% compared with those of the control, indicating that ammonia could promote activities of antioxidant enzymes in E. gracilis; The degree of DNA damage observed in the comet assay increased with increasing ammonia concentration, which suggested that high dose of ammonia may have potential mutagenicity on E. gracilis.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  15. Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Head and Neck Defects in the Era of Free Flaps: Harvesting Technique and Indications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei

    2017-01-01

    The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps. PMID:28387356

  16. Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Head and Neck Defects in the Era of Free Flaps: Harvesting Technique and Indications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei

    2017-04-07

    The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps.

  17. A study of the blown flap/jet flap analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the blown flap/jet flap analogy has been undertaken. Analytical predictions were made using both improved lifting line and optimized vortex lattice models for the jet flap. Results were compared with experimental data for three propulsive lift systems; the jet augmented flap, the externally blown flap, and the upper surface blown flap. Force increments due to changes in geometry and jet parameters were well approximated in most cases, although the absolute values of the aerodynamic forces were usually underestimated. The relatively simple jet-flap models gave performance predictions of accuracy comparable to more complex analyses.

  18. Complications and oncologic outcomes of pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Somintara, Ongart; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Kongdan, Youwanush; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Sukpanich, Rupporn

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several techniques for harvesting the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. We examined the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique and determined factors associated with its complications and oncological outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of 168 TRAM flaps performed between January 2003 and December 2010, focusing on complications and oncologic outcomes. Results Among the 168 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 158 patients, flap complications occurred in 34%. Most of the flap complications included some degree of fat necrosis. There was no total flap loss. Flap complications were associated with elderly patients and the presence of major donor site complications. Abdominal bulging and hernia occurred in 12% of patients. The bi-pedicled TRAM flap and higher body mass index (BMI) were significant factors associated with increased donor site complications. Seven patients (4%) developed loco-regional recurrence. Within a median follow-up of 27 months, distant metastasis and death occurred in 6% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The pedicled TRAM flap using the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique in the present study is consistent with the results from previous studies in flap complication rates and oncological outcomes. PMID:27563562

  19. Analysis of Microvascular Free Flap Failure Focusing on the Microscopic Findings of the Anastomosed Vessels.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi Hyun; Kim, Soung Min; Huan, Fan; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Lee, Suk Keun

    2015-10-01

    Microvascular flap reconstruction is known as successful technique, although vascular thrombosis can cause free flap failure. To analyze the histologic characteristics and causes of free flap failure, this clinical study examined failed free flaps, including the microanastomosed sites. This study included a total of 5 failed flaps, including 3 radial forearm free flaps, 1 latissimus dorsi free flap, and 1 fibular free flap, all performed with microvascular reconstruction surgery from 2009 to 2011 at Seoul National University Dental Hospital. At the resection surgeries of the failed nonviable flaps, histologic specimens including the microanastomosed vessels were acquired. For light microscope observation, the slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and also with Masson trichrome. Selected portions of graft tissue were also observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the cause of flap failure was the occlusion of vessels because of thrombi formation. During the microanastomosis, damage to the vessel endothelium occurred, followed by intimal hyperplasia and medial necrosis at the anastomosed site. In the TEM findings, some smooth muscle cells beneath endothelium were atrophied and degenerated. The formation of thrombi and the degeneration of the smooth muscle cells were coincident with vascular dysfunction of graft vessel. The damaged endothelium and the exposed connective tissue elements might initiate the extrinsic pathway of thrombosis at the microanastomotic site. Therefore, it is suggested that accurate surgical planning, adequate postoperative monitoring, and skillful technique for minimizing vascular injury are required for successful microvascular transfer.

  20. Perfusion and Oxygenation of Random Advancement Skin Flaps Depend More on the Length and Thickness of the Flap Than on the Width to Length Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Memarzadeh, Khashayar; Sheikh, Rafi; Blohmé, Jonas; Torbrand, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions (length, width, and thickness) of random advancement skin flaps and retained tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Methods: Flaps were raised on the flanks of pigs. The flaps were either 0.5 or 1.0 cm wide, thin (dissected halfway through the subcutaneous tissue) or thick (dissected down to the muscle fascia). Tissue perfusion was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, and tissue oxygenation (pO2) was measured using a Licox system, every 0.5 cm along the flaps’ length. Tissue temperature was visualized by high-resolution infrared camera. Results: Perfusion and oxygenation decreased gradually from the base to the tip of the flap, reaching approximately 40% of presurgical values (2.0 cm) and approximately 20% (2.5 cm) from the base of the flap. There was virtually no blood flow, nor oxygen tension, 3.0 cm from the base of the flap. The width to length ratio of the flap did not determine blood flow or oxygenation, being approximately 30% in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap, and 0% in a 1.0 cm wide and 4 cm long flap, both with a width to length ratio of 1:4. Blood flow and oxygenation were preserved to a greater extent in the thick flaps (∼40%) than in the thin flaps (∼20%), in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap. Conclusions: The dissection of a random advancement flap results in hypoperfusion and oxygenation that cannot be predicted by the width to length ratio but depend on the length and thickness of the flap. PMID:26958105

  1. Island Posterior Thigh Flap Revisited in Covering Extensive Sacral Wounds: Our Experience with Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Deep sacral wounds are best covered by flaps. Posterior thigh flaps have routinely been used to cover such wounds. The flap can however be modified as an island flap. Two patients with extensive sacral wounds were managed with island posterior thigh flaps. Both patients were admitted secondary to road traffic accident with subsequent soft tissue loss of the sacral area. The sacral defects in both patients were approximately 17 cm by 23 cm in dimensions. Unilateral island posterior thigh flap was raised and used to cover the wounds. Postoperatively both patients did well; the donor site and recipient sites healed without any complications. Island posterior thigh flap is thus an option in covering extensive defects of the sacral area. The flap is reliable and easy to raise and has minimal donor site morbidity. By raising it as an island flap the dog ear defect is avoided and the flap is able to be tunneled under the gluteal muscle. This maneuver enables the flap to be advanced further allowing it to cover more distal and extensive defects. PMID:28321356

  2. Analysis of the gravitaxis signal transduction chain in Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Adeel

    Abstract Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, eukaryotic flagellate. It can adapt autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of growth and respond to different stimuli, this makes it an organism of choice for different research disciplines. It swims to reach a suitable niche by employing different stimuli such as oxygen, light, gravity and different chemicals. Among these stimuli light and gravity are the most important. Phototaxis (locomotion under light stimulus) and gravitaxis (locomotion under gravity stimulus) synergistically help cells to attain an optimal niche in the environment. However, in the complete absence of light or under scarcity of detectable light, cells can totally depend on gravity to find its swimming path. Therefore gravity has certain advantages over other stimuli.Unlike phototatic signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis no clear primary gravity receptor has been identified in Euglena cells so far. However, there are some convincing evidence that TRP like channels act as a primary gravity receptor in Euglena gracilis.Use of different inhibitors gave rise to the involvement of protein kinase and calmodulin proteins in signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis. Recently, specific calmodulin (Calmodulin 2) and protein kinase (PKA) have been identified as potential candidates of gravitactic signal transduction chain. Further characterization and investigation of these candidates was required. Therefore a combination of biochemical and genetic techniques was employed to localize proteins in cells and also to find interacting partners. For localization studies, specific antibodies were raised and characterized. Specificity of antibodies was validated by knockdown mutants, Invitro-translated proteins and heterologously expressed proteins. Cell fractionation studies, involving separation of the cell body and flagella for western blot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence studies were performed for subcellular localization. In order to find

  3. Production of a thermal stress resistant mutant Euglena gracilis strain using Fe-ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding.

  4. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.

  5. Serratus anterior composite flaps for reconstruction of large-area oral and maxillofacial defects: a new neuromuscular flap.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Long, Jie; Feng, Fan; Guo, Lijuan; Gao, Chao; Tian, Weidong

    2009-11-01

    Large area defects in the maxillofacial field are difficult to restore with sufficient esthetic and functional outcome. This study was to assess the feasibility of using serratus anterior composite flaps for reconstruction of large-area oral and maxillofacial tissue defects and to determine subsequent effects on neuromuscular function. Six patients with severe maxillofacial deformities were treated with serratus anterior composite flaps. The neurovascularized pedicle of each flap retained the long thoracic nerve to supply motor innervation. The long thoracic nerve was anastomosed with a branch of the facial nerve. The remaining fine branches of the facial nerve were separated interfascicularly and intrafascicularly, and then implanted within the border of the serratus anterior muscle. Transplanted flaps survived in all patients without vascular crisis. At the 12-month follow-up examinations, patients were able to close their eyes, wrinkle their forehead, and blow through pursed lips using the reconstructed mimetic muscles. The free serratus anterior composite flap has different digitations of the serratus anterior and motor nerve innervations, which is an attractive choice for reconstruction of large defects of oral and maxillofacial tissue. The nerve anastomosis and facial nerve replantation technique may protect the pedicle from atrophy of the transferred flap. Facial motion can be animated by neurotization or reinnervation in-growth in the neurotized slips of the serratus.

  6. Flap reconstruction of the knee: A review of current concepts and a proposed algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gravvanis, Andreas; Kyriakopoulos, Antonios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis

    2014-01-01

    A literature search focusing on flap knee reconstruction revealed much controversy regarding the optimal management of around the knee defects. Muscle flaps are the preferred option, mainly in infected wounds. Perforator flaps have recently been introduced in knee coverage with significant advantages due to low donor morbidity and long pedicles with wide arc of rotation. In the case of free flap the choice of recipient vessels is the key point to the reconstruction. Taking the published experience into account, a reconstructive algorithm is proposed according to the size and location of the wound, the presence of infection and/or 3-dimensional defect. PMID:25405089

  7. Control of Flap Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  8. Reconstruction techniques after extralevator abdominoperineal rectal excision or pelvic exenteration: meshes, plasties and flaps.

    PubMed

    Frasson, Matteo; Flor-Lorente, Blas; Carreño, Omar

    2014-03-01

    Perineal wound complications after abdomino-perineal rectal resection are frequent and clinically relevant for their impact on the length of hospitalization, costs, patients' quality of life and oncologic results. With the diffusion of the preoperative radiotherapy and the gradual shift to the extra-elevator technique, the perineal morbidity rate has increased. Many series describing different techniques of primary closure of the perineal defect have been published, but high-quality clinical studies, indicating which is the best option, are missing. A biologic mesh, associated if possible to an omentoplasty, seems to be sufficient to close the perineal defect after extra-elevator abdomino-perineal rectal resection. However, when the proctectomy is associated to the resection of other organs, as for example vagina or sacrum, resulting in an ample perineal defect, the vertical rectus abdominis flap seems to be the best option. If the perineal defect is smaller, the gracilis or gluteus flaps could be other valid alternatives.

  9. Protein synthesis in cadmium- and pentachlorophenol-tolerant Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Barque, J.P.; Abahamid, A.; Chacun, H.

    1995-07-01

    This work is a preliminary characterization of two adapted Euglena gracilis cell lines, one to cadmium and the other to pentachlorophenol. Growth curve analysis indicate that tolerance to one pollutant did not protect against the second pollutant. These suggest that metabolic pathways that are induced by one pollutant are specific for this pollutant. This specificity is detectable at the level of gene expression. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Chorismate Synthase from Euglena gracilis 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andreas; van Afferden, Manfred; Windhofer, Volker; Bülow, Sven; Abel, Gernot; Schmid, Jürg; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    Chorismate synthase was purified 1200-fold from Euglena gracilis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme is in the range of 110 to 138 kilodaltons as judged by gel filtration. The molecular mass of the subunit was determined to be 41.7 kilodaltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified chorismate synthase is associated with an NADPH-dependent flavin mononucleotide reductase that provides in vivo the reduced flavin necessary for catalytic activity. In vitro, flavin reduction can be mediated by either dithionite or light. The enzyme obtained from E. gracilis was compared with chorismate synthases purified from a higher plant (Corydalis sempervirens), a bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a fungus (Neurospora crassa). These four chorismate synthases were found to be very similar in terms of cofactor specificity, kinetic properties, isoelectric points, and pH optima. All four enzymes react with polyclonal antisera directed against chorismate synthases from C. sempervirens and E. coli. The closely associated flavin mononucleotide reductase that is present in chorismate synthase preparations from E. gracilis and N. crassa is the main difference between those synthases and the monofunctional enzymes from C. sempervirens and E. coli. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668543

  11. The red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, Matteo; Franchi, Massimo; Monteleone, Massimo; Caroppo, Carmela

    2013-09-30

    In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy), was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6), proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds.

  12. The Red Seaweed Gracilaria gracilis as a Multi Products Source

    PubMed Central

    Francavilla, Matteo; Franchi, Massimo; Monteleone, Massimo; Caroppo, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy), was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6), proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds. PMID:24084791

  13. A systematic review of anterolateral thigh flap donor site morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jessica; Ayeni, Olubimpe; Thoma, Achilleas

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is widely used in reconstruction. Its advantage over other flaps is its purported minimal donor site morbidity. The present systematic review summarizes the types of complications and their incidence with this flap. A secondary objective is to delineate factors that influence these complications and make recommendations to avoid them. METHOD: Two independent assessors undertook a systematic review of the literature using multiple databases. All patients with ALT flap reconstruction for any defect were included. Donor site complications including lateral thigh paresthesia, musculoskeletal dysfunction, hypertrophic scarring, wound breakdown, infection, donor site pain, seroma, hematoma, compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis were extracted from identified articles and tabulated. Based on the number of pooled events and the number of cases performed, an incidence rate was calculated. RESULTS: Forty-two relevant articles were identified that included 2324 flaps. Of the 2324 flaps, the majority were fasciocutaneous (n=737), and 1303 of the flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction. The incidence of complications were: lateral thigh paresthesia (24.0%); musculoskeletal dysfunction (4.8%); hypertrophic scarring or wound dehiscence (4.8%); donor site pain (3.3%); seroma (2.4%); infection (2.2%); hematoma (0.7%); compartment syndrome (0.09%); and partial muscle necrosis (0.09%). CONCLUSION: Lateral thigh paresthesia is the most common complication. Severe complications such as compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis can occur, but are rare. Preservation of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, femoral motor nerve branches and deep fascia decreases the risk of complications. The degree of vastus lateralis disruption did not show a significant impact on musculoskeletal dysfunction. PMID:23598761

  14. Blowing Flap Experiment: PIV Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  15. Trans-vastus Intermedius Transfer of the Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Posterior Thigh Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Lettieri, Salvatore C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Proximal, posterior thigh wounds from oncologic or traumatic defects can be difficult wounds to reconstruct if local flap options have been sacrificed during the trauma or oncologic resection. Free flap options to cover these defects are also difficult because of the lack of convenient recipient vessels in the region. The authors present 2 cases (oncologic and traumatic) wherein a myocutaneous anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was harvested and tunneled from the anterior muscle compartment to the posterior muscle compartment of the thigh through a medially based transmuscular tunnel, decreasing the required pedicle distance to the wound. This technique of transmuscular tunneling of the ALT flap expands the indications and utility of the ALT flap to cover posterior thigh wounds. PMID:25289275

  16. The saphenous neurovascular free flap.

    PubMed

    Acland, R D; Schusterman, M; Godina, M; Eder, E; Taylor, G I; Carlisle, I

    1981-06-01

    A new neurovascular free-flap donor area on the medial side of the knee is described. The flap is supplied by the saphenous artery, a branch of the descending genicular artery. It is drained both by the long saphenous vein and by the saphenous venae comitantes. Its nerve supply is from the medial femoral cutaneous nerve above the knee and the saphenous nerve below the knee. The flap is thin, has a long vascular pedicle (up to 15 cm) and a dependable nerve supply, and can be made quite large. The principal disadvantage is the donor wound, which requires grafting in most cases. We describe the anatomy of the saphenous flap, the method of raising it, and our early clinical experience with it both as a free flap and as a pedicled flap. Potential uses of the saphenous flap and its broader significance in relation to flaps on the lower extremity are briefly discussed.

  17. Externally blown flap impingement noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of the noise produced by the impingement of the jet exhaust on the wing and flap for an externally blown flap system were conducted with a CF700 turbofan engine and an F-111B wing panel. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The presence of the wing next to the test nozzles increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection angle. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested. Tests showed that the single-slotted flap deflected 60 deg, produced less noise than the double-slotted flaps. Also, maintaining the maximum distance between the exit nozzle and flap system resulted in a minor reduction in noise.

  18. Comparison of bacterial inoculation and transcutaneous oxygen tension in the rabbit S1 perforator and latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aldo Benjamin; Gill, Paul Singh; Trahan, Chris G; Ruiz, Bernardo; Lund, Kerstin M; Delaune, Christie L; Thibodeaux, Brett A; Metzinger, Stephen Eric

    2005-02-01

    Muscle and musculocutaneous flaps have been used reliably in reconstruction of soft-tissue defects for many years. Previous experimental studies have shown musculocutaneous flaps to be superior to the random pattern and fasciocutaneous flaps in the management of infected wounds. Over the past decade, perforator flaps have gained acceptance as alternative methods of reconstruction in the clinical setting that can decrease donor-site morbidity and hospital stay, and increase patient satisfaction. The authors theorized that perforator flaps may be able to handle infected wounds better than random pattern and fasciocutaneous flaps because their blood supply is essentially the same as many of their musculocutaneous counterparts. The goal of this study was to compare the S1 perforator-based skin flap and latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in the dorsal flank of the rabbit with the introduction of bacteria to simulate both superficial and deep wound infection. Measurements of oxygen tension and regional perfusion index were performed on both types of flaps to ascertain their viability and capacity to heal. The authors found no statistical significance between latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous and S1 perforator flaps in the rabbit with respect to superficial and deep wound infections. The regional perfusion index was calculated for postoperative days 1, 2, and 4. No statistically significant difference between the two flaps using the regional perfusion index could be identified. Additionally, regional perfusion for both types of flaps was greater than 0.6, indicating that their capacity to heal wounds is similar.

  19. Bilobed flap in sole surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conejo-Mir, J.; Bueno Montes, J.; Moreno Gimenez, J.C.; Camacho-Martinez, F.

    1985-09-01

    The bilobed flap is a simple reconstructive technique principally used to correct substantial defects in the facial region. The authors present their experience with this local flap in the difficult plantar area, with excellent short-term functional results. They describe the special characteristics of the bilobed flap in this zone, and comment on its indications and possible complications.

  20. [Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocation and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part I: The effect of open myotenotomy of the gracilis muscle and of the long and short adductor muscles in connection with total extrapelvine resection of the obturator nerve, on the hip joints and static function (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fettweis, E

    1979-02-01

    Spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles involve, on the one hand, danger in respect of the development of a dislocation of the hip, and are a serious impediment to a walking ability on the other. Hence, surgery is often necessary. The article reports on the results of consequent weakening of the adductor muscles as a result of open myotenotomy in association with complete extrapelvine resection of the obturator nerve. 27 patients were subjected to surgery--in most cases bilaterally--at an age between 2 years and 5 months and 18 years, with a follow-up period of up to 15 years. The study does not include patients with spastic dislocation of the hip in whom this method was applied on the non-dislocated side and on the dislocated side in combination with iliopsoas tenotomy. This method makes it possible to achieve regression of existing defective positions of the hip joints. In a few cases, the valgus position of the neck of the femur was corrected to some extent. In two patients it was not possible to prevent the progress of a developing dislocation of the hip. These results show that, whereas the adductor muscles represent an essential factor for the occurrence of a spastic dislocation of the hip, other forces are most probably also involved. In the majority of cases, results were favourable in respect of the static function, although in some cases the success became evident after several years only, especially in mentally retarded patients and in apathetic individuals. Important for therapeutic success is the follow-up. The principles of its therapy are thoroughly discussed. Surgery is indicated only in special cases. Indications must be observed very strictly, since the risk of excessive weakening of the adductor muscles should not be underestimated.

  1. The impact of Pfannenstiel scars on TRAM flap complications.

    PubMed

    Dayhim, Fariba; Wilkins, Edwin G

    2004-11-01

    For the past two decades, the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap has been a mainstay of postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Because the flap depends on musculocutaneous perforating vessels from the rectus muscle for survival, some authors have raised concerns about increased risks of TRAM flap loss in patients with scars from previous abdominal surgeries, particularly those with Pfannenstiel scars. To assess the effects of Pfannenstiel scars on complication rates, we retrospectively evaluated the inpatient and outpatient records of 241 patients undergoing TRAM reconstruction in a single institution over an 11-year period. Of these patients, 51 had previous Pfannenstiel scars. while 190 did not. Controlling for potential confounding variables (body mass index and timing of reconstruction), logistic regressions found no significant differences between the Pfannenstiel and nonPfannenstiel cohorts in the rate of flap loss (15.7% and 20%, respectively; P = 0.376) or in the incidence of postoperative abdominal donor site laxity (17.6% and 12.1%, respectively; P= 0.361). Within the Pfannenstiel group, the type of TRAM reconstruction (ie, pedicle versus free flaps) did not have a significant effect on complication rates. We conclude that previous concerns over the impact of preexisting Pfannenstiel scars on TRAM flap complications are unfounded.

  2. Blown flap noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental developments of flow-surface interaction noise with a particular emphasis on blown-flap noise were reviewed. Several blown-flap noise prediction methods were evaluated by comparing predicted acoustic levels, directivity, and spectra with a recently obtained data base. A prediction method was selected and a detailed step-by-step description of this method was provided to develop a computer module to calculate one-third octave band frequency spectra at any given location in the far-field for under-the-wing and upper surface blown configurations as a function of geometric and operational parameters.

  3. Externally blown flap impingement noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of externally blown flap impingement noise was conducted using a full-scale turbofan engine and aircraft wing. The noise produced with a daisy nozzle installed on the engine exhaust system was greater than that produced by a conical nozzle at the same thrust. The daisy nozzle caused the jet velocity to decay about 35 percent at the flap. The presence of the wing next to the conical nozzle increased the noise, as did increasing the flap deflection. Compared with the conical nozzle, the daisy nozzle produced slightly less noise at a flap deflection of 60 deg but produced more noise at the lower flap deflections tested.

  4. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  5. Local Flaps of The Hand

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A local flap consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue that is harvested from a site nearby a given defect while maintaining its intrinsic blood supply. When a soft tissue defect of the hand is not amenable to primary closure or skin grafting, local skin flaps can be a used as a reliable source of soft tissue replacement that replaces like with like. Flaps are categorized based on their composition, method of transfer, flap design and blood supply, yet flap circulation is considered the most critical factor for the flap survival. This article reviews the classification of local skin flaps of the hand and offers a practical reconstructive approach for several soft tissue defects of the hand and digits. PMID:24731606

  6. Evaluating the Efficacy of a Sternocleidomastoid Flap via Galvanic Skin Responses in Superficial Parotidectomy.

    PubMed

    Basut, Oguz; Noyan, Behzat; Demirci, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of flaps via measurement of galvanic skin responses (GSR) in patients who had undergone superficial parotidectomy either with or without sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flaps. Retrospective study design was used. The setting included University of Uludag School of Medicine Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Eleven patients who had undergone superficial parotidectomy for benign diseases in our clinic between June 2003 and August 2006 were included in the study. SCM muscle flaps were used in four patients. The GSR of the patients were measured using a MP 30 System. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for the analysis of data. There were complaints that resembled Frey's syndrome in three patients in whom flaps had not been performed. Patients with flaps had no complaints. In patients with flaps, no significant GSR changes were observed between the control and operated sides (P > 0.05). In patients without flaps, the GSR levels were significantly higher on the operated side compared to the control side (P < 0.05). GSR values on the control side did not show any differences between patients with and without a flap. However, there were significantly higher GSR values for the operated side in patients without flaps compared to patients with flaps (P < 0.05). Application of a SCM flap is an efficient method by which to prevent Frey's syndrome, and the GSR test is beneficial both in diagnosiing and determining the severity of the disease as well as evaluating the efficacy of surgical techniques used to prevent Frey's syndrome.

  7. The Deltopectoral Flap Revisited: The Internal Mammary Artery Perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Amir; Atiyeh, Bishara; Karami, Reem; Adelman, David M; Papazian, Nazareth J

    2016-03-01

    Pharyngo-esophageal and tracheostomal defects pose a challenge in head and neck reconstruction whenever microanastomosis is extremely difficult in hostile neck that is previously dissected and irradiated. The deltopectoral (DP) flap was initially described as a pedicled flap for such reconstruction with acceptable postoperative results. A major drawback is still that the DP flap is based on 3 perforator vessels leading to a decreased arc of rotation. The DP flap also left contour deformities in the donor site. The internal mammary artery perforator flap was described as a refinement of the deltopectoral flap. It is a pedicled fasciocutaneous flap based on a single perforator, with comparable and reliable blood supply compared with the DP flap, giving it the benefit of having a wide arc of rotation. It is both thin and pliable, with good skin color match and texture. The donor site can be closed primarily with no esthetic deformity and minimal morbidity. The procedure is relatively simple and does not require microvascular expertise. In this report, the authors describe a patient in whom bilateral internal mammary artery perforator flaps were used for subtotal pharyngo-esophageal reconstruction and neck resurfacing. The flaps healed uneventfully bilaterally with no postoperative complications.

  8. Neuroendocrine control of physiological color change in Chameleo gracilis.

    PubMed

    Okelo, O

    1986-11-01

    Color changes in Chameleo gracilis are under neuroendocrine control. Denervation of the limbs, by removal of the sciatic or brachial nerves, does not interfere with the normal color changes in the affected limbs. Denervated skins, placed back onto C. gracilis, show color changes in synchrony with the rest of the animal. Pieces of isolated skin turn very dark or black in alpha-melanophore stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and green in adrenaline, but do not show any color changes in physiological saline. Hypophysectomized animals turn green but never turn dark. Injections of alpha-MSH cause intact or hypophysectomized animals to turn dark or black, while injections of adrenaline cause them to turn light green. Injections of physiological saline have no effect. Crude pituitary extracts cause darkening of isolated skins or of intact animals injected with such extracts. Similar treatment with crude extracts of adrenal glands causes the skins to become light green. Electrical stimulation of transected spinal cord leads to localized lightening of the skin but never to darkening of the same. Light, temperature, darkness, and color of the surroundings influence color change. Color change to green at night and to darker colors in the daytime suggests a possible circadian rhythm in the phenomenon.

  9. Phytochemical characterization and antinociceptive effect of Lippia gracilis Schauer.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Adriana G; Gomes, Silvana V F; Moraes, Valéria R S; Nogueira, Paulo C L; Ferreira, Antônio G; Blank, Arie F; Santos, Alan D C; Viana, Monalisa D; Silva, Geraldo H; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo J

    2012-07-01

    Lippia gracilis Schauer is an aromatic plant widely found in Northeastern Brazil. The leaf infusions or decoctions and alcoholic macerate are used for some inflammatory diseases and headache. This paper reports the isolation of naringenin by semi-preparative liquid chromatography from the methanolic extract of L. gracilis (ELg) and the evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of this extract by measuring nociception through acetic acid, formalin, and hot-plate tests in carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice. Following oral administration, ELg (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of writhes in the writhing test and the time of paw licks in both phases of the formalin test when compared to the control group animals. Mice treated with ELg did not exhibit any behavioral alteration during the hot plate and rota-rod tests, suggesting non-participation of the supraspinal components in the modulation of pain by ELg and no motor abnormality. The oral administration of 400 mg/kg of ELg produced an anti-inflammatory effect on peritonitis induced by carrageenan. These effects can be associated with a decrease of inflammatory mediator synthesis by compounds of ELg, such as naringenin, which has anti-inflammatory action as already described.

  10. Ecotoxicological effects of graphene oxide on the protozoan Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Lizhi; Guo, Shaofen; Li, Xiuling

    2015-06-01

    Potential environmental risks posed by nanomaterials increase with their extensive production and application. As a newly emerging carbon material, graphene oxide (GO) exhibits excellent electrochemical properties and has promising applications in many areas. However, the ecotoxicity of GO to organisms, especially aquatic organisms, remains poorly understood. Accordingly, this study examined the toxicity of GO with protozoa Euglena gracilis as test organism. Growth inhibition test was initially performed to investigate acute toxic effects. Protozoa were subsequently exposed to GO ranging from 0.5 mg L(-1) to 5 mg L(-1) for 10 d. The growth, photosynthetic pigment content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, ultrastructure of the protozoa, as well as the shading effect of GO, were analyzed to determine the mechanism of the toxicity effect. Results showed that the 96 h EC50 value of GO in E. gracilis was 3.76±0.74 mg L(-1). GO at a concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1) exerted significant (P<0.01) adverse effects on the organism. These effects were evidenced by the inhibition of growth and the enhancement of malondialdehyde content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Shading effect and oxidative stress may be responsible for GO toxicity.

  11. Generalized receptor law governs phototaxis in the phytoplankton Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-06-02

    Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis' phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller-Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized "receptor law," a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells' accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors.

  12. Unexpectedly Streamlined Mitochondrial Genome of the Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-11-20

    In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the excavate flagellate Euglena gracilis. Its gene complement is reduced as compared with the well-studied sister groups Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. We have identified seven protein-coding genes: Three subunits of respiratory complex I (nad1, nad4, and nad5), one subunit of complex III (cob), and three subunits of complex IV (cox1, cox2, and a highly divergent cox3). Moreover, fragments of ribosomal RNA genes have also been identified. Genes encoding subunits of complex V, ribosomal proteins and tRNAs were missing, and are likely located in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial genomes of diplonemids and kinetoplastids possess the most complex RNA processing machineries known, including trans-splicing and editing of the uridine insertion/deletion type, respectively, our transcriptomic data suggest their total absence in E. gracilis. This finding supports a scenario in which the complex mitochondrial processing machineries of both sister groups evolved relatively late in evolution from a streamlined genome and transcriptome of their common predecessor.

  13. Microdissected Prefabricated Flap: An Evolution in Flap Prefabrication

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When traditional flap techniques are not feasible, we apply flap prefabrication, which is more complicated and sophisticated but supplies large and thin flaps. There are some disadvantages to the technique that require improvement, such as venous congestion after flap transfer, which requires months for neoangiogenesis and necessitates a vascular carrier. Here, the author presents a new technique, called as ‘microdissected prefabricated flap,’ to successfully produce a safe, large, and thin flap. This technique is based on the microdissection of the perforators to the greatest extent possible, spreading them out into the subdermal level and using them as a carrier. The details and the application of this technique are presented and reported. PMID:27896196

  14. Novel flaps for head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Quazi Ghazwan; Shankhdhar, Vinay Kant

    2010-04-01

    The head and neck region is important both functionally and aesthetically and its reconstruction poses a formidable challenge for plastic surgeons. A perforator flap is a flap of skin or subcutaneous tissue supplied by a vessel that perforates the deep fascia to gain access to flap. With improvement in our knowledge of the anatomy of blood supply to the skin, the perforator flaps have opened a whole new horizon for the plastic surgeon to choose flaps with better function and cosmesis. The locally available perforators enable flaps to be designed with excellent match in tissue characteristics. Perforator flaps limit donor site morbidity and as they are islanded complete insetting is possible in a single stage. The principal perforator flaps such as facial artery perforator flap, platysma flap and its variant the submental flap and supra-clavicular artery flap used in the head and neck reconstruction are discussed. The more commonly used flaps are the free radial artery forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap while the novel ones are the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, medial sural artery perforator flap and the toe-web flap for commissure reconstruction. The indications, reach and drawbacks of these flaps have been discussed in this review.

  15. Workhorse Flaps in Chest Wall Reconstruction: The Pectoralis Major, Latissimus Dorsi, and Rectus Abdominis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir; Evans, Karen K.; Carlsen, Brian T.; Arnold, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    Large and life-threatening thoracic cage defects can result from the treatment of traumatic injuries, tumors, infection, congenital anomalies, and radiation injury and require prompt reconstruction to restore respiratory function and soft tissue closure. Important factors for consideration are coverage with healthy tissue to heal a wound, the potential alteration in respiratory mechanics created by large extirpations or nonhealing thoracic wounds, and the need for immediate coverage for vital structures. The choice of technique depends on the size and extent of the defect, its location, and donor site availability with consideration to previous thoracic or abdominal operations. The focus of this article is specifically to describe the use of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominis muscle flaps for reconstruction of thoracic defects, as these are the workhorse flaps commonly used for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:22294942

  16. Lower extremity soft tissue defect reconstruction with the serratus anterior flap.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Melissa; Leto Barone, Angelo A; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Leonard, David A; Di Rosa, Luigi; Feingold, Randall S; Israeli, Ron; Cetrulo, Curtis L

    2014-03-01

    Reconstruction of limb-threatening lower extremity defects presents unique challenges. The selected method must provide adequate coverage of exposed bone, joints, and tendons while maximizing function of the limb. The traditional workhorse flaps, the free latissimus dorsi and rectus abdominis flaps, have been associated with donor site morbidity and bulkiness that can impair rehabilitation. We report a case series (n = 18) in which the free serratus anterior muscle flap and split thickness skin graft (STSG) was used for lower limb soft tissue coverage. Injuries were due to diabetes (9/18), trauma (7/18), and chronic venous stasis (2/18). A 94% flap survival rate was observed and all but one patient was ambulatory. No donor site morbidity was reported. Our series demonstrates that serratus anterior is an advantageous, reliable free flap with minimal donor site morbidity.

  17. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions.

  18. The Versatile Modiolus Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our experience using freestyle facial perforator flaps, we have located areas where perforators are consistently found. This study is focused on a particular perforator lateral to the angle of the mouth; the modiolus and the versatile modiolus perforator flap. Methods: A cohort case series of 14 modiolus perforator flap reconstructions in 14 patients and a color Doppler ultrasonography localization of the modiolus perforator in 10 volunteers. Results: All 14 flaps were successfully used to reconstruct the defects involved, and the location of the perforator was at the level of the modiolus as predicted. The color Doppler ultrasonography study detected a sizeable perforator at the level of the modiolus lateral to the angle of the mouth within a radius of 1 cm. This confirms the anatomical findings of previous authors and indicates that the modiolus perforator is a consistent anatomical finding, and flaps based on it can be recommended for several indications from the reconstruction of defects in the perioral area, cheek and nose. Conclusions: The modiolus is a well-described anatomical area containing a sizeable perforator that is consistently present and readily visualized using color Doppler ultrasonography. We have used the modiolus perforator flap successfully for several indications, and it is our first choice for perioral reconstruction. PMID:27257591

  19. Skin flaps in reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, M M

    1990-01-01

    A skin flap (pedicle graft) is a partially detached segment of skin and subcutaneous tissue that includes a blood supply essential to its survival. As a result, skin flaps are capable of closing a variety of defects, including poorly vascularized wound beds that are incapable of maintaining free grafts. In many cases, skin flaps can bypass economically many of the potential problems associated with healing by second intention. This article presents an overview of pedicle grafts, with emphasis on the clinical use of local flap techniques.

  20. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate quantitation of skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Blebea, J.; Kerr, J.C.; Franco, C.D.; Padberg, F.T. Jr.; Hobson, R.W. 2d.

    1988-08-01

    The study of ischemia and reperfusion injury in the extremity has been hampered by lack of an accurate method of measuring skeletal muscle injury. We used a bilateral isolated in vivo canine gracilis muscle model in 15 anesthetized dogs. The experimental muscles had 4, 6, or 8 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion. The contralateral gracilis muscle served as a control. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), an agent which localizes in injured muscle cells, was used to quantitate canine skeletal muscle damage. After 6 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion, there was a significant increase of 215% of 99mTc-PYP uptake in the experimental vs the control muscle. Experimental muscle uptake was 8% greater than control after 4 hours and 405% more after 8 hours of ischemia and reperfusion. Segmental distribution of 99mTc-PYP uptake showed localization to be greatest in the middle of the muscle at the entry site of the gracilis artery. Electron microscopic evaluation also documented this area to have undergone the most severe injury. Distal portions of the muscle did not show increased damage. Our results show that 99mTc-PYP effectively quantitates skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury. The pattern of 99mTc-PYP uptake suggests that considerable injury is caused during reperfusion.

  1. Tissue oxygen tension measurement for monitoring musculocutaneous and cutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Hjortdal, V E; Awwad, A M; Gottrup, F; Kirkegaard, L; Gellett, S

    1990-01-01

    In pigs, latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous island flaps and buttock skin island flaps were raised. Subcutaneous (PscO2) and intramuscular oxygen tension (PimO2) were measured using a non-heated needle electrode before, during and after repeated occlusion of the supplying artery or the draining vein. During arterial and venous occlusion, the tissue oxygen tension in the musculocutaneous flap dropped rapidly. A plateau was reached after 15 min. After arterial occlusion the mean value was 20 mmHg (SEM = +/- 5 mmHg, N = 6) in the subcutis and 16 mmHg in the muscle (SEM = +/- 4 mmHg, N = 10). After venous occlusion the mean value was 11 mmHg (SEM = +/- 3 mmHg, N = 6) in the subcutis. In the skin flap the drop of PscO2 was slower, and after 30 min of arterial occlusion the mean value was 29 mmHg (SEM = +/- 9 mmHg, N = 6). This study has shown that tissue oxygen tension measurement can be used as a sensitive indicator of acute impairment of the supplying vessels in island flaps. The method seems to have potential for monitoring free tissue transfers. A comparable decrease in PscO2 was found for arterial and venous impairment.

  2. Etanercept protects myocutaneous flaps from ischaemia reperfusion injury: An experimental study in a rat tram flap model.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Çevik, Özge; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe

    2016-08-01

    Background Being an inevitable component of free tissue transfer, ischemia-reperfusion injury tends to contribute to flap failure. TNF-α is an important proinflammatory cytokine and a prominent mediator of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-α binding protein, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in animal models of renal and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of etanercept on myocutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury on transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model in rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: In group 1 (sham), the TRAM flap was raised and sutured back without further intervention. In group 2 (control), the flap was raised and the ischemia-reperfusion protocol was followed. In group 3, etanercept (10 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histolopathological evaluations were performed on serum and tissue samples. Results In the etanercept group the IMA and 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively) were found significantly lower, and the GSH and SOD levels (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) significantly higher in comparison to the control group. The histopathological analysis has revealed a lower degree of hyalinization, degenerated muscle fibers and nuclear change in the etanercept group compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of our experimental study indicate that etanercept offers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle tissue, enhancing the TRAM flap viability. The ability of etanercept to induce ischemic tolerance suggests that it may be applicable in free-flap surgery.

  3. Chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase from Euglena gracilis: endosymbiotic gene replacement going against the tide.

    PubMed

    Nowitzki, Ulrich; Gelius-Dietrich, Gabriel; Schwieger, Maike; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William

    2004-10-01

    Two chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase isoforms from the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis were purified to homogeneity, partially sequenced, and subsequently cDNAs encoding phosphoglycerate kinase isoenzymes from both the chloroplast and cytosol of E. gracilis were cloned and sequenced. Chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase, a monomeric enzyme, was encoded as a polyprotein precursor of at least four mature subunits that were separated by conserved tetrapeptides. In a Neighbor-Net analysis of sequence similarity with homologues from numerous prokaryotes and eukaryotes, cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase of E. gracilis showed the highest similarity to cytosolic and glycosomal homologues from the Kinetoplastida. The chloroplast isoenzyme of E. gracilis did not show a close relationship to sequences from other photosynthetic organisms but was most closely related to cytosolic homologues from animals and fungi.

  4. Experimental Study on the Euglena gracilis for Micro-Transportation using a Phototatic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Nguyen, Vu Dat; Byun, Doyoung

    2012-11-01

    Recently, there has been growing interests in micro or nano-scale biological organisms for the micro-robotics to develop actively controlled micro or nano-level machines. The Euglena gracilis is a genus of unicellular protists, whose body size ranges from 30 to 70 μm. The Euglena gracilis contains an eyespot, a primitive organelle that filters sunlight into the light-detecting, photo-sensitive structures. It actively swims at the base of the flagellum. In this study, we investigated the controllability of Euglena gracilis for transporting a structure attaching itself. When a LED light is detected, the Euglena gracilis accordingly adjust its position to enhance photosynthesis. Using the phototactic control, we achieved the efficient transportation of a micro-structure. Partially funded by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF, 2011-0016461) and the Industrial Core Technology Development Project through the Ministry of Knowledge and Commerce.

  5. Complex posterior thoracic wall reconstruction using a crossover combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior free flap.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Frédéric; Dissaux, Caroline; Steib, Jean-Paul; Massard, Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    Radical resection of an extended malignant sarcoma of the chest wall requires full-thickness thoracic chest wall reconstruction. Reconstruction is tedious in the case of posteriorly located tumours, because the ipsilateral pedicled myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap is involved and hence not usable for soft tissue coverage. We report an original case of a left giant dorsal chondrosarcoma originating from the 11th costovertebral joint. After extended resection and skeletal reconstruction, soft tissue coverage was achieved with an original contralateral free flap encompassing both latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles. The flap pedicle was anastomosed to the ipsilateral thoracodorsal vessels.

  6. Interdigitated craniotomy: a simple technique to fix a bone flap with only a single plate.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noboru; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Saito, Keiichi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-10-01

    In pterional craniotomy, fixation plates cause artifacts on postoperative radiological images; furthermore, they often disfigure the scalp in hairless areas. The authors describe a simple technique to fix a cranial bone flap with only a single plate underneath the temporalis muscle in an area with hair, rather than using a plate in a hairless area. The key to this technique is to cut the anterior site of the bone flap at alternate angles on the cut surface. Interdigitation between the bone flap and skull enables single-plate fixation in the area with hair, which reduces artifacts on postoperative radiological images and provides excellent postoperative cosmetic results.

  7. Synthesis of Proteins by Isolated Euglena gracilis Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Aurea C.

    1976-01-01

    Intact Euglena gracilis chloroplasts, which had been purified on gradients of silica sol, incorporated [35S]methionine or [3H]leucine into soluble and membrane-bound products, using light as the only source of energy. The chloroplasts were osmotically shocked, fractionated on discontinuous gradients of sucrose, and the products of protein synthesis of the different fractions characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The soluble fraction resolved into three zones of radioactivity, the major one corresponding to the large subunit or ribulose diphosphate carboxylase. The thylakoid membrane fraction contained nine labeled polypeptides, the two most prominent in the region of 31 and 42 kilodaltons. The envelope fraction contained a major radioactive peak of about 48 kilodaltons and four other minor peaks. The patterns of protein synthesis by isolated Euglena chloroplasts are broadly similar to those observed with chloroplasts of spinach and pea. PMID:16659752

  8. Long-term cultivation of the flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Porst, M; Lebert, M; Hader, D P

    1997-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a unicellular photosynthetic flagellate, serves as a model system in signal transduction research. To further study its complex gravitaxis, experiments under microgravity are desirable. In preparation for long-term experiments on a space station, an autonomous cultivation unit has been developed and the culture conditions and surveillance methods have been established. The running time of more than 600 d under closed conditions with light as the only source of energy confirmed the stability of the Euglena population and gave new insights into its behavior. Physicochemical parameters such as oxygen concentration, temperature and pH as well as physiological parameters including cell density, motility, gravitactic orientation and pigmentation were recorded on a frequent basis. The suitability of the botanical bioreaction to serve as an oxygen supplier for animals in a closed system was demonstrated.

  9. Motion of Euglena gracilis: Active fluctuations and velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, P.; Romensky, M.; Scholz, D.; Lobaskin, V.; Schimansky-Geier, L.

    2015-07-01

    We study the velocity distribution of unicellular swimming algae Euglena gracilis using optical microscopy and active Brownian particle theory. To characterize a peculiar feature of the experimentally observed distribution at small velocities we use the concept of active fluctuations, which was recently proposed for the description of stochastically self-propelled particles [Romanczuk, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230601 (2011)]. In this concept, the fluctuating forces arise due to internal random performance of the propulsive motor. The fluctuating forces are directed in parallel to the heading direction, in which the propulsion acts. In the theory, we introduce the active motion via the depot model [Schweitzer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5044 (1998)]. We demonstrate that the theoretical predictions based on the depot model with active fluctuations are consistent with the experimentally observed velocity distributions. In addition to the model with additive active noise, we obtain theoretical results for a constant propulsion with multiplicative noise.

  10. [Gamma-radiation action on cells of algae Euglena gracilis].

    PubMed

    Glinkova, E; Zhuchkina, N I; Koltovoĭ, N A; Koltovaia, N A

    2012-01-01

    Considering the potentials of algae Euglena to constitute a part of biological systems of human life support, effects of low radiation doses on algal cells and radiosensitivity dependence on their genotype were studied. In experiments with gamma-irradiation (60Co) of Euglena gracilis, the highest radioresistance was demonstrated by strain Z. OFL; the chloroplasts lacking Z-derived strain showed hypersensitivity to radiation. E. bacillaris and derived chlorophyll-lacking strains W3 and W10 had intermediate radiosensitivity. Irradiation with the doses of up to 10 Gy produced a hormetic effect in the stock strains. Cells death was observed only after irradiation by doses above 100 Gy. The stimulating effect was exerted both on radioresistance and growth rate. Dyes made possible rapid evaluation of the proportion of living and dead cells. Comparison of two survival tests showed that the classic medium inoculation overestimates cell deaths as it disregards the living non-proliferating cells.

  11. Minor pregnanes from Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kommidi Devendar; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Braca, Alessandra; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwar; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora (Asclepiadaceae) whole plant extracts allowed to isolate one pregnane glycoside and two pregnanes characterized as 12β,20-O-dibenzoyl-5α,6-dihydrosarcostin β-oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-digitoxypyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranoside (1), 12β-O-benzoyl-3β,11α,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (2), and 11α-O-benzoyl-3β,12β,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (3), respectively. Their structural characterization was obtained on the basis of extensive NMR spectral studies. Three known pregnane glycosides along with lupeol and β-sitosterol were also isolated and characterized.

  12. Localization of vitamin B12 binding in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Houde, M; Sarhan, F

    1990-03-01

    Different fractionation procedures were used to determine the location of vitamin B12 binding sites in Euglena gracilis. Using uptake measurements, cell fractionation, and light and electron microscopy, the cuticle of the cell was found to be the fraction containing the majority of B12 binding sites. The apparent distribution of vitamin binding sites differed according to the cell lysis method used. The cuticle fraction was responsible for the binding of 80% of the vitamin taken up by the cell during both the rapid and the slow phase of uptake. These results suggest that vitamin B12 binding is regulated, in part, at the cuticle level, and support our previous conclusion that the secondary phase of uptake represents the synthesis of new receptor sites and not the unloading of vitamin inside the cell.

  13. Metabolism in pedicled and free TRAM flaps: a comparison using the microdialysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edsander-Nord, Asa; Röjdmark, Jonas; Wickman, Marie

    2002-02-01

    The most common complication in flap surgery is of a circulatory nature. Impeded blood flow leads to altered metabolism in the tissue. Possible metabolic differences between different zones of the transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap were studied and the metabolism of pedicled and free TRAM flaps was compared intraoperatively and postoperatively. The method used was microdialysis, which is a useful technique for following local metabolic changes continuously in various tissues.Twenty-two patients with a pedicled or free TRAM flap were monitored using the microdialysis technique. Two microdialysis catheters were placed subcutaneously in the flap (zone I and zone II), and a third one was placed subcutaneously in the flank to serve as a control. The flaps were monitored intraoperatively and postoperatively for 3 days with repeated analyses of extracellular glucose, lactate, and glycerol concentrations. An additional analysis of pyruvate was performed in some patients to calculate the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. This study showed that glucose, lactate, and glycerol change in a characteristic way when complete ischemia (i.e., complete inhibition of the blood circulation) is present. A slower stabilization with prolonged metabolic signs of ischemia, such as lower glucose and higher lactate and glycerol concentrations, was seen in zone II compared with zone I, and more pronounced metabolic signs of ischemia, but with a faster recovery, were detected in the free TRAM flap group than in the pedicled TRAM flap group. The fact that the metabolites returned to normal earlier in free flaps than in pedicled flaps may indicate that free TRAM flaps sustain less ischemic damage because of better and more vigorous perfusion.

  14. Fasciocutaneous flap reinforcement of ventral onlay buccal mucosa grafts enables neophallus revision urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stelios C.; Stranix, John T.; Khurana, Kiranpreet; Morrison, Shane D.; Levine, Jamie P.; Zhao, Lee C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urethral strictures or fistulas are common complications after phalloplasty. Neourethral defects pose a difficult reconstructive challenge using standard techniques as there is generally insufficient ventral tissue to support a graft urethroplasty. We report our experience with local fasciocutaneous flaps for support of ventrally-placed buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in phalloplasty. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent phalloplasty and subsequently required revision urethroplasty using BMGs between 2011 and 2015 was completed. Techniques, complications, additional procedures, and outcomes were examined. Results: A total of three patients previously underwent phalloplasty with sensate radial forearm free flaps (RFFFs): two female-to-male (FTM) gender reassignment, and one oncologic penectomy. Mean age at revision urethroplasty was 41 years (range 31–47). Indications for surgery were: one meatal stenosis, four urethral strictures (mean length 3.6 ± 2.9 cm), and two urethrocutaneous fistulas. The urethral anastomosis at the base of the neophallus was the predominant location for complications: 3/4 strictures, and 2/2 fistulas. Medial thigh (2) or scrotal (1) fasciocutaneous flaps were used to support the BMG for urethroplasty. One stricture recurrence at 3 years required single-stage ventral BMG urethroplasty supported by a gracilis musculocutaneous flap. All patients were able to void from standing at mean follow up of 8.7 months (range 6–13). A total of two patients (66%) subsequently had successful placement of a penile prosthesis. Conclusions: Our early results indicate that local or regional fasciocutaneous flaps enable ventral placement of BMGs for revision urethroplasty after phalloplasty. PMID:27904649

  15. Gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis depends only partially on passive buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Peter R.; Schuster, Martin; Lebert, Michael; Streb, Christine; Häder, Donat-Peter

    In darkness, the unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a pronounced negative gravitactic behavior, and the cells swim actively upward in the water column. Up to now it was unclear whether this behavior is based on a passive (physical) alignment mechanism (e.g., buoyancy due to a fore-aft asymmetry of the cell body) or on an active physiological mechanism. A sounding rocket experiment was performed in which the effect of sub-1g-accelerations (0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.2g) on untreated living cells and immobilized (fixation with liquid nitrogen) cells was observed. By means of computerized image analysis the angles of the cells long axis with respect to the acceleration vector were analyzed in order to calculate and compare the reorientation kinetics of the immobilized cells versus that of the controls. In both groups, the reorientation kinetics depended on the dose, but the reorientation of the living cells was about five times faster than that of the immobilized cells. This indicates that in young cells gravitaxis can be explained by a physical mechanism only to a small extend. In older cultures, in which the cells often have a drop shaped cell body, the physical reorientation is considerably faster, and a more pronounced influence of passive alignment caused by fore/aft asymmetry (drag-gravity model) can not be excluded. In addition to these results, Euglena gracilis cells seem to respond very sensitively to small accelerations when they are applied after a longer microgravity period. The data indicate that gravitactic orientation occurred at an acceleration as low as 0.05g.

  16. The Syllis gracilis species complex: A molecular approach to a difficult taxonomic problem (Annelida, Syllidae).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis and suggested the possibility of it being a species complex. In order to assess the speciation patterns within the putative S. gracilis complex, we undertook species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses on 61 specimens morphologically ascribed to Syllis gracilis and closely related species using a multilocus molecular dataset (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). Our results suggest high levels of genetic differentiation between the S. gracilis populations analyzed, some of which have morphologically distinctive features. Five to eight distinct lineages (depending on the analysis) were identified, all with geographically restricted distributions. Although the presence of ypsiloid chaetae has been traditionally considered the main character to identify S. gracilis, we conclude that this feature is homoplastic. Instead, we propose that characters such as the degree of fusion of blades and shafts in chaetae, the morphology of the posterior chaetae or the animal color pattern should be considered to differentiate lineages within the S. gracilis species complex. Our study does not support the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis, and instead provides morphological and molecular evidence of the existence of a complex of pseudo-cryptic species.

  17. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery: a new design for repairing composite tissue defects in anterior knee.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangfeng; Nie, Kaiyu; Jin, Wenhu; Wei, Zairong; Qi, Jianping; Wang, Dali

    2015-01-01

    So far it has been difficult to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. Saphenous artery flap has been widely used to repair complex wounds, but the design and clinical application of composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery were not reported. In this research, we design a new composite tissue flap by carrying fascial flap in the medial gastrocnemius muscle with perforators flap in saphenous artery to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. By anatomic observation and analysis, we find that there exists blood-supply in netty form among saphenous arteries, medial artery below the knee, intermuscular branch in high-order position of posterior tibial artery and perforating branch in medial artery of calf. We chose saphenous artery as blood-supplying artery; utilized the netty blood-supplying mode in middle-up and medial part of shank; cut the composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle; reconstructed the ligamentum patellae using medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles's tendon; and covered the wounds at front side of knee with flap. Composite tissues were survived completely, free from infection at wounds and exosmosis of joint fluid. Motion function of knee-joint proved satisfactory, and ambulatory function was recovered. There was no complication in donor site. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle is one of the most ideal solutions for repairing the composite tissue defects at front side of knee joint.

  18. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  19. Bare serratus anterior free flap in the reconstruction of the partial pharyngoesophageal defect.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Kemal; Karsidag, Tamer; Akcal, Arzu; Karsidag, Semra; Yazar, Memet; Seven, Hüseyin

    2011-05-01

    Reconstruction of defects of the cervical esophagus is a challenge in head and neck surgery. Several methods have been used: flaps with local tissues, pharyngogastric anastomosis, deltopectoral skin flaps, skin muscle transplant from the pectoralis major, and microvascularized free skin fascial and small intestine flaps. A 81-year-old patient who has a partial pharyngoesophageal defect after resection of laryngeal carcinoma underwent reconstruction with bare serratus anterior fascial free flap. The subscapular artery and vein were anastomosed to the superior thyroid artery and vein. The patient's postoperative recovery went uneventfully. In the endoscopic examination, the defect was completely covered with native mucosa 8 weeks after surgery, and also, there were no stricture and fistula tract in the reconstructed area.Serratus fascial flap is a thin and pliable flap with good and reliable vascularity; it can be used in the reconstruction of partial cervical esophageal defect with its long pedicle. Serratus fascial flap can provide significant epithelialization that cannot be differentiated from native esophagus. We propose that serratus fascial free flap is an important alternative in esophageal reconstructions because it creates minimal donor-site morbidity and it can easily adapt to the defect.

  20. An extended approach for the vascular pedicle of the lateral arm free flap.

    PubMed

    Moffett, T R; Madison, S A; Derr, J W; Acland, R D

    1992-02-01

    We present an extension of the surgical approach for harvesting the lateral upper arm free flap by which an additional 6 to 8 cm of pedicle length may be gained. First, the flap is raised by the standard lateral approach. Then, by proceeding proximally and posteriorly, the triceps muscle is split between its lateral and long heads to expose the entire length of the profunda brachii vessels in the spiral groove. A tunnel is developed beneath the lateral head of the triceps, and the flap or its pedicle is delivered through this. We describe the surgical technique and present details of a dissection study on 25 fresh cadaver limbs. The nerve branches to the lateral head of the triceps, which are close to the vessels of the flap, are highly variable in number and location. When unusually short and distally placed, they are at risk of damage, but damage can be avoided if the tunnel is not unduly widened. We present our early clinical experience in 10 consecutive cases using the extended-pedicle lateral arm flap. The free pedicle length in this series ranged from 8 to 13 cm. The maximum flap size was 5 x 19 cm. All cases were successful, although one required reoperation for venous thrombosis. Although postoperative testing of upper arm muscle function showed some weakness and impaired endurance, this was found equally in the surgically disturbed triceps and in the untouched elbow flexors and thus could not be attributed to motor nerve damage to the triceps muscle.

  1. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 35.88 μg/mL) and CVA16 (IC50 = 42.91 μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

  2. Succinate and Lactate Production from Euglena gracilis during Dark, Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yuko; Yoshioka, Kazumasa; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakashima, Ayaka; Iwata, Osamu; Suzuki, Kengo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a eukaryotic, unicellular phytoflagellate that has been widely studied in basic science and applied science. Under dark, anaerobic conditions, the cells of E. gracilis produce a wax ester that can be converted into biofuel. Here, we demonstrate that under dark, anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis excretes organic acids, such as succinate and lactate, which are bulk chemicals used in the production of bioplastics. The levels of succinate were altered by changes in the medium and temperature during dark, anaerobic incubation. Succinate production was enhanced when cells were incubated in CM medium in the presence of NaHCO3. Excretion of lactate was minimal in the absence of external carbon sources, but lactate was produced in the presence of glucose during dark, anaerobic incubation. E. gracilis predominantly produced L-lactate; however, the percentage of D-lactate increased to 28.4% in CM medium at 30°C. Finally, we used a commercial strain of E. gracilis for succinate production and found that nitrogen-starved cells, incubated under dark, anaerobic conditions, produced 869.6 mg/L succinate over a 3-day incubation period, which was 70-fold higher than the amount produced by nitrogen-replete cells. This is the first study to demonstrate organic acid excretion by E. gracilis cells and to reveal novel aspects of primary carbon metabolism in this organism. PMID:28066371

  3. [Anatomic changes after radical surgery and reconstruction with pedunculated or revascularized flaps in advanced head and neck tumors: computerized tomography and magnetic resonance findings].

    PubMed

    Osti, M F; Scattoni Padovan, F; Ricciardi, D; De Angelis D'Ossat, M; Sbarbati, S; Pirolli, C; Maurizi Enrici, R; Anaveri, G

    1997-04-01

    January, 1992, to October, 1995, sixty-four patients with advanced head and neck cancer underwent head and neck reconstructive surgery using myocutaneous or revascularized flaps; in the same period, all patients were consecutively examined with CT and MRI. Myocutaneous flaps wer used in 26 patients: 12 flaps were tubular and 14 linear. Revascularized flaps were used in 38 patients: to repair a large defect in 26 patients (14 latissimus dorsi flaps and 12 temporal muscle flaps) and to repair an oral damage in 12 patients (5 revascularized radial and 7 jejunal flaps). CT and MR images of myocutaneous flaps showed the flaps as fatty areas, repairing large surgical defects, hypodense at CT and hyperintense at MRI, with no post-contrast enhancement. The postoperative scar around the flap exhibited soft-tissue density with slight post-contrast enhancement at CT and slightly hypodense on T2-weighted MR images. Post-contrast CT and MRI showed slight scar enhancement with no signal changes in the fatty component. The appearance of revascularized flaps at CT and MRI depends on the characteristics of the structure used to repair the surgical defect: jejunal and radial flaps appeared as mostly fatty thickened layers with both imaging methods. Temporal and latissimus dorsi flaps are made basically of muscular tissue, fatty tissue and occasionally skin (used to repair a mucosal defect): consequently, CT showed a structure with mostly parenchymal density in all cases and MRI depicted intermediate signal intensity. MRI was useful to detect 12 revascularized jejunal or radial flaps thanks to its higher contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities showing even such thin structures as these flaps. Moreover, MRI permitted to study skull base reconstruction with revascularized (latissimus dorsi) flaps in 5 of our patients.

  4. Analysis of evolutionary relationship between Astasia longa and Euglena gracilis by using RAPD Technique and cladistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang-Xin; Shi, Zhi-Xin; Gan, Xiao-Ni; Xie, Shu-Lian

    2001-03-01

    Although both Astasia longa and Euglena gracilis belong to different genera, they share many morphological characters except that A. longa has no chloroplast. In the 1940's, on the basis of the finding that in darkness or upon addition of some chemicals, E. gracilis would fade reversibly or irreversibly, some scholars hypothesised that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis by losing chloroplast. The author's use of RAPD and cladistic analyses in a study on the evolutionary relationship between A. longa and E. gracilis showed that the A. longa's relationship with E. gracilis was closer than that with other green euglenoids. This proves the hypothesis that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis is reasonable. The results of this study suggest that saprophytic colorless euglenoids were transformed from green euglenoids by losing their choroplasts.

  5. The propeller flap for chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C; Figus, A; Mazzocchi, M; Dessy, L A; Martano, A

    2009-10-01

    The goals of the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis are infection eradication with systemic antibiotic therapy and local management with radical excision of the infected tissue and obliteration of the remaining dead space. Adequate debridement and coverage with a well-vascularised tissue are mandatory for successful outcomes. Use of muscle covering for chronic osteomyelitis in the lower extremities is considered the best procedure. However, there have been instances where debridement of the bone tissue did not leave a deep cavity along the leg bones and fasciocutaneous flaps can be used in these instances to cover the defect and to restore function without recurrence of the disease. Recently, free non-muscle flaps have been used and assessed for chronic osteomyelitis or covering of exposed bone. Perforator flaps have been shown to be well vascularised due to a structural haemodynamic enhancement. In the light of these findings we report a successful case of chronic osteomyelitis of the right fibula treated with excision of the affected tissue and covering with a propeller flap. Instead of free flap covering, in order to optimise surgical reconstruction, reducing the operative time, donor and recipient site morbidity and risk of total flap failure, local perforator flaps and particularly the propeller flap may be indicated in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in selected patients when the defect is limited and there is no need to fill a deep bone cavity or a dead space. To our knowledge, this the first report of the use of a propeller flap in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in the lower extremities.

  6. Purification, characterization, and immunological properties of fumarase from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, H; Gardiner, W E; Schwartzbach, S D

    1985-01-01

    A rapid three-step procedure utilizing heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and affinity chromatography on Matrex gel Orange A purified fumarase (EC 4.2.1.2) 632-fold with an 18% yield from crude extracts of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris. The apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme was 120,000 as determined by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The preparation was over 95% pure, and the subunit molecular weight was 60,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme is a dimer composed of two identical subunits. The pH optimum for E. gracilis fumarase was 8.4. The Km values for malate and fumarate were 1.4 and 0.031 mM, respectively. Preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to further purify the enzyme for antibody production. On Ouchterlony double-immunodiffusion gels, the antifumarase serum gave a sharp precipitin line against total E. gracilis protein and purified E. gracilis fumarase. It did not cross-react with purified pig heart fumarase. On immunoblots of purified E. gracilis fumarase and crude cell extracts of E. gracilis, the antibody recognized a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 60,000, indicating that the antibody is monospecific. This polypeptide was found in E. gracilis mitochondria. The antibody cross-reacted with an Escherichia coli protein whose molecular weight was approximately 60,000, the reported molecular weight of the fumA gene product of E. coli, but it failed to cross-react with proteins found in crude mouse cell extracts, Bacillus subtilis extracts, or purified pig heart fumarase. Images PMID:3932328

  7. Inertial focusing of ellipsoidal Euglena gracilis cells in a stepped microchannel.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Muñoz, H E; Schmidt, A; Guo, B; Lei, C; Goda, K; Di Carlo, D

    2016-11-01

    Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently been attracting attention as a potential renewable source for the production of biofuels, livestock feed, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. Research has focused on strain isolation, productivity improvement, nutrient and resource allocation, and co-product production, key steps that ultimately determine the economic viability and compatibility of the biomass produced. To achieve these characteristics, approaches to select E. gracilis mutants with desirable properties, such as high wax ester content, high growth rate, and high environmental tolerance for biodiesel and biomass production, are needed. Flow-based analysis and sorting can be rapid and highly automated but calls for techniques that can precisely control the position of E. gracilis with varying sizes and shapes in a tightly focused stream in a high-throughput manner. In this work, we use a stepped microchannel consisting of a low-aspect-ratio straight channel and a series of expansion regions along the channel height. We study horizontal and vertical focusing, orientation, rotational, and translational behaviors of E. gracilis as a function of aspect ratio (AR) and channel Reynolds number (Re). By making use of inertial focusing and local secondary flows, E. gracilis with diverse shapes are directed to a single equilibrium position in a single focal stream. As an application of on-chip flow cytometry, we integrate a focusing microchip with a custom laser-two-focus (L2F) optical system and demonstrate the detection of chlorophyll autofluorescence as well as the measurement of the velocity of E. gracilis cells flowing through the microchannel.

  8. Investigation of the Gracilaria gracilis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) proteome response to nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Rene K; Rafudeen, Muhammad S; Coyne, Vernon E

    2016-06-01

    Inorganic nitrogen has been identified as the major growth-limiting nutritional factor affecting Gracilaria gracilis populations in South Africa. Although the physiological mechanisms implemented by G. gracilis for adaption to low nitrogen environments have been investigated, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these adaptions. This study provides the first investigation of G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and subsequent recovery. A differential proteomics approach employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery. The putative identity of 22 proteins that changed significantly (P < 0.05) in abundance in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery was determined. The identified proteins function in a range of biological processes including glycolysis, photosynthesis, ATP synthesis, galactose metabolism, protein-refolding and biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and cytoskeleton remodeling. The identity of fructose 1,6 biphosphate (FBP) aldolase was confirmed by western blot analysis and the decreased abundance of FBP aldolase observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was validated by enzyme assays and western blots. The identification of key proteins and pathways involved in the G. gracilis nitrogen stress response provide a better understanding of G. gracilis proteome responses to varying degrees of nitrogen limitation and is the first step in the identification of biomarkers for monitoring the nitrogen status of cultivated G. gracilis populations.

  9. A case report of total breast reconstruction using an inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can be used in combination with autologous flaps such as a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap to achieve symmetry. However, the LD and TDAP flaps require a different skin incision from that which is used for the mastectomy. As a new autologous flap for use in combination with prosthetic-based breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), we used an inframammary adipofascial flap. Presentation of case The patient was a 27-year-old female with moderate ptotic breasts, who had ductal carcinoma in situ in the lower outer quadrant of her left breast. After NSM through the inframammary fold (IMF) incision, the subcutaneous fat of the intended inframammary area was undermined, and the tongue shaped adipofascial flap was pulled up in the intended area. After inserting a tissue expander under the major pectoral muscle, this adipofascial flap was reflected back to the inferior portion of the breast area. After modeling the breast mound with this flap, the inframammary skin incision was sutured. Eleven months later, the patient underwent surgery to replace the expander with a permanent implant. Eight months after the replacement with an implant, the cosmetic result is good. Discussion This procedure can be performed through the same skin incision on the IMF as NSM. Total breast reconstruction using the inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant can be an alternative approach to achieving symmetry in some patients. Conclusion This method is useful for breast reconstruction after NSM for young patients with moderate-ptotic breasts. PMID:27107500

  10. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  11. Dancing girl flap: a new flap suitable for web release.

    PubMed

    Shinya, K

    1999-12-01

    To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.

  12. An Innovative Solution to Complex Inguinal Defect: Deepithelialized SIEA Flap With Mini Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Daggett, Justin; Harrington, Michael; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We describe a novel technique of contralateral pedicled deepithelialized superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps, followed by abdominal advancement coverage, as an alternative treatment of radiated complicated inguinal or lower abdominal defects, avoiding the donor-site defect typically seen with other methods of coverage. Methods: Two male patients with histories of liposarcoma after excision and radiation to one side of lower abdomen/inguinal area presented with complicated wounds that were reconstructed with this technique. Results: Successful obliteration of dead space and wound closure were achieved with the combination of a superficial inferior epigastric artery flap with an abdominal advancement flap. In each case, patients went on to heal uneventfully without need for any secondary procedures. Discussion: The use of a superficial inferior epigastric artery flap for lower abdomen/groin defect closure is an option as an alternative to rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap and anterolateral thigh flaps and should be considered in patients with vascular anatomy conducive for this muscle-sparing procedure. Conclusions: A second layer-overlay coverage with an abdominal advancement flap creates a more durable repair in the complicated radiated wound and a well-concealed abdominoplasty scar. PMID:28197296

  13. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  14. Isolation of Mutants of Euglena gracilis With Impaired Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Russell, George K.; Lyman, Harvard

    1968-01-01

    Four mutant strains of Euglena gracilis have been isolated after treatment of wild type cells with ultraviolet light or the chemical mutagen nitrosoguanidine. None of the mutants is capable of autotrophic growth or photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation. The mutant strains contain normal amounts of the enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and are qualitatively similar to the wild type in pigment composition, but are unable to carry out the Hill reaction (light induced reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol). Isolated mutant plastids cannot photoreduce NADP with water as the electron donor but can carry out this reaction when the electron donating system is ascorbate and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. Whole cells of the mutants show the light induced oxidation of cytochrome f by light reaction I but are unable to bring about cytochrome f reduction by light reaction II. The mutants appear to be blocked at or near light reaction II in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The mutants may represent alterations of the chloroplast genome since the mutation isolation was carried out under conditions where chloroplast viability was severely impaired, but cell viability was unaffected. PMID:5700022

  15. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions.

    PubMed

    Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

    1996-04-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  16. Generalized receptor law governs phototaxis in the phytoplankton Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis’ phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller–Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized “receptor law,” a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells’ accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors. PMID:25964338

  17. Identification and functional analysis of peroxiredoxin isoforms in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Shun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Euglena gracilis lacks catalase and contains ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which is localized exclusively in the cytosol. Other enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Euglena have not yet been identified; therefore, ROS metabolism, especially in organelles, remains unclear in Euglena. The full-length cDNAs of four Euglena peroxiredoxins (EgPrxs) were isolated in this study. EgPrx1 and -4 were predicted to be localized in the cytosol, and EgPrx2 and -3 in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies of recombinant EgPrxs were similar to those of plant thiol-peroxidases, but were markedly lower than those of APX from Euglena. However, transcript levels of EgPrx1, -2, and -3 were markedly higher than those of APX. The growth rate of Euglena cells, in which the expression of EgPrx1 and -4 was suppressed by gene silencing, was markedly reduced under normal conditions, indicating physiological significance of Prx proteins.

  18. Refolding and characterization of methionine adenosyltransferase from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Francisco; Estrela, Sylvie; Alves, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Gabino F; Sillero, Antonio; Pajares, María A

    2011-09-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase from Euglena gracilis (MATX) is a recently discovered member of the MAT family of proteins that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine. Heterologous overexpression of MATX in Escherichia coli rendered the protein mostly in inclusion bodies under all conditions tested. Therefore, a refolding and purification procedure from these aggregates was developed to characterize the enzyme. Maximal recovery was obtained using inclusion bodies devoid of extraneous proteins by washing under mild urea (2M) and detergent (5%) concentrations. Refolding was achieved in two steps following solubilization in the presence of Mg(2+); chaotrope dilution to <1M and dialysis under reducing conditions. Purified MATX is a homodimer that exhibits Michaelis kinetics with a V(max) of 1.46 μmol/min/mg and K(m) values of approximately 85 and 260 μM for methionine and ATP, respectively. The activity is dependent on Mg(2+) and K(+) ions, but is not stimulated by dimethylsulfoxide. MATX exhibits tripolyphosphatase activity that is stimulated in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine. Far-UV circular dichroism revealed β-sheet and random coil as the main secondary structure elements of the protein. The high level of sequence conservation allowed construction of a structural model that preserved the main features of the MAT family, the major changes involving the N-terminal domain.

  19. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-05-23

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel.

  20. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions–a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY505/515, and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  1. Toxic effects of individual and combined effects of BTEX on Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Lee, Jong-Wha; Sichani, Homa Teimouri; Ng, Jack C

    2015-03-02

    BTEX is a group of volatile organic compounds consisting of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Environmental contamination of BTEX can occur in the groundwater with their effects on the aquatic organisms and ecosystem being sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of individual and mixed BTEX on Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis). We examined the growth rate, morphological changes and chlorophyll contents in E. gracilis Z and its mutant SMZ cells treated with single and mixture of BTEX. BTEX induced morphological change, formation of lipofuscin, and decreased chlorophyll content of E. gracilis Z in a dose response manner. The toxicity of individual BTEX on cell growth and chlorophyll inhibition is in the order of xylenes>ethylbenzene>toluene>benzene. SMZ was found more sensitive to BTEX than Z at much lower concentrations between 0.005 and 5 μM. The combined effect of mixed BTEX on chlorophyll contents was shown to be concentration addition (CA). Results from this study suggested that E. gracilis could be a suitable model for monitoring BTEX in the groundwater and predicting the combined effects on aqueous ecosystem.

  2. Flap monitoring using infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Alex; Wright, Leigh P.; Elmandjra, Mohamed; Mao, Jian-min

    2006-02-01

    We report results of clinical trials on flap monitoring in 65 plastic surgeries. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation of flap tissue (StO II) was monitored non-invasively by using ODISsey TM tissue oximeter, an infrared spectroscopic device. StO II measurements were conducted both intra-operatively and post-operatively. From the intra-operative measurements, we observed that StO II values dropped when the main blood vessels supplying the flap were clamped in surgery, and that StO II jumped after anastomosis to a value close to its pre-operative value. From post-operative monitoring measurements for the 65 flap cases, each lasted two days or so, we found that the StO II values approach to a level close to the baseline if the surgery was successful, and that the StO II value dropped to a value below 30% if there is a perfusion compromise, such as vascular thrombosis.

  3. Full scale upper surface blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  4. Tadalafil significantly reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in skin island flaps

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Cuzdan, Suat S.; Uysal, Afsin; Kocer, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous pharmacological agents have been used to enhance the viability of flaps. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unwanted, sometimes devastating complication in reconstructive microsurgery. Tadalafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 is mainly used for erectile dysfunction, and acts on vascular smooth muscles, platelets and leukocytes. Herein, the protective and therapeutical effect of tadalafil in I/R injury in rat skin flap model is evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sixty epigastric island flaps were used to create I/R model in 60 Wistar rats (non-ischemic group, ischemic group, medication group). Biochemical markers including total nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analysed. Necrosis rates were calculated and histopathologic evaluation was carried out. Results: MDA, MPO and total nitrite values were found elevated in the ischemic group, however there was an evident drop in the medication group. Histological results revealed that early inflammatory findings (oedema, neutrophil infiltration, necrosis rate) were observed lower with tadalafil administration. Moreover, statistical significance (P < 0.05) was recorded. Conclusions: We conclude that tadalafil has beneficial effects on epigastric island flaps against I/R injury. PMID:23960309

  5. Omental flap for treatment of dead space after left upper lobectomy due to aspergilloma

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joonho; Haam, Seokjin

    2016-01-01

    Dead space formation in the thoracic cavity as a result of lung parenchymal resection is particularly prone to intra-thoracic infections, which are often hard to treat with systemic antibiotics; secondary interventions, such as thoracoplasty, eloesser flap, or muscle flap may be required to treat this complication. Alternatively, use of an omental flap represents an attractive option in cases of surgical cavities, due to the volumetric and immunologic advantages associated with the omentum. A 55-year-old male patient, who underwent left upper lobectomy due to an aspergilloma, was left with a surgical cavity that became infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To address this complication, we performed a reconstruction of the left upper lung field through the substernal route using a section of the omental flap, and the infection was clinically eradicated. PMID:28066661

  6. Autologous reconstruction of a complex form of Poland syndrome using 2 abdominal perforator free flaps.

    PubMed

    Masia, Jaume; Pons, Gemma; Loschi, Pietro; Sanchez Porro-Gil, Lidia; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Olivares, Leyre

    2015-05-01

    Poland syndrome is the most frequent cause of congenital breast aplasia and hypoplasia. Breast and possible chest wall deformities can be treated with several surgical techniques, including implants, and pedicled or free flaps.We describe the case of a young patient with severe Poland syndrome with amastia, athelia, and deformity of the chest wall, and aplasia of 2 ribs. Marked hypoplasia of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle ruled out a reliable reconstructive option.Two perforator flaps were performed in a single-stage operation. A hemi-deep inferior epigastric perforator flap was harvested to correct the chest deformity, whereas the contralateral superficial inferior epigastric artery flap allowed breast reconstruction.No complications occurred and a subjectively and objectively pleasing cosmetic result was maintained at 3-year follow-up.

  7. Endoscopic Transmaxillary Transposition of Temporalis Flap for Recurrent Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Closure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Regi; Girishan, Shabari; Chacko, Ari George

    2016-12-01

    Objective To describe the technique of endoscopic transmaxillary temporalis muscle flap transposition for the repair of a persistent postoperative sphenoidal cerebrospinal fluid leak. Design The repair of a recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leak for a patient who had undergone endoscopic transsphenoidal excision of an invasive silent corticotroph Hardy C and Knosp Grade IV pituitary adenoma was undertaken. The patient had completed postoperative radiotherapy for the residual tumor and presented with cerebrospinal fluid leak, 1 year later. The initial two attempts to repair the cerebrospinal fluid leak with free grafts failed. Therefore, an endoscopic transmaxillary transposition of the temporalis muscle flap was attempted to stop the cerebrospinal fluid leak. Results The endoscopic transmaxillary transposition of the vascularized temporalis muscle flap onto the cerebrospinal fluid leak repair site resulted in successful closure of the cerebrospinal fluid leak. Conclusion Endoscopic transmaxillary transposition of the temporalis flap resulted in closure of recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leak in a patient with recurrent pituitary adenoma, who had undergone previous surgery and radiotherapy. This technique has advantages over the endoscopic transpterygoid transposition of the same flap and could be used as a complementary technique in selected patients.

  8. The rat saphenous flap: a fasciocutaneous free flap model without panniculus carnosus.

    PubMed

    Mutaf, M; Tasaki, Y; Tanaka, K; Fujii, T

    1995-10-01

    The rat saphenous flap is described as a new experimental model for free flap studies. This is a fasciocutaneous free flap based on the saphenofemoral vascular pedicle. The flap may include the entire medial aspect of the lower leg between the knee and ankle. Thirty flaps were harvested from 15 inbred rats. Each flap was transferred to the anterior neck of a recipient rat of the same inbred strain so that 15 flaps were vascularized free flaps using the standard end-to-end microvascular technique and the other 15 flaps were nonvascularized free grafts. All but two (technical failure) of the vascularized flaps showed complete survival, whereas all nonvascularized flaps completely necrosed 2 weeks after transfer. It was concluded that the rat saphenous flap has several advantages such as a long and consistent vascular pedicle, ease of harvest, and an all-or-none survival pattern. Furthermore, as a unique feature of this flap, histological analysis revealed that the rat saphenous flap is composed of the skin and underlying fascia without panniculus carnosus. We therefore suggest that the rat saphenous flap is the first true fasciocutaneous free flap model in the rat. In this paper, in addition to illustrating the anatomy of the saphenous vessels and describing a new fasciocutaneous free flap model based on these vessels, we have documented some anatomical details of the rat leg that have never been described in the literature related to the rat anatomy.

  9. Buried free flaps in head and neck reconstruction: higher risk of free flap failure?

    PubMed

    Reiter, M; Harréus, U; Kisser, U; Betz, C S; Baumeister, Ph

    2017-01-01

    Thrombosis of the pedicle is central to free flap failure, and early revision of a compromised flap is the key to successfully salvage a flap. Therefore, the majority of free flaps in reconstructive head and neck surgery are used with the ability to visually examine the flap. Sometimes, due to intra-operative circumstances, it is necessary to use a flap that cannot be monitored externally. These flaps are called buried flaps and have the reputation of being put at risk. The current literature provides only limited data to support or disprove this position. A single institution retrospective review of patient charts between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Flap monitoring was carried out with hand-held Doppler of the pedicle hourly for the first 72 h in all cases. Additional duplex ultrasound was performed in the majority of buried flaps. A total of 437 flaps were included into the study. 37 flaps (7.8 %) were identified to fulfill the criteria of a buried free flap. In total, four patients had complications, three of which required operative reexploration. All interventions were successful, resulting in no flap loss in our series. An accurate operation technique combined with meticulous monitoring protocols supported by duplex ultrasound can result in satisfactory outcome of buried flaps. No enhanced risk of flap loss of buried flaps was found in our cohort.

  10. Localized Bioconvection Patterns and Their Initial State Dependency in Euglena gracilis Suspensions in an Annular Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Erika; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Localized patterns of bioconvection in Euglena gracilis suspensions were experimentally analyzed in an annular container. Near the critical mean density of convection, we succeeded in isolating two basic types of localized convection patterns. One was an almost stationary pattern consisting of two convection cells centered by an isolated high-density region of the microorganism where a downflow was generated, which we call a "bioconvection unit". The other was a traveling wave pattern consisting of an array of moving high-density waves bounded in a certain area. The effect of the mean density of E. gracilis on the emergence of the localized convection pattern was also examined. Near the critical mean density, we found that the emergence probability of the localized convection pattern depends on the initial state, i.e., whether E. gracilis has a uniform or localized distribution, which suggests that the system is bistable. Such bistability is often accompanied by localized structures in spatially extended dissipative systems.

  11. Chronic toxicity of a laundry detergent to the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Jamil, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2012-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of the common laundry detergent Ariel on the freshwater alga Euglena gracilis was investigated by growing the alga in a medium containing the detergent for 7 days. Cell density, motility, swimming velocity, gravitactic orientation, cell shape, photosynthesis and concentration of light-harvesting pigments were used as end point parameters for the assessment of toxicity. Cell density was significantly reduced at a concentration of 1 mg l(-1) or above. Among the other tested parameters, with the exception of cell shape, gravitaxis and chlorophyll b, all were adversely affected by the detergent at concentrations exceeding 1 mg l(-1). It is concluded that long-term (7-days) exposure to the detergent caused significant toxicity to E. gracilis. Furthermore, long-term tests with E. gracilis can be used as sensitive indicator for the toxicity assessment of laundry detergents in aquatic environments.

  12. Phototactic number-density flux in the localized bioconvection of Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    Euglena gracilis is a unicellular phototactic flagellate; it escapes from light sources if the light intensity is higher than 200 W/m2 (negative phototaxis). When the suspension of E. gracilis is illuminated from the bottom by strong light, bioconvection patterns are generated. In the case of E. gracilis, the patterns can be spatially localized. The localization mechanism has not been clarified. We report experimental results related to the localization mechanism. In particular, we experimentally measured the strength of the phototaxis in the lateral direction as well as vertical direction. We prepared a thin container in which the suspension is included, and gave the linearly-changing light intensity. We found the number density gets a peak at a particular light intensity, which never happens if the suspension has the vertical phototaxis only. Further, we succeeded in getting the function representing lateral phototaxis. The relationship between the measured functions and the localized convection cells will be also reported.

  13. Experience in Reconstruction for Small Digital Defects With Free Flaps.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hsiang; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Chao, Wai-Nang

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the digits resulting in soft tissue or bone loss require reconstruction. Traditionally, local flaps, such as homodigital flaps, heterodigital flaps, pedicled flaps, or distant flaps, are used for digital resurfacing. However, free tissue transfers can be used in selected patients. In this study, we present the use of different free flaps including groin skin flaps, groin osteocutaneous flaps, groin chimeric flaps, second dorsal metacarpal artery flaps, and partial toe flaps for digital reconstruction. A total of 19 digits were treated with 16 free flaps in our hospital. Of the flaps used, 5 were free groin skin flaps, 4 were free partial toe flaps, 3 were free groin chimeric flaps, 2 were free groin osteocutaneous flaps, and 2 were free second dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. The average flap size was 4.7 × 2.0 cm (range, 1.5 × 1 to 5 × 4 cm), and the average operative time was 6.0 hours (range, 4-9 hours). All flaps survived without partial or total necrosis. In conclusion, the free flap is a reliable and safe alternative for digital reconstruction. Moreover, the free groin flap provides not only a chimeric pattern for multiple fingers coverage but also an osteocutaneous pattern for thumb lengthening. The free second dorsal metacarpal artery flap provides a tenocutaneous pattern for tendon reconstruction and soft tissue coverage simultaneously, and the free partial toe flap is an excellent alternative for pulp reconstruction in terms of aesthetic appearance and functional outcome.

  14. PIV Measurements on a Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  15. Different effects of eubacterial and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors on chloroplasts ofEuglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajčovič, Juraj; Ebringer, Libor

    1990-03-01

    Inhibitors of eubacterial and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerases type II exhibited different effects on chloroplasts of the flagellateEuglena gracilis. Antibacterial agents (cinoxacin, nalidixic and oxolinic acids, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) from the group of quinolones and coumarins (coumermycin A1, clorobiocin and novobiocin) — all inhibitors of prokaryotic DNA topoisomerase II — were very potent eliminators of chloroplasts fromE. gracilis. In contrast, antitumor drugs (adriamycin, etoposide, teniposide and mitoxantrone) — antagonists of the eukaryotic counterpart — did not affect these semiautonomous photosynthetic organelles. These findings point out again the close evolutionary relationships between eubacteria and chloroplasts and are in agreement with the hypothesis of an endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts.

  16. A small portion of plastid transcripts is polyadenylated in the flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Záhonová, Kristína; Hadariová, Lucia; Vacula, Rostislav; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Eliáš, Marek; Krajčovič, Juraj; Vesteg, Matej

    2014-03-03

    Euglena gracilis possesses secondary plastids of green algal origin. In this study, E. gracilis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from polyA-selected mRNA were searched and several ESTs corresponding to plastid genes were found. PCR experiments failed to detect SL sequence at the 5'-end of any of these transcripts, suggesting plastid origin of these polyadenylated molecules. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed that polyadenylation of transcripts occurs in the Euglena plastids. Such transcripts have been previously observed in primary plastids of plants and algae as low-abundance intermediates of transcript degradation. Our results suggest that a similar mechanism exists in secondary plastids.

  17. Heavy metal tolerance in a cadmium-resistant population of Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bariaud, A.; Mestre, J.C.

    1984-05-01

    The authors have previously described some aspects of the cadmium toxic action on Euglena gracilis cells in vitro cultured. They showed the acquisition by the Euglena populations of a Cd/sup 2 +/ resistance to toxic concentrations. In this paper, the growth of a Cd-resistant and a non-resistant strain of Euglena gracilis in media containing Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/ or Co/sup 2 +/ is compared, in order to ascertain the mechanism to tolerance in this alga.

  18. Repair of a wide lower extremity defect with cross-leg free transfer of latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior combined flap: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Gursel; Kayalı, Mahmut Ulvi; Köse, Ozkan; Baş, Lütfü

    2010-12-01

    Composite tissue loss in extremities involving neurovascular structures has been a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Reconstruction of large defects can only be achieved with microsurgical procedures. The success of free flap operations depends on the presence of healthy recipient vessels. In cases with no suitable donor artery and vein or in which even the use of vein grafts would not be feasible, the lower limb can be salvaged with a cross-leg free flap procedure. We present a case with a large composite tissue loss that was reconstructed with cross-leg free transfer of a combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flap. This case indicates that this large muscle flap can survive with the cross-leg free flap method and this technique may be a viable alternative for large lower extremity defects that have no reliable recipient artery.

  19. Free digital artery flap: an ideal flap for large finger defects in situations where local flaps are precluded.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chin-Ho; Teoh, Lam-Chuan; Lee, Jonathan Y-L; Yam, Andrew K-T; Khoo, David B-A; Yong, Fok-Chuan

    2008-03-01

    The heterodigital arterialized flap is increasingly accepted as a flap of choice for reconstruction of large finger wounds. However, in situations where the adjacent fingers sustained concomitant injuries, the use of this flap as a local flap is precluded. This paper describes our experience with the free digital artery flap as an evolution of the heterodigital arterialized flap. Four patients with large finger wounds were reconstructed with free digital artery flap. Our indications for digital artery free flap were concomitant injuries to adjacent fingers that precluded their use as donor sites. The arterial supply of the flap was from the digital artery and the venous drainage was from the dominant dorsal vein of the finger. The flap was harvested from the ulnar side of the finger. The digital nerve was left in situ to minimize donor morbidity. The donor site was covered with a full-thickness skin graft and secured with bolster dressings. Early intensive mobilization was implemented for all patients. All flaps survived. No venous congestion was noted and primary healing was achieved in all flaps. In addition to providing well-vascularized tissue for coverage of vital structures, the digital artery was also used as a flow-through flap for finger revascularization in one patient. Donor-site morbidity was minimal, with all fingers retaining protective pulp sensation and the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints retaining full ranges of motion. In conclusion, the free digital artery flap is a versatile flap that is ideal for coverage of large-sized finger defects in situations where local flaps are unavailable. Donor-site morbidity can be minimized by preservation of the digital nerve, firmly securing the skin graft with bolster dressings, and early mobilization of the donor finger.

  20. Fine structure of the ganglion of Cephalodiscus gracilis (Pterobranchia, Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Rehkämper, G; Welsch, U; Dilly, P N

    1987-05-08

    The ganglion of Cephalodiscus gracilis M'Intosh 1882 is entirely intraepithelial and located in the dorsal epidermis immediately behind the tentacular apparatus that is formed by the mesosome (collar). A characteristic feature of the ganglion is a well-developed neuropile in which different types of nerve fibres can be discerned, many of which contain small granules with electron-dense contents. There are no glia-like cells in association with these fibres. Only slender basal processes of epidermal epithelial cells traverse the neuropile. In the depth of the epithelium the neuropile borders the epidermal basal lamina; apically it is covered by a layer of cell bodies, the majority of which belong to what appear to be ordinary ciliated epidermal cells. Besides these epidermal cells the perikarya of two additional types of cells, which are considered to be neurons, can be discerned. One type is characterised by many rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and mitochondria, the other by abundant small, electron-dense granules. The nuclei of these cells are comparatively pale and contain a prominent nucleolus. The neuron cell bodies do not form a distinct layer; but they are loosely distributed somewhat deeper than those of the ordinary epidermal cells. They probably send off an apical process to the epidermal surface and a basally directed one into the neuropile. The ganglion has been compared to the nervous systems in cnidarians, some spiralians, and especially other hemichordates, echinoderms, and chordates; it is found to be of primitive rather than degenerate nature. Furthermore, the possible functional significance of its close connection to the food-capturing tentacular apparatus is discussed.

  1. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  2. Surgical management of a diabetic calcaneal ulceration and osteomyelitis with a partial calcanectomy and a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Ignatiadis, Ioannis A; Tsiampa, Vassiliki A; Arapoglou, Dimitrios K; Georgakopoulos, Georgios D; Gerostathopoulos, Nicolaos E; Polyzois, Vasilios D

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients poses a great challenge to the treating physician and surgeon. The use of a distally based sural neurofasciocutaneous flap after an aggressive debridement of non-viable and poorly vascularized tissue and bone that is combined with a thorough antibiotic regimen provides a great technique for adequate soft tissue coverage of the heel. In this case report, the authors describe the aforementioned flap as a versatile alternative to the use of local or distant muscle flaps for diabetic patients with calcaneal osteomyelitis and concomitant large wounds.

  3. Surgical management of a diabetic calcaneal ulceration and osteomyelitis with a partial calcanectomy and a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap

    PubMed Central

    Ignatiadis, Ioannis A.; Tsiampa, Vassiliki A.; Arapoglou, Dimitrios K.; Georgakopoulos, Georgios D.; Gerostathopoulos, Nicolaos E.; Polyzois, Vasilios D.

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients poses a great challenge to the treating physician and surgeon. The use of a distally based sural neurofasciocutaneous flap after an aggressive debridement of non-viable and poorly vascularized tissue and bone that is combined with a thorough antibiotic regimen provides a great technique for adequate soft tissue coverage of the heel. In this case report, the authors describe the aforementioned flap as a versatile alternative to the use of local or distant muscle flaps for diabetic patients with calcaneal osteomyelitis and concomitant large wounds. PMID:22396813

  4. Sustained benefit of temporary limited reperfusion in skeletal muscle following ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.; Kerr, J.; Hobson, R.W. 2d. )

    1990-09-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow following prolonged ischemia in skeletal muscle has been shown beneficial. However, the persistence of this benefit with reinstitution of normal blood flow remains undefined. We investigated the role of temporary limited reperfusion on ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in six anesthetized dogs. Both gracilis muscles were subjected to 6 hr of ischemia followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Reperfusion blood flow was limited for the first hour in one gracilis muscle to its preischemic rate followed by a second hour of normal reperfusion (LR/NR). The contralateral muscle underwent 2 hr of normal reperfusion (NR/NR). Muscle injury was quantified by technetium-99m pyrophosphate (TcPyp) uptake and by histochemical staining using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) with planimetry of the infarct size. Capillary permeability was evaluated by muscle weight gain. Results are reported as the mean +/- SEM. These data demonstrate a sustained benefit from temporary limited reperfusion. This methodology should be considered in the surgical management of the acutely ischemic limb.

  5. Traumatic Forefoot Reconstructions With Free Perforator Flaps.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; He, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yi; Lv, Qian; Fan, Xin-Yv; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The forefoot is critical to normal walking; thus, any reconstruction of forefoot defects, including the soft tissues, must be carefully done. The free perforator flap, with its physiologic circulation, lower donor site morbidity, and minimal thickness is the most popular technique in plastic and microsurgery, and is theoretically the most suitable for such forefoot reconstruction. However, these flaps are generally recognized as more difficult and time-consuming to create than other flaps. In 41 patients with traumatic forefoot defects, we reconstructed the forefoot integument using 5 types of free perforator flaps. The overall functional and cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Three flaps required repeat exploration; one survived. The most common complications were insufficient perfusion and the need for second debulking. The key to our success was thoroughly debriding devitalized bone and soft tissue before attaching the flap. Forefoot reconstruction with a free perforator flap provides better function, better cosmesis, better weightbearing, and better gait than the other flaps we have used.

  6. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  7. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  8. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  9. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  10. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  11. Facial paralysis and the role of free muscle transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zuker, R M

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis can have significant functional, psychological and aesthetic concerns that alter the lives of our patients. These effects can be functional, affecting the eye, nose and mouth, or aesthetic, affecting the symmetry of the face and particularly the mimetic function of smile. Several reanimation procedures have been described to address this. In this chapter, we will outline our technique for reanimation utilizing segmental gracilis muscle transplants to the face. These are innervated either by the contralateral normal 7th nerve via a cross face nerve graft, or a different ipsilateral motor where no 7th nerve is available or would not produce the required result. The other ipsilateral motor that we have found extremely effective is the motor nerve to masseter. This can power a segmental gracilis muscle transplant and lead to excursion that is near normal. These techniques will be described in detail.

  12. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a...

  13. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a system... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  14. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a system... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  15. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a system... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  16. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a system... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  17. Microvascular free flaps in head and neck surgery: complications and outcome of 1000 flaps.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, P; Klatt, J; Schön, G; Blessmann, M; Li, L; Schmelzle, R

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzed the surgical outcome and complications of 1000 microvascular free flaps performed at the authors' institution in Germany, between 1987 and 2010. 972 patients underwent reconstruction with 1000 flaps: 28% latissimus dorsi flaps, 27% radial forearm flaps, 20% iliac crest flaps, 12% fibula flaps, 6% jejunal flaps, 2% anterolateral thigh flaps, and 5% other flaps. 130 failures (7.6%) were encountered, including 58 complete flap failures (44.6%) and 72 partial free-flap failures (55.4%). This study confirms that free flaps are extremely reliable in achieving successful reconstruction of the head and neck, but it is essential that complications be recognized and addressed early in their course to prevent or minimize devastating consequences. Owing to the large number of possible errors in flap transplantation, microsurgeons should always check everything for themselves. The on-duty doctors and nursing staff should not be trusted blindly. Venous thrombosis and cervical haematoma are the most common complications at the recipient site and are mainly responsible for flap failure, while complications occurring at the donor site may result from dehiscence and graft necrosis. When a compromised flap is identified, surgical re-exploration should not be deferred.

  18. Schooling of flapping wings: Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Becker, Alexander; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We examine the locomotion of an infinite array of wings that heave vertically with a prescribed sinusoidal motion and are free to translate in the horizontal direction. To do this, we simulate the motion of a freely translating flapping airfoil in a domain with periodic horizontal boundary conditions. These simulations indicate that the wings can ``take advantage'' of their collectively generated wake flows. In agreement with our experiments in a rotational geometry, we find ranges of flapping frequency over which there are multiple stable states of locomotion, with one of these swimming states having both higher speeds and efficiencies than an isolated flapping and locomoting wing. A simple mathematical model, which emphasizes the importance of history dependence in vortical flows, explains this multi-stability. These results may be important to understanding the role of hydrodynamic interactions in fish schooling and bird flocking.

  19. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  20. Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis Steinh. from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; El Amine Dib, Mohamed; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2017-02-17

    The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90-99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5-22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2-20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2-12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6-37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2-12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3-9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of cadmium on growth and superoxide dismutase activity of the marine microalga Tetraselmis gracilis (Prasinophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, O.K.; Asano, C.S.; Aidar, E.; Colepicolo, P.

    1996-02-01

    Marine planktonic algae are frequently exposed to metallic contaminants. Because heavy metals can be assimilated and accumulated by algal cells, they can then be transferred to higher trophic levels of food chains. We studied the effects of cadmium on protein production and the growth of the marine prasinophyte Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin) Butcher. By means of toxicological assays, we estimated the LC{sub 50} of cadmium as 3.2 ppm and 1.8 ppm after 48 h and 96 h of exposure to this heavy metal, respectively. The growth of curves and survival percentages of cell cultures in the presence of cadmium were determined, and a proportional reduction of both parameters with increasing metal concentrations of cadmium, T. gracilis contained high levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, one of the main enzymes of the cell`s antioxidant defense mechanism. Under these growth conditions, total SOD activity in crude extracts was increased by 41% (at 1.5 ppm) and 107% (at 3.0 ppm). Assays of SOD activity in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels also showed a similar induction by cadmium. These results show that cadmium has potentially toxic properties since it significantly inhibited the growth of T. gracilis at low concentrations and promoted by induction of SOD activity, suggestive of an oxidative stress state. Besides being the first report of SOD in T. gracilis, this work describes experimental evidence of SOD induction by cadmium in this species. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Large scale laboratory cultures of Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reisch) Korsikov (Chlorophyta) and Diaphanosoma biergei Korinek, 1981 (Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Pereira, A M L

    2008-11-01

    Large-scale lab culture of Ankistrodesmus gracilis and Diaphanososma birgei were evaluated by studying the biology and biochemical composition of the species and production costs. Ankistrodesmus gracilis presented exponential growth until the 6th day, with approximately 144 x 10(4) cells x mL(-1), followed by a sharp decrease to 90 x 10(4) cells x mL(-1) (8th day). Algae cells tended to increase again from the 11th day and reached a maximum of 135 x 10(4) cells x mL(-1) on the 17th day. D. birgei culture showed exponential growth until the 9th day with 140 x 10(2) individuals x L(-1), and increased again as from the 12th day. Algae A. gracilis and zooplankton D. birgei contain 47 to 70% dry weight protein and over 5% dry weight carbohydrates. The most expensive items in the context of variable costs were labor and electricity. Data suggested that temperature, nutrients, light availability and culture management were determining factors on productivity. Results indicate that NPK (20-5-20) may be used directly as a good alternative for mass cultivation when low costs are taken into account, promoting adequate growth and nutritional value for cultured A. gracilis and D. birgei.

  3. Water Deficit and Seasonality Study on Essential Oil Constituents of Lippia gracilis Schauer Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira; Pinto, Jéssika Andreza Oliveira; Fontes, Saymo Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Bacci, Leandro; de Jesus, Hugo César Ramos; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia gracilis genotypes, in the dry and rainy seasons, and with and without irrigation. The extraction of essential oil was realized by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition analysis was performed using a GC-MS/FID. The leaves of the L. gracilis genotypes provide essential oil with content between 1.25% and 1.92% in the rainy season and 1.42% and 2.70% in the dry season; when irrigation was used the content was between 1.42% and 2.87%, without irrigation contents were between 1.60% and 3.00%. The chemical composition of L. gracilis showed high levels of terpenes. The major constituent of genotypes LGRA-106 was thymol and carvacrol was the major constituent for the other genotypes. Concentrations showed little variation between seasons, demonstrating the stability of the chemical composition of L. gracilis even with different climatic conditions. PMID:25302321

  4. Optimization of complex medium composition for heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis and paramylon production.

    PubMed

    Ivušić, Franjo; Šantek, Božidar

    2015-06-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis was carried out on synthetic (Hutner medium) and complex cultivation media in order to optimize production of β-1,3-glucan (paramylon). For preparation of complex media, various industrial by-products (e.g., molasses, corn steep solid, yeast extract, and beef extract) were used with or without addition of pure compounds [glucose, galactose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and (NH4)2HPO4]. Heterotrophic cultivation of E. gracilis was performed in Erlenmeyer flasks and additionally confirmed during research in the stirred tank bioreactor. The results clearly show that E. gracilis can easily metabolize glucose and fructose as carbon sources and corn steep solid as complex nitrogen and growth factors source for biomass growth and paramylon synthesis. Furthermore, it was also proved that addition of (NH4)2HPO4, beef extract, or gibberellic acid did not have positive effect on the biomass growth and paramylon synthesis. After optimization of complex medium composition and verification in the stirred tank bioreactor, it was concluded that medium composed of glucose (20 g/L) and corn steep solid (30 g/L) is the most suitable complex medium for industrial cultivation of E. gracilis and paramylon production.

  5. Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity evaluation of dried Euglena gracilis ATCC PTA-123017.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ryan R; Vo, Trung D; Levine, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Euglena gracilis is a microalga capable of synthesizing various nutrients of interest in human and animal nutrition. When cultivated aerobically in the dark, Euglena synthesize paramylon, a storage polysaccharide comprised of high molecular weight beta-1,3-D-glucose polymers organized in cytoplasmic granules. Beta-glucans have been shown to have immune modulation effects, including anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties, and metabolic effects, such as regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Preparations of E. gracilis and paramylon may therefore have potential utility as functional food ingredients for human and animal nutrition. A battery of toxicological studies was conducted on a dried preparation of E. gracilis and paramylon to support their safe food use. The dried alga was not genotoxic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and mammalian micronucleus test. In the subchronic toxicity study, rats were provided E. gracilis in the diet at levels of 0, 12,500, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm. Paramylon was provided at a concentration of 50,000 ppm. No effects that could be attributable to treatment were observed in clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, hematology and clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and macroscopic and microscopic findings. A NOAEL of 50,000 ppm in the diet was determined for both ingredients.

  6. Modified Facial Artery Musculomucosal Flap for Reconstruction of Posterior Skull Base Defects

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liyue; Lavigne, Philippe; Lavigne, François; Ayad, Tareck

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The superiorly pedicled facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flap has been successfully used for reconstruction of head and neck defects since 1992. Common sites of defects include the oral cavity and oropharynx. This article presents a clinical case in which we have successfully used a newly developed modification of the FAMM flap for bulky nasopharyngeal and skull base reconstruction. Results Our patient is a 71-year-old man who presented with a large parapharyngeal and clival chordoma. After tumor removal through combined endoscopic and cervical approach, the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the nasopharyngeal portion was left exposed. A modified superiorly based FAMM flap measuring up to 10 cm in length and 2.5 cm in width was successfully harvested and used to completely cover the defect and the ICA. The flap survived local radiation therapy at the long-term follow-up. Conclusion We have developed a new modification of the FAMM flap, using the fascia of the masseter muscle. This is the first reported case in the literature using a modified FAMM flap for the reconstruction of nasopharyngeal and skull base defect. PMID:27330928

  7. Free tensor fasciae latae flap for abdominal wall reconstruction: overview and new innovation.

    PubMed

    Chalfoun, Charbel T; McConnell, Michael P; Wirth, Garrett A; Brenner, Kevin A; Evans, Gregory R D; Kobayashi, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Extensive abdominal wall defects may result from tumor extirpation, traumatic injury, or soft tissue infections. Extensive traumatic injuries can often disrupt the soft tissue content of the abdomen as well as the bony support provided by the pelvis. Reconstruction of the lower abdomen should aim to recreate dynamic stability. Five patients with extensive lower abdominal wall disruption following traumatic injuries or infection were treated using a novel flap for functional reconstruction. We devised a free neurotized osteomyocutaneous tensor fasciae latae (TFL) flap that would restore bony continuity by providing a vascularized bone graft and simultaneously maintain the integrity of the attachment of the tensor fascia latae muscle to the iliac crest, reestablishing musculofascial continuity. A branch of the superior gluteal nerve was harvested with this composite flap and coapted to an intercostal nerve for reinnervation, thereby creating a dynamic muscle in these patients. All patients underwent successful free tissue reconstruction with 100% flap survival. The lower abdominal wall and bony integrity of the pelvis were successfully reconstructed. Reinnervation has shown clinical signs of maintained dynamic stability. The innervated TFL osteomyocutaneous flap is an ideal option for lower abdominal reconstruction in patients with complex abdominoperineal defects with loss of bony integrity.

  8. Prefabricated vascularized bone flap: a tissue transformation technique for bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Alam, M I; Asahina, I; Seto, I; Oda, M; Enomoto, S

    2001-09-15

    In this study, an attempt was made to transform a muscle vascularized pedicle raised on host vessels into a vascularized bone flap, using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). The purpose of this study was to produce new bone vascularized in nature to increase the survival rate of the subsequently grafted bone and to fabricate the newly formed bone into the desired shape. Silicone molds in the shape of a rat mandible were used to deliver rat bone matrix impregnated with or without rhBMP-2. A muscle pedicle the same size as the mold was raised on the saphenous vessels in the rat thigh and then sandwiched in the center of the silicone molds. The molds were sliced in half and each section was filled with rat bone matrix that was impregnated either with 25 microg of rhBMP-2 for the experimental group or with diluting material alone for the control group. The sandwiched flaps were then secured by tying them to the adjacent muscles and were harvested at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Three and six rats were used in the control and experimental groups at each time point, respectively. Bone formation was assessed in the ex vivo specimens by macroscopic, radiologic, and histologic evaluation. Macroscopically, the continuation of the vascular pedicle was clearly visible for both the control and experimental muscle flaps. However, no evidence of muscle-tissue transformation was observed in the control flaps, whereas all the flaps treated with rhBMP-2 produced new bone that replicated the shape of the mold exactly and had saphenous vessels supplying the newly formed bone. This study demonstrates that this experimental model has the potential to be therapeutically applied for effective bone reconstruction.

  9. Fascia redefined: anatomical features and technical relevance in fascial flap surgery.

    PubMed

    Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Stecco, Antonio; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stern, Robert; De Caro, Raffaele

    2013-07-01

    Fascia has traditionally been thought of as a passive structure that envelops muscles, and the term "fascia" was misused and confusing. However, it is now evident that fascia is a dynamic tissue with complex vasculature and innervation. A definition of fascia as an integral tissue has been provided here, highlighting the main features of the superficial and deep fasciae. Wide anatomic variations and site-specific differences in fascial structure are described, coupled with results of our extensive investigations of fascial anatomy. This will enable surgeons to make better decisions on selecting the appropriate fascia in the construction of fascial flaps. The use of the superficial or deep fasciae in the creation of a fascial flap cannot be selected at random, but must be guided by the anatomical features of the different types of fasciae. In particular, we suggest the use of the superficial fascia, such as the parascapular fascio-cutaneous free flap or any cutaneous flap, when a well-vascularized elastic flap, with the capacity to adhere to underlying tissues, is required, and a fascio-cutaneous flap formed by aponeurotic fascia to resurface any tendon or joints exposures. Moreover, the aponeurotic fascia, such as the fascia lata, can be used as a surgical patch if the plastic surgeon requires strong resistance to stress and/or the capacity to glide freely. Finally, the epimysial fascia, such as in the latissimus dorsi flap, can be used with success when used together with the underlying muscles. Clearly, extensive clinical experience and judgment are necessary for assessment of their potential use.

  10. High-throughput optofluidic profiling of Euglena gracilis with morphological and chemical specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-11-01

    The world is faced with environmental problems and the energy crisis due to the combustion and depletion of fossil fuels. The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate a high-throughput optofluidic Euglena gracilis profiler which consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of an inertial-focusing microfluidic device that can detect fluorescence from lipid droplets in their cell body and provide images of E. gracilis cells simultaneously at a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary) and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated) E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method provides a promise for evaluating the efficiency of lipid-inducing techniques for biofuel production, which is also applicable for identifying biomedical samples such as blood cells and cancer cells.

  11. Dissolved organic carbon reduces uranium toxicity to the unicellular eukaryote Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Trenfield, Melanie A; Ng, Jack C; Noller, Barry; Markich, Scott J; van Dam, Rick A

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), in the form of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), on uranium (U) toxicity to the unicellular eukaryote, Euglena gracilis (Z strain), was investigated at pH 6. In a background medium without SRFA, exposure of E. gracilis to 57 μg L(-1) U resulted in a 50% reduction in growth (IC(50)). The addition of 20 mg L(-1) DOC (as SRFA), reduced U toxicity 4 to 5-fold (IC(50) increased to 254 μg L(-1) U). This reduction in toxicity was also evident at more sensitive effect levels with a 10% reduction in growth (IC(10)) occurring at 5 μg L(-1) U in the background medium and at 17 μg L(-1) U in the SRFA medium, respectively. This amelioration of toxicity with the addition of SRFA was linked to a decrease in the bioavailability of U, with geochemical speciation modelling predicting 84% of U would be complexed by SRFA. The decrease in bioavailability of U in the presence of SRFA was also evident from the 11-14 fold reduction in the cellular concentration of U compared to that of E. gracilis in the background medium. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses indicated that UO(2)(2+) alone explained 51% of the variation in measured U toxicity to E. gracilis. Preliminary U exposures to E. gracilis in the presence of a reactive oxygen species probe, suggest exposure to ≥60 μg L(-1) U may induce oxidative stress, but this endpoint was not considered to be a sensitive biological indicator.

  12. Scrotal reconstruction with modified pudendal thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Nabil; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Iwuagwu, Fortune C

    2016-02-01

    Scrotal skin loss can occur following trauma, Fournier's gangrene, post tumour excision, burns, etc. There are many techniques described in the literature including residual scrotal skin mobilization, skin grafts, pedicled and free flaps. The management is complex and challenging shown by the multiplicity of flaps and techniques described in the literature. We used a modified pudendal thigh flap to reconstruct scrotal defects in five patients. This study describes the vascularity of the flap, technique of elevation and the inset of the flap. The elevation and particularly the insetting make it different from other flaps raised on this vascular network for scrotal reconstruction. This pedicled flap is robust, reliable, resilient and produces a neo-scrotum that looks natural in appearance, offers good-quality skin cover and cushion to the testes as well as protective sensation.

  13. A new agent for flap survival – Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn): An experimental study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2005-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn) is a member of the Elaeagnaceae family, and is a temperate bush native to Europe and Asia. The antioxidant activity of H rhamnoides L. has been shown in vitro cell culture and animal studies. Different fractions of H rhamnoides L. fruits inhibit 2,2-azobis-(2,4 dimethylvaleronitrile) and ascorbate iron-induced lipid peroxidations in vitro. H rhamnoides L., as well as vitamin E, decrease the malondialdehyde content in hyperlipidemic rabbit serum-cultured smooth muscle cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a rat model, the potential effect of H rhamnoides L. on survival of random pattern skin flaps. For this purpose, 30 Wistar Albino rats were used, and a McFarlane-type caudally based skin flap was created on the dorsum of the rat (2.5 cm × 8 cm). Rats were divided into three groups: one control (group A) and two treatment groups (groups B and C). H rhamnoides L. was administered orally to the experimental groups: group B received a single 15 mg/kg dose per day and group C received 15 mg/kg twice per day. The areas and lengths of flap necrosis were measured in each group. The extent of necrotic flap areas were evaluated as length and area of total flap area, and differences were studied by Student’s t tests. The areas and lengths of necrosis of skin flaps decreased depending on H rhamnoides L., but viability of the flaps treated with 15 mg/kg/day was not significantly different from the control group. The rats receiving H rhamnoides L. 15 mg/kg twice per day had the highest flap survival rate (P<0.001). In conclusion, H rhamnoides L. may have a dose-dependent effect to increase flap survival in random skin flaps. PMID:24227931

  14. Force Generation by Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Donnelly, M.

    1996-11-01

    Aquatic animals like fish use flapping caudal fins to produce axial and cross-stream forces. During WW2, German scientists had built and tested an underwater vehicle powered by similar flapping foils. We have examined the forces produced by a pair of flapping foils. We have examined the forced produced by a pair of flapping foils attached to the tail end of a small axisymmetric cylinder. The foils operate in-phase (called waving), or in anti-phase (called clapping). In a low-speed water tunnel, we have undertaken time-dependent measurements of axial and cross-stream forces and moments that are exerted by the vortex shedding process over the entire body. Phase-matched LDV measurements of vorticity-velocity vectors, as well as limited flow visualization of the periodic vortex shedding process have also been carried out. The direction of the induced velocity within a pair of shed vortices determines the nature of the forces produced, viz., thrust or drag or cross-stream forces. The clapping mode produces a widely dispersed symmetric array of vortices which results in axial forces only (thrust and rag). On the other hand, the vortex array is staggered in the waving mode and cross-stream (maneuvering) forces are then generated.

  15. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Baytinger, V. F. Kurochkina, O. S. Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  16. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  17. Salvage of extensively burned upper limbs by a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap.

    PubMed

    Delay, E; Foyatier, J L; el Kollali, R; Comparin, J P; Weil, E; Latarjet, J

    1995-09-01

    Very deep burns of the arm and elbow lead to soft tissue necrosis and infection with exposure of important structures. Aggressive debridement should be performed as early as possible to cut the vicious circle, and the defect, which may be extensive, should be covered by well-vascularized tissues. The reliability and versatility of the pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle or musculocutaneous flap make it our first choice in the management of this problem. A retrospective study of three patients for whom salvage of the upper limb has been achieved by the use of a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is presented, illustrating the advantages of this technique.

  18. Middle lobe preserving right lower lobectomy with a serratus anterior hammock flap in a patient with previous right upper lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jiro; Takahashi, Satomi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Tsukidate, Hisakatsu

    2016-03-01

    Increasingly, many patients are diagnosed with a second lung cancer after curative thoracotomy. It is very difficult to manage such patients surgically due to the significant loss of pulmonary function. Especially on the right side, avoiding a completion pneumonectomy may contribute to reducing postoperative functional loss and surgical complications as well as the morbidity of post-pneumonectomy syndrome. A technique is needed to prevent torsion of the preserved middle lobe. Following recently published cases utilizing a latissimus dorsi muscle flap, in this case report, we describe the use of the serratus anterior muscle flap as an alternative.

  19. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  20. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  4. Segmental masseteric flap for dynamic reanimation of facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marco; Lim, Yee Jun; Fogg, Quentin; Morley, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    The masseter muscle is one of the major chewing muscles and contributes to define facial contour. It is an important landmark for aesthetic and functional surgery and has been used for facial palsy reanimation or as source of donor motor nerve. We present an anatomic study to evaluate the possibility of using a muscle subunit for dynamic eye reanimation. Sixteen head halves were dissected under magnification to study the neurovascular distribution and determine safe muscle subunits; areas of safe/dangerous dissection were investigated. Once isolated, the arc of rotation of the muscular subunit was measured on fresh body to verify the reach to the lateral canthus. The patterns of neurovascular distribution and areas of safe dissection were identified; the anterior third of the muscle represents an ideal subunit with constant nerve and artery distribution. The muscle is too short to reach the lateral canthus; a fascia graft extension is needed. The information provided identified the main neurovascular branches and confirms the feasibility of a dynamic segmental flap. The need of efficient motor units for facial reanimation demands for different surgical options. A detailed anatomic description of the neurovascular bundle is mandatory to safely raise a functional motor subunit.

  5. Monitoring of intraoral free flaps with microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Gutberg, Nils; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne

    2011-10-01

    Because of the confined nature of their position, monitoring intraoral free flaps is a challenge, but it is essential to detect vascular complications in time to ensure the possibility of salvaging the flap. Microdialysis has been the standard technique of choice at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, since September 1998. In this study we present our experience of monitoring 78 intraoral free flaps. It is a retrospective evaluation of patients' casenotes from November 1998 to March 2008. Sixty-five of the 78 flaps healed without complications. Sixty-one of these showed no sign of ischaemia in the microdialysis values; in 4 cases the microdialysis system caused technical problems. Thirteen patients were reoperated on based on the results of microdialysis analysis, and in all but 2 cases critical ischaemia was found. Ten of the 11 critically ischaemic flaps were saved. The overall loss rate of flaps was 1.3%. The 2 flaps that were reoperated on but no critical ischaemia found were 2 fibular flaps during the time that we were learning how to monitor with microdialysis (1999 and 2000). Since then we have developed a decision algorithm for standard monitoring, and since 2000 we have had no false positive results. We have never lost a flap from neglected ischaemia. Our results show that microdialysis is a safe and reliable technique for postoperative monitoring of intraoral free flaps.

  6. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  7. Pedicle Temporalis Fascial Flap with Axial Scalp Flap Obviates Need of Free Flap in Extensive Scalp Wound

    PubMed Central

    Khainga, S. O.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive scalp defect with exposed bone is best reconstructed with flaps. Majority of these wounds are now routinely reconstructed with free flaps in many centers. Free flaps however require lengthy operative time and may not be available to all patients, where possible less extensive options should thus be encouraged. A sixty-eight-year-old patient presented to us with a Marjolin's ulcer on the vertex of the scalp. After wide local excision a defect of about 17 cm and 12 cm was left. The defect was successfully covered with a combination of an ipsilateral pedicle temporalis fascial flap and an axial supraorbital scalp flap with good outcome. In conclusion wide defects of the scalp can be fully covered with a combination of local flaps. The axial scalp flap and the pedicle temporalis fascial flap where applicable provide an easy and less demanding option in covering such wounds. These flaps are reliable with good blood supply and have got less donor side morbidity. PMID:28194294

  8. The free iliac flap: a lateral modification of the free groin flap.

    PubMed

    Acland, R D

    1979-07-01

    A lateral modification of the free groin flap, called the free iliac flap, is presented. By moving the outline of the free groin flap laterally, so that the medial margin lies lateral to the underlying femoral triangle, a flap is obtained which is uniformly slender and which has a long vascular pedicle. The anatomical findings, a method for safe dissection of the superficial circumflex iliac vessels, and the results of 18 clinical cases are presented.

  9. Prefabrication of vascularized bone flap induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2).

    PubMed

    Alam, M I; Asahina, I; Seto, I; Oda, M; Enomoto, S

    2003-10-01

    An experimental model for the prefabrication of a vascularized bone flap was developed in this study. To form vascularized bone in the desired configuration and to increase the survival rate of the grafted bone, a muscle vascularized pedicle (MVP) was transformed into vascularized bone by the inducer recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). The muscle flap (8 x 8 mm) raised on saphenous vessels in the rat thigh was sandwiched between same-size collagen (Terudermis) sheets in the presence or absence of impregnated 25 microg of rhBMP-2 for the experimental group and the control group, respectively. The flaps were harvested 1, 2 and 3 weeks postoperatively. Bone transformation was detected by gross examination, radiology, and histologic testing. No evidence of muscle tissue transformation was found in control flaps, whereas all of the experimental flaps produced new bone. Saphenous vessels were observed to supply the new bone upon harvesting, and the newly formed vascularized bone showed good configuration with shape of the Terudermis sheet. This study indicates that this model of effective bone reconstruction could be potentially applied in a therapeutic setting.

  10. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils with Fowler Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Anderson, Walter B

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests made of a Clark y airfoil with a Clark y Fowler flap and of an NACA 23012 airfoil with NACA Fowler flaps. Some of the tests were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and others in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoils and on the flaps for several angles of attack with the flaps located at the maximum-lift settings. A test installation was used in which the model was mounted in the wind tunnel between large end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are given in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as plots of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and for the flaps alone.

  11. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Min; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No; Shim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Sang Wha

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.

  12. With a flick of the lid: a novel trapping mechanism in Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Di Giusto, Bruno; Skepper, Jeremy; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants capture prey with modified leaves (pitchers), using diverse mechanisms such as 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet pitcher rim, slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall, and viscoelastic retentive fluids. Here we describe a new trapping mechanism for Nepenthes gracilis which has evolved a unique, semi-slippery wax crystal surface on the underside of the pitcher lid and utilises the impact of rain drops to 'flick' insects into the trap. Depending on the experimental conditions (simulated 'rain', wet after 'rain', or dry), insects were captured mainly by the lid, the peristome, or the inner pitcher wall, respectively. The application of an anti-slip coating to the lower lid surface reduced prey capture in the field. Compared to sympatric N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis pitchers secreted more nectar under the lid and less on the peristome, thereby directing prey mainly towards the lid. The direct contribution to prey capture represents a novel function of the pitcher lid.

  13. Protein degradation in Euglena gracilis: Purification and characterization of the major proteinase

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y.J.

    1988-01-01

    Protolysis in a crude extract of Euglena gracilis was characterized by autolysis and the hydrolysis of {sup 125}I-labeled bovine serum albumin ({sup 125}I-BSA). Both procedures showed similar properties: stimulation by dithiothreitol, inhibition by leupeptin, and the same pH optima. Hydrolysis of {sup 125}I-BSA increased with growth stage and with the depletion of nutrient in the medium. The major proteolytic enzyme was purified to near homogeneity from extracts of dark-grown, stationary-phase Euglena gracilis by acid treatment, and by chromatography on CM-cellulose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxyapatite using {sup 125}I-BSA as substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was 30,000 when determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and 15,000 when estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme therefore appears to be composed of two subunits.

  14. Pectoralis major flap for head and neck reconstruction in era of free flaps.

    PubMed

    Kekatpure, V D; Trivedi, N P; Manjula, B V; Mathan Mohan, A; Shetkar, G; Kuriakose, M A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the selection of pectoralis major flap in the era of free tissue reconstruction for post ablative head and neck defects and flap associated complications. The records of patients who underwent various reconstructive procedures between July 2009 and December 2010 were retrospectively analysed. 147 reconstructive procedures including 79 free flaps and 58 pectoralis major flaps were performed. Pectoralis major flap was selected for reconstruction in 21 patients (36%) due to resource constrains, in 12 (20%) patients for associated medical comorbidities, in 11 (19%) undergoing extended/salvage neck dissections, and in 5 patients with vessel depleted neck and free flap failure salvage surgery. None of the flaps was lost, 41% of patients had flap related complications. Most complications were self-limiting and were managed conservatively. Data from this study suggest that pectoralis major flap is a reliable option for head and neck reconstruction and has a major role even in this era of free flaps. The selection of pectoralis major flap over free flap was influenced by patient factors in most cases. Resource constraints remain a major deciding factor in a developing country setting.

  15. Craniotomy flap osteomyelitis: a diagnostic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenkopf, B.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Bauman, J.M.; Cawthon, M.A.; Patton, J.A.; Friedman, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Nine cases of suspected craniotomy flap osteomyelitis evaluated by combined bone and gallium scanning are presented. In six cases, the clinical data were inconclusive and evaluation by radionuclide imaging provided an accurate negative diagnosis. The other three cases considered positive by this technique were proven infected at subsequent exploration and flap removal. The use of radionuclide bone and gallium imaging should be considered in cases of possible craniotomy flap osteomyelitis.

  16. Scaling Effects on Stern Flap Performance. Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    prototype stern flap on the USS RAMAGE ( DDG 61), the 11th destroyer of the DDG 51 Class, with associated stern flap evaluation trials, has provided...TERMS Stern flap scaling effects; DDG 61 stern flap performance trials; geosim model experiments 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT...GUIDANCE FOR PROJECTING FULL-SCALE STERN FLAP PERFORMANCE 12 CONTINUED RESEARCH 17 DDG 51 Stern Flap Scaling Effects Study 17 Application to Other

  17. Temporal change of photophobic step-up responses of Euglena gracilis investigated through motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Won, June; Song, Simon; Tamaki, Shun; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maeda, Mizuo

    2017-01-01

    The adaptation to a strong light is one of the essential characteristics of green algae, yet lacking relatively the information about the photophobic responses of Eukaryotic microalgae. We investigated the photophobic step-up responses of Euglena gracilis over a time course of several hours with alternated repetition of blue-light pulse illumination and spatially patterned blue-light illumination. Four distinctive photophobic motions in response to strong blue light were identified in a trace image analysis, namely on-site rotation, running and tumbling, continuous circular swimming, and unaffected straightforward swimming. The cells cultured in autotrophic conditions under weak light showed mainly the on-site rotation response at the beginning of blue-light illumination, but they acquired more blue-light tolerant responses of running and tumbling, circular swimming, or straightforward swimming. The efficiency of escaping from a blue-light illuminated area improved markedly with the development of these photophobic motions. Time constant of 3.0 h was deduced for the evolution of photophobic responses of E. gracilis. The nutrient-rich metabolic status of the cells resulting from photosynthesis during the experiments, i.e., the accumulation of photosynthesized nutrient products in balance between formation and consumption, was the main factor responsible for the development of photophobic responses. The reduction-oxidation status in and around E. gracilis cells did not affect their photophobic responses significantly, unlike the case of photophobic responses and phototaxis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. This study shows that the evolution of photophobic motion type of E. gracilis is dominated mainly by the nutrient metabolic status of the cells. The fact suggests that the nutrient-rich cells have a higher threshold for switching the flagellar motion from straightforward swimming to rotation under a strong light.

  18. Macrocnemis gracilis, a new genus and species of Idiocnemidinae (Zygoptera: Platycnemididae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Theischinger, G; Gassmann, D; Richards, S J

    2015-07-27

    A new genus and species belonging to the damselfly subfamily Idiocnemidinae from Papua New Guinea, Macrocnemis gracilis gen. nov. sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the largest known member of the Papuan idiocnemidine radiation, and its affinities to existing genera remain unclear. The new taxon is currently known with certainty only from small streams flowing through mid-montane rainforest in the Hindenburg Range of Papua New Guinea's rugged central cordillera.

  19. Isolation and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of the Chemical Constituents from Cephalantheropsis gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Fen; Hsu, Yu-Lin; Lee, Chao-Ying; Wu, Chia-Hua; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chuang, Ta-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Cephalantheropsis gracilis afforded five new compounds: cephalanthrin-A (1), cephalanthrin-B (2), cephathrene-A (3), cephathrene-B (4), methyl 2-(aminocarbonyl)phenylcarbamate (5), and 52 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Among the compounds isolated, tryptanthrin (6), phaitanthrin A (7), cephalinone D (19), and flavanthrin (30) showed significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cell lines. PMID:25686035

  20. Assessing benzene-induced toxicity on wild type Euglena gracilis Z and its mutant strain SMZ.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Arthur, Dionne M; Sichani, Homa Teimouri; Xia, Qing; Ng, Jack C

    2013-11-01

    Benzene is a representative member of volatile organic compounds and has been widely used as an industrial solvent. Groundwater contamination of benzene may pose risks to human health and ecosystems. Detection of benzene in the groundwater using chemical analysis is expensive and time consuming. In addition, biological responses to environmental exposures are uninformative using such analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to employ a microorganism, Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) as a putative model to monitor the contamination of benzene in groundwater. To this end, we examined the wild type of E. gracilis Z and its mutant form, SMZ in their growth rate, morphology, chlorophyll content, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in response to benzene exposure. The results showed that benzene inhibited cell growth in a dose response manner up to 48 h of exposure. SMZ showed a greater sensitivity compared to Z in response to benzene exposure. The difference was more evident at lower concentrations of benzene (0.005-5 μM) where growth inhibition occurred in SMZ but not in Z cells. We found that benzene induced morphological changes, formation of lipofuscin, and decreased chlorophyll content in Z strain in a dose response manner. No significant differences were found between the two strains in ROS formation and DNA damage by benzene at concentrations affecting cell growth. Based on these results, we conclude that E. gracilis cells were sensitive to benzene-induced toxicities for certain endpoints such as cell growth rate, morphological change, depletion of chlorophyll. Therefore, it is a potentially suitable model for monitoring the contamination of benzene and its effects in the groundwater.

  1. Temporal change of photophobic step-up responses of Euglena gracilis investigated through motion analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Won, June; Song, Simon; Tamaki, Shun; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maeda, Mizuo

    2017-01-01

    The adaptation to a strong light is one of the essential characteristics of green algae, yet lacking relatively the information about the photophobic responses of Eukaryotic microalgae. We investigated the photophobic step-up responses of Euglena gracilis over a time course of several hours with alternated repetition of blue-light pulse illumination and spatially patterned blue-light illumination. Four distinctive photophobic motions in response to strong blue light were identified in a trace image analysis, namely on-site rotation, running and tumbling, continuous circular swimming, and unaffected straightforward swimming. The cells cultured in autotrophic conditions under weak light showed mainly the on-site rotation response at the beginning of blue-light illumination, but they acquired more blue-light tolerant responses of running and tumbling, circular swimming, or straightforward swimming. The efficiency of escaping from a blue-light illuminated area improved markedly with the development of these photophobic motions. Time constant of 3.0 h was deduced for the evolution of photophobic responses of E. gracilis. The nutrient-rich metabolic status of the cells resulting from photosynthesis during the experiments, i.e., the accumulation of photosynthesized nutrient products in balance between formation and consumption, was the main factor responsible for the development of photophobic responses. The reduction-oxidation status in and around E. gracilis cells did not affect their photophobic responses significantly, unlike the case of photophobic responses and phototaxis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. This study shows that the evolution of photophobic motion type of E. gracilis is dominated mainly by the nutrient metabolic status of the cells. The fact suggests that the nutrient-rich cells have a higher threshold for switching the flagellar motion from straightforward swimming to rotation under a strong light. PMID:28234984

  2. The Genome of Nitrospina gracilis Illuminates the Metabolism and Evolution of the Major Marine Nitrite Oxidizer

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Rattei, Thomas; Spieck, Eva; Daims, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In marine systems, nitrate is the major reservoir of inorganic fixed nitrogen. The only known biological nitrate-forming reaction is nitrite oxidation, but despite its importance, our knowledge of the organisms catalyzing this key process in the marine N-cycle is very limited. The most frequently encountered marine NOB are related to Nitrospina gracilis, an aerobic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium isolated from ocean surface waters. To date, limited physiological and genomic data for this organism were available and its phylogenetic affiliation was uncertain. In this study, the draft genome sequence of N. gracilis strain 3/211 was obtained. Unexpectedly for an aerobic organism, N. gracilis lacks classical reactive oxygen defense mechanisms and uses the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for carbon fixation. These features indicate microaerophilic ancestry and are consistent with the presence of Nitrospina in marine oxygen minimum zones. Fixed carbon is stored intracellularly as glycogen, but genes for utilizing external organic carbon sources were not identified. N. gracilis also contains a full gene set for oxidative phosphorylation with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor and for reverse electron transport from nitrite to NADH. A novel variation of complex I may catalyze the required reverse electron flow to low-potential ferredoxin. Interestingly, comparative genomics indicated a strong evolutionary link between Nitrospina, the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira, and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, apparently including the horizontal transfer of a periplasmically oriented nitrite oxidoreductase and other key genes for nitrite oxidation at an early evolutionary stage. Further, detailed phylogenetic analyses using concatenated marker genes provided evidence that Nitrospina forms a novel bacterial phylum, for which we propose the name Nitrospinae. PMID:23439773

  3. Temporoparietal-occipital flap for facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moretti, E; Garcia, F G

    2001-04-01

    Eight patients with an extensive facial defect of the masseter region were reconstructed with a temporoparietal- occipital rotation flap. This flap is vascularized by both the arteria auricularis posterior and the arteria occipitalis lateralis. These vessels have been sufficient to ensure viability of the entire flap. It is elevated and easily transposed to the masseter region because of the distensibility obtained from the posterior neck. This approach avoided the need for an unsightly skin graft at the site while providing tissue with hair follicles that blend well with the surrounding hair. This large flap offers cosmetic advantages over other techniques for coverage of facial defects in men.

  4. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.

    PubMed

    Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers.

  5. Refining the intrinsic chimera flap: a review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Agarwal, Shailesh; Adler, Neta; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2009-10-01

    Reconstruction of complex tissue deficiencies in which each missing component is in a different spatial relationship to each other can be particularly challenging, especially in patients with limited recipient vessels. The chimera flap design is uniquely suited to reconstruct these deformities. Chimera flaps have been previously defined in many ways with 2 main categories: prefabricated or intrinsic. Herein we attempt to clarify the definition of a true intrinsic chimeric flap and provide examples of how these constructs provide a method for reconstruction of complex defects. The versatility of the intrinsic chimera flap and its procurement from 7 different vascular systems is described. A clarification of the definition of a true intrinsic chimera flap is described. In addition, construction of flaps from the lateral femoral circumflex, deep circumflex iliac, inferior gluteal, peroneal, subscapular, thoracodorsal, and radial arterial systems is described to showcase the versatility of these chimera flaps. A true intrinsic chimera flap must consist of more than a single tissue type. Each of the tissue components receives its blood flow from separate vascular branches or perforators that are connected to a single vascular source. These vascular branches must be of appropriate length to allow for insetting with 3-dimensional spatial freedom. There are a multitude of sites from which true intrinsic chimera flaps may be harvested.

  6. A water tunnel study of Gurney flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several Gurney flap configurations were tested in the NASA Langley 16 x 24 inch Water Tunnel. These devices provided an increased region of attached flow on a wing upper surface relative to the wing without the flaps. The recirculation region behind the flap was visualized and shown to be consistent with hypotheses stated in previous research. Although the test Reynolds number for this study was several orders of magnitude below those in previous investigations, the effect of the Gurney flaps is in qualitative agreement with them. This is as would be expected from first order effects for high lift devices.

  7. Arterialized Venous Bone Flaps: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Borumandi, Farzad; Higgins, James P.; Buerger, Heinz; Vasilyeva, Anna; Benlidayi, Memmet Emre; Sencar, Leman; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) the venous network is used to revascularize the flap. While the feasibility of AVFs in soft tissues has been reported there is no study on osseous AVFs. In this study we aim to assess the flap survival of osseous AVFs in a pig model. Medial femoral condyle flaps were elevated in 18 pigs. Three groups were created: AVF (n = 6), conventional arterial flap (cAF, n = 6) and bone graft (BG, n = 6). The AVFs were created by anastomosis of genicular artery with one vena comitans while leaving one efferent vein for drainage. After 6 months the specimens were harvested. The histology and histomorphometry of of the bone in cAF and AVF was significantly superior to bone grafts with a higher bone volume in AVFs (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that osseous free flaps may be supported and survive using the technique of arterialization of the venous network. The concept of AVFs in osseous flaps may be feasible for revascularization of free flaps with an inadequate artery but well developed veins. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to assess the feasibility of clinical use of arterialized venous bone flaps. PMID:27558705

  8. Microsurgical free flaps: Controversies in maxillofacial reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264

  9. Pressure Available for Cooling with Cowling Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W; Naiman, Irven; Crigler, John L

    1941-01-01

    Report presents the results of a full-scale investigation conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the pressure difference available for cooling with cowling flaps. The flaps were applied to an exit slot of smooth contour at 0 degree flap angle. Flap angles of 0 degree, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees were tested. Two propellers were used; propeller c which has conventional round blade shanks and propeller f which has airfoil sections extending closer to the hub. The pressure available for cooling is shown to be a direct function of the thrust disk-loading coefficient of the propeller.

  10. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles A A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  11. A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Diogo; Pais, Diogo; Iria, Inês; Mota-Silva, Eduarda; Almeida, Maria-Angélica; Alves, Sara; Pen, Cláudia; Farinho, Ana; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Ferreira-Silva, José; Ferraz-Oliveira, Mário; Vassilenko, Valentina; Videira, Paula A.; Gory O'Neill, João

    2017-01-01

    Free tissue transfer has been increasingly used in clinical practice since the 1970s, allowing reconstruction of complex and otherwise untreatable defects resulting from tumor extirpation, trauma, infections, malformations or burns. Free flaps are particularly useful for reconstructing highly complex anatomical regions, like those of the head and neck, the hand, the foot and the perineum. Moreover, basic and translational research in the area of free tissue transfer is of great clinical potential. Notwithstanding, surgical trainees and researchers are frequently deterred from using microsurgical models of tissue transfer, due to lack of information regarding the technical aspects involved in the operative procedures. The aim of this paper is to present the steps required to transfer a fasciocutaneous epigastric free flap to the neck in the rat. This flap is based on the superficial epigastric artery and vein, which originates from and drain into the femoral artery and vein, respectively. On average the caliber of the superficial epigastric vein is 0.6 to 0.8 mm, contrasting with the 0.3 to 0.5 mm of the superficial epigastric artery. Histologically, the flap is a composite block of tissues, containing skin (epidermis and dermis), a layer of fat tissue (panniculus adiposus), a layer of striated muscle (panniculus carnosus), and a layer of loose areolar tissue. Succinctly, the epigastric flap is raised on its pedicle vessels that are then anastomosed to the external jugular vein and to the carotid artery on the ventral surface of the rat's neck. According to our experience, this model guarantees the complete survival of approximately 70 to 80% of epigastric flaps transferred to the neck region. The flap can be evaluated whenever needed by visual inspection. Hence, the authors believe this is a good experimental model for microsurgical research and training. PMID:28117814

  12. Production of ricinoleic acid-containing monoestolide triacylglycerides in an oleaginous diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuki; Ifuku, Kentaro; Furutani, Ken-ichi; Yan, Dongyi; Okuda, Tomoyo; Ando, Akinori; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Fukuzawa, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    Ricinoleic acid (RA), a hydroxyl fatty acid, is suitable for medical and industrial uses and is produced in high-oil-accumulating organisms such as castor bean and the ergot fungus Claviceps. We report here the efficient production of RA in a transgenic diatom Chaetoceros gracilis expressing the fatty acid hydroxylase gene (CpFAH) from Claviceps purpurea. In transgenic C. gracilis, RA content increased at low temperatures, reaching 2.2 pg/cell when cultured for 7 d at 15 °C, without affecting cell growth, and was enhanced (3.3 pg/cell) by the co-expression of a palmitic acid-specific elongase gene. Most of the accumulated RA was linked with monoestolide triacylglycerol (ME TAG), in which one RA molecule was esterified to the α position of the glycerol backbone and was further esterified at its hydroxy group with a fatty acid or second RA moiety, or 1-OH TAG, in which RA was esterified to the glycerol backbone. Overall, 80% of RA was accumulated as ME TAGs. Furthermore, exogenous RA-methyl ester suppressed the growth of wild-type diatoms in a dose-dependent manner and was rapidly converted to ME TAG. These results suggest that C. gracilis masks the hydroxyl group and accumulates RA as the less-toxic ME TAG. PMID:27830762

  13. Bozasella gracilis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Entodiniomorphida) from Asian elephant and phylogenetic analysis of entodiniomorphids and vestibuliferids.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Ishihara, Miki; Imai, Soichi

    2014-04-01

    Bozasella gracilis n. sp. in the order Entodiniomorphida was found in fecal samples of an Asian elephant kept in a zoo. The ciliate has general and infraciliary similarities to the families Ophryoscolecidae and Cycloposthiidae. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from 18S rRNA gene sequences of B. gracilis, 45 entodiniomorphids, 10 vestibuliferids, 5 macropodiniids, and an outgroup, using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and neighbor joining analyses. Of them, there were 32 new sequences; 26 entodiniomorphid species in the genera, Bozasella, Triplumaria, Gassovskiella, Ditoxum, Spirodinium, Triadinium, Tetratoxum, Pseudoentodinium, Ochoterenaia, Circodinium, Blepharocorys, Sulcoarcus, Didesmis, Alloiozona, Blepharoconus, Hemiprorodon, and Prorodonopsis, and 6 vestibuliferid species in the genera, Buxtonella, Balantidium, Helicozoster, Latteuria, and Paraisotricha. Thirty additional sequences were retrieved from the GenBank database. Phylogenetic trees revealed non-monophylies of the orders Entodiniomorphida and Vestibuliferida, the suborders Entodiniomorphina and Blepharocorythina, and the families Cycloposthiidae and Paraisotrichidae. Bozasella gracilis was sister to Triplumaria. In addition, to avoid homonymy, we propose Gilchristinidae nom. nov., Gilchristina nom. nov. and Gilchristina artemis (Ito, Van Hoven, Miyazaki & Imai, 2006) comb. nov.

  14. Genetic diversity of Lippia sidoides Cham. and L. gracilis Schauer germplasm.

    PubMed

    Santos, C P; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Bajay, M M; Campos, J B; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Pinto, J A O; Blank, A F

    2016-09-23

    The conservation of plants in germplasm banks ensures the characterization and availability of these resources for future generations. The present study used DNA markers to obtain genetic information about germplasm collections of Lippia sidoides and L. gracilis, which are maintained in an Active Germplasm Bank (AGB). Genetic variability of samples in the AGB was assessed using 12 combinations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers (EcoRI/MseI). Twenty simple sequence repeat primers designed for L. alba were tested to determine their transferability in L. sidoides and L. gracilis. The AFLP markers generated 789 markers. The assessed loci exhibited a moderate Shannon diversity index (I = 0.42) in both species, suggesting that the conserved accessions possess an intermediate level of genetic diversity. Twelve microsatellite loci amplified satisfactorily, and nine loci were polymorphic in each species. A total of 23, 22, and 36 alleles, with an average of 2.5, 2.4, and 3.27 alleles per locus were identified for L. sidoides and L. gracilis accessions in the AGB, and Lippia sp sampled plants, respectively. Analyses of genetic structure permitted the identification of three different groups using both sets of markers, of which two were representative of L. sidoides. The information generated in this study may help to create, expand, and maintain collections of these species and may assist in genetic-breeding programs.

  15. Identification and characterization of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takahisa; Kimura, Ayako; Sakuyama, Harumi; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Euglena gracilis has the ability to accumulate a storage polysaccharide, a β-1,3-glucan known as paramylon, under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis cells degrade paramylon and synthesize wax esters. Cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) appears to be a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis and position branch point of carbon partitioning between paramylon and wax ester biosynthesis. We herein identified and characterized cytosolic FBPase from E. gracilis. The Km and Vmax values of EgFBPaseIII were 16.5 ± 1.6 μM and 30.4 ± 7.2 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. The activity of EgFBPaseIII was not regulated by AMP or reversible redox modulation. No significant differences were observed in the production of paramylon in transiently suppressed EgFBPaseIII gene expression cells by RNAi (KD-EgFBPaseIII); nevertheless, FBPase activity was markedly decreased in KD-EgFBPaseIII cells. On the other hand, the growth of KD-EgFBPaseIII cells was slightly higher than that of control cells.

  16. Trophic transfer of gold nanoparticles from Euglena gracilis or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Shin, Yu-Jin; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the trophic transfer of nanoparticles (NPs) is important because NPs are small enough to easily penetrate into organisms. In this study, we evaluated the trophic transfer of gold NPs (AuNPs) within the aquatic food chain. We observed AuNPs transfer from 2 species of primary producers (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Euglena gracilis) to the primary consumer (Daphnia magna). Also, bioaccumulation of AuNPs in E. gracilis was higher than that in C. reinhardtii. The reasons for the difference in Au accumulation may be the physical structure of these organisms, and the surface area that is available for interaction with NPs. C. reinhardtii has a cell wall that may act as a barrier to the penetration of NPs. The size of E. gracilis is larger than that of C. reinhardtii. This study demonstrates the trophic transfer of AuNPs from a general producer to a consumer in an aquatic environment.

  17. [Genotoxicity effect of organic pollutants in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake on microalga Euglena gracilis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang-Yu; Cui, Yi-Bin; Hu, Chang-Wei; Qian, Xin; Kong, Zhi-Ming; Li, Mei

    2009-11-01

    Organic pollutant ingredients and content of water samples from Taihu Lake were analyzed by GC-MS. Results showed that Taihu Lake was already contaminated by the organic pollutant, and 15 kinds of targeted organic pollutants were detected. At lower concentrations (1 time), organic pollutants could not have notable effect on the growth of Euglena gracilis, but could increase the content of photosynthetic pigment. At higher concentrations (5, 10 times), organic pollutants restrained the growth of E. gracilis remarkably, and decreased the content of photosynthetic pigment. Activities of SOD and POD increased with the content of organic pollutants. It is indicated that organic pollution could induce activities of antioxidation enzymes in E. gracilis. TOM and TM for the genotoxicity assay increased and DNA damage was found. In higher concentration groups, DNA damage was serious and had an obvious dose-effect relationship. It is indicated that Meiliang bay water may have potential mutagenicity. Comet assay combined with SOD analysis was of value to genotoxic monitoring of polluted water and was a suitable biomarker for organic pollutants in water.

  18. Molecular characterization of a calmodulin involved in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Daiker, Viktor; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2010-04-01

    The unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a negative gravitactic behavior. This is based on physiological mechanisms which in the past have been indirectly assessed. Meanwhile, it was possible to isolate genes involved in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis. The DNA sequences of five calmodulins were found in Euglena, one of which was only known in its protein structure (CaM.1); the other four are new. The biosynthesis of the corresponding proteins of CaM.1-CaM.5 was inhibited by means of RNA interference to determine their involvement in the gravitactic signal transduction chain. RNAi of CaM.1 inhibits free swimming of the cells and pronounced cell-form aberrations. The division of cells was also hampered. After recovery from RNAi the cell showed precise negative gravitaxis again. Blockage of CaM.3 to CaM. 5 did not impair gravitaxis. In contrast, the blockage of CaM.2 has only a transient and not pronounced influence on motility and cell form, but leads to a total loss of gravitactic orientation for more than 30 days. This indicates that CaM.2 is an element in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis in E. gracilis. The results are discussed with regard to the current working model of gravitaxis in E. gracilis.

  19. Euglena gracilis and Trypanosomatids possess common patterns in predicted mitochondrial targeting presequences.

    PubMed

    Krnáčová, Katarína; Vesteg, Matej; Hampl, Vladimír; Vlček, Čestmír; Horváth, Anton

    2012-10-01

    Euglena gracilis possessing chloroplasts of secondary green algal origin and parasitic trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major belong to the protist phylum Euglenozoa. Euglenozoa might be among the earliest eukaryotic branches bearing ancestral traits reminiscent of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) or missing features present in other eukaryotes. LECA most likely possessed mitochondria of endosymbiotic α-proteobacterial origin. In this study, we searched for the presence of homologs of mitochondria-targeted proteins from other organisms in the currently available EST dataset of E. gracilis. The common motifs in predicted N-terminal presequences and corresponding homologs from T. brucei, T. cruzi and L. major (if found) were analyzed. Other trypanosomatid mitochondrial protein precursor (e.g., those involved in RNA editing) were also included in the analysis. Mitochondrial presequences of E. gracilis and these trypanosomatids seem to be highly variable in sequence length (5-118 aa), but apparently share statistically significant similarities. In most cases, the common (M/L)RR motif is present at the N-terminus and it is probably responsible for recognition via import apparatus of mitochondrial outer membrane. Interestingly, this motif is present inside the predicted presequence region in some cases. In most presequences, this motif is followed by a hydrophobic region rich in alanine, leucine, and valine. In conclusion, either RR motif or arginine-rich region within hydrophobic aa-s present at the N-terminus of a preprotein can be sufficient signals for mitochondrial import irrespective of presequence length in Euglenozoa.

  20. Sequence evidence for the presence of two tetrapyrrole pathways in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Kořený, Luděk; Oborník, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Genes encoding enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway were searched within Euglena gracilis EST databases and 454 genome reads and their 5' end regions were sequenced when not available. Phylogenetic analyses and protein localization predictions support the hypothesis concerning the presence of two separated tetrapyrrole pathways in E. gracilis. One of these pathways resembles the heme synthesis in primarily heterotrophic eukaryotes and was presumably present in the host cell prior to secondary endosymbiosis with a green alga. The second pathway is similar to the plastid-localized tetrapyrrole syntheses in plants and photosynthetic algae. It appears to be localized to the secondary plastid, presumably derived from an algal endosymbiont and probably serves only for the production of plastidial heme and chlorophyll. Thus, E. gracilis represents an evolutionary intermediate in a metabolic transformation of a primary heterotroph to a photoautotroph through secondary endosymbiosis. We propose here that the tetrapyrrole pathway serves as a highly informative marker for the evolution of plastids and plays a crucial role in the loss of plastids.

  1. The free serratus anterior artery perforator flap-A case report and anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Oh; Chang, Hak; Imanishi, Nobuaki

    2016-05-01

    We report a reconstructive case using a free serratus anterior artery perforator flap and an anatomic study. A 50-year-old man with upper esophageal sphincter stricture underwent segmental cervical esophageal resection. The size of the defect was approximately 5.5 cm. We then performed esophageal reconstruction using the free serratus anterior artery perforator flap. Esophagography performed on postoperative day 7 revealed no definite leakage and a viable anastomosis site with wide patency. No complications developed during the long-term follow-up period of 3 years. We reviewed the literature and performed an anatomic study using four fresh cadavers. We performed an angiographic study using two specimens and dissection of this perforator using other two specimens. We found that a direct connection existed between the serratus anterior artery and intercostal perforator to the skin in two of eight chests. The connection was located at the 4th intercostal space in the left chest of one cadaver and at the 6th/7th intercostal space in the left chest of the other cadaver. The free serratus anterior artery perforator flap is a new flap that could be considered for use during the elevation of a perforator flap in the lateral chest area, and especially in the area overlying the serratus anterior muscle. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:339-344, 2016.

  2. Vascular waveform analysis of flap-feeding vessels using color Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akihiro; Onishi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We performed vascular waveform analysis of flap-feeding vessels using color Doppler ultrasonography and evaluated the blood flow in the flaps prior to surgery. Vascular waveform analysis was performed in 19 patients. The analyzed parameters included the vascular diameter, flow volume, flow velocity, resistance index, pulsatility index, and acceleration time. The arterial waveform was classified into 5 types based on the partially modified blood flow waveform classification reported by Hirai et al.; in particular, D-1a, D-1b, and D-2 were considered as normal waveforms. They were 4 patients which observed abnormal vascular waveform among 19 patients (D-4 : 1, D-3 : 1, and Poor detect : 2). The case which presented D-4 waveform changed the surgical procedure, and a favorable outcome was achieved. Muscle flap of the case which presented D-3 waveform was partially necrosed. The case which detected blood flow poorly was judged to be the vascular obstruction of the internal thoracic artery. In the evaluation of blood flow in flaps using color Doppler ultrasonography, determination of not only basic blood flow information, such as the vascular distribution and diameter and flow velocity, but also the flow volume, vascular resistance, and arterial waveform is essential to elucidate the hemodynamics of the flap.

  3. Hydrogen clearance: Assessment of technique for measurement of skin-flap blood flow in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.G.; Kerrigan, C.L. )

    1991-10-01

    The hydrogen clearance technique has been used for many years by investigators to determine brain blood flow and has been partially validated in this setting using other methods of blood flow measurement. The method has been modified to allow blood flow measurements in skin, but the accuracy of H2 clearance for measuring skin blood flow has not been determined. Multiple blood flow measurements were performed using H2 clearance and radioactive microspheres on skin flaps and control skin in pigs. On 12 pigs, a total of 117 flap and 42 control skin measurements were available for analysis. There was no significant difference between the two techniques in measuring mean control skin blood flow. In skin flaps, H2 clearance was significantly correlated to microsphere-measured blood flow, but it consistently gave an overestimate. Sources of error may include injury to the tissues by insertion of electrodes, consumption of H2 by the electrodes, or diffusion of H2 from the relatively ischemic flap to its well-vascularized bed. Further studies are necessary to determine the cause of this error and to measure the technique's accuracy in skeletal muscle and other flaps.

  4. Outperforming hummingbirds’ load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work. PMID:27444790

  5. Outperforming hummingbirds' load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Leys, Frederik; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-08-15

    The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work.

  6. Pedicled posteromedial thigh (PMT) flap: A new alternative for groin defect reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Mario F; Enrique Carrillo Jimenez, Leonardo; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2015-11-26

    The posterior medial thigh is mainly vascularized by the profunda femoris artery (PFA), which nourishes the adductor magnus muscle and overlying skin, to supply a number of perforators that can potentially be used as pedicles for local perforator flaps. Here we present two cases utilizing the pedicled posteromedial thigh flap (PMT) to reconstruct the groin defects. Two patients underwent resection for metastatic malignant melanoma resulting in large defects of the groin with exposure of major inguinal vessels; the dimensions of the skin defects were 15 cm × 5 cm and 16 cm × 6 cm, two ipsilateral pedicled PMT flaps were designed to cover the defects. The pedicled PMT flaps were based on perforators arising from the PFA and were transposed through a submuscular tunnel into the defect. The postoperative course was uneventful and the wounds were reconstructed successfully. The pedicled PMT flap may be an option for reconstruction of groin defects and could be incorporated into the armamentarium of the reconstructive microsurgeon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2015.

  7. Reconstruction of the Foot and Ankle Using Pedicled or Free Flaps: Perioperative Flap Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiucun; Cui, Jianli; Maharjan, Suraj; Lu, Laijin; Gong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between non-technical risk factors and the perioperative flap survival rate and to evaluate the choice of skin flap for the reconstruction of foot and ankle. Methods This was a clinical retrospective study. Nine variables were identified. The Kaplan-Meier method coupled with a log-rank test and a Cox regression model was used to predict the risk factors that influence the perioperative flap survival rate. The relationship between postoperative wound infection and risk factors was also analyzed using a logistic regression model. Results The overall flap survival rate was 85.42%. The necrosis rates of free flaps and pedicled flaps were 5.26% and 20.69%, respectively. According to the Cox regression model, flap type (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.592; 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.606, 4.184); P < 0.001) and postoperative wound infection (HR = 0.266; 95% CI (0.134, 0.529); P < 0.001) were found to be statistically significant risk factors associated with flap necrosis. Based on the logistic regression model, preoperative wound bed inflammation (odds ratio [OR] = 11.371,95% CI (3.117, 41.478), P < 0.001) was a statistically significant risk factor for postoperative wound infection. Conclusion Flap type and postoperative wound infection were both independent risk factors influencing the flap survival rate in the foot and ankle. However, postoperative wound infection was a risk factor for the pedicled flap but not for the free flap. Microvascular anastomosis is a major cause of free flap necrosis. To reconstruct complex or wide soft tissue defects of the foot or ankle, free flaps are safer and more reliable than pedicled flaps and should thus be the primary choice. PMID:27930679

  8. Treatment of recalcitrant air leaks: the combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior flap.

    PubMed

    Woo, Evan; Tan, Bien-Keem; Lim, Chong-Hee

    2009-08-01

    Pleural space problems after lung resection and persistent air leaks are among the commonest challenges posed to thoracic surgeons. Surgical repair of air leaks are indicated when conventional tube thoracostomy has failed to solve the problem. We would like to propose the novel application of the combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior transposition flap for selected cases of air leaks that are recalcitrant to conventional treatment. We discuss its indications and the surgical technique. Five patients underwent the procedure between 2004 and 2007. They were male patients aged between 32 and 70 years. Four patients had alveolar-pleural fistulas resulting in persistent air leaks while the fifth patient had, in addition, a space problem following lung volume reduction surgery. All patients had prolonged treatment with chest drains without success. With the patient in a lateral decubitus position, a lazy-S incision was used to expose the entire latissimus dorsi and the proximal slips of the serratus anterior muscles. They were raised as pedicled flaps and transferred in tandem. The latissimus dorsi was introduced into the pleural cavity via a thoracic window and used to reinforce the fistula repair. The serratus anterior muscle closed the rib window. In all cases, the lungs reexpanded and chest drains were removed within 5 days post surgery. There were no recurrent air leaks at 1-year follow-up with all patients. Conservative treatment in all our patients was unsuccessful. The dual flap technique has the advantage of allowing normal ventilation while providing a seal over the alveolar-pleural fistula. The muscle bulk of the latissimus dorsi fills the pleural dead space and the serratus anterior muscle seals the axilla preventing subcutaneous emphysema. There was minimal morbidity associated with the use of this dual muscle flap technique. This technique is an effective treatment option for recalcitrant air leaks.

  9. Effects of perforated flap surfaces and screens on acoustics of a large externally blown flap model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. J.; Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.; Wagner, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Various model geometries and combinations of perforated flap surfaces and screens mounted close to the flap surfaces were studied for application to jet-flap noise attenuation for externally blown flap, under-the-wing aircraft. The efforts to reduce jet-flap interaction noise were marginally successful. Maximum attenuations of less than 4 db in overall sound pressure level were obtained in the flyover plane. Noise reductions obtained in the low-to-middle-frequency ranges (up to 7 db) were generally offset by large increases in high-frequency noise (up to 20 db).

  10. Total ‘rib’-preservation technique of internal mammary vessel exposure for free flap breast reconstruction: A 5-year prospective cohort study and instructional video

    PubMed Central

    Rosich-Medina, Anais; Bouloumpasis, Serafeim; Di Candia, Michele; Malata, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The total ‘rib’-preservation method of dissecting out the internal mammary vessels (IMV) during microvascular breast reconstruction aims to reduce free flap morbidity at the recipient site. We review our five-year experience with this technique. Patients & methods An analysis of a prospectively collected free flap data cohort was undertaken to determine the indications, operative details and reconstructive outcomes in all breast reconstruction patients undergoing IMV exposure using the total ‘rib’-preservation method by a single surgeon. Results 178 consecutive breast free flaps (156 unilateral, 11 bilateral) were performed from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2013 in 167 patients with a median age of 50 years (range 28–71). There were 154 DIEP flaps, 14 SIEA flaps, 7 muscle-sparing free TRAMs, 2 IGAP flaps and one free latissimus dorsi flap. 75% of the reconstructions (133/178) were immediate, 25% (45/178) were delayed. The mean inter-costal space distance was 20.9 mm (range 9–29). The mean time taken to expose and prepare the recipient IMV's was 54 min (range 17–131). The mean flap ischaemia time was 95 min (range 38–190). Free flap survival was 100%, although 2.2% (4 flaps) required a return to theatre for exploration and flap salvage. No patients complained of localised chest pain or tenderness at the recipient site and no chest wall contour deformity has been observed. Discussion & conclusion The total ‘rib’-preservation technique of IMV exposure is a safe, reliable and versatile method for microvascular breast reconstruction and should be considered as a valid alternative to the ‘rib’-sacrificing techniques. PMID:26468373

  11. Feasibility of a bilateral regional sternocleidomastoid muscular flap in the closure of a persistent acquired tracheopharyngeal fistula.

    PubMed

    Goh, Liang Chye; Santhi, Kalimuthu; Arvin, Balachandran; Mohd Razif, Mohamad Yunus

    2016-08-26

    An acquired persistent tracheopharyngeal fistula secondary to an infected tracheopharyngeal voice prosthesis is a common cause of recurrent aspiration pneumonia in a postlaryngectomy patient. We report a case of a successfully treated tracheopharyngeal fistula whereby both the sternocleidomastoid muscles were used as muscular flaps to close the defect and its outcome.

  12. Energy management - The delayed flap approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

  13. Scrubbing noise of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the aeroacoustic mechanism that produces externally blown flap (EBF) scrubbing noise, i.e. a surface-radiated noise which is generally strongest normal to UTW deflected flaps. Scrubbing noise was not radiated from portions of the surface adjacent to strong, locally coherent turbulent eddies. Instead, scrubbing noise seemed to come from weak loading fluctuations that were coherent along the scrubbed span. These loading fluctuations probably were induced by the convected large-scale vortex structure of the attached exhaust jet. Deflecting a UTW flap would reduce the distance between the vortex trajectory and the flap surface, increasing the resulting dipole noise and rotating its directivity. In contrast, deflecting a USB flap would increase this distance, so that observable scrubbing noise would be radiated only from the undeflected forward portion of the wing.

  14. White light spectroscopy for free flap monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fox, Paige M; Zeidler, Kamakshi; Carey, Joseph; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-03-01

    White light spectroscopy non-invasively measures hemoglobin saturation at the capillary level rendering an end-organ measurement of perfusion. We hypothesized this technology could be used after microvascular surgery to allow for early detection of ischemia and thrombosis. The Spectros T-Stat monitoring device, which utilizes white light spectroscopy, was compared with traditional flap monitoring techniques including pencil Doppler and clinical exam. Data were prospectively collected and analyzed. Results from 31 flaps revealed a normal capillary hemoglobin saturation of 40-75% with increase in saturation during the early postoperative period. One flap required return to the operating room 12 hours after microvascular anastomosis. The T-stat system recorded an acute decrease in saturation from ~50% to less than 30% 50 min prior to identification by clinical exam. Prompt treatment resulted in flap salvage. The Spectros T-Stat monitor may be a useful adjunct for free flap monitoring providing continuous, accurate perfusion assessment postoperatively.

  15. Microvascular free flaps in skull base reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Herr, Marc W; Lin, Derrick T

    2013-01-01

    The anatomical challenges of skull base surgery are well known. Furthermore, ablative and traumatic defects in this region produce complex reconstructive problems with a high risk of significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. Over the past two decades, microvascular free tissue reconstruction following open resection has been shown to improve outcomes and reduce complication rates when compared to the traditional use of pedicled flaps. The increasing use of free tissue transfer has been further strengthened by improved technical expertise and high flap success rates. Since the size and type of free tissue to be utilized must be individualized to each defect, the accomplished reconstructive surgeon should be extremely versatile and, by extension, facile with a several types of free flaps. Thus, four of the most commonly used flaps--the rectus abdominis, radial forearm, latissimus dorsi and anterolateral thigh flaps--are discussed.

  16. Peroneal Flap: Clinical Application and Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yooseok; Yeo, Kwan Koo; Piao, Yibo

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the peroneal artery and its perforators, and to report the clinical results of reconstruction with peroneal artery perforator flaps. Methods The authors dissected 4 cadaver legs and investigated the distribution, course, origin, number, type, and length of the perforators. Peroneal artery perforator flap surgery was performed on 29 patients. Results We identified 19 perforators in 4 legs. The mean number of perforators was 4.8 per leg, and the mean length was 4.8 cm. Five perforators were found proximally, 9 medially, and 5 distally. We found 12 true septocutaneous perforators and 7 musculocutaneous perforators. Four emerged from the posterior tibia artery, and 15 were from the peroneal artery. The peroneal artery perforator flap was used in 29 patients. Retrograde island peroneal flaps were used in 8 cases, anterograde island peroneal flaps in 5 cases, and free peroneal flaps in 16 cases. The mean age was 59.9 years, and the defect size ranged from 2.0 cm×4.5 cm to 8.0 cm×8.0 cm. All the flaps survived. Five flaps developed partial skin necrosis. In 2 cases, a split-thickness skin graft was performed, and the other 3 cases were treated without any additional procedures. Conclusions The peroneal artery perforator flap is a good alternative for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects, with a constant and reliable vascular pedicle, thin and pliable skin, and the possibility of creating a composite tissue flap. PMID:28352602

  17. DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle positioning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Rosaria; Longo, Benedetto; Sorotos, Michail; Pagnoni, Marco; Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    Although clinical examination alone or in combination with other techniques is the only ubiquitous method for flap monitoring, it becomes problematic with buried free-tissue transfer. We present a DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle (SSP) positioning algorithm and its reliability is also investigated using a standardized monitoring protocol. All DIEP flaps were monitored with hand-held Doppler examination and clinical observation beginning immediately after surgery in recovery room and continued postoperatively at the ward. Skin paddle (SP) position was preoperatively drawn following mastectomy type incisions; in skin-sparing mastectomies types I-III a small SP (sSP) replaces nipple-areola complex; in skin-sparing mastectomy type IV, SSP is positioned between wise-pattern branches while in type V between medial/lateral branches. In case of nipple-sparing mastectomy SSP is positioned at inframammary fold or in lateral/medial branches of omega/inverted omega incision if used. Three hundred forty-seven DIEP flap breast reconstructions were reviewed and stratified according to SP type into group A including 216 flaps with large SP and group B including 131 flaps with SSP and sSP. Sixteen flaps (4.6%) were taken back for pedicle compromise, 13 of which were salvaged (81.25%), 11 among 13 from group A and 2 among 3 from group B. There was no statistical difference between the groups concerning microvascular complication rate (P = 0.108), and time until take-back (P = 0.521) and flap salvage rate (P = 0.473) resulted independent of SP type. Our results suggest that early detection of perfusion impairment and successful flaps salvage could be achieved using SSP for buried DIEP flap monitoring, without adjunctive expensive monitoring tests.

  18. An alternative approach in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture skin defects: first dorsal metacarpal artery island flap.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Oguz; Coskunol, E; Ozalp, T

    2004-03-01

    Skin defects are often present following surgery for Dupuytren's contracture. The first dorsal metacarpal artery island flap (FDMA) has been used by others for soft tissue reconstruction about the radial and dorsal aspect of the hand, thumb and fingers. We have used it successfully to fill the skin defects often seen following palmar fasciectomy for Dupuytren's contracture. The thin nature of the flap makes it suitable for this application. The FDMA arises from the radial artery just before the radial artery enters the first dorsal interosseous muscle and divides into three branches: 1 to the thumb, 1 to the index finger (radiodorsal branch) and a muscular branch. It is the radiodorsal branch that supplies the skin over the index finger. The island flap based on this artery includes the dorsal terminal branches of the radial nerve and venae comitantes. The flap is formed to include the fascia of the first dorsal interosseous muscle to avoid injury to a possible deep artery and to yield sufficient fat to promote venous drainage. The flap is passed subcutaneously through the first web space and sutured in place to cover the skin defect in the palm. A full thickness skin graft is used to cover the defect over the proximal phalanx of the index finger.

  19. Use of rotation scalp flaps for treatment of occipital baldness.

    PubMed

    Juri, J; Juri, C; Arufe, H N

    1978-01-01

    We have used 25 rotation scalp flaps to treat occipital baldness associated with fronto-parietal baldness (the third flap), and 35 such flaps for the correction of isolated occipital baldness. We have not had any flap necrosis, and our patients have been well satisfied with the results of this surgery.

  20. Use of Superficial Temporal Fascia Flap for Treatment of Postradiation Trismus: An Innovation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Roy, Indranil Deb; Deshmukh, Tushar S; Bhandari, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Post radiation trismus severely reduces the quality of life. Radiation causes fibrosis of muscles of mastication resulting in severe restriction of mouth opening. Treatment options are limited as most of the local flaps are in the radiation zone. The present case is the first case in existing literature where, following the release of fibrosis secondary to radiation, superficial temporal fascia (STF) was used to cover the defect with excellent results and no recurrence after a year of follow up.

  1. High-throughput label-free image cytometry and image-based classification of live Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Ugawa, Masashi; Nozawa, Taisuke; Iwata, Osamu; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Sun, Xinlei; Tiamsak, Pimsiri; Tsumura, Norimichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Di Carlo, Dino; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate high-throughput label-free single-cell image cytometry and image-based classification of Euglena gracilis (a microalgal species) under different culture conditions. We perform it with our high-throughput optofluidic image cytometer composed of a time-stretch microscope with 780-nm resolution and 75-Hz line rate, and an inertial-focusing microfluidic device. By analyzing a large number of single-cell images from the image cytometer, we identify differences in morphological and intracellular phenotypes between E. gracilis cell groups and statistically classify them under various culture conditions including nitrogen deficiency for lipid induction. Our method holds promise for real-time evaluation of culture techniques for E. gracilis and possibly other microalgae in a non-invasive manner.

  2. High-throughput label-free image cytometry and image-based classification of live Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Ugawa, Masashi; Nozawa, Taisuke; Iwata, Osamu; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Sun, Xinlei; Tiamsak, Pimsiri; Tsumura, Norimichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Di Carlo, Dino; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate high-throughput label-free single-cell image cytometry and image-based classification of Euglena gracilis (a microalgal species) under different culture conditions. We perform it with our high-throughput optofluidic image cytometer composed of a time-stretch microscope with 780-nm resolution and 75-Hz line rate, and an inertial-focusing microfluidic device. By analyzing a large number of single-cell images from the image cytometer, we identify differences in morphological and intracellular phenotypes between E. gracilis cell groups and statistically classify them under various culture conditions including nitrogen deficiency for lipid induction. Our method holds promise for real-time evaluation of culture techniques for E. gracilis and possibly other microalgae in a non-invasive manner. PMID:27446699

  3. Antioxidant support in composite musculo-adipose-fasciocutaneous flap applications: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapi, Emin; Kulahci, Yalcin; Gedik, Ercan; Ozekinci, Selver; Isik, Fatma Birgul; Celik, Yusuf; Selcuk, Caferi Tayyar; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2014-02-01

    Free radicals are chemicals that play roles in the etio-pathogenesis of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Various antioxidants have been used in an attempt to mitigate the damage induced by these chemicals. In the present study, the antioxidative effects of grape seed extract (proanthocyanidin), tomato extract (lycopene), and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on a composite re-established-flow inferior epigastric artery based rectus abdominis muscle-skin flap model on which experimental ischaemia was induced were investigated. The rats have been administered antioxidants for 2 weeks prior to the surgery and for 2 more weeks thereafter. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical analyses were carried out at the decision of the experiment. It was found that flap skin island necrosis was significantly reduced in the proanthocyanidin, lycopene, vitamin C groups (p < 0.001). Statistical analyses showed significant decreases in inflammation, oedema, congestion, and granulation tissue in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups compared to the vitamin C and control groups (p < 0.001). When the viability rates of fat and muscle tissues were examined, significant improvements were found in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.001). Serum antioxidant capacity measurements revealed significant differences in the lycopene group compared to all other groups (p < 0.001). It is concluded that lycopene and proanthocyanidin are protective antioxidants in rat composite muscle-skin flap ischaemia-reperfusion models.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  5. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    DOE PAGES

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; ...

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in amore » group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.« less

  6. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  7. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups. PMID:26439509

  8. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing-wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  9. Critical Mach Numbers of Thin Airfoil Sections with Plain Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pardee, Otway O'm.; Heaslet, Max A.

    1946-01-01

    Critical Mach number as function of lift coefficient is determined for certain moderately thick NACA low-drag airfoils. Results, given graphically, included calculations on same airfoil sections with plain flaps for small flap deflections. Curves indicate optimum critical conditions for airfoils with flaps in such form that they can be compared with corresponding results for zero flap deflections. Plain flaps increase life-coefficient range for which critical Mach number is in region of high values characteristic of low-drag airfoils.

  10. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems.

    PubMed

    Richter, P R; Liu, Y; An, Y; Li, X; Nasir, A; Strauch, S M; Becker, I; Krüger, J; Schuster, M; Ntefidou, M; Daiker, V; Haag, F W M; Aiach, A; Lebert, M

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH4+ (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4.

  11. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P. R.; Liu, Y.; An, Y.; Li, X.; Nasir, A.; Strauch, S. M.; Becker, I.; Krüger, J.; Schuster, M.; Ntefidou, M.; Daiker, V.; Haag, F. W. M.; Aiach, A.; Lebert, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH+4 (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4.

  12. Topology optimization of pressure adaptive honeycomb for a morphing flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof; Scheepstra, Jan; Barrett, Ron

    2011-03-01

    The paper begins with a brief historical overview of pressure adaptive materials and structures. By examining avian anatomy, it is seen that pressure-adaptive structures have been used successfully in the Natural world to hold structural positions for extended periods of time and yet allow for dynamic shape changes from one flight state to the next. More modern pneumatic actuators, including FAA certified autopilot servoactuators are frequently used by aircraft around the world. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) show good promise as aircraft actuators, but follow the traditional model of load concentration and distribution commonly found in aircraft. A new system is proposed which leaves distributed loads distributed and manipulates structures through a distributed actuator. By using Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH), it is shown that large structural deformations in excess of 50% strains can be achieved while maintaining full structural integrity and enabling secondary flight control mechanisms like flaps. The successful implementation of pressure-adaptive honeycomb in the trailing edge of a wing section sparked the motivation for subsequent research into the optimal topology of the pressure adaptive honeycomb within the trailing edge of a morphing flap. As an input for the optimization two known shapes are required: a desired shape in cruise configuration and a desired shape in landing configuration. In addition, the boundary conditions and load cases (including aerodynamic loads and internal pressure loads) should be specified for each condition. Finally, a set of six design variables is specified relating to the honeycomb and upper skin topology of the morphing flap. A finite-element model of the pressure-adaptive honeycomb structure is developed specifically tailored to generate fast but reliable results for a given combination of external loading, input variables, and boundary conditions. Based on two bench tests it is shown that this model correlates well

  13. BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Due to the availability of small sensors, Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) can be used for detection missions of biological, chemical and nuclear agents. Traditionally these devices used fixed or rotary wings, actuated with electric DC motortransmission, a system which brings the disadvantage of a heavier platform. The overall objective of the BATMAV project is to develop a biologically inspired bat-like MAV with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. This paper presents a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings which are able to actively fold their elbow joints. A previous analysis of the flight physics for small birds, bats and large insects, revealed that the mammalian flight anatomy represents a suitable flight platform that can be actuated efficiently using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) artificial-muscles. A previous study of the flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg [1] helped to identify the required joint angles as relevant degrees of freedom for wing actuation. Using the engineering theory of robotic manipulators, engineering kinematic models of wings with 2 and 3-DOFs were designed to mimic the wing trajectories of the natural flier Plecotus auritus. Solid models of the bat-like skeleton were designed based on the linear and angular dimensions resulted from the kinematic models. This structure of the flight platform was fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies and assembled to form a desktop prototype with 2-DOFs wings. Preliminary flapping test showed suitable trajectories for wrist and wingtip that mimic the flapping cycle of the natural flyer.

  14. An aeroelastic instability provides a possible basis for the transition from gliding to flapping flight

    PubMed Central

    Curet, Oscar M.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics and stiffness properties of lifting surfaces play a key role in the aerodynamic performance of vertebrate flight. These surfaces, as a result of their flexible nature, may move both actively, owing to muscle contraction, and passively, in reaction to fluid forces. However, the nature and implications of this fluid–structure interaction are not well understood. Here, we study passive flight (flight with no active wing actuation) and explore a physical mechanism that leads to the emergence of a natural flapping motion. We model a vertebrate wing with a compliant shoulder and the ability to camber with an idealized physical model consisting of a cantilevered flat plate with a hinged trailing flap. We find that at low wind speed the wing is stationary, but at a critical speed the wing spontaneously flaps. The lift coefficient is significantly enhanced once the wing starts to oscillate, although this increase in lift generation is accompanied by an increase in drag. Flow visualization suggests that a strong leading edge vortex attached to the wing during downstroke is the primary mechanism responsible for the enhanced lift. The flapping instability we observe suggests a possible scenario for an evolutionary transition from gliding to powered flapping flight in animals that possess compliant wings capable of passive camber. Although the flapping state is accompanied by a lower lift-to-drag ratio, the increased lifting capability it confers might have enabled increased body mass, improved foraging performance and/or flight at lower speeds, any of which might have been selectively advantageous. PMID:23303221

  15. An aeroelastic instability provides a possible basis for the transition from gliding to flapping flight.

    PubMed

    Curet, Oscar M; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2013-03-06

    The morphology, kinematics and stiffness properties of lifting surfaces play a key role in the aerodynamic performance of vertebrate flight. These surfaces, as a result of their flexible nature, may move both actively, owing to muscle contraction, and passively, in reaction to fluid forces. However, the nature and implications of this fluid-structure interaction are not well understood. Here, we study passive flight (flight with no active wing actuation) and explore a physical mechanism that leads to the emergence of a natural flapping motion. We model a vertebrate wing with a compliant shoulder and the ability to camber with an idealized physical model consisting of a cantilevered flat plate with a hinged trailing flap. We find that at low wind speed the wing is stationary, but at a critical speed the wing spontaneously flaps. The lift coefficient is significantly enhanced once the wing starts to oscillate, although this increase in lift generation is accompanied by an increase in drag. Flow visualization suggests that a strong leading edge vortex attached to the wing during downstroke is the primary mechanism responsible for the enhanced lift. The flapping instability we observe suggests a possible scenario for an evolutionary transition from gliding to powered flapping flight in animals that possess compliant wings capable of passive camber. Although the flapping state is accompanied by a lower lift-to-drag ratio, the increased lifting capability it confers might have enabled increased body mass, improved foraging performance and/or flight at lower speeds, any of which might have been selectively advantageous.

  16. A de-epithelialised 'turnover dartos flap' in the repair of urethral fistula.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2009-03-01

    We report our experience in the management of urethrocutaneous fistulae following hypospadias repair by using a turnover, de-epithelialiszed dartos flap. From May 2003 to June 2007 we operated on 10 patients with urethral fistulae following hypospadias repair. Their ages ranged from 4 to 25 years (mean: 7 years). Four of these patients had their urethroplasty done elsewhere and reported for fistula repair alone. These four patients had no record of the urethroplasty procedure that was used. A solitary fistula was located at the corona in two patients, on the mid-shaft in three patients, and proximal penile in one patient. Two patients had multiple fistulae on the shaft, one patient had two fistulae on the shaft, and one patient had a long fistula from the proximal penile to peno-scrotal region. The technique involves using a circumscribing incision around the fistula and closing the inner skin edges by an inverting subcuticular stitch to form the urethral layer. A flap is marked on the skin adjacent to the circumscribing incision and de-epithelialised. It is raised with underlying dartos fascia/muscle and turned over the first layer of closure and secured. The vascular supply to the flap is based on a hinge of tissue around the defect. A long skin flap developed from shaft or the scrotum is approximated over this layer to complete the repair. Alternatively, the skin is closed in a 'pants over vest' technique. An indwelling catheter is placed for 3-4 days. Nine patients healed without complications, and one patient with multiple fistulae on the shaft had a residual tiny pin-point fistula which closed spontaneously. Thus, the success rate with this technique was 100%. Although dartos flaps have been used for many years as a waterproofing layer in urethroplasties or while repairing urethrocutaneous fistulae, their use as a 'de-epithelialised turnover flap' provides another reliable tool in the surgical repertoire.

  17. Preputial flaps to correct buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Loh, Ih-Wei; Chen, Ke-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The authors developed a preputial skin flap technique to correct the buried penis which was simple and practical. This simple procedure can be applied to most boys with buried penis. In the last 3 years, we have seen 12 boys with buried penis and have been treated by using preputial flaps. The mean age is about 5.1 (from 3 to 12). By making a longitudinal incision on the ventral side of penis, the tightness of the foreskin is released and leave a diamond-shaped skin defect. It allows the penile shaft to extend out. A circumferential incision is made about 5 mm proximal to the coronal sulcus. Pedicled preputial flaps are obtained leaving optimal penile skin on the dorsal side. The preputial skin flaps are rotated onto the ventral side and tailored to cover the defect. All patients are followed for at least 3 months. Edema and swelling on the flaps are common, but improves with time. None of our patients need a second operation. The preputial flaps technique is a simple technique which allows surgeons to deal with most cases of buried penis by tailoring the flaps providing good cosmetic and functional results.

  18. The involvement of a protein kinase in phototaxis and gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Daiker, Viktor; Häder, Donat-P; Richter, Peter R; Lebert, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis shows positive phototaxis at low-light intensities (<10 W/m(2)) and a negative one at higher irradiances (>10 W/m(2)). Phototaxis is based on blue light-activated adenylyl cyclases, which produce cAMP upon irradiation. In the absence of light the cells swim upward in the water column (negative gravitaxis). The results of sounding rocket campaigns and of a large number of ground experiments led to the following model of signal perception and transduction in gravitaxis of E. gracilis: The body of the cell is heavier than the surrounding medium, sediments and thereby exerts a force onto the lower membrane. Upon deviation from a vertical swimming path mechano-sensitive ion channels are activated. Calcium is gated inwards which leads to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration and causes a change of the membrane potential. After influx, calcium activates one of several calmodulins found in Euglena, which in turn activates an adenylyl cyclase (different from the one involved in phototaxis) to produce cAMP from ATP. One further element in the sensory transduction chain of both phototaxis and gravitaxis is a specific protein kinase A. We found five different protein kinases A in E. gracilis. The blockage of only one of these (PK.4, accession No. EU935859) by means of RNAi inhibited both phototaxis and gravitaxis, while inhibition of the other four affected neither phototaxis nor gravitaxis. It is assumed that cAMP directly activates this protein kinase A which may in turn phosphorylate a protein involved in the flagellar beating mechanism.

  19. Transoral Cross-Lip (Abbé-Estlander) Flap as a Viable and Effective Reconstructive Option in Middle Lower Lip Defect Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jee; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Soo Young; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Jin Wou

    2017-01-01

    The Abbé-Estlander flap surgery is a cross-lip procedure that is valuable in repairing a defect on the lower lip using a full-thickness flap, consisting of the skin, muscle and mucosa, from the upper lip. As usefulness and practicality of the flap in reconstruction of lower lip surgical defects in Asian ethnicity have not been documented, the authors present a case of successful lower lip reconstruction with a staged, Abbé-Estlander lip switching flap with commissuroplasty as an illustrative example. A 71-year-old male has presented with an ulcerating lip nodule in the middle one third of the lower lip, measuring about 1.5×2 cm across its long and short axes. Wide excision of the tumor was followed by delineation of the triangular Abbé-Estlander flap from the upper lip, in which the medial hinge point of the base was chosen as the pedicle. Then, the flap elevation was carried out from the lateral commissure and then was transferred into the lower lip defect. Three weeks later, commissuroplasty was performed to correct the rounding at the new commissure. The patient is currently performing his daily activities with no apparent compromise in orbicularis oris strength or oral continence. Given the size of the primary defect and the flap-to-defect ratio of size, the degree of microstomia was acceptable. Even with other myriad of reconstructive options at surgeons' disposal, the Abbé-Estlander lip-switching flap is a reliable, and less morbid method of lower lip reconstruction for Asian surgical candidates. The authors illustrate an exemplary case in which a relatively large lower lip defect was successfully repaired using an upper lip flap of a significantly smaller size in an Asian subject of advanced age, without any remarkable long term sequelae which have traditionally been associated with the trans-oral lip switching flap technique. PMID:28392650

  20. A review of propeller flaps for distal lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction: Is flap loss too high?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonas A; Fischer, John P; Brazio, Philip S; Kovach, Stephen J; Rosson, Gedge D; Rad, Ariel N

    2013-10-01

    Soft tissue coverage in the distal lower extremity remains a significant challenge. While free flaps are often utilized for larger defects, local perforator-based propeller flaps may be ideal for smaller wounds requiring coverage. Propeller flaps can provide excellent form and function for both traumatic and atraumatic defects with minimal donor site morbidity but can have concerning rates of flap loss. We reviewed the literature, identifying 21 studies presenting 310 propeller flaps for distal lower extremity reconstruction. Total flap necrosis was noted in 5.5% of flaps, with partial necrosis in 11.6%. While these flaps do enable transfer of local, healthy tissue to the defect site without the need for a microsurgical anastomosis, this rate of flap loss is concerning and appropriate patient selection is crucial. This review provides a brief history and overview of the clinical application and research into distal lower extremity perforator propeller flaps to place this technique into a clinical context.

  1. Pedicled Supraclavicular Artery Island Flap Versus Free Radial Forearm Flap for Tongue Reconstruction Following Hemiglossectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Wei; Cao, Gang; Dong, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the tongue function and donor-site morbidity of patients with malignant tumors who had undergone immediate flap reconstruction surgery. Twenty-seven patients who had undergone immediate reconstruction after hemiglossectomy were observed. Twelve patients were reconstructed using the pedicled supraclavicular artery island flap (PSAIF) and 15 patients using the free radial forearm flap (FRFF). Flap survival, speech and swallowing function, and donor-site morbidity at the 6-month follow-up were evaluated. All the flaps were successfully transferred. No obvious complications were found in either the transferred flaps or donor regions. Age, sex, defect extent, speech and swallowing function were comparable between the 2 groups. Donor-site complications were less frequent with PSAIF reconstruction than FRFF reconstruction. The PSAIF is reliable and well suited for hemiglossectomy defect. It has few significant complications, and allows preservation of oral function.

  2. Reconstruction of lateral forefoot using reversed medial plantar flap with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Masaki; Hayashida, Kenji; Senju, Chikako

    2014-01-01

    Skin defects of the heel have frequently been reconstructed using the medial plantar flap; however, forefoot coverage has remained a challenge, because the alternatives for flap coverage have been very limited. We describe a case of malignant melanoma on the lateral forefoot that was radically removed and reconstructed successfully with a distally based medial plantar flap, together with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The advantages of this flap include that it does not reduce the vascular supply to the foot owing to reconstruction of the medial plantar vascular systems, reduces the risk of flap congestion, minimizes donor site morbidity, and enables the transport of structurally similar tissues to the plantar forefoot. We believe this technique is a reasonable reconstructive option for large lateral plantar forefoot defects.

  3. Monitoring of free TRAM flaps with microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Udesen, A; Løntoft, E; Kristensen, S R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to follow the metabolism of free TRAM flaps using microdialysis. Microdialysis is a new sampling technique that provide opportunities to follow the biochemistry in specific organs or tissues. A double-lumen microdialysis catheter or probe, with a dialysis membrane at the end, is introduced into the specific tissue. Perfusion fluid is slowly pumped through the catheter and equilibrates across the membrane with surrounding extracellular concentrations of low molecular weight substances. The dialysate is collected in microvials and analyzed by an instrument using very small volumes. Glucose, glycerol, and lactate concentrations were measured in the flaps and compared with those in a reference catheter that was placed subcutaneously in the femur. The investigation continued 72 hr postoperatively. The study group consisted of 14 women who underwent reconstruction with a free TRAM flap, and one woman with a double TRAM flap. During flap ischemia, the concentration of glucose was reduced, while the lactate and glycerol levels increased. The differences between the flaps and controls were statistically highly significant. After reperfusion of the flaps, the concentrations of glucose, lactate, and glycerol approached normal. One flap failed because of an arterial anastomosis thrombosis. This was clearly demonstrated by the samples from the microdialysis: the concentration of glucose fell to an unmeasurable level; the concentration of lactate increased for a period before it stopped due to lack of glucose; and the concentration of glycerol increased to a very high level, probably because ischemia caused damage to the cell membranes of which glycerol is an important part. The authors concluded that microdialysis can detect ischemia in free flaps at an early stage, making early surgical intervention possible.

  4. High-level expression of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sandra; Nahalka, Jozef; Winkler, Margit; Bergler, Gabriele; Speight, Robert; Glieder, Anton; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    By combining gene design and heterologous over-expression of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase (RgDAO) in Pichia pastoris, enzyme production was enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to literature benchmarks, giving 350 kUnits/l of fed-batch bioreactor culture with a productivity of 3.1 kUnits/l h. P. pastoris cells permeabilized by freeze-drying and incubation in 2-propanol (10% v/v) produce a highly active (1.6 kUnits/g dry matter) and stable oxidase preparation. Critical bottlenecks in the development of an RgDAO catalyst for industrial applications have been eliminated.

  5. Interaction of localized convection cells in the bioconvection of Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iima, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Euglena gracilis is a unicellular flagellated photosynthetic alga. The suspension of Euglena has behavioral responses to light, which causes a macroscopic localized bioconvection pattern when illuminated from below. One of the fundamental structures of this is a pair of convection cells, and high cell density region exists in the middle of the pair. Experimental studies show various types of interaction in the localized convection cells; bound state, collision, etc. We performed numerical simulation of a hydrodynamic model of this system, and show results of the interactions. Long-range interaction due to the conservation of cell number and merging process of two localized structures will be discussed. KAKENHI.

  6. Investigation of metal ion accumulation in Euglena gracilis by fluorescence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Ren, Q. G.; Mi, Y.; Shi, X. F.; Yao, H. Y.; Jin, C. Z.; Huang, Y. Y.; He, W.; Zhang, J.; Liu, B.

    2002-04-01

    Single cell synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe measurements as well as X-ray absorption near edge structure experiments have been done at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility on Euglena Gracilis cells. Concentrations of the metal ions Mn 2+, Nd 3+, Ce 3+ and other trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. have been measured both by single cell SXRF and bulk PIXE technique. It was found that the content of Ca, Fe and Zn was lower after the uptake of rare earths or Mn by the cells, while the valence states of Mn 2+, Ce 3+ and Nd 3+ were unaltered. The results related to cytochemistry are also discussed.

  7. Dynamic response of a piezoelectric flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alok; Khandwekar, Gaurang; Venkatesh, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Dutta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Piezo-composite membranes have advantages over motorized flapping where frequencies are high and certain coupling between bending and twisting is useful to generate lift and forward flight. We draw examples of fruit fly and bumble bee. Wings with Piezo ceramic PZT coating are realized. The passive mechanical response of the wing is characterized experimentally and validated using finite element simulation. Piezoelectric actuation with uniform electrode coating is characterized and optimal frequencies for flapping are identified. The experimental data are used in an empirical model and advanced ratio for a flapping insect like condition for various angular orientations is estimated.

  8. The plane problem of the flapping wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, Walter

    1954-01-01

    In connection with an earlier report on the lifting vortex sheet which forms the basis of the following investigations this will show how the methods developed there are also suitable for dealing with the air forces for a wing with a circulation variable with time. The theory of a propulsive wing flapping up and down periodically in the manner of a bird's wing is developed. This study shows how the lift and its moment result as a function of the flapping motion, what thrust is attainable, and how high is the degree of efficiency of this flapping propulsion unit if the air friction is disregarded.

  9. Foot and ankle reconstruction: an experience on the use of 14 different flaps in 226 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; Wang, Yi; He, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Min; Li, Fu-Bin; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this report was to present our experience on the use of different flaps for soft tissue reconstruction of the foot and ankle. From 2007 to 2012, the soft tissue defects of traumatic injuries of the foot and ankle were reconstructed using 14 different flaps in 226 cases (162 male and 64 female). There were 62 pedicled flaps and 164 free flaps used in reconstruction. The pedicled flaps included sural flap, saphenous flap, dorsal pedal neurocutaneous flap, pedicled peroneal artery perforator flap, pedicled tibial artery perforator flap, and medial plantar flap. The free flaps were latissimus musculocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous flap, groin flap, lateral arm flap, anterolateral thigh perforator flap, peroneal artery perforator flap, thoracdorsal artery perforator flap, medial arm perforator flap. The sensory nerve coaptation was not performed for all of flaps. One hundred and ninety-four cases were combined with open fractures. One hundred and sixty-two cases had tendon. Among 164 free flaps, 8 flaps were completely lost, in which the defects were managed by the secondary procedures. Among the 57 flaps for plantar foot coverage (25 pedicled flaps and 32 free flaps), ulcers were developed in 5 pedicled flaps and 6 free flaps after weight bearing, and infection was found in 14 flaps. The donor site complications were seen in 3 cases with the free anterolateral thigh perforator flap transfer. All of limbs were preserved and the patients regained walking and daily activities. All of patients except for one regained protective sensation from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Our experience showed that the sural flap and saphenous flap could be good options for the coverage of the defects at malleolus, dorsal hindfoot and midfoot. Plantar foot, forefoot and large size defects could be reconstructed with free anterolateral thigh perforator flap. For the infected wounds with dead spce, the free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap remained to

  10. Paramedian forehead flap combined with hinge flap for nasal tip reconstruction*

    PubMed Central

    Cerci, Felipe Bochnia; Dellatorre, Gerson

    2016-01-01

    The paramedian forehead flap is a great option for restoration of complex nasal defects. For full-thickness defects, it may be used alone or in combination with other methods. We present a patient with a basal cell carcinoma on the distal nose treated by Mohs micrographic surgery, and a resulting full-thickness defect repaired with paramedian forehead flap combined with a hinge flap. For optimal results with the paramedian forehead flap, adequate surgical planning, patient orientation and meticulous surgical technique are imperative.

  11. Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap for Breast Reconstruction: Bad Rap or Good Flap?

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Galen; Koonce, Stephanie; Collis, George; Eck, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article serves to review latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap as an option for breast reconstruction postmastectomy. Since the introduction of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in the late 1970s, its use has always been as a secondary technique, particularly after the development of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap in the 1980s. Methods: A literature review of the history of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap utilized for breast reconstruction as well as a review of our institution's experience with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and tissue expander placement was performed. Results: There remains a paucity of published studies investigating latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Most studies have small numbers and do not utilize tissue expanders. More recently several small studies have been published that show acceptably low complication rates with aesthetically pleasing outcomes when latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is employed with a tissue expander. At our institution, we have employed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with tissue expander placement for both delayed and immediate reconstruction with subsequent replacement with a permanent implant with a capsular contraction rate of 10.5%. Our data and others more recently published demonstrate very acceptable capsular contracture rates and aesthetic outcomes, particularly when an expander is utilized. Conclusion: The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction with a low risk of complications. PMID:22031843

  12. Dorsal decubitus positioning: a novel method to harvest the latissimus dorsi flap for massive upper extremity defect reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Boa, Olivier; Servant, Jean-Marie; Revol, Marc; Salib, Emmanuel G; Guberman, Daniel; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Alain M

    2011-09-01

    The latissimus dorsi, whether taken as a muscle or with a skin paddle, is one of the most useful flaps in the reconstructive surgeon's arsenal. With its predictable type V vascular pedicle, this broad muscle can be elevated on its dominant thoracodorsal pedicle or used in a reverse manner on its secondary thoracic and lumbar perforators. Traditionally harvested in a lateral decubitus position, over the last 10 years we have chosen to elevate this muscle in a dorsal decubitus position, enabling 2 surgical teams to operate simultaneously. With only one cushion placed along the vertebral column between the scapulas, each element of the subscapular system, including scapular bone, can be used to reconstruct complex upper limb defects. A vertical incision in front of the anterior axillary line is performed to identify the anterior border of the muscle, followed by a dissection in the submuscular plane to reveal the thoracodorsal pedicle and its branches. When a more complex chimeric flap is required, scapular bone, serratus muscle, and scapular or parascapular fasciocutaneous flaps are all available. To achieve the longest length possible, the pedicle can be isolated from the axillary vessels. The most common complications are related to donor site, with seroma and delayed wound healing being the most prevalent. Complaints of shoulder pain and functional disability were rare and mostly encountered in the first 2 weeks postoperatively.

  13. Impedance plethysmography: a new method for continuous muscle perfusion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Concannon, M J; Stewart, D H; Welsh, C F; Puckett, C L

    1991-08-01

    Vigilant postoperative monitoring of the buried muscle flap is critical after free transfer because early diagnosis of vascular insufficiency is essential to allow prompt correction. We have identified a monitoring method utilizing needle electrodes and impedance plethysmography that gives a beat-to-beat representation of muscular perfusion. In 25 New Zealand White rabbits the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated on its vascular pedicle, and two intramuscular needle electrodes were placed. The instantaneous impedance changes of the muscle (corresponding to the pulsatile volume changes of perfusion) were measured and recorded. Using this representation of perfusion, an independent judge was able to correctly diagnose muscular ischemia 100 percent of the time (n = 25). Further, the judge was able to correctly distinguish the ischemia as arterial (n = 10) or venous (n = 10) in origin 100 percent of the time. Additionally, we monitored muscle perfusion transcutaneously in five free muscle flaps and demonstrated a reliable impedance signal that correlated with perfusion.

  14. A dynamical system for interacting flapping swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Anand; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation into the dynamics of interacting flapping swimmers. Our study is motivated by the recent experiments of Becker et al., who studied a one-dimensional array of self-propelled flapping wings that swim within each other's wakes in a water tank. They discovered that the system adopts certain ``schooling modes'' characterized by specific spatial phase relationships between swimmers. To rationalize these phenomena, we develop a discrete dynamical system in which the swimmers are modeled as heaving airfoils that shed point vortices during each flapping cycle. We then apply our model to recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab, in which two tandem flapping airfoils are free to choose both their speed and relative positions. We expect that our model may be used to understand how schooling behavior is influenced by hydrodynamics in more general contexts. Thanks to the NSF for its support.

  15. The flow around a flapping foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, Francisco; Malaga, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The flow around a two-dimensional flapping foil immersed in a uniform stream is studied numerically using a Lattice-Boltzmann model, for Reynolds numbers between 100 and 250, and flapping Strouhal numbers between 0 . 01 and 0 . 6 . The computation of the hydrodynamic force on the foil is related to the wake structure. When the foil's is fixed in space, numerical results suggest a relation between drag coefficient behaviour and the flapping frequency which determines the transition from the von Kármán to the inverted von Kármán wake. When the foil is free of translational motion up-stream swimming at constant speed is observed at certain values of the flapping Strouhal. This work was partially supported by UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT Grant Number IN115316.

  16. Falling Leaves, Flapping Flight, and Making a Virtual Insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2004-03-01

    Insects are fascinating to watch but difficult to catch, so are falling leaves. The diverse maneuver executed by insects and the flutter and tumbling motion of leaves are manifestations of complex interactions between the moving surfaces and the surrounding unsteady air. Despite the long tradition in fluid dynamics, relatively few quantitative descriptions and basic mechanisms are known about these two everyday phenomena. In this talk, I will describe some of the lessons we learned by analyzing them. In particular, I will show 1)a basic two dimensional mechanism of insect hovering and the associated vortical flow and forces, 2) the use of drag in insect hovering, in contrast to helicopter,3) the rise of falling leaves and the lift mechanism which is responsible for the center of mass elevation, 4) a model of fluid forces, different from the classical theory, for falling objects in fluid, and 5) computer experiments of three dimensional elastic flapping wings driven by muscles.

  17. Desmoid tumor following abdominally-based free flap breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Christine; Hammoudeh, Ziyad S.

    2017-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are fibroblastic connective tissue tumors that most commonly develop within the anterior abdominal wall. The etiology of desmoid tumors has not been well defined; however, hereditary, hormonal, traumatic, and surgery-related causes have been implicated. Desmoid tumors are believed to arise from musculoaponeurotic structures. Development in the breast is very rare. Several reports of desmoid tumors arising in the vicinity of the fibrous capsule of a breast implant have been described, but to date, the authors are not aware of any published cases following autologous breast reconstruction. This report describes a desmoid tumor developing after a muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap for breast reconstruction and subsequent surgical management. PMID:28210557

  18. Serratus anterior venous tributary as a second outflow vein in latissimus dorsi free flaps.

    PubMed

    Goh, Terence; Tan, Bien-Keem; Ong, Yee-Siang; Chew, Winston

    2011-10-01

    The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is a large and reliable myocutaneous flap with a consistently long vascular pedicle. However, the limitation of the thoracodorsal pedicle is that it has only one draining vein for anastomosis. We describe a simple technique of recruiting the tributary vein to the serratus anterior and using it as a second draining vein to alleviate congestion in lower limb reconstruction. The serratus anterior venous tributary segment is cut back to an avalvular segment which averages 5 mm in length. Provision of an additional venous outflow to the flap enabled a second venous anastomosis to the short saphenous vein (N = 1), the long saphenous vein (N = 2), a deep vein (N= 1), and to a deep vein via a vein graft (N = 1), respectively. Five patients with degloving injury of the lower extremity of sizes 150 cm(2) (10 × 15 cm) to 260 cm(2) (10 × 26 cm) underwent successful reconstruction using the LD muscle flap with the serratus anterior tributary vein as a second outflow vein. This serratus anterior venous tributary serves as a useful second outflow channel for alleviating venous congestion during lower limb reconstructive surgery and should be routinely preserved as a lifeboat.

  19. Dipteran wing motor-inspired flapping flight versatility and effectiveness enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Harne, R. L.; Wang, K. W.

    2015-01-01

    Insects are a prime source of inspiration towards the development of small-scale, engineered, flapping wing flight systems. To help interpret the possible energy transformation strategies observed in Diptera as inspiration for mechanical flapping flight systems, we revisit the perspective of the dipteran wing motor as a bistable click mechanism and take a new, and more flexible, outlook to the architectural composition previously considered. Using a representative structural model alongside biological insights and cues from nonlinear dynamics, our analyses and experimental results reveal that a flight mechanism able to adjust motor axial support stiffness and compression characteristics may dramatically modulate the amplitude range and type of wing stroke dynamics achievable. This corresponds to significantly more versatile aerodynamic force generation without otherwise changing flapping frequency or driving force amplitude. Whether monostable or bistable, the axial stiffness is key to enhance compressed motor load bearing ability and aerodynamic efficiency, particularly compared with uncompressed linear motors. These findings provide new foundation to guide future development of bioinspired, flapping wing mechanisms for micro air vehicle applications, and may be used to provide insight to the dipteran muscle-to-wing interface. PMID:25608517

  20. Eucalyptus (gracilis, oleosa, salubris, and salmonophloia) essential oils: their chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Ben Marzoug, Hajer Naceur; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Couderc, François; Abderraba, Manef; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2010-08-01

    Essential oils of four different Eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus salmonophloia, Eucalyptus oleosa, and Eucalyptus gracilis) grown in southern Tunisia were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as well as their chemical compositions. According to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, chemical compositions of the Eucalyptus species E. salubris (27 compounds; 99.2%), E. salmonophloia (31 compounds; 99.2%), E. oleosa (32 compounds; 97.6%), and E. gracilis (18 compounds; 97.7%) were identified. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 12.0-52.8 mg/mL, whereas in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay, E. oleosa (176.5 +/- 3.1 mg/L) gave the best inhibition result. To evaluate antimicrobial activity, all essential oils were tested against bacteria (two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative), two yeast, and two fungi. Essential oils exhibited an interesting antibacterial activity against all microorganisms tested (activity was better against Gram-positive bacteria) except for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Correlations between chemical composition and biological and antioxidant activities were studied.

  1. Characterization of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Euglena gracilis Z.

    PubMed

    Yokota, A; Harada, A; Kitaoka, S

    1989-03-01

    An improved method was devised to purify ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) with high specific activity (2.1 mumol of CO2 fixed/mg protein/min) from Euglena gracilis Z. The purified enzyme stored at -80 degrees C required treatment with dithiothreitol for full activity. The dithiothreitol-treated RuBisCO was activated by 12 mM NaHCO3 and 20 mM MgCl2, and the activated state was stable at least for 60 min in the presence of 4 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The form of inorganic carbon fixed by the Euglena enzyme was CO2, as for the plant enzymes. The carboxylase reaction proceeded linearly with time for at least 8 min. The optimum pH for this reaction was 7.8 to 8.0. The carboxylase activity increased with increasing temperature up to 50 degrees C. The activation energy for the carboxylation reaction was 10.0 kcal/mol. The Michaelis constants of Euglena RuBisCO were 30.9 microM for CO2, 560 microM for O2, and 10.5 microM for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. Mathematical comparison between the photosynthesis rate predicted from these enzymatic properties and the observed rate suggested that there is no CO2-concentrating mechanism in E. gracilis.

  2. Effect of aluminum on cellular division and photosynthetic electron transport in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Perreault, François; Dewez, David; Fortin, Claude; Juneau, Philippe; Diallo, Amirou; Popovic, Radovan

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated aluminum's effect on cellular division and the photosynthetic processes in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila at pH 3.0, at which Al is present mostly as Al(3+), AlSO(4) (+), and Al(SO(4))(2) (-). These algal species were exposed to 100, 188, and 740 microM Al, and after 24 h cell-bound Al was significantly different from control only for the highest concentration tested. However, very different effects of Al on algal cellular division, biomass per cell, and photosynthetic activity were found. Aluminum stimulated cell division but decreased at some level biomass per cell in C. acidophila. Primary photochemistry of photosynthesis, as Photosystem II quantum yield, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical activity were slightly affected. However, for E. gracilis, under the same conditions, Al did not show a stimulating effect on cellular division or photosynthetic activity. Primary photochemical activity was diminished, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical pathways was strongly increased. Therefore, when Al is highly available in aquatic ecosystems, these effects may indicate very different response mechanisms that are dependent on algal species.

  3. Atypical composition and structure of the mitochondrial dimeric ATP synthase from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K N Sathish; Miranda-Astudillo, Héctor V; Colina-Tenorio, Lilia; Bouillenne, Fabrice; Degand, Hervé; Morsomme, Pierre; González-Halphen, Diego; Boekema, Egbert J; Cardol, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory-chain complexes from Euglenozoa comprise classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. mammals and fungi) and subunits that are restricted to Euglenozoa (e.g. Euglena gracilis and Trypanosoma brucei). Here we studied the mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase (or Complex V) from the photosynthetic eukaryote E. gracilis in detail. The enzyme was purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure and its subunit composition was resolved by a three-dimensional gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS/SDS). Twenty-two different subunits were identified by mass-spectrometry analyses among which the canonical α, β, γ, δ, ε, and OSCP subunits, and at least seven subunits previously found in Trypanosoma. The ADP/ATP carrier was also associated to the ATP synthase into a dimeric ATP synthasome. Single-particle analysis by transmission electron microscopy of the dimeric ATP synthase indicated that the structures of both the catalytic and central rotor parts are conserved while other structural features are original. These new features include a large membrane-spanning region joining the monomers, an external peripheral stalk and a structure that goes through the membrane and reaches the inter membrane space below the c-ring, the latter having not been reported for any mitochondrial F-ATPase.

  4. Pyruvate:NADP+ oxidoreductase is stabilized by its cofactor, thiamin pyrophosphate, in mitochondria of Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masami; Takenaka, Shigeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2003-03-15

    Pyruvate:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (PNO) is a thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent enzyme that plays a central role in the respiratory metabolism of Euglena gracilis, which requires thiamin for growth. When thiamin was depleted in Euglena cells, PNO protein level was greatly reduced, but its mRNA level was barely changed. In addition, a large part of PNO occurred as an apoenzyme lacking TPP in the deficient cells. The PNO protein level increased rapidly, without changes in the mRNA level, after supplementation of thiamin into its deficient cells. In the deficient cells, in contrast to the sufficient ones, a steep decrease in the PNO protein level was induced when the cells were incubated with cycloheximide. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that most of the PNO localized in the mitochondria in either the sufficient or the deficient cells. These findings suggest that PNO is readily degraded when TPP is not provided in mitochondria, and consequently the PNO protein level is greatly reduced by thiamin deficiency in E. gracilis.

  5. Characterization of a bifunctional glyoxylate cycle enzyme, malate synthase/isocitrate lyase, of Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masami; Nishimura, Masaaki; Inoue, Kengo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2011-01-01

    The glyoxylate cycle is a modified form of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which enables organisms to synthesize carbohydrates from C2 compounds. In the protozoan Euglena gracilis, the key enzyme activities of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), are conferred by a single bifunctional protein named glyoxylate cycle enzyme (Euglena gracilis glyoxylate cycle enzyme [EgGCE]). We analyzed the enzymatic properties of recombinant EgGCE to determine the functions of its different domains. The 62-kDa N-terminal domain of EgGCE was sufficient to provide the MS activity as expected from an analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence. In contrast, expression of the 67-kDa C-terminal domain of EgGCE failed to yield ICL activity even though this domain was structurally similar to ICL family enzymes. Analyses of truncation mutants suggested that the N-terminal residues of EgGCE are critical for both the ICL and MS activities. The ICL activity of EgGCE increased in the presence of micro-molar concentrations of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA also increased the activity in a mutant type EgGCE with a mutation at the acetyl-CoA binding site in the MS domain of EgGCE. This suggests that acetyl-CoA regulates the ICL reaction by binding to a site other than the catalytic center of the MS reaction.

  6. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-05-15

    The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd(2+)) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5×10(6)cellsmL(-1)) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O₂, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25-33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd(2+) which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd(2+) induced a higher MDA production. Cd(2+) stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd(2+) from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd(2+) under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O₂ concentration is particularly low.

  7. The transcriptome of Euglena gracilis reveals unexpected metabolic capabilities for carbohydrate and natural product biochemistry.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Trick, Martin; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Dusi, Renata G; Hamilton, Chris J; Zimba, Paul V; Henrissat, Bernard; Field, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Euglena gracilis is a highly complex alga belonging to the green plant line that shows characteristics of both plants and animals, while in evolutionary terms it is most closely related to the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma and Leishmania. This well-studied organism has long been known as a rich source of vitamins A, C and E, as well as amino acids that are essential for the human diet. Here we present de novo transcriptome sequencing and preliminary analysis, providing a basis for the molecular and functional genomics studies that will be required to direct metabolic engineering efforts aimed at enhancing the quality and quantity of high value products from E. gracilis. The transcriptome contains over 30,000 protein-encoding genes, supporting metabolic pathways for lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates and vitamins, along with capabilities for polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis. The metabolic and environmental robustness of Euglena is supported by a substantial capacity for responding to biotic and abiotic stress: it has the capacity to deploy three separate pathways for vitamin C (ascorbate) production, as well as producing vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and, in addition to glutathione, the redox-active thiols nor-trypanothione and ovothiol.

  8. Lower extremity free flaps: a review

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Mark D.; Bowen, C. Vaughan; Manktelow, Ralph T.; Graham, John; Boyd, J. Brian

    1996-01-01

    Objective To identify factors related to free-flap coverage of lower extremity fractures that are linked to a negative outcome. Design A chart review. Setting A large microsurgical referral centre. Patients From 1981 to 1989, the records of all patients who underwent free-tissue transfer to the lower extremity with more than 1 year of follow-up were selected. From this was drawn a subgroup of 49 patients (mean age, 36 years) who had tibial fractures (55% were motor vehicle injuries) and in almost all cases established soft-tissue or bony defects. They formed the study group. Intervention Free-flap transfer. Outcome Measures Factors that might be associated with free-flap failure: mechanism of injury, grade of tibial fracture, history of smoking, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, vascular compromise in the leg preoperatively, recipient artery used, type of anastomosis, and hypertension or hypotension intraoperatively. Results Type IIIB tibial fractures were the most frequent (67%) and carried a significantly (p = 0.02) higher risk of free-flap failure than other types of fracture. Patients underwent a mean of four procedures before referral for free-tissue transfer. The mean time from injury to flap coverage was 1006 days. Stable, long-term coverage of the free flaps was achieved in 78% of patients. Wound breakdown was most often caused by recurrent osteomyelitis (65%). Seventy-four percent of the fractures healed. The amputation rate was 10%. Four patients required repeat free-flap transfer for limb salvage. Conclusion Only the grade of tibial fracture could be significantly related to postoperative free-flap failure. PMID:8640624

  9. Predictable Pattern Digital Artery Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Epameinondas, Kostopoulos; Christos, Agiannidis; Petros, Konofaos; Avraam, Dounavis; Othon, Papadopoulos; Vincent, Casoli

    2016-01-01

    Background: The proper digital arteries as any other axial vessel give rise to multiple cutaneous perforators either volar or dorsal along their course. Their identification is performed with Doppler flowmetry. The vasculo-cutano-tendino-osseous complex (VCTOC), which was described by the senior authors, was responsible for the vascularization of all digital anatomic structures (extensor apparatus, skin, periosteum). Their consistent appearance to well measured distances from the digital joints led the way to the present clinical study for highlighting this described anatomy in-vivo and demonstrating the predictability in digital artery perforator (DAP) flap harvest. Methods: From November 2012 to March 2014, fifteen patients underwent reconstruction with a predictable pattern digital artery perforator flap (PPDAP), based on the previously described VCTOC mapping, for digital lesions secondary to tumor extirpation. Flaps were designed as V-Y advancement or propeller type. Postoperative control concerned flap viability and digital function. Results: Seven males and 8 females underwent elective surgery using PPDAP flaps for digital defects following tumor extirpation. The diameter of the defect ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 cm. The vast majority of the lesions were identified on the right hand, the index, the ring finger and the distal phalanx. All flaps survived without signs of venous congestion. No functional digital problems were observed during follow up (mean of 77 months). A minor wound dehiscence presented in one patient. Conclusions: Authors introduced the concept of a “predictable pattern” in the surgery of perforator flaps in the digits. These flaps are reliable and could be a valuable reconstructive option. PMID:27418896

  10. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-06

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  11. Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masami; Andoh, Hiroko; Koyama, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Nakai, Takeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells.

  12. Bilobed flaps for nonhealing ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yetkin, Haluk; Kanatli, Ulunay; Oztürk, Akif Muhtar; Ozalay, Metin

    2003-09-01

    Healing of round ulcers may be difficult particularly in the plantar area. Rigidity and thickness of the plantar skin do not allow fusiform excision and primary suturing. The bilobed flap is a simple reconstructive technique principally used to repair substantial defects in the facial region. The authors' experience with this local flap in the foot is presented with good short-term results. Between 1995 and 1998, five female and seven male neuropathic foot patients with round plantar ulcers were treated with bilobed flaps. The average age of the patients was 50 (range, 15-76). The average size of the ulcers was 1.6 cm (1-3.2 cm). Debridement and orthotic insoles were used at least for 3 months before considering bilobed flaps. Seven patients were diagnosed as type II diabetes mellitus, four patients had cerebral palsy, and another patient had meningomyelocele. The minimal follow-up period was 1 year (average, 19.5 months). The only complication was wound dehiscence at the lateral side of the heel in a type II diabetic. Subsequently, this complicated ulcer was managed with a sliding flap and skin graft without further problem. The study concluded that nonhealing foot ulcers can be effectively treated with a bilobed skin flap of healthy tissues rotated from nonweightbearing parts of the sole.

  13. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  14. Major donor area complication after a mandibular reconstruction with an osseous fibular free flap: pseudo-compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Keklik, Barş; Özden, Burcu Celet; Uçar, Adem; Cizmeci, Orhan

    2012-03-01

    The popularity of the fibular free flap in mandibular reconstructions is persisting, and major donor area complications rarely occur after fibular free flap operations. Still, we have observed a pseudo-compartment syndrome in a 52-year-old patient on the 12th postoperative day after a mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap. When an obstruction in the deep venous system (deep vein thrombosis) was observed in the Doppler ultrasound-guided imaging, the patient has been taken to the operating room for an emergency surgery and the donor area has been completely reopened (in the manner of a fasciotomy). After this procedure, the circulation in the foot appeared to return to normal. The exposed muscles of the patient, who was started on a low-molecular-weight heparin treatment for the deep vein thrombosis, have been closed with skin grafts on the 10th day. No functional loss was observed during the 2-month follow-up period.

  15. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  16. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  17. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart because it controls the heartbeat. Skeletal Muscle Now, let's talk about the kind of muscle ... soccer ball into the goal. These are your skeletal muscles — sometimes called striated (say: STRY-ay-tud) muscle ...

  18. Acaricidal activity of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its major constituents on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira; Costa, Livio Martins; Pinto, Jessika Andreza Oliveira; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; de Araujo, Sandra Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Bacci, Leandro; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil obtained from different L. gracilis genotypes and their major components, carvacrol and thymol against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (cattle tick) larvae and engorged females. The larval test was performed parallel to the adult immersion test for engorged females for four L. gracilis genotypes. Similar tests were further performed for their major compounds carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol (LC50 of 0.22 and 4.46 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively) was more efficient than thymol (LC50 of 3.86 and 5.50 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively). The lethal concentrations obtained for the isolated essential oil from genotypes LGRA-201 against larvae (1.31 mg/mL) and LGRA-106 against engorged females (4.66 mg/mL) confirmed the acaricidal activity of L. gracilis essential oil and its effectiveness in controlling the southern cattle tick.

  19. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  20. Role of KCNQ channels in skeletal muscle arteries and periadventitial vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zavaritskaya, Olga; Zhuravleva, Nadezda; Schleifenbaum, Johanna; Gloe, Torsten; Devermann, Lena; Kluge, Reinhart; Mladenov, Mitko; Frey, Manfred; Gagov, Hristo; Fésüs, Gabor; Gollasch, Maik; Schubert, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    KCNQ channels have been identified in arterial smooth muscle. However, their role in vasoregulation and chronic vascular diseases remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that KCNQ channels contribute to periadventitial vasoregulation in peripheral skeletal muscle arteries by perivascular adipose tissue and that they represent novel targets to rescue periadventitial vascular dysfunction. Two models, spontaneously hypertensive rats and New Zealand obese mice, were studied using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the patch-clamp technique, membrane potential measurements, myography of isolated vessels, and blood pressure telemetry. In rat Gracilis muscle arteries, anticontractile effects of perivascular fat were inhibited by the KCNQ channel blockers XE991 and linopirdine but not by other selective K(+) channel inhibitors. Accordingly, XE991 and linopirdine blocked noninactivating K(+) currents in freshly isolated Gracilis artery smooth muscle cells. mRNAs of several KCNQ channel subtypes were detected in those arteries, with KCNQ4 channels being dominant. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, the anticontractile effect of perivascular fat in Gracilis muscle arteries was largely reduced compared with Wistar rats. However, the vasodilator effects of KCNQ channel openers and mRNA expression of KCNQ channels were normal. Furthermore, KCNQ channel openers restored the diminished anticontractile effects of perivascular fat in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Moreover, KCNQ channel openers reduced arterial blood pressure in both models of hypertension independent of ganglionic blockade. Thus, our data suggest that KCNQ channels play a pivotal role in periadventitial vasoregulation of peripheral skeletal muscle arteries, and KCNQ channel opening may be an effective mechanism to improve impaired periadventitial vasoregulation and associated hypertension.

  1. Reverse-flow anterolateral thigh perforator: an ad hoc flap for severe post-burn knee contracture.

    PubMed

    Ismail, H A; El-Bassiony, L E

    2016-03-31

    We evaluate function outcomes of the reverse-flow ALT perforator flap to reconstruct severe post-burn knee contracture. Between October 2012 and December 2014, 10 patients with severe post-burn knee contracture were subjected to reconstruction with 10 ipsilateral reversed-flow ALT perforator flaps. All the patients were male. Ages ranged from 15 to 47 years (mean = 32 years). Time from burn injury to patient presentation ranged from 2-8 months. All patients demonstrated post-burn flexion contracture of the knee joint, ranging from 35 to 75 degrees. Flap sizes ranged from 8×16 to 12×26 cm. The flaps and skin grafts were carried out without major complications. Only minor complications occurred, such as transient, mild congestion immediately after inset in two flaps. Two flaps developed superficial necrosis at the distal edge. One case sustained partial skin graft loss due to haematoma. One case complained of skin hyperpigmentation and hypertrophic scars around the graft. Secondary debulking procedures were required in two cases. The entire donor sites were closed by partial thickness skin graft with acceptable appearance, except one case that was closed primarily. Eight out of ten patients (80%) demonstrated gradual improvement in range of knee motion after a specialized rehabilitation program. Two patients (20%) did not get back full range of motion. RALT perforator flap is the cornerstone for the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects around the knee with acceptable aesthetic and functional results provided that the following items are fulfilled: inclusion of muscle cuff around the pedicle, the pivot point, prevention of pedicle compression after transfer and early surgical intervention on the post-burn knee contracture.

  2. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary) and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated) E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  3. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy–a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary) and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated) E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production. PMID:27846239

  4. Gene expression analysis of ischaemia and reperfusion in human microsurgical free muscle tissue transfer.

    PubMed

    Dragu, Adrian; Schnürer, Stefan; Surmann-Schmitt, Cordula; von der Mark, Klaus; Stürzl, Michael; Unglaub, Frank; Wolf, Maya B; Leffler, Mareike; Beier, Justus P; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse various gene expression profiles of muscle tissue during normoxia, ischaemia and after reperfusion in human muscle free flaps, to gain an understanding of the occurring regulatory, inflammatory and apoptotic processes on a cellular and molecular basis. Eleven Caucasian patients with soft tissue defects needing coverage with microsurgical free muscle flaps were included in this study. In all patients, the muscle samples were taken from free myocutaneous flaps. The first sample was taken before induction of ischaemia in normoxia (I), another one after ischaemia (II), and the last one was taken after reperfusion (III). The samples were analysed using DNA-microarray, real-time-quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemistry. DNA-microarray analysis detected multiple, differentially regulated genes when comparing the different groups (I-III) with statistical significance. Comparing ischaemia (II) versus normoxia (I) educed 13 genes and comparing reperfusion (III) versus ischaemia (II) educed 19 genes. The comparison of reperfusion (III) versus normoxia (I) yielded 100 differentially regulated genes. Real-time-quantitative-PCR confirmed the results of the DNA-microarrays for a subset of four genes (CASP8, IL8, PLAUR and S100A8). This study shows that ischaemia and reperfusion induces alterations on the gene expression level in human muscle free flaps. Data may suggest that the four genes CASP8, IL8, PLAUR and S100A8 are of great importance in this context. We could not confirm the DNA-microarry and real-time-quantitative-PCR results on the protein level. Finally, these findings correspond with the surgeon's clinical experience that the accepted times of ischaemia, generally up to 90 min., are not sufficient to induce pathophysiological processes, which can ultimately lead to flap loss. When inflammatory and apoptotic proteins are expressed at high levels, flap damage might occur and flap loss is likely. The sole expression on mRNA level

  5. The Internal Pudendal Artery Perforator Thigh Flap: A New Freestyle Pedicle Flap for the Ischial Region

    PubMed Central

    Goishi, Keiichi; Abe, Yoshiro; Takaku, Mitsuru; Seike, Takuya; Harada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrence and complication rates of pressure sores are highest in the ischial region, and other donor sites are needed for recurrent pressure sores. The potential of a new freestyle pedicle flap for ischial lesions, an internal pudendal artery perforator (iPap) thigh flap, was examined through anatomical and theoretical analyses and a case series using computed tomography angiography. Methods: The skin flap was designed in the thigh region based on an iPap. The skin perforators were marked with a Doppler probe. One patient underwent computed tomography angiography with fistulography to identify the damage to or effects on the pedicle vessels of the flap. Debridement of ischial lesions and flap elevation were performed in the jackknife position. Results: The iPap thigh flaps were performed in 5 patients, 4 with ischial pressure sores and 1 with calcinosis cutis of the ischial region. The width and length of the flaps ranged from 5 to 8 cm (mean, 6.6 cm) and 10 to 17 cm (mean, 12.6 cm), respectively. Three patients underwent partial osteotomy of the ischial bone. No complications, including flap necrosis or wound dehiscence of the donor and reconstructed sites, were observed. Conclusions: The perforator vessels of the internal pudendal artery are very close to the ischial tuberosity. Blood flow to the flap is reliable when careful debridement of the pressure sore is performed. The iPap thigh flap is a new option for soft-tissue defects in the ischial region, including ischial pressure sores. PMID:25289335

  6. “Emergency” definitive reconstruction of a necrotising fasciitis thigh debridement defect with a pedicled TRAM flap

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tom; Yu, Jonathan T.S.; Wong, Kai Yuen; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a rare, severe, rapidly progressing and life-threatening synergistic infection primarily affecting the superficial fascia. A novel method of definitive and aesthetic reconstruction of NF thigh defects by using a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap without recourse to temporising skin grafts is presented. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 30-year-old parous woman presented in extremis with fulminant NF of her left anteromedial thigh. Following emergency radical debridement and intensive care stabilisation she was reconstructed 48 h later in a single stage with a pedicled TRAM flap islanded on the ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric vessels. There was excellent contour restoration of her thigh and coverage of the exposed femoral vessels. DISCUSSION Pedicled flaps based on the rectus abdominis muscle provide a large, readily available reconstructive option for correction of substantial regional defects as herein illustrated. They are robust when based on dominant inferior vascular pedicle with a long reach and wide arc of rotation when designed transversely (as a TRAM flap). CONCLUSION This case also illustrates that definitive flap reconstruction of NF can be successfully undertaken in the emergent setting, thereby negating the need for large areas of skin grafting which can lead to contractures with consequent functional impairment and suboptimal aesthetic results. PMID:23548707

  7. Oxidative stress response in the skin mucus layer of Goodea gracilis (Hubbs and Turner, 1939) exposed to crude oil: A non-invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Salazar-Coria, Lucia; Olivares-Rubio, Hugo F; Rocha-Gómez, Maria Alejandra; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Iván; Vega-López, Armando

    2016-10-01

    The skin of the fish is the foremost target of oxidative stress due to the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) originated in the environment and in the skin itself. In this study, a non-destructive assay was developed to evaluate the effects of crude oil (0.0001-0.1mg/L, 96h) on oxidative stress response in the Skin Mucus Layer (SML) of the dusky splitfin goodeid (Goodea gracilis). The response in the SML was compared with recognized target organs through the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBRv2) and a slight addition to the method was proposed. Crude oil was extremely toxic and elicited a clear induction of ROS in the SML, as in the brain, liver and muscle. By the exposure to crude, a significant change in the activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) as well as on lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and carbonyl protein (RCO) levels was detected. Also, increases in the activity of EROD were found. The general IBRv2 proposed in this study (gIBRv2) showed that oil causes the higher oxidative response in the SML (60.049) under different concentrations of petroleum, which was greater in the brain (56.749), muscle (56.561) and liver (55.775). The results of the study revealed an organ-specific antioxidant defense response that was dependent on the load of petroleum. These results contributed to the understanding of the complexity of oxidative stress response in fish exposed to crude oil using the Skin Mucus Layer as a target for environmental monitoring studies.

  8. Analysis of Flap Weight and Postoperative Complications Based on Flap Weight in Patients Undergoing Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lam, Gretl; Weichman, Katie E; Reavey, Patrick L; Wilson, Stelios C; Levine, Jamie P; Saadeh, Pierre B; Allen, Robert J; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S; Thanik, Vishal D

    2017-03-01

    Background Higher body mass index (BMI) has been shown to increase postoperative complications in autologous breast reconstruction. However, the correlation with flap weight is unknown. Here, we explore the relationship of flap weights and complication rates in patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction. Methods Retrospective chart review identified all patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction with abdominally based flaps at a single institution between November 2007 and April 2013. Breasts with documented flap weight and 1-year follow-up were included. Patients undergoing stacked deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps were excluded. Breasts were divided into quartiles based on flap weight and examined by demographics, surgical characteristics, complications, and revisions. Results A total of 130 patients undergoing 225 flaps were identified. Patients had a mean age of 50.4 years, mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m(2), and mean flap weight of 638.4 g (range: 70-1640 g). Flap weight and BMI were directly correlated. Flaps were divided into weight-based quartiles: first (70-396 g), second (397-615 g), third (616-870 g), and fourth (871-1640 g). There were no associations between flap weight and incidences of venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, hematoma, flap loss, fat necrosis, or donor site hernia. However, increased flap weight was associated with increased rate of donor site wound healing problems in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions Increased flap weight is not associated with added flap complications among patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction, however, patients with flaps of 667.5 g or more are more likely to have donor site healing problems. The success and evidence contrary to previous studies may be attributed to surgeon intraoperative flap choice.

  9. Microsurgical free flap reconstructions of the head and neck region: Shanghai experience of 34 years and 4640 flaps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Sun, J; Zhu, H; Xu, L; Ji, T; He, Y; Yang, W; Hu, Y; Yang, X; Zhang, Z

    2015-06-01

    This study represents the surgical experience of 4481 microvascular free flap cases performed at the authors' institution in China, between 1979 and 2013. Four thousand four hundred and eighty-one patients underwent reconstruction with 4640 flaps: 56% radial forearm flaps, 8% iliac crest flaps, 13% fibula flaps, 10% anterolateral thigh flaps, and other flaps. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the flap transfer was required following tumour resection (97.5%). Three hundred and twenty minor complications (6.9%) occurred. One hundred and eighteen major complications (2.5%) were encountered: 114 cases of failure (2.4%) and four deaths. Among the 118 cases with major complications, 26 - 22.0% - had received radiotherapy; this proportion was higher than the 6.9% in the minor complications group and 8.1% in the non-intervention group. Venous thrombosis was the most common complication at the recipient site and was the main cause of flap failure. When a compromised flap is identified, surgical re-exploration should not be delayed. This study confirms that free flaps are reliable in achieving successful reconstruction in the head and neck region; however this technique requires extensive clinical experience. Owing to the large number of flap options, microsurgeons should always pay attention to the details of the different surgical defects and choose the most appropriate flap.

  10. Analytical study of vortex flaps on highly swept delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, N. T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper highlights some current results from ongoing analytical studies of vortex flaps on highly swept delta wings. A brief discussion of the vortex flow analysis tools is given along with comparisons of the theories to vortex flap force and pressure data. Theoretical trends in surface pressure distribution for both angle-of-attack variation and flap deflection are correctly predicted by Free Vortex Sheet theory. Also shown are some interesting calculations for attached-flow and vortex-flow flap hinge moments that indicate flaps utilizing vortex flow may generate less hinge moment than attached flow flaps. Finally, trailing-edge flap effects on leading-edge flap thrust potential are investigated and theory-experiment comparisons made.

  11. Free flap monitoring in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Thorniley, Maureen S; Carver, Nigel; Jones, Deric P

    2003-01-01

    Free flaps are regularly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery but have a significant failure rate due to vessel thrombosis in the re-established arterial or venous circulation. A monitor of flap perfusion and oxygenation would allow the early detection of progressing flap ischaemia, hastening the required intervention and maximising the chances of salvaging the flap. A dual wavelength spectrophotometer has been designed and constructed which can monitor haemodynamic events in flaps during surgery and postoperatively. Eleven patients undergoing free flap surgery were studied. Measurements were made during surgery before division of the vessels and during and after microvascular anastomosis. Significant changes in all parameters were observed on reperfusion of the flaps after anastomosis or tourniquet ischaemia. Abnormal reperfusion in one flap and subsequent ischaemic events in two others were identified.

  12. [Neurovascular infrahyoidal myofascial flap. Anatomic and topographic study of the innervation and blood supply].

    PubMed

    Remmert, S; Meyer, S; Majocco, A

    1998-06-01

    The neurovascular infrahyoidal myofascial flap: An anatomical and topographical study of the innervation and blood supply. 15 cadavers had bilaterally been examined for the topography of the upper thyroid artery and vein and of the lower cervical ansa, as an axial bundle of vessels and nerves for the infrahyoidal myofascial flap. With the injection of methylene blue the vascular territories of the upper thyroid artery had been demonstrated. The upper thyroid artery and vein could be found in all cases. This artery was deriving in 47% from the external carotid artery, in 30% from the bifurcation and in 23% from the common carotid artery. The vein flowed in 43% into the facial vein and in 37% into the internal jugular vein. In the remaining 20% several segmental veins were found, which flowed into the jugular vein separately. In case of a far caudally situated vascular bundle the radius of rotation can be limited in cranial direction. The voluntary innervation of the muscles of this flap is derived from the lower cervical ansa. The upper radix of the ansa can be found 1 cm in latero-cranial direction of the greater horn of the hyoid bone, where it is separating from the hypoglossal nerve. The upper thyroid artery is supplying the infrahyoidal musculature in the whole extension from the hyoid bone to the sternum. Therefore it is possible to develop a myofascial flap of 3.5 cm x 11.5 cm in size, which is pedicled at an upper vascular and nerval bundle. Depending on the radius of rotation defects of the floor of mouth, of the tongue and of the oro- and hypopharynx can well be covered with this new neurovascular myofascial flap.

  13. Islandized mucoperiosteal flaps: A versatile technique for closure of a wide palatal cleft

    PubMed Central

    Aboul-Wafa, Ahmed Mabrouk

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of surgical methods have been described to repair wide cleft palate; they are all challenging to perform and yield consistently good results. The islandized mucoperiosteal flap, the technique described in the present article, is very versatile because it can close palatal defects of any size without undue tension. Moreover, it provides adequate length and mobility of the soft palate with improved speech and feeding functions without fistula formation. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2011, 36 patients with wide cleft palate were operated on using islandized mucoperiosteal flaps. This technique involves dissection of the neurovascular bundle from the mucoperiosteal flaps for approximately 1 cm and dissecting the muscle from the posterior edge of the hard palate with intravelar veloplasty. The flaps subsequently become freely mobile in all directions. It can move medially to close palatal defects of any size without tension. In addition, posterior or backward mobilization lengthens the soft palate and renders it freely mobile. RESULTS: All repairs were successful, with no complications and no patients requiring secondary procedures. All patients regained normal feeding function three weeks postoperatively. All patients showed normal nasal resonance of speech except for two (three and five years of age) who experienced abnormal resonance in the form of open nasality that required regular speech therapy for six months. There was significant improvement and no secondary procedures were required for either. CONCLUSIONS: A technical modification for closure of wide palatal clefts is introduced. The islandized mucoperiosteal flap, which is a very versatile technique, can close cleft palates of any width without tension, lengthens the soft palate and renders it freely mobile for proper speech functions. Using this technique, good speech and feeding function with no complications were achieved. PMID:23997584

  14. MR Imaging Appearances of Soft Tissue Flaps Following Reconstructive Surgery of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Girish, Gandikota; Jacobson, Jon A; Kim, Sung Moon; Brigido, Monica K; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David A

    2015-01-01

    MR imaging appearances of different types of reconstructive muscle flaps following reconstructive surgery of the lower extremity with associated post-surgical changes due to altered anatomy, radiation, and potential complications, can be challenging. A multidisciplinary therapeutic approach to tumors allows for limb salvage therapy in a majority of the patients. Decision-making for specific types of soft tissue reconstruction is based on the body region affected, as well as the size and complexity of the defect. Hematomas and infections are early complications that can jeopardize flap viability. The local recurrence of a tumor within six months after a complete resection with confirmed tumor-free margins and adjuvant radiation therapy is rare. Identification of a new lesion similar to the initial tumor favors a finding of tumor recurrence. PMID:25598685

  15. Total Posterior Leg Open Wound Management With Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap: Case and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Soleiman; Chou, Stephanie; Rosing, James; Sahar, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue coverage of the exposed Achilles tendon is a unique reconstructive challenge. In this report, we describe the management of a large posterior leg wound with exposed Achilles tendon using a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. A careful review of alternative reconstructive options is included, along with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A 32-year-old white man suffered a fulminant right lower extremity soft tissue infection requiring extensive debridement of the entire posterior surface of the right leg. The resulting large soft tissue defect included exposure of the Achilles tendon. Reconstruction of the defect was achieved with an ALT flap and split-thickness skin graft for coverage of the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. The patient was able to ambulate independently within 2 months of the procedure. PMID:24106563

  16. Use of latissimus dorsi flap pedicle as a T-junction to facilitate simultaneous free fibular flap inset in lower extremity salvage.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu Tae; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Jeong Tae; Lee, Seung Hoon; Ng, Siew-Weng; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2012-04-01

    Marjolin's ulcer is a very aggressive form of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic wounds or unstable scars. A resection margin of at least 2 cm with clear deep margin is required on removal. A 79-year-old male presented with chronic osteomyelitis of the left anterior tibial region with chronic ulceration. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The tumour, measuring 8 cm, was resected with surrounding unstable scar tissue including en bloc resection of the involved tibial bone, leaving the posterior cortex. Reconstruction was done with a fibular free flap from the contralateral side, but the pedicle length was too short to reach the anterior tibial vessels. To bridge the vascular gap, and to cover the soft-tissue defect, a latissimus dorsi free flap was harvested using the muscle-sparing method. The thoracodorsal vessels were used as an interpositional graft to anastomose the peroneal vessels of the fibular flap. The patient was ambulatory by 4 months, and complete bone union was seen after 6 months. During the 18-month follow-up period, there was no evidence of recurrence.

  17. Experimental and Numerical investigations of flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh; Kr, Sreenivas; Emu, Jncasr Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Insects have been observed to produce higher lift than predicted by conventional steady-aerodynamics using a combination of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms. The wing kinematics and the flow fields produced during flapping flight is essentially 3D. Recently, in our group it has been shown, using flow visualization and 2D simulations, that the asymmetric flapping where, down-stroke is faster than the upstroke, can produce sustained lift. Also by introducing controlled wing flexibility, one can increase the magnitude of the lift. In order to verify these predictions quantitatively we are measuring forces produced by a mechanical flapper using a force-balance. Results of this study will be presented that includes the forces measured in symmetric and asymmetric flapping at different flapping frequencies. Similar understanding of various wing-kinematics during a forward flight can be achieved by doing transient, 3D simulations. A fast, accurate and simple 3D scheme which is capable of dealing with moving boundaries using Lattice Boltzmann has been developed for this purpose. Benchmarking of this scheme has been done for a forward flapping of the wing with elliptical cross-section. The results on the benchmarking and other preliminary results will be presented in the conference.

  18. Hardware Removal after Osseous Free Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Day, Kristine E.; Desmond, Renee; Magnuson, J. Scott; Carroll, William R.; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying risk factors for hardware removal in patients undergoing mandibular reconstruction with vascularized osseous free flaps remains a challenge. The purpose of this study is to identify potential risk factors, including osteocutaneous radial forearm versus fibular flap, for need for removal and to describe the fate of implanted hardware. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Two hundred thirteen patients undergoing 227 vascularized osseous mandibular reconstructions between the years 2004 and 2012. Data were compiled through a manual chart review, and patients incurring hardware removals were identified. Results Thirty-four of 213 evaluable vascularized osseous free flaps (16%) underwent surgical removal of hardware. The average length of time to removal was 16.2 months (median 10 months), with the majority of removals occurring within the first year. Osteocutaneous radial forearm free flaps (OCRFFF) incurred a slightly higher percentage of hardware removals (9.9%) compared to fibula flaps (6.1%). Partial removal was performed in 8 of 34 cases, and approximately 38% of these required additional surgery for removal. Conclusion Hardware removal was associated with continued tobacco use after mandibular reconstruction (P = .03). Removal of the supporting hardware most commonly occurs from infection or exposure in the first year. In the majority of cases the bone is well healed and the problem resolves with removal. PMID:24201061

  19. Differential expressed protein in developing stages of Nepenthes gracilis Korth. pitcher.

    PubMed

    Pinthong, Krit; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Mokkamul, Piya

    2009-03-15

    Nepenthes gracilis Korth. is a member of carnivorous plants in family Nepenthaceae. The plants have beautiful and economically important pitchers. It is interesting to study the protein(s) correlated with the pitcher. Crude proteins were extracted from leaf, leaf with developing pitcher and developed pitcher of the same plant and analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two protein bands with molecular weights of 42.7 and 38 kDa were obtained from young leaf and leaf with developing pitcher, respectively. The 42.7 kDa protein was identified as phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), but the 38 kDa band is an unknown protein. Both proteins were differentially expressed in each developing stage of the pitcher, thus may be powerful candidates play role in development pathway of leaf and pitcher.

  20. The first complete mitochondrial genome of stag beetle from China, Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yan; Fang, Jie; Wan, Xia

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that is endemic to Southern China is determined. The circular genome is 736 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects. The nucleotide composition of heavy strand is A (36.6%), C (22.6%), T (29.5%) and G (11.3%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon except for the gene COI that uses AAC as the start codon. tRNA-Ser (AGN) uses the anticodon UCU instead of the commonly used GCU. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of Lucanidae and the sister relationship of Nigidionus and the remaining sampled genera. Two species of Prosopocoilus were not recovered as a monophyletic group.

  1. The effect of rapamycin on biodiesel-producing protist Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Mukaida, Shiho; Ogawa, Takumi; Ohishi, Kazuko; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Daisaku; Arita, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Rapamycin induces autophagy with lipid remodeling in yeast and mammalian cells. To investigate the lipid biosynthesis of Euglena gracilis, rapamycin was supplemented in comparison with two model algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In Euglena, rapamycin induced the reduction of chlorophylls and the accumulation of neutral lipids without deterring its cell proliferation. Its lipidomic profile revealed that the fatty acid composition did not alter by supplementing rapamycin. In Chlamydomonas, however, rapamycin induced serious growth inhibition as reported elsewhere. With a lower concentration of rapamycin, the alga accumulated neutral lipids without reducing chlorophylls. In Cyanidioschyzon, rapamycin did not increase neutral lipids but reduced its chlorophyll content. We also tested fatty acid elongase inhibitors such as pyroxasulfone or flufenacet in Euglena with no significant change in its neutral lipid contents. In summary, controlled supplementation of rapamycin can increase the yield of neutral lipids while the scheme is not always applicable for other algal species.

  2. Physiological characterization of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis and Astasia longa studied on sounding rocket flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P. R.; Lebert, M.; Tahedl, H.; Häder, D.-P.

    Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, unicellular flagellate found in eutrophic freshwater habitats. The organisms control their vertical position in the water column using gravi- and phototaxis. Recent experiments demonstrated that negative gravitaxis cannot be explained by passive buoyancy but by an active physiological mechanism. During space experiments, the threshold of gravitaxis was determined to be between 0.08 and 0.12 x g. A strong correlation between the applied acceleration and the intracellular cAMP and Ca2+ was observed. The results support the hypothesis, that the cell body of Euglena, which is denser than the surrounding medium exerts a pressure onto the lower membrane and activates mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels. Changes in the membrane potential and the cAMP concentration are most likely subsequent elements in a signal transduction chain, which results in reorientation strokes of the flagellum.

  3. Biochemical, immunological, metabolic, and molecular studies on flagellar development in Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The emergent flagellum of Euglena gracilis arises from an anterior invagination of the organism and possesses, along with the typical eukaryotic axoneme, a glycoprotein surface layer, a complement of structurally complex mastigonemes and a paraxial rod. Nonionic detergent extraction of isolated flagella yielded a fraction containing 21% of the flagellar protein. This fraction contained at least 25 components. In vivo radiolabeling experiments indicated that Euglena possessed a pool of flagellar precursors. This was evidence by the observation that flagellar proteins radiolabeled during an initial regeneration could be mobilized to flagella of a subsequent regeneration. At least one component in the pool was present in sufficient quantity to support an entire regeneration. This protein was tentatively identified as a mastigonemal protein of M{sub r} {approximately} 220,000. A cDNA library was constructed to investigate flagellar gene expression in Euglena.

  4. A new homolog of FocA transporters identified in cadmium-resistant Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Delomenie, Claudine; Foti, Emilie; Floch, Enora; Diderot, Vimala; Porquet, Dominique; Dupuy, Corinne; Bonaly, Jacqueline . E-mail: Jacqueline.bonaly@u-psud.fr

    2007-06-29

    To better understand the cellular mechanism of stress resistance to various pollutants (cadmium, pentachlorophenol), we undertook a survey of the Euglena gracilis transcriptome by mRNA differential display and cDNA cloning. We performed a real-time RT-PCR analysis upon four selected genes. One of them significantly changed its expression level in response to stress treatments: B25 gene was overexpressed in Cd-resistant cells whereas it was down-regulated in PCP-adapted cells. By Race assays we obtained for B25 a 1093 bp cDNA. The deduced protein was identified as a bacterial formate/nitrite transporter (FocA) homolog and the gene was named EgFth. From all the data, we concluded that EgFth overexpression was related to chronic exposure to cadmium.

  5. Formation of Tryptophol Galactoside and an Unknown Tryptophol Ester in Euglena gracilis1

    PubMed Central

    Laćan, Goran; Magnus, Volker; Jeričević, Biserka; Kunst, Ljerka; Iskrić, Sonja

    1984-01-01

    The unicellular alga Euglena gracilis Klebs `Z' converted exogenous indole-3-ethanol (trytophol) to two major metabolites: tryptophol galactoside and an unknown compound, and to minor amounts of indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophol acetate, and tryptophol glucoside. The unknown was hydrolyzed to tryptophol by methanolic ammonia and should therefore be a tryptophol ester. The galactoside was identified as 2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl-β-d-galactopyranoside. This structure was established by comparison with an authentic standard involving chromatographic methods, ultraviolet and mass spectroscopy, enzymic and acid hydrolysis, and identification of the galactose in the hydrolysate. By forming tryptophol galactoside, Euglena differs from the higher plants examined so far, for which the corresponding glucoside is the only sugar conjugate of tryptophol detected. PMID:16663965

  6. An electromyographic study of the hip muscles of transfemoral amputees in walking.

    PubMed

    Jaegers, S M; Arendzen, J H; de Jongh, H J

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the electromyographic activity of the hip muscles after transfemoral amputation and to determine whether the cleaved hip muscles are still functional in locomotion. The electromyographic activity of the superficial hip muscles of both legs was studied in 11 men who had a unilateral transfemoral amputation. The intact muscles at the intact and amputated side showed the same sequence of activity as did those in healthy subjects, but during a longer period of time. The activity of the cleaved muscles with intact muscle fibers (gluteus maximus, tensor fasciae latae) was dependent on whether the iliotibial tract was reanchored. If the iliotibial tract was fixed, the same activity was found in the muscles of the patients as in those of healthy subjects. The activity of the cleaved, once biarticular, muscles (sartorius, rectus femoris, hamstring muscles, gracilis) was dependent on whether the muscles were reanchored and on the level of amputation. If the cleaved muscles were reanchored correctly, the muscles remained functional in locomotion in patients with an amputation in the distal half of the femur. In patients with high amputation levels, these muscles were almost continuously active; they probably play a role in fixing the socket.

  7. Posttraumatic eyebrow reconstruction with hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap

    PubMed Central

    Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The temporoparietal fascia flap has been extensively used in craniofacial reconstructions. However, its use for eyebrow reconstruction has been sporadically reported. We describe a successfully repaired hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap after traumatic avulsion of eyebrow. Temporoparietal fascia flap is a versatile tool and should be considered as a therapeutic option by all plastic surgeons. PMID:25993077

  8. Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pancholi, Mayank; Sharma, Sanjay; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Methods: This was a study of the patients presenting with recurrent oral cavity cancer after exhausted ipsilateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (PMMC) in whom we used contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (Crossed PMMC Flap) for reconstruction between October 2013 to June 2016. Results: Five patients with recurrence underwent reconstruction with contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap. In all the flap was successfully used to reconstruct defects involving the entire buccal mucosa and in one patient the flap could be used to reconstruct full thickness resection defect(crossed bipedal PMMC Flap) with ease. Conclusion: Crossed Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap can be used safely and reliably for reconstruction of the buccal mucosal defect and in selected patients even for full thickness cheek defect as folded bipaddle Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

  9. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  10. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  11. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  12. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  13. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  14. Free flap rescue using an extracorporeal perfusion device.

    PubMed

    Fichter, Andreas M; Ritschl, Lucas M; Rau, Andrea; Schwarzer, Claudia; von Bomhard, Achim; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mücke, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The warm ischaemia time of microvascular free flaps is limited. Incalculable events, such as lack of adequate recipient vessels or intraoperative medical emergencies, can lead to prolonged ischaemia and potentially to flap loss. In this study, critically perfused ischaemic or congested flaps were temporarily perfused with an extracorporeal perfusion system until anastomosis could be commenced. Temporary extracorporeal perfusion was performed in 8 radial forearm flaps for 147 ± 52 (range 77-237) minutes. Flap perfusion was assessed using Indocyanine Green fluorescence angiography and combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy. Results were compared with those of 30 patients who underwent conventional reconstruction with radial forearm flaps. Flap survival, flap microcirculation, postoperative complications, and hospital stay did not differ between groups. We report successful free flap transfer after short-term extracorporeal perfusion for up to 4 h in 8 patient cases. Temporary extracorporeal free flap perfusion reduces the warm ischaemia time in emergency situations and can help to prevent flap failure in critically perfused or congested flaps. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02449525.

  15. A unique apposition compound eye in the mesopelagic hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis.

    PubMed

    Baldwin Fergus, Jamie L; Johnsen, Sönke; Osborn, Karen J

    2015-02-16

    The mesopelagic habitat is a vast space that lacks physical landmarks and is structured by depth, light penetration, and horizontal currents. Solar illumination is visible in the upper 1,000 m of the ocean, becoming dimmer and spectrally filtered with depth-generating a nearly monochromatic blue light field. The struggle to perceive dim downwelling light and bioluminescent sources and the need to remain unseen generate contrasting selective pressures on the eyes of mesopelagic inhabitants. Hyperiid amphipods are cosmopolitan members of the mesopelagic fauna with at least ten different eye configurations across the family-ranging from absent eyes in deep-living species to four enlarged eyes in mesopelagic individuals. The hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis has a pair of bi-lobed apposition compound eyes, each with a large upward-looking portion and a small lateral-looking portion. The most unusual feature of the P. gracilis eye is that its upward-looking portion is resolved into a discontinuous retina with 12 distinct groups, each serving one transverse row of continuously spaced facets. On the basis of eye morphology, we estimated spatial acuity (2.5° ± 0.11°, SEM; n = 25) and optical sensitivity (30 ± 3.4 μm(2) ⋅ sr, SEM; n = 25). Microspectrophotometry showed that spectral sensitivity of the eye peaked at 516 nm (±3.9 nm, SEM; n = 6), significantly offset from the peak of downwelling irradiance in the mesopelagic realm (480 nm). Modeling of spatial summation within the linear retinal groups showed that it boosts sensitivity with less cost to spatial acuity than more typical configurations.

  16. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takuma; Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Awazu, Akinori; Iima, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms) when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1), whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1). In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.

  17. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the growth and ultrastructure of green algae, Ankistrodesmus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Asselborn, Viviana; Fernández, Carolina; Zalocar, Yolanda; Parodi, Elisa R

    2015-10-01

    The effect of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos on the growth, biovolume, and ultrastructure of the green microalga Ankistrodesmus gracilis was evaluated. Concentrations of 9.37, 18.75, 37.5, 75 and 150mgL(-1) of chlorpyrifos were assayed along with a control culture. At the end of the bioassay the ultrastructure of algal cells from control culture and from cultures exposed to 37.5 and 150mgL(-1) was observed under transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 and 48h, treatments with 75 and 150mgL(-1) inhibited the growth of A. gracilis; whereas after 72 and 96h, all the treatments except at 9.37mgL(-1) significantly affected the algae growth. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) after 96h was 22.44mgL(-1) of chlorpyrifos. After the exposure to the insecticide, an increase in the biovolume was observed, with a larger increase in cells exposed to 75 and 150mgL(-1). Radical changes were observed in the ultrastructure of cells exposed to chlorpyrifos. The insecticide affected the cell shape and the distribution of the crests in the wall. At 37.5mgL(-1) electodense bodies were observed along with an increase in the size and number of starch granules. At 150mgL(-1) such bodies occupied almost the whole cytoplasm together with lipids and remains of thylakoids. Autospores formation occurred normally at 37.5mgL(-1) while at 150mgL(-1) karyokinesis occurred, but cell-separation-phase was inhibited. The present study demonstrates that the exposure of phytoplankton to the insecticide chlorpyrifos leads to effects observed at both cellular and population level.

  18. Shifting fungal endophyte communities colonize Bouteloua gracilis: effect of host tissue and geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Herrera, José; Khidir, Hana H; Eudy, Douglas M; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Natvig, Donald O; Sinsabaugh, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Communities of root-associated fungi (RAF) commonly have been studied under the auspices of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or ectomycorrhizal fungi. However many studies now indicate that other groups of endophytic RAF, including dark septate endophytes (DSE) are more abundant in some plants and environments. The common forage grass, Bouteloua gracilis, was used as a model to examine whether RAF also colonize different organs within the same plant and to compare RAF communities from sites across North America, spanning the latitudinal range of B. gracilis (from Canada to Mexico). We compared the RAF communities of organs within individual plants at one site and within plant roots among six sites. With the possible exception of one group related to genus Paraphaeosphaeria there was little evidence that RAF colonized vertically beyond the crowns. Furthermore, although there was some variation in the constitution of rare members of the RAF communities, several taxonomically related groups dominated the RAF community at all sites. These dominant taxa included members in the Pleosporales (related to the DSE, Paraphaeosphaeria spp.), Agaricales (related to Moniliophthora spp., or Campanella spp.) and Hypocreales (related to Fusarium spp.). AMF were notable by their near absence. Similar phylotypes from the dominant groups clustered around adjacent sites so that similarity of the RAF communities was negatively correlated to site inter-distance and the RAF communities appeared to group by country. These results increase the possibility that at least some of these common and widely distributed core members of the RAF community form important, intimate and long lasting relationships with grasses.

  19. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takuma; Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Awazu, Akinori; Iima, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5–2.0 μmol m−2 s−1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms) when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m−2 s−1), whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m−2 s−1). In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m−2 s−1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic. PMID:28033336

  20. Transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis investigated in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Maeda, Mizuo

    2014-10-01

    We found that the transient freezing behavior in photophobic responses of Euglena gracilis is a good indicator of the metabolic status of the cells. The transient blue light photophobic responses of E. gracilis cells were investigated on-chip using a new measurement, 'trace momentum' (TM), to evaluate their swimming activity quantitatively in real time. When blue light of intensity >30 mW cm(-2) was repeatedly switched on and off, a large negative spike in the TM was observed at the onset of the 'blue-light-off' phase. Single-cell trace analysis at a blue light intensity of 40 mW cm(-2) showed that 48% (on average, n = 15) of tumbling Euglena cells ceased activity ('freezing') for 2-30 s at the onset of blue-light-off before commencing forward motion in a straight line (termed 'straightforward swimming'), while 45% smoothly commenced straightforward swimming without delay. The proportion of freezing Euglena cells depended on the blue light intensity (only 20% at 20 mW cm(-2)). When the cells were stimulated by four blue light pulses at the higher intensity, without pre-exposure, the transient freezing behavior was more prominent but, on repeating the stimuli after an 80 min interval in red light, the same cells did not freeze. This shows that the metabolism of the cells had changed to anti-freezing during the interval. The relationship between the interval time with/without light irradiation and the blue light adaptation was elucidated experimentally. The origin of the freezing behavior is considered to be a shortage of a metabolic substance that promotes smooth switching of flagellum movement from in situ rotation mode to a straightforward swimming mode.

  1. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  2. Preservation of a digital osteotendinous structure with an omental flap.

    PubMed

    Iglesias; Butrón, P; Cortés, E; Angeles, A; Robles, J A; Vargas-Vorackova, F

    2000-10-01

    Taking into account the angiogenic properties of the omentum to revascularize ischemic tissues, this experimental, longitudinal, prospective, double-blind study in rabbits was designed to revascularize and preserve the mobility of a digital osteotendinous structure surgically devascularized in advance and to compare such omental angiogenic ability with that of the muscle and the panniculus carnosus. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were used. Three toes from the hind feet were surgically amputated from each rabbit. The skin was removed, exposing the bones, tendons, ligaments, and joints, to form what we termed the osteotendinous structure. Through a median laparotomy, the first part of each rabbit's own osteotendinous structure was placed inside the panniculus carnosus (group I), the second under the rectus abdominis muscle (group II), and the third was wrapped in a pediculate omental flap (group III). Three weeks later, each structure was assessed clinically for mobility and fibrosis and microscopically for fibrosis, newly formed vessels, viability, and tissue regeneration. Clinically, the group I structures showed a greater amount of fibrosis. The structures in groups II and III showed minimal fibrosis in all but four cases, which showed moderate fibrosis. Differences in joint mobility were assessed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. There was a statistically significant difference in mobility for the structures from group III, which was higher, followed by those from groups II and I. The exception was the proximal interphalangeal joints in groups II and III, for which the differences had no statistical significance. Microscopically, fibrosis and tissue necrosis were intense in the structures in group I, moderate in the group II structures, and mild in the group III structures. Conversely, vessel neoformation and tissue regeneration were intense in the structures in group III, moderate in group II, and were nil in group I. This study confirms with statistical significance

  3. New developments in blown flap noise technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The noise technology relating to blown-flap systems is reviewed. There are three general sources of noise: turbomachinery, airframe, and the interaction noise of the jet blowing on the flaps. The latter noise-source area is the most critical and the main subject dicussed. Characteristics of lower surface blown and upper surface blown systems are described, including noise spectra, directivity, jet velocity characteristics, aircraft geometric variation effects, and aircraft forward speed effects. Noise reduction concepts are described, including slowing down the jet flow field by devices and engine cycle modifications, structural geometry and shielding modifications, local flow field modifications of the passive and active type, and the absorption of noise. It is concluded that, while there has been considerable progress in the past several years, low noise characteristics in blown flap aircraft must be largely built in by better application of low noise principles during the design.

  4. Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.

  5. Collective Flow Enhancement by Tandem Flapping Wings.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Peters, Jacob M; Combes, Stacey A; Wood, Robert J

    2015-10-30

    We examine the fluid-mechanical interactions that occur between arrays of flapping wings when operating in close proximity at a moderate Reynolds number (Re≈100-1000). Pairs of flapping wings are oscillated sinusoidally at frequency f, amplitude θ_{M}, phase offset ϕ, and wing separation distance D^{*}, and outflow speed v^{*} is measured. At a fixed separation distance, v^{*} is sensitive to both f and ϕ, and we observe both constructive and destructive interference in airspeed. v^{*} is maximized at an optimum phase offset, ϕ_{max}, which varies with wing separation distance, D^{*}. We propose a model of collective flow interactions between flapping wings based on vortex advection, which reproduces our experimental data.

  6. Comparison of a new flap design with the routinely used triangular flap design in third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Yolcu, Ü; Acar, A H

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new flap design in the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars - a lingually based triangular flap - and to compare this flap design with the routinely used triangular flap. This randomized, prospective, split-mouth study involved 22 patients with impacted bilateral mandibular third molars that were symmetrically positioned, mesially angulated, and retained in bone. The impacted teeth were removed in two sessions, using two different flap designs: the new alternative flap and the traditional triangular flap. Postoperative complications (pain, swelling, trismus, alveolar osteitis, and wound dehiscence) were recorded on days 2, 7, 14, and 21. The data obtained were analysed using the χ(2) test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and Pearson's correlation. In terms of the severity of postoperative facial swelling and trismus, there were no statistically significant differences between the flap designs (P>0.05). The alternative flap exhibited higher pain scores at 12h post-surgery (P<0.05). In addition, the alternative flap group exhibited less wound dehiscence, although this was not statistically significant. Moreover, all wound dehiscence in this group occurred on sound bone. In conclusion, these results show that this new flap design is preferable to the routinely used flap for impacted third molar surgery.

  7. Perforator-to-perforator musculocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of a lumbosacral defect using the lumbar artery perforator as recipient vessel.

    PubMed

    Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2008-05-01

    Reconstruction of large-sized lumbosacral or sacral defects often is not possible using local or regional flaps, making the use of free flaps necessary. However, the difficulty of any microsurgical procedure in this region is complicated by the need to search for potential recipient vessels to revascularize the flap. In the present case, a free musculocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap to cover a large-sized and deep lumbosacral defect was used. Arterial anastomosis was performed, connecting the cutaneous anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator to the perforator of the second lumbar artery. In this fashion, the arterial circulation through the flap was flowing reversely through the muscle. The concomitant vein of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery was hooked up to the thoracodorsal vein using a long interposition vein graft because the perforator of the second lumbar vein was too small. Postoperative healing was uneventful. In conclusion, a successful reconstruction of a lumbar defect has shown that local perforators in the lumbar area may be accessible for easier perforator-to-perforator anastomoses and that the muscular part of the musculocutaneous ALT flap can survive on retrograde arterial perfusion from a perforator of the skin island.

  8. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define, the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  9. Airplane wing leading edge variable camber flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The invention and design of an aerodynamic high lift device which provided a solution to an aircraft performance problem are described. The performance problem of converting a high speed cruise airfoil into a low speed aerodynamic shape that would provide landing and take-off characteristics superior to those available with contemporary high lift devices are addressed. The need for an improved wing leading edge device that would complement the high lift performance of a triple slotted trailing edge flap is examined. The mechanical and structural aspects of the variable camber flap are discussed and the aerodynamic performance aspects only as they relate to the invention and design of the device are presented.

  10. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  11. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  12. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...

  13. An electrophysiological method for monitoring blood flow in skeletal muscle. An experimental study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Larsson, L

    1989-01-01

    An experimental animal model was used to study the effects of occlusion of skeletal muscle blood flow on spontaneous denervation activity (fibrillation potentials). The aim was to investigate whether recording of fibrillation potentials could provide a valuable electrophysiological technique for monitoring muscle tissue circulation during free flap surgery. In both the fast-twitch anterior tibial muscle and the slow-twitch soleus, the number of fibrillation potentials decreased rapidly (within 30 sec) after occlusion of the blood flow and after 5 min only few fibrillation potentials were present. In the fast-twitch muscle, the fibrillation potentials disappeared within 10 min in most animals, but sporadic potentials were seen for up to 18 min in one animal after the blood vessels were clamped. In the slow-twitch muscle, sporadic single fibrillation potentials were seen for a longer time than in the anterior tibial muscle and fibrillation potentials were often observed for more than 20 min after clamping of the blood vessels. However, the initial decrease in the number of fibrillation potentials was rapid in both muscles. This means, if the same is true in human muscle, that the method is sufficiently rapid to permit restoration of the circulation so that the muscle flap can be saved if the blood flow is occluded after a muscle transfer operation. Thus, recording of fibrillation potentials may provide a powerful and simple technique for monitoring free flap circulation.

  14. Salvage for pectoralis major myocutaneous flap failure in head and neck reconstruction by microvascular flap.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chen-Ling; Wu, Yi-Chia; Lai, Ching-Hung; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lin, Sin-Daw; Chang, Kao-Ping

    2012-10-01

    The pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap (PMMPF) - the "workhorse" for head and neck reconstruction - is associated with a high incidence of complications in certain cases. This study presents free tissue transfer as an alternative salvage technique after PMMPF failure in head and neck reconstruction. It includes seven consecutive patients who underwent free tissue salvage after PMMPF failure in head and neck reconstruction from January 2008 to September 2010 at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Four vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flaps were applied for tongue and mouth floor defects, while three anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps were used for mouth floor, buccal, and cheek defects. All flaps survived uneventfully, and normal oral feeding was achieved without major complications. Free tissue transfer has several advantages and can be successfully employed in head and neck reconstruction, and it is also a reliable salvage procedure after PMMPF failure in such cases.

  15. Choice of Flap Affects Fistula Rate after Salvage Laryngopharyngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wu, Chao-Min; Hung, Shao-Yu; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with pharyngocutaneous fistula in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction following cancer resection, the purpose of this retrospective study is to examine the selection of tubed skin flaps that impact anastomotic integrity. The flaps evaluated included radial forearm flap versus anterolateral thigh flap, and fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap versus chimeric anterolateral thigh flap. The outcome of interest is the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula. The radial forearm group had a significantly higher rate of fistula than the anterolateral thigh group (56.6% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.03). No significant difference in the incidence of fistula was demonstrated between fasciocutaneous and chimeric anterolateral thigh flap (36.8% vs. 25%, p = 0.51). The anastomotic integrity in pharyngoesopharyngeal reconstruction is affected by choice of skin flaps. Anterolateral thigh flap appears to be a viable option for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. The more technical demand of the anterolateral thigh flap must be weighed against an easily harvested radial forearm flap. PMID:25776941

  16. Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4412 airfoil sction with flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockfen, Alex E.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2009-09-01

    Wing-in-Ground vehicles and aerodynamically assisted boats take advantage of increased lift and reduced drag of wing sections in the ground proximity. At relatively low speeds or heavy payloads of these craft, a flap at the wing trailing-ground-effect flow id numerically investigated in this study. The computational method consists of a steady-state, incompressible, finite volume method utilizing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Grid generation and solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are completed flow with a flap, as well as ground-effect motion without a flap. Aerodynamic forces are plain flap. Changes in the flow introduced with the flap addition are also discussed. Overall, the use of a flap on wings with small attack angles is found to be beneficial for small flap deflections up to 5% of the chord, where the contribution of lift augmentation exceeds the drag increase, yielding an augmented lift-to-drag ratio

  18. Effect of Systemic Antioxidant Allopurinol Therapy on Skin Flap Survival

    PubMed Central

    Rasti Ardakani, Mehdi; Al-Dam, Ahmed; Rashad, Ashkan; Shayesteh Moghadam, Ali

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been reported that systemic administration of allopurinol improves cell survival. This study was aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol on skin flaps in dogs. METHODS Twenty dogs underwent one skin flap surgery with a 2-week interval. The first procedure was performed according to the standard protocols. The second phase was started by a 1-week pretreatment with allopurinol. Length of the necrotic zone was measured and recorded daily. At each phase, flaps were removed and sent for histopathological study after 1 week observation. RESULTS Mean length of the necrotic zone in allopurinol treated skin flaps has been significantly less than normal flaps over all 7 days of observation (p<0.0001). Histopathology study showed less inflammation and more normal tissue structure in the allopurinol treated skin flaps. CONCLUSION It was demonstrated that systemic administration of allopurinol significantly improved skin flap survival. PMID:28289614

  19. The value of postoperative anticoagulants to improve flap survival in the free radial forearm flap

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Justin E.; Aarts, Mark C.J.; Swart, Karin M.A.; Disa, Joseph J.; Gerressen, Marcus; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Wax, Mark K.; Grolman, Wilko; Braunius, Weibel W

    2016-01-01

    Background Free radial forearm flap (FRFF) reconstruction is a valuable technique in head and neck surgery, that allows closure of large defects while striving to maintain functionality. Anticoagulative drugs are often administered to improve flap survival, although evidence regarding effectiveness is lacking. Objective of review To investigate the effectiveness of postoperative anticoagulants to improve survival of the FRFF in head and neck reconstruction. Type of review Systematic review and multicenter, individual patient data meta-analysis. Search strategy MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL were searched for synonyms of ‘anticoagulants’ and ‘free flap reconstruction’. Evaluation method Studies were critically appraised for directness of evidence and risk of bias. Authors of the highest quality publications were invited to submit their original data for meta-analysis. Results Five studies were of adequate quality and data from four studies (80%) were available for meta-analysis, describing 759 FRFF procedures. Anticoagulants used were: aspirin (12%), low-molecular weight dextran (18.3%), unfractioned heparin (28.1%), low-molecular weight heparin (49%) and prostaglandin-E1 (2.1%). Thirty-one percent did not receive anticoagulants. Flap failure occurred in 40 of 759 patients (5.3%) On univariate analysis, use of unfractioned heparin was associated with a higher rate of flap failure. However, these regimens were often administered to patients who had revision surgery of the anastomosis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, anticoagulant use was not associated with improved flap survival or flap-related complications. Conclusions The studied anticoagulative drugs did not improve FRFF survival or lower the rate of flap-related complications. In addition some anticoagulants may cause systemic complications. PMID:25823832

  20. Beroe gracilis (Ctenophora) from the Humboldt Current System: first occurrence of this species in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Feliú, Guillermo; Palma, Sergio

    2014-07-04

    Beroe gracilis Künne, 1939 is a small neritic ctenophore, previously recorded only from cold waters of the northern hemisphere. The present study provides the first record of the species in the southern hemisphere, found in the surface layer of the Humboldt Current System off the central Chilean coast (32°-36.5° S). A complete description of this material is provided.

  1. Clustered organization, polycistronic transcription, and evolution of modification-guide snoRNA genes in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashley N; Russell, Anthony G

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the eukaryotic microbe Euglena gracilis contains an unusually large assortment of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) modification sites. However, little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms contributing to this situation. In this study, we have examined the organization and evolution of snoRNA genes in Euglena with the additional objective of determining how these properties relate to the rRNA modification pattern in this protist. We have identified and extensively characterized a clustered pattern of genes encoding previously biochemically isolated snoRNA sequences in E. gracilis. We show that polycistronic transcription is a prevalent snoRNA gene expression strategy in this organism. Further, we have identified 121 new snoRNA coding regions through sequence analysis of these clusters. We have identified an E. gracilis U14 snoRNA homolog clustered with modification-guide snoRNA genes. The U14 snoRNAs in other eukaryotic organisms examined to date typically contain both a modification and a processing domain. E. gracilis U14 lacks the modification domain but retains the processing domain. Our analysis of U14 structure and evolution in Euglena and other eukaryotes allows us to propose a model for its evolution and suggest its processing role may be its more important function, explaining its conservation in many eukaryotes. The preponderance of apparent small and larger-scale duplication events in the genomic regions we have characterized in Euglena provides a mechanism for the generation of the unusually diverse collection and abundance of snoRNAs and modified rRNA sites. Our findings provide the framework for more extensive whole genome analysis to elucidate whether these snoRNA gene clusters are spread across multiple chromosomes and/or form dense "arrays" at a limited number of chromosomal loci.

  2. Influence of different light-dark cycles on motility and photosynthesis of Euglena gracilis in closed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Richter, Peter R; Strauch, Sebastian M; Ntefidou, Maria; Schuster, Martin; Daiker, Viktor; Nasir, Adeel; Haag, Ferdinand W M; Lebert, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The unicellular photosynthetic freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis is a promising candidate as an oxygen producer in biological life-support systems. In this study, the capacity of Euglena gracilis to cope with different light regimes was determined. Cultures of Euglena gracilis in closed bioreactors were exposed to different dark-light cycles (40 W/m(2) light intensity on the surface of the 20 L reactor; cool white fluorescent lamps in combination with a 100 W filament bulb): 1 h-1 h, 2 h-2 h, 4 h-4 h, 6 h-6 h, and 8 h-16 h, respectively. Motility and oxygen development in the reactors were measured constantly. It was found that, during exposure to light-dark cycles of 1 h-1 h, 2 h-2 h, 4 h-4 h, and 6 h-6 h, precision of gravitaxis as well as the number of motile cells increased during the dark phase, while velocity increased in the light phase. Oxygen concentration did not yet reach a plateau phase. During dark-light cycles of 8 h-16 h, fast changes of movement behavior in the cells were detected. The cells showed an initial decrease of graviorientation after onset of light and an increase after the start of the dark period. In the course of the light phase, graviorientation increased, while motility and velocity decreased after some hours of illumination. In all light profiles, Euglena gracilis was able to produce sufficient oxygen in the light phase to maintain the oxygen concentration above zero in the subsequent dark phase.

  3. A possible role for short introns in the acquisition of stroma-targeting peptides in the flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Vesteg, Matej; Vacula, Rostislav; Steiner, Jürgen M; Mateásiková, Bianka; Löffelhardt, Wolfgang; Brejová, Brona; Krajcovic, Juraj

    2010-08-01

    The chloroplasts of Euglena gracilis bounded by three membranes arose via secondary endosymbiosis of a green alga in a heterotrophic euglenozoan host. Many genes were transferred from symbiont to the host nucleus. A subset of Euglena nuclear genes of predominately symbiont, but also host, or other origin have obtained complex presequences required for chloroplast targeting. This study has revealed the presence of short introns (41-93 bp) either in the second half of presequence-encoding regions or shortly downstream of them in nine nucleus-encoded E. gracilis genes for chloroplast proteins (Eno29, GapA, PetA, PetF, PetJ, PsaF, PsbM, PsbO, and PsbW). In addition, the E. gracilis Pbgd gene contains two introns in the second half of presequence-encoding region and one at the border of presequence-mature peptide-encoding region. Ten of 12 introns present within presequence-encoding regions or shortly downstream of them identified in this study have typical eukaryotic GT/AG borders, are T-rich, 45-50 bp long, and pairwise sequence identities range from 27 to 61%. Thus single recombination events might have been mediated via these cis-spliced introns. A double crossing over between these cis-spliced introns and trans-spliced introns present in 5'-UTRs of Euglena nuclear genes is also likely to have occurred. Thus introns and exon-shuffling could have had an important role in the acquisition of chloroplast targeting signals in E. gracilis. The results are consistent with a late origin of photosynthetic euglenids.

  4. Influence of Different Light-Dark Cycles on Motility and Photosynthesis of Euglena gracilis in Closed Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Strauch, Sebastian M.; Ntefidou, Maria; Schuster, Martin; Daiker, Viktor; Nasir, Adeel; Haag, Ferdinand W.M.; Lebert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The unicellular photosynthetic freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis is a promising candidate as an oxygen producer in biological life-support systems. In this study, the capacity of Euglena gracilis to cope with different light regimes was determined. Cultures of Euglena gracilis in closed bioreactors were exposed to different dark-light cycles (40 W/m2 light intensity on the surface of the 20 L reactor; cool white fluorescent lamps in combination with a 100 W filament bulb): 1 h–1 h, 2 h–2 h, 4 h–4 h, 6 h–6 h, and 8 h–16 h, respectively. Motility and oxygen development in the reactors were measured constantly. It was found that, during exposure to light-dark cycles of 1 h–1 h, 2 h–2 h, 4 h–4 h, and 6 h–6 h, precision of gravitaxis as well as the number of motile cells increased during the dark phase, while velocity increased in the light phase. Oxygen concentration did not yet reach a plateau phase. During dark-light cycles of 8 h–16 h, fast changes of movement behavior in the cells were detected. The cells showed an initial decrease of graviorientation after onset of light and an increase after the start of the dark period. In the course of the light phase, graviorientation increased, while motility and velocity decreased after some hours of illumination. In all light profiles, Euglena gracilis was able to produce sufficient oxygen in the light phase to maintain the oxygen concentration above zero in the subsequent dark phase. Key Words: Euglena gracilis—Bioreactor—Light-dark cycle—Motility—Gravitaxis. Astrobiology 14, 848–858. PMID:25279932

  5. Role of muscle stem cells during skeletal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Abou-Khalil, Rana; Yang, Frank; Lieu, Shirley; Julien, Anais; Perry, Jaselle; Pereira, Catia; Relaix, Frédéric; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph; Colnot, Céline

    2015-05-01

    Although the importance of muscle in skeletal regeneration is well recognized clinically, the mechanisms by which muscle supports bone repair have remained elusive. Muscle flaps are often used to cover the damaged bone after traumatic injury yet their contribution to bone healing is not known. Here, we show that direct bone-muscle interactions are required for periosteum activation and callus formation, and that muscle grafts provide a source of stem cells for skeletal regeneration. We investigated the role of satellite cells, the muscle stem cells. Satellite cells loss in Pax7(-/-) mice and satellite cell ablation in Pax7(Cre) (ERT) (2/) (+) ;DTA(f/f) mice impaired bone regeneration. Although satellite cells did not contribute as a large source of cells endogenously, they exhibited a potential to contribute to bone repair after transplantation. The fracture healing phenotype in Pax7(Cre) (ERT) (2/) (+) ;DTA(f/f) mice was associated with decreased bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), insulin-like growth factor 1, and fibroblast growth factor 2 expression that are normally upregulated in response to fracture in satellite cells. Exogenous rhBMP2 improved bone healing in Pax7(Cre) (ERT) (2/) (+) ;DTA(f/f) mice further supporting the role of satellite cells as a source of growth factors. These results provide the first functional evidence for a direct contribution of muscle to bone regeneration with important clinical implications as it may impact the use of muscle flaps, muscle stem cells, and growth factors in orthopedic applications.

  6. To flap or not to flap: a discussion between a fish and a jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nathan; Roh, Chris; Idrees, Suhail; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    Fish and jellyfish are known to swim by flapping and by periodically contracting respectively, but which is the more effective propulsion mechanism? In an attempt to answer this question, an experimental comparison is made between simplified versions of these motions to determine which generates the greatest thrust for the least power. The flapping motion is approximated by pitching plates while periodic contractions are approximated by clapping plates. A machine is constructed to operate in either a flapping or a clapping mode between Reynolds numbers 1,880 and 11,260 based on the average plate tip velocity and span. The effect of the total sweep angle, total sweep time, plate flexibility, and duty cycle are investigated. The average thrust generated and power required per cycle are compared between the two modes when their total sweep angle and total sweep time are identical. In general, operating in the clapping mode required significantly more power to generate a similar thrust compared to the flapping mode. However, modifying the duty cycle for clapping caused the effectiveness to approach that of flapping with an unmodified duty cycle. These results suggest that flapping is the more effective propulsion mechanism within the range of Reynolds numbers tested. This work was supported by the Charyk Bio-inspired Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469, and the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships program.

  7. Enhanced Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2011-01-01

    This is a follow-on study to a 2010 correlation effort. Measured data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. As background, during the wind tunnel test, unexpectedly high inboard loads were encountered, and it was hypothesized at that time that due to changes in the flexbeams over the years, the flexbeam properties used in the analysis needed updating. Boeing Mesa, recently updated these properties. This correlation study uses the updated flexbeam properties. Compared to earlier studies, the following two enhancements are implemented: i) the inboard loads (pitchcase and flexbeam loads) correlation is included for the first time (reliable prediction of the inboard loads is a prerequisite for any future anticipated flight-testing); ii) the number of blade modes is increased to better capture the flap dynamics and the pitchcase-flexbeam dynamics. Also, aerodynamically, both the rolled-up wake model and the more complex, multiple trailer wake model are used, with the latter slightly improving the blade chordwise moment correlation. This sensitivity to the wake model indicates that CFD is needed. Three high-speed experimental cases, one uncontrolled free flap case and two commanded flap cases, are considered. The two commanded flap cases include a 2o flap deflection at 5P case and a 0o flap deflection case. For the free flap case, selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the commanded 2o flap case, the experimental flap variation is approximately matched by increasing the analytical flap hinge stiffness. This increased flap hinge stiffness is retained for the commanded 0o flap case also, which is treated as a free flap case, but with larger flap hinge stiffness. The change in the mid-span and outboard loads correlation due to the updating of the flexbeam properties is not significant. Increasing the number of blade modes results in an

  8. Effects of temperature, CO2/O2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    2005-01-01

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 degrees C), three levels of CO2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 micromoles m-2 s-1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 degrees C, CO2 concentration of 4%, O2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO2 to O2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  9. Effects of temperature, CO 2/O 2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO 2 to O 2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 °C), three levels of CO 2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O 2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 μmol m -2 s -1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 °C, CO 2 concentration of 4%, O 2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 μmol m -2 s -1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO 2 to O 2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules.

  10. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  11. Propulsion of a flapping and oscillating airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, I E

    1937-01-01

    Formulas are given for the propelling or drag force experience in a uniform air stream by an airfoil or an airfoil-aileron combination, oscillating in any of three degrees of freedom; vertical flapping, torsional oscillations about a fixed axis parallel to the span, and angular oscillations of the aileron about a hinge.

  12. Free Surface and Flapping Foil Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthakrishnan, Palaniswamy

    2014-11-01

    Flapping foils for station-keeping of a near-surface body in a current is analyzed using a finite-difference method based on boundary-fitted coordinates. The foils are hinge-connected to the aft of the body and subject to pitch oscillation. Results are obtained for a range of Strouhal number, Froude number, unsteady frequency parameter τ, Reynolds number and the depth of foil submergence. Results show that at low Strouhal number (St < 0 . 1) and sub-critical unsteady parameter τ < 0 . 25 , the flapping generates drag instead of thrust. At high Strouhal number and super-critical value of the unsteady parameter (τ > 0 . 25) flapping generates high thrust with low efficiency. Thrust and efficiency are found to decrease with decreasing submergence depth of the foil. At the critical τ = 0 . 25 and shallow submergence of the foil, the standing wave generated above the foil continues to grow until breaking; both the thrust and efficiency of the foil are reduced at the critical τ. The necessary conditions for optimal thrust generation by a flapping foil underneath the free surface are found to be (i) Strouhal number in the range from 0.25 to 0.35, (ii) unsteady parameter τ > 0 . 25 and (iii) the maximum angle of attack less than 15° for the flat-plate foil. Supported by the US Office of Naval Research through the Naval Engineering Education Center (NEEC) Consortium of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  13. Aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhdestvensky, Kirill V.; Ryzhov, Vladimir A.

    2003-11-01

    It is the objective of this survey to review research and development results of flapping-wing propulsors and of vehicles equipped with them. Given the complex and multi-disciplinary character of the problem, a wide range of questions is considered in order to provide a general idea of the state-of-the-art. The main attention is directed at the aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors. The major relevant mathematical models and the corresponding numerical results are presented together with the experimental data obtained up to the present time. Also, the physical and the design factors are discussed, which affect the aerohydrodynamic characteristics of flapping wings and that therefore have to be accounted for in the modern mathematical models. Experimental data and numerical modeling results are compared to determine domains of validity of the latter for the aerohydrodynamic design of full-scale air and marine vehicles. Also, existing engineering solutions for vehicles with flapping-wing propulsors are presented and prospective directions for future investigations are outlined.

  14. Comparison of the Results of Early Flap Coverage with Late Flap Coverage in High-Voltage Electrical Injury.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hamid; Akhoondinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Kazem-Zadeh, Jafar; Dayani, Ahmad-Reza

    Patients with high-voltage electrical injuries had very high rates of infection, morbidity, and limb amputation. The results of early and late flap coverage in these patients were prospectively compared. The patients were divided into two groups, early flap group (≤3 weeks) and late flap group (>3 weeks), according to the length of time from injury to wound coverage with flap. Age, sex, demographic data, time taken for flap coverage, time taken for pedicle division, time taken to discharge, wound infection, range of motion in joints, amputation, mortality, and outcome were gathered in a special questionnaire. This study included 55 patients, 31 within the early flap group and 24 within the late flap group. Of the 55 patients, 94.6% were male; mean (SD) of age was 29.04 (10.11) and of TBSA was 13.8 (10.07). Length of stay was significantly longer in the late flap group. The rates of infection and amputation were lower in the early flap group. There was no correlation between the type and the number of flaps and amputations. Early flap repair reduces the length of stay by 56%, rate of amputation by 54%, and also 86.1% in the rate of infection in the burn site.

  15. Evaluation of muscle injury using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A. D.; Jaweed, M.; Evans, H.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate spin echo T2 relaxation time changes in thigh muscles after intense eccentric exercise in healthy men. Spin echo and calculated T2 relaxation time images of the thighs were obtained on several occasions after exercise of one limb; the contralateral limb served as control. Muscle damage was verified by elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). Thirty percent of the time no exercise effect was discernible on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. In all positive MR images (70%) the semitendinosus muscle was positive, while the biceps femoris, short head, and gracilis muscles were also positive in 50% and 25% of the total cases, respectively. The peak T2 relaxation time and serum CK were correlated (r = 0.94, p<0.01); temporal changes in muscle T2 relaxation time and serum CK were similar, although T2 relaxation time remained positive after serum CK returned to background levels. We conclude that magnetic resonance imaging can serve as a useful tool in the evaluation of eccentric exercise muscle damage by providing a quantitative indicator of damage and its resolution as well as the specific areas and muscles.

  16. Outcome and complications of 540 microvascular free flaps: the Hamburg experience.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Philipp; Blessmann, Marco; Blake, Felix; Li, Lei; Schmelzle, Rainer; Heiland, Max

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze surgical outcome and complications of 540 free flap procedures performed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf during 1987-2005. A total of 532 patients were reconstructed with 540 flaps: 32% were latissimus dorsi flaps, 23% were radial forearm flaps, 21% were iliac crest flaps, 10% were fibula flaps, 6% were jejunal flaps, and 8% were other flaps. Thrombosis of one of the vessels and hematoma were the most frequent causes of failure in microvascular free tissue transfer. A total free flap failure occurred in 34 (6.2%) and a partial flap failure in 42 (7.7%) patients. The most reliable flap in regard to survival was the radial forearm flap. The present study confirms that free flaps are extremely reliable in achieving successful reconstruction of the head and neck.

  17. Primary maxillary reconstruction after radical maxillectomy using a combined free flap and secondary dynamic suspension.

    PubMed

    Yoza, S; Gunji, H; Ono, I

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of maxillary reconstruction aimed at optimizing facial contour, oral function, and facial animation after radical maxillectomy. In the first stage, using combined latissimus dorsi serratus anterior flaps attached with ribs, we performed a three-dimensional restoration for midface defects. In the second stage, we performed dynamic reconstruction of the nasolabial fold and upper lip using a temporal muscle transposition. As a result, the upper lip was able to be elevated as much as 10 mm when the patient clenched his teeth, and the outcome was judged to be both aesthetically and functionally satisfactory.

  18. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  19. Wind-tunnel Investigation of Two Airfoils with 25-percent-chord Gwinn and Plain Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Milton B , Jr

    1940-01-01

    Aerodynamic force tests of an NACA 23018 airfoil with a Gwinn flap having a chord 25 percent of the overall chord and of an NACA 23015 airfoil with a plain flap having a 25-percent chord were conducted to determine the relative merits of the Gwinn and the plain flaps. The tests indicated that, based on speed-range ratios, the plain flap was more effective than the Gwinn flap. At small flap deflections, the plain flap had lower drag coefficients at lift-coefficient values less than 0.70. For lift coefficients greater than 0.70, however, the Gwinn flap at all downward flap deflections had the lower drag coefficients.

  20. The latissimus dorsi-groin-lymph node compound flap: A comprehensive technique with three features including skin coverage, restoration of motor function, and prevention of upper limb lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Fabio; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Lazzeri, Davide; Lim, Seong Yoon; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chen, Pei-Yu; Ciudad, Pedro; Chilgar, Ram M; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Sacak, Bulent; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Reconstruction of complex upper extremity defects requires a need for multiple tissue components. The supercharged latissimus dorsi (LD)-groin compound flap is an option that can provide a large skin paddle with simultaneous functional muscle transfer. It is necessary to supercharge the flap with the superficial circumflex iliac pedicle to ensure the viability of its groin extension. In this report, we present a case of a supercharged LD-groin flap in combination with vascularized inguinal lymph nodes, which was used for upper limb reconstruction in a young male patient, following excision of high-grade liposarcoma. Resection resulted in a 28 cm × 15 cm skin defect extending from the upper arm to the proximal forearm, also involving the triceps muscle, a segment of the ulnar nerve and the axillary lymph nodes. Restoration of triceps function was achieved with transfer of the innervated LD muscle. Part of the ulnar nerve was resected and repaired with sural nerve grafts. Post-operatively, the flap survived fully with no partial necrosis, and no complications at both the recipient and donor sites. At 1-year follow up, the patient had a well-healed wound with good elbow extension (against resistance), no tumor recurrence, and no signs of lymphedema. We believe this comprehensive approach may represent a valuable technique, for not only the oncological reconstruction of upper extremity, but also for the prevention of lymphedema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:689-694, 2016.

  1. [Vestibularly displaced flap with bone augmentation].

    PubMed

    Bakalian, V L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve esthetic gingival contours with the help of less traumatic mucogingival surgeries. 9 Patients were operated with horizontal deficiencies in 9 edentulous sites, planned to be restored with fixed partial dentures. In all cases there was lack of keratinized tissues. Temporary bridges were fabricated to all patients. Before surgery the bridges were removed and the abutment teeth were additionally cleaned with ultrasonic device. A horizontal incision was made from lingual (palatal) side between the abutment teeth, which was connected with two vertical releasing incisions to the mucogingival junction from the vestibular side. The horizontal incision was made on a distance 6-10 mm from the crest of the alveolar ridge. A partial thickness flap in the beginning 3-5 mm, then a full thickness flap up to the mucogingival junction, then a partial thickness flap was made. The flap was mobilized and displaced vestibularly. In the apical part the cortical bone was perforated, graft material was put and the flap was sutured. In all 9 cases the horizontal defect was partially or fully eliminated. The width of the keratinized tissues was also augmented in all cases. The postoperative healing was without complications, discomfort and painless. The donor sites also healed without complications. The application of Solcoseryl Dental Adhesive Paste 3 times a day for 7-10 days helped for painless healing of the donor site. The offered method of soft tissue and bone augmentation is effective in the treatment of horizontal defects of edentulous alveolar ridges of not big sizes. It makes possible to achieve esthetic results without traumatizing an additional donor-site.

  2. [Forearm osteomusculocutaneous free filet flap for arm reconstruction after amputation as an alternative to shoulder disarticulation].

    PubMed

    Gachie, E; Alet, J-M; Nguyen, P; Della Volpe, C; Casanova, D

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman suffering from a type I neurofibromatosis (also known as Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis) who was diagnosed with a high-grade schwannosarcoma of the median nerve, between the upper third and the medium third of the arm, upon contact with the humerus, invading the humeral vessels. The oncologic treatment of this tumour consisted in the amputation of the arm through the surgical neck of the humerus. In order to create a laterothoracic claw, to bring a partial function of the upper limb back, we decided to realize a free fillet forearm flap. This composite flap was composed of the radius and the ulna, all the forearm muscles and the skin of the anterior side of the forearm. A humeroradial plate osteosynthesis was done and the flap was then harvested with the radial pedicle, and anastomosed to the axillar artery. This procedure gave our patient a functional stump, giving back the arm functionality, especially the claw movement.

  3. Identification and enzymatic characterization of an endo-1,3-β-glucanase from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takumi; Nakano, Yuki; Takahashi, Machiko; Konno, Naotake; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Arashida, Ryo; Marukawa, Yuka; Yoshida, Eriko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2015-08-01

    Euglena produces paramylon as a storage polysaccharide, and is thought to require β-1,3-glucan degrading enzymes to release and utilize the accumulated carbohydrate. To investigate β-1,3-glucan degradation in Euglena, endo-1,3-β-glucanases were partially purified from Euglena gracilis by hydrophobic, gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Tryptic digests and mass-spectrometric analysis identified three proteins in the purified fraction as a member of glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 17 and two members of GH81. These genes were cloned from an Euglena cDNA pool by PCR. EgCel17A fused with a histidine-tag at the carboxy terminus was heterologously produced by Aspergillus oryzae and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Purified EgCel17A had a molecular weight of about 40kDa by SDS-PAGE, which was identical to that deduced from its amino acid sequence. The enzyme showed hydrolytic activity towards β-1,3-glucans such as laminarin and paramylon. Maximum activity of laminarin degradation by EgCel17A was attained at pH 4.0-5.5 and 60°C after 1h incubation or 50°C after 20h incubation. The enzyme had a Km of 0.21mg/ml and a Vmax of 40.5units/mg protein for laminarin degradation at pH 5.0 and 50°C. Furthermore, EgCel17A catalyzed a transglycosylation reaction by which reaction products with a higher molecular weight than the supplied substrates were initially generated; however, ultimately the substrates were degraded into glucose, laminaribiose and laminaritriose. EgCel17A effectively produced soluble β-1,3-glucans from alkaline-treated Euglena freeze-dried powder containing paramylon. Thus, EgCel17 is the first functional endo-1,3-β-glucanase to be identified from E. gracilis.

  4. An ameliorated skin flap model in rats for experimental research.

    PubMed

    Hosnuter, Mübin; Kargi, Eksal; Peksoy, Irfan; Babucçu, Orhan; Payasli, Cem

    2006-01-01

    There is a disagreement in the experimental design of random skin flaps owing to their vascular inconsistency. The definition of a reliable axial-pattern skin flap model is needed. The purpose of this study was to describe a new skin flap model to deal with entire drawbacks of existing random and axial pattern skin flap designs. This was accomplished by creating paired skin flaps including both skin and vascular pedicle on the dorsum of the same rat. This design was suitably termed as rando-axial flap. The present study offers a simple and reliable skin flap model with following advantages: (1) it has a predictable necrosis area, (2) it reveals a larger survival area (75 +/- 5%) when compared to other flaps in this study (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.001), (3) the vascular pedicle is consistent, (4) control and study flaps are placed on the same animal (5) it can be converted to a random, an axial or a free flap.

  5. Nipple Reconstruction Using the C-V Flap Technique: Long-Term Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Lona; Lund, Jonathan; Kurup, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nipple creation using the C-V flap technique is often the final step in breast reconstruction. The aim of this study was to subjectively and objectively assess the cosmetic outcomes and satisfaction of patients undergoing C-V flap nipple reconstruction. METHODS Subjective assessments of patient satisfaction with the neo-nipple were recorded by visual analogue scoring (VAS; 0-10). Objective measurements were performed using a calliper to measure nipple projection relative to the native breast. Descriptive data analysis was performed with differences in projection assessed with the Mann-Whitney test and mean and median VAS scores (with inter-quartile ranges; IQR) calculated to describe satisfaction. RESULTS Thirty-three C-V flap nipple reconstructions were performed. 87.9% received latissimus dorsi (LD) reconstructions with implants and 12.1% had transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) reconstructions. The median projection of reconstructed nipples was 4.7 mm (range 4-10.2 mm) at 4.6 years mean follow-up, which was not significantly different from the contralateral nipple (p = 0.34). Patient satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10) with shape, 9 (IQR: 7.5-10) with projection, 5 (IQR: 2-9.6) with sensation, and 8.5 (IQR: 6-9.5) with symmetry. Median overall satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10). Three patients had complete nipple loss, of whom two had undergone nipple piercing post procedure and none had received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION C-V flap nipple reconstructions provide a simple and reliable method to reconstruct the nipple that enhances confidence and perception of body image. Satisfaction was high with long-term outcomes in terms of projection equivalent to the contralateral breast. PMID:28289616

  6. An effect comparison between Furlow double opposing Z-plasty and two-flap palatoplasty on velopharyngeal closure.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Dong, F; Zhang, X; Hao, F; Shi, P; Ren, G; Yong, P; Guo, Y

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare velopharyngeal closure between patients who underwent Furlow palatoplasty and two-flap palatoplasty. A retrospective review of 88 patients with incomplete palate cleft was performed. 48 patients (17 males; 31 females) aged 2-28 years received Furlow palatoplasty. 40 patients (17 males; 23 females) aged 2-21 years received two-flap palatoplasty. Velopharyngeal function was categorized as adequate, marginal or inadequate. Complications associated with the operation were documented. Statistically significant differences were not found amongst sex distribution, age at operation, follow-up time, and preoperative speech intelligibility. After primary repairs using Furlow and two-flap palatoplasty, the surgeon's incidence of postoperative palatal fistula was 0%. The complications were not significantly different between the two groups. The authors achieved the lowest reported incidence of postoperative palatal fistulas in primary Furlow palatoplasty. The outcomes of the velopharyngeal closure were better in patients who received Furlow palatoplasty (P<0.05). Furlow palatoplasty was more effective than two-flap palatoplasty in obtaining perfect velopharyngeal closure. A probable explanation may be that Furlow palatoplasty can reposition and overlap the divergent palatal muscle and lengthen the soft palate.

  7. Immunologically augmented skin flap as a novel dendritic cell vaccine against head and neck cancer in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keita; Saegusa, Noriko; Omiya, Maho; Ashizawa, Tadashi; Miyata, Haruo; Komiyama, Masaru; Iizuka, Akira; Kume, Akiko; Sugino, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Ken; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Akiyama, Yasuto

    2015-02-01

    Local recurrence is a major clinical issue following surgical resection in head and neck cancer, and the dissemination and lymph node metastasis of minimal residual disease is relatively difficult to treat due to the lack of suitable therapeutic approaches. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a novel immunotherapy using a skin flap transfer treated with sensitized dendritic cells (DC), termed the "immuno-flap," in a rat tumor model. After the local round area of skin was resected, SCC-158 cells (a rat head and neck cancer cell line) were inoculated into the muscle surface; lastly, the groin skin flap injected with mature DC was overlaid. Two weeks after the second DC injection, systemic immunological reactions and tumor size were measured. The DC-treated group showed a significant reduction in tumor size compared with the control. Although the induction of CTL activity in spleen cells was marginal, Th1 cytokines such as interleukin-2 and interferon-γ were elevated in the DC-treated group. These results suggest that a novel immunotherapy based on the immuno-flap method has the potential for clinical application to prevent the local recurrence of head and neck cancer patients.

  8. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flaps: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Berrone, M; Crosetti, E; Succo, G

    2014-08-01

    Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging the period of ischaemia and not restoring the correct maxillomandibular and occlusal relationships can ultimately lead to a higher rate of complications as well as poor aesthetic and functional results. Recently, there has been rising interest in virtual surgical planning and computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction in pre-operative planning; however, this is not always possible because of the costs involved and the set-up time for the entire procedure. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive technique for fibular free flap modelling and repositioning after segmental resection of the mandible; the technique entails the pre-operative preparation of a resin repositioning template on a stereolithographic model. This technique has been successfully applied in four cases: two cases underwent resection involving only the mandibular body, one case involving the mandibular body and symphysis and one case in which a ramus to ramus resection was performed. In this preliminary report, we show that the resin repositioning template is an easy, safe and useful tool for mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap.

  9. Comparison of outcome of microvascular bony head and neck reconstructions using the fibular free flap and the iliac crest flap.

    PubMed

    Mücke, Thomas; Loeffelbein, Denys J; Kolk, Andreas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Kanatas, Anastasios; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mitchell, David A; Kesting, Marco R

    2013-09-01

    Several microvascular free flaps are available for reconstruction of the osseous components after resections for head and neck cancer. We have prospectively evaluated patients treated by bony microsurgical reconstruction to identify predictors of adverse outcomes for delayed wound healing and failure of free flaps. All patients from July 2007 to June 2011 who had reconstructions with microvascular fibular or iliac crest flaps immediately after resection of the tumour were evaluated. There were a total of 156 bony free flaps: 120 (77%) fibular and 36 (23%) iliac crest flaps. A total of 133 (85%) were successful. Delayed wound healing was more common with the iliac crest flap (p=0.01) at the intraoral site (p=0.04). Significantly more iliac crest free flaps failed (p=0.02). Anastomosis to the facial artery (p=0.05) and facial vein (p=0.04), and duration of overall operating time were associated with a significantly higher risk of failure of the flap. Patients with cancer of the head and neck who require microsurgical bony reconstruction are at increased risk of postoperative complications. Significantly more complications were found with the iliac crest flap, whereas the fibular flap was associated with a significantly longer operating time.

  10. How to cheat when you cannot lie? Deceit pollination in Begonia gracilis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Reyna A; Caballero, Helga; Boege, Karina; Fornoni, Juan; Domínguez, César A

    2012-07-01

    Mimicry between rewarding and non-rewarding flowers within individuals has been accepted as a strategy favored by selection to deceive pollinators. It has been proposed that this mechanism relies on the exploitation of pollinator's sensory biases, but field evidence is still scarce. In this study, we describe the mechanism of deceit pollination in the monoecious herb Begonia gracilis, a species with exposed rewarding structures (pollen) and intersexual mimicry. Specifically, we test the role of mimicry and exploitation of sensory biases on the reproductive success of male (pollination visitation) and female flowers (probability of setting fruits). We show that pollinators' perception of the amount of reward provided by male flowers is influenced by the independent variation in the sizes of the androecium and the perianth. Large rewarding structures and small perianths were preferred by pollinators, suggesting a central role of the relative size of the rewarding structure on pollinators' foraging decisions. Hence, rewarding male flowers cheat pollinators by exploiting their sensory biases, a strategy followed by non-rewarding female flowers. We suggest that intersexual mimicry operates through the functional resemblance of male flowers' deceit strategy. Artificial manipulation of the flowers supports our findings in natural conditions. Overall, we propose that the continuous and independent variation in the size of the perianth and the reproductive organs among male and female flowers could itself be adaptive.

  11. A nuclear gene of eubacterial origin in Euglena gracilis reflects cryptic endosymbioses during protist evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Henze, K; Badr, A; Wettern, M; Cerff, R; Martin, W

    1995-01-01

    Genes for glycolytic and Calvin-cycle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of higher eukaryotes derive from ancient gene duplications which occurred in eubacterial genomes; both were transferred to the nucleus during the course of endosymbiosis. We have cloned cDNAs encoding chloroplast and cytosolic GAPDH from the early-branching photosynthetic protist Euglena gracilis and have determined the structure of its nuclear gene for cytosolic GAPDH. The gene contains four introns which possess unusual secondary structures, do not obey the GT-AG rule, and are flanked by 2- to 3-bp direct repeats. A gene phylogeny for these sequences in the context of eubacterial homologues indicates that euglenozoa, like higher eukaryotes, have obtained their GAPDH genes from eubacteria via endosymbiotic (organelle-to-nucleus) gene transfer. The data further suggest that the early-branching protists Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica--which lack mitochondria--and portions of the trypanosome lineage have acquired GAPDH genes from eubacterial donors which did not ultimately give rise to contemporary membrane-bound organelles. Evidence that "cryptic" (possibly ephemeral) endosymbioses during evolution may have entailed successful gene transfer is preserved in protist nuclear gene sequences. PMID:7568085

  12. Dipteran larvae and microbes facilitate nutrient sequestration in the Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plant host.

    PubMed

    Lam, Weng Ngai; Chong, Kwek Yan; Anand, Ganesh S; Tan, Hugh Tiang Wah

    2017-03-01

    The fluid-containing traps of Nepenthes carnivorous pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) are often inhabited by organisms known as inquilines. Dipteran larvae are key components of such communities and are thought to facilitate pitcher nitrogen sequestration by converting prey protein into inorganic nitrogen, although this has never been demonstrated in Nepenthes Pitcher fluids are also inhabited by microbes, although the relationship(s) between these and the plant is still unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis of digestive mutualism between N. gracilis pitchers and both dipteran larvae and fluid microbes. Using dipteran larvae, prey and fluid volumes mimicking in situ pitcher conditions, we conducted in vitro experiments and measured changes in available fluid nitrogen in response to dipteran larvae and microbe presence. We showed that the presence of dipteran larvae resulted in significantly higher and faster releases of ammonium and soluble protein into fluids in artificial pitchers, and that the presence of fluid microbes did likewise for ammonium. We showed also that niche segregation occurs between phorid and culicid larvae, with the former fragmenting prey carcasses and the latter suppressing fluid microbe levels. These results clarify the relationships between several key pitcher-dwelling organisms, and show that pitcher communities facilitate nutrient sequestration in their host.

  13. Regional analysis of the recruitment of the perennial grass, Bouteloua gracilis: Effects of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Coffin, D.P.; Lauenroth, W.K. )

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the recruitment potential by seedlings of the perennial C[sub 4] grass, Bouteloua gracillis (blue grama) for the central grassland region of the U.S. under current climatic conditions and for changes in climate. Four grassland types are found within this large region. B. gracillis dominates the vegetation for one grassland type, the shortgrass steppe, and is common in the other three types (northern and southern mixedgrass, and tallgrass prairies). The geographic distribution of abundance of this species may be explained by its potential for recruitment by seedlings. We used a multi-layer daily time step soil water model to evaluate the probability of recruitment of B. gracilis seedlings for a range of soil textures and a range of current and expected changes in climatic conditions representative of the region. Simulations were conducted using daily precipitation and temperature data for > 200 weather stations. Probability of recruitment increased with increasing temperature and precipitation, and was also positively related to silt content of the soil. Probabilities were lowest in the coolest and driest areas, including parts of the shortgrass steppe. The effects of climate change on recruitment was dependent upon the balance between increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation.

  14. Sex choice in plants: facultative adjustment of the sex ratio in the perennial herb Begonia gracilis.

    PubMed

    López, S; Domínguez, C A

    2003-11-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that reproducing individuals will increase their fitness by facultatively adjusting their relative investment towards the rarer sex in response to population shifts in operational sex ratio (OSR). The evolution of facultative manipulation of sex ratio depends on the ability of the parents to track the conditions favouring skewed sex allocation and on the mechanism controlling sex allocation. In animals, which have well-developed sensorial mechanisms, facultative adjustment of sex ratios has been demonstrated on many occasions. In this paper, we show that plants have mechanisms that allow them to evaluate the population OSR. We simulated three different conditions of population OSR by manipulating the amount of pollen received by the female flowers of a monoecious herb, and examined the effect of this treatment on the allocation to male vs. female flowers. A shortage of pollen on the stigmas resulted in a more male-skewed sex allocation, whereas plants that experienced a relatively pollen rich environment tended to produce a more female-skewed sex allocation pattern. Our results for Begonia gracilis demonstrate that the individuals of this species are able to respond to the levels of pollination intensity experienced by their female flowers and adjust their patterns of sex allocation in accordance to the expectations of sex allocation theory.

  15. The molecular biology of Euglena gracilis. XV. Recovery from centrifugation-induced stratification.

    PubMed

    Kempner, E S; Miller, J H

    2003-12-01

    The contents of Euglena gracilis cells can be separated in vivo by ultracentrifugation. Within the unbroken cell, each set of components forms a distinct layer according to their respective densities. The degree of segregation increases with both the g-force and the time of centrifugation, up to a maximum at 100,000 x g for 1 h, when six distinct strata can be observed. When returned to normal growth conditions, essentially all the cells return to the normal state and growth pattern. Greater g-forces or longer exposures do not alter the observable strata, but the ability of the cells to recover is diminished. Smaller g-forces result in less separation of cellular contents and all cells recover, even after 18 h of exposure. Euglena cells stratified at 100,000 x g for 1 h were returned to normal growth conditions; recovery was followed microscopically and by the rate of utilization of oxygen as well as that of the single carbon source. The cells recovered their normal state within 1 to 2 h, which is only a tenth of the normal doubling time. The mechanism for this recovery involves a natural process of change in cell shape caused by contraction and relaxation of the pellicle, a cell surface structure.

  16. Indications for acceleration-dependent changes of membrane potential in the flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Richter, P R; Schuster, M; Meyer, I; Lebert, M; Häder, D-P

    2006-12-01

    The effects of the calcium sequester EGTA on gravitactic orientation and membrane potential changes in the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis were investigated during a recent parabolic-flight experiment aboard of an Airbus A300. In the course of a flight parabola, an acceleration profile is achieved which yields subsequently about 20 s of hypergravity (1.8 g(n)), about 20 s of microgravity, and another 20 s of hypergravity phases. The movement behavior of the cells was investigated with real-time, computer-based image analysis. Membrane potential changes were detected with a newly developed photometer which measures absorption changes of the membrane potential-sensitive probe oxonol VI. To test whether the data obtained by the oxonol device were reliable, the signal of non-oxonol-labelled cells was recorded. In these samples, no absorption shift was detected. Changes of the oxonol VI signals indicate that the cells depolarize during acceleration (very obvious in the step from microgravity to hypergravity) and slightly hyperpolarize in microgravity, which can possibly be explained with the action of Ca-ATPases. These signals (mainly the depolarization) were significantly suppressed in the presence of EGTA (5 mM). Gravitaxis in parallel was also inhibited after addition of EGTA. Initially, negative gravitaxis was inverted into a positive one. Later, gravitaxis was almost undetectable.

  17. Light regulation of the cell cycle and gene expression in Euglena gracilis bacillaris

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Muh-ching

    1988-05-01

    Light regulation of the cell division cycle in the photosynthetic unicellular alga Euglena gracilis bacillaris was studied. By inoculating stationary phase, non-dividing cells into fresh media, and exposing the diluted cells to either light or darkness, it was determined that initiation of DNA synthesis is light dependent and requires continuous exposure to more than six hours of light. It is proposed that this is to allow the accumulation of an initiating factor that will enable DNA synthesis to begin. The initiating factor has a half-life of 5 hours in the dark. Flow cytometry analysis shows that once cells are committed to the cell cycle, they will complete the cycle in the dark. The levels of several photosynthetic messenger RNAs have been studied under alternating light-dark conditions and continuous light conditions. RNA levels for psbA, which encodes the Photosynthem II herbicide binding protein known as D1, display a strong circadian rhythm that persists for more than 3 days in continuous light. RNA levels for rbcL, which encodes the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and for rbcS, which encodes the small subunit of that enzyme, have a shorter free-running circadian cycle. The chloroplast-encoded rbcL is more sensitive to cell cycle state because it does not accumulate in stationary phase cultures while the nuclear-encoded rbcS does accumulate.

  18. Higher Levels of Multiple Paternities Increase Seedling Survival in the Long-Lived Tree Eucalyptus gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Martin F.; Christmas, Matthew J.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding – named here as the ‘constrained inbreeding hypothesis’. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

  19. Fundamental questions and concepts about photoreception and the case of Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sense light can be considered the most fundamental and presumably the most ancient property of visual systems. This ability is the basis of phototaxis, one of the most striking behavioral responses of motile photosynthetic microorganisms (i.e. microalgae) to light stimuli, which allows them to move toward or away directional light. In order to fully exploit the information content of light (intensity, direction, distribution) microorganisms need proper perceiving devices, termed photoreceptors, which must act as sensors, to perceive wavelength and direction of light, as transducers, to convert the light signal into chemical and/or electrical information, but also as amplifiers and eventually as transmitters. This review describes the universal structural, behavioral and physiological features necessary for the proper functioning of these devices in algae, and how these features have been investigated by means of different analytical techniques such as for example microspectroscopy, digital fluorescence microscopy, two photons FLIM. The insight of the photoreceptive response mechanism is explained using the unicellular alga Euglena gracilis, in which the different structural, behavioral and physiological features combine to achieve a concerted, efficient response to light stimuli.

  20. Characterization of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase involved in the propionate photoassimilation of Euglena gracilis Z.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Emi; Tanioka, Yuri; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Misono, Haruo; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Fumio

    2010-06-01

    Significant accumulation of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase apoenzyme was observed in the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis Z at the end of the logarithmic growth phase. The apoenzyme was converted to a holoenzyme by incubation for 4 h at 4 degrees C with 10 microM 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, and then, the holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was calculated to be 149.0 kDa +/- 5.0 kDa using Superdex 200 gel filtration. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme yielded a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 75.0 kDa +/- 3.0 kDa, indicating that the Euglena enzyme is composed of two identical subunits. The purified enzyme contained one mole of prosthetic 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin per mole of the enzyme subunit. Moreover, we cloned the full-length cDNA of the Euglena enzyme. The cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 717 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 78.3 kDa, preceded by a putative mitochondrial targeting signal consisting of nine amino acid residues. Furthermore, we studied some properties and physiological function of the Euglena enzyme.