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Sample records for grade glioma receiving

  1. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients' QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working.

  2. Valproic acid reduces hair loss and improves survival in patients receiving temozolomide-based radiation therapy for high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yui; Suehiro, Satoshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ohue, Shiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is also used to manage seizures in glioblastoma patients. HDAC inhibitors can protect normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy, and VPA is reported to improve the survival of glioblastoma patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. VPA also promotes hair growth, and thus has the potential to reduce the radiotherapy side effect of hair loss while improving the survival of patients with glioblastoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VPA use during radiotherapy for high-grade glioma is associated with decreased side effects of radiotherapy and an improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Medical records of 112 patients with high-grade glioma were retrospectively reviewed. We grouped patients by VPA use or non-use during radiotherapy, and evaluated hair loss, OS, and PFS. The radiation dose and fractionation at the onset of hair loss were 4 Gy and two fractions higher, respectively, in the VPA group compared with the VPA non-use group (P < 0.01). Median OS was 42.2 and 20.3 months in the VPA use and non-use groups, respectively (P < 0.01; hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.74). Median PFS was 22.7 and 11.0 months in the VPA use and non-use groups, respectively (P = 0.099; HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.36-1.09). VPA use during radiotherapy for glioma is associated with delayed hair loss and improvement in survival. Hair loss prevention benefits patients suffering from the deleterious effects of radiation.

  3. Surgical management of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Carter S; Straus, David; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    Low-grade gliomas represent a wide spectrum of intra-axial brain tumors with diverse presentations, radiographic and surgical appearances, and prognoses. While there remains a role for biopsy, a growing body of evidence shows that aggressive surgical resection of low-grade gliomas may improve symptoms, extend progression-free survival (PFS), and even cure a select few patients. With the application of preoperative functional imaging, intraoperative navigation, and cortical stimulation, neurosurgeons are able to perform more complete resections while limiting the risk to patients. In this article, we describe the surgical management and current operative techniques used in the treatment of low-grade gliomas.

  4. 'Low grade glioma': an update for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jennifer; Wharton, Steve B; McKevitt, Fiona; Romanowski, Charles; Bridgewater, Caroline; Zaki, Hesham; Hoggard, Nigel

    2017-02-01

    With the recent publication of a new World Health Organization brain tumour classification that reflects increased understanding of glioma tumour genetics, there is a need for radiologists to understand the changes and their implications for patient management. There has also been an increasing trend for adopting earlier, more aggressive surgical approaches to low-grade glioma (LGG) treatment. We will summarize these changes, give some context to the increased role of tumour genetics and discuss the associated implications of their adoption for radiologists. We will discuss the earlier and more radical surgical resection of LGG and what it means for patients undergoing imaging.

  5. Up-regulation of USP2a and FASN in gliomas correlates strongly with glioma grade.

    PubMed

    Tao, Bang-Bao; He, Hua; Shi, Xiu-hua; Wang, Chun-lin; Li, Wei-qing; Li, Bing; Dong, Yan; Hu, Guo-Han; Hou, Li-Jun; Luo, Chun; Chen, Ju-xiang; Chen, Huai-rui; Yu, Yu-hong; Sun, Qing-fang; Lu, Yi-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Gliomas are the most common neoplasms in the central nervous system. The lack of efficacy of glioma therapies necessitates in-depth studies of glioma pathology, especially of the underlying molecular mechanisms that transform normal glial cells into tumor cells. Here we report that a deubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin-specific protease 2a (USP2a), and its substrate, fatty acid synthase (FASN), are over-expressed in glioma tissue. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression and cellular distribution of USP2a and FASN in human glioma tissues. The expression patterns of USP2a and FASN correlated with the pathologic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of USP2a and its substrate FASN were higher in high-grade (World Health Organization [WHO] grades III and IV) glioma tissues than in low-grade (WHO grades I and II) glioma tissues. Western blot analysis indicated that the average optical densitometry ratio of USP2a and its substrate FASN in high-grade gliomas was higher than in low-grade gliomas. Moreover, statistical analysis of grade-classified glioma samples showed that the level of USP2a and FASN expression increased with the elevation of the WHO grade of glioma. USP2a protein expression was detected in the nucleus of glioma tissues and an increase in expression was significantly associated with the elevation of the WHO grade of glioma by immunohistochemistry. These findings expand our understanding of the molecular profiling of glioma and could shed light on new diagnostic criteria for gliomas.

  6. Low-grade gliomas: introduction and overview.

    PubMed

    Piepmeier, J M; Christopher, S

    1997-08-01

    This issue of the Journal of Neuro-Oncology is devoted to recent investigations of low-grade gliomas. The purpose of this issue is not to debate the relative merits and liabilities of different management strategies for low-grade gliomas, but to present new data concerning novel and innovative approaches to evaluating these lesions. The common theme of many of these reports represents a departure from grading systems that primarily depend on a morphology-based analysis from light microscopy to classify these tumors. The purpose of this review is to present the reasoning behind the selection of authors for this issue of the Journal of Neuro-Oncology and to provide a format for presentation of new ideas concerning these interesting tumors. It is clear that standard classification systems that address only the morphological characteristics of tumor cells can not adequately represent the wide variation in biological activity that is found with these lesions. It is hoped that these articles will stimulate further interest and research into low-grade gliomas that will one day lead to more effective therapy.

  7. Isolation of glioma cancer stem cells in relation to histological grades in glioma specimens.

    PubMed

    Kong, Byung Ho; Park, Na-Ri; Shim, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Shin, Hye-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Huh, Yong-Min; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Eui-Hyun; Park, Eun-Kyung; Chang, Jong Hee; Kim, Dong-Seok; Kim, Sun Ho; Hong, Yong-Kil; Kang, Seok-Gu; Lang, Frederick F

    2013-02-01

    The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma has been proposed. However, the unknown knowledge that is yet to be revealed is the presence of glioma CSCs (gCSCs) in correlation to each WHO grades of glioma. We approached this study with a hypothesis that specimens from high-grade gliomas would have higher isolation rate of gCSCs in comparison to those of lower-grade gliomas. The glioma specimens were obtained from patients and underwent gliomasphere assay. The gliomaspheres were chosen to be analyzed with immunocytochemisty for surface markers. Then the selected gliomaspheres were exposed to neural differentiation conditions. Lastly, we made mouse orthotopic glioma models to examine the capacity of gliomagenesis. The gliomaspheres were formed in WHO grade IV (13 of 21) and III (two of nine) gliomas. Among them, WHO grade IV (11 of 13) and III (two of two) gliomaspheres showed similar surface markers to gCSCs and were capable of neural differentiation. Lastly, among the chosen cells, 10 of 11 WHO grade IV and two of two WHO grade III gliomaspheres were capable of gliomagenesis. Thus, overall, the rates of existence of gCSCs were more prominent in high-grade gliomas: 47.6% (10 of 21) in WHO grade IV gliomas and 22.2% (two of nine) in WHO grade III gliomas, whereas WHO grade II and I gliomas showed virtually no gCSCs. This trend of stage-by-stage increase of gCSCs in gliomas showed statistical significance by chi-square test linear-by-linear association. We prove that the rates of existence of gCSCs increase proportionally as the WHO grades of gliomas rise.

  8. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabova, A. I.; Novikov, V. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  9. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabova, A. I. Novikov, V. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-08-02

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  10. Stereotactic radiosurgery of deeply seated low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Barcia, J A; Barcia-Salorio, J L; Ferrer, C; Ferrer, E; Algás, R; Hernández, G

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the results of a series of 16 cases of low-grade gliomas in whom radiosurgery was performed. This series started in 1977. All the tumours received a single radiosurgical session (with a mean dose of 21.7 Gy, 5-10 mm. collimator; one patient received two sessions and in another patient two different targets were irradiated in the same session). Prior to radiosurgery, six patients received conventional external fractionated radiotherapy, with two lateral fields of up to 10 x 10 cm. and a mean dose of 55.1 Gy and another six patients with tumours less than 5 cm. in diameter, received stereotactic radiotherapy using four fields of up to 5 x 5 cm. and a mean dose of 53.1 Gy. In both cases, conventional fractionation was used, giving a dose of 1.8 to 2 Gy/day. The tumour disappeared in 8 cases (50%) and shunk or ceased its growth in 5 additional cases (31%). In 3 cases of brainstem gliomas in which the clinical condition was previously very poor there was no evolutional change and the patients eventually died. We conclude that radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of deeply seated low-grade gliomas, where it may become the treatment of choice in the absence of other more definitive choices.

  11. Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Young Bin; Oh, Seung Jae; Kang, Seok-Gu; Heo, Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Yuna; Song, Seungri; Son, Hye Young; Kim, Se Hoon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Haam, Seung Joo; Huh, Yong Min; Chang, Jong Hee; Joo, Chulmin; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas. We demonstrate that TRI provides tumor discrimination and delineation of tumor margins in brain tissues with high sensitivity on the basis of Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained image. TRI may help neurosurgeons to remove gliomas completely by providing visualization of tumor margins in WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas without contrast agents, and hence, improve patient outcomes. PMID:27782153

  12. Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Young Bin; Oh, Seung Jae; Kang, Seok-Gu; Heo, Jung; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Yuna; Song, Seungri; Son, Hye Young; Kim, Se Hoon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Haam, Seung Joo; Huh, Yong Min; Chang, Jong Hee; Joo, Chulmin; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2016-10-01

    Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas. We demonstrate that TRI provides tumor discrimination and delineation of tumor margins in brain tissues with high sensitivity on the basis of Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained image. TRI may help neurosurgeons to remove gliomas completely by providing visualization of tumor margins in WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas without contrast agents, and hence, improve patient outcomes.

  13. Comparison of the Effect of Vessel Size Imaging and Cerebral Blood Volume Derived from Perfusion MR Imaging on Glioma Grading.

    PubMed

    Kang, H-Y; Xiao, H-L; Chen, J-H; Tan, Y; Chen, X; Xie, T; Fang, J-Q; Wang, S; Yang, Y; Zhang, W-G

    2016-01-01

    Vascular proliferation is a major criterion for grading gliomas on the basis of histology. Relative cerebral blood volume can provide pathophysiologic information about glioma grading. Vessel size imaging, in some animals, can be used to estimate the microvascular caliber of a glioma, but its clinical use remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to compare the predictive power of relative cerebral blood volume and vessel size imaging in glioma grading, with grading based on histology. Seventy patients with glioma participated in the study; 30 patients underwent MR perfusion imaging with a spin-echo sequence and vessel size imaging with a gradient-echo and spin-echo sequence successively at 24-hour intervals before surgery. We analyzed the vessel size imaging values and relative cerebral blood volume of differently graded gliomas. The microvessel parameters were histologically evaluated and compared with those on MR imaging. The cutoff values of vessel size imaging and relative cerebral blood volume obtained from receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to predict glioma grading in another 40 patients. Vessel size imaging values and relative cerebral blood volume were both increased in high-grade gliomas compared with low-grade gliomas (P < .01). Moreover, vessel size imaging values had higher specificity and sensitivity in differentiating high-grade from low-grade gliomas compared with relative cerebral blood volume. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between vessel size imaging values and microvessel diameters (r > 0.8, P < .05) and between relative cerebral blood volume and microvessel area (r = 0.6579, P < .05). Most important, the use of vessel size imaging cutoff values to predict glioma grading was more accurate (100%) than use of relative cerebral blood volume (85%) values. Vessel size imaging can provide more accurate information on glioma grading and may serve as an effective biomarker for the prognosis of patients with gliomas

  14. Gene therapy for high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Natsume, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of high-grade gliomas remains difficult despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. True advances may emerge from the increasing understanding in molecular biology and discovery of novel mechanisms for the delivery of tumoricidal agents. In an attempt to overcome this formidable neoplasm, molecular approaches using gene therapy have been investigated clinically since 1992. The clinical trials have mainly been classified into three approaches: suicide gene therapy, immune gene therapy and oncolytic viral therapy. In this article, we review these approaches, which have been studied in previous and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:19262115

  15. Irradiation and Bevacizumab in High-Grade Glioma Retreatment Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Ganswindt, Ute; Schwarz, Silke Birgit; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Geisler, Julia; Fougere, Christian la; Ertl, Lorenz; Linn, Jennifer; Siefert, Axel; Belka, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation is a treatment option for recurrent high-grade glioma with proven but limited effectiveness. Therapies directed against vascular endothelial growth factor have been shown to exert certain efficacy in combination with chemotherapy and have been safely tested in combination with radiotherapy in a small cohort of patients. To study the feasibility of reirradiation combined with bevacizumab treatment, the toxicity and treatment outcomes of this approach were analyzed retrospectively. Patients and Methods: After previous treatment with standard radiotherapy (with or without temozolomide) patients with recurrent malignant glioma received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenous) on Day 1 and Day 15 during radiotherapy. Maintenance therapy was selected based on individual considerations, and mainly bevacizumab-containing regimens were chosen. Patients received 36 Gy in 18 fractions. Results: The data of the medical charts of the 30 patients were analyzed retrospectively. All were irradiated in a single institution and received either bevacizumab (n = 20), no additional substance (n = 7), or temozolomide (n = 3). Reirradiation was tolerated well, regardless of the added drug. In 1 patient treated with bevacizumab, a wound dehiscence occurred. Overall survival was significantly better in patients receiving bevacizumab (p = 0.03, log-rank test). In a multivariate proportional hazards Cox model, bevacizumab, Karnovsky performance status, and World Health Organization grade at relapse turned out to be the most important predictors for overall survival. Conclusion: Reirradiation with bevacizumab is a feasible and effective treatment for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. A randomized trial is warranted to finally answer the question whether bevacizumab adds substantial benefit to a radiotherapeutic retreatment setting.

  16. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading. PMID:28848428

  17. Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Glioma Grading: Analysis of Fiber Density Index.

    PubMed

    Davanian, Fariba; Faeghi, Fariborz; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Farshifar, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    The most common primary tumors of brain are gliomas and tumor grading is essential for designing proper treatment strategies. The gold standard choice to determine grade of glial tumor is biopsy which is an invasive method. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fiber density index (FDi) by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (as a noninvasive method) in glial tumor grading. A group of 20 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of gliomas were evaluated in this study. We used a 1.5 Tesla MR system (AVANTO; Siemens, Germany) with a standard head coil for scanning. Multidirectional diffusion weighted imaging (measured in 12 noncollinear directions), and T1 weighted nonenhanced were performed for all patients. We defined two regions of interest (ROIs); 1) White matter fibers near the tumor and 2) Similar fibers in the contralateral hemisphere. FDi of the low-grade gliomas was higher than those of high-grade gliomas, which was significant (P=0.017). FDi ratio (ratio of fiber density in vicinity of the tumor to homologous fiber tracts in the contralateral hemisphere) is higher in low-grade than high-grade tumors, (P=0.05). In addition, we performed ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve and the area under curve (AUC) was 0.813(P=0.013). Our findings prove significant difference in FDi near by low-grade and high-grade gliomas. Therefore, FDi values and ratios are helpful in glial tumor grading.

  18. Mutations in chromatin machinery and pediatric high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lulla, Rishi R.; Saratsis, Amanda Muhs; Hashizume, Rintaro

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumor of childhood. Of these, approximately one-third are gliomas that exhibit diverse biological behaviors in the unique context of the developing nervous system. Although low-grade gliomas predominate and have favorable outcomes, up to 20% of pediatric gliomas are high-grade. These tumors are a major contributor to cancer-related morbidity and mortality in infants, children, and adolescents, with long-term survival rates of only 10 to 15%. The recent discovery of somatic oncogenic mutations affecting chromatin regulation in pediatric high-grade glioma has markedly improved our understanding of disease pathogenesis, and these findings have stimulated the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting epigenetic regulators for disease treatment. We review the current perspective on pediatric high-grade glioma genetics and epigenetics, and discuss the emerging and experimental therapeutics targeting the unique molecular abnormalities present in these deadly childhood brain tumors. PMID:27034984

  19. Change in 18F-Fluoromisonidazole PET Is an Early Predictor of the Prognosis in the Patients with Recurrent High-Grade Glioma Receiving Bevacizumab Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Hirata, Kenji; Toyonaga, Takuya; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Ishi, Yukitomo; Motegi, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shiga, Tohru; Tamaki, Nagara; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab (BEV), a humanized monoclonal antibody, become a currently important chemotherapeutic option for the patients with recurrent glioma. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate whether 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET have the potential to detect BEV-resistant gliomas in the early-stage. Methods We reviewed the FMISO PET and MRI appearances before and 3 to 4 courses after BEV treatment on 18 recurrent glioma patients. FMISO accumulation was assessed by visual inspection and semi-quantitative values which were tumor-to-normal (T/N) ratio and hypoxic volume. MRI responses were evaluated based on RANO (Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology) criteria. The prognostic analysis was performed in relation to the response assessment by FMISO PET and MRI using overall survival (OS) after BEV application. Results After BEV application, MRI revealed partial response in 14 of 18 patients (78%), of which 9 patients also demonstrated decreased FMISO accumulation. These 9 patients (50%) were classified as “MRI-FMISO double responder”. As for the other 5 patients (28%), FMISO accumulation volumes increased or remained stable after BEV treatment although partial responses were achieved on MRI. Therefore, these cases were classified as “MRI-only responder”. The remaining 4 patients (22%) did not show treatment response on FMISO PET or MRI (“non-responder”). MRI-FMISO double responders showed significantly longer OS than that in other groups (median 12.4 vs 5.7 months; P < 0.001), whereas there were no overall survival difference between MRI-only responders and non-responders (median OS, 5.7 and 4.8 months; P = 0.58). Among the pre-treatment clinical factors, high FMISO T/N ratio was a significant prognostic factor of overall survival in these patients under the assessment of Cox proportional hazard model. Conclusions Recurrent gliomas with decreasing FMISO accumulation after short-term BEV application could derive a survival benefit from

  20. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging of gliomas: efficacy in preoperative grading.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Chuan; Yan, Lin-Feng; Wu, Lang; Du, Pang; Chen, Bao-Ying; Wang, Liang; Wang, Shu-Mei; Han, Yu; Tian, Qiang; Yu, Ying; Xu, Tian-Yong; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2014-12-01

    The preoperative grading of gliomas, which is critical for guiding therapeutic strategies, remains unsatisfactory. We aimed to retrospectively assess the efficacy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the grading of gliomas. Forty-two newly diagnosed glioma patients underwent conventional MR imaging, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast diffusion coefficient (D*), and fraction of fast ADC (f) were generated. They were tested for differences between low- and high-grade gliomas based on one-way ANOVA. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to determine the optimal thresholds as well as the sensitivity and specificity for grading. ADC, D, and f were higher in the low-grade gliomas, whereas D* tended to be lower (all P<0.05). The AUC, sensitivity, specificity and the cutoff value, respectively, for differentiating low- from high-grade gliomas for ADC, D and f, and differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas for D* were as follows: ADC, 0.926, 100%, 82.8%, and 0.7 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; D, 0.942, 92.3%, 86.2%, and 0.623 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; f, 0.902, 92.3%, 86.2%, and 35.3%; D*, 0.798, 79.3%, 84.6%, and 0.303 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec. The IVIM DWI demonstrates efficacy in differentiating the low- from high-grade gliomas.

  1. Comprehensive, Integrative Genomic Analysis of Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. METHODS We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. RESULTS Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. CONCLUSIONS The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q

  2. Comprehensive, Integrative Genomic Analysis of Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Brat, Daniel J; Verhaak, Roel G W; Aldape, Kenneth D; Yung, W K Alfred; Salama, Sofie R; Cooper, Lee A D; Rheinbay, Esther; Miller, C Ryan; Vitucci, Mark; Morozova, Olena; Robertson, A Gordon; Noushmehr, Houtan; Laird, Peter W; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Huse, Jason T; Ciriello, Giovanni; Poisson, Laila M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Berger, Mitchel S; Brennan, Cameron; Colen, Rivka R; Colman, Howard; Flanders, Adam E; Giannini, Caterina; Grifford, Mia; Iavarone, Antonio; Jain, Rajan; Joseph, Isaac; Kim, Jaegil; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mikkelsen, Tom; Murray, Bradley A; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Pachter, Lior; Parsons, Donald W; Sougnez, Carrie; Sulman, Erik P; Vandenberg, Scott R; Van Meir, Erwin G; von Deimling, Andreas; Zhang, Hailei; Crain, Daniel; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron; Bowen, Jay; Dicostanzo, Katie; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Pierson, Christopher R; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Taylor, Cynthia; Weaver, Stephanie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin L; Hutter, Carolyn M; Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Ozenberger, Bradley A; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Jensen, Mark A; Liu, Jia; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Auman, J Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bootwalla, Moiz S; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott; Chin, Lynda; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Clarke, Amanda; Coetzee, Simon G; Dhalla, Noreen; Fennell, Tim; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Gibbs, Richard; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Hayes, D Neil; Hinoue, Toshinori; Hoadley, Katherine; Holt, Robert A; Hoyle, Alan P; Jefferys, Stuart R; Jones, Steven; Jones, Corbin D; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lai, Phillip H; Lander, Eric; Lee, Semin; Lichtenstein, Lee; Ma, Yussanne; Maglinte, Dennis T; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S; Marra, Marco A; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew L; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Moore, Richard A; Mose, Lisle E; Mungall, Andrew J; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Protopopov, Alexei; Ren, Xiaojia; Roach, Jeffrey; Sabedot, Thaís S; Schein, Jacqueline; Schumacher, Steven E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seth, Sahil; Shen, Hui; Simons, Janae V; Sipahimalani, Payal; Soloway, Matthew G; Song, Xingzhi; Sun, Huandong; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Thiessen, Nina; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Waring, Scot; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I; Zhang, Jianhua; Aksoy, B Arman; Arachchi, Harindra; Benz, Chris; Bernard, Brady; Carlin, Daniel; Cho, Juok; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fuller, Gregory N; Gao, JianJiong; Gehlenborg, Nils; Haussler, David; Heiman, David I; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Ju, Zhenlin; Katzman, Sol; Kim, Hoon; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kreisberg, Richard Bailey; Lawrence, Michael S; Lee, William; Leinonen, Kalle; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Yuexin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Ng, Sam; Noble, Michael S; Paull, Evan; Rao, Arvind; Reynolds, Sheila; Saksena, Gordon; Sanborn, Zack; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Shen, Ronglai; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sinha, Rileen; Stuart, Josh; Sumer, S Onur; Sun, Yichao; Tasman, Natalie; Taylor, Barry S; Voet, Doug; Weinhold, Nils; Weinstein, John N; Yang, Da; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Zheng, Siyuan; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Lihua; Abel, Ty; Sadeghi, Sara; Cohen, Mark L; Eschbacher, Jenny; Hattab, Eyas M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Aziz, Dina; Barnett, Gene; Barrett, Wendi; Bigner, Darell D; Boice, Lori; Brewer, Cathy; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Campos, Benito; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Chan, Timothy A; Cuppini, Lucia; Curley, Erin; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; Devine, Karen; DiMeco, Francesco; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J Bradley; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Fulop, Jordonna; Gardner, Johanna; Hermes, Beth; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christine; Kendler, Ady; Lehman, Norman L; Lipp, Eric; Liu, Ouida; Mandt, Randy; McGraw, Mary; Mclendon, Roger; McPherson, Christopher; Neder, Luciano; Nguyen, Phuong; Noss, Ardene; Nunziata, Raffaele; Ostrom, Quinn T; Palmer, Cheryl; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Potapov, Alexander; Potapova, Olga; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Rotin, Daniil; Scarpace, Lisa; Schilero, Cathy; Senecal, Kelly; Shimmel, Kristen; Shurkhay, Vsevolod; Sifri, Suzanne; Singh, Rosy; Sloan, Andrew E; Smolenski, Kathy; Staugaitis, Susan M; Steele, Ruth; Thorne, Leigh; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Unterberg, Andreas; Vallurupalli, Mahitha; Wang, Yun; Warnick, Ronald; Williams, Felicia; Wolinsky, Yingli; Bell, Sue; Rosenberg, Mara; Stewart, Chip; Huang, Franklin; Grimsby, Jonna L; Radenbaugh, Amie J; Zhang, Jianan

    2015-06-25

    Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most

  3. Tissue Proteome Analysis of Different Grades of Human Gliomas Provides Major Cues for Glioma Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gollapalli, Kishore; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Atak, Apurva; Rapole, Srikanth; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2017-05-01

    Gliomas are heterogeneous and most commonly occurring brain tumors. Blood-brain barrier restricts the entry of brain tumor proteins into blood stream thus limiting the usage of serum or plasma for proteomic analysis. Our study aimed at understanding the molecular basis of aggressiveness of various grades of brain tumors using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based mass spectrometry. Tissue proteomic analysis of various grades of gliomas was performed using four-plex iTRAQ. We labeled five sets (each set consists of control, grade-II, III, and IV tumor samples) of individual glioma patients using iTRAQ reagents. Significantly altered proteins were subjected to bioinformatics analysis using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Various metabolic pathways like glycolysis, TCA-cycle, electron transport chain, lactate metabolism, and blood coagulation pathways were majorly observed to be perturbed in gliomas. Most of the identified proteins involved in redox reactions, protein folding, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, antiapoptosis, and blood coagulation were found to be upregulated in gliomas. Transcriptomics data of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and controls were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and further analyzed using BRB-Array tools. Expression levels of a few significantly altered proteins like lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, fibrinogen alpha chain, nucleophosmin, annexin A5, thioredoxin, ferritin light chain, thymosin beta-4-like protein 3, superoxide dismutase-2, and peroxiredoxin-1 and 6 showed a positive correlation with increasing grade of gliomas thereby offering an insight into molecular basis behind their aggressive nature. Several proteins identified in different grades of gliomas are potential grade-specific markers, and perturbed pathways provide comprehensive overview of molecular cues involved in glioma

  4. Radiosurgical boost for primary high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Flavio E; Weltman, Eduardo; de Hanriot, Rodrigo M; Brandt, Reynaldo A

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the survival of patients with high-grade gliomas treated with external beam radiotherapy with or without radiosurgical boost. From July 1993 to April 1998, 32 patients were selected, 15 of which received radiosurgery. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years, histological confirmation of high-grade glioma, primary tumor treatment with curative intent, unifocal tumor and supratentorial location. All patients were found to be in classes III-VI, according to the recursive partitioning analysis proposed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. The median interval between radiotherapy and radiosurgery was 5 weeks (range 1-13). Treatment volumes ranged from 2.9 to 70.3 cc (median 15.0 cc). Prescribed radiosurgery doses varied from 8.0 to 12.5 Gy (median 10.0 Gy). Radiosurgery and control groups were well balanced with respect to prognostic factor distributions. Median actuarial survival time in radiosurgery and control groups was 21.4 months and 11.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0254). Among patients with KPS > 80, median survival time was 11.0 months and 53.9 months in the control and radiosurgery groups, respectively (p = 0.0103). Radiosurgery was the single factor correlated with survival on Cox model analysis (p = 0.0362) and was associated with a 2.76 relative reduction in the risk of cancer death (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-7.13). Our results suggest that radiosurgery may confer a survival advantage for patients in RPA classes III-VI, especially for those with Karnofsky performance status >80. The definitive role of radiosurgical boost for patients with high-grade gliomas awaits the results of randomized trials.

  5. Efficacy of Perfusion Computed Tomography (PCT) in Differentiating High-Grade Gliomas from Low Grade Gliomas, Lymphomas, Metastases and Abscess.

    PubMed

    Karegowda, Lakshmikanth Halegubbi; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Shenoy, Poonam Mohan; Paruthikunnan, Samir Mustaffa

    2017-05-01

    Tumoural angioneogenesis and its quantification are important in predicting the tumour grade and in the management with respect to the treatment available and to assess the response to treatment and the prognosis. It also plays major role in the growth and spread of tumours. Hence, a need arises for non-invasive in vivo methods to assess tumour angioneogenesis and tumour grade at the time of presentation and for monitoring the response during treatment and follow up. In this regard Perfusion Computed Tomography (PCT) can be easily added into routine CT studies to obtain such information on lesion physiology along with its morphology. Prospective evaluation of the efficacy of PCT in differentiating high grade gliomas from low grade glioma lymphomas, metastases and abscess. Perfusion CT was performed in 68 patients (17 high-grade gliomas, 10 low-grade gliomas, 7 lymphomas, 27 metastases and 7 abscess). Perfusion parameters which include Cerebral Blood Volume (CBV), Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), Mean Transit Time (MTT) and Time To Peak (TTP) were derived both from the lesion and the normal parenchyma and were Normalized (n) by obtaining the ratio. Statistical analysis for high grade versus low-grade gliomas, high grade gliomas versus lymphomas, metastases and abscess was performed. Difference in the mean nCBV and nCBF in high grade gliomas were statistically significant from low grade gliomas with cut off of > 3.07 for nCBV and > 2.08 for nCBF yielding good sensitivity and specificity. Difference in the mean nCBV and nMTT in the lymphomas were statistically significant from high grade gliomas (p<0.05) with cut off of <3.40 for nCBV and >1.83 for nMTT yielding good sensitivity and specificity. Difference in the mean nCBV and nMTT in the metastases were statistically significant from high grade gliomas (p<0.05) with cut off of >4.95 for nCBV and >1.88 for nMTT yielding a fair sensitivity and specificity. No statistical significant difference seen among the parameters in

  6. Associations of High-Grade Glioma With Glioma Risk Alleles and Histories of Allergy and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Daniel H.; Yang, Ping; Johnson, Derek R.; Decker, Paul A.; Kollmeyer, Thomas M.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Rice, Terri; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ali-Osman, Francis; Wang, Frances; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Sprau, Debra J.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Wiencke, John K.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Patoka, Joseph S.; Davis, Faith; McCarthy, Bridget; Rynearson, Amanda L.; Worra, Joel B.; Fridley, Brooke L.; O’Neill, Brian Patrick; Buckner, Jan C.; Il’yasova, Dora; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Glioma risk has consistently been inversely associated with allergy history but not with smoking history despite putative biologic plausibility. Data from 855 high-grade glioma cases and 1,160 controls from 4 geographic regions of the United States during 1997–2008 were analyzed for interactions between allergy and smoking histories and inherited variants in 5 established glioma risk regions: 5p15.3 (TERT), 8q24.21 (CCDC26/MLZE), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1/DDX6), and 20q13.3 (RTEL1). The inverse relation between allergy and glioma was stronger among those who did not (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.58) versus those who did (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97; Pinteraction = 0.02) carry the 9p21.3 risk allele. However, the inverse association with allergy was stronger among those who carried (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.68) versus those who did not carry (odds ratioallergy-glioma = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.86) the 20q13.3 glioma risk allele, but this interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). No relation was observed between glioma risk and smoking (odds ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 1.10; P = 0.37), and there were no interactions for glioma risk of smoking history with any of the risk alleles. The authors’ observations are consistent with a recent report that the inherited glioma risk variants in chromosome regions 9p21.3 and 20q13.3 may modify the inverse association of allergy and glioma. PMID:21742680

  7. Grading of Gliomas by Using Radiomic Features on Multiple Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jiang-bo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Chen; Wang, Xiao-chun; Tan, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Wu, Xiao-feng; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background Gliomas are the most common primary brain neoplasms. Misdiagnosis occurs in glioma grading due to an overlap in conventional MRI manifestations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the power of radiomic features based on multiple MRI sequences – T2-Weighted-Imaging-FLAIR (FLAIR), T1-Weighted-Imaging-Contrast-Enhanced (T1-CE), and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) map – in glioma grading, and to improve the power of glioma grading by combining features. Material/Methods Sixty-six patients with histopathologically proven gliomas underwent T2-FLAIR and T1WI-CE sequence scanning with some patients (n=63) also undergoing DWI scanning. A total of 114 radiomic features were derived with radiomic methods by using in-house software. All radiomic features were compared between high-grade gliomas (HGGs) and low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Features with significant statistical differences were selected for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The relationships between significantly different radiomic features and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression were evaluated. Results A total of 8 radiomic features from 3 MRI sequences displayed significant differences between LGGs and HGGs. FLAIR GLCM Cluster Shade, T1-CE GLCM Entropy, and ADC GLCM Homogeneity were the best features to use in differentiating LGGs and HGGs in each MRI sequence. The combined feature was best able to differentiate LGGs and HGGs, which improved the accuracy of glioma grading compared to the above features in each MRI sequence. A significant correlation was found between GFAP and T1-CE GLCM Entropy, as well as between GFAP and ADC GLCM Homogeneity. Conclusions The combined radiomic feature had the highest efficacy in distinguishing LGGs from HGGs. PMID:28478462

  8. [Occurrence and molecular pathology of high grade gliomas].

    PubMed

    Murnyák, Balázs; Csonka, Tamás; Hegyi, Katalin; Méhes, Gábor; Klekner, Almos; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2013-09-30

    Glial tumours represent the most frequent type of primary brain cancers. Gliomas are characterized by heterogeneity that makes the diagnosis, histological classification and the choosing of correct therapy more difficult. Despite the advances in developing therapeutic strategies patients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis; therefore glial tumours represent one of the most important areas of cancer research. There are no detailed data on the epidemiology of gliomas in Hungary. In the first section of our publication, we analysed the histological diagnosed cases between 2007 and 2011 at the Institute of Pathology, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Centre. We analyzed the incidence of 214 high-grade gliomas by tumor grades, gender, age, and the anatomical localization. The majority of cases were glioblastoma (182 cases), and the remaining 32 cases were anaplastic gliomas. The mean age of patients was 57 years (+/- 16.4), and the male:female ratio was 1.1:1. The most frequent area of tumors was the frontal lobe followed by the temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. We include new findings published recently about glioma pathogenesis, molecular pathways, mutant genes and chromosomal regions. We explain briefly the role of selected important genes in glioma genesis and give an update on knowledge provided by modern molecular methods, which could beneficially influence future therapy and the diagnosis of gliomas.

  9. The molecular biology of WHO grade II gliomas.

    PubMed

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    The WHO grading scheme for glial neoplasms assigns Grade II to 5 distinct tumors of astrocytic or oligodendroglial lineage: diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Although commonly referred to collectively as among the "low-grade gliomas," these 5 tumors represent molecularly and clinically unique entities. Each is the subject of active basic research aimed at developing a more complete understanding of its molecular biology, and the pace of such research continues to accelerate. Additionally, because managing and predicting the course of these tumors has historically proven challenging, translational research regarding Grade II gliomas continues in the hopes of identifying novel molecular features that can better inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. Unfortunately, the basic and translational literature regarding the molecular biology of WHO Grade II gliomas remains nebulous. The authors' goal for this review was to present a comprehensive discussion of current knowledge regarding the molecular characteristics of these 5 WHO Grade II tumors on the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic levels. Additionally, they discuss the emerging evidence suggesting molecular differences between adult and pediatric Grade II gliomas. Finally, they present an overview of current strategies for using molecular data to classify low-grade gliomas into clinically relevant categories based on tumor biology.

  10. Multidisciplinary management of adult low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Mariş, D; Nica, D; Mohan, D; Moisa, H; Ciurea, A V

    2014-01-01

    Adult hemispheric low grade gliomas (LGG) cover a pathologic spectrum which has specific clinical, histological and molecular characteristics. The optimal management of these tumors is still a controversial topic in international literature. We evaluated scientific papers from the literature (Medline and Cochrane Library to date) and we compared the results found there with our experience, trying to create a pattern of treatment of our own. The advances in microsurgical and neuromonitoring techniques, as well as in neuroimaging, allow for a more aggressive resection of LGG with a significant improvement in overall survival and quality of life. The potential risks of the "wait and see" policy and the neurotoxicity of radiotherapy are challenged by the benefits of careful surgical resection and up-front chemotherapy. The present day treatment strategy, based on recent evidence, should include a maximal surgical resection when possible, with the full preservation of the patients ability, and delayed radiotherapy. The role of temozolomide in the management of LGG and the identification of the therapeutic modality with the best quality of life profile will be determined by ongoing trials. The further characterization of prognostic relevance of molecular markers and data from advanced imaging techniques needs an intensification of research and validation efforts. LGG: low grade gliomas, WHO: World Health Organization, OS: overall survival, PFS: progression-free survival, MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging, MRS: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MPFS: malignant progression-free survival, rCBV: Relative Cerebral Blood Volume, QOL: quality of life, FLAIR: Fluid attenuated inversion recovery, MGMT: O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase enzyme, DSC MR imaging: Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MR imaging, 1H-MRS: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, IDH1: isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene, SPECT: Single-photon emission computed tomography, PET: Positron emission

  11. Nimotuzumab in combination with radiotherapy in high grade glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Maria Teresa; Miranda, Nederlay; Jorrín, Eugenia; Chon, Ivonne; Marinello, Jorge Juan; Alert, José; Lorenzo-Luaces, Patricia; Crombet, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Nimotuzumab, a humanized antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, has potent anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and pro-apoptotic effects in vitro and in vivo. It also reduces the number of radio-resistant CD133+ glioma stem cells. The antibody has been extensively evaluated in patients with advanced head and neck, glioma, lung, esophageal, pancreatic, and gastric cancer. In this single institution experience, 35 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) were treated with irradiation and 200 mg doses of nimotuzumab. The first 6 doses were administered weekly, together with radiotherapy, and then treatment continued every 21 days until 1 year. The median number of doses was 12, and the median cumulative dose was thus 2400 mg of nimotuzumab. The most frequent treatment-related toxicities were increase in liver function tests, fever, nausea, anorexia, asthenia, dizziness, and tremors. These adverse reactions were classified as mild and moderate. The median survival time was 12.4 mo or 27.0 mo for patients with GBM or AA patients, respectively, who received curative-intent radiotherapy in combination with the antibody. The survival time of a matched population treated at the same hospital with irradiation alone was decreased (median 8.0 and 12.2 mo for GBM and AA patients, respectively) compared with that of the patients who received nimotuzumab and curative-intent radiotherapy. We have thus confirmed that nimotuzumab is a very well-tolerated drug, lacking cumulative toxicity after maintenance doses. This study, in a poor prognosis population, validates the previous data of survival gain after combining nimotuzumab and radiotherapy, in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients. PMID:24521695

  12. Surgical Outcomes of High-Grade Spinal Cord Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Syunsuke; Aoyama, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Izumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to obtain useful information for establishing the guidelines for treating high-grade spinal cord gliomas. Overview of Literature The optimal management of high-grade spinal cord gliomas remains controversial. We report the outcomes of the surgical management of 14 high-grade spinal glioma. Methods We analyzed the outcomes of 14 patients with high-grade spinal cord gliomas who were surgically treated between 1989 and 2012. Survival was charted with the Kaplan-Meier plots and comparisons were made with the log-rank test. Results None of the patients with high-grade spinal cord gliomas underwent total resection. Subtotal resection was performed in two patients, partial resection was performed in nine patients, and open biopsy was performed in three patients. All patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy and six patients further underwent radiation cordotomy. The median survival time for patients with high-grade spinal cord gliomas was 15 months, with a 5-year survival rate of 22.2%. The median survival time for patients with World Health Organization grade III tumors was 25.5 months, whereas the median survival time for patients with glioblastoma multiforme was 12.5 months. Both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models demonstrated a significant effect only in the group that did not include cervical cord lesion as a factor associated with survival (p=0.04 and 0.03). Conclusions The surgical outcome of patients diagnosed with high-grade spinal cord gliomas remains poor. Notably, only the model which excluded cervical cord lesions as a factor significantly predicted survival. PMID:26713128

  13. Visualization of heterogeneity and regional grading of gliomas by multiple features using magnetic resonance-based clustered images

    PubMed Central

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative glioma grading is important for therapeutic strategies and influences prognosis. Intratumoral heterogeneity can cause an underestimation of grading because of the sampling error in biopsies. We developed a voxel-based unsupervised clustering method with multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived features using a self-organizing map followed by K-means. This method produced novel magnetic resonance-based clustered images (MRcIs) that enabled the visualization of glioma grades in 36 patients. The 12-class MRcIs revealed the highest classification performance for the prediction of glioma grading (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.928; 95% confidential interval = 0.920–0.936). Furthermore, we also created 12-class MRcIs in four new patients using the previous data from the 36 patients as training data and obtained tissue sections of the classes 11 and 12, which were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas (HGGs), and those of classes 4, 5 and 9, which were not significantly different between HGGs and low-grade gliomas (LGGs), according to a MRcI-based navigational system. The tissues of classes 11 and 12 showed features of malignant glioma, whereas those of classes 4, 5 and 9 showed LGGs without anaplastic features. These results suggest that the proposed voxel-based clustering method provides new insights into preoperative regional glioma grading. PMID:27456199

  14. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

    2008-01-01

    As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

  15. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

    2008-01-01

    As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

  16. Classifying lower grade glioma cases according to whole genome gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoyuan; Liu, Yanwei; Yang, Fan; You, Gan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify a gene-based signature as a novel prognostic model in lower grade gliomas. RESULTS A gene signature developed from HOXA7, SLC2A4RG and MN1 could segregate patients into low and high risk score groups with different overall survival (OS), and was validated in TCGA RNA-seq and GSE16011 mRNA array datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed to show that the three-gene signature was more sensitive and specific than histology, grade, age, IDH1 mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and GO analysis showed high-risk samples were associated with tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and highly invasive phenotypes. Moreover, HOXA7-siRNA inhibited migration and invasion in vitro, and downregulated MMP9 at the protein level in U251 glioma cells. METHODS A cohort of 164 glioma specimens from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) array database were assessed as the training group. TCGA RNA-seq and GSE16011 mRNA array datasets were used for validation. Regression analyses and linear risk score assessment were performed for the identification of the three-gene signature comprising HOXA7, SLC2A4RG and MN1. CONCLUSIONS We established a three-gene signature for lower grade gliomas, which could independently predict overall survival (OS) of lower grade glioma patients with higher sensitivity and specificity compared with other clinical characteristics. These findings indicate that the three-gene signature is a new prognostic model that could provide improved OS prediction and accurate therapies for lower grade glioma patients. PMID:27677590

  17. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen Metabolism and Neovascularization Characterization for Grading and IDH Gene Mutation Detection of Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Zimmermann, Max; Kitzwögerer, Melitta; Oberndorfer, Stefan; Rössler, Karl; Dörfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Heinz, Gertraud

    2016-12-13

    Purpose To explore the diagnostic performance of physiological magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of oxygen metabolism and neovascularization activity for grading and characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation status of gliomas. Materials and Methods This retrospective study had institutional review board approval; written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Eighty-three patients with histopathologically proven glioma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade II-IV) were examined with quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent imaging and vascular architecture mapping. Biomarker maps of neovascularization activity (microvessel radius, microvessel density, and microvessel type indicator [MTI]) and oxygen metabolism (oxygen extraction fraction [OEF] and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen [CMRO2]) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine diagnostic performance for grading and detection of IDH gene mutation status. Results Low-grade (WHO grade II) glioma showed areas with increased OEF (+18%, P < .001, n = 20), whereas anaplastic glioma (WHO grade III) and glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) showed decreased OEF when compared with normal brain tissue (-54% [P < .001, n = 21] and -49% [P < .001, n = 41], respectively). This allowed clear differentiation between low- and high-grade glioma (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 1) for the patient cohort. MTI had the highest diagnostic performance (AUC, 0.782) for differentiation between gliomas of grades III and IV among all biomarkers. CMRO2 was decreased (P = .037) in low-grade glioma with a mutated IDH gene, and MTI was significantly increased in glioma grade III with IDH mutation (P = .013) when compared with the IDH wild-type counterparts. CMRO2 showed the highest diagnostic performance for IDH gene mutation detection in low-grade glioma (AUC, 0.818) and MTI in high-grade glioma (AUC, 0.854) and for all WHO grades (AUC, 0.899) among

  18. Voxel-based clustered imaging by multiparameter diffusion tensor images for glioma grading

    PubMed Central

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Shibata, Sumiya; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common intra-axial primary brain tumour; therefore, predicting glioma grade would influence therapeutic strategies. Although several methods based on single or multiple parameters from diagnostic images exist, a definitive method for pre-operatively determining glioma grade remains unknown. We aimed to develop an unsupervised method using multiple parameters from pre-operative diffusion tensor images for obtaining a clustered image that could enable visual grading of gliomas. Fourteen patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 with high-grade gliomas underwent diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before tumour resection. Seven features including diffusion-weighted imaging, fractional anisotropy, first eigenvalue, second eigenvalue, third eigenvalue, mean diffusivity and raw T2 signal with no diffusion weighting, were extracted as multiple parameters from diffusion tensor imaging. We developed a two-level clustering approach for a self-organizing map followed by the K-means algorithm to enable unsupervised clustering of a large number of input vectors with the seven features for the whole brain. The vectors were grouped by the self-organizing map as protoclusters, which were classified into the smaller number of clusters by K-means to make a voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered image. Furthermore, we also determined if the diffusion tensor-based clustered image was really helpful for predicting pre-operative glioma grade in a supervised manner. The ratio of each class in the diffusion tensor-based clustered images was calculated from the regions of interest manually traced on the diffusion tensor imaging space, and the common logarithmic ratio scales were calculated. We then applied support vector machine as a classifier for distinguishing between low- and high-grade gliomas. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic

  19. Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Kevin S.; Hung, Jonathan; Robertson, Patricia L.; Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M.; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

  20. The Value of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Low-grade Gliomas and High-grade Gliomas Lacking Glioblastoma Imaging Features: An Analysis Based on Fluorescence, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 18F-Fluoroethyl Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography, and Tumor Molecular Factors.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammed; Wölfer, Johannes; Ewelt, Christian; Holling, Markus; Hasselblatt, Martin; Niederstadt, Thomas; Zoubi, Tarek; Weckesser, Matthias; Stummer, Walter

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 20% of grade II and most grade III gliomas fluoresce after 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) application. Conversely, approximately 30% of nonenhancing gliomas are actually high grade. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative factors (ie, age, enhancement, 18F-fluoroethyl tyrosine positron emission tomography [F-FET PET] uptake ratios) for predicting fluorescence in gliomas without typical glioblastomas imaging features and to determine whether fluorescence will allow prediction of tumor grade or molecular characteristics. Patients harboring gliomas without typical glioblastoma imaging features were given 5-ALA. Fluorescence was recorded intraoperatively, and biopsy specimens collected from fluorescing tissue. World Health Organization (WHO) grade, Ki-67/MIB-1 index, IDH1 (R132H) mutation status, O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, and 1p/19q co-deletion status were assessed. Predictive factors for fluorescence were derived from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and F-FET PET. Classification and regression tree analysis and receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for defining predictors. Of 166 tumors, 82 were diagnosed as WHO grade II, 76 as grade III, and 8 as glioblastomas grade IV. Contrast enhancement, tumor volume, and F-FET PET uptake ratio >1.85 predicted fluorescence. Fluorescence correlated with WHO grade (P < .001) and Ki-67/MIB-1 index (P < .001), but not with MGMT promoter methylation status, IDH1 mutation status, or 1p19q co-deletion status. The Ki-67/MIB-1 index in fluorescing grade III gliomas was higher than in nonfluorescing tumors, whereas in fluorescing and nonfluorescing grade II tumors, no differences were noted. Age, tumor volume, and F-FET PET uptake are factors predicting 5-ALA-induced fluorescence in gliomas without typical glioblastoma imaging features. Fluorescence was associated with an increased Ki-67/MIB-1 index and high-grade pathology. Whether

  1. Malignant glioblastomatous transformation of a low-grade glioma in a child.

    PubMed

    Unal, Ekrem; Koksal, Yavuz; Cimen, Omer; Paksoy, Yahya; Tavli, Lema

    2008-12-01

    The term of low-grade glioma addresses a favorable clinical outcome with indolent histological features in general consideration; however, recent studies underline the inconsistency, which originates from the accumulation of different histologic subtypes in this terminology. The malignant transformation of a low-grade glioma is unusual but presents a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy, who was referred for complaints of recurrent seizures. His physical examination was unremarkable, but it was learned that a peripheral mass lesion located on the left posterior parietal lobe--which had been thought to be a low-grade glioma--had been detected on a magnetic resonance imaging 2 years ago at a different hospital. The patient was then treated with valproate and carbamazepine for the seizures and advised to be followed up without any additional diagnostic and therapeutic studies for his suspected low-grade glioma. A recent magnetic resonance imaging study showed enlargements of the mass and surrounding edema with additional necrosis. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. After the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme, the patient received radiation therapy and chemotherapy with a good clinical recovery without any evidence of residue or recurrence at 12-month follow-up. The first line treatment modality in the management of low-grade glioma--especially in suitable patients--is clearly surgery. The gross total resection guarantees the distinguishing of the histological types of the low-grade gliomas and reflects the biologic behavior of these tumors. Observation without surgery must be reserved for selected inoperable cases.

  2. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  3. Fractal analysis: fractal dimension and lacunarity from MR images for differentiating the grades of glioma.

    PubMed

    Smitha, K A; Gupta, A K; Jayasree, R S

    2015-09-07

    Glioma, the heterogeneous tumors originating from glial cells, generally exhibit varied grades and are difficult to differentiate using conventional MR imaging techniques. When this differentiation is crucial in the disease prognosis and treatment, even the advanced MR imaging techniques fail to provide a higher discriminative power for the differentiation of malignant tumor from benign ones. A powerful image processing technique applied to the imaging techniques is expected to provide a better differentiation. The present study focuses on the fractal analysis of fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images, for the differentiation of glioma. For this, we have considered the most important parameters of fractal analysis, fractal dimension and lacunarity. While fractal analysis assesses the malignancy and complexity of a fractal object, lacunarity gives an indication on the empty space and the degree of inhomogeneity in the fractal objects. Box counting method with the preprocessing steps namely binarization, dilation and outlining was used to obtain the fractal dimension and lacunarity in glioma. Statistical analysis such as one-way analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis helped to compare the mean and to find discriminative sensitivity of the results. It was found that the lacunarity of low and high grade gliomas vary significantly. ROC curve analysis between low and high grade glioma for fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded 70.3% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity and 70.3% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity, respectively. The study observes that fractal dimension and lacunarity increases with an increase in the grade of glioma and lacunarity is helpful in identifying most malignant grades.

  4. Gliosis versus glioma?: don't grade until you know.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Zengotita, Marie; Yachnis, Anthony T

    2012-07-01

    A major challenge in the routine practice of surgical neuropathology is the distinction between reactive astrocytosis, which may be because of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions, and a low-grade infiltrating diffuse astrocytoma [World Health Organization (WHO) grade II]. This can be particularly challenging with small biopsies that often yield limited amounts of tissue for pathologic study, especially considering the marked differences in prognosis and therapy after a pathologic diagnosis. This paper will review some basic principles of gliosis as an astrocytic reaction to a wide range of central nervous system insults and focus on some common diagnostic pitfalls such as (1) gliosis associated with brain tumor mimics, including demyelinating disease and infections, (2) gliosis associated with nonglial tumors such as craniopharyngioma, hemangioblastoma, metastases, and central nervous system lymphoma. New diagnostic methods have facilitated the differentiation between reactive astrocytosis and the diffuse gliomas. Of these, the use of mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1) as a marker of diffuse infiltrating astroctomas, oligodendrogliomas, and a subset of glioblastomas (secondary glioblastomas) is particularly exciting for tissue diagnosis and patient prognosis. In addition IDH-1 may be useful to distinguish a diffuse infiltrating glioma from low-grade "focal" neoplasms such as the pilocytic astocytoma in histologically ambiguous cases. The discovery of BRAF mutations as molecular signatures of some pilocytic astrocytomas, gangliogliomas, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas has provided another diagnostic tool for the pathologist. Only after a definitive diagnosis of a diffuse infiltrating glioma or a focal glioma is made should a tumor grade be applied and some practical issues in current glioma grading are provided.

  5. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists’ Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists’ confidence rating. PMID:28158235

  6. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lo, Chung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists' Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists' confidence rating.

  7. Assessment of diffusion tensor imaging metrics in differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    El-Serougy, Lamiaa; Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Ezzat, Amani; Eldawoody, Hany; El-Morsy, Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics in differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas. A prospective study was conducted on 35 patients with gliomas who underwent DTI. Gliomas were classified into low-grade and high-grade gliomas. The fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), linear coefficient (CL), planar coefficient (CP) and spherical coefficient (CS) of the solid tumoral part and peri-tumoral regions were calculated. There was significant difference (p = 0.001) in MD of the solid tumoral part of low-grade (1.78 ± 0.33 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s) and high-grade (1.16 ± 0.22 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s) gliomas. The selection of 1.42 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s as a cutoff value of MD of the tumoral part was used to differentiate low-grade and high-grade gliomas; the best results were obtained with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.957 and accuracy of 91.4%. There was a significant difference in FA, MD, CP and CS of peri-tumoral regions of both groups with p values of 0.006, 0.042, 0.030 and 0.037, respectively. The cutoff values of MD, FA, CS and CP of the peri-tumoral region used to differentiate low-grade from high-grade gliomas were 1.24, 0.315, 0.726 and 0.321 with AUC of 0.694, 0.773, 0.734 and 0.724 and accuracy of 68.6%, 80.0%, 74.3% and 74.3%, respectively. The combined MD of the solid tumoral part and FA of the peri-tumoral region used to differentiate low-grade from high-grade gliomas revealed AUC of 0.974 and accuracy of 88.6%. We conclude that the combination of MD of the solid tumoral part and FA of the peri-tumoral region is a noninvasive method to differentiate low-grade from high-grade gliomas. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Combination genetic signature stratifies lower-grade gliomas better than histological grade

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Liu, Joseph Shu-Ming; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Liangfu; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    We studied if combination genetic signature potentially stratifies lower-grade gliomas better than histology by investigating 214 lower-grade gliomas for IDH1/2 and TERTp mutations, 1p/19q codeletion and EGFR amplification as to their impact on prognostication. Prognostic association of grading was independent of other prognostic variables including age, histological type, IDH1/2, 1p/19q and TERTp status. No single marker, including IDH1/2, superseded grading in prognostication, indicating grading was still a very important tool. Prognosis was most favorable in 31.7% of patients with IDH1/2 mutation and either 1p/19q codeletion or TERTp mutation (IDHmut-OT), intermediate in 45.8% of patients with IDH1/2 mutation only (IDHmut) and 16.9% of patients without any of the alterations (IDHwt), and poorest in 5.6% of patients with wild-type IDH1/2 and either TERTp mutation or EGFR amplification (IDHwt-ET). Our results suggested not all IDH1/2 wild-type lower-grade gliomas are aggressive and additional biomarkers are required to identify glioblastoma-equivalent tumors. Multivariate analysis revealed independent prognostic values of grading and genetic signature. Grade II IDHwt-ET gliomas exhibited shorter survival than IDH1/2 mutated grade III gliomas, suggesting combination genetic signature potentially superseded grading in prognostication. In summary, biomarker-based stratification is useful in the diagnosis and prognostication of lower-grade gliomas, and should be used together with grading. PMID:26369702

  9. Proton Beam Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Melanocytic Lesion; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  10. Number of glioma polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) associated with vasculogenic mimicry formation and tumor grade in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) contribute to solid tumor heterogeneity. This study investigated the relationships among PGCCs numbers, vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation, and tumor grades in glioma. Methods A total of 76 paraffin-embedded glioma tissue samples, including 28 cases of low grade and 48 cases of high grade gliomas, were performed with H&E and immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and hemoglobin. The size of PGCCs nuclei was measured by a micrometer using H&E section and defined as at least three times larger than the nuclei of regular diploid cancer cells. The number of PGCCs and different blood supply patterns were compared in different grade gliomas. Microcirculation patterns in tumors were assessed using CD31 immunohistochemical and PAS histochemical double staining. Human glioma cancer cell line C6 was injected into the chicken embryonating eggs to form xenografts, which was used to observe the PGCCs and microcirculation patterns. Results In human glioma, the number of PGCCs increased with the grade of tumors (χ2 = 4.781, P = 0.015). There were three kinds of microcirculation pattern in human glioma including VM, mosaic vessel (MV) and endothelium dependent vessel. PGCCs were able to generate erythrocytes via budding to form VM. The walls of VM were positive (or negative) for PAS staining and negative for CD31 staining. There were more VM and MVs in high grade gliomas than those in low grade gliomas. The differences have statistical significances for VM (t = 3.745, P = 0.000) and MVs (t = 4.789, P = 0.000). PGCCs, VM and MVs can also be observed in C6 chicken embryonating eggs xenografts. Conclusions The data demonstrated presence of PGCCs, VM and MVs in glioma and PGCCs generating erythrocytes contribute the formation of VM and MVs. PMID:24422894

  11. Diffusion kurtosis imaging can efficiently assess the glioma grade and cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rifeng; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lingyun; Zhang, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Shun; Yao, Yihao; Yang, Shiqi; Shi, Jingjing; Shen, Nanxi; Su, Changliang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2015-12-08

    Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been fully elucidated. In this study, DKI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 74 consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. The kurtosis and conventional diffusion metric values of the tumor were semi-automatically obtained. The relationships of these metrics with the glioma grade and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. The diagnostic efficiency of these metrics in grading was further compared. It was demonstrated that compared with the conventional diffusion metrics, the kurtosis metrics were more promising imaging markers in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas and distinguishing among grade II, III and IV gliomas; the kurtosis metrics also showed great potential in the prediction of Ki-67 expression. To our best knowledge, we are the first to reveal the ability of DKI to assess the cellular proliferation of gliomas, and to employ the semi-automatic method for the accurate measurement of gliomas. These results could have a significant impact on the diagnosis and subsequent therapy of glioma.

  12. Diffusion kurtosis imaging can efficiently assess the glioma grade and cellular proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lingyun; Zhang, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Shun; Yao, Yihao; Yang, Shiqi; Shi, Jingjing; Shen, Nanxi; Su, Changliang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been fully elucidated. In this study, DKI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 74 consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. The kurtosis and conventional diffusion metric values of the tumor were semi-automatically obtained. The relationships of these metrics with the glioma grade and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. The diagnostic efficiency of these metrics in grading was further compared. It was demonstrated that compared with the conventional diffusion metrics, the kurtosis metrics were more promising imaging markers in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas and distinguishing among grade II, III and IV gliomas; the kurtosis metrics also showed great potential in the prediction of Ki-67 expression. To our best knowledge, we are the first to reveal the ability of DKI to assess the cellular proliferation of gliomas, and to employ the semi-automatic method for the accurate measurement of gliomas. These results could have a significant impact on the diagnosis and subsequent therapy of glioma. PMID:26544514

  13. Studies on high grade cerebral gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Bleehen, N.M. )

    1990-04-01

    A brief review of attempts in the United Kingdom to improve the results of treatment of high grade (grade 3, 4) supra-tentorial astrocytomas is presented. The radiosensitizer misonidazole failed to improve the results of post-surgical radiotherapy, however, multivariate analysis of data from these patients has provided a prognostic index of use in defining good and poor prognosis patients. An overview study of adjuvant nitrosourea therapy trials has shown a small significant advantage for the chemotherapy. A study of chemosensitization by benznidazole of CCNU treatment of patients in relapse failed to demonstrate any effect. 13 references.

  14. Pediatric high-grade glioma: current molecular landscape and therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Steve; Raleigh, David; Bindra, Ranjit; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne

    2017-03-29

    High-grade pediatric central nervous system glial tumors are comprised primarily of anaplastic astrocytomas (AA, WHO grade III) and glioblastomas (GBM, WHO grade IV). High-grade gliomas are most commonly diagnosed in the primary setting in children, but as in adults, they can also arise as a result of transformation of a low-grade malignancy, though with limited frequency in the pediatric population. The molecular genetics of high-grade gliomas in the pediatric population are distinct from their adult counterparts. In contrast to the adult population, high-grade gliomas in children are relatively infrequent, representing less than 20% of cases.

  15. The Value of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Low-grade Gliomas and High-grade Gliomas Lacking Glioblastoma Imaging Features: An Analysis Based on Fluorescence, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 18F-Fluoroethyl Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography, and Tumor Molecular Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Mohammed; Wölfer, Johannes; Ewelt, Christian; Holling, Markus; Hasselblatt, Martin; Niederstadt, Thomas; Zoubi, Tarek; Weckesser, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of grade II and most grade III gliomas fluoresce after 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) application. Conversely, approximately 30% of nonenhancing gliomas are actually high grade. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify preoperative factors (ie, age, enhancement, 18F-fluoroethyl tyrosine positron emission tomography [18F-FET PET] uptake ratios) for predicting fluorescence in gliomas without typical glioblastomas imaging features and to determine whether fluorescence will allow prediction of tumor grade or molecular characteristics. METHODS: Patients harboring gliomas without typical glioblastoma imaging features were given 5-ALA. Fluorescence was recorded intraoperatively, and biopsy specimens collected from fluorescing tissue. World Health Organization (WHO) grade, Ki-67/MIB-1 index, IDH1 (R132H) mutation status, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, and 1p/19q co-deletion status were assessed. Predictive factors for fluorescence were derived from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-FET PET. Classification and regression tree analysis and receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for defining predictors. RESULTS: Of 166 tumors, 82 were diagnosed as WHO grade II, 76 as grade III, and 8 as glioblastomas grade IV. Contrast enhancement, tumor volume, and 18F-FET PET uptake ratio >1.85 predicted fluorescence. Fluorescence correlated with WHO grade (P < .001) and Ki-67/MIB-1 index (P < .001), but not with MGMT promoter methylation status, IDH1 mutation status, or 1p19q co-deletion status. The Ki-67/MIB-1 index in fluorescing grade III gliomas was higher than in nonfluorescing tumors, whereas in fluorescing and nonfluorescing grade II tumors, no differences were noted. CONCLUSION: Age, tumor volume, and 18F-FET PET uptake are factors predicting 5-ALA-induced fluorescence in gliomas without typical glioblastoma imaging features. Fluorescence was associated with an increased

  16. The etiopathogenesis of diffuse low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Darlix, Amélie; Gozé, Catherine; Rigau, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    The origins of diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are unknown. Beyond some limited data on their temporal and cellular origins, the mechanisms and risk factors involved are poorly known. First, based on strong relationships between DLGG development and the eloquence of brain regions frequently invaded by these tumors, we propose a "functional theory" to explain the origin of DLGG. Second, the biological pathways involved in DLGG genesis may differ according to tumor location (anatomo-molecular correlations). The cellular and molecular mechanisms of such "molecular theory" will be reviewed. Third, the geographical distribution of diffuse WHO grade II-III gliomas within populations is heterogeneous, suggesting possible environmental risk factors. We will discuss this "environmental theory". Finally, we will summarize the current knowledge on genetic susceptibility in gliomas ("genetic predisposition theory"). These crucial issues illustrate the close relationships between the pathophysiology of gliomagenesis, the anatomo-functional organization of the brain, and personalized management of DLGG patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexuality after surgery for diffuse low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Surbeck, Werner; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Background Although neurological and neurocognitive outcomes have previously been studied after resection of diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG), the impact of surgery on sexual life has not been investigated. Our aim was to assess whether DLGG surgery could have consequences on sexual experience. Methods Anonymous standardized questionnaires concerning sexual functioning, including the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and a subjective statement, were completed by 32 patients who underwent surgery for DLGG. All patients returned to a normal social and professional life following resection, with neither neurological deficits nor depression. No radiotherapy was administered, and patients who received chemotherapy were without treatment for at least 1 year. Results Seventeen patients (53%) reported a postoperative sexual change, with subjective deterioration in 15 (88%) and improvement in 2 (12%). Sexual dysfunction according to ASEX affected 9 of 15 women (60%) and 5 of 17 men (29%). Right-sided resections were associated with more difficulties in reaching orgasm than left-sided resections (P < .02). Men with temporal lobe resection displayed more reduction in sexual drive (P < .003) and sexual arousal (P < .004) than women, resulting in significant higher overall ASEX scores for temporal lobe resections in men (P = .01). Men remaining on antiepileptic drugs who underwent right-sided resection displayed higher overall ASEX scores than women (P = .031). Conclusions This first evaluation of sexual life after surgery for DLGG suggests that sexual dysfunction is common in this population. Therefore, we suggest that sexual health should consistently be addressed during routine pre- and postoperative examination of patients with DLGG. PMID:25699682

  18. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  19. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  20. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  1. NDRG1 prognosticates the natural course of disease in WHO grade II glioma.

    PubMed

    Blaes, J; Weiler, M; Sahm, F; Hentschel, B; Osswald, M; Czabanka, M; Thomé, C M; Schliesser, M G; Pusch, S; Luger, S; Winkler, F; Radbruch, A; Jugold, M; Simon, M; Steinbach, J P; Schackert, G; Tatagiba, M; Westphal, M; Tonn, J C; Gramatzki, D; Pietsch, T; Hartmann, C; Glimm, H; Vajkoczy, P; von Deimling, A; Platten, M; Weller, M; Wick, W

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of relevant prognostic and predictive factors in neurooncology besides mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, codeletion of 1p/19q and promoter hypermethylation of O (6) -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase. More importantly, there is limited translation of these factors into clinical practice. The cancer genome atlas data and also clinical correlative analyses suggest a pivotal role for the epidermal growth factor receptor /protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in both biology and the clinical course of gliomas. However, attempts to stratify gliomas by activating alterations in this pathway have failed thus far. The tumors of 40 patients with WHO grade II gliomas without immediate postoperative genotoxic treatment and known progression and survival status at a median follow-up of 12.2 years were analyzed for expression of the mTOR complex 2 downstream target N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG)1 using immunohistochemistry. Baseline characteristics for NDRG1 absent/low versus moderate/high patients were similar. Time to reintervention was significantly longer in the NDRG1 group (P = 0.026). NDRG1 may become a novel biomarker to guide the decision which WHO°II glioma patients may be followed without postsurgical intervention and which patients should receive genotoxic treatment early on. Validation of this hypothesis will be possible with the observational arm of the RTOG 9802 and the pretreatment step of the EORTC 22033/26032 trials.

  2. Armodafinil in Reducing Cancer-Related Fatigue in Patients With High Grade Glioma | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies armodafinil to see how well it works in reducing cancer-related fatigue in patients with high grade glioma. Armodafinil may help relieve fatigue in patients with high grade glioma. |

  3. Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ho; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Vital, Anne; Mariani, Luigi; Stawski, Robert; Watanabe, Takuya; De Girolami, Umberto; Kleihues, Paul; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2010-12-01

    The current World Health Organization classification recognizes three histological types of grade II low-grade diffuse glioma (diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma). However, the diagnostic criteria, in particular for oligoastrocytoma, are highly subjective. The aim of our study was to establish genetic profiles for diffuse gliomas and to estimate their predictive impact. In this study, we screened 360 World Health Organization grade II gliomas for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 genes and for 1p/19q loss and correlated these with clinical outcome. Most tumors (86%) were characterized genetically by TP53 mutation plus IDH1/2 mutation (32%), 1p/19q loss plus IDH1/2 mutation (37%), or IDH1/2 mutation only (17%). TP53 mutations only or 1p/19q loss only was rare (2 and 3%, respectively). The median survival of patients with TP53 mutation ± IDH1/2 mutation was significantly shorter than that of patients with 1p/19q loss ± IDH1/2 mutation (51.8 months vs. 58.7 months, respectively; P = 0.0037). Multivariate analysis with adjustment for age and treatment confirmed these results (P = 0.0087) and also revealed that TP53 mutation is a significant prognostic marker for shorter survival (P = 0.0005) and 1p/19q loss for longer survival (P = 0.0002), while IDH1/2 mutations are not prognostic (P = 0.8737). The molecular classification on the basis of IDH1/2 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p/19q loss has power similar to histological classification and avoids the ambiguity inherent to the diagnosis of oligoastrocytoma.

  4. Procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine for recurrent high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Parasramka, Saurabh; Talari, Goutham; Rosenfeld, Myrna; Guo, Jing; Villano, John L

    2017-07-26

    Recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) carries an extremely poor prognosis. There is no current standard of care or guideline-based recommendations. Nitrosourea-based multidrug chemotherapy or PCV - procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine - is one of the treatment options at recurrence. There has been no meta-analysis which looks at the benefits and harms of PCV chemotherapy in adults with recurrent HGG. To assess the effectiveness and safety of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy with other interventions in adults with recurrent high-grade glioma. To investigate whether predefined subgroups of people benefit more or less from chemotherapy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 22 May 2017), and Embase (1980 to 22 May 2017). We searched trial registries including the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; apps.who.int/trialsearch) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH; ClinicalTrials.gov). We searched the reference lists of all identified studies; the electronic table of contents of the Journal of Neuro-Oncology (1983 to 2016) and Neuro-Oncology (1999 to 2016); and conference abstracts from the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO 2004 to 2016). We also searched unpublished grey literature and other regional databases. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised trials (QRCTs), or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) where PCV was used to treat adults with recurrent HGG. Comparison arm included no chemotherapy, other second line chemotherapy or best supportive care. Two review authors extracted the data and undertook a 'Risk of bias' assessment and critical appraisal of the studies. We identified two RCTs meeting our inclusion criteria. The two trials tested different comparisons.One RCT included 35 participants and compared PCV

  5. Microfoci of malignant progression in diffuse low-grade gliomas: towards the creation of an intermediate grade in glioma classification?

    PubMed

    Pedeutour-Braccini, Zoé; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Gozé, Catherine; Roger, Coralie; Bazin, Audrey; Costes-Martineau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues; Rigau, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Low-grade gliomas (GII) inescapably progress to high-grade gliomas (GIII). The duration of this transition is highly variable between patients and reliable predictive markers do not exist. We noticed in a subset of cases of GII, obtained by awake neurosurgery, the presence of microfoci with high cellular density, high vascular density, or minimal endothelial proliferation, which we called GII+. Our aim was to investigate whether these foci display immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics similar to GIII and whether their presence is correlated to poor prognosis. We analyzed cell proliferation, hypoxia, vascularization, and alterations of tumorigenic pathways by immunohistochemistry (Ki-67, CD31, HIF-1-alpha, EGFR, P-AKT, P53, MDM2) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (EGFR, MDM2, PDGFRA) in the hypercellular foci of 16 GII+ cases. We compared overall survival between GII, GII+, and GIII. Ki-67, and CD31 expression was higher in the foci than in the tumor background in all cases. Aberrant expression of protein markers and genomic aberrations were also observed in some foci, distinct from the tumor background. Survival was shorter in GII+ than in GII cases. Our results suggest that these foci are the early histological hallmark of anaplastic transformation, which is supported by molecular aberrations. Our study is the first to demonstrate intratumoral morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular heterogeneity in resection specimens of GII, the presence of which is correlated to shorter survival. Our findings question the discriminative capacity of the current glioma classification and provide arguments in favor of the creation of a grade intermediate between GII and GIII, to optimize the treatment strategy of GII.

  6. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: Clinical and dosimetric results

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Ashwatha . E-mail: narayana@mskcc.org; Yamada, Josh; Berry, Sean; Shah, Priti B.S.; Hunt, Margie; Gutin, Philip H.; Leibel, Steven A.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary clinical and dosimetric data from intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for malignant gliomas. Methods and Materials: Fifty-eight consecutive high-grade gliomas were treated between January 2001 and December 2003 with dynamic multileaf collimator IMRT, planned with the inverse approach. A dose of 59.4-60 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction was delivered. A total of three to five noncoplanar beams were used to cover at least 95% of the target volume with the prescription isodose line. Glioblastoma accounted for 70% of the cases, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma histology (pure or mixed) was seen in 15% of the cases. Surgery consisted of biopsy only in 26% of the patients, and 80% received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 24 months, 85% of the patients have relapsed. The median progression-free survival time for anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma histology was 5.6 and 2.5 months, respectively. The overall survival time for anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma was 36 and 9 months, respectively. Ninety-six percent of the recurrences were local. No Grade IV/V late neurologic toxicities were noted. A comparative dosimetric analysis revealed that regardless of tumor location, IMRT did not significantly improve target coverage compared with three-dimensional planning. However, IMRT resulted in a decreased maximum dose to the spinal cord, optic nerves, and eye by 16%, 7%, and 15%, respectively, owing to its improved dose conformality. The mean brainstem dose also decreased by 7%. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered with a limited number of beams did not result in an increased dose to the normal brain. Conclusions: It is unlikely that IMRT will improve local control in high-grade gliomas without further dose escalation compared with conventional radiotherapy. However, it might result in decreased late toxicities associated with radiotherapy.

  7. Association of carcinoid tumor and low grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung carcinoid tumor and low grade glioma are two uncommon malignancies. Patients and methods We report the case of 24-year-old man who presented with respiratory disease. Imaging investigations showed a right lung tumor and histological analysis confirmed a typical carcinoid tumor. As part of initial staging, brain MRI revealed an asymptomatic right frontal lesion. First, a right pulmonary lobectomy was performed without adjuvant treatment. In second time, brain tumorectomy was performed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of low grade glioma (LGG). The patient remained in complete remission 2.5 years after the initial diagnosis. Results This is the first case reporting the association between LGG and lung carcinoid tumor, while no association between LGG and a systemic tumor have been published to date. Association of lung carcinoid tumor with other malignant diseases has been reported but remained uncommon. Only minimal data support a potential molecular common origin. Conclusion This exceptional association may be fortuitous. However, their concomitant diagnoses suggest a potential association between both rare diseases. A genetic susceptibility remains possible. PMID:23137305

  8. Association of carcinoid tumor and low grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Emeline; Barrié, Maryline; Vicier, Cecile; Gonçalves, Anthony; Chinot, Olivier; Viens, Patrice; Madroszyk, Anne

    2012-11-08

    Lung carcinoid tumor and low grade glioma are two uncommon malignancies. We report the case of 24-year-old man who presented with respiratory disease. Imaging investigations showed a right lung tumor and histological analysis confirmed a typical carcinoid tumor. As part of initial staging, brain MRI revealed an asymptomatic right frontal lesion. First, a right pulmonary lobectomy was performed without adjuvant treatment. In second time, brain tumorectomy was performed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of low grade glioma (LGG). The patient remained in complete remission 2.5 years after the initial diagnosis. This is the first case reporting the association between LGG and lung carcinoid tumor, while no association between LGG and a systemic tumor have been published to date. Association of lung carcinoid tumor with other malignant diseases has been reported but remained uncommon. Only minimal data support a potential molecular common origin. This exceptional association may be fortuitous. However, their concomitant diagnoses suggest a potential association between both rare diseases. A genetic susceptibility remains possible.

  9. Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Frosina, Guido

    2016-05-01

    High grade gliomas (HGGs) are fatal brain tumors due to their infiltration capacity and the presence of resistant cell populations. Further, the brain is naturally protected from many exogenous molecules by the brain blood barrier (BBB), which limits or cancels passage of cytotoxic drugs to the tumor sites. In order to cope with the latter problem, nanoparticle (NP)-based carriers are intensively investigated, due to multiple possibilities to drive them across the BBB to the tumor sites and drop cytotoxic molecules there. The current status of research on NP for drug delivery to HGGs has been analyzed. The results indicate gold, lipids and proteins as three main materials featuring NP formulations for HGG treatment. Albeit specific drug targeting to HGG cells may have not been so far significantly improved, NP may help drugs crossing the BBB and enter the brain thus potentially fixing at least one part of the problem. High grade gliomas (HGG) are very aggressive tumours and current therapy remains unsatisfactory. The advance in nanomedicine has allowed the development of novel treatment modalities. In this review article, the authors outlined the current status in using nanoparticle (NP)-based carriers for drug delivery to HGG. This should help readers to understand and develop ideas for further drug carrier designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of children with high grade glioma with nimotuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Cabanas, Ricardo; Saurez, Giselle; Rios, Martha; Alert, Jose; Reyes, Adnolys; Valdes, Jose; Gonzalez, Maria C.; Pedrayes, Jorge L.; Avila, Melba; Herrera, Raiza; Infante, Mariela; Echevarria, Ernesto; Moreno, Myrna; Luaces, Patricia Lorenzo; Ramos, Tania Crombet

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors are a major cause of cancer-related mortality in children. Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is detected in pediatric brain tumors and receptor density appears to increase with tumor grading. Nimotuzumab is an IgG1 antibody that targets EGFR. Twenty-three children with high-grade glioma (HGG) were enrolled in an expanded access program in which nimotuzumab was administered alone or with radio-chemotherapy. The mean number of doses was 39. Nimotuzumab was well-tolerated and treatment with the antibody yielded a survival benefit: median survival time was 32.66 mo and the 2-y survival rate was 54.2%. This study demonstrated the feasibility of prolonged administration of nimotuzumab and showed preliminary evidence of clinical benefit in HGG patients with poor prognosis. PMID:23575267

  11. IDH1 status is significantly different between high-grade thalamic and superficial gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Mingrong; Li, Mao; Chen, Ni; Yu, Tianping; Kong, Bing; Liang, Ruofei; Wang, Xiang; Mao, Qing; Liu, Yanhui

    2017-08-23

    While major progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment of gliomas based on molecules, molecular features of thalamic glioma have rarely been reported till now. IDH1 mutation is important for prognosis of gliomas and represents a distinctive category of glioma. We intended to survey specific molecular abnormalities in high-grade thalamic gliomas (WHO III-IV). We collected data of 50 and 93 newly diagnosed high-grade thalamic and superficial glioma patients respectively and conducted a comparative analysis of molecular characteristics between them. We analyzed expressions of molecules as follow: IDH1/2, P53, Ki-67, ATRX, PTEN, MMP9 and MGMT by Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Direct gene sequencing was performed to test the IDH1(R 132H) mutation. We found a significant difference of IDH1 mutation between those high-grade gliomas, with 92% (46/50) of the thalamic tumors and 71% (66/93) of the superficial gliomas showing IDH1 wild-type (p= 0.004). It also showed that IDH1 mutation in superficial glioblastomas 18.6% (13/70) occurred more than thalamic glioblastomas 2.6% (1/39) (p= 0.017). As to high-grade superficial gliomas, there were 26 patients with IDH1 mutation, which contained 7, 13, and 6 high, moderate and low Ki-67 expression gliomas, respectively. The IDH1 wild-type group (62 patients), was composed of 29, 30, and 3 high, moderate and low Ki-67 expression gliomas, respectively. There was a significant distinction between the IDH1 mutation and Ki-67 expressions (p= 0.024). We also noted that the occurrence of low Ki-67 expressions 23.1% (6/26) in IDH1 mutation group was outnumbered than IDH1 wild-type group 4.8% (3/62) (p= 0.018). In addition, we found PTEN negative correlated with MMP9 negative in thalamic high-grade gliomas, whereas no such difference was found in superficial gliomas (p= 0.016). The rare occurrence of IDH1 mutant high-grade thalamic gliomas strongly suggested that the high-grade thalamic glioma is another distinct tumor entity as compared

  12. Somatic intronic microsatellite loci differentiate glioblastoma from lower-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Karunasena, Enusha; McIver, Lauren J; Rood, Brian R; Wu, Xiaowei; Zhu, Hongxiao; Bavarva, Jasmin H; Garner, Harold R

    2014-08-15

    Genomic studies of glioma sub-types have amassed new disease specific mutations, yet these only partially explain how mutations are linked to predisposition or progression. We hypothesized that microsatellite variation could expand the understanding of glioma etiology. Furthermore, germline markers for gliomas are typically undetectable; therefore we also hypothesize that the predictability of cancer-associated microsatellite loci in germline DNA may support the current hypothesis of a glioma cell of origin. In this study, "normal" germline exome sequenced DNA from the 1000 Genomes Project (n=390) were compared with exome sequences from germlines of subjects with WHO grade II and III lower-grade glioma (LGG, n=136) and WHO grade IV glioblastoma (GBM, n=252) from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify microsatellite loci non-randomly associated with glioma. From germline data, we identified 48 GBM-specific loci, 42 Lower-grade glioma specific loci and 29 loci that distinguish GBM from LGG (p≤ 0.01). We then attempted to distinguish WHO grade II glioma (n=67) from GBM resulting in 8 informative loci. Significantly, in all glioma grades, comparisons between tumor and matched germline sequences demonstrated no significant differences in these variants (p≥ 0.01). Therefore, these microsatellite loci are considered to be components of grade-specific signatures for glioma which distinguish germline sequences of individuals with cancer from those of individuals that are "normal". In order to better understand the significance of these loci, we identified biological processes enriched in genes with these variants. Most strikingly, six helicase genes were enriched in the GBM cohort (p≤ 1.0 x10⁻³). The preservation of these glioma-specific loci could therefore serve as valuable diagnostic and therapeutic markers; especially since the heterogeneity of tumor cell populations can obscure the identification of mutations preceding a metastatic phenotype.

  13. Overexpression of TELO2 decreases survival in human high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shao-Wei; Chen, Ying; Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chiou, Hsin-Ying Clair; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Huang, Li-Chun; Lin, Chin; Hsieh, Chih-Chuan; Yang, Yun-Ju; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are characterized with poor prognosis. To improve the clinical outcome, biomarker is urgently needed for distinguishing oncotarget in high-grade gliomas. Telomere maintenance 2 (TELO2) regulates S-phase checkpoint in cell cycle, and is involved in DNA repair. However, the role of TELO2 in survival outcome of high-grade gliomas is still not yet clarified. This study aims to investigate the correlation between TELO2 mRNA expression and survival outcome of patients with high-grade gliomas. Based on bioinformatics study, we found that Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated shorter survival in patients with higher TELO2 mRNA levels than in those with lower TELO2 expression (median survival, 59 vs. 113 weeks, p=0.0017, by log-rank test, hazard ratio: 0.3505, 95% CI: 01824.-0.6735). TELO2 mRNA expression significantly higher in World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV than in non-tumor control (p=2.85 × 10−9). Moreover, TELO2 level was greater in WHO grade III than in non-tumor controls (p= 0.017) human gliomas. We further validated TELO2 mRNA expression and protein levels by using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical (IHC) stain of tissue microarray. Consistently, the TELO2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly elevated in human glioma cells in comparison with normal brain control. Additionally, IHC staining showed higher TELO2 immunostain score in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas, or normal brain control. Taken together, human high-grade gliomas increase TELO2 mRNA expression, and overexpression of TELO2 mRNA expression correlates with shorter survival outcome, supporting that TELO2 is an oncotarget in human gliomas. PMID:27329594

  14. Overexpression of TELO2 decreases survival in human high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shao-Wei; Chen, Ying; Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chiou, Hsin-Ying Clair; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Huang, Li-Chun; Lin, Chin; Hsieh, Chih-Chuan; Yang, Yun-Ju; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2016-07-19

    High-grade gliomas are characterized with poor prognosis. To improve the clinical outcome, biomarker is urgently needed for distinguishing oncotarget in high-grade gliomas. Telomere maintenance 2 (TELO2) regulates S-phase checkpoint in cell cycle, and is involved in DNA repair. However, the role of TELO2 in survival outcome of high-grade gliomas is still not yet clarified. This study aims to investigate the correlation between TELO2 mRNA expression and survival outcome of patients with high-grade gliomas. Based on bioinformatics study, we found that Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated shorter survival in patients with higher TELO2 mRNA levels than in those with lower TELO2 expression (median survival, 59 vs. 113 weeks, p=0.0017, by log-rank test, hazard ratio: 0.3505, 95% CI: 01824.-0.6735). TELO2 mRNA expression significantly higher in World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV than in non-tumor control (p=2.85 x 10-9). Moreover, TELO2 level was greater in WHO grade III than in non-tumor controls (p= 0.017) human gliomas. We further validated TELO2 mRNA expression and protein levels by using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical (IHC) stain of tissue microarray. Consistently, the TELO2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly elevated in human glioma cells in comparison with normal brain control. Additionally, IHC staining showed higher TELO2 immunostain score in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas, or normal brain control. Taken together, human high-grade gliomas increase TELO2 mRNA expression, and overexpression of TELO2 mRNA expression correlates with shorter survival outcome, supporting that TELO2 is an oncotarget in human gliomas.

  15. A mathematical model describes the malignant transformation of low grade gliomas: Prognostic implications

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Marek; Piotrowska, Monika J.; Murek, Michael; Schucht, Philippe; Beck, Jürgen; Martínez-González, Alicia; Pérez-García, Víctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumours. Low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade II gliomas) may grow very slowly for the long periods of time, however they inevitably cause death due to the phenomenon known as the malignant transformation. This refers to the transition of LGGs to more aggressive forms of high grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO grade III and IV gliomas). In this paper we propose a mathematical model describing the spatio-temporal transition of LGGs into HGGs. Our modelling approach is based on two cellular populations with transitions between them being driven by the tumour microenvironment transformation occurring when the tumour cell density grows beyond a critical level. We show that the proposed model describes real patient data well. We discuss the relationship between patient prognosis and model parameters. We approximate tumour radius and velocity before malignant transformation as well as estimate the onset of this process. PMID:28763450

  16. A mathematical model describes the malignant transformation of low grade gliomas: Prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Bogdańska, Magdalena U; Bodnar, Marek; Piotrowska, Monika J; Murek, Michael; Schucht, Philippe; Beck, Jürgen; Martínez-González, Alicia; Pérez-García, Víctor M

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumours. Low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade II gliomas) may grow very slowly for the long periods of time, however they inevitably cause death due to the phenomenon known as the malignant transformation. This refers to the transition of LGGs to more aggressive forms of high grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO grade III and IV gliomas). In this paper we propose a mathematical model describing the spatio-temporal transition of LGGs into HGGs. Our modelling approach is based on two cellular populations with transitions between them being driven by the tumour microenvironment transformation occurring when the tumour cell density grows beyond a critical level. We show that the proposed model describes real patient data well. We discuss the relationship between patient prognosis and model parameters. We approximate tumour radius and velocity before malignant transformation as well as estimate the onset of this process.

  17. Phase I trial of capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablets and concomitant radiation therapy in children with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas and high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Lindsay B.; Kocak, Mehmet; Schaedeli Stark, Franziska; Meneses-Lorente, Georgina; Brownstein, Carrie; Hussain, Sazzad; Chintagumpala, Murali; Thompson, Patrick A.; Gururangan, Sri; Banerjee, Anuradha; Paulino, Arnold C.; Kun, Larry; Boyett, James M.; Blaney, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a phase I study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose and describe the dose-limiting toxicities and pharmacokinetics of oral capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablets given concurrently with radiation therapy to children with newly diagnosed brainstem or high-grade gliomas. Methods Children 3–21 y with newly diagnosed intrinsic brainstem or high-grade gliomas were eligible for enrollment. The starting dose was 500 mg/m2, given twice daily, with subsequent cohorts enrolled at 650 mg/m2 and 850 mg/m2 using a 3 + 3 phase I design. Children received capecitabine at the assigned dose daily for 9 wks starting from the first day of radiation therapy (RT). Following a 2-wk break, patients received 3 courses of capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days followed by a 7-day rest. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in consenting patients. Six additional patients with intrinsic brainstem gliomas were enrolled at the maximum tolerated dose to further characterize the pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles. Results Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Twenty were fully assessable for toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicities were palmar plantar erythroderma (grades 2 and 3) and elevation of alanine aminotransferase (grades 2 and 3). Systemic exposure to capecitabine and metabolites was similar to or slightly lower than predicted based on adult data. Conclusions Capecitabine with concurrent RT was generally well tolerated. The recommended phase II capecitabine dose when given with concurrent RT is 650 mg/m2, administered twice daily. A phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of this regimen in children with intrinsic brainstem gliomas is in progress (PBTC-030). PMID:23592571

  18. Multiparametric MRI-based differentiation of WHO grade II/III glioma and WHO grade IV glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wiestler, Benedikt; Kluge, Anne; Lukas, Mathias; Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Schlegel, Jürgen; Meyer, Bernhard; Zimmer, Claus; Förster, Stefan; Pyka, Thomas; Preibisch, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive, imaging-based examination of glioma biology has received increasing attention in the past couple of years. To this end, the development and refinement of novel MRI techniques, reflecting underlying oncogenic processes such as hypoxia or angiogenesis, has greatly benefitted this research area. We have recently established a novel BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) based MRI method for the measurement of relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) in glioma patients. In a set of 37 patients with newly diagnosed glioma, we assessed the performance of a machine learning model based on multiple MRI modalities including rOEF and perfusion imaging to predict WHO grade. An oblique random forest machine learning classifier using the entire feature vector as input yielded a five-fold cross-validated area under the curve of 0.944, with 34/37 patients correctly classified (accuracy 91.8%). The most important features in this classifier as per bootstrapped feature importance scores consisted of standard deviation of T1-weighted contrast enhanced signal, maximum rOEF value and cerebral blood volume (CBV) standard deviation. This study suggests that multimodal MRI information reflects underlying tumor biology, which is non-invasively detectable through integrative data analysis, and thus highlights the potential of such integrative approaches in the field of radiogenomics. PMID:27739434

  19. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in high-grade glioma: judicious selection of small target volumes improves results.

    PubMed

    Bokstein, Felix; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Corn, Benjamin W; Gez, Eliahu; Matceyevsky, Diana; Shtraus, Natan; Ram, Zvi; Kanner, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    We present a retrospective review of 55 Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) procedures performed in 47 consecutive patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). Thirty-three (70.2%) patients were diagnosed with glioblastoma and 14 (29.8%) with grade III glioma. The indications for SRS were small (up to 30 mm in diameter) locally progressing lesions in 32/47 (68%) or new distant lesions in 15/47 (32%) patients. The median target volume was 2.2 cc (0.2-9.5 cc) and the median prescription dose was 18 Gy (14-24 Gy). Three patients (5.5% incidence in 55 treatments) developed radiation necrosis. In eight cases (17%) patients received a second salvage SRS treatment to nine new lesions detected during follow-up. In 22/55 SRS treatments (40.0%) patients received concurrent chemo- or biological therapy, including temozolamide (TMZ) (15 patients), bevacizumab (BVZ) (6 patients) and carboplatin in one patient. Median time to progression after SRS was 5.0 months (1.0-96.4). Median survival time after SRS was 15.9 months (2.3-109.3) overall median survival (since diagnosis) was 37.4 months (9.6-193.6 months). Long-lasting responses (>12 months) after SRS were observed in 25/46 (54.3%) patients. We compared a matched (histology, age, KPS) cohort of patients with recurrent HGG treated with BVZ alone with the current study group. Median survival was significantly longer for SRS treated patients compared to the BVZ only cohort (12.6 vs. 7.3 months, p = 0.0102). SRS may be considered an effective salvage procedure for selected patients with small volume, recurrent high-grade gliomas. Long-term radiological control was observed in more than 50% of the patients.

  20. Venous thromboembolism in high grade glioma among surgical patients: results from a single center over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Lall, Rishi R; Graham, Randall B; Mcclendon, Jamal; Lall, Rohan R; Nanney, Allan D; Adel, Joseph G; Zakarija, Anaadriana; Chandler, James P

    2014-11-01

    Patients with high-grade glioma are at elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The relationship between VTE and survival in glioma patients remains unclear, as does the optimal protocol for chemoprophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to assessthe incidence of and risk factors associated with VTE in patients with high-grade glioma, and the correlation between VTE and survival in this population. Furthermore, we sought to define a protocol for perioperative DVT prophylaxis. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent craniotomy for resection of high-grade glioma (WHO grade III or IV) at Northwestern University between 1999 and 2010. A total of 336 patients met inclusion criteria. 53 patients developed postoperative VTE (15.7 %). Median survival was 12.0 months and was not significantly different between VTE(+) and VTE(-) patients. Demographics and surgical factors were not significantly correlated with VTE development. Prior history of VTE was highly predictive of postoperative VTE (OR 7.1, p < .01), as was seizure (OR 2.4, p = .005). Increased duration of postoperative ICU stay was also a risk factor for VTE (p = .025). 25 patients in our study received prophylactic anticoagulation(pAC) with either heparin or enoxaparin. Early initiation of pAC was associated with decreased incidence of VTE (p = .042). There were no hemorrhagic complications in patients receiving pAC. VTE is a common complication in high-grade glioma patients. Early initiation of anticoagulation is safe and may decrease the risk of VTE. We recommend initiation of chemoprophylaxis on postoperative day 1 in patients without contraindication.

  1. [18F]-fluoro-l-thymidine PET and advanced MRI for preoperative grading of gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Collet, S.; Valable, S.; Constans, J.M.; Lechapt-Zalcman, E.; Roussel, S.; Delcroix, N.; Abbas, A.; Ibazizene, M.; Bernaudin, M.; Barré, L.; Derlon, J.M.; Guillamo, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conventional MRI based on contrast enhancement is often not sufficient in differentiating grade II from grade III and grade III from grade IV diffuse gliomas. We assessed advanced MRI, MR spectroscopy and [18F]-fluoro-l-thymidine ([18F]-FLT) PET as tools to overcome these limitations. Methods In this prospective study, thirty-nine patients with diffuse gliomas of grades II, III or IV underwent conventional MRI, perfusion, diffusion, proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and [18F]-FLT-PET imaging before surgery. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, Cho/NAA and FLT-SUV were compared between grades. Results Cho/Cr showed significant differences between grade II and grade III gliomas (p = 0.03). To discriminate grade II from grade IV and grade III from grade IV gliomas, the most relevant parameter was the maximum value of [18F]-FLT uptake FLTmax (respectively, p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001). The parameter showing the best correlation with the grade was the mean value of [18F]-FLT uptake FLTmean (R2 = 0.36, p < 0.0001) and FLTmax (R2 = 0.5, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Whereas advanced MRI parameters give indications for the grading of gliomas, the addition of [18F]-FLT-PET could be of interest for the accurate preoperative classification of diffuse gliomas, particularly for identification of doubtful grade III and IV gliomas. PMID:26106569

  2. Re-irradiation alternatives for recurrent high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanli; Fu, Chengrui; Guan, Hui; Zhang, Tianyi; Zhang, Zicheng; Zhou, Tao; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in the fields of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) remains unsatisfactory. The majority of HGG patients experience disease recurrence. To date, no standard treatments have been established for recurrent HGG. Repeat surgery and chemotherapy demonstrate moderate efficacy. As recurrent lesions are usually located within the previously irradiated field, a second course of irradiation was once considered controversial, as it was considered to exhibit unsatisfactory efficacy and radiation-related toxicities. However, an increasing number of studies have indicated that re-irradiation may present an efficacious treatment for recurrent HGG. Re-irradiation may be delivered via conventionally fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy techniques. In the present review, the current literature regarding re-irradiation treatment for recurrent HGG is summarized with regard to survival outcome and side effects. PMID:27703519

  3. Gamma Knife treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

    PubMed

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yılmaz, Baran; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Kaur, Ahmet Cemil; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kılıç, Türker

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade gliomas have good overall survival rates in pediatric patients compared to adults. There are some case series that reported the effectiveness and safety of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, yet they are limited in number of patients. We aimed to review the relevant literature for pediatric low-grade glial tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and to present an exemplary case. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to clinic due to head trauma. He was alert, cooperative, and had no obvious motor or sensorial deficit. A head CT scan depicted a hypodense zone at the right caudate nucleus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a mass lesion at the same location. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma (grade II, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2007). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was applied to the tumor bed. Tumor volume was 21.85 cm(3). Fourteen gray was given to 50% isodose segment of the lesion (maximal dose of 28 Gy). The tumor has disappeared totally in 4 months, and the patient was tumor-free 21 months after the initial treatment. The presented literature review represents mostly single-center experiences with different patient and treatment characteristics. Accordingly, a mean/median margin dose of 11.3-15 Gy with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is successful in treatment of pediatric and adult low-grade glial tumor patients. However, prospective studies with a large cohort of pediatric patients should be conducted to make a more comprehensive conclusion for effectiveness and safety of GKRS in pediatric low-grade glial tumors.

  4. Facets and determinants of quality of life in patients with recurrent high grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, A R; Silvani, A; Colombo, E; Boiardi, A

    2005-04-01

    To assess patients with recurrent high grade brain glioma with the aim of evaluating facets of quality of life (QOL) and their association with mood, cognition, and physical performance. Ninety four glioma patients (four groups with different duration of glioma recurrence) were compared with 24 patients with other chronic neurological diseases and 48 healthy subjects. The Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLIC) provided QOL self evaluations, and standardised scales and neuropsychological tests assessed physical performance, mood, and cognition. In glioma patients, factor analysis of the FLIC items documented five domains: Psychological well being, Role/sociability, Inner experience of disease, Isolation/sharing, and Nausea. Higher FLIC total scores were related to better cognition, physical performances, and mood, and lower grading; poorer Psychological well being and worse Inner experience of disease to depressed mood; minor Role/sociability to worse cognitive and physical performances and higher grading; worse Nausea to longer disease duration. Compared with healthy subjects, all glioma groups were cognitively impaired and more anxious, and two groups with short duration of recurrence were also more depressed. Patients with chronic neurological diseases showed worse mood and cognitive abilities compared with healthy subjects, but performed attention tests better than glioma patients. Glioma and chronic disease patients showed similar FLIC scores and autonomy. These results show that QOL of recurrent high grade glioma patients is multifaceted and determined by multiple factors. Disease severity does not necessarily eliminate the possibility of expressing personal feelings and opinions which could provide criteria for clinical decision making and psychological support.

  5. Circulating anti-filamin C autoantibody as a potential serum biomarker for low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable due to its invasive nature. Establishment of serum biomarkers for glioma would be beneficial both for early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic intervention. Filamins are an actin cross-linker and filamin C (FLNC), normally restricted in muscle tissues, offers many signaling molecules an essential communication fields. Recently, filamins have been considered important for tumorigenesis in cancers. Methods We searched for novel glioma-associated antigens by serological identification of antigens utilizing recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX), and found FLNC as a candidate protein. Tissue expressions of FLNC (both in normal and tumor tissues) were examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was measured by ELISA in normal volunteers and in the patients with various grade gliomas. Results FLNC was expressed in glioma tissues and its level got higher as tumor grade advanced. Anti-FLNC autoantibody was also detected in the serum of glioma patients, but its levels were inversely correlated with the tissue expression. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was significantly higher in low-grade glioma patients than in high-grade glioma patients or in normal volunteers, which was confirmed in an independent validation set of patients’ sera. The autoantibody levels in the patients with meningioma or cerebral infarction were at the same level of normal volunteers, and they were significantly lower than that of low-grade gliomas. Total IgG and anti-glutatione S-transferase (GST) antibody level were not altered among the patient groups, which suggest that the autoantibody response was specific for FLNC. Conclusions The present results suggest that serum anti-FLNC autoantibody can be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of low-grade gliomas while it needs a large-scale clinical study

  6. Expression of a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 correlates with grade of malignancy in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Min; Qiu, B O; Xiong, Wende; Chen, Dong; Wu, Anhua

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in human glioma tissues from surgical specimens and discuss its possible significance in glioma biology. A total of 43 glioma specimens obtained from patients between 2007 and 2010 were collected and a series of assays were performed. Of these, 22 cases were low-grade gliomas, while 21 cases were high-grade gliomas. In addition, 20 cases of meningioma were used as the control group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of ADAM10. Besides the quantitative analysis, histological observations were also performed to localize ADAM10 expression in glioma cells. The RT-PCR and western blot analysis results demonstrated increased ADAM10 expression in the low-grade glioma samples compared with the control (P<0.05), while ADAM10 expression was further increased in the high-grade glioma samples (P<0.01 vs. control; P<0.05 vs. low-grade glioma), indicating that the mRNA and protein expression levels of ADAM10 were malignancy-dependent. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the ADAM10 protein was located on both the tumor cell membrane and blood vessel walls within tumor tissues. In conclusion, these results indicated that ADAM10 expression correlates with the grade of malignancy in human glioma from surgical specimens. In addition, the fact that ADAM10 protein was expressed on cell membranes and blood vessel walls within tumor tissues, indicates that its expression may be associated with invasive tumor growth and peritumoral edema formation.

  7. Discrimination between two different grades of human glioma based on blood vessel infrared spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Katia; Forfar, Isabelle; Eimer, Sandrine; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2015-09-01

    Gliomas are brain tumours classified into four grades with increasing malignancy from I to IV. The development and the progression of malignant glioma largely depend on the tumour vascularization. Due to their tissue heterogeneity, glioma cases can be difficult to classify into a specific grade using the gold standard of histological observation, hence the need to base classification on a quantitative and reliable analytical method for accurately grading the disease. Previous works focused specifically on vascularization study by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proving this method to be a way forward to detect biochemical changes in the tumour tissue not detectable by visual techniques. In this project, we employed FTIR imaging using a focal plane array (FPA) detector and globar source to analyse large areas of glioma tumour tissue sections via molecular fingerprinting in view of helping to define markers of the tumour grade. Unsupervised multivariate analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of blood vessel spectral data, retrieved from the FPA images, revealed the fine structure of the borderline between two areas identified by a pathologist as grades III and IV. Spectroscopic indicators are found capable of discriminating different areas in the tumour tissue and are proposed as biomolecular markers for potential future use of grading gliomas. Graphical Abstract Infrared imaging of glioma blood vessels provides a means to revise the pathologists' line of demarcation separating grade III (GIII) from grade IV (GIV) parts.

  8. Significance of IDH mutations varies with tumor histology, grade, and genetics in Japanese glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Mukasa, Akitake; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Saito, Kuniaki; Shibahara, Junji; Tabei, Yusuke; Furuya, Kazuhide; Ide, Takafumi; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Ryo; Ueki, Keisuke; Saito, Nobuhito

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are found frequently in malignant gliomas and are likely involved in early gliomagenesis. To understand the prevalence of these mutations and their relationship to other genetic alterations and impact on prognosis for Japanese glioma patients, we analyzed 250 glioma cases. Mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 were found in 73 (29%) and 2 (1%) cases, respectively. All detected mutations were heterozygous, and most mutations were an Arg132His (G395A) substitution. IDH mutations were frequent in oligodendroglial tumors (37/52, 71%) and diffuse astrocytomas (17/29, 59%), and were less frequent in anaplastic astrocytomas (8/29, 28%) and glioblastomas (13/125, 10%). The pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas did not have either mutation. Notably, 28 of 30 oligodendroglial tumors harboring the 1p/19q co-deletion also had an IDH mutation, and these alterations were significantly correlated (P < 0.001). The association between TP53 and IDH mutation was significant in diffuse astrocytomas (P = 0.0018). MGMT promoter methylation was significantly associated with IDH mutation in grade 2 (P < 0.001) and grade 3 (P = 0.02) gliomas. IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion were independent favorable prognostic factors for patients with grade 3 gliomas. For patients with grade 3 gliomas and without 1p/19q co-deletion, IDH mutation was strongly associated with increased progression-free survival (P < 0.0001) and overall survival (P < 0.0001), but no such marked correlation was observed with grade 2 gliomas or glioblastomas. Therefore, IDH mutation would be most useful when assessing prognosis of patients with grade 3 glioma with intact 1p/19q; anaplastic astrocytomas account for most of these grade 3 gliomas.

  9. Deubiquitinase USP9X deubiquitinates β-catenin and promotes high grade glioma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihao; Yang, Chunxu; Ouyang, Wen; Zhou, Fuxiang; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xie, Conghua

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin is a crucial signal transduction molecule in the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, and increased β-catenin expression has consistently been found in high grade gliomas. However, the mechanisms responsible for β-catenin overexpression have remained elusive. Here we show that the deubiquitinase USP9X stabilizes β-catenin and thereby promotes high grade glioma cell growth. USP9X binds β-catenin and removes the Lys 48-linked polyubiquitin chains that normally mark β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Increased USP9X expression correlates with increased β-catenin protein in high grade glioma tissues. Moreover, patients with high grade glioma overexpressing USP9X have a poor prognosis. Knockdown of USP9X suppresses cell proliferation, inhibits G1/S phase conversion, and induces apoptosis in U251 and A172 cells. Interestingly, c-Myc and cyclinD1, which are important downstream target genes in the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, also show decreased expression in cells with siRNA-mediated down-regulation of USP9X. Down-regulation of USP9X also consistently inhibits the tumorigenicity of primary glioma cells in vivo. In summary, these results indicate that USP9X stabilizes β-catenin and activates Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway to promote glioma cell proliferation and survival. USP9X could also potentially be a novel therapeutic target for high grade gliomas. PMID:27783990

  10. Diagnostic challenges, management and outcomes of midline low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Waqar, Mueez; Hanif, Shahid; Rathi, Nitika; Das, Kumar; Zakaria, Rasheed; Brodbelt, Andrew R; Walker, Carol; Jenkinson, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are slow-growing and diffusely infiltrating tumours constituting 25-30 % of adult gliomas. Rarely, these tumours may arise in the cerebral midline, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, tectum and brainstem. Here we present a contemporary experience with midline LGGs. Midline LGGs were identified from a retrospective database of adult patients who received a histological diagnosis of WHO grade II glioma between 2006 and 2012 at a single institution. Location, radiological data and clinical outcomes were collected. IDH1 status was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Eighteen patients with midline LGGs were identified, with a median age of 45. Most received biopsy upon diagnosis, though asymptomatic patients with tectal tumours underwent active surveillance. Oligodendroglial tumours were much less common than in a comparable group of lobar tumours (6 vs. 38 %, Fisher's exact test, p = 0.007). Only one tumour was immunopositive for IDH1 (1/17). Radiological diagnosis correlated with histology in only 71 % of patients. Median survival of midline LGGs was 48 months (3-90 months) and radiological features such as contrast enhancement, size and radiological diagnosis did not predict survival in this cohort. Median overall survival of midline LGGs was less than lobar LGGs (log-rank, p = 0.006), though differences became insignificant when considering only biopsied astrocytomas in both locations (log-rank, p = 0.491). Diagnosis of midline LGGs is complicated by both limitations of biopsy and imaging. Midline tumours have a poorer prognosis compared to lobar equivalents and survival differences are probably due to the absence of significant surgical intervention in midline locations.

  11. Novel cancer-testis antigen expression on glioma cell lines derived from high-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuto; Komiyama, Masaru; Miyata, Haruo; Yagoto, Mika; Ashizawa, Tadashi; Iizuka, Akira; Oshita, Chie; Kume, Akiko; Nogami, Masahiro; Ito, Ichiro; Watanabe, Reiko; Sugino, Takashi; Mitsuya, Koichi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Nakasu, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant and aggressive tumors, and has a very poor prognosis with a mean survival time of <2 years, despite intensive treatment using chemo-radiation. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches including immunotherapy have been developed against GBM. For the purpose of identifying novel target antigens contributing to GBM treatment, we developed 17 primary glioma cell lines derived from high-grade glioma patients, and analyzed the expression of various tumor antigens and glioma-associated markers using a quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). A quantitative PCR using 54 cancer-testis (CT) antigen-specific primers showed that 36 CT antigens were positive in at least 1 of 17 serum-derived cell lines, and 17 antigens were positive in >50% cell lines. Impressively, 6 genes (BAGE, MAGE-A12, CASC5, CTAGE1, DDX43 and IL-13RA2) were detected in all cell lines. The expression of other 13 glioma-associated antigens than CT genes were also investigated, and 10 genes were detected in >70% cell lines. The expression of CT antigen and glioma-associated antigen genes with a high frequency were also verified in IHC analysis. Moreover, a relationship of antigen gene expressions with a high frequency to overall survival was investigated using the Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) database of the National Cancer Institute, and expression of 6 genes including IL-13RA2 was inversely correlated to overall survival time. Furthermore, 4 genes including DDX43, TDRD1, HER2 and gp100 were identified as MGMT-relevant factors. In the present study, several CT antigen including novel genes were detected in high-grade glioma primary cell lines, which might contribute to developing novel immunotherapy and glioma-specific biomarkers in future.

  12. Differentiation of high-grade and low-grade diffuse gliomas by intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Togao, Osamu; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Iwaki, Toru; Obara, Makoto; Van Cauteren, Marc; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR imaging for differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGGs) from low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Methods Forty-five patients with diffuse glioma (age 50.9 ± 20.4 y; 26 males, 19 females) were assessed with IVIM imaging using 13 b-values (0–1000 s/mm2) at 3T. The perfusion fraction (f), true diffusion coefficient (D), and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*) were calculated by fitting the bi-exponential model. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was obtained with 2 b-values (0 and 1000 s/mm2). Relative cerebral blood volume was measured by the dynamic susceptibility contrast method. Two observers independently measured D, ADC, D*, and f, and these measurements were compared between the LGG group (n = 16) and the HGG group (n = 29). Results Both D (1.26 ± 0.37 mm2/s in LGG, 0.94 ± 0.19 mm2/s in HGG; P < .001) and ADC (1.28 ± 0.35 mm2/s in LGG, 1.03 ± 0.19 mm2/s in HGG; P < .01) were lower in the HGG group. D was lower than ADC in the LGG (P < .05) and HGG groups (P < .0001). D* was not different between the groups. The f-values were significantly larger in HGG (17.5 ± 6.3%) than in LGG (5.8 ± 3.8%; P < .0001) and correlated with relative cerebral blood volume (r = 0.85; P < .0001). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed areas under curve of 0.95 with f, 0.78 with D, 0.73 with ADC, and 0.60 with D*. Conclusion IVIM imaging is useful in differentiating HGGs from LGGs. PMID:26243792

  13. A comprehensive review of paediatric low-grade diffuse glioma: pathology, molecular genetics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Scott; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia

    2017-04-01

    Gliomas are the most common central nervous system neoplasms affecting children and can be both high- and low-grade. Paediatric low-grade glioma may be either World Health Organization grade I or grade II. Despite being classified as grade II diffuse astrocytoma, these neoplasms arising in children are distinct clinically and molecularly from their adult counterparts. They do not tend to progress to higher grade lesions and only rarely harbour an IDH mutation. Here, we review the clinical, histologic and molecular features of paediatric grade II diffuse glioma, highlighting their diagnostic criteria, prevalence across brain locations, their most common molecular features and how to test for them, and lastly the current status of therapeutic options available for their treatment.

  14. Novel Oncogenic PDGFRA Mutations in Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Paugh, Barbara S.; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Qu, Chunxu; Endersby, Raelene; Diaz, Alexander K.; Zhang, Junyuan; Bax, Dorine A.; Carvalho, Diana; Reis, Rui M.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Broniscer, Alberto; Wetmore, Cynthia; Zhang, Jinghui; Jones, Chris; Ellison, David W.; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2013-01-01

    The outcome for children with high-grade gliomas (HGG) remains dismal, with a two-year survival rate of only 10–30%. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) comprise a subset of HGG that arise in brainstem almost exclusively in children. Genome-wide analyses of copy number imbalances previously showed that platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is the most frequent target of focal amplification in pediatric HGGs, including DIPGs. To determine whether PDGFRA is also targeted by more subtle mutations missed by copy number analysis, we sequenced all PDGFRA coding exons from a cohort of pediatric HGGs. Somatic activating mutations were identified in 14.4% (13/90) of non-brainstem pediatric HGGs and 4.7% (2/43) of DIPGs, including missense mutations and in-frame deletions and insertions not previously described. 40% of tumors with mutation showed concurrent amplification, while 60% carried heterozygous mutations. Six different mutations impacting different domains all resulted in ligand-independent receptor activation that was blocked by small molecule inhibitors of PDGFR. Expression of mutants in p53-null primary mouse astrocytes conferred a proliferative advantage in vitro, and generated HGGs in vivo with complete penetrance when implanted into brain. The gene expression signatures of these murine HGGs reflected the spectrum of human diffuse HGGs. PDGFRA intragenic deletion of exons 8 and 9 were previously shown in adult HGG, but were not detected in 83 non-brainstem pediatric HGG and 57 DIPGs. Thus, a distinct spectrum of mutations confers constitutive receptor activation and oncogenic activity to PDGFRα in childhood HGG. PMID:23970477

  15. Glioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... come from ependymal cells. Tumors that display a mixture of these different cells are called mixed gliomas. ... oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells. Tumors that display a mixture of these cells are called mixed gliomas. Astrocytoma: ...

  16. Carboplatin Hypersensitivity Reactions in Pediatric Low Grade Glioma Are Protocol Specific and Desensitization Shows Poor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dodgshun, Andrew J; Hansford, Jordan R; Cole, Theresa; Choo, Sharon; Sullivan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The use of carboplatin for the treatment of pediatric low grade gliomas (PLGG) is often limited by the development of carboplatin hypersensitivity. Reported rates of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions vary between 6% and 32% in these patients. Here we report the frequency of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions depending on the treatment regimen used, and outcomes of carboplatin desensitization. The records of all patients in a single institution who were treated with carboplatin for PLGG were accessed and all patients receiving more than one dose of carboplatin are reported. Thirty four patients with PLGG were treated with carboplatin according to one of the two different regimens. Carboplatin hypersensitivity was documented in 47% of patients, but the frequency differed by treatment protocol. Those patients treated with 4-weekly single agent carboplatin had carboplatin allergy in 8% of cases whereas 68% of those treated with combined carboplatin and vincristine (every three weeks, according to the SIOP 2004 low grade glioma protocol) had carboplatin reactions (OR 23.6, P < 0.01). Desensitization was only successful in two out of 10 patients in whom it was attempted. Hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin are more common in this cohort than previously reported and rates are protocol-dependent. Desensitization showed limited effectiveness in this cohort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Neurocognitive effects of proton radiation therapy in adults with low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Janet Cohen; Colvin, Mary K; Mancuso, Sarah M; Batchelor, Tracy T; Oh, Kevin S; Loeffler, Jay S; Yeap, Beow Y; Shih, Helen A

    2016-01-01

    To understand neurocognitive effects of proton radiation therapy (PRT) in patients with low-grade glioma, we evaluated 20 patients who received this therapy prospectively and over 5 years with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. 20 patients were evaluated at baseline and at yearly intervals for up to 5 years with a battery of neuropsychological measures that assessed intellectual, attention, executive, visuospatial and memory functions as well as mood and functional status. We evaluated change in cognitive functioning over time. We analyzed the relationship between cognitive performance and tumor location and also examined whether patients' performance differed from that reported in a study of normative practice effects. Overall, patients exhibited stability in cognitive functioning. Tumor location played a role in performance; those with tumors in the left hemisphere versus in the right hemisphere were more impaired at baseline on verbal measures (p < .05). However, we found greater improvement in verbal memory over time in patients with left than with right hemisphere tumors (p < .05). Results of our study, the first to investigate, in depth, neurocognitive effects of PRT in adults with low-grade gliomas, are promising. We hypothesize that the conformal advantage of PRT may contribute to preservation of cognitive functioning, although larger sample sizes and a longer period of study are required. Our study also highlights the need to consider normative practice effects when studying neurocognitive functioning in response to treatment over time, and the need to utilize comprehensive neuropsychological batteries given our findings that differentiate patients with left and right hemisphere tumors.

  18. TERT promoter mutations contribute to IDH mutations in predicting differential responses to adjuvant therapies in WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Ding, Xiao-Jie; Qin, Zhi-Yong; Hong, Christopher S; Chen, Ling-Chao; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Fang-Ping; Wang, Yin; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Zhuang, Zhengping; Ng, Ho-Keung; Yan, Hai; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying

    2015-09-22

    IDH mutations frequently occur in WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas and have favorable prognosis compared to wild-type tumors. However, whether IDH mutations in WHO grade II and II diffuse gliomas predict enhanced sensitivity to adjuvant radiation (RT) or chemotherapy (CHT) is still being debated. Recent studies have identified recurrent mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in gliomas. We previously demonstrated that TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers in glioma survival prognostication when combined with IDH mutations. This study analyzed IDH and TERT promoter mutations in 295 WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas treated with or without adjuvant therapies to explore their impact on the sensitivity of tumors to genotoxic therapies. IDH mutations were found in 216 (73.2%) patients and TERT promoter mutations were found in 112 (38%) patients. In multivariate analysis, IDH mutations (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS in patients receiving genotoxic therapies while TERT promoter mutations were not. In univariate analysis, IDH and TERT promoter mutations were not significant prognostic factors in patients who did not receive genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were factors independently impacting PFS (RT p = 0.001, CHT p = 0.026) in IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas but not in IDH wild-type group. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated TERT promoter mutations further stratified IDH wild-type WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas into two subgroups with different responses to genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were significant parameters influencing PFS in the IDH wt/TERT mut subgroup (RT p = 0.015, CHT p = 0.015) but not in the IDH wt/TERT wt subgroup. Our data demonstrated that IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas had better PFS and OS than their IDH wild-type counterparts when genotoxic therapies were administered after surgery

  19. TERT promoter mutations contribute to IDH mutations in predicting differential responses to adjuvant therapies in WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao-Jie; Qin, Zhi-Yong; Hong, Christopher S.; Chen, Ling-Chao; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Fang-Ping; Wang, Yin; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Zhuang, Zhengping; Ng, Ho-Keung; Yan, Hai; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    IDH mutations frequently occur in WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas and have favorable prognosis compared to wild-type tumors. However, whether IDH mutations in WHO grade II and II diffuse gliomas predict enhanced sensitivity to adjuvant radiation (RT) or chemotherapy (CHT) is still being debated. Recent studies have identified recurrent mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in gliomas. We previously demonstrated that TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers in glioma survival prognostication when combined with IDH mutations. This study analyzed IDH and TERT promoter mutations in 295 WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas treated with or without adjuvant therapies to explore their impact on the sensitivity of tumors to genotoxic therapies. IDH mutations were found in 216 (73.2%) patients and TERT promoter mutations were found in 112 (38%) patients. In multivariate analysis, IDH mutations (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS in patients receiving genotoxic therapies while TERT promoter mutations were not. In univariate analysis, IDH and TERT promoter mutations were not significant prognostic factors in patients who did not receive genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were factors independently impacting PFS (RT p = 0.001, CHT p = 0.026) in IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas but not in IDH wild-type group. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated TERT promoter mutations further stratified IDH wild-type WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas into two subgroups with different responses to genotoxic therapies. Adjuvant RT and CHT were significant parameters influencing PFS in the IDH wt/TERT mut subgroup (RT p = 0.015, CHT p = 0.015) but not in the IDH wt/TERT wt subgroup. Our data demonstrated that IDH mutated WHO grade II and III diffuse gliomas had better PFS and OS than their IDH wild-type counterparts when genotoxic therapies were administered after surgery

  20. Molecular Markers in Low-Grade Glioma-Toward Tumor Reclassification.

    PubMed

    Olar, Adriana; Sulman, Erik P

    2015-07-01

    Low-grade diffuse gliomas are a heterogeneous group of primary glial brain tumors with highly variable survival. Currently, patients with low-grade diffuse gliomas are stratified into risk subgroups by subjective histopathologic criteria with significant interobserver variability. Several key molecular signatures have emerged as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictor biomarkers for tumor classification and patient risk stratification. In this review, we discuss the effect of the most critical molecular alterations described in diffuse (IDH1/2, 1p/19q codeletion, ATRX, TERT, CIC, and FUBP1) and circumscribed (BRAF-KIAA1549, BRAF(V600E), and C11orf95-RELA fusion) gliomas. These molecular features reflect tumor heterogeneity and have specific associations with patient outcome that determine appropriate patient management. This has led to an important, fundamental shift toward developing a molecular classification of World Health Organization grade II-III diffuse glioma.

  1. Malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas in patients undergoing adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Rotta, José Marcus; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2017-03-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGG) comprise nearly 15-20 % of all central nervous system glial tumors. Several factors have been recognized as playing role in LGG malignant transformation (MT). A breakthrough analysis of a multidisciplinary group pointed that temozolomide may play a role in MT of LGGs. We analyzed the prevalence of MT in LGG patients submitted to adjuvant therapy (AT). We analyzed the medical charts of 43 patients with LGG submitted to surgery or biopsy and attending at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil), consecutively diagnosed from 1995 to 2013. 43 patients (24 women and 19 men) were evaluated, with mean age of 45.3 years. According to histology, 30 were astrocytomas (70 %), 12 (27 %) were oligodendrogliomas, and 1 (3 %) were mixed glioma. Mean follow-up time was 4.2 years with the standard deviation of 2.1. Twenty-eight patients did not receive adjuvant therapy and 15 received adjuvant therapy. From 43 patients with complete follow-up, 21 (48 %) experienced malignant transformation. Among such patients, nine were users of AT. Forty-eight percent of patients presented MT, being 60 % in the AT group and 42.8 % without AT. Our analysis revealed a high prevalence of MT in patients undergoing AT, higher than in patients without AT.

  2. Nimotuzumab in combination with radiotherapy in high grade glioma patients: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Maria Teresa; Miranda, Nederlay; Jorrín, Eugenia; Chon, Ivonne; Marinello, Jorge Juan; Alert, José; Lorenzo-Luaces, Patricia; Crombet, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Nimotuzumab, a humanized antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, has potent anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and pro-apoptotic effects in vitro and in vivo. It also reduces the number of radio-resistant CD133(+) glioma stem cells. The antibody has been extensively evaluated in patients with advanced head and neck, glioma, lung, esophageal, pancreatic, and gastric cancer. In this single institution experience, 35 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) were treated with irradiation and 200 mg doses of nimotuzumab. The first 6 doses were administered weekly, together with radiotherapy, and then treatment continued every 21 days until 1 year. The median number of doses was 12, and the median cumulative dose was thus 2400 mg of nimotuzumab. The most frequent treatment-related toxicities were increase in liver function tests, fever, nausea, anorexia, asthenia, dizziness, and tremors. These adverse reactions were classified as mild and moderate. The median survival time was 12.4 mo or 27.0 mo for patients with GBM or AA patients, respectively, who received curative-intent radiotherapy in combination with the antibody. The survival time of a matched population treated at the same hospital with irradiation alone was decreased (median 8.0 and 12.2 mo for GBM and AA patients, respectively) compared with that of the patients who received nimotuzumab and curative-intent radiotherapy. We have thus confirmed that nimotuzumab is a very well-tolerated drug, lacking cumulative toxicity after maintenance doses. This study, in a poor prognosis population, validates the previous data of survival gain after combining nimotuzumab and radiotherapy, in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients.

  3. Treatment of Adult Lower-Grade Glioma in the Era of Genomic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Susan M; Cahill, Daniel P; Aldape, Kenneth D; Mehta, Minesh P

    2016-01-01

    By convention, gliomas are histopathologically classified into four grades by the World Health Organization (WHO) legacy criteria, in which increasing grade is associated with worse prognosis and grades also are subtyped by presumed cell of origin. This classification has prognostic value but is limited by wide variability of outcome within each grade, so the classification is rapidly undergoing dramatic re-evaluation in the context of a superior understanding of the biologic heterogeneity and molecular make-up of these tumors, such that we now recognize that some low-grade gliomas behave almost like malignant glioblastoma, whereas other anaplastic gliomas have outcomes comparable to favorable low-grade gliomas. This clinical spectrum is partly accounted for by the dispersion of several molecular genetic alterations inherent to clinical tumor behavior. These molecular biomarkers have become important not only as prognostic factors but also, more critically, as predictive markers to drive therapeutic decision making. Some of these, in the near future, will likely also serve as potential therapeutic targets. In this article, we summarize the key molecular features of clinical significance for WHO grades II and III gliomas and underscore how the therapeutic landscape is changing.

  4. Pediatric low-grade gliomas: implications of the biologic era.

    PubMed

    Packer, Roger J; Pfister, Stephan; Bouffet, Eric; Avery, Robert; Bandopadhayay, Pratiti; Bornhorst, Miriam; Bowers, Daniel C; Ellison, David; Fangusaro, Jason; Foreman, Nicholas; Fouladi, Maryam; Gajjar, Amar; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Hawkins, Cynthia; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Hwang, Eugene; Jabado, Nada; Kilburn, Lindsay B; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Ligon, Keith L; Massimino, Maura; Meeteren, Schouten-van; Mueller, Sabine; Nicolaides, Theo; Perilongo, Giorgio; Tabori, Uri; Vezina, Gilbert; Warren, Katherine; Witt, Olaf; Zhu, Yuan; Jones, David T; Kieran, Mark

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, it has been recognized that pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and glial-neuronal tumors carry distinct molecular alterations with resultant aberrant intracellular signaling in the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The conclusions and recommendations of a consensus conference of how best to integrate the growing body of molecular genetic information into tumor classifications and, more importantly, for future treatment of pediatric LGGs are summarized here. There is uniform agreement that molecular characterization must be incorporated into classification and is increasingly critical for appropriate management. Molecular-targeted therapies should be integrated expeditiously, but also carefully into the management of these tumors and success measured not only by radiographic responses or stability, but also by functional outcomes. These trials need to be carried out with the caveat that the long-term impact of molecularly targeted therapy on the developing nervous system, especially with long duration treatment, is essentially unknown. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Advances in the management of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Nageswara Rao, Amulya A; Packer, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) represent the most common childhood brain tumors and are a histologically heterogenous group of tumors. Most LGGs are surgically resectable with excellent 10-year overall survival outcomes of more than 90 % with surgery alone. Tumors not amenable to surgical resection and those with an aggressive biology are more challenging to treat. Conventional radiotherapy is a more efficacious method of long-term tumor control than chemotherapy. However, radiation is associated with significant cognitive, endocrine, and cerebrovascular late effects, making chemotherapy an often-preferred modality over radiotherapy, especially in younger children. Multiple chemotherapy regimens have been evaluated over the past few decades with comparable survival outcomes and differing toxicity profiles. Newer regimens containing antiangiogenic agents also show promise. Recent molecular studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene, a key regulator of the MAPK pathway, and the AKT/mTOR pathway in pediatric LGG tumorigenesis. This has opened up promising new avenues for targeted therapy, with many agents currently under investigation.

  6. EGFR immunolabeling pattern may discriminate low-grade gliomas from gliosis.

    PubMed

    Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Benchetrit, Maxime; Miquel, Catherine; Fontaine, Denys; Auvergne, Romane; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Michiels, Jean-François; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique; Virolle, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in gliomas. Gliomas are infiltrating tumors in which neoplastic glial cells can be intermingled with reactive glial cells, particularly in diffuse low-grade gliomas. As overexpression of EGFR has also been described in gliosis, it can be difficult to evaluate EGFR immunolabeling in diffuse low-grade gliomas because of this cell mix. We compared EGFR immunolabeling between gliosis and low-grade gliomas in order to identify distinctive criteria. We studied EGFR expression in 28 cases of gliosis and 39 diffuse low-grade gliomas (23 astrocytomas and 16 oligodendrogliomas). EGFR immunohistochemistry staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections with a mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 2-18C9; Dako). Co-expression of EGFR with Olig2, Mib-1, and p53 was assessed in seven cases of low-grade gliomas using double immunolabeling. Then, EGFR immunostaining was blindly tested on 22 small specimens of indeterminate glial lesions provided by a reference neuropathological center. Two pathologists of our local center were asked to classify the lesions into diffuse low-grade glioma or gliosis according to the pattern of EGFR expression. Weak expression of EGFR was commonly detected in gliosis (23/28 cases). Strongly-stained cells were absent. Positive cells had reactive glial cell morphology. EGFR expression in gliomas was characterized by constant strongly-stained cells (39/39 cases). All strongly-stained cells had a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, with minimal to moderate nuclear atypia. Most of the strongly EGFR-positive cells were Olig2-positive. All the cases displayed cells co-expressing EGFR and Mib-1. In three p53-positive tumors, many p53-positive cells were strongly EGFR-positive. On the basis of EGFR expression, 14 out of the 22 indeterminate cases were classified as gliomas and eight as gliosis by both pathologists. Concordance with the initial diagnosis established by the reference center and

  7. A cadherin switch underlies malignancy in high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Appolloni, I; Barilari, M; Caviglia, S; Gambini, E; Reisoli, E; Malatesta, P

    2015-04-09

    Although the infiltrative behavior of malignant gliomas is one of their most critical aspects, the mechanisms underlying it have not yet been elucidated. To migrate in the brain parenchyma, malignant glioma cells need to bypass the cell-cell contact inhibitory signals. Here we propose that the blinding of cell-cell contact sensing in gliomas is caused by an unusual mechanism of cadherin switch, involving the replacement of N-cadherin with R-cadherin (Rcad) at the cell-cell junctions and the activation of ERK and p27. In our model of malignant glioma, we found that Rcad expression is necessary and sufficient to release cells from contact inhibition of proliferation, and is necessary, although not sufficient, for overriding contact inhibition of migration and for tumorigenicity. Altogether, these observations suggest that Rcad is a potential target for malignant glioma therapies.

  8. Intra-rater variability in low-grade glioma segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bø, Hans Kristian; Solheim, Ole; Jakola, Asgeir Store; Kvistad, Kjell-Arne; Reinertsen, Ingerid; Berntsen, Erik Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of size and growth are key radiological factors in low-grade gliomas (LGGs), both for prognostication and treatment evaluation, but the reliability of LGG-segmentation is scarcely studied. With a diffuse and invasive growth pattern, usually without contrast enhancement, these tumors can be difficult to delineate. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-observer variability in LGG-segmentation for a radiologist without prior segmentation experience. Pre-operative 3D FLAIR images of 23 LGGs were segmented three times in the software 3D Slicer. Tumor volumes were calculated, together with the absolute and relative difference between the segmentations. To quantify the intra-rater variability, we used the Jaccard coefficient comparing both two (J2) and three (J3) segmentations as well as the Hausdorff Distance (HD). The variability measured with J2 improved significantly between the two last segmentations compared to the two first, going from 0.87 to 0.90 (p = 0.04). Between the last two segmentations, larger tumors showed a tendency towards smaller relative volume difference (p = 0.07), while tumors with well-defined borders had significantly less variability measured with both J2 (p = 0.04) and HD (p < 0.01). We found no significant relationship between variability and histological sub-types or Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC). We found that the intra-rater variability can be considerable in serial LGG-segmentation, but the variability seems to decrease with experience and higher grade of border conspicuity. Our findings highlight that some criteria defining tumor borders and progression in 3D volumetric segmentation is needed, if moving from 2D to 3D assessment of size and growth of LGGs.

  9. Noninvasive amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating the grading and cellularity of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Lin, Yusong; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Lingfei; Wang, Lifu; Zuo, Panli; Vallines, Ignacio; Schmitt, Benjamin; Tian, Jie; Song, Xiaolei; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-24

    Using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to accurately evaluate the grading and cellularity of gliomas is beneficial for improving the patient outcomes. Amide proton transfer imaging is a noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer mechanism that detects endogenous mobile proteins and peptides in biological tissues. Between August 2012 and November 2015, a total number of 44 patients with pathologically proven gliomas were included in this study. We compared the capability of amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging with that of noninvasive diffusion-weighted imaging and noninvasive 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin imaging in evaluating the grading and cellularity of gliomas. Our results reveal that amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging is a superior imaging technique to diffusion-weighted imaging and 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin imaging in the grading of gliomas. In addition, our results showed that the Ki-67 index correlated better with the amide proton transfer-weighted signal intensity than with the apparent diffusion coefficient value or the cerebral blood flow value in the gliomas. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging is a promising method for predicting the grading and cellularity of gliomas.

  10. Noninvasive amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating the grading and cellularity of gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Kong, Lingfei; Wang, Lifu; Zuo, Panli; Vallines, Ignacio; Schmitt, Benjamin; Tian, Jie; Song, Xiaolei; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to accurately evaluate the grading and cellularity of gliomas is beneficial for improving the patient outcomes. Amide proton transfer imaging is a noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer mechanism that detects endogenous mobile proteins and peptides in biological tissues. Between August 2012 and November 2015, a total number of 44 patients with pathologically proven gliomas were included in this study. We compared the capability of amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging with that of noninvasive diffusion-weighted imaging and noninvasive 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin imaging in evaluating the grading and cellularity of gliomas. Our results reveal that amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging is a superior imaging technique to diffusion-weighted imaging and 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin imaging in the grading of gliomas. In addition, our results showed that the Ki-67 index correlated better with the amide proton transfer-weighted signal intensity than with the apparent diffusion coefficient value or the cerebral blood flow value in the gliomas. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging is a promising method for predicting the grading and cellularity of gliomas. PMID:27992380

  11. Protein and mRNA levels of YKL-40 in high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kazakova, M H; Staneva, D N; Koev, I G; Staikov, D G; Mateva, N; Timonov, P T; Miloshev, G A; Sarafian, V S

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumours, characterized by extreme proliferation and aggressive invasion. There is evidence for over-expression of the YKL40 gene in high-grade gliomas. The high serum levels of the glycoprotein are associated with poor prognosis of various inflammatory and tumour processes. We investigated the YKL40 mRNA level and protein expression in the tumour site and in the serum of high-grade glioma patients. The YKL-40 expression in 36 patients with glial tumours (astrocytoma grade III, glioblastoma) and 33 age-matched healthy persons was measured by gene analysis, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. YKL-40 serum levels in high-grade glioma patients compared to healthy subjects were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05). A wide range of variability in YKL40 mRNA expression was found. YKL-40 staining in situ was more abundant in glioblastoma tissue than in anaplastic astrocytoma, with the lowest level in normal brain tissue. Our gene analysis revealed that in general, YKL40 mRNA in glioma patients was over-expressed versus normal brain. A significant correlation between YKL40 transcript and protein levels was observed (P ≤ 0.05). It could be speculated that the YKL-40 protein might contribute to glioblastomas' specific biological characteristics that distinguish them from grade III gliomas. A complex investigation of YKL40 expression was performed at the molecular and cellular levels in human high-grade gliomas. Serum YKL-40 concentrations increased with tumour grade and correlated positively with transcript rate, being the highest in glioblastoma. We provide evidence for a relationship between YKL40 expression and the malignancy of glial tumours.

  12. A pilot study of bevacizumab-based therapy in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Trent R; Salloum, Ralph; Drissi, Rachid; Kumar, Shiva; Sobo, Matthew; Goldman, Stewart; Pai, Ahna; Leach, James; Lane, Adam; Pruitt, David; Sutton, Mary; Chow, Lionel M; Grimme, Laurie; Doughman, Renee; Backus, Lori; Miles, Lili; Stevenson, Charles; Fouladi, Maryam; DeWire, Mariko

    2016-03-01

    Although bevacizumab has not proven effective in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas (HGG), feasibility in newly diagnosed children with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) or HGG has not been reported in a prospective study. In a safety and feasibility study, children and young adults with newly diagnosed HGG received radiotherapy (RT) with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg: days 22, 36) and temozolomide (75-90 mg/m(2)/day for 42 days) followed by bevacizumab (10 mg/kg, days 1, 15), irinotecan (125 mg/m(2), days 1, 15) and temozolomide (150 mg/m(2)/day days 1-5). DIPG patients did not receive temozolomide. Telomerase activity, quality of life (QOL), and functional outcomes were assessed. Among 27 eligible patients (15 DIPG, 12 HGG), median age 10 years (range 3-29 years), 6 discontinued therapy for toxicity: 2 during RT (grade 4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3 hepatotoxicity) and 4 during maintenance therapy (grade 3: thrombosis, hypertension, skin ulceration, and wound dehiscence). Commonest ≥grade 3 toxicities included lymphopenia, neutropenia and leukopenia. Grade 3 hypertension occurred in 2 patients. No intracranial hemorrhages occurred. For DIPG patients, median overall survival (OS) was 10.4 months. For HGG patients, 3-year progression free survival and OS were 33 % (SE ± 14 %) and 50 % (SE ± 14 %), respectively. All 3 tested tumor samples, demonstrated histone H3.3K27M (n = 2 DIPG) or G34R (n = 1 HGG) mutations. QOL scores improved over the course of therapy. A bevacizumab-based regimen is feasible and tolerable in newly diagnosed children and young adults with HGG and DIPG.

  13. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jinsong, Wu; Jiawen, Zhang; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu; Ji, Xiong; Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding; Yong, Zhang; Jianfeng, Luo; Zhenwei, Yao

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm(2)) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm(2)), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P < 0.001). The parameter α showed the highest AUCs of 0.950 and 0.922 in discriminating HGG from LGG and GBM from OGG, respectively. Significant correlations with histologic grade and MI were observed for the MRI parameters. The non-Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy.

  14. Molecular neuropathology of low-grade gliomas and its clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, M J; Reifenberger, G

    2010-01-01

    The term "low-grade glioma" refers to a heterogeneous group of slowly growing glial tumors corresponding histologically to World Health Organization (WHO) grade I or II. This group includes astrocytic, oligodendroglial, oligoastrocytic and ependymal tumor entities, most of which preferentially manifest in children and young adults. Depending on histological type and WHO grade, growth patterns of low-grade gliomas are quite variable, with some tumors diffusely infiltrating the surrounding central nervous system tissue and others showing well demarcated growth. Furthermore, some entities tend to recur and show spontaneous malignant progression while others remain stable for many years. This review provides a condensed overview concerning the molecular genetics of different glioma entities subsumed under the umbrella of low-grade glioma. For a better understanding the cardinal epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features of each entity are shortly outlined. Multiple cytogenetic, chromosomal and genetic alterations have been identified in low-grade gliomas to date, with distinct genetic patterns being associated with the individual tumor subtypes. Some of these molecular alterations may serve as a diagnostic adjunct for tumor classification in cases with ambiguous histological features. However, to date only few molecular changes have been associated with clinical outcome, such as the combined losses of chromosome arms 1p and 19q as a favorable prognostic marker in patients with oligodendroglial tumors.

  15. Prognostic value of choline and creatine in WHO grade II gliomas.

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Raab, Peter; Franz, Kea; Lanfermann, Heiner; Setzer, Matthias; Gerlach, Rüdiger; Zanella, Friedhelm E; Pilatus, Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) predicts survival time, tumor progression, and malignant transformation in patients with WHO grade II gliomas. (1)H-MRS and MR imaging (MRI) were performed before surgery in 45 patients with histologically proven WHO grade II gliomas. Metabolite concentrations of choline-containing compounds (Cho) and creatine/phosphocreatine (tCr) were normalized to contralateral brain tissue. Spectroscopic data as well as the extent of tumor resection, contrast enhancement, size and histopatholocical type of the tumor, age, sex, and first neurological symptoms of the patients were analyzed for survival, tumor progression, and malignant transformation for a follow-up period of 1 to 5 years. The normalized tCr of WHO grade II gliomas was a significant predictor for tumor progression (p = 0.011) and for malignant tumor transformation (p = 0.016). Further, contrast enhancement of the tumor (p = 0.014) at the time of diagnosis was significant for malignant tumor transformation and extent of tumor resection for the tumor progression (p = 0.007). All other parameters failed to predict any of the three endpoints. Normalized values of tCr in WHO grade II gliomas may have prognostic implications for this group of gliomas. As a rule of the thumb, low-grade gliomas with decreased tCr (relative tCr values below 1.0) may show longer progression-free times and later malignant transformation than low-grade gliomas with regular or increased tCr values.

  16. Molecular genetics of adult grade II gliomas: towards a comprehensive tumor classification system.

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Bouvier, Corinne; de Paula, André Maues; Mokhtari, Karima; Colin, Carole; Loundou, Anderson; Chinot, Olivier; Metellus, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Adult grade II low-grade gliomas (LGG) are classified according to the WHO as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas or mixed gliomas. TP53 mutations and 1p19q codeletion are the main molecular abnormalities recorded, respectively, in astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and in mixed gliomas. Although IDH mutations (IDH1 or IDH2) are recorded in up to 85 % of low-grade gliomas, IDH negative gliomas do occur. We have searched for p53 expression, 1p19q codeletion and IDH status (immunohistochemical detection of the common R132H IDH1 mutation and IDH direct sequencing). Internexin alpha (INA) expression previously recorded to be associated with 1p19q codeletion (1p19q+) gliomas was also analysed. Low-grade gliomas were accurately classified into four groups: group 1, IDH+/p53-/1p19q-; group 2, IDH+/p53-/1p19q+; group 3, IDH+/p53+/1p19q-; and group 4, triple negative gliomas. In contrast to the WHO classification, this molecular classification predicts overall survival on uni- and multivariate analysis (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). Group 4 carries the worst prognosis and group 2 the best. Interestingly, p53 +/INA- expression predicts lack of 1p19q codeletion (specificity 100 %, VPP 100 %). The combined use of these three molecular markers allow for an accurate prediction of survival in LGG. These findings could significantly modify LGG classification and may represent a new tool to guide patient-tailored therapy. Moreover, immunohistochemical detection of p53, INA and mR132H IDH1 expression could represent an interesting prescreening test to be performed before 1p19q codeletion, IDH1 minor mutation and IDH2 mutation detection.

  17. Bevacizumab salvage therapy following progression in high-grade glioma patients treated with VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian J; Quant, Eudocia C; McNamara, Margaret B; Ryg, Peter A; Batchelor, Tracy T; Wen, Patrick Y

    2010-06-01

    Agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway are being used with increasing frequency in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. The effect of more than one antiangiogenic therapy given in succession has not been established. We reviewed the efficacy of bevacizumab, a VEGF-A monoclonal antibody, in patients who progressed following prior therapy with VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (R-TKi). Seventy-three patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas received VEGF R-TKi (cediranib, sorafenib, pazopanib, or sunitinib) as part of phase I or II clinical trials. Twenty-four of these patients with glioblastoma progressed and received bevacizumab-containing regimens immediately after R-TKi. Those who stopped R-TKi therapy for reasons other than disease progression, or received a treatment that did not include bevacizumab, were excluded from the analysis. The efficacy of bevacizumab-containing regimens in these 24 patients was evaluated. During R-TKi therapy, 6 of 24 patients (25%) had a partial response (PR) to treatment. The 6-month progression-free survival (APF6) was 16.7% and median time-to-progression (TTP) was 14.3 weeks. Grade III/IV toxicities were seen in 13 of 24 patients (54%). Subsequently with bevacizumab salvage therapy, 5 of 24 patients (21%) had a PR, the APF6 was 12.5%, and the median TTP was 8 weeks. Five of 24 patients had grade III/IV toxicities (21%). The median overall survival (OS) from the start of R-TKi therapy was 9.2 months (range: 2.8-34.1+), whereas the median OS after bevacizumab was 5.2 months (range: 1.3-28.9+). Bevacizumab retains modest activity in high-grade glioma patients who progress on R-TKi. However, the APF6 of 12.5% in this cohort of patients indicates that durable tumor control is not achieved for most patients.

  18. Radiation plus Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine in Low-Grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Jan C; Shaw, Edward G; Pugh, Stephanie L; Chakravarti, Arnab; Gilbert, Mark R; Barger, Geoffrey R; Coons, Stephen; Ricci, Peter; Bullard, Dennis; Brown, Paul D; Stelzer, Keith; Brachman, David; Suh, John H; Schultz, Christopher J; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Fisher, Barbara J; Kim, Harold; Murtha, Albert D; Bell, Erica H; Won, Minhee; Mehta, Minesh P; Curran, Walter J

    2016-04-07

    Grade 2 gliomas occur most commonly in young adults and cause progressive neurologic deterioration and premature death. Early results of this trial showed that treatment with procarbazine, lomustine (also called CCNU), and vincristine after radiation therapy at the time of initial diagnosis resulted in longer progression-free survival, but not overall survival, than radiation therapy alone. We now report the long-term results. We included patients with grade 2 astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, or oligodendroglioma who were younger than 40 years of age and had undergone subtotal resection or biopsy or who were 40 years of age or older and had undergone biopsy or resection of any of the tumor. Patients were stratified according to age, histologic findings, Karnofsky performance-status score, and presence or absence of contrast enhancement on preoperative images. Patients were randomly assigned to radiation therapy alone or to radiation therapy followed by six cycles of combination chemotherapy. A total of 251 eligible patients were enrolled from 1998 through 2002. The median follow-up was 11.9 years; 55% of the patients died. Patients who received radiation therapy plus chemotherapy had longer median overall survival than did those who received radiation therapy alone (13.3 vs. 7.8 years; hazard ratio for death, 0.59; P=0.003). The rate of progression-free survival at 10 years was 51% in the group that received radiation therapy plus chemotherapy versus 21% in the group that received radiation therapy alone; the corresponding rates of overall survival at 10 years were 60% and 40%. A Cox model identified receipt of radiation therapy plus chemotherapy and histologic findings of oligodendroglioma as favorable prognostic variables for both progression-free and overall survival. In a cohort of patients with grade 2 glioma who were younger than 40 years of age and had undergone subtotal tumor resection or who were 40 years of age or older, progression-free survival and

  19. Radiation plus Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine in Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Jan C.; Shaw, Edward G.; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Gilbert, Mark R.; Barger, Geoffrey R.; Coons, Stephen; Ricci, Peter; Bullard, Dennis; Brown, Paul D.; Stelzer, Keith; Brachman, David; Suh, John H.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Fisher, Barbara J.; Kim, Harold; Murtha, Albert D.; Bell, Erica H.; Won, Minhee; Mehta, Minesh P.; Curran, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Grade 2 gliomas occur most commonly in young adults and cause progressive neurologic deterioration and premature death. Early results of this trial showed that treatment with procarbazine, lomustine (also called CCNU), and vincristine after radiation therapy at the time of initial diagnosis resulted in longer progression-free survival, but not overall survival, than radiation therapy alone. We now report the long-term results. METHODS We included patients with grade 2 astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, or oligodendroglioma who were younger than 40 years of age and had undergone subtotal resection or biopsy or who were 40 years of age or older and had undergone biopsy or resection of any of the tumor. Patients were stratified according to age, histologic findings, Karnofsky performance-status score, and presence or absence of contrast enhancement on preoperative images. Patients were randomly assigned to radiation therapy alone or to radiation therapy followed by six cycles of combination chemotherapy. RESULTS A total of 251 eligible patients were enrolled from 1998 through 2002. The median follow-up was 11.9 years; 55% of the patients died. Patients who received radiation therapy plus chemotherapy had longer median overall survival than did those who received radiation therapy alone (13.3 vs. 7.8 years; hazard ratio for death, 0.59; P=0.003). The rate of progression-free survival at 10 years was 51% in the group that received radiation therapy plus chemotherapy versus 21% in the group that received radiation therapy alone; the corresponding rates of overall survival at 10 years were 60% and 40%. A Cox model identified receipt of radiation therapy plus chemotherapy and histologic findings of oligodendroglioma as favorable prognostic variables for both progression-free and overall survival. CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of patients with grade 2 glioma who were younger than 40 years of age and had undergone subtotal tumor resection or who were 40 years of age or

  20. A Multi-Institutional Experience in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Walston, Steve; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Oh, Kevin; Woods, Gary; Guiou, Michael; Olshefski, Randal S.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Williams, Terence M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pediatric high-grade gliomas are rare tumors with poor outcomes and incompletely defined management. We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective study to evaluate association of clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics with outcomes. Materials and methods: Fifty-one patients treated from 1984 to 2008 at the Ohio State University or University of Michigan were included. Histologic subgroups were compared. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazard modeling were used to analyze progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) within the whole group, grade III subgroup, grade IV subgroup, and sub-total resection/biopsy subgroup. Results: Median OS was 27.6 months. Grade III histology, complete tumor resection, and cerebral tumor location correlated with improved PFS and OS. Temozolomide use and chemotherapy after radiotherapy or chemoradiation (CRT) were associated with better PFS while seizure at presentation was associated with better OS. In multivariate analysis, complete resection and chemotherapy following radiotherapy or CRT were independent predictors for improved PFS and OS. For grade III and IV subgroups, complete resection was associated with improved OS (grade III) and seizure presentation was associated with improved OS (grade IV). In the incompletely resection subgroup, temozolomide use and concurrent CRT independently correlated with improved PFS, while higher radiation dose (≥59.4 Gy) and adjuvant chemotherapy were independently associated with improved OS. Discussion: Total resection and receiving chemotherapy adjuvant to radiation or CRT are most closely associated with improved PFS and OS. For higher risk incompletely resected patients, temozolomide use and treatment intensification with concurrent CRT, adjuvant chemotherapy, and higher radiation dose were associated with improved outcomes. PMID:25741472

  1. Mitochondrial Lon is over-expressed in high-grade gliomas, and mediates hypoxic adaptation: potential role of Lon as a therapeutic target in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Di, Kaijun; Lomeli, Naomi; Wood, Spencer D.; Vanderwal, Christopher D.; Bota, Daniela A.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of cancer biology. Tumor mitochondrial metabolism is characterized by an abnormal ability to function in scarce oxygen conditions through glycolysis (the Warburg effect), and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA defects are present in both hereditary neoplasia and sporadic cancers. Mitochondrial Lon is a major regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and the mitochondrial response to free radical damage, and plays an essential role in the maintenance and repair of mitochondrial DNA. Despite these critical cellular functions of Lon, very little has been reported regarding its role in glioma. Lon expression in gliomas and its relevance with patient survival was examined using published databases and human tissue sections. The effect of Lon in glioma biology was investigated through siRNA targeting Lon. We also tested the in vitro antitumor activity of Lon inhibitor, CC4, in the glioma cell lines D-54 and U-251. High Lon expression was associated with high glioma tumor grade and poor patient survival. While Lon expression was elevated in response to a variety of stimuli, Lon knockdown in glioma cell lines decreased cell viability under normal conditions, and dramatically impaired glioma cell survival under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the Lon inhibitor, CC4, efficiently prohibited glioma cell proliferation and synergistically enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents, temozolomide (TMZ) and cisplatin. We demonstrate that Lon plays a key role in glioma cell hypoxic survival and mitochondrial respiration, and propose Lon as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:27764809

  2. ADAM9 Expression Is Associate with Glioma Tumor Grade and Histological Type, and Acts as a Prognostic Factor in Lower-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Yongheng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liu, Li; Yang, Sen; Wang, Yinyan; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Fang, Shengyu; Qiao, Hui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-08-26

    The A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) protein has been suggested to promote carcinoma invasion and appears to be overexpressed in various human cancers. However, its role has rarely been investigated in gliomas and, thus, in the current study we have evaluated ADAM9 expression in gliomas and examined the relevance of its expression in the prognosis of glioma patients. Clinical characteristics, RNA sequence data, and the case follow-ups were reviewed for 303 patients who had histological, confirmed gliomas. The ADAM9 expression between lower-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM) patients was compared and its association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed to evaluate its prognostic value. Our data suggested that GBM patients had significantly higher expression of ADAM9 in comparison to LGG patients (p < 0.001, t-test). In addition, among the LGG patients, aggressive astrocytic tumors displayed significantly higher ADAM9 expression than oligodendroglial tumors (p < 0.001, t-test). Moreover, high ADAM9 expression also correlated with poor clinical outcome (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, log-rank test, for PFS and OS, respectively) in LGG patients. Further, multivariate analysis suggested ADAM9 expression to be an independent marker of poor survival (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, for PFS and OS, respectively). These results suggest that ADAM9 mRNA expression is associated with tumor grade and histological type in gliomas and can serve as an independent prognostic factor, specifically in LGG patients.

  3. ADAM9 Expression Is Associate with Glioma Tumor Grade and Histological Type, and Acts as a Prognostic Factor in Lower-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Yongheng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liu, Li; Yang, Sen; Wang, Yinyan; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Fang, Shengyu; Qiao, Hui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) protein has been suggested to promote carcinoma invasion and appears to be overexpressed in various human cancers. However, its role has rarely been investigated in gliomas and, thus, in the current study we have evaluated ADAM9 expression in gliomas and examined the relevance of its expression in the prognosis of glioma patients. Clinical characteristics, RNA sequence data, and the case follow-ups were reviewed for 303 patients who had histological, confirmed gliomas. The ADAM9 expression between lower-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM) patients was compared and its association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed to evaluate its prognostic value. Our data suggested that GBM patients had significantly higher expression of ADAM9 in comparison to LGG patients (p < 0.001, t-test). In addition, among the LGG patients, aggressive astrocytic tumors displayed significantly higher ADAM9 expression than oligodendroglial tumors (p < 0.001, t-test). Moreover, high ADAM9 expression also correlated with poor clinical outcome (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, log-rank test, for PFS and OS, respectively) in LGG patients. Further, multivariate analysis suggested ADAM9 expression to be an independent marker of poor survival (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, for PFS and OS, respectively). These results suggest that ADAM9 mRNA expression is associated with tumor grade and histological type in gliomas and can serve as an independent prognostic factor, specifically in LGG patients. PMID:27571068

  4. Statistical evaluation of manual segmentation of a diffuse low-grade glioma MRI dataset.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, Meriem; Blonski, Marie; Wantz-Mezieres, Sophie; Gaudeau, Yann; Taillandier, Luc; Moureaux, Jean-Marie

    2016-08-01

    Software-based manual segmentation is critical to the supervision of diffuse low-grade glioma patients and to the optimal treatment's choice. However, manual segmentation being time-consuming, it is difficult to include it in the clinical routine. An alternative to circumvent the time cost of manual segmentation could be to share the task among different practitioners, providing it can be reproduced. The goal of our work is to assess diffuse low-grade gliomas' manual segmentation's reproducibility on MRI scans, with regard to practitioners, their experience and field of expertise. A panel of 13 experts manually segmented 12 diffuse low-grade glioma clinical MRI datasets using the OSIRIX software. A statistical analysis gave promising results, as the practitioner factor, the medical specialty and the years of experience seem to have no significant impact on the average values of the tumor volume variable.

  5. Subgroup characteristics of insular low-grade glioma based on clinical and molecular analysis of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Chen, Ling-chao; Sun, Zelin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Zhiyong; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2016-02-01

    Although the classification of insular glioma has been established based on the anatomical location in order to facilitate personalized surgical resection, the diagnosis based on anatomical and functional characteristics becomes more complex when insular tumors extend into either the frontobasal brain region and/or the temporal lobe, as part of the limbic system. Moreover, prognosis of insular tumor resection is still controversial. Further analysis of subgroup characteristics of insular grade II gliomas based on clinical and molecular analysis is required to reliably determine patients' survival rates. In this retrospective study 20 purely insular grade II gliomas patients and 22 paralimbic grade II gliomas that involved frontal and/or temporal lobes were compared with regard to epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The molecular profiles including Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, and P53 mutations, 1p19q co-deletion were analyzed, and microRNA profiles were assessed by microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Purely insular grade II gliomas displayed a high frequency of IDH1 mutations with favorable outcome. IDH1 mutated paralimbic glioma shared many parameters with the purely insular glioma in respect to growth patterns, survival, and microRNA profile, but differed significantly from the IDH1 wild type paralimbic gliomas. Our findings suggest that IDH1 mutations can define subpopulations of insular gliomas with distinct disease entities regardless of tumor extension patterns. These findings could be useful to develop a customized treatment strategy for insular glioma patients.

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Quantification and Gene Expression in Gliomas of Different Grades.

    PubMed

    Stangherlin, Lucas Matheus; Castro, Fabiane Lucy Ferreira; Medeiros, Raphael Salles Scortegagna; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Kimura, Lidia Midori; Shirata, Neuza Kazumi; Nonogaki, Suely; Dos Santos, Claudia Januário; Carlan Silva, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors. The most aggressive type, Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is one of the deadliest human diseases, with an average survival at diagnosis of about 1 year. Previous evidence suggests a link between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and gliomas. HCMV has been shown to be present in these tumors and several viral proteins can have oncogenic properties in glioma cells. Here we have investigated the presence of HCMV DNA, RNA and proteins in fifty-two gliomas of different grades of malignancy. The UL83 viral region, the early beta 2.7 RNA and viral protein were detected in 73%, 36% and 57% by qPCR, ISH and IHC, respectively. Positivity of the viral targets and viral load was independent of tumor type or grade suggesting no correlation between viral presence and tumor progression. Our results demonstrate high prevalence of the virus in gliomas from Brazilian patients, contributing to a better understanding of the association between HCMV infection and gliomas worldwide and supporting further investigations of the virus oncomodulatory properties.

  7. Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Quantification and Gene Expression in Gliomas of Different Grades

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Raphael Salles Scortegagna; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Kimura, Lidia Midori; Shirata, Neuza Kazumi; Nonogaki, Suely; dos Santos, Claudia Januário; Carlan Silva, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors. The most aggressive type, Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is one of the deadliest human diseases, with an average survival at diagnosis of about 1 year. Previous evidence suggests a link between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and gliomas. HCMV has been shown to be present in these tumors and several viral proteins can have oncogenic properties in glioma cells. Here we have investigated the presence of HCMV DNA, RNA and proteins in fifty-two gliomas of different grades of malignancy. The UL83 viral region, the early beta 2.7 RNA and viral protein were detected in 73%, 36% and 57% by qPCR, ISH and IHC, respectively. Positivity of the viral targets and viral load was independent of tumor type or grade suggesting no correlation between viral presence and tumor progression. Our results demonstrate high prevalence of the virus in gliomas from Brazilian patients, contributing to a better understanding of the association between HCMV infection and gliomas worldwide and supporting further investigations of the virus oncomodulatory properties. PMID:27458810

  8. Potential role for magnetoencephalography in distinguishing low- and high-grade gliomas: a preliminary study with histopathological confirmation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tony W; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Aizenberg, Michele R

    2012-05-01

    Gliomas are the most common form of tumor in the CNS and are exceptionally heterogeneous. Accurately characterizing gliomas, in terms of grade and type, is essential for predicting the rate of tumor progression. Histopathological grading and analysis based on biopsied tissue remains the gold standard, but non- and semi-invasive neuroimaging also plays a key role. Neuroimaging has been used to guide and optimize biopsies for several decades, but more recently molecular imaging and variants of MRI have shown promise in independently predicting glioma grade. Here we evaluated whether magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements of population-level physiology within the glioma space were predictive of the inherent grade of the tissue, based on definitive histopathological analyses. High-density MEG data were recorded from 11 patients who were undergoing functional mapping in preparation for resective surgery. The primary results indicated that glioma grade was positively correlated with the local amplitude of activity within the glioma space in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-14 Hz), and beta bands (14-30 Hz). Additionally, activity within the glioma was significantly elevated relative to the nonaffected homologue area in the same frequency bands. These results indicate that pathological levels of synchronization exist within the tumor space and that MEG may be a viable tool for noninvasively differentiating gliomas by their grade. Although these results should be considered preliminary and are only correlative in nature, these data suggest that MEG can potentially detect neurophysiological signatures or markers that predict the inherent grade of a glial tumor.

  9. High-grade glioma formation results from postnatal pten loss or mutant epidermal growth factor receptor expression in a transgenic mouse glioma model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingxia; Clarke, Laura; Scheidenhelm, Danielle K; Qian, Baoping; Tong, Amanda; Sabha, Nesrin; Karim, Zia; Bock, Nicholas A; Reti, Robert; Swoboda, Rolf; Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Lavoie, Jean-Francois; Bajenaru, M Livia; Shannon, Patrick; Herlyn, Dorothee; Kaplan, David; Henkelman, R Mark; Gutmann, David H; Guha, Abhijit

    2006-08-01

    High-grade gliomas are devastating brain tumors associated with a mean survival of <50 weeks. Two of the most common genetic changes observed in these tumors are overexpression/mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) vIII and loss of PTEN/MMAC1 expression. To determine whether somatically acquired EGFRvIII expression or Pten loss accelerates high-grade glioma development, we used a previously characterized RasB8 glioma-prone mouse strain, in which these specific genetic changes were focally introduced at 4 weeks of age. We show that both postnatal EGFRvIII expression and Pten inactivation in RasB8 mice potentiate high-grade glioma development. Moreover, we observe a concordant loss of Pten and EGFR overexpression in nearly all high-grade gliomas induced by either EGFRvIII introduction or Pten inactivation. This novel preclinical model of high-grade glioma will be useful in evaluating brain tumor therapies targeted to the pathways specifically dysregulated by EGFR expression or Pten loss.

  10. Targeted Therapeutics in Patients With High-Grade Gliomas: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ricky; Cohen, Adam L; Colman, Howard

    2016-08-01

    High-grade gliomas remain incurable despite current therapies, which are plagued by high morbidity and mortality. Molecular categorization of glioma subtypes using mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2), TP53, and ATRX; codeletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q; DNA methylation; and amplification of genes such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide provides a more accurate prognostication and biologic classification than classical histopathological diagnoses, and a number of molecular markers are being incorporated in the new World Health Organization classification of gliomas. However, despite the improved understanding of the molecular subtypes of gliomas and the underlying alterations in specific signaling pathways, these observations have so far failed to result in the successful application of targeted therapies, as has occurred in other solid tumors. To date, the only targeted therapy for gliomas approved by the US Food and Drug Administration is bevacizumab, which targets vascular endothelial growth factor. EGFR remains a dominant molecular alteration in specific glioma subtypes and represents a potentially promising target, with drugs of multiple types targeting EGFR in development including vaccines, antibody drug conjugates, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, despite the prior failures of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Immune therapies under investigation include checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines against tumor-associated antigens and tumor-specific antigens, pulsed dendritic cells, heat shock protein-tumor conjugates, and CAR T cells. Mutations in the IDH1/2 genes are central to gliomagenesis in a high proportion of grade II and III gliomas, and ongoing trials are examining vaccines against IDH1, small molecular inhibitors of IDH1 and IDH2, and metabolic components including NAD+ depletion to target IDH-mutated gliomas. The central role of DNA methylation in a subset of

  11. Management of supratentorial recurrent low-grade glioma: A multidisciplinary experience in 35 adult patients.

    PubMed

    Spitaels, Julien; Devriendt, Daniel; Sadeghi, Niloufar; Luce, Sylvie; De Witte, Olivier; Goldman, Serge; Mélot, Christian; Lefranc, Florence

    2017-09-01

    The management of recurrent diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is controversial. In the present study, the multidisciplinary management of 35 patients with recurrent LGGs was retrospectively analyzed. Tumor progression or recurrence was defined by clinical, radiological and/or metabolic pejorative evolution. All patients were regularly followed up by a multidisciplinary neuro-oncological group at Hôpital Erasme. Patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial LGGs (7 astrocytoma, 22 oligodendrogliomas and 6 oligoastrocytomas) who had undergone surgery between August 2004 and November 2010 were included. A total of 3 patients exhibited no tumor progression (median follow-up (FU), 81 months; range, 68-108 months). Tumor recurrence occurred in the 32 remaining patients [progression-free survival (PFS), 26 months; range, 2-104 months]. In addition, 25/29 (86%) patients who received surgery alone underwent reoperation at the time of tumor recurrence, and high-grade transformation occurred in 6 of these patients (24%). Furthermore, 4/29 (14%) patients were treated with adjuvant therapy alone (3 chemotherapy and 1 radiotherapy). In the 19 patients with no high-grade transformation at reintervention, 3 received adjuvant therapy and 16 were regularly followed up through multimodal imaging. The PFS time of the patients who underwent reoperation with close FU (n=16) and for the patients receiving adjuvant therapy with or without surgery (n=7) at first recurrence was 10 and 24 months (P=0.005), respectively. However, no significant difference was observed for overall survival (P=0.403). At the time of this study, 22 of the 35 patients included were alive following a median FU time of 109 months (range, 55-136). The results of the present study could change the multidisciplinary approach used into a more aggressive approach with adjuvant therapy, with or without surgery, for the treatment of a select subpopulation of patients with LGGs at the first instance of tumor

  12. Glioma Grading Using Cell Nuclei Morphologic Features in Digital Pathology Images

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Syed M. S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a computationally efficient cell nuclei morphologic feature analysis technique to characterize the brain gliomas in tissue slide images. In this work, our contributions are two-fold: 1) obtain an optimized cell nuclei segmentation method based on the pros and cons of the existing techniques in literature, 2) extract representative features by k-mean clustering of nuclei morphologic features to include area, perimeter, eccentricity, and major axis length. This clustering based representative feature extraction avoids shortcomings of extensive tile [1] [2] and nuclear score [3] based methods for brain glioma grading in pathology images. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) is used to classify extracted features into two tumor types: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and low grade glioma (LGG). Quantitative scores such as precision, recall, and accuracy are obtained using 66 clinical patients’ images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) [4] dataset. On an average ~94% accuracy from 10 fold cross-validation confirms the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:27942094

  13. Glioma grading using cell nuclei morphologic features in digital pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Syed M. S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a computationally efficient cell nuclei morphologic feature analysis technique to characterize the brain gliomas in tissue slide images. In this work, our contributions are two-fold: 1) obtain an optimized cell nuclei segmentation method based on the pros and cons of the existing techniques in literature, 2) extract representative features by k-mean clustering of nuclei morphologic features to include area, perimeter, eccentricity, and major axis length. This clustering based representative feature extraction avoids shortcomings of extensive tile [1] [2] and nuclear score [3] based methods for brain glioma grading in pathology images. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) is used to classify extracted features into two tumor types: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and low grade glioma (LGG). Quantitative scores such as precision, recall, and accuracy are obtained using 66 clinical patients' images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) [4] dataset. On an average ~94% accuracy from 10 fold crossvalidation confirms the efficacy of the proposed method.

  14. Late sequela after treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 69 long-term survivors treated between 1983 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Martin; Lackner, Herwig; Sovinz, Petra; Suppan, Elisabeth; Schwinger, Wolfgang; Eder, Hans-Georg; Dornbusch, Hans Jürgen; Moser, Andrea; Triebl-Roth, Karin; Urban, Christian

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the spectrum of late effects in a large cohort of pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas (WHO grade I and II) during an observation period of 20 years. Eighty-seven patients with low-grade gliomas grouped according to tumor location (cerebellum: n=28; cerebral hemispheres: n=21; central midline: n=15; brainstem: n=12; tectum: n=5; other locations: n=6) were evaluated for tumor- and/or treatment-related late effects by analysis of medical and computer records, and personal interviews. Seventy patients underwent neurosurgery, 29 patients received additional radiotherapy and 20 additional chemotherapy. Median follow-up of survivors is 96 months with an overall survival of 79% (cerebellum: 89%; cerebral hemispheres: 95%; central midline: 80%; brainstem: 25%; tectum: 100%; other locations: 66%). Chronic medical problems (mild ataxia to multiple severe neuroendocrine deficits) are observed in 100% of patients with brainstem/central midline tumors and in 40-50% of patients with low-grade gliomas of other locations. Endocrine deficiencies were observed in 15/17 (88%) of long-term survivors who received radiotherapy. In contrast, none of the patients who underwent surgery only had endocrine deficiencies. Seven long-term survivors (10.1%) are severely disabled with permanent need of medical help. Tumor- and treatment-related late effects are common in patients with low-grade gliomas with the most severe occurring in patients with brainstem or central midline tumors. As long-term survival is excellent in patients with low-grade gliomas except for tumors located in the brainstem, future treatment studies should focus on avoiding long-term late effects.

  15. ZEB1 expression is increased in IDH1-mutant lower-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Nesvick, Cody L; Zhang, Chao; Edwards, Nancy A; Montgomery, Blake K; Lee, Michaela; Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Zhu, Dongwang; Heiss, John D; Merrill, Marsha J; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factors that induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promote invasion, chemoresistance and a stem-cell phenotype in epithelial tumors, but their roles in central nervous system tumors are not well-understood. We hypothesized these transcription factors have a functional impact in grades II-III gliomas. Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lower-Grade Glioma (LGG) data, we determined the impact of EMT-promoting transcription factors (EMT-TFs) on overall survival in grades II-III gliomas, compared their expression across common genetic subtypes and subsequently validated these findings in a set of 31 tumors using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Increased expression of the gene coding for the transcriptional repressor Zinc Finger E box-binding Homeobox 1 (ZEB1) was associated with a significant increase in overall survival (OS) on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Genetic subtype analysis revealed that ZEB1 expression was relatively increased in IDH1/2-mutant gliomas, and IDH1/2-mutant gliomas expressed significantly lower levels of many ZEB1 transcriptional targets. Similarly, IDH1/2-mutant tumors expressed significantly higher levels of targets of microRNA 200C (MIR200C), a key regulator of ZEB1. In a validation study, ZEB1 mRNA was significantly increased in IDH1-mutant grades II-III gliomas, and ZEB1 protein expression was more pronounced in these tumors. Our findings demonstrate a novel relationship between IDH1/2 mutations and expression of ZEB1 and its transcriptional targets. Therapy targeting ZEB1-associated pathways may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for this class of tumors.

  16. TERT promoter mutations contribute to subset prognostication of lower-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Yao, Yu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Liu, Joseph Shu-Ming; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Shi, Zhifeng; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Zhou, Liangfu; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been found in various cancers including diffuse gliomas. Mutations lead to TERT upregulation and are associated with aggressive clinical behavior in glioblastomas. However, the clinical significance of TERT promoter mutations in lower-grade gliomas remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the status of TERT promoter and the respective prognostic significance in a cohort of 237 lower-grade gliomas comprising grades II and III astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas. Mutually exclusive mutations in TERT promoter, C228T and C250T, were identified in 16/105 (15%) diffuse astrocytomas, 16/63 (25%) anaplastic astrocytomas, 13/18 (72%) oligodendrogliomas, 3/3 (100%) anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 17/45 (38%) oligoastrocytomas, and 2/3 (67%) anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Mutations co-occurred with 1p/19q codeletion (P<0.001) and are associated with oligodendroglial histology (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier's survival analysis showed that TERT promoter mutation (P=0.037), Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation (P<0.001), and 1p/19q codeletion (P<0.001) were associated with favorable overall survival (OS). In the subset of 116 IDH-mutated lower-grade gliomas lacking 1p/19q codeletion, 19 TERT promoter-mutated tumors exhibited longer progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.027) and OS (P=0.004). Consistent with this observation, in the subset of 97 IDH-mutated astrocytomas, 14 TERT promoter-mutated tumors showed longer PFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001). In contrast, among the subset of 74 IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas with intact 1p/19q, TERT promoter mutation was associated with shorter PFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001). Similarly, in the subset of 65 IDH wild-type astrocytomas, 16 TERT promoter-mutated tumors exhibited unfavorable PFS (P=0.007) and OS (P=0.008). Our results indicate that when combined with IDH status, TERT promoter mutation contributes to

  17. Early toxicity predicts long-term survival in high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Y R; Wang, M; Dicker, A P; Andrews, D; Curran, W J; Michalski, J M; Souhami, L; Yung, W-Ka; Mehta, M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with high-grade gliomas are treated with surgery followed by chemoradiation. The risk factors and implications of neurological side effects are not known. Methods: Acute and late ⩾ grade 3 neurological toxicities (NTs) were analysed among 2761 patients from 14 RTOG trials accrued from 1983 to 2003. The association between acute and late toxicity was analysed using a stepwise logistic regression model. The association between the occurrence of acute NT and survival was analysed as an independent variable. Results: There were 2610 analysable patients (86% glioblastoma, 10% anaplastic astrocytoma). All received a systemic agent during radiation (83% chemotherapy, 17% biological agents). Median radiation dose was 60 Gy. There were 182 acute and 83 late NT events. On univariate analysis, older age, poor performance status, aggressive surgery, pre-existing neurological dysfunction, poor mental status and twice-daily radiation were associated with increased acute NT. In a stepwise logistic regression model the occurrence of acute NT was significantly associated with late NT (OR=2.40; 95% CI=1.2–4.8; P=0.014). The occurrence of acute NT predicted poorer overall survival, independent of recursive partitioning analysis class (median 7.8 vs 11.8 months). Interpretation: Acute NT is significantly associated with both late NT and overall survival. PMID:21487410

  18. Outcomes after combined use of intraoperative MRI and 5-aminolevulinic acid in high-grade glioma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schatlo, Bawarjan; Fandino, Javier; Smoll, Nicolas R.; Wetzel, Oliver; Remonda, Luca; Marbacher, Serge; Perrig, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans; Fathi, Ali-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the individual benefits of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and intraoperative (i)MRI in enhancing survival for patients with high-grade glioma. In this retrospective study, we compare rates of progression-free and overall survival between patients who underwent surgical resection with the combination of 5-ALA and iMRI and a control group without iMRI. Methods In 200 consecutive patients with high-grade gliomas, we recorded age, sex, World Health Organization tumor grade, and pre- and postoperative Karnofsky performance status (good ≥80 and poor <80). A 0.15-Tesla magnet was used for iMRI; all patients operated on with iMRI received 5-ALA. Overall and progression-free survival rates were compared using multivariable regression analysis. Results Median overall survival was 13.8 months in the non-iMRI group and 17.9 months in the iMRI group (P = .043). However, on identifying confounding variables (ie, KPS and resection status) in this univariate analysis, we then adjusted for these confounders in multivariate analysis and eliminated this distinction in overall survival (hazard ratio: 1.23, P = .34, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.86). Although 5-ALA enhanced the achievement of gross total resection (odds ratio: 3.19, P = .01, 95% CI: 1.28, 7.93), it offered no effect on overall or progression-free survival when adjusted for resection status. Conclusions Gross total resection is the key surgical variable that influences progression and survival in patients with high-grade glioma and more likely when surgical adjuncts, such as iMRI in combination with 5-ALA, are used to enhance resection. PMID:25858636

  19. Outcomes after combined use of intraoperative MRI and 5-aminolevulinic acid in high-grade glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Schatlo, Bawarjan; Fandino, Javier; Smoll, Nicolas R; Wetzel, Oliver; Remonda, Luca; Marbacher, Serge; Perrig, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans; Fathi, Ali-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the individual benefits of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and intraoperative (i)MRI in enhancing survival for patients with high-grade glioma. In this retrospective study, we compare rates of progression-free and overall survival between patients who underwent surgical resection with the combination of 5-ALA and iMRI and a control group without iMRI. In 200 consecutive patients with high-grade gliomas, we recorded age, sex, World Health Organization tumor grade, and pre- and postoperative Karnofsky performance status (good ≥80 and poor <80). A 0.15-Tesla magnet was used for iMRI; all patients operated on with iMRI received 5-ALA. Overall and progression-free survival rates were compared using multivariable regression analysis. Median overall survival was 13.8 months in the non-iMRI group and 17.9 months in the iMRI group (P = .043). However, on identifying confounding variables (ie, KPS and resection status) in this univariate analysis, we then adjusted for these confounders in multivariate analysis and eliminated this distinction in overall survival (hazard ratio: 1.23, P = .34, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.86). Although 5-ALA enhanced the achievement of gross total resection (odds ratio: 3.19, P = .01, 95% CI: 1.28, 7.93), it offered no effect on overall or progression-free survival when adjusted for resection status. Gross total resection is the key surgical variable that influences progression and survival in patients with high-grade glioma and more likely when surgical adjuncts, such as iMRI in combination with 5-ALA, are used to enhance resection. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology.

  20. Favorable Prognosis in Patients With High-Grade Glioma With Radiation Necrosis: The University of Colorado Reoperation Series

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Olsen, Christine; Franklin, Wilbur; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B.K.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Lillehei, Kevin; Waziri, Allen; Damek, Denise M.; Chen, Changhu

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the pathology, outcomes, and prognostic factors in patients with high-grade glioma undergoing reoperation after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients with World Health Organization Grade 3-4 glioma underwent reoperation after prior RT. The median dose of prior RT was 60 Gy, and 84% received chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment. Estimation of the percentage of necrosis and recurrent tumor in each reoperation specimen was performed. Pathology was classified as RT necrosis if {>=}80% of the specimen was necrotic and as tumor recurrence if {>=}20% was tumor. Predictors of survival were analyzed using log-rank comparisons and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The median interval between the completion of RT and reoperation was 6.7 months (range, 1-59 months). Pathologic analysis showed RT necrosis in 27% and recurrence in 73% of cases. Thirteen patients required a reoperation for uncontrolled symptoms. Among them, 1 patient (8%) had pathology showing RT necrosis, and 12 (92%) had tumor recurrence. Median survival after reoperation was longer for patients with RT necrosis (21.8 months vs. 7.0 months, p = 0.047). In 7 patients with Grade 4 tumors treated with temozolomide-based chemoradiation with RT necrosis, median survival from diagnosis and reoperation were 30.2 months and 21.8 months, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with RT necrosis at reoperation have improved survival compared with patients with tumor recurrence. Future efforts to intensify local therapy and increase local tumor control in patients with high-grade glioma seem warranted.

  1. 13N-ammonia combined with 18F-FDG could discriminate between necrotic high-grade gliomas and brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Zhifeng; Tang, Ganghua; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2015-03-01

    Accurate prediction of brain abscess is beneficial for timely management. In this study, we investigated the utility of 13N-ammonia and its combination with 18F-FDG in differentiating brain abscess from necrotic high-grade gliomas. Thirteen patients with ring-like enhancement high-grade gliomas and 11 patients with brain abscess were recruited in our study. All of them underwent both 18F-FDG and 13N-ammonia PET imaging. Lesion uptake was evaluated by lesion to normal gray matter ratio (L/N). Histopathology diagnosis was obtained for all the patients after PET imaging. The L/N values of 18F-FDG were not significantly different between brain abscess and necrotic high-grade gliomas (P = 0.35). The uptake of 13N-ammonia in gliomas was higher than that in abscess lesions (L/N: 1.38 ± 0.31 vs 0.84 ± 0.18, P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis determined the optimal L/N cutoff value (13N-ammonia) of 1.0 with the area under the curve of 0.94 and the overall accuracy of 87.5%. Discriminant analysis demonstrated that the combination of 18F-FDG and 13N-ammonia could distinguish the 2 clinical entities with higher accuracy of 95%, and only 1 necrotic glioma lesion was misclassified into the abscess group. 13N-ammonia is effective in distinguishing brain abscess from necrotic high-grade gliomas, and its combination with 18F-FDG could further elevate the diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Putamen involvement and survival outcomes in patients with insular low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongheng; Wang, Yinyan; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Liu, Xing; Wang, Jiangfei; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Insular glioma has a unique origin and biological behavior; however, the associations between its anatomical features and prognosis have not been well established. The object of this study was to propose a classification system of insular low-grade gliomas based on preoperative MRI findings and to assess the system's association with survival outcome. METHODS A total of 211 consecutively collected patients diagnosed with low-grade insular gliomas was analyzed. All patients were classified according to whether tumor involved the putamen on MR images. The prognostic role of this novel putaminal classification, as well as that of Yaşargil's classification, was examined using multivariate analyses. RESULTS Ninety-nine cases (46.9%) of insular gliomas involved the putamen. Those tumors involving the putamen, as compared with nonputaminal tumors, were larger (p < 0.001), less likely to be associated with a history of seizures (p = 0.04), more likely to have wild-type IDH1 (p = 0.003), and less likely to be totally removed (p = 0.02). Significant favorable predictors of overall survival on univariate analysis included a high preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.02), a history of seizures (p = 0.04), gross-total resection (p = 0.006), nonputaminal tumors (p < 0.001), and an IDH1 mutation (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, extent of resection (p = 0.035), putamen classification (p = 0.014), and IDH1 mutation (p = 0.026) were independent predictors of overall survival. No prognostic role was found for Yaşargil's classification. CONCLUSIONS The current study's findings suggest that the putamen classification is an independent predictor of survival outcome in patients with insular low-grade gliomas. This newly proposed classification allows preoperative survival prediction for patients with insular gliomas.

  3. Ki-67 overexpression in WHO grade II gliomas is associated with poor postoperative seizure control.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Shuang, Liu; Yingjun, Fan; Qiao, Zhou; Yanwu, Yang; Qing, Mao

    2013-12-01

    Seizures are the most common initial symptom in patients with low-grade gliomas, and approximately 30% of these patients still suffer from epilepsy after gross-total resection of the tumour. We examined the relationship between the overexpression of ki-67 in WHO grade II gliomas and seizure control. A series of 93 histologically confirmed WHO grade II glioma tissues were analysed through immunohistochemical staining for ki-67 expression. Follow-up visits regarding seizure control were scheduled at 12 months. The Engel classification was used to categorise patients' seizure status. Of the 93 patients analysed, 65 (66.3%) patients initially presented with seizures. A total of 36 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade II oligodendrogliomas, 29 patients had oligoastrocytomas and 28 patients had astrocytomas. Ki-67 was over-expressed in 15 patients. One year after surgery poor seizure control was observed in 11 of these patients. In contrast, low ki-67 expression (<10%) was found in 78 patients. Poor seizure control was observed in 36 patients (difference between ki-67 over- and low expression groups P = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with gross-total resection achieved better seizure control while ki-67 overexpression and age below 38 years were poor seizure control factors explained of the variance of seizure outcome (OR: 0.382, 4.354 and 1.822, respectively). In WHO grade II gliomas, Ki-67 is a molecular marker which predicts poor seizure control of glioma patients after the resection of the tumour. Gross-total resection, ki-67 overexpression and age below 38 years significantly affect seizure prognosis. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unique genetic and epigenetic mechanisms driving paediatric diffuse high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris; Baker, Suzanne J

    2014-10-01

    Diffuse high-grade gliomas (HGGs) of childhood are a devastating spectrum of disease with no effective cures. The two-year survival for paediatric HGG ranges from 30%, for tumours arising in the cerebral cortex, to less than 10% for diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), which arise in the brainstem. Recent genome-wide studies provided abundant evidence that unique selective pressures drive HGG in children compared to adults, identifying novel oncogenic mutations connecting tumorigenesis and chromatin regulation, as well as developmental signalling pathways. These new genetic findings give insights into disease pathogenesis and the challenges and opportunities for improving patient survival in these mostly incurable childhood brain tumours.

  5. First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Patients and methods Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Results Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Conclusion Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation. PMID

  6. BRAF, GNAQ, and GNA11 mutations and copy number in pediatric low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Laviv, Yosef; Toledano, Helen; Michowiz, Shalom; Dratviman-Storobinsky, Olga; Turm, Yuval; Fichman-Horn, Suzana; Kagnovski, Ella; Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-two samples of pediatric low-grade glioma (48 primary, 4 recurrent) were analyzed for BRAF copy number variation (digital PCR analysis, CopyCaller) and point mutations of BRAF V600E, and exon 5 Q209 in GNAQ, and GNA11, using the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer with validation by direct sequencing. An increased BRAF copy number was found in 18/47 primary samples tested; 15 of them (83.3%) were pilocytic astrocytomas. A BRAF mutation was found in 3/48 primary tumors, all with a normal BRAF copy number and no GNAQ mutation. One sample had a GNAQ209 mutation (Q209P626) with a normal BRAF gene; none of the tumors had a GNA11Q209 mutation. Recurrent or progressive tumors, analyzed in four patients, had the same molecular genotype as their primary. Increased BRAF copy number and activating BRAF mutations may be involved in the development of low-grade glioma via overactivation of the Ras/Raf pathway. This is the first report of a mutation in GNAQ209 in pediatric low-grade glioma. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma initiation and growth may assist in the development of targeted therapies.

  7. [The clinical application of hydrogen magnetic resonance spectroscopy combining with diffusion weight imaging in brain gliomas grading].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengsheng; Ouyang, Yu; Luo, Tianyou; Zeng, Yongming; Zhou, Xiangping; Xiao, Jiahe

    2011-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the function of diffusion weight imaging (DWI) combining with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the grading of brain gliomas. 12 cases low grade and 17 cases high grade of brain gliomas patients were examined with DWI and MRS, with all tumors confirmed by pathology in advance. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, their corresponding metabolite ratios of Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA and tumor cellularities of tumor solid enhanced parts were measured. The ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA and their corresponding ADC values had significant differences between their high and low grade gliomas values, respectively. The ADC values demonstrated a negative correlation with Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA, and a significant negative correlated with Cho/Cr. And the ADC values demonstrated strong negative correlations with tumor cellularities. DWI combining with MRS could provide more valuable information in evaluating gliomas grading.

  8. Optimizing a machine learning based glioma grading system using multi-parametric MRI histogram and texture features

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Chuan; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Han, Yu; Sun, Ying-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Qiang; Han, Zi-Yang; Liu, Le-De; Hu, Bin-Quan; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Current machine learning techniques provide the opportunity to develop noninvasive and automated glioma grading tools, by utilizing quantitative parameters derived from multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. However, the efficacies of different machine learning methods in glioma grading have not been investigated.A comprehensive comparison of varied machine learning methods in differentiating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs) as well as WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas based on multi-parametric MRI images was proposed in the current study. The parametric histogram and image texture attributes of 120 glioma patients were extracted from the perfusion, diffusion and permeability parametric maps of preoperative MRI. Then, 25 commonly used machine learning classifiers combined with 8 independent attribute selection methods were applied and evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) strategy. Besides, the influences of parameter selection on the classifying performances were investigated. We found that support vector machine (SVM) exhibited superior performance to other classifiers. By combining all tumor attributes with synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), the highest classifying accuracy of 0.945 or 0.961 for LGG and HGG or grade II, III and IV gliomas was achieved. Application of Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) attribute selection strategy further improved the classifying accuracies. Besides, the performances of LibSVM, SMO, IBk classifiers were influenced by some key parameters such as kernel type, c, gama, K, etc. SVM is a promising tool in developing automated preoperative glioma grading system, especially when being combined with RFE strategy. Model parameters should be considered in glioma grading model optimization. PMID:28599282

  9. Optimizing a machine learning based glioma grading system using multi-parametric MRI histogram and texture features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Han, Yu; Sun, Ying-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Qiang; Han, Zi-Yang; Liu, Le-De; Hu, Bin-Quan; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2017-07-18

    Current machine learning techniques provide the opportunity to develop noninvasive and automated glioma grading tools, by utilizing quantitative parameters derived from multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. However, the efficacies of different machine learning methods in glioma grading have not been investigated.A comprehensive comparison of varied machine learning methods in differentiating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs) as well as WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas based on multi-parametric MRI images was proposed in the current study. The parametric histogram and image texture attributes of 120 glioma patients were extracted from the perfusion, diffusion and permeability parametric maps of preoperative MRI. Then, 25 commonly used machine learning classifiers combined with 8 independent attribute selection methods were applied and evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) strategy. Besides, the influences of parameter selection on the classifying performances were investigated. We found that support vector machine (SVM) exhibited superior performance to other classifiers. By combining all tumor attributes with synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), the highest classifying accuracy of 0.945 or 0.961 for LGG and HGG or grade II, III and IV gliomas was achieved. Application of Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) attribute selection strategy further improved the classifying accuracies. Besides, the performances of LibSVM, SMO, IBk classifiers were influenced by some key parameters such as kernel type, c, gama, K, etc. SVM is a promising tool in developing automated preoperative glioma grading system, especially when being combined with RFE strategy. Model parameters should be considered in glioma grading model optimization.

  10. A Phase I Study of Mebendazole for the Treatment of Pediatric Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-30

    Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Glioma, Astrocytic; Optic Nerve Glioma; Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Gliosarcoma; Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; DIPG; Low-grade Glioma; Brainstem Glioma

  11. Phase I Clinical Trial Assessing Temozolomide and Tamoxifen With Concomitant Radiotherapy for Treatment of High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Shilpen; DiBiase, Steven; Meisenberg, Barry; Flannery, Todd; Patel, Ashish; Dhople, Anil; Cheston, Sally; Amin, Pradip

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The new standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme is concurrent radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide. The proliferation of high-grade gliomas might be partly dependent on protein kinase C-mediated pathways. Tamoxifen has been shown in vitro to inhibit protein kinase C through estrogen receptor-independent antineoplastic effects. This Phase I trial was designed to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of tamoxifen when given with temozolomide and concurrent RT to patients with high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 consecutive patients in four cohorts with World Health Organization Grade 3 (n = 2) and 4 (n = 15) gliomas were given tamoxifen twice daily during 6 weeks of concurrent RT and temozolomide. Eligibility included histologic diagnosis, age >18 years old, Karnofsky performance status {>=}60, and no previous brain RT or chemotherapy. The starting dose was 50 mg/m{sup 2} divided twice daily. If no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred in 3 patients, the dose was escalated in 25-mg/m{sup 2} increments until the MTD was reached. When {>=}2 patients within a cohort experienced a DLT, the MTD had been exceeded. Temozolomide was given with RT at 75 mg/m{sup 2}. A dose of 60 Gy in 2 Gy/d fractions to a partial brain field was delivered. Results: A total of 6 patients in Cohort 4 had received tamoxifen at 125 mg/m{sup 2}. One patient was excluded, and the fourth patient developed Grade 4 thrombocytopenia (DLT). Thus, 3 more patients needed to be enrolled. A deep venous thrombosis (DLT) occurred in the sixth patient. Thus, the MTD was 100 mg/m{sup 2}. Conclusions: The MTD of tamoxifen was 100 mg/m{sup 2} when given concurrently with temozolomide 75 mg/m{sup 2} and RT. Tamoxifen might have a role in the initial treatment of high-grade gliomas and should be studied in future Phase II trials building on the newly established platform of concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

  12. Pilot study of estramustine added to radiosurgery and radiotherapy for treatment of high grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Landy, Howard; Markoe, Arnold; Potter, Priscilla; Lasalle, Garrett; Marini, Angela; Savaraj, Niramol; Reis, Isildinha; Heros, Deborah; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Feun, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Patients with high grade glioma generally have poor prognoses. Addition of radiosensitizing agents might improve the response to irradiation. The chemotherapeutic agent estramustine sensitizes experimental gliomas to radiation. Gliomas express estramustine binding proteins, and cytotoxic concentrations of estramustine metabolites are found in gliomas after oral administration. Twenty three patients, aged 25-78, with new or recurrent high grade glioma were treated with estramustine and radiosurgery and/or radiotherapy. Patients with recurrent tumors were treated with estramustine and Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery; eligible tumors were limited to 4 cm maximal diameter. Patients with newly diagnosed tumors were treated with estramustine and fractionated radiotherapy, with radiosurgery also performed if the tumor was less than 4 cm maximal diameter. Estramustine (16 mg/kg per day orally) was started three days prior to radiosurgery, or, if only radiotherapy was performed, on the first day of radiotherapy. Estramustine was continued until the completion of radiosurgery and/or radiotherapy (72 Gy, 60 fractions, 1.2 Gy bid over 6 weeks). Of the 13 patients treated for newly diagnosed glioblastoma, median survival was 16 months with 38% 2-year survival. Of five patients treated for recurrent glioblastoma, survival was 3, 8, 9, 15, and 23 + months. Two patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma survived for 24 and 48+ months. One patient with recurrent anaplastic mixed glioma survived 5+ months. Two patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma survived 20 and 42+ months. Four of the new glioblastoma patients developed deep vein thrombosis. The results of this pilot study indicate some benefit, and further investigation incorporating estramustine into clinical trials is suggested.

  13. Molecular classification defines 4 prognostically distinct glioma groups irrespective of diagnosis and grade.

    PubMed

    Mur, Pilar; Mollejo, Manuela; Hernández-Iglesias, Teresa; de Lope, Ángel Rodríguez; Castresana, Javier S; García, Juan F; Fiaño, Concepción; Ribalta, Teresa; Rey, Juan A; Meléndez, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    According to World Health Organization criteria, diffuse gliomas are divided into several histological subtypes, including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas, and 4 malignancy grades (I-IV). Molecular alterations, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH) mutation or 1p/19q loss, are found in these tumors but are not included in the current classification system. Recently, mutation of α thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene and its loss of expression have been reported in infiltrating gliomas. We evaluated ATRX protein expression in 272 gliomas and its association with molecular and clinical features. Loss of ATRX expression was more common in tumors with an astrocytic component (astrocytomas II/III, 46.4%; oligoastrocytomas, 47.5%) but was uncommon in oligodendrogliomas (7.3%) and glioblastomas (0.9%). In astrocytic tumors, loss of ATRX expression was significantly associated with longer overall survival. Remarkably, on the basis of IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and ATRX expression, our study defined 4 molecularly and prognostically different groups of gliomas, showing the relevance of ATRX expression as a new marker for refining the molecular classification of gliomas and for distinguishing clinically distinct prognostic subgroups of patients.

  14. Comparison of (18)F-FET PET and perfusion-weighted MRI for glioma grading: a hybrid PET/MR study.

    PubMed

    Verger, Antoine; Filss, Christian P; Lohmann, Philipp; Stoffels, Gabriele; Sabel, Michael; Wittsack, Hans J; Kops, Elena Rota; Galldiks, Norbert; Fink, Gereon R; Shah, Nadim J; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2017-08-22

    Both perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI) and O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET ((18)F-FET) provide grading information in cerebral gliomas. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of (18)F-FET PET and PWI for tumor grading in a series of patients with newly diagnosed, untreated gliomas using an integrated PET/MR scanner. Seventy-two patients with untreated gliomas [22 low-grade gliomas (LGG), and 50 high-grade gliomas (HGG)] were investigated with (18)F-FET PET and PWI using a hybrid PET/MR scanner. After visual inspection of PET and PWI maps (rCBV, rCBF, MTT), volumes of interest (VOIs) with a diameter of 16 mm were centered upon the maximum of abnormality in the tumor area in each modality and the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Mean and maximum tumor-to-brain ratios (TBRmean, TBRmax) were calculated. In addition, Time-to-Peak (TTP) and slopes of time-activity curves were calculated for (18)F-FET PET. Diagnostic accuracies of (18)F-FET PET and PWI for differentiating low-grade glioma (LGG) from high-grade glioma (HGG) were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve; AUC). The diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FET PET and PWI to discriminate LGG from HGG was similar with highest AUC values for TBRmean and TBRmax of (18)F-FET PET uptake (0.80, 0.83) and for TBRmean and TBRmax of rCBV (0.80, 0.81). In case of increased signal in the tumor area with both methods (n = 32), local hot-spots were incongruent in 25 patients (78%) with a mean distance of 10.6 ± 9.5 mm. Dynamic FET PET and combination of different parameters did not further improve diagnostic accuracy. Both (18)F-FET PET and PWI discriminate LGG from HGG with similar diagnostic performance. Regional abnormalities in the tumor area are usually not congruent indicating that tumor grading by (18)F-FET PET and PWI is based on different pathophysiological phenomena.

  15. Radiotherapy plus nimotuzumab or placebo in the treatment of high grade glioma patients: results from a randomized, double blind trial.

    PubMed

    Solomón, Maria Teresa; Selva, Julio César; Figueredo, Javier; Vaquer, José; Toledo, Carolina; Quintanal, Nelson; Salva, Silvia; Domíngez, Rafael; Alert, José; Marinello, Jorge Juan; Catalá, Mauricio; Griego, Martha González; Martell, Juan Antonio; Luaces, Patricia Lorenzo; Ballesteros, Javier; de-Castro, Niurys; Bach, Ferdinand; Crombet, Tania

    2013-06-19

    The prognosis of patients bearing high grade glioma remains dismal. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is well validated as a primary contributor of glioma initiation and progression. Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognizes the EGFR extracellular domain and reaches Central Nervous System tumors, in nonclinical and clinical setting. While it has similar activity when compared to other anti-EGFR antibodies, it does not induce skin toxicity or hypomagnesemia. A randomized, double blind, multicentric clinical trial was conducted in high grade glioma patients (41 anaplastic astrocytoma and 29 glioblastoma multiforme) that received radiotherapy plus nimotuzumab or placebo. Treatment and placebo groups were well-balanced for the most important prognostic variables. Patients received 6 weekly doses of 200 mg nimotuzumab or placebo together with irradiation as induction therapy. Maintenance treatment was given for 1 year with subsequent doses administered every 3 weeks. The objectives of this study were to assess the comparative overall survival, progression free survival, response rate, immunogenicity and safety. The median cumulative dose was 3200 mg of nimotuzumab given over a median number of 16 doses. The combination of nimotuzumab and RT was well-tolerated. The most prevalent related adverse reactions included nausea, fever, tremors, anorexia and hepatic test alteration. No anti-idiotypic response was detected, confirming the antibody low immunogenicity. The mean and median survival time for subjects treated with nimotuzumab was 31.06 and 17.76 vs. 21.07 and 12.63 months for the control group. In this randomized trial, nimotuzumab showed an excellent safety profile and significant survival benefit in combination with irradiation. Cuban National Register for clinical trials (No. 1745) (http://registroclinico.sld.cu/ensayos).

  16. Radiotherapy plus nimotuzumab or placebo in the treatment of high grade glioma patients: results from a randomized, double blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prognosis of patients bearing high grade glioma remains dismal. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is well validated as a primary contributor of glioma initiation and progression. Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognizes the EGFR extracellular domain and reaches Central Nervous System tumors, in nonclinical and clinical setting. While it has similar activity when compared to other anti-EGFR antibodies, it does not induce skin toxicity or hypomagnesemia. Methods A randomized, double blind, multicentric clinical trial was conducted in high grade glioma patients (41 anaplastic astrocytoma and 29 glioblastoma multiforme) that received radiotherapy plus nimotuzumab or placebo. Treatment and placebo groups were well-balanced for the most important prognostic variables. Patients received 6 weekly doses of 200 mg nimotuzumab or placebo together with irradiation as induction therapy. Maintenance treatment was given for 1 year with subsequent doses administered every 3 weeks. The objectives of this study were to assess the comparative overall survival, progression free survival, response rate, immunogenicity and safety. Results The median cumulative dose was 3200 mg of nimotuzumab given over a median number of 16 doses. The combination of nimotuzumab and RT was well-tolerated. The most prevalent related adverse reactions included nausea, fever, tremors, anorexia and hepatic test alteration. No anti-idiotypic response was detected, confirming the antibody low immunogenicity. The mean and median survival time for subjects treated with nimotuzumab was 31.06 and 17.76 vs. 21.07 and 12.63 months for the control group. Conclusions In this randomized trial, nimotuzumab showed an excellent safety profile and significant survival benefit in combination with irradiation. Trial registration Cuban National Register for clinical trials (No. 1745) (http://registroclinico.sld.cu/ensayos). PMID:23782513

  17. (1)H MRSI and progression-free survival in patients with WHO grades II and III gliomas.

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Delic, Oliver; Franz, Kea; Pilatus, Ulrich; Raab, Peter; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Gerlach, Rüdiger

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate if metabolic changes in WHO grades II and III gliomas measured in vivo with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI) correlate with progression-free survival (PFS). (1)H-MRSI and MRI were performed before surgery in 61 patients with histopathological proven WHO grades II and III gliomas. Averaged (av) and maximum (max) metabolite concentrations of creatine/phosphocreatine (tCr) and choline-containing compounds (tCho) from the tumor were normalized to contralateral brain tissue. In 50 patients with a median follow-up of 34 (WHO grade II) and 19.5 (WHO grade III) months, spectroscopic data as well as the extent of tumor resection, histopathological subtype, adjuvant therapy and patients' ages were analysed for PFS times with Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier method was performed with categorized tCr values (cutoff: 0.93) to estimate the median PFS time. The normalized tCr(av) was prognostic for the PFS in patients with WHO grades II and III gliomas (p<0.0001 and p=0.034, respectively). For WHO grade II gliomas, tCr(max) (p=0.008) and the patients' ages (p=0.006) were also prognostic. The multivariate analysis provided tCr(av) (p=0.001) as single independent prognostic factor for the PFS of WHO grade II gliomas. Patients with WHO grades II and III gliomas revealing a normalized tCr(av) greater than 0.93 had a significant shorter PFS. Potential tumor progression in WHO grades II and III gliomas is best indicated by the normalized tCr(av). Normalized tCr(av) >0.93 seems to indicate gliomas with earlier progression.

  18. Dynamics of Circulating γδ T Cell Activity in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model of High-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Rebecca; Jadus, Martin R.; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Cloud, Gretchen A.; Hoa, Neil T.; Langford, Catherine P.; Lopez, Richard D.; Harkins, Lualhati E.; Lamb Jr., Lawrence S.

    2015-01-01

    Human γδ T cells are potent effectors against glioma cell lines in vitro and in human/mouse xenograft models of glioblastoma, however, this effect has not been investigated in an immunocompetent mouse model. In this report, we established GL261 intracranial gliomas in syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice and measured circulating γδ T cell count, phenotype, Vγ/Vδ repertoire, tumor histopathology, NKG2D ligands expression, and T cell invasion at day 10–12 post-injection and at end stage. Circulating γδ T cells transiently increased and upregulated Annexin V expression at post-tumor day 10–12 followed by a dramatic decline in γδ T cell count at end stage. T cell receptor repertoire showed no changes in Vγ1, Vγ4, Vγ7 or Vδ1 subsets from controls at post-tumor day 10–12 or at end stage except for an end-stage increase in the Vδ4 population. Approximately 12% of γδ T cells produced IFN-γ. IL-17 and IL-4 producing γδ T cells were not detected. Tumor progression was the same in TCRδ-/- C57BL/6 mice as that observed in WT mice, suggesting that γδ T cells exerted neither a regulatory nor a sustainable cytotoxic effect on the tumor. WT mice that received an intracranial injection of γδ T cells 15m following tumor placement showed evidence of local tumor growth inhibition but this was insufficient to confer a survival advantage over untreated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that an early nonspecific proliferation of γδ T cells followed by their depletion occurs in mice implanted with syngeneic GL261 gliomas. The mechanism by which γδ T cell expansion occurs remains a subject for further investigation of the mechanisms responsible for this immune response in the setting of high-grade glioma. PMID:25955158

  19. Altered splicing leads to reduced activation of CPEB3 in high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Skubal, Magdalena; Gielen, Gerrit H.; Waha, Anke; Gessi, Marco; Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Seifert, Gerald; Freihoff, Dorothee; Freihoff, Johannes; Pietsch, Torsten; Simon, Matthias; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian; Waha, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding proteins (CPEBs) are auxiliary translational factors that associate with consensus sequences present in 3′UTRs of mRNAs, thereby activating or repressing their translation. Knowing that CPEBs are players in cell cycle regulation and cellular senescence prompted us to investigate their contribution to the molecular pathology of gliomas–most frequent of intracranial tumors found in humans. To this end, we performed methylation analyses in the promoter regions of CPEB1-4 and identified the CPEB1 gene to be hypermethylated in tumor samples. Decreased expression of CPEB1 protein in gliomas correlated with the rising grade of tumor malignancy. Abundant expression of CPEBs2-4 was observed in several glioma specimens. Interestingly, expression of CPEB3 positively correlated with tumor progression and malignancy but negatively correlated with protein phosphorylation in the alternatively spliced region. Our data suggest that loss of CPEB3 activity in high-grade gliomas is caused by expression of alternatively spliced variants lacking the B-region that overlaps with the kinase recognition site. We conclude that deregulation of CPEB proteins may be a frequent phenomenon in gliomas and occurs on the level of transcription involving epigenetic mechanism as well as on the level of mRNA splicing, which generates isoforms with compromised biological properties. PMID:27256982

  20. Network Plasticity and Intraoperative Mapping for Personalized Multimodal Management of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ghinda, Cristina Diana; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors and include a variety of different histological tumor types and malignancy grades. Recent achievements in terms of molecular and imaging fields have created an unprecedented opportunity to perform a comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment of the glioma pathophysiology, with direct implications in terms of the medical and surgical treatment strategies available for patients. The current paradigm shift considers glioma management in a comprehensive perspective that takes into account the intricate connectivity of the cerebral networks. This allowed significant improvement in the outcome of patients with lesions previously considered inoperable. The current review summarizes the current theoretical framework integrating the adult human brain plasticity and functional reorganization within a dynamic individualized treatment strategy for patients affected by diffuse low-grade gliomas. The concept of neuro-oncology as a brain network surgery has major implications in terms of the clinical management and ensuing outcomes, as indexed by the increased survival and quality of life of patients managed using such an approach.

  1. Network Plasticity and Intraoperative Mapping for Personalized Multimodal Management of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ghinda, Cristina Diana; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors and include a variety of different histological tumor types and malignancy grades. Recent achievements in terms of molecular and imaging fields have created an unprecedented opportunity to perform a comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment of the glioma pathophysiology, with direct implications in terms of the medical and surgical treatment strategies available for patients. The current paradigm shift considers glioma management in a comprehensive perspective that takes into account the intricate connectivity of the cerebral networks. This allowed significant improvement in the outcome of patients with lesions previously considered inoperable. The current review summarizes the current theoretical framework integrating the adult human brain plasticity and functional reorganization within a dynamic individualized treatment strategy for patients affected by diffuse low-grade gliomas. The concept of neuro-oncology as a brain network surgery has major implications in terms of the clinical management and ensuing outcomes, as indexed by the increased survival and quality of life of patients managed using such an approach. PMID:28197403

  2. Biopsy versus resection for the management of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Veeravagu, Anand; Jiang, Bowen; Ludwig, Cassie; Chang, Steven D; Black, Keith L; Patil, Chirag G

    2013-04-30

    Low-grade gliomas (LGG) constitute a class of slow-growing primary brain neoplasms. Patients with clinically and radiographically suspected LGG have two initial surgical options, biopsy or resection. Biopsy can provide a histological diagnosis with minimal risk but does not offer a direct treatment. Resection may have additional benefits such as increasing survival and delaying recurrence, but is associated with a higher risk for surgical morbidity. There remains controversy about the role of biopsy versus resection and the relative clinical outcomes for the management of LGG. To assess the clinical effectiveness of biopsy compared to surgical resection in patients with a new lesion suspected to be a LGG. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to week 3 November 2012), EMBASE (1980 to Week 46 2012). Unpublished and grey literature including Metaregister, Physicians Data Query, www.controlled-trials.com/rct, www.clinicaltrials.gov, and www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials were also queried for ongoing trials. Patients of any age with a suspected intracranial LGG receiving biopsy or resection within a randomized clinical trial (RCT) or controlled clinical trial (CCT) were included. Patients with prior resections, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for LGG were excluded. Outcome measures included overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), functionally independent survival (FIS), adverse events, symptom control, and quality of life (QoL). A total of 2764 citations were searched and critically analyzed for relevance. This effort was undertaken by three independent review authors. No RCTs of biopsy or resection for LGG were identified. Twenty other studies were retrieved for analysis based on pre-specified selection criteria. Ten studies were retrospective or literature reviews. Three studies were prospective but were limited to tumor recurrence or the extent of

  3. Predicting the outcome of grade II glioma treated with temozolomide using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Guillevin, R; Menuel, C; Taillibert, S; Capelle, L; Costalat, R; Abud, L; Habas, C; De Marco, G; Hoang-Xuan, K; Chiras, J; Vallée, J-N

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) for monitoring the WHO grade II glioma (low-grade glioma (LGG)) treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Methods: This prospective study included adult patients with progressive LGG that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Temozolomide was administered at every 28 days. Response to TMZ was evaluated by monthly MRI examinations that included MRI with volumetric calculations and 1H-MRS for assessing Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios. Univariate, multivariate and receiver-operating characteristic statistical analyses were performed on the results. Results: A total of 21 LGGs from 31 patients were included in the study, and followed for at least n=14 months during treatment. A total of 18 (86%) patients experienced a decrease in tumour volume with a greater decrease of metabolic ratios. Subsequently, five (28%) of these tumours resumed growth despite the continuation of TMZ administration with an earlier increase of metabolic ratios of 2 months. Three (14%) patients did not show any volume or metabolic change. The evolutions of the metabolic ratios, mean(Cho/Cr)n and mean(Cho/NAA)n, were significantly correlated over time (Spearman ρ=+0.95) and followed a logarithmic regression (P>0.001). The evolutions over time of metabolic ratios, mean(Cho/Cr)n and mean(Cho/NAA)n, were significantly correlated with the evolution of the mean relative decrease of tumour volume, mean(ΔVn/Vo), according to a linear regression (P<0.001) in the ‘response/no relapse' patient group, and with the evolution of the mean tumour volume (meanVn), according to an exponential regression (P<0.001) in the ‘response/relapse' patient group. The mean relative decrease of metabolic ratio, mean(Δ(Cho/Cr)n/(Cho/Cr)o), at n=3 months was predictive of tumour response over the 14 months of follow-up. The mean relative change between metabolic ratios, mean((Cho/NAA)n−(Cho/Cr)n)/(Cho/NAA)n, at n=4 months was

  4. Feasibility of Using Bevacizumab With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Ashwatha Golfinos, John G.; Fischer, Ingeborg; Raza, Shahzad; Kelly, Patrick M.D.; Parker, Erik; Knopp, Edmond A.; Medabalmi, Praveen; Zagzag, David; Eagan, Patricia; Gruber, Michael L.

    2008-10-01

    Introduction: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has shown promise in the treatment of patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of using bevacizumab with chemoradiation in the primary management of high-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with high-grade glioma were treated with involved field radiation therapy to a dose of 59.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on Days 14 and 28 and temozolomide 75 mg/m{sup 2}. Subsequently, bevacizumab 10 mg/kg was continued every 2 weeks with temozolomide 150 mg/m{sup 2} for 12 months. Changes in relative cerebral blood volume, perfusion-permeability index, and tumor volume measurement were measured to assess the therapeutic response. Immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated VEGF receptor 2 (pVEGFR2) was performed. Results: Thirteen patients (86.6%) completed the planned bevacizumab and chemoradiation therapy. Four Grade III/IV nonhematologic toxicities were seen. Radiographic responses were noted in 13 of 14 assessable patients (92.8%). The pVEGFR2 staining was seen in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%) at the time of initial diagnosis. Six patients have experienced relapse, 3 at the primary site and 3 as diffuse disease. One patient showed loss of pVEGFR2 expression at relapse. One-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 59.3% and 86.7%, respectively. Conclusion: Use of antiangiogenic therapy with radiation and temozolomide in the primary management of high-grade glioma is feasible. Perfusion imaging with relative cerebral blood volume, perfusion-permeability index, and pVEGFR2 expression may be used as a potential predictor of therapeutic response. Toxicities and patterns of relapse need to be monitored closely.

  5. Interferon-alpha2a and 13-cis-retinoic acid with radiation treatment for high-grade glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, R. O.; Shea, W. M.; Tai, D. F.; Mahdavi, K.; Barth, N. M.; Kharkar, B. R.; Poor, M. M.; Church, C. K.; DePriest, C.

    2001-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been safely given concurrently with radiation therapy (RT) in treating gliomas. As single agents, both IFN-alpha and cis-retinoic acid (CRA) have produced objective tumor regressions in patients with recurrent gliomas. In vitro, IFN-alpha2a and CRA enhance radiation therapy effects on glioblastoma cells more than either agent alone. This trial was conducted to determine the clinical effects of IFN-alpha2a and CRA when given concurrently with radiation therapy to patients with high-grade glioma. Newly diagnosed patients with high-grade glioma received IFN-alpha2a at a dosage of 3 to 6 million IU s.c. 4 times a day for 3 days per week and 1 mg/kg CRA by mouth 4 times a day for 5 days per week during the delivery of partial brain radiation therapy at 180 cGy x 33 fractions for 5 days per week for a total of 59.4 Gy during the 7-week period. Use of the antiepileptic phenytoin was prohibited after observing that the combination of IFN-alpha2a, CRA, and phenytoin was associated with a high rate of dermatologic toxicity not seen in a previous study with concurrent IFN-alpha2a and radiation therapy. Forty patients (26 men and 14 women) with a median age of 60 (range, 19 to 81 years) were enrolled between August 1996 and October 1998. Histopathologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme or grade 4 anaplastic astrocytoma in 36 patients, and grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma in 4 patients. Only 4 patients (10%) underwent a gross total resection of tumor prior to this therapy; 50% were asymptomatic when treatment was initiated. The planned 7-week course of concurrent therapy was completed by 75% of patients; 30% completed the 16-week course of IFN-alpha and CRA alone. At a median follow-up of 36 months, there were 37 deaths, with a median overall survival of 9.3 months and a 1-year survival rate of 42%. There was no improvement in survival compared with a similar group of 19 patients treated with concurrent IFN-alpha2a and radiation therapy in a

  6. Seizures in low-grade gliomas: natural history, pathogenesis, and outcome after treatments.

    PubMed

    Rudà, Roberta; Bello, Lorenzo; Duffau, Hugues; Soffietti, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Seizures represent a common symptom in low-grade gliomas; when uncontrolled, they significantly contribute to patient morbidity and negatively impact quality of life. Tumor location and histology influence the risk for epilepsy. The pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy is multifactorial and may differ among tumor histologies (glioneuronal tumors vs diffuse grade II gliomas). Gross total resection is the strongest predictor of seizure freedom in addition to clinical factors, such as preoperative seizure duration, type, and control with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epilepsy surgery may improve seizure control. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (procarbazine + CCNU+ vincristine, temozolomide) are effective in reducing the frequency of seizures in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Newer AEDs (levetiracetam, topiramate, lacosamide) seem to be better tolerated than the old AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine), but there is lack of evidence regarding their superiority in terms of efficacy.

  7. Seizures in low-grade gliomas: natural history, pathogenesis, and outcome after treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rudà, Roberta; Bello, Lorenzo; Duffau, Hugues; Soffietti, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Seizures represent a common symptom in low-grade gliomas; when uncontrolled, they significantly contribute to patient morbidity and negatively impact quality of life. Tumor location and histology influence the risk for epilepsy. The pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy is multifactorial and may differ among tumor histologies (glioneuronal tumors vs diffuse grade II gliomas). Gross total resection is the strongest predictor of seizure freedom in addition to clinical factors, such as preoperative seizure duration, type, and control with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epilepsy surgery may improve seizure control. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (procarbazine + CCNU+ vincristine, temozolomide) are effective in reducing the frequency of seizures in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Newer AEDs (levetiracetam, topiramate, lacosamide) seem to be better tolerated than the old AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine), but there is lack of evidence regarding their superiority in terms of efficacy. PMID:23095831

  8. Immunotherapy for high-grade glioma: how to go beyond Phase I/II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    van Gool, Stefaan

    2013-10-01

    Evaluation of: Lasky JL 3rd, Panosyan EH, Plant A et al. Autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell immunotherapy for pediatric patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade gliomas. Anticancer Res. 33, 2047-2056 (2013). Immunotherapy for children and adults with high-grade glioma (HGG) is an emerging innovative treatment approach, which aims at stimulating the body's own immune system against HGG by using autologous dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumor lysate as a therapeutic vaccine. This is the third report on immunotherapy for HGG in children, bringing additional knowledge and experience to the scientific community. However, at the same time, this and other manuscripts urge for the next step in treatment development.

  9. Nimotuzumab as a radiosensitizing agent in the treatment of high grade glioma: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Martinez, Giselle Saurez

    2013-01-01

    Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to human epidermal growth factor receptor, blocking receptor activation. Evidence of its radiosensitizing capacity has been widely evaluated. This article integrates published research findings regarding the role of nimotuzumab in the treatment of high grade glioma in combination with radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy in adult and pediatric populations. First, the mechanisms of action of nimotuzumab and its current applications in clinical trials containing both radiation and chemoradiation therapies are reviewed. Second, a comprehensive explanation of potential mechanisms driving radiosensitization by nimotuzumab in experimental settings is given. Finally, future directions of epidermal growth factor receptor targeting with nimotuzumab in combination with radiation containing regimens, based on its favorable toxicity profile, are proposed. It is hoped that this review may provide further insight into the rational design of new approaches employing nimotuzumab as a useful alternative for the therapeutic management of high grade glioma.

  10. Nimotuzumab as a radiosensitizing agent in the treatment of high grade glioma: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Martinez, Giselle Saurez

    2013-01-01

    Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to human epidermal growth factor receptor, blocking receptor activation. Evidence of its radiosensitizing capacity has been widely evaluated. This article integrates published research findings regarding the role of nimotuzumab in the treatment of high grade glioma in combination with radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy in adult and pediatric populations. First, the mechanisms of action of nimotuzumab and its current applications in clinical trials containing both radiation and chemoradiation therapies are reviewed. Second, a comprehensive explanation of potential mechanisms driving radiosensitization by nimotuzumab in experimental settings is given. Finally, future directions of epidermal growth factor receptor targeting with nimotuzumab in combination with radiation containing regimens, based on its favorable toxicity profile, are proposed. It is hoped that this review may provide further insight into the rational design of new approaches employing nimotuzumab as a useful alternative for the therapeutic management of high grade glioma. PMID:23926436

  11. The evolving role for re-irradiation in the management of recurrent grade 4 glioma.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven P; Krauze, Andra; Chan, Mike D; Tsien, Christina; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2017-04-06

    Although significant gains have been realized in the management of grade 4 glioma, the majority of these patients will ultimately suffer local recurrence within the prior field of treatment. Clearly, novel local treatment strategies are required to improve patient outcomes. Concerns of toxicity have limited enthusiasm for the utilization of re-irradiation as a treatment option. However, using modern imaging technology and precision radiotherapy delivery techniques re-irradiation has proven a feasible option achieving both a palliative benefit and prolongation of survival with low toxicity rates. The evolution of re-irradiation as a treatment modality for recurrent grade 4 glioma is reviewed. In addition, potential targeted radiosensitizers to be used in conjunction with re-irradiation are also discussed.

  12. Exploiting molecular biology for diagnosis and targeted management of pediatric low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Michael A; Solomon, David A; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2016-06-01

    The majority of brain tumors arising in children are low-grade gliomas. Although historically categorized together as pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs), there is significant histologic and genetic diversity within this group. In general, prognosis for PLGGs is excellent, and limitation of sequelae from tumor and treatment is paramount. Advances in high-throughput genetic sequencing and gene expression profiling are fundamentally changing the way PLGGs are classified and managed. Here, we review the histologic subtypes and highlight how recent advances in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors have refined diagnosis and prognostication. Additionally, we discuss how characterizing specific genetic alterations has paved the way for the rational use of targeted therapies that are currently in various phase clinical trials.

  13. TELOMERE LENGTH VARIANTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH-GRADE GLIOMA RISK: IDENTIFICATION OF A NOVEL GLIOMA RISK LOCUS BY GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Codd, Veryan; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Rice, Terri; Decker, Paul A.; Hansen, Helen M.; Kollmeyer, Thomas; Kosel, Matthew L.; Molinaro, Annette M.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Bracci, Paige M.; Cabriga, Belinda S.; Pekmezci, Melike; Zheng, Shichun; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Pico, Alexander R.; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchell S.; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Lachance, Daniel H.; O'Neill, Brian P.; Sicotte, Hugues; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; van der Harst, Pim; Wiencke, John K.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of glioma, has a median survival time of just 15 months. Both inherited and acquired genetic variation influence gliomagenesis. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered seven glioma risk loci, including two in genes involved in telomere structure and function (TERT and RTEL1). METHODS: To identify novel high-grade glioma risk loci, we performed SNP imputation and meta-analysis of genome-wide array data from The University of California, San Francisco Adult Glioma Study (AGS), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) (1,013 cases and 6,595 controls). SNPs with P < 1.0x10-6 in the discovery meta-analysis underwent attempted replication in an additional 631 glioblastoma cases and 1141 controls from The Mayo Clinic and UCSF. To investigate potential functional mechanisms through which SNPs might promote gliomagenesis, we examined the relationship between mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and glioma risk loci using data from a recent GWAS of LTL (N = 37,684). RESULTS: One novel SNP association from the discovery phase meta-analysis met criteria for attempted replication. This SNP was significantly associated with high-grade glioma risk in the replication dataset (P = 3.4x10-3). The combined P-value for all 1644 cases and 7736 controls achieved genome-wide statistical significance (8.3x10-9). Glioma risk alleles in both our newly identified risk region and the known TERT risk locus were strongly associated with longer LTL (P < 5.0x10-8). In contrast, glioma risk alleles near RTEL1 were inconsistently associated with LTL and suggested the presence of distinct causal alleles underlying these two phenotypes. No other established glioma risk loci were associated with LTL. CONCLUSIONS: We identify a novel genome-wide significant association between a constitutive SNP and glioma risk. Because telomere maintenance is a universal requirement of

  14. MEG Network Differences between Low- and High-Grade Glioma Related to Epilepsy and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    van Dellen, Edwin; Douw, Linda; Hillebrand, Arjan; Ris-Hilgersom, Irene H. M.; Schoonheim, Menno M.; Baayen, Johannes C.; De Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Velis, Demetrios N.; Klein, Martin; Heimans, Jan J.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reveal possible differences in whole brain topology of epileptic glioma patients, being low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. We studied functional networks in these patients and compared them to those in epilepsy patients with non-glial lesions (NGL) and healthy controls. Finally, we related network characteristics to seizure frequency and cognitive performance within patient groups. Methods We constructed functional networks from pre-surgical resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 13 LGG patients, 12 HGG patients, 10 NGL patients, and 36 healthy controls. Normalized clustering coefficient and average shortest path length as well as modular structure and network synchronizability were computed for each group. Cognitive performance was assessed in a subset of 11 LGG and 10 HGG patients. Results LGG patients showed decreased network synchronizability and decreased global integration compared to healthy controls in the theta frequency range (4–8 Hz), similar to NGL patients. HGG patients’ networks did not significantly differ from those in controls. Network characteristics correlated with clinical presentation regarding seizure frequency in LGG patients, and with poorer cognitive performance in both LGG and HGG glioma patients. Conclusion Lesion histology partly determines differences in functional networks in glioma patients suffering from epilepsy. We suggest that differences between LGG and HGG patients’ networks are explained by differences in plasticity, guided by the particular lesional growth pattern. Interestingly, decreased synchronizability and decreased global integration in the theta band seem to make LGG and NGL patients more prone to the occurrence of seizures and cognitive decline. PMID:23166829

  15. Reported outcomes of children with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas treated with nimotuzumab and irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Boongird, Atthaporn; Swangsilpa, Thiti; Klaisuban, Wipawi; Lusawat, Apasri; Hongeng, Suradej

    2017-06-01

    The outcome of children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs) treated with radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy remains poor. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been established in children with HGGs. This report demonstrated the outcomes of adjuvant nimotuzumab, an EGFR inhibitor, with irinotecan in pediatric HGGs. Children with newly diagnosed HGGs were enrolled. Two weeks after surgery, nimotuzumab with a dose of 150 mg/m(2) was given every week during radiation. After completion of radiation, a 4-week cycle of nimotuzumab (150 mg/m(2)) at week 1 and 3 and irinotecan (125 mg/m(2)) at week 1, 2, and 3 was given. Sixteen patients (5 females, 11 males), with a mean ± SD age of 8.2 ± 3.5 years were included. Tumors were located at the supratentorial region (50.0%), infratentorial region (43.8%), and both locations (6.2%). The 5-year PFS and OS were 19.9 ± 11.6 and 31.5 ± 13.0%, respectively. Median times of PFS and OS were 1.8 and 1.9 years, respectively. Prognostic factors related to good outcome were the location of tumor at the supratentorial region or outside brainstem and the extension of surgery. Side effects were minimal, with grade 1 anemia in three patients and diarrhea in one patient. Although, the adjuvant regimen of nimotuzumab and irinotecan slightly increases the overall outcome when compared to the historical study, the advantages of this protocol were minimal side effect, short period of hospitalization, and improved OS in patients who received extensive surgery.

  16. Patient and caregiver perceptions of communication of prognosis in high grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Lobb, E A; Halkett, G K B; Nowak, A K

    2011-08-01

    This study sought the views of patients and their caregivers on their experience of being diagnosed with high grade glioma. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 19 patients and 21 caregivers from the medical oncology unit of a tertiary hospital. A semi-structured face-to-face interview was conducted. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data was analysed based on Grounded Theory and using the constant comparison method. This paper focuses on patient and carer perceptions of the initial communication about the diagnosis of high grade glioma and its prognosis. Themes identified included: (a) shock at hearing the diagnosis; (b) trying to understand and process prognostic information when still in shock; (c) the perception of hope being taken away; (d) individualizing prognostic information; and (e) clinicians' lack of communication skills. This study shows that the first communication of prognosis to patients with high grade glioma and their caregivers requires careful negotiation. It illustrates the inability of individuals to process detailed prognostic information when in a state of initial shock and distress. The importance of balancing honesty with hope in the communication of a poor prognosis is highlighted. We recommend that clinicians seek patient preferences for the amount and type of information they require and that prognostic information be individualized. Detailed discussions of prognosis should only take place with senior medical staff, or advanced trainees who have demonstrated acceptable communication skills.

  17. Treatment of adult and pediatric high-grade gliomas with Withaferin A: antitumor mechanisms and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Megan M; Shah, Sumedh S; Véliz, Eduardo A; Ivan, Michael E; Graham, Regina M

    2017-01-01

    Resistance mechanisms employed by high-grade gliomas allow them to successfully evade current standard treatment of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Withaferin A (WA), utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, is attracting attention for its antitumor capabilities. Here we review pertinent literature on WA as a high-grade glioma treatment, and discuss the cancerous mechanisms it affects. WA is relatively nontoxic and has shown potential in crossing the blood-brain barrier. WA prevents p53 alterations and inactivates overexpressed MDM2 through ARF and ROS production. Furthermore, WA upregulates Bax, inducing mitochondrial death cascades, inhibits mutated Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways, and inhibits angiogenesis in tumors. Therapy with WA for high-grade gliomas is supported through the literature. Further investigation is warranted and encouraged to fully unearth its abilities against malignant gliomas.

  18. Awake surgery for hemispheric low-grade gliomas: oncological, functional and methodological differences between pediatric and adult populations.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, Gianluca; Roujeau, Thomas; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-10-01

    Brain mapping through a direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation during an awake craniotomy has gained an increasing popularity as a powerful tool to prevent neurological deficit while increasing extent of resection of hemispheric diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults. However, few case reports or very limited series of awake surgery in children are currently available in the literature. In this paper, we review the oncological and functional differences between pediatric and adult populations, and the methodological specificities that may limit the use of awake mapping in pediatric low-grade glioma surgery. This could be explained by the fact that pediatric low-grade gliomas have a different epidemiology and biologic behavior in comparison to adults, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I glioma) as the most frequent histotype, and with WHO grade II gliomas less prone to anaplastic transformation than their adult counterparts. In addition, aside from the issue of poor collaboration of younger children under 10 years of age, some anatomical and functional peculiarities of children developing brain (cortical and subcortical myelination, maturation of neural networks and of specialized cortical areas) can influence direct electrical stimulation methodology and sensitivity, limiting its use in children. Therefore, even though awake procedure with cortical and axonal stimulation mapping can be adapted in a specific subgroup of children with a diffuse glioma from the age of 10 years, only few pediatric patients are nonetheless candidates for awake brain surgery.

  19. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pinto, Marcos; Conklin, Heather M.; Li, Chenghong; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  20. Learning and memory following conformal radiation therapy for pediatric craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Di Pinto, Marcos; Conklin, Heather M; Li, Chenghong; Merchant, Thomas E

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From the notch to a glioma grading system: the neurological contributions of James Watson Kernohan.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Maurer, Adrian J; Archer, Jacob B; Hanel, Ricardo A; Sughrue, Michael E; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C

    2014-04-01

    During his lifetime and a career spanning 42 years, James Watson Kernohan made numerous contributions to neuropathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. One of these, the phenomenon of ipsilateral, false localizing signs caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge, has widely become known as "Kernohan's notch" and continues to bear his name. The other is a grading system for gliomas from a neurosurgical viewpoint that continues to be relevant for grading of glial tumors 60 years after its introduction. In this paper, the authors analyze these two major contributions in detail within the context of Kernohan's career and explore how they contributed to the development of neurosurgical procedures.

  2. [Modern approach to WHO grade II glioma classification and treatment--review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Recławowicz, Daniel; Stempniewicz, Mirosław; Biernat, Wojciech; Słoniewski, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Although WHO grade II gliomas are slowly growing tumours, they inevitably show local recurrence and progression to higher grade counterparts. Progressive trials become time-consuming and troublesome because of relatively long survival and multimodal therapy. Recent discoveries in molecular pathology have divided patients into subgroups with different prognosis and expected response to therapy. Development did not omit surgical techniques, in particular intraoperative imaging and electrostimulation. The aim of radiotherapy development is preservation of the surroundings of the region of interest. Chemotherapy yields promising results notably with the possibility to choose patients with the best expected response. We present the current state of knowledge regarding these neoplasms.

  3. A Pilot Study of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy and Sunitinib in Previously Irradiated Patients With Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Wuthrick, Evan J.; Curran, Walter J.; Camphausen, Kevin; Lin, Alexander; Glass, Jon; Evans, James; Andrews, David W.; Axelrod, Rita; Shi, Wenyin; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Haacke, E. Mark; Hillman, Gilda G.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Angiogenic blockade with irradiation may enhance the therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy (RT) through vascular normalization. We sought to determine the safety and toxicity profile of continuous daily-dosed sunitinib when combined with hypofractionated stereotactic RT (fSRT) for recurrent high-grade gliomas (rHGG). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had malignant high-grade glioma that recurred or progressed after primary surgery and RT. All patients received a minimum of a 10-day course of fSRT, had World Health Organization performance status of 0 to 1, and a life expectancy of >3 months. During fSRT, sunitinib was administered at 37.5 mg daily. The primary endpoint was acute toxicity, and response was assessed via serial magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Eleven patients with rHGG were enrolled. The fSRT doses delivered ranged from 30 to 42 Gy in 2.5- to 3.75-Gy fractions. The median follow-up time was 40 months. Common acute toxicities included hematologic disorders, fatigue, hypertension, and elevated liver transaminases. Sunitinib and fSRT were well tolerated. One grade 4 mucositis toxicity occurred, and no grade 4 or 5 hypertensive events or intracerebral hemorrhages occurred. One patient had a nearly complete response, and 4 patients had stable disease for >9 months. Two patients (18%) remain alive and progression-free >3 years from enrollment. The 6-month progression-free survival was 45%. Conclusions: Sunitinib at a daily dose of 37.5 mg given concurrently with hypofractionated stereotactic reirradiation for rHGG yields acceptable toxicities and an encouraging 6-month progression-free survival.

  4. CS-27IDH1/2 MUTATIONS INFLUENCE ZEB1 EXPRESSION IN GRADES II AND III GLIOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Nesvick, Cody; Zhang, Chao; Montgomery, Blake; Lee, Michaela; Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Merrill, Marsha; Heiss, John; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cell program that crucially regulates polarity and enhances invasion in normal epithelia and carcinomas. It has been recently demonstrated that EMT-promoting transcription factors (EMT-TFs) also govern cell invasion in glioblastoma, but the role of these proteins in lower-grade gliomas has not yet been investigated. We investigated the impact of EMT-TF expression on overall survival in World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III gliomas using the National Cancer Institute Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasis Data (REMBRANDT) and Cancer Genome Atlas Network Lower-Grade Glioma (CGAN LGG) datasets. Surprisingly, while expression of EMT-promoting transcription factors were generally associated with a decrease in overall survival, high ZEB1 expression was associated with an increase in overall survival in both datasets (log-rank test on all grade II and III gliomas: for REMBRANDT, median overall survival (OS) 54.2 months ZEB1-high vs. 19.6 months ZEB1-low, p = 0.0016; for CGAN, median OS 134.3 months ZEB1-high vs. 63.6 months ZEB1-low, p = 0.0038). Mutations in the genes coding for Isocitrate Dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are found in 85-90% of grades II and III gliomas and confer a favorable prognosis in these tumors. Using the CGAN LGG dataset, we found that ZEB1 is upregulated in IDH1/2-mutant versus IDH1/2-wild type tumors (unpaired t-test on all grade II and III gliomas: t = 10.292, p < 0.0001). Moreover, IDH1/2-mutant gliomas express lower levels of genes that are suppressed by ZEB1 including MIR200B and MIR200C (unpaired t-test on all grade II and III gliomas: p < 0.0001 for both targets). We further validated these findings in an independent set of 37 grade II and III gliomas using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. These findings reveal that ZEB1 not only has an unexpected prognostic significance in grades II and III gliomas but also may play an important role in IDH1

  5. Advanced MR imaging techniques in the evaluation of nonenhancing gliomas: perfusion-weighted imaging compared with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and tumor grade.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Neslin; Melhem, Elias R; Wang, Sumei; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Poptani, Harish; Chawla, Sanjeev; Verma, Gaurav

    2013-10-01

    A significant number of nonenhancing (NE) gliomas are reported to be malignant. The purpose of this study was to compare the value of advanced MR imaging techniques, including T2*-dynamic susceptibility contrast PWI (DSC-PWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS) in the evaluation of NE gliomas. Twenty patients with NE gliomas underwent MRI including DSC-PWI and (1)HMRS. The relative CBV (rCBV) measurements were obtained from regions of maximum perfusion. The peak ratios of choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and myo-inositol/creatine (mIns/Cr) were measured at a TE of 30 ms. Demographic features, tumor volumes, and PWI- and (1)HMRS-derived measures were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs). In addition, the association of initial rCBV ratio with tumor progression was evaluated in LGGs. No significant difference was noted in age, sex or tumor size between LGGs and HGGs. Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in HGGs (1.7±0.63) than in LGGs (1.2±0.38). The receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that a Cho/Cr ratio with a cutoff value of 1.3 could differentiate between LGG and HGG with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 71.4%. There was no significant difference in the rCBV ratio and the mIns/Cr ratio between LGG and HGG. However, higher rCBV ratios were observed with more rapid progressions in LGGs. The results imply that Cho/Cr ratios are useful in distinguishing NE LGG from HGG and can be helpful in preoperative grading and biopsy guidance. On the other hand, rCBV ratios do not help in the distinction.

  6. Survival analysis of patients with high-grade gliomas based on data mining of imaging variables.

    PubMed

    Zacharaki, E I; Morita, N; Bhatt, P; O'Rourke, D M; Melhem, E R; Davatzikos, C

    2012-06-01

    The prediction of prognosis in HGGs is poor in the majority of patients. Our aim was to test whether multivariate prediction models constructed by machine-learning methods provide a more accurate predictor of prognosis in HGGs than histopathologic classification. The prediction of survival was based on DTI and rCBV measurements as an adjunct to conventional imaging. The relationship of survival to 55 variables, including clinical parameters (age, sex), categoric or continuous tumor descriptors (eg, tumor location, extent of resection, multifocality, edema), and imaging characteristics in ROIs, was analyzed in a multivariate fashion by using data-mining techniques. A variable selection method was applied to identify the overall most important variables. The analysis was performed on 74 HGGs (18 anaplastic gliomas WHO grades III/IV and 56 GBMs or gliosarcomas WHO grades IV/IV). Five variables were identified as the most significant, including the extent of resection, mass effect, volume of enhancing tumor, maximum B0 intensity, and mean trace intensity in the nonenhancing/edematous region. These variables were used to construct a prediction model based on a J48 classification tree. The average classification accuracy, assessed by cross-validation, was 85.1%. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the constructed prediction model classified malignant gliomas in a manner that better correlates with clinical outcome than standard histopathology. Prediction models based on data-mining algorithms can provide a more accurate predictor of prognosis in malignant gliomas than histopathologic classification alone.

  7. Predictors of subjective versus objective cognitive functioning in patients with stable grades II and III glioma

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Karin; Taphoorn, Martin J.B.; Sitskoorn, Margriet M.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies in cancer and noncancer populations demonstrate lower than expected correlations between subjective cognitive symptoms and cognitive functioning as determined by standardized neuropsychological tests. This paper systematically examines the association between subjective and objective cognitive functioning in patients with low-grade glioma and the associations of these indicators of cognitive function with clusters of sociodemographic, clinical, and self-reported physical and mental health factors. Methods Multiple regression analyses with the subjective and 2 objective indicators of cognitive functioning as dependent variables and 4 clusters of predictor variables were conducted in 169 patients with predominantly low-grade glioma. Results Correlations between the subjective and the 2 objective cognitive indicators were negligible (0.04) to low (0.24). Objective cognitive deficits were predominantly associated with sociodemographic (older age, lower education, male sex) and clinical (left hemisphere tumor) variables, while lower ratings of subjective cognitive function were more closely related to self-reported mental health symptoms (fatigue, lower mental well-being), physical (motor) dysfunction and female sex. Self-reported communication deficits were associated significantly with both subjective and objective dysfunction. Conclusions We recommend that both subjective and objective measures of cognitive functioning, together with a measure of psychological distress, be used for comprehensive neuropsychological assessments of patients with glioma to determine which areas are most affected and which specific intervention strategies are most appropriate. PMID:26034638

  8. Relationships between tumor grade and neurocognitive functioning in patients with glioma of the left temporal lobe prior to surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Kyle R.; Sullaway, Catherine; Ziu, Mateo; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Various tumor characteristics have been associated with neurocognitive functioning (NCF), though the role of tumor grade has not been adequately examined. Methods Seventy-two patients with histologically confirmed grade IV glioma (n = 37), grade III glioma (n = 20), and grade II glioma (n = 15) in the left temporal lobe completed preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Rates of impairment and mean test performances were compared by tumor grade with follow-up analysis of the influence of other tumor- and patient-related characteristics on NCF. Results NCF impairment was more frequent in patients with grade IV tumor compared with patients with lower-grade tumors in verbal learning, executive functioning, as well as language abilities. Mean performances significantly differed by tumor grade on measures of verbal learning, processing speed, executive functioning, and language, with the grade IV group exhibiting worse performances than patients with lower-grade tumors. Group differences in mean performances remained significant when controlling for T1-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI-based lesion volume. Performances did not differ by seizure status or antiepileptic and steroid use. Conclusions Compared with patients with grade II or III left temporal lobe glioma, patients with grade IV tumors exhibit greater difficulty with verbal learning, processing speed, executive functioning, and language. Differences in NCF associated with glioma grade were independent of lesion volume, seizure status, and antiepileptic or steroid use, lending support to the concept of “lesion momentum” as a primary contributor to deficits in NCF of newly diagnosed patients prior to surgery. PMID:25227126

  9. Diagnostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the noninvasive grading of solid gliomas: comparison of maximum and mean choline values.

    PubMed

    Senft, Christian; Hattingen, Elke; Pilatus, Ulrich; Franz, Kea; Schänzer, Anne; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Seifert, Volker; Gasser, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is widely used in addition to magnetic resonance imaging in the characterization of brain tumors. Compounds containing choline (Cho) have an important role in the evaluation of tumor malignancy. For this purpose, various ratios of Cho and other metabolites, such as creatine (Cr), have been assessed. The aim of this study was to compare normalized mean and maximum levels of Cho as single parameters in the noninvasive grading of gliomas. Proton spectroscopic imaging data of 63 patients with suspected World Health Organization (WHO) grade II or III gliomas were acquired at 3 T. Cho concentrations of the tumor were analyzed by a frequency domain fit and normalized to the corresponding contralateral healthy brain tissue. Metabolite images were used to determine the maximum and mean Cho as well as Cr concentrations of the tumor. Furthermore, contrast enhancement of the tumor was analyzed on standard magnetic resonance imaging. All patients subsequently underwent tumor resection or stereotactic biopsy to confirm diagnosis of glioma. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed with BiAS software (Epsilon Verlag GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany). Histopathological examinations revealed WHO grades II (n = 27), III (n = 26), and IV (n = 10). There was a statistically significant difference in both normalized maximum and mean Cho between WHO grade II and non-necrotic WHO grade III/IV gliomas (mean, 1.45 +/- 0.28 versus 2.16 +/- 0.36, P < 0.05; maximum, 1.64 +/- 0.32 versus 3.32 +/- 0.55, P < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analyses rendered a 2.02 cutoff value for maximum Cho with a sensitivity and specificity of 86.1% and 77.8%, respectively. For mean Cho, we found a cutoff value of 1.52 (sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 63.0%). The diagnostic accuracy of maximum Cho was superior to that of mean Cho and also the ratio of Cho/Cr (82.5% versus 71

  10. Profile of nimotuzumab in the treatment of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qun-Ying; Guo, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    High-grade gliomas (HGG) are extremely aggressive lesions and represent the most common primary malignant brain tumors without an effective therapy. Standard treatment for HGG usually includes surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the prognosis of patients with HGG remains dismal. We review the humanized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the major EGFR target drugs in HGG treatments, focusing on the EGFR antibody nimotuzumab as a new therapeutic strategy in HGG. We found that nimotuzumab with or without radiotherapy, chemotherapy in newly diagnosed or recurrent HGG, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), might improve the response rate or the survival time. In conclusion, nimotuzumab is a very well-tolerated drug with acceptable toxicity, and it may have promising value in the combination treatment. As a result, multiple center randomized controlled Phase III clinical trials need to be conducted to confirm the efficacy and toxicity for nimotuzumab in HGG.

  11. Profile of nimotuzumab in the treatment of high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qun-ying; Guo, Cheng-cheng; Chen, Zhong-ping

    2015-01-01

    High-grade gliomas (HGG) are extremely aggressive lesions and represent the most common primary malignant brain tumors without an effective therapy. Standard treatment for HGG usually includes surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the prognosis of patients with HGG remains dismal. We review the humanized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the major EGFR target drugs in HGG treatments, focusing on the EGFR antibody nimotuzumab as a new therapeutic strategy in HGG. We found that nimotuzumab with or without radiotherapy, chemotherapy in newly diagnosed or recurrent HGG, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), might improve the response rate or the survival time. In conclusion, nimotuzumab is a very well-tolerated drug with acceptable toxicity, and it may have promising value in the combination treatment. As a result, multiple center randomized controlled Phase III clinical trials need to be conducted to confirm the efficacy and toxicity for nimotuzumab in HGG. PMID:25926743

  12. Assessment of quality of life in patients treated for low-grade glioma: a preliminary report.

    PubMed Central

    Taphoorn, M J; Heimans, J J; Snoek, F J; Lindeboom, J; Oosterink, B; Wolbers, J G; Karim, A B

    1992-01-01

    In this pilot study quality of life was assessed in fourteen adult patients who were treated for a low-grade glioma with surgery and radiotherapy at least one year previously. Apart from widely used parameters, such as the neurological and functional status, the patients' cognitive functioning and actual affective status were determined. In addition the patients were interviewed to evaluate various aspects of quality of life. Generally no serious focal neurological deficits were found, although psychological examination showed serious cognitive and affective disturbances in most cases. Self report measures concerning cognitive functioning were not in all cases in accordance with objective test results. When the results of treatment in glioma patients are evaluated assessment of quality of life, including neuropsychological functioning, should be performed, especially as new therapeutic strategies are being developed. PMID:1602310

  13. Study of the biodistribution of fluorescein in glioma-infiltrated mouse brain and histopathological correlation of intraoperative findings in high-grade gliomas resected under fluorescein fluorescence guidance.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roberto Jose; Dios, Roberto Rey; Hattab, Eyas M; Burrell, Kelly; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Sabha, Nesrin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Zadeh, Gelareh; Rutka, James T; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-06-01

    Intravenous fluorescein sodium has been used during resection of high-grade gliomas to help the surgeon visualize tumor margins. Several studies have reported improved rates of gross-total resection (GTR) using high doses of fluorescein sodium under white light. The recent introduction of a fluorescein-specific camera that allows for high-quality intraoperative imaging and use of very low dose fluorescein has drawn new attention to this fluorophore. However, the ability of fluorescein to specifically stain glioma cells is not yet well understood. The authors designed an in vitro model to assess fluorescein uptake in normal human astrocytes and U251 malignant glioma cells. An in vivo experiment was also subsequently designed to study fluorescein uptake by intracranial U87 malignant glioma xenografts in male nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. A genetically induced mouse glioma model was used to adjust for the possible confounding effect of an inflammatory response in the xenograft model. To assess the intraoperative application of this technology, the authors prospectively enrolled 12 patients who underwent fluorescein-guided resection of their high-grade gliomas using low-dose intravenous fluorescein and a microscope-integrated fluorescence module. Intraoperative fluorescent and nonfluorescent specimens at the tumor margins were randomly analyzed for histopathological correlation. The in vitro and in vivo models suggest that fluorescein demarcation of glioma-invaded brain is the result of distribution of fluorescein into the extracellular space, most likely as a result of an abnormal blood-brain barrier. Glioblastoma tumor cell-specific uptake of fluorescein was not observed, and tumor cells appeared to mostly exclude fluorescein. For the 12 patients who underwent resection of their high-grade gliomas, the histopathological analysis of the resected specimens at the tumor margin confirmed the intraoperative fluorescent findings. Fluorescein

  14. Anatomical location differences between mutated and wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinhua; Shi, Zhifeng; Ji, Chunhong; Lian, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2017-01-06

    Anatomical location of gliomas has been considered as a factor implicating the contributions of a specific precursor cells during the tumor growth. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a pathognomonic biomarker with a significant impact on the development of gliomas and remarkable prognostic effect. The correlation between anatomical location of tumor and IDH1 states for low-grade gliomas was analyzed quantitatively in this study. Ninety-two patients diagnosed of low-grade glioma pathologically were recruited in this study, including 65 patients with IDH1-mutated glioma and 27 patients with wide-type IDH1. A convolutional neural network was designed to segment the tumor from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging images. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping was then employed to study the tumor location distribution differences between gliomas with mutated and wild-type IDH1. In order to characterize the location differences quantitatively, the Automated Anatomical Labeling Atlas was used to partition the standard brain atlas into 116 anatomical volumes of interests (AVOIs). The percentages of tumors with different IDH1 states in 116 AVOIs were calculated and compared. Support vector machine and AdaBoost algorithms were used to estimate the IDH1 status based on the 116 location features of each patient. Experimental results proved that the quantitative tumor location measurement could be a very important group of imaging features in biomarker estimation based on radiomics analysis of glioma.

  15. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery.

    PubMed

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F

    2015-03-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemisphere is linked to inter-hemispheric reorganization. Based on literature, we hypothesized that reorganization would induce changes in the spatial pattern of activation specifically in tumour homologue brain areas in the healthy right hemisphere. An experimental group (EG) of 14 patients with a glioma in the left hemisphere near language related brain areas, and a control group of 6 patients with a glioma in the right, non-language dominant hemisphere were scanned before and after resection. In addition, an age and gender matched second control group of 18 healthy volunteers was scanned twice. A verb generation task was used to map language related areas and a novel technique was used for data analysis. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that functional recovery following surgery of low-grade gliomas cannot be linked to functional reorganization in language homologue brain areas in the healthy, right hemisphere. Although elevated changes in the activation pattern were found in patients after surgery, these were largest in brain areas in proximity to the surgical resection, and were very similar to the spatial pattern of the brain shift following surgery. This suggests that the apparent perilesional functional reorganization is mostly caused by the brain shift as a consequence of surgery. Perilesional functional reorganization can however not be excluded. The study suggests that language recovery after transient post-surgical language deficits involves recovery of functioning of the presurgical language system.

  16. Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, Benjamin A.; Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Ebb, David H.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Jones, Robin M.; Butler, William E.; Huang, Mary S.; Marcus, Karen J.; Oberg, Jennifer A.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Primary low-grade gliomas are common brain tumors of childhood, many of which require radiation therapy (RT) as definitive treatment. Increased conformality of RT could decrease the incidence and severity of late effects. We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 Gy{sub RBE} (48.6-54 Gy{sub RBE}). Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall survival of 100%. For the subset of patients who received serial neurocognitive testing, there were no significant declines in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=.80), with a median neurocognitive testing interval of 4.5 years (range, 1.2-8.1 years) from baseline to follow-up, but subgroup analysis indicated some significant decline in neurocognitive outcomes for young children (<7 years) and those with significant dose to the left temporal lobe/hippocampus. The incidence of endocrinopathy correlated with a mean dose of ≥40 Gy{sub RBE} to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or optic chiasm. Stabilization or improvement of visual acuity was achieved in 83.3% of patients at risk for radiation-induced injury to the optic pathways. Conclusions: This report of late effects in children with low-grade gliomas after proton RT is encouraging. Proton RT appears to be associated with good clinical outcome, especially when the tumor location allows for increased sparing of the left temporal lobe, hippocampus, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  17. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Imaging With [18F]DCFPyL in High-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Salas Fragomeni, Roberto Andres; Menke, Joshua R; Holdhoff, Matthias; Ferrigno, Clare; Laterra, John Joseph; Solnes, Lilja B; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Szabo, Zsolt; Pomper, Martin G; Rowe, Steven P

    2017-10-01

    High-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grade III-IV) are highly lethal primary brain tumors. Imaging modalities, including MRI and FDG PET, provide a limited ability to differentiate treatment effects (such as radiation necrosis) from recurrent or residual tumor. As the first step in validating the applicability of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted imaging in high-grade gliomas, we evaluated the ability of the PSMA-targeted small molecule [F]DCFPyL (2-(3-(1carboxy-5-(6-[F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl)-ureido)-pentanedioic acid) to image high-grade gliomas in a series of 3 prospectively recruited patients. We found [F]DCFPyL binds PSMA in the neovasculature of glioblastoma multiforme and tumor cells of anaplastic astrocytoma.

  18. PET AND SPECT STUDIES IN CHILDREN WITH HEMISPHERIC LOW-GRADE GLIOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Csaba; Bosnyák, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in the pre-treatment evaluation of low-grade gliomas. While glucose positron emission tomography (PET) can be helpful to differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumors, PET imaging with amino acid radiotracers has several advantages, such as better differentiation between tumors and non-tumorous lesions, optimized biopsy targeting and improved detection of tumor recurrence. This review provides a brief overview of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies followed by a more detailed review of clinical applications of glucose and amino acid PET imaging in low-grade hemispheric gliomas. We discuss key differences in the performance of the most commonly utilized PET radiotracers and highlight the advantage of PET/MRI fusion to obtain optimal information about tumor extent, heterogeneity and metabolism. Recent data also suggest that simultaneous acquisition of PET/MR images and the combination of advanced MRI techniques with quantitative PET can further improve the pre- and post-treatment evaluation of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:27659825

  19. Bevacizumab and Irinotecan in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Ependymoma, or Low Grade Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-28

    Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma

  20. Symptoms and problems in the end-of-life phase of high-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Eefje M; Braam, Lies; Postma, Tjeerd J; Pasman, H Roeline W; Heimans, Jan J; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Taphoorn, Martin J B

    2010-11-01

    Despite multimodal treatment, it is not possible to cure high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Therefore, the aim of treatment is not only to prolong life, but also to prevent deterioration of health-related quality of life as much as possible. When the patient's condition declines and no further tumor treatment seems realistic, patients in the Netherlands are often referred to a primary care physician for end-of-life care. This end-of-life phase has not been studied adequately yet. The purpose of this study was to explore specific problems and needs experienced in the end-of-life phase of patients with HGG. We retrospectively examined the files of 55 patients who received treatment in our outpatient clinic and died between January 2005 and August 2008. The clinical nurse specialist in neuro-oncology maintained contact on a regular basis with (relatives of) HGG patients once tumor treatment for recurrence was no longer given. She systematically asked for signs and symptoms. The majority of the patients experienced loss of consciousness and difficulty with swallowing, often arising in the week before death. Seizures occurred in nearly half of the patients in the end-of-life phase and more specifically in one-third of the patients in the week before dying. Other common symptoms reported in the end-of-life phase are progressive neurological deficits, incontinence, progressive cognitive deficits, and headache. Our study demonstrates that HGG patients, unlike the general cancer population, have specific symptoms in the end-of-life phase. Further research is needed in order to develop specific palliative care guidelines for these patients.

  1. Cilengitide in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma That Has Not Responded to Standard Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-05

    Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  2. Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christina; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Grundy, Richard; Auer, Dorothee T.; Walker, David; Lakhani, Ravi; Scott, Ian S.; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 and low PTEN remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas. PMID:25026297

  3. Glioma-associated stem cells: a novel class of tumor-supporting cells able to predict prognosis of human low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bourkoula, Evgenia; Mangoni, Damiano; Ius, Tamara; Pucer, Anja; Isola, Miriam; Musiello, Daniela; Marzinotto, Stefania; Toffoletto, Barbara; Sorrentino, Marisa; Palma, Anita; Caponnetto, Federica; Gregoraci, Giorgia; Vindigni, Marco; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Falconieri, Giovanni; De Maglio, Giovanna; Pecile, Vanna; Ruaro, Maria Elisabetta; Gri, Giorgia; Parisse, Pietro; Casalis, Loredana; Scoles, Giacinto; Skrap, Miran; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Translational medicine aims at transferring advances in basic science research into new approaches for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Low-grade gliomas (LGG) have a heterogeneous clinical behavior that can be only partially predicted employing current state-of-the-art markers, hindering the decision-making process. To deepen our comprehension on tumor heterogeneity, we dissected the mechanism of interaction between tumor cells and relevant components of the neoplastic environment, isolating, from LGG and high-grade gliomas (HGG), proliferating stem cell lines from both the glioma stroma and, where possible, the neoplasm. We isolated glioma-associated stem cells (GASC) from LGG (n=40) and HGG (n=73). GASC showed stem cell features, anchorage-independent growth, and supported the malignant properties of both A172 cells and human glioma-stem cells, mainly through the release of exosomes. Finally, starting from GASC obtained from HGG (n=13) and LGG (n=12) we defined a score, based on the expression of 9 GASC surface markers, whose prognostic value was assayed on 40 subsequent LGG-patients. At the multivariate Cox analysis, the GASC-based score was the only independent predictor of overall survival and malignant progression free-survival. The microenvironment of both LGG and HGG hosts non-tumorigenic multipotent stem cells that can increase in vitro the biological aggressiveness of glioma-initiating cells through the release of exosomes. The clinical importance of this finding is supported by the strong prognostic value associated with the characteristics of GASC. This patient-based approach can provide a groundbreaking method to predict prognosis and to exploit novel strategies that target the tumor stroma. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Prognostic and predictive markers in recurrent high grade glioma; results from the BR12 randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Vincent Peter; Ichimura, Koichi; Di, Ying; Pearson, Danita; Chan, Ray; Thompson, Lindsay C; Gabe, Rhian; Brada, Michael; Stenning, Sally P

    2014-06-20

    We evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of a range of molecular changes in the setting of a randomised trial comparing standard PCV (procarbazine, CCNU (1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea) and vincristine) chemotherapy with the standard temozolomide (TMZ) 5-day (200 mg/m2/day) schedule and a 21-day (100 mg/m2/day) schedule in chemo-naïve, high-grade glioma (non-oligodendroglial tumours; WHO (World Health Organisation) grades III and IV) patients at first progression following radiotherapy.354 samples (79.2%) from the first operation of the 447 randomised patients provided enough tumour DNA for some or all parts of the study. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), mutation analysis of IDH1/2 and TP53 and methylation analyses of the MGMT CpG-island was done.84% of grade III tumours and 17% of grade IV had IDH1 or IDH2 mutations that conferred a better prognosis in both; MGMT methylation (defined as average value across 16 CpGs ≥ 10%) occurred in 75% of tumours and was also associated with improved survival. Both were of independent prognostic value after accounting for clinical factors and tumour grade. None of the molecular changes investigated gave clear evidence of a predictive benefit of TMZ over PCV or 21-day TMZ over 5-day TMZ although power was limited and a role for MGMT methylation could not be ruled out. Loss of 1p and 19q was seen in only 4 patients although hemizygous loss of 1p36 occurred in 20%.The findings support reports that IDH1/2 mutations and MGMT methylation can be used in addition to tumour grade and clinical factors to predict survival in patients with recurrent high grade gliomas when treated with any of the therapy regimes used.

  5. Progressive Low-Grade Glioma: Assessment of Prognostic Importance of Histologic Reassessment and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Narang, Amol K; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon D; Redmond, Kristin J; Lim, Michael; Olivi, Alessandro; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfred; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-03-01

    In patients with progressive low-grade glioma (LGG), the presence of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement is commonly used as an indicator of malignant degeneration, but its accuracy in this setting is uncertain. We characterize the ability of new MRI enhancement to serve as a surrogate for histologic grade in patients with progressive LGG, and to explore the prognostic value of new MRI enhancement, pathologic grade, and extent of resection. Patients at our institution with World Health Organization grade II glioma diagnosed between 1994 and 2010 and who underwent repeat biopsy or resection at progression were retrospectively reviewed (n = 108). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of new MRI enhancement were characterized. A multivariable proportional hazards model was used to test associations with overall survival (OS), and Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare OS between patient subsets. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of new MRI enhancement were 82%, 77%, 92%, and 57%, respectively. In patients without malignant degeneration, new MRI enhancement was associated with inferior median OS (92.5 months vs. not reached; P = 0.03). In patients with malignant degeneration, gross or near total resection was associated with improved median OS (58.8 vs. 28.8 months; P = 0.02). In patients with progressive LGG, new MRI enhancement and pathologic grade were discordant in greater than 20% of cases. Pathologic confirmation of grade should therefore be attempted, when safe, to dictate management. Beyond functioning as a surrogate for pathologic grade, new MRI enhancement may predict for worse outcomes, a concept that merits prospective investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CD34 Over-Expression is Associated With Gliomas' Higher WHO Grade.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangyi; Guan, Jian; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Yang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Jun; Wei, Junji; Yao, Yong; Xu, Zhiqin; Dou, Wanchen; Lian, Wei; Su, Changbao; Ren, Zuyuan; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-02-01

    CD34 is a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein that was first identified on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. CD34 is known as an optimum marker for microvascular density studies and it is positively stained in pathological and physiologic vessels. The use of CD34 for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of neoplasms has been increasingly discussed. The implications and utilities of CD34 in WHO grades of gliomas and its prognosis have been reported rarely. Also, the WHO grades and prognosis researches remains unclear and controversial. A meta-analysis is the best choice for drawing a convincing conclusion. Several databases were searched. We carefully assess the relevant articles and standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated in terms of the relationship between CD34 expression levels with gliomas' WHO grades, patients' ages and gender. We used the Galbraith figure, the I test, and Cochran Q test to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the pooled results' stability. A Contour-enhanced funnel plot evaluation was made to assess potential publication bias. Ethics review and approval was not necessary because the meta-analysis did not involve any direct human trials or animal experiments. There were 12 eligible studies, including 684 patients who were considered in the present meta-analysis. All of them were conducted in China. CD34 overexpression in glioma tissues was associated closely, according to the pooled SMD, with higher WHO grade (III + IV) (SMD -1.503, 95% CI -1.685 to -1.321; P = 0.000). There were no significant associations between CD34 and age (SMD -0.223, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.156; P = 0.248) and CD34 and gender (SMD -0.059, 95% CI -0.439, 0.321; P = 0.761). No publication bias was detected according to Contour-enhanced funnel plot. Our results suggested that CD34 overexpression is associated with higher WHO grades of gliomas. CD

  7. Does Tenascin have Clinical Implications in Pathological Grade of Glioma Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Wang, Yu; Guan, Jian; Gao, Jun; Wei, Junji; Yao, Yong; Lian, Wei; Xu, Zhiqin; Dou, Wanchen; Xing, Bing; Ren, Zuyuan; Su, Changbao; Yang, Yi; Wang, Renzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tenascin (TN) is an extracellular oligomeric glycoprotein that participates in the adhesion of cells to extracellular matrixc (ECM). Studies have shown that the expression levels of TN are upregulated in a variety of cancers, including colon cancer, lung cancer, brain tumor, and breast cancer. However, the implications and utilities of TN in clinical grading and prognosis of glioma patients were seldom reported and the effects of its pathway are still unclear and controversial. Thus, it is essential to carry out a meta-analysis to draw a convincing conclusion. A literature search was carried out up to April 2015. Data was collected using a purpose-designed form including glioma's WHO grade, etc. Differences were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Galbr figure, Cochran's Q test, and I2 test were all performed to judge the heterogeneity between included studies. To examine the stability of the pooled results, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Potential publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plot. As this meta-analysis, as a systematic review, does not involve animal experiments or direct human trials, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. In this meta-analysis, 8 eligible studies involving 456 patients were incorporated. Six studies with dichotomous data revealed TN overexpression in glioma tissues and/or surrounding neoplastic vessels was closely associated with high WHO grade (III + IV) (odds ratio 3.398, 95% confidence interval 1.933, 5.974; P = 0.000); three continuous data studies showed there were close statistical associations between TN and WHO grade (SMD −2.114, 95% CI −2.580, −1.649; P = 0.000) too. Sensitivity analysis indicated a statistically robust result. No publication bias was revealed. Our meta-analysis suggests that TN expression is potentially associated with higher WHO

  8. IDH mutations as an early and consistent marker in low-grade astrocytomas WHO grade II and their consecutive secondary high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Juratli, Tareq A; Kirsch, Matthias; Robel, Katja; Soucek, Silke; Geiger, Kathrin; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Schackert, Gabriele; Krex, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the prognostic and predictive significance of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas (LGA). The presence and consistency of IDH mutations during the progression of LGA to secondary high-grade gliomas (sHGG) were detected. Samples of patients with LGA and sHGG were investigated. The genomic regions around IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon 172 were PCR amplified and directly sequenced. Furthermore, the MGMT promoter status was provided using the methylation-specific PCR. Our population comprised 71 patients with a total of 45 pairs of LGA and their consecutive sHGG. Median follow-up was 9.6 years. IDH mutations were found in 36/45 LGA (80%) and their sHGG without changes in the mutation status. A total of 71 patients with LGA were analyzed according to clinical and molecular tumor-related factors: 56/71 patients (78.8%) had an IDH mutation without significant influence on the progression-free or overall survival (OS), and 22/71 (31%) of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) after diagnosis of LGA. Patients with early RT but without IDH mutations had the shortest survival. Our study shows that IDH mutation status is stable during the progression course of LGA to sHGG. The presence of IDH mutations fails to demonstrate a significant influence on survival in the multivariate analysis of LGA patients. Early RT appears to be beneficial only LGA patients with IDH-mutations.

  9. Distinguishing and grading human gliomas by IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Gerald; Shaw, Anthony; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Abuid, Mario H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan; Steller, Wolfram; Salzer, Reiner; Mantsch, Henry H

    2003-01-01

    As a molecular probe of tissue composition, IR spectroscopy can potentially serve as an adjunct to histopathology in detecting and diagnosing disease. This study demonstrates that cancerous brain tissue (astrocytoma, glioblastoma) is distinguishable from control tissue on the basis of the IR spectra of thin tissue sections. It is further shown that the IR spectra of astrocytoma and glioblastoma affected tissue can be discriminated from one another, thus providing insight into the malignancy grade of the tissue. Both the spectra and the methods employed for their classification reveal characteristic differences in tissue composition. In particular, the nature and relative amounts of brain lipids, including both the gangliosides and phospholipids, appear to be altered in cancerous compared to control tissue. Using a genetic classification approach, classification success rates of up to 89% accuracy were obtained, depending on the number of regions included in the model. The diagnostic potential and practical applications of IR spectroscopy in brain tumor diagnosis are discussed.

  10. A blood-based gene expression and signaling pathway analysis to differentiate between high and low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Stephen N; Kamaluddin, Nor Rizan; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Matheneswaran, Vickneswaran; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Haspani, Mohammed Saffari; Ryten, Mina; Hardy, John A

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to undertake gene expression profiling of the blood of glioma patients to determine key genetic components of signaling pathways and to develop a panel of genes that could be used as a potential blood-based biomarker to differentiate between high and low grade gliomas, non-gliomas and control samples. In this study, blood samples were obtained from glioma patients, non-glioma and control subjects. Ten samples each were obtained from patients with high and low grade tumours, respectively, ten samples from non-glioma patients and twenty samples from control subjects. Total RNA was isolated from each sample after which first and second strand synthesis was performed. The resulting cRNA was then hybridized with the Agilent Whole Human Genome (4x44K) microarray chip according to the manufacturer's instructions. Universal Human Reference RNA and samples were labeled with Cy3 CTP and Cy5 CTP, respectively. Microarray data were analyzed by the Agilent Gene Spring 12.1V software using stringent criteria which included at least a 2-fold difference in gene expression between samples. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student's t-test with a p<0.01. Pathway enrichment was also performed, with key genes selected for validation using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). The gene expression profiling indicated that were a substantial number of genes that were differentially expressed with more than a 2-fold change (p<0.01) between each of the four different conditions. We selected key genes within significant pathways that were analyzed through pathway enrichment. These key genes included regulators of cell proliferation, transcription factors, cytokines and tumour suppressor genes. In the present study, we showed that key genes involved in significant and well established pathways, could possibly be used as a potential blood-based biomarker to differentiate between high and low grade gliomas, non-gliomas and

  11. A blood-based gene expression and signaling pathway analysis to differentiate between high and low grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ponnampalam, Stephen N.; Kamaluddin, Nor Rizan; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Matheneswaran, Vickneswaran; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Haspani, Mohammed Saffari; Ryten, Mina; Hardy, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to undertake gene expression profiling of the blood of glioma patients to determine key genetic components of signaling pathways and to develop a panel of genes that could be used as a potential blood-based biomarker to differentiate between high and low grade gliomas, non-gliomas and control samples. In this study, blood samples were obtained from glioma patients, non-glioma and control subjects. Ten samples each were obtained from patients with high and low grade tumours, respectively, ten samples from non-glioma patients and twenty samples from control subjects. Total RNA was isolated from each sample after which first and second strand synthesis was performed. The resulting cRNA was then hybridized with the Agilent Whole Human Genome (4×44K) microarray chip according to the manufacturer's instructions. Universal Human Reference RNA and samples were labeled with Cy3 CTP and Cy5 CTP, respectively. Microarray data were analyzed by the Agilent Gene Spring 12.1V software using stringent criteria which included at least a 2-fold difference in gene expression between samples. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired Student's t-test with a P<0.01. Pathway enrichment was also performed, with key genes selected for validation using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). The gene expression profiling indicated that were a substantial number of genes that were differentially expressed with more than a 2-fold change (P<0.01) between each of the four different conditions. We selected key genes within significant pathways that were analyzed through pathway enrichment. These key genes included regulators of cell proliferation, transcription factors, cytokines and tumour suppressor genes. In the present study, we showed that key genes involved in significant and well established pathways, could possibly be used as a potential blood-based biomarker to differentiate between high and low grade gliomas, non-gliomas and

  12. Automated Grading of Gliomas using Deep Learning in Digital Pathology Images: A modular approach with ensemble of convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mehmet Günhan; Rubin, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Brain glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with different pathologic subtypes: Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade II, Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade III, and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Grade IV. The survival and treatment options are highly dependent of this glioma grade. We propose a deep learning-based, modular classification pipeline for automated grading of gliomas using digital pathology images. Whole tissue digitized images of pathology slides obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to train our deep learning modules. Our modular pipeline provides diagnostic quality statistics, such as precision, sensitivity and specificity, of the individual deep learning modules, and (1) facilitates training given the limited data in this domain, (2) enables exploration of different deep learning structures for each module, (3) leads to developing less complex modules that are simpler to analyze, and (4) provides flexibility, permitting use of single modules within the framework or use of other modeling or machine learning applications, such as probabilistic graphical models or support vector machines. Our modular approach helps us meet the requirements of minimum accuracy levels that are demanded by the context of different decision points within a multi-class classification scheme. Convolutional Neural Networks are trained for each module for each sub-task with more than 90% classification accuracies on validation data set, and achieved classification accuracy of 96% for the task of GBM vs LGG classification, 71% for further identifying the grade of LGG into Grade II or Grade III on independent data set coming from new patients from the multi-institutional repository.

  13. Automated Grading of Gliomas using Deep Learning in Digital Pathology Images: A modular approach with ensemble of convolutional neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Ertosun, Mehmet Günhan; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Brain glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with different pathologic subtypes: Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade II, Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade III, and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Grade IV. The survival and treatment options are highly dependent of this glioma grade. We propose a deep learning-based, modular classification pipeline for automated grading of gliomas using digital pathology images. Whole tissue digitized images of pathology slides obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to train our deep learning modules. Our modular pipeline provides diagnostic quality statistics, such as precision, sensitivity and specificity, of the individual deep learning modules, and (1) facilitates training given the limited data in this domain, (2) enables exploration of different deep learning structures for each module, (3) leads to developing less complex modules that are simpler to analyze, and (4) provides flexibility, permitting use of single modules within the framework or use of other modeling or machine learning applications, such as probabilistic graphical models or support vector machines. Our modular approach helps us meet the requirements of minimum accuracy levels that are demanded by the context of different decision points within a multi-class classification scheme. Convolutional Neural Networks are trained for each module for each sub-task with more than 90% classification accuracies on validation data set, and achieved classification accuracy of 96% for the task of GBM vs LGG classification, 71% for further identifying the grade of LGG into Grade II or Grade III on independent data set coming from new patients from the multi-institutional repository. PMID:26958289

  14. Velocity of tumor spontaneous expansion predicts long-term outcomes for diffuse low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Pallud, Johan; Blonski, Marie; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Audureau, Etienne; Fontaine, Denys; Sanai, Nader; Bauchet, Luc; Peruzzi, Philippe; Frénay, Marc; Colin, Philippe; Guillevin, Rémy; Bernier, Valérie; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Guyotat, Jacques; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Capelle, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Background Supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas present a slow macroscopic tumor growth that can be quantified through the measurement of their velocity of diametric expansion. We assessed whether spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion can predict long-term outcomes as a categorical variable and as a continuous predictor. Methods A total of 407 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults were studied. Results The mean spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion before first-line treatment was 5.8 ± 6.3 mm/year. During the follow-up (mean, 86.5 ± 59.4 months), 209 patients presented a malignant transformation, and 87 died. The malignant progression-free survival and the overall survival were significantly longer in cases of slow velocity of diametric expansion (median, 103 and 249 months, respectively) than in cases of fast velocity of diametric expansion (median, 35 and 91 months, respectively; P < .001). In multivariate analyses, spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion as a categorical variable (<4, ≥4 and <8, ≥8 and <12, ≥12 mm/year) was an independent prognostic factor for malignant progression-free survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–5.52) and for overall survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.58–7.97). Velocity of diametric expansion was also an independent prognostic factor for overall survival as a continuous predictor, showing a linear relationship between overall survival and spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion (hazard ratio, 1.09 per one unit increase; 95% CI, 1.06–1.12; P < .001). Conclusions Independent of the molecular status, the spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion allows the identification of rapidly growing diffuse low-grade gliomas (at higher risk of worsened evolution) during the pretherapeutic period and without delaying treatment. PMID:23393207

  15. Hypnosis for Awake Surgery of Low-grade Gliomas: Description of the Method and Psychological Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zemmoura, Ilyess; Fournier, Eric; El-Hage, Wissam; Jolly, Virginie; Destrieux, Christophe; Velut, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Awake craniotomy with intraoperative electric stimulation is a reliable method for extensive removal of low-grade gliomas while preserving the functional integrity of eloquent surrounding brain structures. Although fully awake procedures have been proposed, asleep-awake-asleep remains the standard technique. Anesthetic contraindications are the only limitation of this method, which is therefore not reliable for older patients with high-grade gliomas. To describe and assess a novel method for awake craniotomy based on hypnosis. We proposed a novel hypnosedation procedure to patients undergoing awake surgery for low-grade gliomas in our institution between May 2011 and April 2015. Surgical data were retrospectively recorded. The subjective experience of hypnosis was assessed by 3 standardized questionnaires: the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire, and a fourth questionnaire designed specifically for this study. Twenty-eight questionnaires were retrieved from 43 procedures performed on 37 patients. The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire revealed a dissociation state in 17 cases. The Perceived Stress Scale was pathological in 8 patients. Two patients in this group stated that they would not accept a second hypnosedation procedure. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale revealed 1 case of posttraumatic stress disorder. Burr hole and bone flap procedures were the most frequently reported unpleasant events during opening (15 of 52 events). The main findings of our study are the effectiveness of the technique, which in all cases allowed resection of the tumor up to functional boundaries, and the positive psychological impact of the technique in most of the patients.

  16. Biopsy versus resection for the management of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bowen; Chaichana, Kaisorn; Veeravagu, Anand; Chang, Steven D; Black, Keith L; Patil, Chirag G

    2017-04-27

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2013, Issue 4.Low-grade gliomas (LGG) constitute a class of slow-growing primary brain neoplasms. Patients with clinically and radiographically suspected LGG have two initial surgical options, biopsy or resection. Biopsy can provide a histological diagnosis with minimal risk but does not offer a direct treatment. Resection may have additional benefits such as increasing survival and delaying recurrence, but is associated with a higher risk for surgical morbidity. There remains controversy about the role of biopsy versus resection and the relative clinical outcomes for the management of LGG. To assess the clinical effectiveness of biopsy compared to surgical resection in patients with a new lesion suspected to be a LGG. The following electronic databases were searched in 2012 for the first version of the review: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to November week 3 2012), Embase (1980 to Week 46 2012). For this updated version, the following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE (Nov 2012 to June week 3 2016), Embase (Nov 2012 to 2016 week 26). All relevant articles were identified on PubMed and by using the 'related articles' feature. We also searched unpublished and grey literature including ISRCTN-metaRegister of Controled Trials, Physicians Data Query and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials. We planned to include patients of any age with a suspected intracranial LGG receiving biopsy or resection within a randomized clinical trial (RCT) or controlled clinical trial (CCT). Patients with prior resections, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for LGG were excluded. Outcome measures included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), functionally independent survival (FIS), adverse events, symptom control, and quality of life (QoL). A total of 1375

  17. Pembrolizumab in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory High-Grade Gliomas, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas, or Hypermutated Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; Malignant Glioma; Recurrent Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Refractory Brain Neoplasm; Refractory Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

  18. Current and future directions for Phase II trials in high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brian M; Lee, Eudocia Q; Reardon, David A; Wen, Patrick Y

    2013-04-01

    Despite surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) is poor. Our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in gliomagenesis and progression has increased in recent years, leading to the development of novel agents that specifically target these pathways. Results from most single-agent trials have been modest at best, however. Despite the initial success of antiangiogenesis agents in HGG, the clinical benefit is short-lived and most patients eventually progress. Several novel agents, multi-targeted agents and combination therapies are now in clinical trials for HGG and several more strategies are being pursued.

  19. Measuring clinical outcomes in neuro-oncology. A battery to evaluate low-grade gliomas (LGG).

    PubMed

    Papagno, Costanza; Casarotti, Alessandra; Comi, Alessandro; Gallucci, Marcello; Riva, Marco; Bello, Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    We describe how a neuropsychological evaluation in patients with brain tumors should be performed, specifically in the case of low-grade gliomas. Neuropsychological examination is crucial before starting any treatment as well as during the follow-up, since it can improve neurosurgery techniques and reveal potential cognitive effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, besides planning rehabilitation. We underline that sensitive and wide-ranging tests are required; specific tasks based on the lesion site should be added. Moreover, some tests can provide additional information about the evolution of the tumor. A careful, thorough examination improves quality of life.

  20. Pseudoprogression in children, adolescents and young adults with non-brainstem high grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    PubMed

    Carceller, Fernando; Fowkes, Lucy A; Khabra, Komel; Moreno, Lucas; Saran, Frank; Burford, Anna; Mackay, Alan; Jones, David T W; Hovestadt, Volker; Marshall, Lynley V; Vaidya, Sucheta; Mandeville, Henry; Jerome, Neil; Bridges, Leslie R; Laxton, Ross; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Pfister, Stefan M; Leach, Martin O; Pearson, Andrew D J; Jones, Chris; Koh, Dow-Mu; Zacharoulis, Stergios

    2016-08-01

    Pseudoprogression (PsP) is a treatment-related phenomenon which hinders response interpretation. Its prevalence and clinical impact have not been evaluated in children/adolescents. We assessed the characteristics, risk factors and prognosis of PsP in children/adolescents and young-adults diagnosed with non-brainstem high grade gliomas (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). Patients aged 1-21 years diagnosed with HGG or DIPG between 1995 and 2012 who had completed radiotherapy were eligible. PsP was assessed according to study-specific criteria and correlated with first-line treatment, molecular biomarkers and survival. Ninety-one patients (47 HGG, 44 DIPG) were evaluable. Median age: 10 years (range, 2-20). Eleven episodes of PsP were observed in 10 patients (4 HGG, 6 DIPG). Rates of PsP: 8.5 % (HGG); 13.6 % (DIPG). Two episodes of PsP were based on clinical findings alone; nine episodes had concurrent radiological changes: increased size of lesions (n = 5), new focal enhancement (n = 4). Temozolomide, MGMT methylation or H3F3A mutations were not found to be associated with increased occurrence of PsP. For HGG, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 41.9 % no-PsP versus 100 % PsP (p = 0.041); differences in 1-year overall survival (OS) were not significant. For DIPG, differences in 1-year PFS and OS were not statistically significant. Hazard ratio (95 %CI) of PsP for OS was 0.551 (0.168-1.803; p = 0.325) in HGG; and 0.308 (0.107-0.882; p = 0.028) in DIPG. PsP occurred in both pediatric HGG and DIPG patients at a comparable rate to adult HGG. PsP was associated with improved 1-yr PFS in HGG patients. PsP had a protective effect upon OS in DIPG patients.

  1. Clinical outcomes of gamma knife radiosurgery in the salvage treatment of patients with recurrent high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Elaimy, Ameer L; Mackay, Alexander R; Lamoreaux, Wayne T; Demakas, John J; Fairbanks, Robert K; Cooke, Barton S; Lamm, Andrew F; Lee, Christopher M

    2013-12-01

    Previously published randomized evidence did not report a survival advantage for patients diagnosed with grade IV glioma who were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery followed by external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy when compared to patients treated with external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone. In recent years, gamma knife radiosurgery has become increasingly popular as a salvage treatment modality for patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. The purpose of this article is to review the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery for patients who suffer from this malignancy. Retrospective, prospective, and randomized clinical studies published between the years 2000 and 2012 analyzing gamma knife radiosurgery for patients with high-grade glioma were reviewed. After assessing patient age, Karnofsky performance status, tumor histology, and extent of resection, gamma knife radiosurgery is a viable, minimally invasive treatment option for patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. The available prospective and retrospective evidence suggests that gamma knife radiosurgery provides patients with a high local tumor control rate and a median survival after tumor recurrence ranging from 13 to 26 months. Gamma knife radiosurgery followed by chemotherapy for recurrent high-grade glioma may provide select patients with increased levels of survival. However, further investigation into this matter is needed due to the limited number of published reports. Additional clinical research is also needed to analyze the efficacy and radiation-related toxicities of fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery due to its potential to limit treatment-associated morbidity. Gamma knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment option for select patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. Although treatment outcomes have improved, further evidence in the form of phase III randomized trials is needed to assess the durability of treating

  2. The role of neuropathology in the management of patients with diffuse low grade glioma: A systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Daniel P; Sloan, Andrew E; Nahed, Brian V; Aldape, Kenneth D; Louis, David N; Ryken, Timothy C; Kalkanis, Steven N; Olson, Jeffrey J

    2015-12-01

    Adult patients (age ≥18 years) who have suspected low-grade diffuse glioma. What are the optimal neuropathological techniques to diagnose low-grade diffuse glioma in the adult? LEVEL I: Histopathological analysis of a representative surgical sample of the lesion should be used to provide the diagnosis of low-grade diffuse glioma. Both frozen section and cytopathologic/smear evaluation should be used to aid the intra-operative assessment of low-grade diffuse glioma diagnosis. A resection specimen is preferred over a biopsy specimen, to minimize the potential for sampling error issues. Patients with histologically-proven WHO grade II diffuse glioma. In adult patients (age ≥18 years) with histologically-proven WHO grade II diffuse glioma, is testing for IDH1 mutation (R132H and/or others) warranted? If so, is there a preferred method? IDH gene mutation assessment, via IDH1 R132H antibody and/or IDH1/2 mutation hotspot sequencing, is highly-specific for low-grade diffuse glioma, and is recommended as an additional test for classification and prognosis. Patients with histologically-proven WHO grade II diffuse glioma. In adult patients (age ≥18 years) with histologically-proven WHO grade II diffuse glioma, is testing for 1p/19q loss warranted? If so, is there a preferred method? 1p/19q loss-of-heterozygosity testing, by FISH, array-CGH or PCR, is recommended as an additional test in oligodendroglial cases for prognosis and potential treatment planning. Patients with histologically-proven WHO grade II diffuse glioma. In adult patients (age ≥18 years) with histologically-proven WHO grade II diffuse glioma, is MGMT promoter methylation testing warranted? If so, is there a preferred method? There is insufficient evidence to recommend methyl-guanine methyl-transferase (MGMT) promoter methylation testing as a routine for low-grade diffuse gliomas. It is recommended that patients be enrolled in properly designed clinical trials to assess the value of this and related

  3. [The contribution of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the classification of high grade gliomas. The predictive value of macromolecules].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Celda-Muñoz, B; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Ferrer-Ripollés, P; Revert-Ventura, A J; Piquer-Belloch, J; Mollá-Olmos, E; Arana-Fernández de Moya, E; Dosdá-Muñoz, R

    1H MRS allows the study of metabolite concentration changes in intracranial tumours, relating them, more or less successfully, to the histological type and grade of the tumour. To analyse the patterns which are useful for classifying the grades of cerebral gliomas by means of various ratios obtained using 1H MRS with two echo times (ET), with and without water suppression, paying special attention to the macromolecules. We studied 8 gliomas (1 grade II, 2 grade III and 5 grade IV) with single volume 1H MRS at ET 31 ms (8/8) and 136 ms (7/8). The intensities of the metabolites, including macromolecules (MMA, 0.9 ppm; MMB, 1.3 ppm), were normalised to water signal intensity for ET 31, to Cr at ET 31 and 136 ms and NAA/Cho for both ET and the ratio MMA/MMB at ET 31. There were significant differences between the three grades on the ratios MMA/MMB (p= 0.000) with descent of the MMA/MMB coefficient as the grade increases, and NNA/Cho at ET 136 (p= 0.018). We found an inverse relationship between the quantity in mI and the increase in grade. No macromolecules were found at ET 136 in any of the tumours of grade II or III. The spectra of gliomas with ET 31 showed macromolecules around 0.9 and 1.3 ppm with different relative ratios for each tumour grade. The ET 136 spectra informs about the content of NNA and Cho. Apart from the increase in MMB (0.9 ppm), with short ET the higher grades showed lower content of mI. The study of gliomas using 1H MRS with ET 31 and 136 ms contributes to the diagnosis of the grade of tumour.

  4. Analysis of survival in pediatric high-grade brainstem gliomas: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sandi; Lin, Yimo; Auffinger, Brenda; Melkonian, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the National Cancer Institutes' Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to perform a large-scale analysis of brainstem anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Use of the SEER database gave us a larger sample size of this rare tumor type, allowing for the analysis of the relationship between prognostic factors and survival. We selected pediatric patients (<18 years old) from the SEER database with histologically confirmed diagnoses of primary high-grade gliomas (World Health Organization Grade III/IV) of the brainstem. In univariate and multivariate analysis, we analyzed the relationship between demographic (age, gender, race, diagnosis date), histologic (AA, GBM), and treatment (surgery, radiation) factors on survival. In our cohort of 124 patients, those with AA had a median survival of 13 months and those with GBM 9 months. Higher-grade tumors were associated with statistically significantly increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.74, confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.17-2.60). Surgical intervention was associated with a significantly lower mortality, either alone (HR: 0.14, CI: 0.04-0.5) or in combination with radiation (HR: 0.35, CI: 0.15-0.82). Radiation therapy alone was significantly associated with decreased mortality within the first 9 months after diagnosis but not with overall mortality. No demographic characteristics were significantly associated with mortality. Outcome remains poor in the pediatric high-grade brainstem glioma population. Survival is correlated with lower-grade tumor histology, radiation therapy only in the first 9 months after diagnosis, and surgical resection.

  5. P13.11USAGE OF CYBER KNIFE HYPOFRACTIONATED RADIOSURGERY IN HIGH GRADE GLIOMAS COMPLEX TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Glavatskyi, O.; Buryk, V.M.; Kardash, K.A.; Pylypas, O.P.; Chebotaryova, T.I.

    2014-01-01

    respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery is one of possible treatment options for high-grade gliomas which leads to a decrease in tumor volume and improves clinical status of patients even in cases of re-irradiation. Surgical treatment after radiosurgery doesn't worsen median overall survival and progression free survival prognosis.

  6. Natural history of de novo High Grade Glioma: first description of growth parabola.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Roberto; Hirono, Seiichiro; Duffau, Hugues; Ducati, Alessandro; Fontanella, Marco; LA Rocca, Giuseppe; Melcarne, Antonio; Panciani, Pier P; Spena, Giannantonio; Garbossa, Diego

    2017-07-26

    Etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of gliomas are largely unknown. Recently, many authors have proved a strict correlation between the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) on the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the biological behavior of these tumors, especially in Low Grade Gliomas (LGGs). Unfortunately, natural history of High Grade Gliomas (HGGs) has not been well clarified because of its fast progression, late diagnoses and early surgical intervention. We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the case of asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered de novo HGG with a total of 17 months of follow-up. A male patient was referred to our consultation for routinely follow-up after meningioma resection 5 years before. He underwent MRI every year without any neuroradiological alterations. A new MRI image presented a non-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe with 3.55 cm of Mean Tumor Diameter (MTD) and 35.6 mm/year of VDE. After two months interval, the lesion had 3.97 cm of MTD and 27.8 mm/year of VDE. Although we have strongly suggested surgical resection, patient have delayed the operation for personal issues. After other 3 months, the tumor showed enhancement with 4.5 of MTD and 17.4 mm/year of VDE. We speculate that the descending parabola is due to initial mass effect and hypoxia of the tumor core. We also underline the crucial role of the VDE determining, in order to predict the nature of the lesion and address the most effective treatment for each patient.

  7. Stereotactic brachytherapy of low-grade cerebral glioma after tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Suchorska, Bogdana; Ruge, Maximilian; Treuer, Harald; Sturm, Volker; Voges, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) on survival time and outcome when applied after resection of low-grade glioma (LGG) of World Health Organization grade II. From January 1982 through December 2006 we treated 1024 patients who had glioma with stereotactic implantation of iodine-125 seeds and SBT in accordance with a prospective protocol. For the present analysis, we selected 95 of 277 patients with LGG, in whom SBT was applied to treat progressive (43 patients) or recurrent (52 patients) tumor after resection. At 24 months after seed implantation, the tumor response rate was 35.9%, and the tumor control rate was 97.3%. The median progression-free-survival (PFS) duration after SBT was 52.7 ± 7.1 months. Five-year and 10-year PFS probabilities were 43.4% and 10.7%, respectively. Malignant tumor transformation, the diagnosis "astrocytoma," and tumor volume >20 mL were significantly associated with reduced PFS. Tumor progression or relapse after SBT (53 of 95 patients) was treated with tumor resection, a second SBT, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The median overall survival duration (from the first diagnosis of LGG until the patient's last contact) was 245.0 ± 4.9 months. Patients still under observation after seed implantation had a median follow-up time of 156.4 ± 55.7 months. Perioperative transient morbidity was 1.1%, and the frequency of permanent morbidity caused by SBT was 3.3%. In conclusion, SBT of recurrent or progressive LGG after resection located in functionally critical brain areas has high local efficacy and comparably low morbidity. Referred to individually adopted glioma treatment concepts SBT provides a reasonably long PFS, thus improving overall survival. In selected patients, SBT can lead to delays in the application of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  8. Acute progression of untreated incidental WHO Grade II glioma to glioblastoma in an asymptomatic patient.

    PubMed

    Cochereau, Jérôme; Herbet, Guillaume; Rigau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    WHO Grade II glioma (low-grade glioma [LGG]) is increasingly diagnosed as an incidental finding in patients undergoing MRI for many conditions. Recent data have demonstrated that such incidental LGGs are progressive tumors that undergo clinical transformation and ultimately become malignant. Although asymptomatic LGG seems to represent an earlier step in the natural course of a glioma than the symptomatic LGG, it is nonetheless impossible to predict at the individual level when the tumor will become malignant. The authors report the case of a 43-year-old woman with a right operculo-insular LGG that was incidentally diagnosed because of headaches. No treatment was proposed, and repeated MRI scans were performed for 6 years in another institution. Due to a slow but continuous growth of the lesion, the patient was finally referred to our center to undergo surgery. Interestingly, objective calculation of the velocity of the tumor's diametric expansion demonstrated a sudden acceleration of the growth rate within the 5 months preceding surgery, with the development of contrast enhancement. Remarkably, the patient was still asymptomatic. An awake resection was performed with intraoperative electrical mapping. There was no functional worsening following surgery, as assessed on postoperative neuropsychological examination. Removal of 92% of signal abnormality on FLAIR MRI was achieved, with complete resection of the area of contrast enhancement. Neuropathological examination revealed a glioblastoma, and the patient was subsequently treated with concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although a "wait and see" attitude has been advocated by some authors with respect to incidental LGG, our original case demonstrates that acute transformation to glioblastoma may nonetheless occur, even before the onset of any symptoms. Therefore, because the lack of symptoms does not protect from malignant transformation, we propose consideration of earlier resection in a more systematic

  9. Prognostic Value of MRS Metabolites in Postoperative Irradiated High Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tolia, Maria; Verganelakis, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Kyrgias, George; Papathanasiou, Matilda; Mosa, Eftichia; Kokakis, Ioannis; Kouvaris, John R.; Pissakas, George; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouloulias, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We studied the prognostic significance of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) in operated high grade gliomas. Materials and Methods. Twelve patients were treated with radiotherapy and Temozolomide. The MRS data were taken four weeks after operation (before radiotherapy) and every six months after the completion of RT. The N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine, and myo-inositol parameters were quantified, analyzed, and correlated to recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results. The median RFS was 26.06 months. RFS was significantly worse in elderly patients (P = 0.001) along with the higher choline/creatine ratios at either baseline (P = 0.003) or six months post Radiotherapy (P = 0.042). Median RFS was 23 months in high choline/creatine levels ≥2 at 6 months after radiotherapy and 11 months for those with <2 choline/creatine levels. There was a significant correlation of maximum difference of choline/creatine ratio with RFS (rho = 0.64, P = 0.045). Conclusion. Age and choline/creatine ratio are strong independent prognostic factors in high grade gliomas. PMID:26339606

  10. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient’s age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results. PMID:26751577

  11. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Parisot, Sarah; Darlix, Amélie; Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient's age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results.

  12. Decision-making abilities in patients with frontal low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Casarotti, Alessandra; Forgiarini, Matteo; Riva, Marco; Bello, Lorenzo; Papagno, Costanza

    2012-10-01

    Decisions in daily life are often quite complex, especially when one has to decide about his/her own health, as it is the case for patients with brain tumours. The integrity of the prefrontal cortex (and of the orbito-frontal in particular) is crucial in humans for practical decision-making. We investigated decision-making in 22 right-handed patients with a left frontal low-grade glioma, by means of a more complex, computerized version of the Iowa gambling task and we compared their performance with that of 26 neurologically-unimpaired subjects. After the experiment, we also administered a questionnaire to evaluate subjects' conscious comprehension level of the task and two self-report scales to verify potential effects of individual personality differences. Patients chose significantly less cards than controls from the advantageous deck, without modifying their behaviour over time, and this correlated with abstract reasoning abilities. In both groups, level of comprehension, significantly affected performance. An improvement was found post-surgery. In conclusion, the performance in the Gambling Task suggests that patients with left frontal low-grade gliomas can be impaired in decision-making, apparently requiring more time to understand the task: therefore, a particular attention and care should be taken to explain risks and consequences of his/her illness and treatment in order to obtain an informed decision from the patient.

  13. Adult Supratentorial Low-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Experience at a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, Glenn; Fisher, Barbara; Watling, Christopher; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Macdonald, David

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term follow-up of a cohort of adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 145 adult patients treated at the London Regional Cancer Program between 1979 and 1995 was reviewed. Results: With a median follow-up of 105 months, the median progression-free survival was 61 months (95% confidence interval, 53-77), and the median overall survival was 118 months (95% confidence interval, 93-129). The 10- and 20-year progression-free and overall survival rate was 18% and 0% and 48% and 22%, respectively. Cox regression analysis confirmed the importance of age, histologic type, presence of seizures, Karnofsky performance status, and initial extent of surgery as prognostic variables for overall and cause-specific survival. Function among long-term survivors without tumor progression was good to excellent for most patients. Conclusion: Low-grade glioma is a chronic disease, with most patients dying of their disease. However, long-term survival with good function is possible. Survival is determined primarily by the disease factors with selection and timing of adjuvant treatments having less influence on outcome.

  14. Pitfalls in the assessment of disability in individuals with low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Påhlson, Anneli; Ek, Lena; Ahlström, Gerd; Smits, Anja

    2003-11-01

    In this study, the presence of motor and cognitive disability is described in a cohort of patients with low-grade glioma recruited from a geographical area with a well-defined population located in the middle of Sweden. The study group consisted of 35 patients, of which 24 were evaluated by both a neurologist and a neuropsychologist, and 11 only by a neurologist. The test battery according to EFIT (Edinburgh Functional Impairment Test) was used by the neurologist to measure impairments of limb function, memory and speech. Patients were asked to self-evaluate their deficits in motor function and cognition by responding to a specific questionnaire. In addition, a neuropsychological test battery was used by an experienced neuropsychologist who had no previous contact with the patients. In general, motor impairment was mild and predominantly found in the upper limb. Neuropsychological assessment revealed moderate or severe cognitive impairment in more than half of the patients. This impairment was not detected by neurological examination, and only to some extent reported by the patients them selves. The results show statistical differences in cognitive function, memory and language as recorded by the three assessors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usefulness of neuropsychological assessment as a complement to neurological examination to detect cognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade gliomas.

  15. High-grade glioma management and response assessment—recent advances and current challenges

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M.N.; Sharma, A.M.; Pitz, M.; Loewen, S.K.; Quon, H.; Poulin, A.; Essig, M.

    2016-01-01

    The management of high-grade gliomas (hggs) is complex and ever-evolving. The standard of care for the treatment of hggs consists of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, treatment options are influenced by multiple factors such as patient age and performance status, extent of tumour resection, biomarker profile, and tumour histology and grade. Follow-up cranial magnetic resonance imaging (mri) to differentiate treatment response from treatment effect can be challenging and affects clinical decision-making. An assortment of advanced radiologic techniques—including perfusion imaging with dynamic susceptibility contrast mri, dynamic contrast-enhanced mri, diffusion-weighted imaging, proton spectroscopy, mri subtraction imaging, and amino acid radiotracer imaging—can now incorporate novel physiologic data, providing new methods to help characterize tumour progression, pseudoprogression, and pseudoresponse. In the present review, we provide an overview of current treatment options for hgg and summarize recent advances and challenges in imaging technology. PMID:27536188

  16. Treatment of children with high grade glioma with nimotuzumab: a 5-year institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Cabanas, Ricardo; Saurez, Giselle; Rios, Martha; Alert, Jose; Reyes, Adnolys; Valdes, Jose; Gonzalez, Maria C; Pedrayes, Jorge L; Avila, Melba; Herrera, Raiza; Infante, Mariela; Echevarria, Ernesto; Moreno, Myrna; Luaces, Patricia Lorenzo; Ramos, Tania Crombet

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors are a major cause of cancer-related mortality in children. Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is detected in pediatric brain tumors and receptor density appears to increase with tumor grading. Nimotuzumab is an IgG1 antibody that targets EGFR. Twenty-three children with high-grade glioma (HGG) were enrolled in an expanded access program in which nimotuzumab was administered alone or with radio-chemotherapy. The mean number of doses was 39. Nimotuzumab was well-tolerated and treatment with the antibody yielded a survival benefit: median survival time was 32.66 mo and the 2-y survival rate was 54.2%. This study demonstrated the feasibility of prolonged administration of nimotuzumab and showed preliminary evidence of clinical benefit in HGG patients with poor prognosis.

  17. Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Lori A; Horowitz, Peleg M; Craig, Justin M; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Rich, Benjamin E; Schumacher, Steven E; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J; Hill, D Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L; Eberhart, Charles G; Dunn, Ian F; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C; Stiles, Charles D; Ligon, Azra H; Kieran, Mark W; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L

    2013-05-14

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas.

  18. Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1

    PubMed Central

    Ramkissoon, Lori A.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Craig, Justin M.; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Rich, Benjamin E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S.; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D.; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E.; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C.; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J.; Hill, D. Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Dunn, Ian F.; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A.; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C.; Stiles, Charles D.; Ligon, Azra H.; Kieran, Mark W.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas. PMID:23633565

  19. Proposed therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma based on aggressive tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Ikuta, Soko; Komori, Takashi; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Iseki, Hiroshi; Tamura, Manabu; Saito, Taiichi; Okamoto, Saori; Chernov, Mikhail; Hayashi, Motohiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT There is no standard therapeutic strategy for low-grade glioma (LGG). The authors hypothesized that adjuvant therapy might not be necessary for LGG cases in which total radiological resection was achieved. Accordingly, they established a treatment strategy based on the extent of resection (EOR) and the MIB-1 index: patients with a high EOR and low MIB-1 index were observed without postoperative treatment, whereas those with a low EOR and/or high MIB-1 index received radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy. In the present retrospective study, the authors reviewed clinical data on patients with primarily diagnosed LGGs who had been treated according to the above-mentioned strategy, and they validated the treatment policy. Given their results, they will establish a new treatment strategy for LGGs stratified by EOR, histological subtype, and molecular status. METHODS One hundred fifty-three patients with diagnosed LGG who had undergone resection or biopsy at Tokyo Women's Medical University between January 2000 and August 2010 were analyzed. The patients consisted of 84 men and 69 women, all with ages ≥ 15 years. A total of 146 patients underwent surgical removal of the tumor, and 7 patients underwent biopsy. RESULTS Postoperative RT and nitrosourea-based chemotherapy were administered in 48 and 35 patients, respectively. Extent of resection was significantly associated with both overall survival (OS; p = 0.0096) and progression-free survival (PFS; p = 0.0007) in patients with diffuse astrocytoma but not in those with oligodendroglial subtypes. Chemotherapy significantly prolonged PFS, especially in patients with oligodendroglial subtypes (p = 0.0009). Patients with a mutant IDH1 gene had significantly longer OS (p = 0.034). Multivariate analysis did not identify MIB-1 index or RT as prognostic factors, but it did identify chemotherapy as a prognostic factor for PFS and EOR as a prognostic factor for OS and PFS. CONCLUSIONS The findings demonstrated that EOR was

  20. The prognostic value of IDH mutations and MGMT promoter status in secondary high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Juratli, T A; Kirsch, M; Geiger, K; Klink, B; Leipnitz, E; Pinzer, T; Soucek, S; Schrock, E; Schrok, E; Schackert, G; Krex, D

    2012-12-01

    Reports about the prognostic value of IDH mutations and the promoter region of the O6-Methyl-guanyl-methyl-transferase gene in secondary high-grade gliomas (sHGG) are few in number. We investigated the prognostic value of IDH mutations and methylation of the promoter region of the MGMT gene in 99 patients with sHGG and analyzed the clinical course of those tumors. Patients with sHGG were screened for IDH mutations by direct sequencing, and, for promoter status of MGMT gene, by the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 48 of 99 patients (48.5 %) had secondary anaplastic gliomas (Group 1), while 51 patients had secondary glioblastomas (Group 2). The median survival time after malignant progression of all patients with sHGG and with an IDH mutation was 4 years, which is significantly longer than in patients with wild-type IDH (1.2 years, p = 0.009). Patients' survival was not significantly influenced by the tumors' MGMT promoter status, both in Group 1- 9.7 years vs. 6.1 years, methylated vs. unmethylated promoter (p = 0.330)-as well as in Group 2-1.5 years vs. 1.6 years, methylated versus unmethylated promoter (p = 0.829). In our population, the IDH mutation status was not associated with increased PFS or median survival time in sGBM patients. However, patients with secondary anaplastic glioma and IDH mutation had a significantly improved outcome. In addition, IDH mutations are a more powerful prognostic marker concerning both PFS and MS than the MGMT promoter status in those patients.

  1. Extent of resection and survival in supratentorial infiltrative low-grade gliomas: analysis of and adjustment for treatment bias.

    PubMed

    Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Simon, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Any correlation between the extent of resection and the prognosis of patients with supratentorial infiltrative low-grade gliomas may well be related to biased treatment allocation. Patients with an intrinsically better prognosis may undergo more aggressive resections, and better survival may then be falsely attributed to the surgery rather than the biology of the disease. The present study investigates the potential impact of this type of treatment bias on survival in a series of patients with low-grade gliomas treated at the authors' institution. We conducted a retrospective study of 148 patients with low-grade gliomas undergoing primary treatment at our institution from 1996-2011. Potential prognostic factors were studied in order to identify treatment bias and to adjust survival analyses accordingly. Eloquence of tumor location proved the most powerful predictor of the extent of resection, i.e., the principal source of treatment bias. Univariate as well as multivariate Cox regression analyses identified the extent of resection and the presence of a preoperative neurodeficit as the most important predictors of overall survival, tumor recurrence and malignant progression. After stratification for eloquence of tumor location in order to correct for treatment bias, Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a consistent association between the degree of resection and improved survival. Treatment bias was not responsible for the correlation between extent of resection and survival observed in the present series. Our data seem to provide further support for a strategy of maximum safe resections for low-grade gliomas.

  2. Supraorbital trans-eyebrow craniotomy and fluorescence-guided resection of fronto-basal high grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Prat-Acín, Ricardo; Galeano-Senabre, Inmaculada; Pancucci, G; Evangelista, R; Ayuso-Sacido, A; Botella, C

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of fluorescence-guided resection of fronto-basal high grade gliomas by using the supraorbital trans-eyebrow craniotomy. We present a single-institution experience of 6 consecutive patients presenting high grade brain glioma located on the fronto-basal area that were operated through a supraorbital trans-eyebrow craniotomy. Previous to surgery all patients were administered 20mg/kg of 5 aminolevulic acid so microscopic fluorescence-guided resection could be accomplished. Tumors were located on gyrus rectus (3 patients), medial orbital gyrus (2 patients), and anterior orbital gyrus (1 patient). Despite the narrow surgical corridor, fluorescence was useful in all cases. Fluorescence-guided resection allowed inclusion into the margins of resection of areas previously considered as normal under white light. Complete resection was obtained in 5 patients. No neurological postoperative new deficit was observed in this series. All six cases corresponded to glioblastoma. Only one case of superficial infection with delayed wound healing was reported as complication. All patients expressed a high level of satisfaction related to cosmetic result. Fluorescence-guided resection of fronto-basal high grade gliomas can be successfully achieved through supraorbital trans-eyebrow craniotomy. Benefits of supraorbital craniotomy in the management of fronto-basal high grade gliomas as well as usefulness of fluorescence-guided resection through a very narrow corridor are exposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Seizure control as a new metric in assessing efficacy of tumor treatment in low-grade glioma trials.

    PubMed

    Avila, Edward K; Chamberlain, Marc; Schiff, David; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Armstrong, Terri S; Ruda, Roberta; Wen, Patrick Y; Weller, Michael; Koekkoek, Johan A F; Mittal, Sandeep; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Choucair, Ali; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; MacDonald, David R; Nishikawa, Ryo; Shah, Aashit; Vecht, Charles J; Warren, Paula; van den Bent, Martin J; DeAngelis, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma frequently have brain tumor-related epilepsy, which is more common than in patients with high-grade glioma. Treatment for tumor-associated epilepsy usually comprises a combination of surgery, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Response to tumor-directed treatment is measured primarily by overall survival and progression-free survival. However, seizure frequency has been observed to respond to tumor-directed treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A review of the current literature regarding seizure assessment for low-grade glioma patients reveals a heterogeneous manner in which seizure response has been reported. There is a need for a systematic approach to seizure assessment and its influence on health-related quality-of-life outcomes in patients enrolled in low-grade glioma therapeutic trials. In view of the need to have an adjunctive metric of tumor response in these patients, a method of seizure assessment as a metric in brain tumor treatment trials is proposed. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Clinical prognostic factors of adjuvant radiation therapy for low-grade gliomas: results of 10 years survival.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Vildan; Aksu, Melek Gamze; Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Ozdemir, Beyza; Ceçen, Yiğit; Sindir, Bora; Genç, Mine

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas compose 5-20% of all glial tumors. The prognosis of the disease can be anticipated by specific clinical factors determined during diagnosis. For this purpose, our study investigated the clinical prognostic factors for low-grade gliomas. Patients diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, followed by Akdeniz University and Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology between 1999 and 2013 were included in the study. The examination of survival by single variable analyses were performed by log rank test. For the multivariate analysis, independent factors for the prediction of survival by using possible factors determined by previous analyses were examined by using Cox regression analysis. Fifty-five patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was determined as 60 ± 57 (4.5-168.1) months. Five-year overall survival was determined as 69% and 10-year overall survival was determined as 40%. When the potential prognostic factors were studied in Cox regression model, pre-radiotherapy age below 40 and gross-total excision were determined as good prognostic factors. We demonstrated that the aggressive surgical resection provided a better survival advantage both in single variable analyses and multivariate analyses. Consequently, although the low number of patients was the most important limitation in our study, we consider that patient age and extent of resection are the most important clinical prognostic factors in low-grade gliomas.

  5. Immunohistochemistry on IDH 1/2, ATRX, p53 and Ki-67 substitute molecular genetic testing and predict patient prognosis in grade III adult diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shingo; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Matsuda, Masahide; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Kato, Yukinari; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The molecular subgrouping of diffuse gliomas was recently found to stratify patients into prognostically distinct groups better than histological classification. Among several molecular parameters, the key molecules for the subtype diagnosis of diffuse gliomas are IDH mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and ATRX mutation; 1p/19q co-deletion is undetectable by immunohistochemistry, but is mutually exclusive with ATRX and p53 mutation in IDH mutant gliomas. Therefore, we applied ATRX and p53 immunohistochemistry instead of 1p/19q co-deletion analysis. The prognostic value of immunohistochemical diagnosis for Grade III gliomas was subsequently investigated. Then, the same immunohistochmical diagnostic approach was expanded for the evaluation of Grade II and IV diffuse glioma prognosis. The results indicate immunohistochemical analysis including IDH1/2, ATRX, p53, and Ki-67 index is valuable for the classification of diffuse gliomas, which is useful for the evaluation of prognosis, especially Grade III gliomas and lower-grade gliomas (i.e., Grade II and III).

  6. The role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with diffuse low grade glioma: A systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Ryken, Timothy C; Parney, Ian; Buatti, John; Kalkanis, Steven N; Olson, Jeffrey J

    2015-12-01

    (1) What is the optimal role of external beam radiotherapy in the management of adult patients with newly diagnosed low-grade glioma (LGG) in terms of improving outcome (i.e., survival, complications, seizure control or other reported outcomes of interest)? (2) Which radiation strategies (dose, timing, fractionation, stereotactic radiation, brachytherapy, chemotherapy) improve outcomes compared to standard external beam radiation therapy in the initial management of low grade gliomas in adults? (3) Do specific factors (e.g., age, volume, extent of resection, genetic subtype) identify subgroups with better outcomes following radiation therapy than the general population of adults with newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas? These recommendations apply to adults with newly diagnosed diffuse LGG. OUTCOMES IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED LOW GRADE GLIOMA TREATED WITH RADIOTHERAPY: Level I Radiotherapy is recommended in the management of newly diagnosed low-grade glioma in adults to prolong progression free survival, irrespective of extent of resection. Level II Radiotherapy is recommended in the management of newly diagnosed low grade glioma in adults as an equivalent alternative to observation in preserving cognitive function, irrespective of extent of resection. Level III Radiotherapy is recommended in the management of newly diagnosed low grade glioma in adults to improve seizure control in patients with epilepsy and subtotal resection. Level III Radiotherapy is recommended in the management of newly diagnosed low-grade glioma in adults to prolong overall survival in patients with subtotal resection. Level III Consideration of the risk of radiation induced morbidity, including cognitive decline, imaging abnormalities, metabolic dysfunction and malignant transformation, is recommended when the delivery of radiotherapy is selected in the management of newly diagnosed low-grade glioma in adults. STRATEGIES OF RADIOTHERAPY IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED LOW

  7. Magnetic Resonance of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in IDH1-Mutated Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Joanna J.; Yoshihara, Hikari A. I.; Parvataneni, Rupa; Srinivasan, Radhika; Bourne, Gabriela; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Cha, Soonmee; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that a significant survival advantage is conferred to patients with gliomas whose lesions harbor mutations in the genes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2). IDH1/2 mutations result in aberrant enzymatic production of the potential oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Here, we report on the ex vivo detection of 2HG in IDH1-mutated tissue samples from patients with recurrent low-grade gliomas using the nuclear magnetic resonance technique of proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy. Relative 2HG levels from pathologically confirmed mutant IDH1 tissues correlated with levels of other ex vivo metabolites and histopathology parameters associated with increases in mitotic activity, relative tumor content, and cellularity. Ex vivo spectroscopic measurements of choline-containing species and in vivo magnetic resonance measurements of diffusion parameters were also correlated with 2HG levels. These data provide extensive characterization of mutant IDH1 lesions while confirming the potential diagnostic value of 2HG as a surrogate marker of patient survival. Such information may augment the ability of clinicians to monitor therapeutic response and provide criteria for stratifying patients to specific treatment regimens. PMID:22238333

  8. 5-aminolevulinic acid and neuronavigation in high-grade glioma surgery: results of a combined approach.

    PubMed

    Panciani, Pier Paolo; Fontanella, Marco; Garbossa, Diego; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2012-02-01

    In high-grade glioma surgery, several techniques are used to achieve the maximum cytoreductive treatment preserving neurological functions. However, the effectiveness of all the methods used alone is reduced by specific limitations of each. We assessed the reliability of a multimodal strategy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and neuronavigation. We prospectively studied 18 patients with suspected, non eloquent-area malignant gliomas amenable for complete resection. Conventional illumination was used until the excision appeared complete. The cavity was then systematically inspected in violet-blue light to identify any residual tumour. Multiple biopsies of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent tissue were performed in all cases. Each specimen was labelled according to the sampling location (inside or outside the boundary set by the neuronavigator). The samples were analysed by a neuropathologist blinded to the intraoperative classification. We reviewed the results of both methods, either singly or in combination. Individual analysis showed higher 5-ALA reliability compared to neuronavigation. However, several false-negative fluorescent specimens were detected. With the combined use of fluorescence and neuroimaging, only 1 sample (negative for both 5-ALA and navigation) was tumoral tissue. In our experience, the combined approach showed the best sensitivity and it is recommended in cases of lesions involving non-eloquent areas.

  9. Extracellular vesicles from high grade glioma exchange diverse pro-oncogenic signals that maintain intratumoral heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Franz; Mineo, Marco; Rooj, Arun K.; Nakano, Ichiro; Charest, Al; Weissleder, Ralph; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Godlewski, Jakub; Bronisz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    A lack of experimental models of tumor heterogeneity limits our knowledge of the complex subpopulation dynamics within the tumor ecosystem. In high grade gliomas (HGG), distinct hierarchical cell populations arise from different glioma stem-like cell (GSC) subpopulations. Extracellular vesicles (EV) shed by cells may serve as conduits of genetic and signaling communications, however, little is known about how HGG heterogeneity may impact EV content and activity. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of EV isolated from patient-derived GSC of either proneural or mesenchymal subtypes. EV signatures were heterogeneous, but reflected the molecular make-up of the GSC and consistently clustered into the two subtypes. EV-borne protein cargoes transferred between proneural and mesenchymal GSC increased pro-tumorigenic behaviors in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, analyses of HGG patient data from the TCGA database revealed that proneural tumors with mesenchymal EV signatures or mesenchymal tumors with proneural EV signatures were both associated with worse outcomes, suggesting influences by the proportion of tumor cells of varying subtypes in tumors. Collectively, our findings illuminate the heterogeneity among tumor EV and the complexity of HGG heterogeneity which these EV help maintain. PMID:27013191

  10. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

    2013-06-01

    The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs.

  11. Radiation and Immunotherapy in High-grade Gliomas: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed

    Reznik, Elizabeth; Smith, Andrew W; Taube, Shoshana; Mann, Justin; Yondorf, Menachem Z; Parashar, Bhupesh; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2017-09-12

    High-grade glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounting for 52% of all brain tumors. The current standard of care (SOC) of GBM involves surgery followed by adjuvant fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, little progress has been made in extending overall survival, progression-free survival, and quality of life. Attempts to characterize and customize treatment of GBM have led to mitigating the deleterious effects of radiotherapy using hypofractionated radiotherapy, as well as various immunotherapies as a promising strategy for the incurable disease. A combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy may prove to be even more effective than either alone, and preclinical evidence suggests that hypofractionated radiotherapy can actually prime the immune system to make immunotherapy more effective. This review addresses the complications of the current radiotherapy regimen, various methods of immunotherapy, and preclinical and clinical data from combined radioimmunotherapy trials.

  12. Non-routine Tracers for PET Imaging of High-grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Frosina, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Thorough imaging is crucial for diagnosis and treatment of high-grade gliomas (HGG), lethal brain tumours with median survival ranging 1-5 years after diagnosis. Positron-emission tomography (PET) is acquiring importance in imaging of HGG since it has the formidable advantage of providing information on tumour metabolism that may be critical for correct diagnosis and treatment planning. Recently employed PET tracers designed for the non-routine investigation of specific aspects of HGG metabolism, including hypoxia, neoangiogenesis, expression of integrins and stem cell markers, are reviewed herein. A thorough choice from among these non-routine tracers may provide important metabolic information complementing those obtained with more common PET analyses, for the sake of diagnostic, prognostic, treatment planning or research purposes.

  13. Prognostic significance of IDH mutation in adult low-grade gliomas: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hairui; Yin, Lianhu; Li, Showwei; Han, Song; Song, Guangrong; Liu, Ning; Yan, Changxiang

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been identified in approximately 65-90 % of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Various studies examining the relationship between IDH mutation with the clinical outcome in patients with LGGs have yielded inconclusive results. The purpose of the present meta-analysis of literature is to determine this effect. We conducted a meta-analysis of 10 studies (937 patients) that evaluated the correlation between IDH mutation and overall survival (OS). For the quantitative aggregation of the survival results, the IDH mutation effect was measured by hazard ratio (HR). Overall, the pooled HR was 0.585 (95 % CI, 0.376-0.911, p = 0.025, random effect model) for patients with IDH mutation vs patients without IDH mutation. IDH mutation was associated with better overall survival of LGGs. At least this trend was observed in our analysis.

  14. Challenges in Drug Discovery for Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ricker, Cora A.; Pan, Yuan; Gutmann, David H.; Keller, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from germline mutations of the NF1 gene, creating a predisposition to low-grade gliomas (LGGs; pilocytic astrocytoma) in young children. Insufficient data and resources represent major challenges to identifying the best possible drug therapies for children with this tumor. Herein, we summarize the currently available cell lines, genetically engineered mouse models, and therapeutic targets for these LGGs. Conspicuously absent are human tumor-derived cell lines or patient-derived xenograft models for NF1-LGG. New collaborative initiatives between patients and their families, research groups, and pharmaceutical companies are needed to create transformative resources and broaden the knowledge base relevant to identifying cooperating genetic drivers and possible drug therapeutics for this common pediatric brain tumor. PMID:28066715

  15. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematoma in Low-Grade Glioma After 14 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Joković, Miloš; Bogosavljević, Vojislav; Nikolić, Igor; Jovanović, Nemanja

    We are reporting the case of a 53-year old woman presenting to our hospital with a hemorrhagic low-grade glioma (LGG). She was admitted to a nearby general hospital where she had presented with aphasia, right hemiplegia and change of mental status. Computer tomography (CT) images showed a left temporo-parietal hemorrhage with mass effect. She was transferred to our hospital neuro-intensive care unit where emergency craniotomy was performed. A tumor with hematoma was removed and further histopathology analysis revealed tumor progression. We reviewed the literature reporting cases of central nervous system tumors hemorrhage and found that these types of events are exquisitely rare in adults with LGG. However these events are possible, suggesting that it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with intracranial hemorrhage. This case raises questions regarding the benefit of early versus late intervention for patients known to have LGG.

  16. ADVANCED MR IMAGING METHODS FOR PLANNING AND MONITORING RADIATION THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH GRADE GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Janine M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    This review explores how the integration of advanced imaging methods with high quality anatomic images significantly improves the characterization, target definition, assessment of response to therapy, and overall management of patients with high-grade glioma. Metrics derived from diffusion, perfusion, and susceptibility weighted MR imaging in conjunction with MR spectroscopic imaging, allows us to characterize regions of edema, hypoxia, increased cellularity, and necrosis within heterogeneous tumor and surrounding brain tissue. Quantification of such measures may provide a more reliable initial representation of tumor delineation and response to therapy than changes in the contrast enhancing or T2 lesion alone and have a significant impact on targeting resection, planning radiation, and assessing treatment effectiveness. In the long-term, implementation of these imaging methodologies can also aid in the identification of recurrent tumor and its differentiation from treatment-related confounds and facilitate the detection of radiation-induced vascular injury in otherwise normal appearing brain tissue. PMID:25219809

  17. Correlation between preoperative magnetic resonance spectroscopic data on high grade gliomas and morphology of Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Reinhold; Herminghaus, Sebastian; Raab, Peter; Wagner, Sabine; Pilatus, Ulrich; Schlote, Wolfgang; Zanella, Friedhelm; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2003-06-01

    To investigate possible statistical correlations between metabolic data from preoperative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) and morphology of proliferating tumor cell nuclei in anaplastic gliomas and glioblastomas. Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei in paraffin sections of surgical specimens from 36 patients (7 anaplastic gliomas, World Health Organization grade 3; 29 glioblastomas, World Health Organization grade 4) were investigated by means of a digital image analysis system. Stringent inclusion criteria were formulated for all cases with respect to histologic quality and spectroscopic examination. As morphometric variables, nuclear area, shape variables (roundness factor, size-invariate Fourier amplitudes) and density of Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei per reference area were determined. Correlation analysis according to Spearman revealed a significant positive correlation between the total creatine (TCR) peak and nuclear area (P = .005). This correlation was also found within the glioblastoma group (P = .019). There was also a significant negative correlation of nuclear area with the ratio between choline and TCR in all cases (P = .014) and within the glioblastoma group (P = .046). No significant correlation of spectroscopic data was found with nuclear shape or density of Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei. The results demonstrate a correlation between spectroscopic data and morphology of proliferating tumor cell nuclei (nuclear size) in high grade gliomas. This study is part of a detailed investigation of the interrelationship between preoperative 1HMRS and quantitative histomorphology of gliomas.

  18. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Colasanti, Roberto; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Nocchi, Niccolò; Polonara, Gabriele; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Zizzi, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a “cure” and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment. PMID:23180968

  19. ADC texture—An imaging biomarker for high-grade glioma?

    SciTech Connect

    Brynolfsson, Patrik; Hauksson, Jón; Karlsson, Mikael; Garpebring, Anders; Nyholm, Tufve; Nilsson, David; Trygg, Johan; Henriksson, Roger; Birgander, Richard; Asklund, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Survival for high-grade gliomas is poor, at least partly explained by intratumoral heterogeneity contributing to treatment resistance. Radiological evaluation of treatment response is in most cases limited to assessment of tumor size months after the initiation of therapy. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its estimate of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has been widely investigated, as it reflects tumor cellularity and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate texture analysis of ADC images in conjunction with multivariate image analysis as a means for identification of pretreatment imaging biomarkers. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive high-grade glioma patients were treated with radiotherapy (2 Gy/60 Gy) with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. ADC maps and T1-weighted anatomical images with and without contrast enhancement were collected prior to treatment, and (residual) tumor contrast enhancement was delineated. A gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis was performed on the ADC maps in a cuboid encapsulating the tumor in coronal, sagittal, and transversal planes, giving a total of 60 textural descriptors for each tumor. In addition, similar examinations and analyses were performed at day 1, week 2, and week 6 into treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce dimensionality of the data, and the five largest components (scores) were used in subsequent analyses. MRI assessment three months after completion of radiochemotherapy was used for classifying tumor progression or regression. Results: The score scatter plots revealed that the first, third, and fifth components of the pretreatment examinations exhibited a pattern that strongly correlated to survival. Two groups could be identified: one with a median survival after diagnosis of 1099 days and one with 345 days, p = 0.0001. Conclusions: By combining PCA and texture analysis, ADC texture characteristics were identified, which seems

  20. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma: A New Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, Anna Maria; Tomatis, Stefano; Reggiori, Giacomo; Clerici, Elena; Villa, Elisa; Maggi, Giulia; Bello, Lorenzo; Pessina, Federico; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) in patients re-treated for recurrent high-grade glioma. Materials and Methods From January 2006 to September 2013, 25 patients were treated. Six patients underwent radiation therapy alone, while 19 underwent combined treatment with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Only patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) > 70 and time from previous radiotherapy greater than 6 months were re-irradiated. The mean recurrent tumor volume was 35 cm3 (range, 2.46 to 116.7 cm3), and most of the patients (84%) were treated with a total dose of 25 Gy in five fractions (range, 20 to 50 Gy in 5-10 fractions). Results The median follow-up was 18 months (range, 4 to 36 months). The progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 and 2 years was 72% and 34% and the overall survival (OS) 76% and 50%, respectively. No severe toxicity was recorded. In univariate and multivariate analysis extent of resection at diagnosis significantly influenced PFS and OS (p < 0.01). Patients with smaller recurren tumor volume treated had better local control and survival. Indeed, the 2-year PFS was 40% (≤ 50 cm3) versus 11% (p=0.1) and the 2-year OS 56% versus 33% (> 50 cm3), respectively (p=0.26). Conclusion In our experience, HSRT could be a safe and feasible therapeutic option for recurrent high grade glioma even in patients with larger tumors. We believe that a multidisciplinary evaluation is mandatory to assure the best treatment for selected patients. Local treatment should also be considered as part of an integrated approach. PMID:25761491

  1. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma: A New Challenge.

    PubMed

    Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, Anna Maria; Tomatis, Stefano; Reggiori, Giacomo; Clerici, Elena; Villa, Elisa; Maggi, Giulia; Bello, Lorenzo; Pessina, Federico; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) in patients re-treated for recurrent high-grade glioma. From January 2006 to September 2013, 25 patients were treated. Six patients underwent radiation therapy alone, while 19 underwent combined treatment with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Only patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) > 70 and time from previous radiotherapy greater than 6 months were re-irradiated. The mean recurrent tumor volume was 35 cm(3) (range, 2.46 to 116.7 cm(3)), and most of the patients (84%) were treated with a total dose of 25 Gy in five fractions (range, 20 to 50 Gy in 5-10 fractions). The median follow-up was 18 months (range, 4 to 36 months). The progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 and 2 years was 72% and 34% and the overall survival (OS) 76% and 50%, respectively. No severe toxicity was recorded. In univariate and multivariate analysis extent of resection at diagnosis significantly influenced PFS and OS (p < 0.01). Patients with smaller recurren tumor volume treated had better local control and survival. Indeed, the 2-year PFS was 40% (≤ 50 cm(3)) versus 11% (p=0.1) and the 2-year OS 56% versus 33% (> 50 cm(3)), respectively (p=0.26). In our experience, HSRT could be a safe and feasible therapeutic option for recurrent high grade glioma even in patients with larger tumors. We believe that a multidisciplinary evaluation is mandatory to assure the best treatment for selected patients. Local treatment should also be considered as part of an integrated approach.

  2. Novel paracrine modulation of Notch-DLL4 signaling by fibulin-3 promotes angiogenesis in high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Susan E.; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Rodriguez-Gil, Diego J.; Viapiano, Mariano S.

    2014-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are characterized by exuberant vascularization, diffuse invasion and significant chemoresistance, resulting in a recurrent phenotype that makes them impossible to eradicate in the long-term. Targeting pro-tumoral signals in the glioma microenvironment could have significant impact against tumor cells and the supporting niche that facilitates their growth. Fibulin-3 is a protein secreted by glioma cells, but absent in normal brain, that promotes tumor invasion and survival. We show here that fibulin-3 is a paracrine activator of Notch signaling in endothelial cells and promotes glioma angiogenesis. Fibulin-3 overexpression increased tumor VEGF levels, microvascular density, and vessel permeability, while fibulin-3 knockdown reduced vessel density in xenograft models of glioma. Fibulin-3 localization in human glioblastomas showed dense fiber-like condensations around tumor blood vessels, which were absent in normal brain, suggesting a remarkable association of this protein with tumor endothelium. At the cellular level, fibulin-3 enhanced endothelial cell motility and association to glioma cells, reduced endothelial cell sprouting, and increased formation of endothelial tubules, in a VEGF-independent and Notch-dependent manner. Fibulin-3 increased ADAM10/17 activity in endothelial cells by inhibiting the metalloprotease inhibitor TIMP3; this resulted in increased Notch cleavage and increased expression of DLL4 independently of VEGF signaling. Inhibition of ADAM10/17 or knockdown of DLL4 reduced the pro-angiogenic effects of fibulin-3 in culture. Taken together, these results reveal a novel, pro-angiogenic role of fibulin-3 in gliomas, highlighting the relevance of this protein as an important molecular target in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25139440

  3. Pathology of low-grade gliomas: an update of emerging concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Arie

    2003-01-01

    Although the term low-grade glioma (LGG) is useful for its connotation of a slow-growing, better prognosis CNS primary neoplasm typically occurring in a young patient, it also serves as a potential diagnostic wastebasket, occasionally leading to conceptual errors, therapeutic uncertainty, or misinterpretation of clinical data. For example, the LGG designation is occasionally invoked as a justification for lumping together biologically unrelated entities such as pilocytic astrocytoma and diffuse astrocytoma. Whereas the former represents a benign and potentially surgically curable neoplasm that virtually never undergoes malignant transformation, the latter is a surgically incurable low-grade malignancy, prone to further malignant progression and eventual fatality. Therefore, although rare cases lacking a clear distinction may be encountered, the term LGG should be abandoned for a more specific diagnosis whenever possible. The primary goals of this paper are to review practical surgical pathology issues related to the diagnosis of diffuse LGGs and to update the reader on emerging clinicopathologic and molecular genetic concepts. Also discussed are current controversies of classification/grading and the role of ancillary testing via immunohistochemical and genetic techniques. PMID:12816723

  4. Phase I trial of panobinostat and fractionated stereotactic re-irradiation therapy for recurrent high grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenyin; Palmer, Joshua D; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Andrews, David W; Evans, James J; Glass, Jon; Kim, Lyndon; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Judy, Kevin; Farrell, Christopher; Simone, Nicole; Liu, Haisong; Dicker, Adam P; Lawrence, Yaacov R

    2016-05-01

    Panobinostat is an oral HDAC inhibitor with radiosensitizing activity. We investigated the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of panobinostat combined with fractionated stereotactic re-irradiation therapy (FSRT) for recurrent high grade gliomas. Patients with recurrent high grade gliomas were enrolled in a 3 + 3 dose escalation study to determine dose limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy. FSRT was prescribed to 30-35 Gy delivered in 10 fractions. Panobinostat was administrated concurrently with radiotherapy. Of 12 evaluable patients, 8 had recurrent GBM, and 4 had recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma. There were three grade 3 or higher toxicities in each the 10 and 30 mg cohorts. In the 30 mg cohort, there was one DLT; grade 4 neutropenia. One patient developed late grade 3 radionecrosis. The median follow up was 18.8 months. The PFS6 was 67, 33, and 83 % for 10, 20, and 30 mg cohorts, respectively. The median OS was 7.8, 6.1 and 16.1 months for the 10, 20 and 30 mg cohorts, respectively. Panobinostat administrated with FSRT is well tolerated at 30 mg. A phase II trial is warranted to assess the efficacy of panobinostat plus FSRT for recurrent glioma.

  5. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy (procarbazine, ACNU and vincristine) for high-grade gliomas: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Toita, Takafumi; Saito, Atsushi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Iraha, Shiro; Sugimoto, Koichi; Tsuchida, Yukihiro; Tamaki, Wakana; Adachi, Genki; Hyodo, Akio; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy, including procarbazine, nimustine (ACNU) and vincristine, in adults with high-grade gliomas. Radiotherapy was administered using two fractions per day of 1.2 Gy to a total dose of 72 Gy. The chemotherapy consisted of procarbazine (90 mg/m2 orally, days 1 to 14), ACNU (80 mg/m2 intravenously, day 1) and vincristine (0.5 mg/m2 intravenously, days 1 and 8) and was administered during and after radiotherapy, up to a maximum of four courses. From September 1997 to August 1999, a total of ten patients (five with glioblastoma and five with grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled. All ten patients were able to complete a total dose of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiotherapy with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. Of eight assessable patients, three (38%) had an objective response, comprising two CR and one PR. The median time to progression was 10.7 months and the median survival time of all patients was 15.0 months. Although grade 4 leukopenia and grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 10% and 10% of all patients, respectively, these were transient and no patients developed neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage. No serious non-hematological or late toxicities occurred. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy using procarbazine, ACNU and vincristine is safe and well tolerated for high-grade gliomas.

  6. Introduction of High Throughput Magnetic Resonance T2-Weighted Image Texture Analysis for WHO Grade 2 and 3 Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Manabu; Sakai, Mio; Arita, Hideyuki; Shofuda, Tomoko; Chiba, Yasuyoshi; Kagawa, Naoki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naoya; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Reports have suggested that tumor textures presented on T2-weighted images correlate with the genetic status of glioma. Therefore, development of an image analyzing framework that is capable of objective and high throughput image texture analysis for large scale image data collection is needed. The current study aimed to address the development of such a framework by introducing two novel parameters for image textures on T2-weighted images, i.e., Shannon entropy and Prewitt filtering. Twenty-two WHO grade 2 and 28 grade 3 glioma patients were collected whose pre-surgical MRI and IDH1 mutation status were available. Heterogeneous lesions showed statistically higher Shannon entropy than homogenous lesions (p = 0.006) and ROC curve analysis proved that Shannon entropy on T2WI was a reliable indicator for discrimination of homogenous and heterogeneous lesions (p = 0.015, AUC = 0.73). Lesions with well-defined borders exhibited statistically higher Edge mean and Edge median values using Prewitt filtering than those with vague lesion borders (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0005 respectively). ROC curve analysis also proved that both Edge mean and median values were promising indicators for discrimination of lesions with vague and well defined borders and both Edge mean and median values performed in a comparable manner (p = 0.0002, AUC = 0.81 and p < 0.0001, AUC = 0.83, respectively). Finally, IDH1 wild type gliomas showed statistically lower Shannon entropy on T2WI than IDH1 mutated gliomas (p = 0.007) but no difference was observed between IDH1 wild type and mutated gliomas in Edge median values using Prewitt filtering. The current study introduced two image metrics that reflect lesion texture described on T2WI. These two metrics were validated by readings of a neuro-radiologist who was blinded to the results. This observation will facilitate further use of this technique in future large scale image analysis of glioma.

  7. FANCD2 re-expression is associated with glioma grade and chemical inhibition of the Fanconi Anaemia pathway sensitises gliomas to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Patil, Abhijit A; Sayal, Parag; Depondt, Marie-Lise; Beveridge, Ryan D; Roylance, Anthony; Kriplani, Deepti H; Myers, Katie N; Cox, Angela; Jellinek, David; Fernando, Malee; Carroll, Thomas A; Collis, Spencer J

    2014-08-15

    Brain tumours kill more children and adults under 40 than any other cancer. Around half of primary brain tumours are glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs) where treatment remains a significant challenge, where survival rates have improved little over the last 40 years, thus highlighting an unmet need for the identification/development of novel therapeutic targets and agents to improve GBM treatment. Using archived and fresh glioma tissue, we show that in contrast to normal brain or benign schwannomas GBMs exhibit re-expression of FANCD2, a key protein of the Fanconi Anaemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, and possess an active FA pathway. Importantly, FANCD2 expression levels are strongly associated with tumour grade, revealing a potential exploitable therapeutic window to allow inhibition of the FA pathway in tumour cells, whilst sparing normal brain tissue. Using several small molecule inhibitors of the FA pathway in combination with isogenic FA-proficient/deficient glioma cell lines as well as primary GBM cultures, we demonstrate that inhibition of the FA pathway sensitises gliomas to the chemotherapeutic agents Temozolomide and Carmustine. Our findings therefore provide a strong rationale for the development of novel and potent inhibitors of the FA pathway to improve the treatment of GBMs, which may ultimately impact on patient outcome.

  8. FANCD2 re-expression is associated with glioma grade and chemical inhibition of the Fanconi Anaemia pathway sensitises gliomas to chemotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Abhijit A.; Sayal, Parag; Depondt, Marie-Lise; Beveridge, Ryan D.; Roylance, Anthony; Kriplani, Deepti H.; Myers, Katie N.; Cox, Angela; Jellinek, David; Fernando, Malee; Carroll, Thomas A.; Collis, Spencer J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumours kill more children and adults under 40 than any other cancer. Around half of primary brain tumours are glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs) where treatment remains a significant challenge. GBM survival rates have improved little over the last 40 years, thus highlighting an unmet need for the identification/development of novel therapeutic targets and agents to improve GBM treatment. Using archived and fresh glioma tissue, we show that in contrast to normal brain or benign schwannomas GBMs exhibit re-expression of FANCD2, a key protein of the Fanconi Anaemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, and possess an active FA pathway. Importantly, FANCD2 expression levels are strongly associated with tumour grade, revealing a potential exploitable therapeutic window to allow inhibition of the FA pathway in tumour cells, whilst sparing normal brain tissue. Using several small molecule inhibitors of the FA pathway in combination with isogenic FA-proficient/deficient glioma cell lines as well as primary GBM cultures, we demonstrate that inhibition of the FA pathway sensitises gliomas to the chemotherapeutic agents Temozolomide and Carmustine. Our findings therefore provide a strong rationale for the development of novel and potent inhibitors of the FA pathway to improve the treatment of GBMs, which may ultimately impact on patient outcome. PMID:25071006

  9. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  10. The use of (18)F-FDG PET to differentiate progressive disease from treatment induced necrosis in high grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Dankbaar, J W; Snijders, T J; Robe, P A; Seute, T; Eppinga, W; Hendrikse, J; De Keizer, B

    2015-10-01

    In the follow-up of patients treated for high grade glioma, differentiation between progressive disease (PD) and treatment-induced necrosis (TIN) is challenging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET for the differentiation between TIN and PD after high grade glioma treatment. We retrospectively identified patients between January 2011 and July 2013 that met the following criteria: age >18; glioma grade 3 or 4; treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy; new or progressive enhancement on post treatment MRI; FDG PET within 4 weeks of MRI. Absolute and relative (to contralateral white matter) values of SUVmax and SUVpeak were determined in new enhancing lesions on MRI. The outcome of PD or TIN was determined by neurosurgical biopsy/resection, follow-up MRI, or clinical deterioration. The association between FDG PET and outcome was analyzed with univariate logistic regression and ROC analysis for: all lesions, lesions >10, >15, and >20 mm. We included 30 patients (5 grade 3 and 25 grade 4), with 39 enhancing lesions on MRI. Twenty-nine lesions represented PD and 10 TIN. Absolute and relative values of SUVmax and SUVpeak showed no significant differences between PD and TIN. ROC analysis showed highest AUCs for relative SUVpeak in all lesion sizes. Relative SUVpeak for lesions >20 mm showed reasonable discriminative properties [AUC 0.69 (0.41-0.96)]. FDG PET has reasonable discriminative properties for differentiation of PD from TIN in high grade gliomas larger than 20 mm. Overall diagnostic performance is insufficient to guide clinical decision-making.

  11. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Bela; Kamli, Ali A; Kollias, Spyros S

    2015-04-01

    Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography (18F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TERT promoter mutated WHO grades II and III gliomas are located preferentially in the frontal lobe and avoid the midline.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ze-Lin; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Chen, Ling-Chao; Tang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Yang; Sun, Chong-Ran; Ng, Ho-Keung; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been regarded as biomarkers with distinct clinical and phenotypic features. Investigated the possible correlations between tumor location and genetic alterations would enhance our understanding of gliomagenesis and heterogeneity of glioma. We examined mutations of TERTp and IDH by direct sequencing and fluorescence in-situ hybridization in a cohort of 225 grades II and III diffuse gliomas. Correlation analysis between molecular markers and tumor locations was performed by Chi-square tests/Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found gliomas in frontal lobe showed higher frequency of TERTp mutation (P=0.0337) and simultaneously mutations of IDH and TERTp (IDH (mut)-TERTp(mut)) (P=0.0281) than frequency of biomarkers mutation of tumors in no-Frontal lobes, while lower frequency of TERTp mutation (P<0.0001) and simultaneously wild type of IDH and TERTp (IDH (wt)-TERTp(wt)) (P<0.0001) in midline than no-midline lobes. Logistic regression analysis indicated that locations of tumors associated with TERTp mutation (OR=0.540, 95% CI 0.324-0.900, P=0.018) and status of combinations of IDH and TERTp (IDH (mut)-TERTp (mut) vs. IDH (wt)-TERTp (wt) OR=0.162, 95% CI 0.075-0.350, P<0.001). In conclusion, grades II and III gliomas harboring TERTp mutation were located preferentially in the frontal lobe and rarely in midline. Association of IDH-TERTp status and tumor location suggests their potential values in molecular classification of grades II and III gliomas.

  13. Evaluation of low-grade glioma structural changes after chemotherapy using DTI-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Antonella; Donativi, Marina; Rudà, Roberta; De Nunzio, Giorgio; Riva, Marco; Iadanza, Antonella; Bertero, Luca; Rucco, Matteo; Bello, Lorenzo; Soffietti, Riccardo; Falini, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    To explore the role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps (fDMs) in evaluating structural changes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) receiving temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Twenty-one LGG patients underwent 3T-MR examinations before and after three and six cycles of dose-dense TMZ, including 3D-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences and DTI (b = 1000 s/mm(2), 32 directions). Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and tensor-decomposition DTI maps (p and q) were obtained. Histogram and fDM analyses were performed on co-registered baseline and post-chemotherapy maps. DTI changes were compared with modifications of tumour area and volume [according to Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria], and seizure response. After three cycles of TMZ, 20/21 patients were stable according to RANO criteria, but DTI changes were observed in all patients (Wilcoxon test, P ≤ 0.03). After six cycles, DTI changes were more pronounced (P ≤ 0.005). Seventy-five percent of patients had early seizure response with significant improvement of DTI values, maintaining stability on FLAIR. Early changes of the 25th percentiles of p and MD predicted final volume change (R(2) = 0.614 and 0.561, P < 0.0005, respectively). TMZ-related changes were located mainly at tumour borders on p and MD fDMs. DTI-based histogram and fDM analyses are useful techniques to evaluate the early effects of TMZ chemotherapy in LGG patients. • DTI helps to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas. • Histogram analysis of DTI metrics quantifies structural changes in tumour tissue. • Functional diffusion maps (fDMs) spatially localize the changes of DTI metrics. • Changes in DTI histograms and fDMs precede changes in conventional MRI. • Early changes in DTI histograms and fDMs correlate with seizure response.

  14. Identification of Histological Correlates of Overall Survival in Lower Grade Gliomas Using a Bag-of-words Paradigm: A Preliminary Analysis Based on Hematoxylin & Eosin Stained Slides from the Lower Grade Glioma Cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Reid Trenton; Olar, Adriana; Narang, Shivali; Rao, Ganesh; Sulman, Erik; Fuller, Gregory N.; Rao, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Background: Glioma, the most common primary brain neoplasm, describes a heterogeneous tumor of multiple histologic subtypes and cellular origins. At clinical presentation, gliomas are graded according to the World Health Organization guidelines (WHO), which reflect the malignant characteristics of the tumor based on histopathological and molecular features. Lower grade diffuse gliomas (LGGs) (WHO Grade II–III) have fewer malignant characteristics than high-grade gliomas (WHO Grade IV), and a better clinical prognosis, however, accurate discrimination of overall survival (OS) remains a challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify tissue-derived image features using a machine learning approach to predict OS in a mixed histology and grade cohort of lower grade glioma patients. To achieve this aim, we used H and E stained slides from the public LGG cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to create a machine learned dictionary of “image-derived visual words” associated with OS. We then evaluated the combined efficacy of using these visual words in predicting short versus long OS by training a generalized machine learning model. Finally, we mapped these predictive visual words back to molecular signaling cascades to infer potential drivers of the machine learned survival-associated phenotypes. Methods: We analyzed digitized histological sections downloaded from the LGG cohort of TCGA using a bag-of-words approach. This method identified a diverse set of histological patterns that were further correlated with OS, histology, and molecular signaling activity using Cox regression, analysis of variance, and Spearman correlation, respectively. A support vector machine (SVM) model was constructed to discriminate patients into short and long OS groups dichotomized at 24-month. Results: This method identified disease-relevant phenotypes associated with OS, some of which are correlated with disease-associated molecular pathways. From these image-derived phenotypes, a

  15. Cerebral Microstructural Alterations after Radiation Therapy in High-Grade Glioma: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kassubek, Rebecca; Gorges, Martin; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    To investigate radiation therapy-induced microstructural damage of white matter in patients with high-grade glioma by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI was performed in 18 patients with high-grade glioma (WHO grades III and IV) and 13 healthy controls. DTI images were cross-sectionally aligned for the calculation of baseline fractional anisotropy (FA). Interhemispheric FA values in patients with high-grade glioma before or without brain radiation therapy were compared with the interhemispheric FA values in patients after radiation therapy and in healthy controls. In a subgroup without any clinical or diagnostic evidence of tumor progression, serial DTI data (5-11 scans) before and after radiation therapy were collected and longitudinal interhemispheric FA changes were assessed and compared to longitudinal data from the control group.In addition, interhemispheric axial, mean, and radial diffusivity was assessed. Global interhemispheric FA reductions could be detected cross-sectionally in patients after radiation therapy; these were significantly different from global interhemispheric FA differences both in patients without radiation and in healthy controls. Longitudinal scans in patients with radiation therapy confirmed these findings and revealed progressive microstructural white matter damage after partial brain radiotherapy. The additional DTI metrics axial diffusion, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusion confirmed interhemispheric differences in patients without or before radiation therapy, which were lower than the differences in patients after radiation therapy, although not reaching significance. Interhemispheric global FA differences could potentially serve as a biological marker for irradiation-induced microstructural white matter damage.

  16. Short echo time MR spectroscopy of brain tumors: grading of cerebral gliomas by correlation analysis of normalized spectral amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Weis, Jan; Ring, Patrik; Olofsson, Tommie; Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco; Wikström, Johan

    2010-01-01

    To process single voxel spectra of low- and high-grade gliomas. To propose correlation analysis of the scatter plots of normalized spectral amplitudes as a pattern recognition tool for the classification (grading) of brain tumors. To propose a spectrum processing approach that improves the differentiation of proton spectra with dominating macromolecule and lipid peaks. LCModel was used to process spectra. Mean metabolite concentrations and mean normalized spectra were obtained for normal white matter and for gliomas. The mean spectra of macromolecules and lipids (ML) in the range 1.4-0.9 ppm, and mean difference spectra (DS) without ML and lactate were computed. Correlation analysis of the scatter plot of the patient and mean normalized spectral amplitudes and dispersion of the scatter plot points were used for classification and grading of tumors. It was found advantageous to perform the classifications using DS spectra. The shape of ML spectrum and concentration of tCr seem to be a good markers for glioma grade. Combining a qualitative comparison of the patient and mean DS spectra of the tumors using correlation analysis of normalized spectra amplitudes with a quantitative comparison of metabolite concentrations is a powerful tool in studying brain lesions. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Transcranial electro-hyperthermia combined with alkylating chemotherapy in patients with relapsed high-grade gliomas: phase I clinical results.

    PubMed

    Wismeth, Caecilia; Dudel, Christine; Pascher, Christina; Ramm, Paul; Pietsch, Torsten; Hirschmann, Birgit; Reinert, Christiane; Proescholdt, Martin; Rümmele, Petra; Schuierer, Gerhard; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Hau, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Non-invasive loco-regional electro-hyperthermia (EHT) plus alkylating chemotherapy is occasionally used as salvage treatment in the relapse of patients with high-grade gliomas. Experimental data and retrospective studies suggest potential effects. However, no prospective clinical results are available. We performed a single-center prospective non-controlled single-arm Phase I trial. Main inclusion criteria were recurrent high-grade glioma WHO Grade III or IV, age 18-70, and Karnofsky performance score > or = 70. Primary endpoints were dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with the combined regimen. Groups of 3 or 4 patients were treated 2-5 times a week in a dose-escalation scheme with EHT. Alkylating chemotherapy (ACNU, nimustin) was administered at a dose of 90 mg/m(2) on day 1 of 42 days for up to six cycles or until tumor progression (PD) or DLT occurred. Fifteen patients with high-grade gliomas were included. Relevant toxicities were local pain and increased focal neurological signs or intracranial pressure. No DLT occurred. In some patients, the administration of mannitol during EHT or long-term use of corticosteroids was necessary to resolve symptoms. Although some patients showed responses in their primarily treated sites, the pattern of response was not well defined. EHT plus alkylating chemotherapy is tolerable in patients with relapse of high-grade gliomas. Episodes of intracranial pressure were, at least, possibly attributed to EHT but did not cause DLTs. A Phase II trial targeting treatment effects is warranted on the basis of the results raised in this trial.

  18. Somatic POLE mutations cause an ultramutated giant cell high-grade glioma subtype with better prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Erson-Omay, E. Zeynep; Çağlayan, Ahmet Okay; Schultz, Nikolaus; Weinhold, Nils; Omay, S. Bülent; Özduman, Koray; Köksal, Yavuz; Li, Jie; Serin Harmancı, Akdes; Clark, Victoria; Carrión-Grant, Geneive; Baranoski, Jacob; Çağlar, Caner; Barak, Tanyeri; Coşkun, Süleyman; Baran, Burçin; Köse, Doğan; Sun, Jia; Bakırcıoğlu, Mehmet; Moliterno Günel, Jennifer; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Mishra-Gorur, Ketu; Bilguvar, Kaya; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Huttner, Anita J.; Sander, Chris; Günel, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant high-grade gliomas (HGGs), including the most aggressive form, glioblastoma multiforme, show significant clinical and genomic heterogeneity. Despite recent advances, the overall survival of HGGs and their response to treatment remain poor. In order to gain further insight into disease pathophysiology by correlating genomic landscape with clinical behavior, thereby identifying distinct HGG molecular subgroups associated with improved prognosis, we performed a comprehensive genomic analysis. Methods We analyzed and compared 720 exome-sequenced gliomas (136 from Yale, 584 from The Cancer Genome Atlas) based on their genomic, histological, and clinical features. Results We identified a subgroup of HGGs (6 total, 4 adults and 2 children) that harbored a statistically significantly increased number of somatic mutations (mean = 9257.3 vs 76.2, P = .002). All of these “ultramutated” tumors harbored somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of the polymerase epsilon gene (POLE), displaying a distinctive genetic profile, characterized by genomic stability and increased C-to-A transversions. Histologically, they all harbored multinucleated giant or bizarre cells, some with predominant infiltrating immune cells. One adult and both pediatric patients carried homozygous germline mutations in the mutS homolog 6 (MSH6) gene. In adults, POLE mutations were observed in patients younger than 40 years and were associated with a longer progression-free survival. Conclusions We identified a genomically, histologically, and clinically distinct subgroup of HGGs that harbored somatic POLE mutations and carried an improved prognosis. Identification of distinctive molecular and pathological HGG phenotypes has implications not only for improved classification but also for potential targeted treatments. PMID:25740784

  19. The future of high-grade glioma: Where we are and where are we going

    PubMed Central

    Rhun, Emilie Le; Taillibert, Sophie; Chamberlain, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    High-grade glioma (HGG) are optimally treated with maximum safe surgery, followed by radiotherapy (RT) and/or systemic chemotherapy (CT). Recently, the treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma (AG) has changed, particularly in patients with 1p19q codeleted tumors. Results of trials currenlty ongoing are likely to determine the best standard of care for patients with noncodeleted AG tumors. Trials in AG illustrate the importance of molecular characterization, which are germane to both prognosis and treatment. In contrast, efforts to improve the current standard of care of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GB) with, for example, the addition of bevacizumab (BEV), have been largely disappointing and furthermore molecular characterization has not changed therapy except in elderly patients. Novel approaches, such as vaccine-based immunotherapy, for newly diagnosed GB are currently being pursued in multiple clinical trials. Recurrent disease, an event inevitable in nearly all patients with HGG, continues to be a challenge. Both recurrent GB and AG are managed in similar manner and when feasible re-resection is often suggested notwithstanding limited data to suggest benefit from repeat surgery. Occassional patients may be candidates for re-irradiation but again there is a paucity of data to commend this therapy and only a minority of selected patients are eligible for this approach. Consequently systemic therapy continues to be the most often utilized treatment in recurrent HGG. Choice of therapy, however, varies and revolves around re-challenge with temozolomide (TMZ), use of a nitrosourea (most often lomustine; CCNU) or BEV, the most frequently used angiogenic inhibitor. Nevertheless, no clear standard recommendation regarding the prefered agent or combination of agents is avaliable. Prognosis after progression of a HGG remains poor, with an unmet need to improve therapy. PMID:25722939

  20. Local image variance of 7 Tesla SWI is a new technique for preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas: correlation with tumour grade and IDH1 mutational status.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Günther; Kiesel, Barbara; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Millesi, Matthias; Wurzer, Aygül; Göd, Sabine; Mallouhi, Ammar; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Trattnig, Siegfried; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Preusser, Matthias; Widhalm, Georg

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization. Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI. In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p < 0.0001), IDH1-R132H negative compared to IDH1-R132H positive gliomas (109.9 versus 38.3; p < 0.0001) and tumours with significant CE compared to non-significant CE (120.1 versus 39.0; p < 0.0001). Our data indicate that 7 Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures. • 7 Tesla local image variance helps to quantify hypointense susceptibility-weighted imaging structures. • SWI-LIV is significantly increased in high-grade and IDH1-R132H negative gliomas. • SWI-LIV is a promising technique for improved preoperative glioma characterization. • Preoperative management of diffusely infiltrating gliomas will be optimized.

  1. FDG-PET predicts survival in recurrent high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Colavolpe, Cécile; Chinot, Olivier; Metellus, Philippe; Mancini, Julien; Barrie, Maryline; Bequet-Boucard, Céline; Tabouret, Emeline; Mundler, Olivier; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Guedj, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Prognosis of recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) is poor, although bevacizumab has been documented in that context. This study aimed to determine the independent prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of recurrent HGG after combined treatment with bevacizumab and irinotecan, compared with other documented prognostic variables. Twenty-five adult patients with histologically proven HGG were included at recurrence. Brain FDG-PET imaging was performed within 6 weeks of starting chemotherapy with bevacizumab and irinotecan. Response based on MRI was assessed every 2 months according to revised assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. Median PFS and OS were 4 months (range, 0.9–10.4 months) and 7.2 months (range, 1.2–41.7 months), respectively. At 6 months, PFS and OS rate were 16.0% and 72.0%. FDG uptake was the most powerful predictor of both PFS and OS, using either univariate or multivariate analysis, among all variables tested: histological grade, Karnofsky performance status, steroid intake, and number of previous treatments. Moreover, FDG uptake was also prognostic of response to bevacizumab-based therapy. This study provides the first evidence that pretreatment FDG-PET can serve as an imaging biomarker in recurrent HGG for predicting survival following anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab. PMID:22379188

  2. Therapeutic Targeting of Histone Modifications in Adult and Pediatric High-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Maria J.; Singleton, Will G. B.; Lowis, Stephen P.; Malik, Karim; Kurian, Kathreena M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent exciting work partly through The Cancer Genome Atlas has implicated epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications in the development of both pediatric and adult high-grade glioma (HGG). Histone lysine methylation has emerged as an important player in regulating gene expression and chromatin function. Lysine (K) 27 (K27) is a critical residue in all seven histone 3 variants and the subject of posttranslational histone modifications, as it can be both methylated and acetylated. In pediatric HGG, two critical single-point mutations occur in the H3F3A gene encoding the regulatory histone variant H3.3. These mutations occur at lysine (K) 27 (K27M) and glycine (G) 34 (G34R/V), both of which are involved with key regulatory posttranscriptional modifications. Therefore, these mutations effect gene expression, cell differentiation, and telomere maintenance. In recent years, alterations in histone acetylation have provided novel opportunities to explore new pharmacological targeting, with histone deacetylase (HDAC) overexpression reported in high-grade, late-stage proliferative tumors. HDAC inhibitors have shown promising therapeutic potential in many malignancies. This review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms propagating pediatric and adult HGGs, as well as summarizing the current advances in clinical trials using HDAC inhibitors. PMID:28401060

  3. Extreme protraction for low-grade gliomas: theoretical proof of concept of a novel therapeutical strategy.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Víctor M; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    Grade II gliomas are slowly growing primary brain tumours that affect mostly young patients and become fatal after a variable time period. Current clinical handling includes surgery as first-line treatment. Cytotoxic therapies (radiotherapy RT or chemotherapy QT) are used initially only for patients having a bad prognosis. Therapies are administered following the 'maximum dose in minimum time' principle, which is the same schedule used for high-grade brain tumours. Using mathematical models describing the growth of these tumours in response to radiotherapy, we find that an extreme protraction therapeutical strategy, i.e. enlarging substantially the time interval between RT fractions, may lead to better tumour control. Explicit formulas are found providing the optimal spacing between doses in a very good agreement with the simulations of the full 3D mathematical model approximating the tumour spatiotemporal dynamics. This idea, although breaking the well-established paradigm, has biological meaning since, in these slowly growing tumours, it may be more favourable to treat the tumour as the tumour cells leave the quiescent compartment and move into the cell cycle.

  4. IDH mutation status and role of WHO grade and mitotic index in overall survival in grade II-III diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Alfaro-Munoz, Kristin D; Heathcock, Lindsey E; van Thuijl, Hinke F; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S; Sulman, Erik P; Cahill, Daniel P; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Yuan, Ying; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Ylstra, Bauke; Wesseling, Pieter; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse gliomas are up till now graded based upon morphology. Recent findings indicate that isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status defines biologically distinct groups of tumors. The role of tumor grade and mitotic index in patient outcome has not been evaluated following stratification by IDH mutation status. To address this, we interrogated 558 WHO grade II-III diffuse gliomas for IDH1/2 mutations and investigated the prognostic impact of WHO grade within IDH-mutant and IDH-wild type tumor subsets independently. The prognostic impact of grade was modest in IDH-mutant [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.91-1.61] compared to IDH-wild type tumors (HR = 1.74, 95 % CI = 0.95-3.16). Using a dichotomized mitotic index cut-off of 4/1000 tumor cells, we found that while mitotic index was significantly associated with outcome in IDH-wild type tumors (log-rank p < 0.0001, HR = 4.41, 95 % CI = 2.55-7.63), it was not associated with outcome in IDH-mutant tumors (log-rank p = 0.5157, HR = 1.10, 95 % CI = 0.80-1.51), and could demonstrate a statistical interaction (p < 0.0001) between IDH mutation and mitotic index (i.e., suggesting that the effect of mitotic index on patient outcome is dependent on IDH mutation status). Patient age, an established prognostic factor in diffuse glioma, was significantly associated with outcome only in the IDH-wild type subset, and consistent with prior data, 1p/19q co-deletion conferred improved outcome in the IDH-mutant cohort. These findings suggest that stratification of grade II-III gliomas into subsets defined by the presence or absence of IDH mutation leads to subgroups with distinct prognostic characteristics. Further evaluation of grading criteria and prognostic markers is warranted within IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild type diffuse grade II-III gliomas as independent entities.

  5. A phase II window trial of procarbazine and topotecan in children with high-grade glioma: a report from the children's oncology group.

    PubMed

    Chintagumpala, Murali M; Friedman, Henry S; Stewart, Clinton F; Kepner, James; McLendon, Roger E; Modrich, Paul L; McCluggage, Charles; Burger, Peter; Holmes, Emi; Thompson, Stephen; Rutka, James; Michalski, Jeff; Woo, Shiao; Blaney, Susan M; Kun, Larry E; Horowitz, Marc E

    2006-04-01

    The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of high-grade gliomas in children is unclear. Early reports were suggestive of improved outcome in children with high-grade glioma with the addition of chemotherapy after surgery and radiation therapy. Subsequent studies did not show similar favorable contribution of chemotherapy to the outcome of these children. Further efforts to identify active chemotherapy agents in children include use of agents that have shown efficacy in adult patients with high-grade glioma and agents that have shown promise in mice bearing human xenografts of brain tumors. A Pediatric Oncology Group (POG 9431) trial tested the activity of two such agents, procarbazine and topotecan in newly diagnosed patients with high-grade glioma who had measurable disease after diagnostic surgery. Neither agent showed efficacy within the confines of the statistical design of the study. This study showed that children with high-grade glioma have an innate resistance to alkylating agents based on mismatch repair deficiency and high levels of alkyguanine transferase (AGT). Future trials should consider strategies to overcome the resistance mechanisms in children with high-grade glioma.

  6. Olig2 labeling index is correlated with histological and molecular classifications in low-grade diffuse gliomas.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Aya; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Natsume, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kim, Young-Ho; Yokoo, Hideaki; Nagaishi, Masaya; Ikota, Hayato; Nakazawa, Takuro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Nakazato, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade diffuse gliomas based on morphology is highly subjective and, therefore, is often difficult, with significant intra- and interobserver variability. Here, we investigated WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas for immunohistochemical expression of Olig2, measuring its labeling index (LI), and evaluated the significance of Olig2 LI in the histological and molecular classifications. The means of Olig2 LI in glioma cells were 43.7 % in diffuse astrocytomas, 59.3 % in oligoastrocytomas and 76.1 % in oligodendrogliomas. There was a statistically significant difference between all pairs of histological types. The mean of Olig2 LI of gliomas with 1p/19q loss ± IDH1/2 mutation, the majority of them being oligodendrogliomas, was significantly higher than the means of those with TP53 mutation ± IDH1/2 mutation and IDH1/2 mutation only, the majority of which were diffuse astrocytomas (70.1 vs. 47.2 and 46.5 %, respectively). When categorized according to the classification of Jiao et al., Olig2 LI of I-CF gliomas (cases with IDH and one or more of CIC, FUBP1 or combined 1p/19q loss; mean 71.0 %) was significantly higher than that of I-A gliomas (cases with IDH and ATRX alterations; mean 45.3 %). These molecular classifications were reported to correlate well with clinical outcome. However, borderlines of Olig2 LI were broad and could not clearly distinguish genotypes in the molecular classifications. In conclusion, Olig2 LI cannot be taken as a complete surrogate marker for molecular genotype, but could possibly provide some ancillary information when molecular assay is not availabe.

  7. Retrospective Comparison of Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Adjuvant Chemotherapy, With or Without Prior Gliadel Implantation (Carmustine) After Initial Surgery in Patients With Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Noeel, Georges; Schott, Roland; Froelich, Sebastien; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Boyer, Patrick; Fischer-Lokou, David; Dufour, Patrick; Kehrli, Pierre; Maitrot, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Retrospective study of patients treated for high-grade glioma, with or without biodegradable carmustine wafers and according to the Stupp protocol. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and June 2008, 65 patients underwent surgery for high-grade glioma, 28 had implantation of Gliadel and 37 patients did not. Patients received radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide followed by 5 consecutive days of temozolomide every month for 6 months. Results: Overall median follow-up was 17.1 months; the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 14 months with a RFS of 54% at 12 months, and 38% at 24 months. For patient with and without Gliadel, median and 1-year RFS were 12.9 months and 52% vs. 14 months and 42%, respectively (p = 0.89). According to pathology, Gliadel did not influence RFS of patients with Grade III or glioblastoma. However, for all patients, in multivariate analysis, non-methylated methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) was the only unfavorable prognostic factor of RFS (p = 0.017; HR 2.8; CI [1.2-7]). Median overall survival (OS) was 20.8 months; the OS rate at 12 months was 78.5%, and at 24 months 35.4%. For patients treated with and without Gliadel, median and 1-year OS were 20.6 months and 78.6% vs. 20.8 months and 78.4%, respectively. According to pathology, Gliadel did not influence OS of patients with Grade III or glioblastoma. For all patients, in multivariate analysis, unfavorable prognosticators for OS were non-methylated MGMT (p = 0.001; HR: 6.5; CI [2-20]) and irradiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.02; HR: 6.3; CI [2-20]). With carmustine wafers, before irradiation, median gross tumor volume plus edema was 84 mL (27-229), whereas it was 68 mL (10-362) without carmustine (p = nonsignificant). Four cases of Grade 3 thrombopenia occurred, all in the carmustine wafer group. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade gliomas, adding Gliadel before performing a Stupp protocol did not improve survival.

  8. Early treatment of complex located pediatric low-grade gliomas using iodine-125 brachytherapy alone or in combination with microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Mathias; Nachbichler, Silke B; Ertl, Lorenz; Fesl, Gunther; Egensperger, Rupert; Niyazi, Maximilian; Schmid, Irene; Tonn, Joerg Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Kreth, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2016-03-01

    To analyze efficacy, functional outcome, and treatment toxicity of low-dose rate I-125 brachytherapy (SBT) alone or in combination with best safe resection (in case of larger tumor volumes) as first-line treatment for pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) not suitable for complete resection. Consecutively treated (2000-2014) complex located circumscribed WHO grade I/II PLGGs were included. For small tumors (≤4 cm in diameter) SBT alone was performed; for larger tumors best safe resection and subsequent SBT was chosen. Temporary Iodine-125 seeds were used (median reference dose: 54 Gy). Treatment response was estimated with the modified MacDonald criteria. Analysis of functional outcome included ophthalmological, endocrinological and neurological evaluation. Survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were obtained from proportional hazards models. Toxicity was categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Fifty-eight patients were included treated either with SBT alone (n = 39) or with SBT plus microsurgery (n = 19). Five-year progression-free survival was 87%. Two patients had died due to tumor progression. Among survivors, improvement/stabilization/deterioration of functional deficits was seen in 20/14/5 patients, respectively. Complete/partial response had beneficial impact on functional scores (P = 0.02). The 5-year estimated risk to receive adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy was 5.2%. The overall early (delayed) toxicity rate was 8.6% (10.3%), respectively. No permanent morbidity occurred. In complex located PLGGs, early SBT alone or combined with best safe resection preserves/improves functional scores and results in tumor control rates usually achieved with complete resection. Long-term analysis is necessary for confirmation of these results.

  9. Patterns of Failure After Concurrent Bevacizumab and Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Lauren Q.; Beal, Kathryn; Goenka, Anuj; Karimi, Sasan; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Zhang, Zhigang; Lassman, Andrew B.; Abrey, Lauren E.; Gutin, Philip H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Concurrent bevacizumab with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG). The objective of this study was to characterize the patterns of failure after this treatment regimen. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with recurrent enhancing HGG were previously treated on an institutional review board-approved protocol of concurrent bevacizumab and reirradiation. Patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the recurrent tumor with HSRT. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed every 2 cycles, and bevacizumab was continued until clinical or radiographic tumor progression according to the criteria of Macdonald et al. MRI at the time of progression was fused to the HSRT treatment plan, and the location of recurrence was classified on the basis of volume within the 95% isodose line. Outcomes based on patient characteristics, tumor grade, recurrence pattern, and best response to treatment were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced either clinical or radiographic progression. Recurrent tumor was enhancing in 15 (71.4%) and nonenhancing in 6 (28.6%) patients. Eleven patients (52.4%) had recurrence within the radiation field, 5 patients (23.8%) had marginal recurrence, and 5 patients had recurrence outside the radiation field. Pattern of enhancement and location of failure did not correlate with overall survival or progression-free survival. Radiographic response was the only variable to significantly correlate with progression-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the promising initial response seen with the addition of HSRT to bevacizumab as salvage treatment for recurrent HGG, approximately half of patients ultimately still experience failure within the radiation field. The rate of local failure with the addition of HSRT seems to be lower than that seen with bevacizumab alone in the salvage setting. Our data underscore the

  10. Cognitive strategies and quality of life of patients with high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Lucchiari, C; Botturi, A; Silvani, A; Lamperti, E; Gaviani, P; Innocenti, A; Finocchiaro, C Y; Masiero, M; Pravettoni, G

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychological well-being, quality of life, and cognitive strategies activated by patients with high-grade glioma. We hypothesized that the self-perceived quality of life is modulated by physical and psychological factors and that in order to understand this modulation more psychometric approaches are necessary. Data were collected from a sample of 73 consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of primary malignant brain cancer (grade IV glioblastoma and grade III anaplastic astrocytoma) hospitalized in a specialized Italian center. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) scale and the Schedule of Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting (SEIQoL-DW) scale were used to assess quality of life. The mean FACT-Brain (Br) score was 122.37. Similarly, the median SEIQoL-DW score was 72.9 out of a maximum value of 100. No gender effect was found in relation to overall quality of life. Patients with high depression and/or anxiety scores reported lower quality of life (QoL) scores in all the instruments considered. We did not find any gender effect concerning depression and anxiety levels. However, we found that men and women, though having similar physical and functional well-being, reported different QoL determinants, since men seem to rely more on physical adjustment, while women activate more introspective strategies. Positive actions, family issues, negative thoughts, health, and positive thoughts were found to be the most reported themes. In conclusion, the present study strongly suggests that a positive psychological adjustment is possible also in the event of a severe diagnosis and during aggressive treatments, but QoL determinants might be considered too in order to help health professionals to understand patients' experience and to meet their needs.

  11. Plerixafor After Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High Grade Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-08

    Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglial Tumors; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET)

  12. Cerebrovascular reactivity mapping in patients with low grade gliomas undergoing presurgical sensorimotor mapping with BOLD fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Domenico; Jovicich, Jorge; Nadar, Sreenivasan R; Voyvodic, James T; Pillai, Jay J

    2014-08-01

    (i) to validate blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) breathhold cerebrovascular reactivity (BH CVR) mapping as an effective technique for potential detection of neurovascular uncoupling (NVU) in a cohort of patients with perirolandic low grade gliomas undergoing presurgical functional MRI (fMRI) for sensorimotor mapping, and (ii) to determine whether NVU potential, as assessed by BH CVR mapping, is prevalent in this tumor group. We retrospectively evaluated 12 patients, with histological diagnosis of grade II glioma, who performed multiple motor tasks and a BH task. Sensorimotor activation maps and BH CVR maps were compared in two automatically defined regions of interest (ROIs), ipsilateral to the lesion (i.e., ipsilesional) and contralateral to the lesion (i.e., contralesional). Motor task mean T-value was significantly higher in the contralesional ROIs (6.00 ± 1.74 versus 4.34 ± 1.68; P = 0.00004) as well as the BH mean T-value (4.74 ± 2.30 versus 4.09 ± 2.50; P = 0.009). The number of active voxels was significantly higher in the contralesional ROIs (Z = 2.99; P = 0.03). Actual NVU prevalence was 75%. Presurgical sensorimotor fMRI mapping can be affected by NVU-related false negative activation in low grade gliomas (76% of analyzed tasks). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cerebrovascular reactivity mapping in patients with low grade gliomas undergoing presurgical sensorimotor mapping with BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zacà, Domenico; Jovicich, Jorge; Nadar, Sreenivasan R.; Voyvodic, James T.; Pillai, Jay J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose i) to validate Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) breath hold cerebrovascular reactivity mapping (BH CVR) as an effective technique for potential detection of neurovascular uncoupling (NVU) in a cohort of patients with perirolandic low grade gliomas undergoing presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for sensorimotor mapping, and ii) to determine whether NVU potential, as assessed by BH CVR mapping, is prevalent in this tumor group. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 12 patients, with histological diagnosis of grade II glioma, who performed multiple motor tasks and a BH task. Sensorimotor activation maps and BH CVR maps were compared in two automatically defined regions of interest (ROIs), ipsilateral to the lesion (i.e., ipsilesional) and contralateral to the lesion (i.e., contralesional). Results Motor task mean T-value was significantly higher in the contralesional ROIs (6.00±1.74 vs 4.34±1.68, p=0.00004) as well as the BH mean T-value (4.74±2.30 vs 4.09±2.50, p=0.009). The number of active voxels was significantly higher in the contralesional ROIs (Z=2.99, p=0.03). Actual NVU prevalence was 75%. Conclusion Presurgical sensorimotor fMRI mapping can be affected by NVU-related false negative activation in low grade gliomas (76% of analyzed tasks). PMID:24338845

  14. Inference of Low and High-Grade Glioma Gene Regulatory Networks Delineates the Role of Rnd3 in Establishing Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Nil; Soulet, Fabienne; Mohd Zahari, Maihafizah; Ryan, Katie R.; Durant, Sarah; He, Shan; Herbert, John; Ankers, John; Heath, John K.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Bicknell, Roy; Hotchin, Neil A.; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Falciani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are a highly heterogeneous group of brain tumours that are refractory to treatment, highly invasive and pro-angiogenic. Glioblastoma patients have an average survival time of less than 15 months. Understanding the molecular basis of different grades of glioma, from well differentiated, low-grade tumours to high-grade tumours, is a key step in defining new therapeutic targets. Here we use a data-driven approach to learn the structure of gene regulatory networks from observational data and use the resulting models to formulate hypothesis on the molecular determinants of glioma stage. Remarkably, integration of available knowledge with functional genomics datasets representing clinical and pre-clinical studies reveals important properties within the regulatory circuits controlling low and high-grade glioma. Our analyses first show that low and high-grade gliomas are characterised by a switch in activity of two subsets of Rho GTPases. The first one is involved in maintaining normal glial cell function, while the second is linked to the establishment of multiple hallmarks of cancer. Next, the development and application of a novel data integration methodology reveals novel functions of RND3 in controlling glioma cell migration, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis and clinical outcome. PMID:26132659

  15. Inference of Low and High-Grade Glioma Gene Regulatory Networks Delineates the Role of Rnd3 in Establishing Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kim; Daubon, Thomas; Turan, Nil; Soulet, Fabienne; Mohd Zahari, Maihafizah; Ryan, Katie R; Durant, Sarah; He, Shan; Herbert, John; Ankers, John; Heath, John K; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Bicknell, Roy; Hotchin, Neil A; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Falciani, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Gliomas are a highly heterogeneous group of brain tumours that are refractory to treatment, highly invasive and pro-angiogenic. Glioblastoma patients have an average survival time of less than 15 months. Understanding the molecular basis of different grades of glioma, from well differentiated, low-grade tumours to high-grade tumours, is a key step in defining new therapeutic targets. Here we use a data-driven approach to learn the structure of gene regulatory networks from observational data and use the resulting models to formulate hypothesis on the molecular determinants of glioma stage. Remarkably, integration of available knowledge with functional genomics datasets representing clinical and pre-clinical studies reveals important properties within the regulatory circuits controlling low and high-grade glioma. Our analyses first show that low and high-grade gliomas are characterised by a switch in activity of two subsets of Rho GTPases. The first one is involved in maintaining normal glial cell function, while the second is linked to the establishment of multiple hallmarks of cancer. Next, the development and application of a novel data integration methodology reveals novel functions of RND3 in controlling glioma cell migration, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis and clinical outcome.

  16. Diffusion-weighted imaging-based probabilistic segmentation of high- and low-proliferative areas in high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Thieke, Christian; Klein, Jan; Parzer, Peter; Weber, Marc-André; Stieltjes, Bram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) correlates inversely with tumor proliferation rates. High-grade gliomas are typically heterogeneous and the delineation of areas of high and low proliferation is impeded by partial volume effects and blurred borders. Commonly used manual delineation is further impeded by potential overlap with cerebrospinal fluid and necrosis. Here we present an algorithm to reproducibly delineate and probabilistically quantify the ADC in areas of high and low proliferation in heterogeneous gliomas, resulting in a reproducible quantification in regions of tissue inhomogeneity. We used an expectation maximization (EM) clustering algorithm, applied on a Gaussian mixture model, consisting of pure superpositions of Gaussian distributions. Soundness and reproducibility of this approach were evaluated in 10 patients with glioma. High- and low-proliferating areas found using the clustering correspond well with conservative regions of interest drawn using all available imaging data. Systematic placement of model initialization seeds shows good reproducibility of the method. Moreover, we illustrate an automatic initialization approach that completely removes user-induced variability. In conclusion, we present a rapid, reproducible and automatic method to separate and quantify heterogeneous regions in gliomas. PMID:22487677

  17. Detection of KIAA1549-BRAF Fusion Transcripts in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yongji; Rich, Benjamin E.; Vena, Natalie; Craig, Justin M.; MacConaill, Laura E.; Rajaram, Veena; Goldman, Stewart; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Ozek, Memet; Sav, Aydin; Longtine, Janina A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ligon, Azra H.; Stiles, Charles D.; Santagata, Sandro; Chan, Jennifer A.; Kieran, Mark W.; Ligon, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of BRAF are the most common known genetic aberrations in pediatric gliomas. They frequently are found in pilocytic astrocytomas, where genomic duplications involving BRAF and the poorly characterized gene KIAA1549 create fusion proteins with constitutive B-Raf kinase activity. BRAF V600E point mutations are less common and generally occur in nonpilocytic tumors. The development of BRAF inhibitors as drugs has created an urgent need for robust clinical assays to identify activating lesions in BRAF. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts have been detected in frozen tissue, however, methods for FFPE tissue have not been reported. We developed a panel of FFPE-compatible quantitative RT-PCR assays for the most common KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts. Application of these assays to a collection of 51 low-grade pediatric gliomas showed 97% sensitivity and 91% specificity compared with fluorescence in situ hybridization or array comparative genomic hybridization. In parallel, we assayed samples for the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation by PCR pyrosequencing. The data further support previous observations that these two alterations of the BRAF, KIAA1549 fusions and V600E point mutations, are associated primarily with pilocytic astrocytomas and nonpilocytic gliomas, respectively. These results show that fusion transcripts and mutations can be detected reliably in standard FFPE specimens and may be useful for incorporation into future studies of pediatric gliomas in basic science or clinical trials. PMID:21884820

  18. Alisertib and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  19. The impact of chemo brain on the patient with a high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Michele R

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life for patients with high-grade gliomas has always been poor. The multiple insults to the brain-tumor existence and surgical procedures, irradiation, the level of stress and anxiety suffered and the adjuvant medications--steroids and anti-convulsants, all combine to diminish their health-related quality of life. Prior to the development of chemotherapy agents capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier, prognosis was 6 to 18 months. Life expectancy was short and there was little time to address the health-related quality of life. The newer agents have served to extend life, but have added another condition to the existing poor health-related quality of life, i.e., chemo brain. Chemo brain affects all cognitive function. The patients have great difficulty processing information. They have reduced attentional and concentration capability and cannot learn new information. The overall impact on their lives renders them unemployable and places a great burden on their families and on society. This chapter provides an overview of the patient experience and the burden placed on their families and on society.

  20. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Anna F; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-07-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%-2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Anna F.; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-01-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%–2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered. PMID:26050593

  2. [Cognitive disorders and adult grade II and III gliomas: analysis of a series of 15 patients].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, E; Delbeuck, X; Devos, P; Pasquier, F; Dubois, F

    2009-06-01

    Correlated with better follow-up of gliomas, cognitive disorders are increasingly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the cognitive disorders presented by these patients at baseline, before any treatment, and to evaluate the relations between cognitive disorders and return to work. A detailed neuropsychological evaluation was administrated to 15 newly diagnosed patients with a grade II or III glial tumor before any treatment. Patients also completed the quality of life and depression scales. All patients in our study presented with at least one failed cognitive domain during the detailed examination, while the scores on the MMSE scale were within the norm. The most deteriorated functions were divided attention and episodic verbal and nonverbal memory. Moreover, a significant link was found between the number of failed cognitive functions and quality of life. Cognitive disorders are frequent with glial tumors and impact patients' quality of life. Simple tests of global cognitive status are not sufficient to detect cognitive difficulties in these patients. Consequently, detailed and adapted neuropsychological assessment is necessary, especially to detect deteriorated problems with memory, divided attention, or processing speed in this population.

  3. Clinical considerations and surgical approaches for low-grade gliomas in deep hemispheric locations: insular lesions.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J; Gil-Robles, S; Pascual, B

    2016-10-01

    Insula and paralimbic region represent a common location for gliomas in adulthood. However, limbic and paralimbic tumors are rare in children. Reports of pediatric insular tumors are scarce in literature, and most of them are included in adult's series, so their management and outcome can be outlined only after extracting data from these reports. Due to their predominantly low grade, they usually have a benign course for some time, what make them ideal candidates for total resection. However, their intricate location and spread to key areas, including the temporal lobe, make them a surgical challenge. The transsylvian route, with or without resection of the frontal and/or temporal operculae, which requires exposure of part or all of the insula is commonly selected for insular tumor approaches. Intraoperative functional mapping is a standard procedure for resection of central region tumors in adults. In children and young individuals, awake craniotomy is not always possible and surgical planning usually relay on functional and anatomical preoperative studies. The main goal when approaching an insular tumor is to achieve the largest extent of resection to increase overall patient survival while preserving the functional status, minimizing postoperative morbidity and increasing the quality of life. The extent of resection seems to be correlated also with the control of associated (and usually intractable) epilepsy.

  4. The end-of-life phase of high-grade glioma patients: dying with dignity?

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Eefje M; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Heimans, Jan J; Deliens, Luc; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Pasman, H Roeline W

    2013-01-01

    In the end-of-life (EOL) phase, high-grade glioma (HGG) patients have a high symptom burden and often lose independence because of physical and cognitive dysfunction. This might affect the patient's personal dignity. We aimed to (a) assess the proportion of HGG patients dying with dignity as perceived by their relatives and (b) identify disease and care factors correlated with dying with dignity in HGG patients. We approached relatives of a cohort of 155 deceased HGG patients for the study. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning the EOL phase of the patient, covering several subthemes: (a) symptoms and signs, (b) health-related quality of life, (c) decision making, (d) place and quality of EOL care, and (e) dying with dignity. Relatives of 81 patients participated and 75% indicated that the patient died with dignity. These patients had fewer communication deficits, experienced fewer transitions between health care settings in the EOL phase, and more frequently died at their preferred place of death. Relatives were more satisfied with the physician providing EOL care and reported that the physician adequately explained treatment options. Multivariate analysis identified satisfaction with the physician, the ability to communicate, and the absence of transitions between settings as most predictive of a dignified death. Physicians caring for HGG patients in the EOL phase should timely focus on explaining possible treatment options, because patients experience communication deficits toward death. Physicians should strive to allow patients to die at their preferred place and avoid transitions during the last month of life.

  5. Functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas in eloquent brain: hypothesis of brain compensation

    PubMed Central

    Duffau, H; Capelle, L; Denvil, D; Sichez, N; Gatignol, P; Lopes, M; Mitchell, M; Sichez, J; Van Effenterre, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To describe functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas (LGG) in eloquent brain areas, and discuss the mechanisms of compensation. Methods: Seventy-seven right-handed patients without deficit were operated on for a LGG invading primary and/or secondary sensorimotor and/or language areas, as shown anatomically by pre-operative MRI and intraoperatively by electrical brain stimulation and cortico-subcortical mapping. Results: Tumours involved 31 supplementary motor areas, 28 insulas, 8 primary somatosensory areas, 4 primary motor areas, 4 Broca's areas, and 2 left temporal language areas. All patients had immediate post-operative deficits. Recovery occurred within 3 months in all except four cases (definitive morbidity: 5%). Ninety-two percent of the lesions were either totally or extensively resected on post-operative MRI. Conclusions: These findings suggest that spatio-temporal functional re-organisation is possible in peritumoural brain, and that the process is dynamic. The recruitment of compensatory areas with long term perilesional functional reshaping would explain why: before surgery, there is no clinical deficit despite the tumour growth in eloquent regions; immediately after surgery, the occurrence of a deficit, which could be due to the resection of invaded areas participating (but not essential) to the function; and why three months after surgery, almost complete recovery had occurred. This brain plasticity, which decreases the long term risk of surgical morbidity, may be used to extend the limits of surgery in eloquent areas. PMID:12810776

  6. Surgery of insular and paralimbic diffuse low-grade gliomas: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Karine; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-11-01

    Once considered a "no man's land" especially when invaded by a diffuse low grade glioma (DLGG), the insula remains to this day a surgical challenge. Surgery for insular DLGG involves consideration of its hidden location under the potentially eloquent operculae, the proximity to vascular tree and high density of functions not only in the insular cortex but also in the white fiber pathways passing under the insular lobe. The natural history of DLGG and the potential benefits and consequences of the surgical approach also need a close look. In the last decade, a better knowledge of the functional anatomy and connectivity of this region, as well as an improvement in surgical techniques as direct stimulation mapping, combined with an increasing literature showing a favorable impact of maximal resection for DLGG, were deciding factors in the paradigmatic shift from expectative treatment to early surgical management. Here, our goal is to discuss the structural and functional aspects of the insula, the specificities of insular and paralimbic DLGG by emphasizing the technical considerations of surgery in this region, as well as its oncological and functional outcomes. In summary, this new strategy based upon early maximal safe surgical resection showed both oncological benefit and preservation of quality of life-or even an improvement thanks to epilepsy relief.

  7. Clinical trial end points for high-grade glioma: the evolving landscape*

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, David A.; Galanis, Evanthia; DeGroot, John F.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Lassman, Andrew B.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Sampson, John H.; Wick, Wolfgang; Chamberlain, Marc C.; Macdonald, David R.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Chang, Susan M.; Van den Bent, Martin J.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2011-01-01

    To review the strengths and weaknesses of primary and auxiliary end points for clinical trials among patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). Recent advances in outcome for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent HGG, coupled with the development of multiple promising therapeutics with myriad antitumor actions, have led to significant growth in the number of clinical trials for patients with HGG. Appropriate clinical trial design and the incorporation of optimal end points are imperative to efficiently and effectively evaluate such agents and continue to advance outcome. Growing recognition of limitations weakening the reliability of traditional clinical trial primary end points has generated increasing uncertainty of how best to evaluate promising therapeutics for patients with HGG. The phenomena of pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse have made imaging-based end points, including overall radiographic response and progression-free survival, problematic. Although overall survival is considered the “gold-standard” end point, recently identified active salvage therapies such as bevacizumab may diminish the association between presalvage therapy and overall survival. Finally, advances in imaging as well as the assessment of patient function and well being have strengthened interest in auxiliary end points assessing these aspects of patient care and outcome. Better appreciation of the strengths and limitations of primary end points will lead to more effective clinical trial strategies. Technical advances in imaging as well as improved survival for patients with HGG support the further development of auxiliary end points evaluating novel imaging approaches as well as measures of patient function and well being. PMID:21310734

  8. Fatigue in patients with low grade glioma: systematic evaluation of assessment and prevalence.

    PubMed

    van Coevorden-van Loon, Ellen M P; Coomans, Marijke B; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Ribbers, Gerard M; van den Bent, Martin J

    2017-06-01

    Fatigue is the most prevalent and disabling symptom in cancer patients. Yet, scientific literature on this topic is scarce and reports disparate results. This study systematically reviews how fatigue is assessed in patients with low-grade glioma and evaluates its prevalence in LGG patients. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase and PsychINFO for articles reporting on fatigue in patients with LGG. Two reviewers independently extracted data from selected articles. Inclusion criteria were: (1) patients with suspected or confirmed LGG; (2) fatigue was assessed as primary or secondary outcome measure; (3) age≥ 18 years; (4) full-length article written in English or Dutch. In total, 19 articles were selected, including 971 patients. Seven self-assessment instruments were identified. Prevalence rates ranged from 39 to 77%. Fatigue was found to be a common side effect of treatment. The prevalence rates ranged from 20 to 76% when fatigue was reported as a mild or moderate side effect and fatigue was prevalent in 4% when reported as a severe side effect. Fatigue is a common problem in LGG patients that warrants more therapeutic and scientific attention. Gaining deeper insight in the underlying mechanisms of fatigue is essential in targeting therapy to individual patients.

  9. A mathematical model of low grade gliomas treated with temozolomide and its therapeutical implications.

    PubMed

    Bogdańska, M U; Bodnar, M; Belmonte-Beitia, J; Murek, M; Schucht, P; Beck, J; Pérez-García, V M

    2017-06-01

    Low grade gliomas (LGGs) are infiltrative and incurable primary brain tumours with typically slow evolution. These tumours usually occur in young and otherwise healthy patients, bringing controversies in treatment planning since aggressive treatment may lead to undesirable side effects. Thus, for management decisions it would be valuable to obtain early estimates of LGG growth potential. Here we propose a simple mathematical model of LGG growth and its response to chemotherapy which allows the growth of LGGs to be described in real patients. The model predicts, and our clinical data confirms, that the speed of response to chemotherapy is related to tumour aggressiveness. Moreover, we provide a formula for the time to radiological progression, which can be possibly used as a measure of tumour aggressiveness. Finally, we suggest that the response to a few chemotherapy cycles upon diagnosis might be used to predict tumour growth and to guide therapeutical actions on the basis of the findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synchronized brain activity and neurocognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Ingeborg; Douw, Linda; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Heimans, Jan J; van Dijk, Bob W; Postma, Tjeerd J; Stam, Cornelis J; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Klein, Martin

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) by relating functional connectivity revealed by magnetoencephalography to neurocognitive function. We administered a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring six neurocognitive domains to a group of 17 LGG patients and 17 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and educational level. Magnetoencephalography recordings were conducted during an eyes-closed "resting state," and synchronization likelihood (a measure of statistical correlation between signals) was computed from the delta to gamma frequency bands to assess functional connectivity between different brain areas. We found that, compared with healthy controls, LGG patients performed more poorly in psychomotor function, attention, information processing, and working memory. LGG patients also had significantly higher long-distance synchronization scores in the delta, theta, and lower gamma frequency bands than did controls. In contrast, patients displayed a decline in synchronization likelihood in the lower alpha frequency band. Within the delta, theta, and lower and upper gamma bands, increasing short- and long-distance connectivity was associated with poorer neurocognitive functioning. In summary, LGG patients showed a complex overall pattern of differences in functional resting-state connectivity compared with healthy controls. The significant correlations between neurocognitive performance and functional connectivity in various frequencies and across multiple brain areas suggest that the observed neurocognitive deficits in these patients can possibly be attributed to differences in functional connectivity due to tumor and/or treatment.

  11. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Bosma, I; Stam, C J; Douw, L; Bartolomei, F; Heimans, J J; van Dijk, B W; Postma, T J; Klein, M; Reijneveld, J C

    2008-05-01

    In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity compared to healthy controls and that particularly global slowing correlates with neurocognitive dysfunction. Resting state MEG recordings were obtained from 17 LGG patients and 17 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the delta, theta, upper and lower alpha, beta, and gamma frequency band. A battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring 6 neurocognitive domains was administered. LGG patients showed a slowing of the resting state brain activity when compared to healthy controls. Decrease in relative power was mainly found in the gamma frequency band in the bilateral frontocentral MEG regions, whereas an increase in relative power was found in the theta frequency band in the left parietal region. An increase of the relative power in the theta and lower alpha band correlated with impaired executive functioning, information processing, and working memory. LGG patients are characterized by global slowing of their resting state brain activity and this slowing phenomenon correlates with the observed neurocognitive deficits.

  12. Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM).

    PubMed

    Sinning, Mariana; Letelier, René; Rosas, Carlos; Fuenzalida, Marcela; Lemus, David

    2012-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are highly vascularized tumors. Neo-angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and resistance to therapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample could be a useful way to obtain pro-angiogenic predictive or prognostic markers at different stages of the disease. As a first step we looked for pro-angiogenic activity in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas. We performed the chicken embryo chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay to study the angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), obtained either by lumbar puncture (LP) or craniotomy from six patients with high-grade brain tumors (three glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), one anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III), two anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO grade III)), and four healthy controls. Significantly increased neo-angiogenesis was observed on the surface of the growing CAM in the 6 patients with high-grade gliomas compared to controls (3.69 ± 1.23 versus 2.16 ± 0.97 capillaries per area (mean ± SD), p<0.005). There was no statistical difference related to the hystological grade of the tumor (WHO grade III or IV), previous treatment (radio-chemotherapy plus temozolomide, temozolomide alone or no treatment), or the site of CSF sample (surgery or lumbar puncture). Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic potential in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas.

  13. Predictors of seizure freedom after resection of supratentorial low-grade gliomas. A review.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Berger, Mitchel S; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Chang, Edward F

    2011-08-01

    Seizures are the most frequent presenting symptom in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and significantly influence quality of life if they are uncontrolled. Achieving freedom from seizures is of utmost importance in surgical planning, but the factors associated with seizure control remain incompletely understood. The authors performed a systematic literature review of seizure outcomes after resection of LGGs causing seizures, examining 773 patients across 20 published series. Rates of seizure freedom were stratified across 7 variables: patient age, tumor location, preoperative seizure control with medication, seizure semiology, epilepsy duration, extent of resection, and the use of intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG). Gross-total resection was most predictive of complete seizure freedom, when compared with subtotal resection (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.36-4.93). Other predictors of seizure freedom included preoperative seizure control on antiepileptic medication (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.33-3.38) and duration of seizures of ≤ 1 year (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.79). Patients with simple partial seizure semiology achieved seizure freedom less often than those with complex partial, generalized, or mixed seizure types (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.80). No significant differences in seizure outcome were observed between adults versus children, patients with temporal lobe versus extratemporal tumors, or with the use of intraoperative ECoG. Seizure control is one of the most important considerations in planning surgery for low-grade brain tumors. Gross-total resection is a critical factor in achieving seizure freedom.

  14. Characterizing and targeting PDGFRA alterations in pediatric high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Koschmann, Carl; Zamler, Daniel; MacKay, Alan; Robinson, Dan; Wu, Yi-Mi; Doherty, Robert; Marini, Bernard; Tran, Dustin; Garton, Hugh; Muraszko, Karin; Robertson, Patricia; Leonard, Marcia; Zhao, Lili; Bixby, Dale; Peterson, Luke; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Jones, Chris; Mody, Rajen; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG, WHO Grade III and IV) is a devastating brain tumor with a median survival of less than two years. PDGFRA is frequently mutated/amplified in pediatric HGG, but the significance of this finding has not been fully characterized. We hypothesize that alterations of PDGFRA will promote distinct prognostic and treatment implications in pediatric HGG. In order to characterize the impact of PDGFR pathway alterations, we integrated genomic data from pediatric HGG patients (n=290) from multiple pediatric datasets and sequencing platforms. Integration of multiple human datasets showed that PDGFRA mutation, but not amplification, was associated with older age in pediatric HGG (P= <0.0001). In multivariate analysis, PDGFRA mutation was correlated with worse prognosis (P = 0.026), while PDGFRA amplification was not (P = 0.11). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, non-brainstem HGG with PDGFRA amplification carried a worse prognosis than non-brainstem HGG without PDGFRA amplification (P = 0.021). There were no pediatric patients with PDGFRA-amplified HGG that survived longer than two years. Additionally, we performed paired molecular profiling (germline / tumor / primary cell culture) and targeting of an infant thalamic HGG with amplification and outlier increased expression of PDGFRA. Dasatinib inhibited proliferation most effectively. In summary, integration of the largest genomic dataset of pediatric HGG to date, allowed us to highlight that PDGFRA mutation is found in older pediatric patients and that PDGFRA amplification is prognostic in non-brainstem HGG. Future precision-medicine based clinical trials for pediatric patients with PDGFRA-altered HGG should consider the optimized delivery of dasatinib. PMID:27582545

  15. Updated therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma stratified by resection and tumor subtype.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Iseki, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Soko; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Taichi; Tamura, Manabu; Chernov, Michael; Watanabe, Atsushi; Okamoto, Saori; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    The importance of surgical resection for patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma (LGG) remains controversial. This retrospective study of patients (n = 153) treated between 2000 to 2010 at a single institution assessed whether increasing the extent of resection (EOR) was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Histological subtypes of World Health Organization grade II tumors were as follows: diffuse astrocytoma in 49 patients (32.0%), oligoastrocytoma in 45 patients (29.4%), and oligodendroglioma in 59 patients (38.6%). Median pre- and postoperative tumor volumes and median EOR were 29.0 cm(3) (range 0.7-162 cm(3)) and 1.7 cm(3) (range 0-135.7 cm(3)) and 95%, respectively. Five- and 10-year OS for all LGG patients were 95.1% and 85.4%, respectively. Eight-year OS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 70.7%, 91.2%, and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year PFS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 42.6%, 71.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups by EOR ≥90% and <90%, and OS and PFS were analyzed. Both OS and PFS were significantly longer in patients with ≥90% EOR. Increased EOR resulted in better PFS for diffuse astrocytoma but not for oligodendroglioma. Multivariate analysis identified age and EOR as parameters significantly associated with OS. The only parameter associated with PFS was EOR. Based on these findings, we established updated therapeutic strategies for LGG. If surgery resulted in EOR <90%, patients with astrocytoma will require second-look surgery, whereas patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma, which are sensitive to chemotherapy, will be treated with chemotherapy.

  16. A better surgical resectability of WHO grade II gliomas is independent of favorable molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Dominik; Gozé, Catherine; Schädelin, Sabine; Rigau, Valérie; Mariani, Luigi; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    A higher extent of resection (EOR) in WHO grade II gliomas (GIIG) is correlated with longer survival. However, the molecular markers also feature prognostic relevance. Here, we examined whether maximal EOR was related to the genetic profile. We retrospectively investigated the predictive value of 1p19q, IDH1, 53 expression and Ki67 index for the EOR in 200 consecutive GIIGs (2007-2013). Data were modeled in a linear model. The analysis was performed with two statistical methods (arcsin-sqrt and Beta-regression model with logit link). There was no deletion 1p19q in 118 cases, codeletion 1p19q (57 cases), single deletion 1p (4 cases) or19q (16 cases). 155 patients had a mutation of IDH1. p53 was graded in 4 degrees (0:92 cases, 1:52 cases, 2:31 cases, 3:8 cases). Mean Ki67 index was 5.2 % (range 1-20 %). Mean preoperative tumor volume was 60.8 cm(3) (range 3.3-250 cm(3)) and mean EOR was 0.917 (range 0.574-1). The statistical analysis was significant for a lower EOR in patients with codeletion 1p19q (OR 0.738, p = 0.0463) and with a single deletion 19q (OR 0.641, p = 0.0168). There was no significant correlation between IDH1 or p53 and the EOR. Higher Ki67 was marginally associated with higher EOR (p = 0.0603). The study demonstrates in a large cohort of GIIG that a higher EOR is not attributable to favorable genetic markers. This original result supports maximal surgical resection as an important therapeutic factor per se to optimize prognosis, independently of the molecular pattern.

  17. Olaparib in Treating Patients With Advanced Glioma, Cholangiocarcinoma, or Solid Tumors With IDH1 or IDH2 Mutations

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Glioblastoma; Grade II Glioma; IDH1 Gene Mutation; IDH2 Gene Mutation; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; WHO Grade III Glioma

  18. Clinical investigation survival prediction in high-grade gliomas by MRI perfusion before and during early stage of RT

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Yue . E-mail: yuecao@med.umich.edu; Tsien, Christina I.; Nagesh, Vijaya; Junck, Larry; Haken, Randall ten; Ross, Brian D.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Lawrence, Theodore S.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow can predict the response of high-grade gliomas to radiotherapy (RT) by taking into account spatial heterogeneity and temporal changes in perfusion. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with high-grade gliomas underwent conformal RT, with magnetic resonance imaging perfusion before and at Weeks 1-2 and 3-4 during RT. Tumor perfusion was classified as high, medium, or low. The prognostic values of pre-RT perfusion and the changes during RT for early prediction of tumor response to RT were evaluated. Results: The fractional high-CBV tumor volume before RT and the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging tumor volume were identified as predictors for survival (p = 0.01). Changes in tumor CBV during the early treatment course also predicted for survival. Better survival was predicted by a decrease in the fractional low-CBV tumor volume at Week 1 of RT vs. before RT, a decrease in the fractional high-CBV tumor volume at Week 3 vs. Week 1 of RT, and a smaller pre-RT fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging tumor volume (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Early temporal changes during RT in heterogeneous regions of high and low perfusion in gliomas might predict for different physiologic responses to RT. This might also open the opportunity to identify tumor subvolumes that are radioresistant and might benefit from intensified RT.

  19. Diffuse low-grade glioma: a review on the new molecular classification, natural history and current management strategies.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, P D; Corrales-García, E M; Martino, J; Lastra-Aras, E; Dueñas-Polo, M T

    2017-03-02

    The management of diffuse supratentorial WHO grade II glioma remains a challenge because of the infiltrative nature of the tumor, which precludes curative therapy after total or even supratotal resection. When possible, functional-guided resection is the preferred initial treatment. Total and subtotal resections correlate with increased overall survival. High-risk patients (age >40, partial resection), especially IDH-mutated and 1p19q-codeleted oligodendroglial lesions, benefit from surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation. Under the new 2016 WHO brain tumor classification, which now incorporates molecular parameters, all diffusely infiltrating gliomas are grouped together since they share specific genetic mutations and prognostic factors. Although low-grade gliomas cannot be regarded as benign tumors, large observational studies have shown that median survival can actually be doubled if an early, aggressive, multi-stage and personalized therapy is applied, as compared to prior wait-and-see policy series. Patients need an honest long-term therapeutic strategy that should ideally anticipate neurological, cognitive and histopathologic worsening.

  20. Preclinical evaluation of convection-enhanced delivery of liposomal doxorubicin to treat pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and thalamic high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Sewing, A Charlotte P; Lagerweij, Tonny; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Meel, Michaël H; Veringa, Susanna J E; Carcaboso, Angel M; Gaillard, Pieter J; Peter Vandertop, W; Wesseling, Pieter; Noske, David; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Hulleman, Esther

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are primary brain tumors with high mortality and morbidity. Because of their poor brain penetrance, systemic chemotherapy regimens have failed to deliver satisfactory results; however, convection-enhanced delivery (CED) may be an alternative mode of drug delivery. Anthracyclines are potent chemotherapeutics that have been successfully delivered via CED in preclinical supratentorial glioma models. This study aims to assess the potency of anthracyclines against DIPG and pHGG cell lines in vitro and to evaluate the efficacy of CED with anthracyclines in orthotopic pontine and thalamic tumor models. METHODS The sensitivity of primary pHGG cell lines to a range of anthracyclines was tested in vitro. Preclinical CED of free doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) to the brainstem and thalamus of naïve nude mice was performed. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined based on the observation of clinical symptoms, and brains were analyzed after H & E staining. Efficacy of the MTD was tested in adult glioma E98-FM-DIPG and E98-FM-thalamus models and in the HSJD-DIPG-007-Fluc primary DIPG model. RESULTS Both pHGG and DIPG cells were sensitive to anthracyclines in vitro. Doxorubicin was selected for further preclinical evaluation. Convection-enhanced delivery of the MTD of free doxorubicin and PLD in the pons was 0.02 mg/ml, and the dose tolerated in the thalamus was 10 times higher (0.2 mg/ml). Free doxorubicin or PLD via CED was ineffective against E98-FM-DIPG or HSJD-DIPG-007-Fluc in the brainstem; however, when applied in the thalamus, 0.2 mg/ml of PLD slowed down tumor growth and increased survival in a subset of animals with small tumors. CONCLUSIONS Local delivery of doxorubicin to the brainstem causes severe toxicity, even at doxorubicin concentrations that are safe in the thalamus. As a consequence, the authors could not establish a therapeutic

  1. Multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy identifies enriched foci of cancer stem-like cells in high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    He, Tao; Qiu, Tianming; Wang, Xiaodong; Gui, Hongxing; Wang, Xilong; Hu, Qikuan; Xia, Hechun; Qi, Gaoyang; Wu, Jinsong; Ma, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the correlation between choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios determined by multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and the distribution of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) in high-grade gliomas. Patients and methods Sixteen patients with high-grade gliomas were recruited and underwent 1H-MRS examination before surgery to identify distinct tumor regions with variable Cho/Cr ratios. Using intraoperative neuronavigation, tumor tissues were accurately sampled from regions with high and low Cho/Cr ratios within each tumor. The distribution of CSLCs in samples from glioma tissue regions with different Cho/Cr ratios was quantified by neurosphere culture, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. Results The mean neurosphere formation rate in tissues with high Cho/Cr ratios was significantly increased compared with that in low Cho/Cr ratio tissues (13.94±5.94 per 100 cells vs 8.04±3.99 per 100 cells, P<0.001). Immunohistochemistry indicated that tissues with high Cho/Cr ratios had elevated expression of CD133, nestin, and CD15, relative to low Cho/Cr ratio tissue samples (23.6%±3.8% vs 18.3%±3.3%, 25.2%±4.5% vs 19.8%±2.8%, 24.5%±3.8% vs 17.8%±2.2%, respectively; all P<0.001). Western blot demonstrated that relative CD133 and nestin protein expression in high Cho/Cr ratio regions was significantly higher than that in low Cho/Cr ratio tissue samples (0.50±0.17 vs 0.30±0.08, 0.45±0.13 vs 0.27±0.07, respectively; both P<0.001). The protein expression levels of CD133 and nestin were highly correlated with Cho/Cr ratios (r=0.897 and r=0.861, respectively). Conclusion Cho/Cr ratios correlate with the distribution of CSLCs in high-grade gliomas, and this may assist in identifying foci enriched with CSLCs and thus improve the management of high-grade gliomas. PMID:28115854

  2. High-definition fiber tractography for the evaluation of perilesional white matter tracts in high-grade glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Abhinav, Kumar; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Mansouri, Alireza; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Conventional white matter (WM) imaging approaches, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been used to preoperatively identify the location of affected WM tracts in patients with intracranial tumors in order to maximize the extent of resection and potentially reduce postoperative morbidity. DTI, however, has limitations that include its inability to resolve multiple crossing fibers and its susceptibility to partial volume effects. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to more advanced WM imaging techniques such as high-definition fiber tractography (HDFT). In this paper, we illustrate the application of HDFT, which in our preliminary experience has enabled accurate depiction of perilesional tracts in a 3-dimensional manner in multiple anatomical compartments including edematous zones around high-grade gliomas. This has facilitated accurate surgical planning. This is illustrated by using case examples of patients with glioblastoma multiforme. We also discuss future directions in the role of these techniques in surgery for gliomas.

  3. Anatomic Location of Tumor Predicts the Accuracy of Motor Function Localization in Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas Involving the Hand Knob Area.

    PubMed

    Fang, S; Liang, J; Qian, T; Wang, Y; Liu, X; Fan, X; Li, S; Wang, Y; Jiang, T

    2017-08-24

    The accuracy of preoperative blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI remains controversial. This study assessed the association between the anatomic location of a tumor and the accuracy of fMRI-based motor function mapping in diffuse lower-grade gliomas. Thirty-five patients with lower-grade gliomas involving motor areas underwent preoperative blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI scans with grasping tasks and received intraoperative direct cortical stimulation. Patients were classified into an overlapping group and a nonoverlapping group, depending on the extent to which blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI and direct cortical stimulation results concurred. Tumor location was quantitatively measured, including the shortest distance from the tumor to the hand knob and the deviation distance of the midpoint of the hand knob in the lesion hemisphere relative to the midline compared with the normal contralateral hemisphere. A 4-mm shortest distance from the tumor to the hand knob value was identified as optimal for differentiating the overlapping and nonoverlapping group with the receiver operating characteristic curve (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 77.8%). The shortest distances from the tumor to the hand knob of ≤4 mm were associated with inaccurate fMRI-based localizations of the hand motor cortex. The shortest distances from the tumor to the hand knob were larger (P = .002), and the deviation distances for the midpoint of the hand knob in the lesion hemisphere were smaller (P = .003) in the overlapping group than in the nonoverlapping group. This study suggests that the shortest distance from the tumor to the hand knob and the deviation distance for the midpoint of the hand knob on the lesion hemisphere are predictive of the accuracy of blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI results. Smaller shortest distances from the tumor to the hand knob and larger deviation distances for the midpoint of hand knob on the lesion hemisphere are associated with less accuracy of motor cortex

  4. Gadobutrol Versus Gadopentetate Dimeglumine or Gadobenate Dimeglumine Before DCE-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Grade II-IV Glioma, or Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-22

    Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Multiple Sclerosis; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm

  5. Intraoperative Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Surgery and Stereotactic Biopsy of Low-Grade and High-Grade Gliomas: A Feasibility Study in Humans.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Vladislav; Meyronet, David; Meyer-Bisch, Vincent; Armoiry, Xavier; Pikul, Brian; Dumot, Chloé; Beuriat, Pierre-Aurelien; Signorelli, Francesco; Guyotat, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    The management of gliomas is based on precise histologic diagnosis. The tumor tissue can be obtained during open surgery or via stereotactic biopsy. Intraoperative tissue imaging could substantially improve biopsy precision and, ultimately, the extent of resection. To show the feasibility of intraoperative in vivo probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) in surgery and biopsy of gliomas. In our prospective observational study, 9 adult patients were enrolled between September 2014 and January 2015. Two contrast agents were used: 5-aminolevulinic acid (3 cases) or intravenous fluorescein (6 cases). Intraoperative imaging was performed with the Cellvizio system (Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris). A 0.85-mm probe was used for stereotactic procedures, with the biopsy needle modified to have a distal opening. During open brain surgery, a 2.36-mm probe was used. Each series corresponds to a separate histologic fragment. The diagnoses of the lesions were glioblastoma (4 cases), low-grade glioma (2), grade III oligoastrocytoma (2), and lymphoma (1). Autofluorescence of neurons in cortex was observed. Cellvizio images enabled differentiation of healthy "normal" tissue from pathological tissue in open surgery and stereotactic biopsy using fluorescein. 5-Aminolevulinic acid confocal patterns were difficult to establish. No intraoperative complications related to pCLE or to use of either contrast agent were observed. We report the initial feasibility and safety of intraoperative pCLE during primary brain tumor resection and stereotactic biopsy procedures. Pending further investigation, pCLE of brain tissue could be utilized for intraoperative surgical guidance, improvement in brain biopsy yield, and optimization of glioma resection via analysis of tumor margins. 5-ALA, 5-aminolevulinic acidpCLE, probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopyPpIX, protoporphyrin IX.

  6. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jiayi; DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra; Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  7. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  8. High-dose BCNU followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in supratentorial high-grade malignant gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 114 patients.

    PubMed

    Durando, X; Lemaire, J-J; Tortochaux, J; Van-Praagh, I; Kwiatkowski, F; Vincent, C; Bailly, C; Verrelle, P; Irthum, B; Chazal, J; Bay, J-O

    2003-04-01

    Conventional treatment of high-grade glioma includes maximal surgical resection followed by external radiation therapy. Despite this treatment, the prognosis for patients is poor. High doses of chemotherapy might be another way to increase the response rate and median survival. Increasing doses of BCNU might be more effective, but also provokes unacceptable myelotoxicity. This dose-limiting toxicity can be circumvented by using autologous blood stem cell rescue. We report our experience of high-dose BCNU followed by transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in 114 patients with high-grade gliomas. Of the 114 gliomas, 78 were glioblastoma multiforme (GM) (68%), 24 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) (21%), and 12 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (OD) (11%). Complete surgical resection was performed for 22 patients (18 GM and 4 AA). The median age was 44 years (range 17-65). A total of 84 patients received autologous hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow harvest, while 30 patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor followed by apheresis and received peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). High dose of BCNU (800 mg/m(2)) was given at least 1 month after neurosurgery. Bone marrow or PBPC was transplanted 48-72 h after chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was started approximately 40 days after transplantation to a total of 60 Gy. Median follow-up was 89 months (19-163). The overall survival (OS) was, respectively, 12 months for GM, 37 months for OD and 81 months for AA. Histological type appeared to be the main discriminating factor, with a worse prognosis for GM. Within the GM population, age, completeness of surgery, and response appeared to be one important prognostic factors. The AA and OD populations were small to reliably assess prognostic factors. On multivariate analysis, the main prognostic factors were histologic type, quality of surgery, and age (P<0.005). Five of 114 patients had lethal complications from the procedure. Four of these patients had

  9. Simulating Radiotherapy Effect in High-Grade Glioma by Using Diffusive Modeling and Brain Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Roniotis, Alexandros; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Manikis, Georgios C.; Zervakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Applying diffusive models for simulating the spatiotemporal change of concentration of tumour cells is a modern application of predictive oncology. Diffusive models are used for modelling glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of glioma. This paper presents the results of applying a linear quadratic model for simulating the effects of radiotherapy on an advanced diffusive glioma model. This diffusive model takes into consideration the heterogeneous velocity of glioma in gray and white matter and the anisotropic migration of tumor cells, which is facilitated along white fibers. This work uses normal brain atlases for extracting the proportions of white and gray matter and the diffusion tensors used for anisotropy. The paper also presents the results of applying this glioma model on real clinical datasets. PMID:23093856

  10. Bafetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent High-Grade Glioma or Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma

  11. Voxel-based analysis of (201)Tl SPECT for grading and diagnostic accuracy of gliomas: comparison with ROI analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuwako, Tomoyuki; Mizumura, Sunao; Murakami, Ryusuke; Yoshida, Tamiko; Shiiba, Masato; Sato, Hidetaka; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Teramoto, Akira; Kumita, Shin-Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the utility of a voxel-based analysis (VBA) method for (201)Tl SPECT in glioma, compared to conventional ROI analysis. We recruited 24 patients with glioma (high-grade 15; low-grade 9), for whom pre-operative (201)Tl SPECT and MRI were performed. SPECT images were coregistered with MRI. The uptake ratio (UR) images of tumor to contralateral normal tissue were measured on early and delayed images, and the (201)Tl retention index (RI) map was calculated from the early and delayed uptake ratio maps. In the ROI analysis, tumors were traced on a UR map, and the mean and maximal uptake ratio values on the early images were, respectively, defined as the mean and maximal UR. The mean and maximal RI values (mean and maximal RI) were calculated by division of the mean and maximal UR, respectively, on the delayed image by the mean and maximal UR on the early image. For the RI map calculated voxel by voxel, the maximal RI value was defined as VBA-RI. We evaluated sensitivity and accuracy of differential analysis with the mean and maximal UR, RI, and VBA-RI. The high- and low-grade groups showed no significant difference in mean and maximal RI (0.98 ± 0.12 vs. 1.05 ± 0.09 and 0.98 ± 0.18 vs. 1.05 ± 0.14, respectively). The AUC and accuracy of the mean and maximal RI were 0.681 and 66.7 %, and 0.622 and 62.5 %, respectively. In contrast, VBA-RI was higher in high-grade than in low-grade glioma (1.69 ± 0.27 vs. 0.68 ± 0.66, p < 0.001). The AUC and accuracy of VBA-RI were 0.963 and 95.8 %, which are higher than those obtained for mean (p < 0.05) and maximal RI (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in ROC between the VBA-RI and the mean UR (0.911, p = 0.456) and maximal UR (0.933, p = 0.639); however, the AUC, sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy of VBA-RI were all higher than those of the mean and maximal UR. The voxel-based analysis method of (201)Tl SPECT may improve diagnostic performance for gliomas, compared

  12. Radiotherapy planning in high-grade gliomas: a survey of current UK practice.

    PubMed

    Creak, A L; Tree, A; Saran, F

    2011-04-01

    Primary brain tumours in adults are rare, with high-grade gliomas (HGG) being the most common and most aggressive type. The clinical management of rare tumours such as HGG can be heterogeneous across different cancer centres. The aim of this survey was to determine current UK practice in the primary management of HGG, particularly in light of the improved outcomes reported recently. In February 2009, a questionnaire was sent to 71 consultant clinical oncologists in the UK who were reported to have a neuro-oncology practice. Questions focussed on the radiotherapeutic management of HGG. In total, 46/71 (65%) completed questionnaires were returned; 31/46 (67%) routinely used magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography fusion for radiotherapy planning; 34/36 (94%) routinely prescribed 60Gy in 30 fractions in a single phase; 7/36 (19%) would consider 54-55Gy in 30 fractions in selected clinical scenarios; 42/46 (91%) defined the planning target volume (PTV) as the gross tumour volume (GTV)+2-3cm margin and 42/46 (91%) outlined at least one 'organ at risk' (OAR). Accepted tolerance doses varied considerably, e.g. retina range: 30-54Gy. Sixty-four per cent of clinicians (27/42) compromise the PTV and 30% (14/42) the GTV in order to keep OARs within preset tolerances. Nearly one-third (14/42) involve the patient in this decision-making process, e.g. weighing up the risk of late toxicity with the risks of reducing the dose to the PTV. The results of this survey show areas of strong agreement as well as areas of variation in clinical practice of aspects of treatment planning for HGG between UK neuro-oncologists. Copyright © 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pertussis Toxin Is a Robust and Selective Inhibitor of High Grade Glioma Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Natali, Letizia; Karimi-Mostowfi, Nicki; Brifault, Coralie; Gonias, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    In high grade glioma (HGG), extensive tumor cell infiltration of normal brain typically precludes identifying effective margins for surgical resection or irradiation. Pertussis toxin (PT) is a multimeric complex that inactivates diverse Gi/o G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Despite the broad continuum of regulatory events controlled by GPCRs, PT may be applicable as a therapeutic. We have shown that the urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a major driver of HGG cell migration. uPAR-initiated cell-signaling requires a Gi/o GPCR, N-formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2), as an essential co-receptor and is thus, PT-sensitive. Herein, we show that PT robustly inhibits migration of three separate HGG-like cell lines that express a mutated form of the EGF Receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, which is constitutively active. PT also almost completely blocked the ability of HGG cells to invade Matrigel. In the equivalent concentration range (0.01–1.0 μg/mL), PT had no effect on cell survival and only affected proliferation of one cell line. Neutralization of EGFRvIII expression in HGG cells, which is known to activate uPAR-initiated cell-signaling, promoted HGG cell migration. The increase in HGG cell migration, induced by EGFRvIII neutralization, was entirely blocked by silencing FPR2 gene expression or by treating the cells with PT. When U87MG HGG cells were cultured as suspended neurospheres in serum-free, growth factor-supplemented medium, uPAR expression was increased. HGG cells isolated from neurospheres migrated through Transwell membranes without loss of cell contacts; this process was inhibited by PT by >90%. PT also inhibited expression of vimentin by HGG cells; vimentin is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and worsened prognosis. We conclude that PT may function as a selective inhibitor of HGG cell migration and invasion. PMID:27977780

  14. The End-of-Life Phase of High-Grade Glioma Patients: Dying With Dignity?

    PubMed Central

    Taphoorn, Martin J.B.; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Heimans, Jan J.; Deliens, Luc; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the end-of-life (EOL) phase, high-grade glioma (HGG) patients have a high symptom burden and often lose independence because of physical and cognitive dysfunction. This might affect the patient's personal dignity. We aimed to (a) assess the proportion of HGG patients dying with dignity as perceived by their relatives and (b) identify disease and care factors correlated with dying with dignity in HGG patients. Methods. We approached relatives of a cohort of 155 deceased HGG patients for the study. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning the EOL phase of the patient, covering several subthemes: (a) symptoms and signs, (b) health-related quality of life, (c) decision making, (d) place and quality of EOL care, and (e) dying with dignity. Results. Relatives of 81 patients participated and 75% indicated that the patient died with dignity. These patients had fewer communication deficits, experienced fewer transitions between health care settings in the EOL phase, and more frequently died at their preferred place of death. Relatives were more satisfied with the physician providing EOL care and reported that the physician adequately explained treatment options. Multivariate analysis identified satisfaction with the physician, the ability to communicate, and the absence of transitions between settings as most predictive of a dignified death. Conclusions. Physicians caring for HGG patients in the EOL phase should timely focus on explaining possible treatment options, because patients experience communication deficits toward death. Physicians should strive to allow patients to die at their preferred place and avoid transitions during the last month of life. PMID:23335620

  15. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging: possible implications for radiotherapy treatment planning of patients with high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Jena, R; Price, S J; Baker, C; Jefferies, S J; Pickard, J D; Gillard, J H; Burnet, N G

    2005-12-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning for high-grade gliomas (HGG) is hampered by the inability to image peri-tumoural white-matter infiltration. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an imaging technique that seems to show white-matter abnormalities resulting from tumour infiltration that cannot be visualised by conventional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We propose a new term, the image-based high-risk volume (IHV) for such abnormalities, which are distinct from the gross-tumour volume (GTV). For IHV based on DTI, we use the term IHVDTI. This study assesses the value of DTI for the individualisation of radiotherapy treatment planning for patients with HGG. Seven patients with biopsy-proven HGG were included in a theoretical planning exercise, comparing standard planning techniques with individualised plans based on DTI. Standard plans were generated using a 2.5 cm clinical target volume (CTV) margin added to the GTV. For DTI-based plans, the CTV was generated by adding a 1 cm margin to the IHVDTI. Estimates of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were calculated and used to estimate the level of dose escalation that could be achieved using the DTI-based plans. The use of DTI resulted in non-uniform margins being added to the GTV to encompass areas at high risk of tumour involvement, but, in six out of seven cases, the IHVDTI was encapsulated by the standard CTV margin. In all cases, DTI could be used to reduce the size of the planning-target volume (PTV) (mean 35%, range 18-46%), resulting in escalated doses (mean 67 Gy, range 64-74 Gy), with NTCP levels that matched the conventional treatment plans. DTI can be used to individualise radiotherapy target volumes, and reduction in the CTV permits modest dose escalation without an increase in NTCP. DTI may also be helpful in stratifying patients according to the degree of white-matter infiltration.

  17. Therapeutic and Prognostic Implications of BRAF V600E in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, Alvaro; Zapotocky, Michal; Mistry, Matthew; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Honnorat, Marion; Krishnatry, Rahul; Guerreiro Stucklin, Ana; Zhukova, Nataliya; Arnoldo, Anthony; Ryall, Scott; Ling, Catriona; McKeown, Tara; Loukides, Jim; Cruz, Ofelia; de Torres, Carmen; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Packer, Roger J; Tatevossian, Ruth; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Harreld, Julie H; Dalton, James D; Mulcahy-Levy, Jean; Foreman, Nicholas; Karajannis, Matthias A; Wang, Shiyang; Snuderl, Matija; Nageswara Rao, Amulya; Giannini, Caterina; Kieran, Mark; Ligon, Keith L; Garre, Maria Luisa; Nozza, Paolo; Mascelli, Samantha; Raso, Alessandro; Mueller, Sabine; Nicolaides, Theodore; Silva, Karen; Perbet, Romain; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Faure Conter, Cécile; Frappaz, Didier; Leary, Sarah; Crane, Courtney; Chan, Aden; Ng, Ho-Keung; Shi, Zhi-Feng; Mao, Ying; Finch, Elizabeth; Eisenstat, David; Wilson, Bev; Carret, Anne Sophie; Hauser, Peter; Sumerauer, David; Krskova, Lenka; Larouche, Valerie; Fleming, Adam; Zelcer, Shayna; Jabado, Nada; Rutka, James T; Dirks, Peter; Taylor, Michael D; Chen, Shiyi; Bartels, Ute; Huang, Annie; Ellison, David W; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia; Tabori, Uri

    2017-09-01

    Purpose BRAF V600E is a potentially highly targetable mutation detected in a subset of pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs). Its biologic and clinical effect within this diverse group of tumors remains unknown. Patients and Methods A combined clinical and genetic institutional study of patients with PLGGs with long-term follow-up was performed (N = 510). Clinical and treatment data of patients with BRAF V600E mutated PLGG (n = 99) were compared with a large international independent cohort of patients with BRAF V600E mutated-PLGG (n = 180). Results BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 69 of 405 patients (17%) with PLGG across a broad spectrum of histologies and sites, including midline locations, which are not often routinely biopsied in clinical practice. Patients with BRAF V600E PLGG exhibited poor outcomes after chemotherapy and radiation therapies that resulted in a 10-year progression-free survival of 27% (95% CI, 12.1% to 41.9%) and 60.2% (95% CI, 53.3% to 67.1%) for BRAF V600E and wild-type PLGG, respectively ( P < .001). Additional multivariable clinical and molecular stratification revealed that the extent of resection and CDKN2A deletion contributed independently to poor outcome in BRAF V600E PLGG. A similar independent role for CDKN2A and resection on outcome were observed in the independent cohort. Quantitative imaging analysis revealed progressive disease and a lack of response to conventional chemotherapy in most patients with BRAF V600E PLGG. Conclusion BRAF V600E PLGG constitutes a distinct entity with poor prognosis when treated with current adjuvant therapy.

  18. A disconnection account of subjective empathy impairments in diffuse low-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Costi, Emanuele; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    Human empathic experience is a multifaceted psychological construct which arises from functional integration of multiple neural networks. Despite accumulating knowledge about the cortical circuitry of empathy, almost nothing is known about the connectivity that may be concerned in conveying empathy-related neural information. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we studied dispositional empathy in a large-sized cohort of 107 patients who had undergone surgery for a diffuse low-grade glioma. The self-report questionnaire used enabled us to obtain a global measure of subjective empathy but also, importantly, to assess the two main components of empathy (cognitive and emotional). Data were processed by combining voxelwise and tractwise lesion-symptom analyses. Several major findings emerged from our analyses. First of all, topological voxelwise analyses were inconclusive. Conversely, tractwise multiple regression analyses, including all major associative white matter pathways as potential predictors, yielded to significant models explaining substantial part of the behavioural variance. Among the main results, we found that disconnection of the left cingulum bundle was a strong predictor of a low cognitive empathy (p<0.0005 Bonferroni-corrected). Similarly, we found that disconnection of the right uncinate fasciculus and the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus predicted, respectively, a low (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) and a high (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) subjective empathy. Finally, although we failed to relate emotional empathy to disruption of a specific tract, correlation analyses indicated a positive association between this component of empathy and the volumes of residual lesion infiltration in the right hemisphere (p<0.01). Taken as a whole, these findings provide key fundamental insights into the anatomical connectivity of empathy. They may help to better understand the pathophysiology of empathy impairments in pathological conditions characterized by

  19. Coevolution of Peer-Reviewed Literature and Clinical Practice in High-Grade Glioma Resection.

    PubMed

    Hirshman, Brian R; Jones, Laurie A; Carroll, Kate T; Tang, Jessica A; Proudfoot, James A; Carley, Kathleen M; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2016-12-01

    The paradigm of evidence-based medicine dictates that clinical practice should reflect the shifting landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we examined the extent to which this premise is fulfilled as it pertains to the surgical resection of high-grade gliomas (HGGs). We assessed trends in published literature regarding HGG survival after resection in conjunction with trends in clinical practice patterns of HGG resection. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search to identify articles that examined whether gross total resection (GTR) improves HGG survival. Temporal trends in the literature were compared with rates of GTR in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, the Veterans Health Administration database, and published data series from academic neuro-oncology centers. Before 2000, the ratio of articles supporting survival benefit of GTR relative to those not supporting it ranged from approximately 1:5 to 1:1. Since 2000, this ratio has steadily increased such that by the post-2013 period, 32 of the 33 published articles (>30:1) supported the survival benefit of GTR. Although the frequency of GTR increased during the 2000-2004 period in the SEER and Veterans Health Administration database, no further increase in the frequency of GTR was observed thereafter. In contrast, resection rates in academic neuro-oncology centers continued to increase subsequent to 2004. Our results indicate that clinical practice patterns mirror publication patterns for HGG resection, suggesting that neurosurgical oncology is a field in which clinical practice is informed by the peer-reviewed literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Change in Pattern of Relapse After Antiangiogenic Therapy in High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Ashwatha; Kunnakkat, Saroj D.; Medabalmi, Praveen; Golfinos, John; Parker, Erik; Knopp, Edmond; Zagzag, David; Eagan, Patricia; Gruber, Deborah; Gruber, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is the dominant pattern of relapse in high-grade glioma (HGG) after conventional therapy. The recent use of antiangiogenic therapy has shown impressive radiologic and clinical responses in adult HGG. The preclinical data suggesting increased invasiveness after angiogenic blockade have necessitated a detailed analysis of the pattern of recurrence after therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 162 consecutive patients with HGG, either newly diagnosed (n = 58) or with recurrent disease (n = 104) underwent therapy with bevacizumab at 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks and conventional chemotherapy with or without involved field radiotherapy until disease progression. The pattern of recurrence and interval to progression were the primary aims of the present study. Diffuse invasive recurrence (DIR) was defined as the involvement of multiple lobes with or without crossing the midline. Results: At a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 1-37), 105 patients had recurrence, and 79 patients ultimately developed DIR. The interval to progression was similar in the DIR and local recurrence groups (6.5 and 6.3 months, p = .296). The hazard risk of DIR increased exponentially with time and was similar in those with newly diagnosed and recurrent HGG (R{sup 2} = 0.957). The duration of bevacizumab therapy increased the interval to recurrence (p < .0001) and improved overall survival (p < .0001). However, the pattern of relapse did not affect overall survival (p = .253). Conclusion: Along with an increase in median progression-free survival, bevacizumab therapy increased the risk of DIR in HGG patients. The risk of increased invasion with prolonged angiogenic blockade should be addressed in future clinical trials.

  1. Dose-dependent Cortical Thinning After Partial Brain Radiation in High-grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Karunamuni, Roshan; Bartsch, Hauke; White, Nate S.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Carmona, Ruben; Marshall, Deborah; Seibert, Tyler M.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Farid, Nikdokht; Krishnan, Anithapriya; Kuperman, Joshua; Mell, Loren; Brewer, James B.; Dale, Anders M.; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiation-induced cognitive deficits may be mediated by tissue damage to cortical regions. Volumetric changes in cortex can be reliably measured using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used these methods to study the association between radiation therapy (RT) dose and change in cortical thickness in high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Methods and Materials We performed a voxel-wise analysis of MR imaging from 15 HGG patients who underwent fractionated partial brain RT. Three-dimensional MRI was acquired pre- and 1-year post-RT. Cortex was parcellated with well-validated segmentation software (Freesufer). Surgical cavities were censored. Each cortical voxel was assigned a change in cortical thickness between time points, RT dose value, and neuroanatomic label by lobe. Effect of dose, neuroanatomic location, age, and chemotherapy on cortical thickness was tested using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Results Cortical atrophy was seen after 1-year post RT, with greater effects at higher doses. Estimates from LME modeling showed that cortical thickness decreased by −0.0033 mm (p<0.001) for every 1 Gy increase in RT dose. Temporal and limbic cortex exhibited the largest change in cortical thickness per Gy, compared to other regions (p<0.001). Age and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with cortical thickness change. Conclusions We found dose-dependent thinning of the cerebral cortex, with varying neuroanatomical regional sensitivity, one year after fractionated partial brain RT. The magnitude of thinning parallels one-year atrophy rates seen in neurodegenerative diseases, and may contribute to cognitive decline following high-dose RT. PMID:26853338

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Radiation and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yushen; Maruyama, Satoshi; Kim, Haju; Pollom, Erqi L; Kumar, Kiran A; Chin, Alexander L; Harris, Jeremy P; Chang, Daniel T; Pitt, Allison; Bendavid, Eran; Owens, Douglas K; Durkee, Ben Y; Soltys, Scott G

    2017-06-28

    The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with high-risk (≥ 40 years old or sub-totally resected) low-grade glioma (LGG) results in an absolute median survival benefit of over 5 years. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this treatment strategy. A decision tree with an integrated three-state Markov model was created to follow patients with high risk LGG after surgery treated with RT vs. RT+PCV. Patients existed in one of 3 health states: stable, progressive, and dead. Survival and freedom from progression were modeled to reflect the results of RTOG 9802 using time-dependent transition probabilities. Health utility values and costs of care were derived from the literature and national registry databases. Analysis was conducted from the healthcare perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis explored uncertainty in model parameters. Modeled outcomes demonstrated agreement with clinical data in expected benefit of addition of PCV to RT. The addition of PCV to RT yielded an incremental benefit of 4.77 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (9.94 for RT+PCV vs. 5.17 for RT alone) at an incremental cost of $48,635 ($188,234 for RT+PCV vs. $139,598 for RT alone), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $10,186 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrates that within modeled distributions of parameters, RT+PCV has 99.96% probability of being cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. The addition of PCV to RT is a cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with high-risk LGG.

  3. Convection-enhanced delivery catheter placements for high-grade gliomas: complications and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Tal; Ram, Zvi; Kanner, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of compounds into brain tumors reportedly circumvents the blood brain barrier. CED intends to increase drug delivery to malignant cells, reaching high local therapeutic concentration and decreasing or eliminating systemic side effects. Clinical experience and published data on catheter placement (CP) surgery are scarce. We propose practical and technical guidelines for planning CED based on our experience. We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts and relevant neuroimages of 25 patients following the insertion of 64 CED catheters. The patients were enrolled in at least one of four clinical trials using CED for treating recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in our institution between 2003-2006. Intra- and postoperative complications related to CP surgery and the difficulties and pitfalls of planning were evaluated. There were 29 CP surgeries. Forty-four peritumoral brain tissue catheters were inserted in 16 CP surgeries following tumor resection in 16 patients, and 20 catheters were placed into the tumor in 13 procedures in 10 patients. The lesions were in or near eloquent brain tissue areas in 13 of all CP surgeries. Complications included increased edema (31%), infection (6.9%), bleeding (6.9%) and seizures (13.8%). Significant neurological deterioration occurred in 4 patients (13.8%). Difficulties in adhering to CP surgery guidelines included lesion site (superficial, mesial temporal lobe, proximity to CSF spaces), proximity to eloquent cortical areas, tissue density that interfered with the trajectory, and technical limitations of stereotactic instruments. CED procedures for high-grade gliomas may be associated with surgical morbidity. Adherence to guidelines might be difficult because of lesion site and complicated by brain and tumor tissue characteristics. This should be considered while planning clinical trials that use convection-based technology.

  4. Metastatic Low-Grade Gliomas in Children: 20 Years' Experience at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chamdine, Omar; Broniscer, Alberto; Wu, Shengjie; Gajjar, Amar; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), which are the most common childhood brain tumors, have excellent long-term survival. Dissemination of LGG is rare. Robust data on the incidence, presentation, patterns of dissemination, disease behavior, outcome, and best-management approaches do not exist. We describe 20 years of follow-up of children with metastatic LGG. Data collected during the period 1990-2010 were retrospectively reviewed for the following inclusion criteria: diagnosis of metastatic LGG, age younger than 21 years at initial diagnosis, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and/or spine at diagnosis and/or follow-up. Patient demographics, pathology, treatment modalities, and outcome were reviewed. Of 599 patients with LGG, 38 (6%) had metastatic disease at either diagnosis or follow-up. Most tumors (87%) were located in the brain, and half of the patients had metastatic disease at presentation. The most common diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma (55%). Chemotherapy was the most common initial treatment modality. Median survival of the group was 6.2 years (range, 0.1-16.9 years). Fifteen (40%) patients died at a median of 6 years from diagnosis (range, 0.8-15 years). Overall survival at 5, 10, and 15 years was 80.7 ± 6.6%, 63.0 ± 10.2%, and 50.9 ± 16.0%, respectively. This study describes the longest follow-up of children with metastatic LGG. LGG is underestimated and entails major morbidity and mortality. Prospective studies are needed to learn the true incidence, study the biology, and determine the best approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Restriction spectrum imaging predicts response to bevacizumab in patients with high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carrie R; Delfanti, Rachel L; Krishnan, Anitha P; Leyden, Kelly M; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A; Seibert, Tyler M; Karunamuni, Roshan; Elbe, Pia; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Piccioni, David E; White, Nathan S; Dale, Anders M; Farid, Nikdokht

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging has shown initial promise for evaluating response to bevacizumab in patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). However, it is well recognized that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is influenced by bevacizumab-induced reductions in edema, which may limit its prognostic value. We demonstrate that an advanced diffusion-weighted imaging technique, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), improves the evaluation of response to bevacizumab because unlike ADC, RSI is not affected by resolution of edema. RSI and ADC maps were analyzed for 40 patients with HGG prior to and following initiation of bevacizumab. Volumes of interest were drawn for regions of contrast enhancement (CE) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity and histogram percentiles within volumes of interest were calculated for ADC 10th percentile (ADC-CE10%, ADC-FLAIR10%) and for RSI 90th percentile (RSI-CE90%, RSI-FLAIR90%). Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the relationship between imaging parameters, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). An increase in RSI-FLAIR90% following bevacizumab was the strongest predictor of poor PFS (P= .016) and OS (P= .004), whereas decreases in ADC-FLAIR10% showed a weaker association with OS only (P= .041). Within the CE region, increases in RSI-CE90% alone were associated with poorer OS. Correlational analysis revealed that decreases in FLAIR volume were associated with decreases in ADC-FLAIR10%, but not with changes in RSI-FLAIR90%. RSI is less influenced by changes in edema, conferring an advantage of RSI over ADC for evaluating response to anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with HGG. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Temozolomide versus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in recurrent high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Brada, Michael; Stenning, Sally; Gabe, Rhian; Thompson, Lindsay C; Levy, David; Rampling, Roy; Erridge, Sara; Saran, Frank; Gattamaneni, Rao; Hopkins, Kirsten; Beall, Sarah; Collins, V Peter; Lee, Siow-Ming

    2010-10-20

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent licensed for treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG). No prospective comparison with nitrosourea-based chemotherapy exists. We report, to our knowledge, the first randomized trial of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) versus TMZ in chemotherapy-naive patients with recurrent HGG. Four hundred forty-seven patients were randomly assigned to PCV (224 patients) or TMZ (sub-random assignment: TMZ-5 [200 mg/m(2) for 5 days, 112 patients] or TMZ-21 [100 mg/m(2) for 21 days, 111 patients]) for up to 9 months or until progression. The primary outcomes were survival (PCV v TMZ) and 12-week progression-free survival (PFS; TMZ-5 v TMZ-21). This study is registered as ISRCTN83176944. Percentages of patients completing 9 months of treatment in the PCV, TMZ-5, and TMZ-21 arms were 17%, 26%, and 13%, respectively. Major toxicity was similar across all three groups. With a median follow-up time of 12 months and 382 deaths, there was no clear survival benefit when comparing PCV with TMZ (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.11; P = .350). For TMZ-5 versus TMZ-21, 12-week PFS rates were similar (63.6% and 65.7%, respectively; P = .745), but TMZ-5 improved overall PFS (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.82; P = .023), survival (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.75; P = .056), and global quality of life (49% v 19% improved > 10 points at 6 months, respectively; P = .005). Although TMZ (both arms combined) did not show a clear benefit compared with PCV, comparison of the TMZ schedules demonstrated that the 21-day schedule was inferior to the 5-day schedule in this setting. This challenges the current understanding of increasing TMZ dose-intensity by prolonged scheduling.

  7. Longitudinal investigation of adaptive functioning following conformal irradiation for pediatric craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Netson, Kelli L; Conklin, Heather M; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E

    2013-04-01

    Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before

  8. Expression of CD74 in high Grade Gliomas: A Potential Role in Temozolomide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kitange, Gaspar J.; Carlson, Brett L.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Decker, Paul A.; Morlan, Bruce W.; Wu, Wenting; Ballman, Karla V.; Giannini, Caterina; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2011-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most effective chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma (GBM). Resistance to this methylating agent is linked to DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). However, in recent studies MGMT status was not completely accurate as a predictor of TMZ response in GBM, suggesting other mechanisms of resistance. As part of an effort aimed at discovery of genes involved in TMZ resistance in GBM, the expression of CD74 was evaluated in GBM patient samples and the influence of CD74 on TMZ response was evaluated in GBM tumor models. Reverse transcription-polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated differential expression of CD74 mRNA among the GBM xenografts; 8 of 20 (40%) expressed CD74 mRNA. In a preliminary evaluation of whether CD74 expression might influence TMZ response, CD74 mRNA expression levels were inversely associated with in vivo TMZ resistance in 20 GBM xenograft lines (median survival 122 vs. 62.5 days; r=−0.48 p = 0.032). In follow up to this observation, CD74 shRNA knock down in U87 cells significantly suppressed in vitro proliferation and increased TMZ sensitivity as compared to a non-specific control shRNA. Consistent with an effect on proliferation and survival, silencing of CD74 by shRNA was associated with reduced Akt and Erk1/2 activation in response to stimulation by CD74 ligand macrophage-migration inhibition factor (MIF). Lastly, expression of CD74 protein was assessed in patient samples (9 anaplastic astrocytoma [AA], and 62 GBM) by immunohistochemistry, and appreciable expression was observed in 28% of samples. Collectively, these findings suggest that CD74 is expressed in a subset of high grade gliomas and may contribute to TMZ resistance. PMID:20443131

  9. Compromised health-related quality of life in patients with low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Aaronson, Neil K; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Heimans, Jan J; Postma, Tjeerd J; Gundy, Chad M; Beute, Guus N; Slotman, Ben J; Klein, Martin

    2011-11-20

    To investigate the generic and condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with low-grade glioma (LGG). A total of 195 patients with LGG, which was diagnosed, on average, 5.6 years before the study, were compared with 100 patients with hematologic (non-Hodgkin's) lymphoma and chronic lymphatic leukemia cancer (NHL/CLL) and 205 general population controls who were comparable with patients with LGG at the group level for age, sex, and education (healthy controls). Generic HRQL was assessed with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey, and condition-specific HRQL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study cognitive function questionnaire and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer brain cancer module. Objective neurocognitive functioning was assessed with a standardized battery of neuropsychological tests. No statistically significant differences were observed between patients with LGG and patients with NHL/CLL in SF-36 scores. Patients with LGG scored significantly lower than healthy controls on six of eight scales and on the mental health component score of the SF-36. Approximately one quarter of patients with LGG reported serious neurocognitive symptoms. Female sex, epilepsy burden, and number of objectively assessed neurocognitive deficits were associated significantly with both generic and condition-specific HRQL. Clinical variables, including the time since diagnosis, tumor lateralization, extent of surgery, and radiotherapy, did not show a consistent relationship with HRQL. Patients with LGG experienced significant problems across a broad range of HRQL domains, many of which were not condition-specific. However, the neurocognitive deficits and epilepsy that were relatively prevalent among patients with LGG were associated with negative HRQL outcomes and, thus, contributed additionally to the vulnerability of this population of patients with cancer.

  10. Endocrine outcome in long-term survivors of low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic glioma.

    PubMed

    Collet-Solberg, P F; Sernyak, H; Satin-Smith, M; Katz, L L; Sutton, L; Molloy, P; Moshang, T

    1997-07-01

    We have evaluated the frequency of endocrine abnormalities in a large group of patients with hypothalamic/chiasmatic glioma (H/CG) and its correlation with the different forms of therapy. Descriptive retrospective study using case note review analysis. The records of 68 children who survived H/CG were analysed. One third had neurofibromatosis. The mean age at tumour presentation was 5 years. The median time of follow-up was 3.6 years. Thirty-eight children received cranial radiation, of whom 17 also had surgery. Surgery was performed in a total of 24 patients. Fifteen patients received only chemotherapy. Eight children, all with neurofibromatosis, received no specific tumour treatment. Endocrine dysfunction was determined by clinical manifestations and biochemical evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary function. Endocrine dysfunction occurred in 42% of the children. The most common disorder was GH deficiency (GHD). Of 50 children evaluated, 15 of the 19 with GHD received cranial irradiation (P < 0.05). HOwever, 15 children treated with more than 15 Gy grew normally. Precocious puberty was diagnosed in 11 patients. Nine patients, all treated with cranial irradiation, developed hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Of the 14 patients with hypothyroidism, 10 had surgery (P < 0.005). Hypoadrenalism and diabetes insipidus each occurred in eight patients, and were associated with multiple endocrine deficiencies and surgery. Endocrine deficiencies occurred in children with neurofibromatosis as frequently as children without neurofibromatosis but only when comparing those treated with cranial irradiation or surgery. Nearly all studies assessing the patients with different tumour therapy evaluate patients wit different tumour types. This study investigates a specific and large population of patients with H/CG and correlates the different form of treatment with the endocrine outcome. Precocious puberty, in children with this tumour, is probably due to tumour location rather than

  11. TP53 mutations in astrocytic gliomas: an association with histological grade, TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Faria, Mario H G; Neves Filho, Eduardo H C; Alves, Markenia K S; Burbano, Rommel M R; de Moraes Filho, Manoel O; Rabenhorst, Silvia H B

    2012-11-01

    TP53 mutations and polymorphisms have been widely related to many cancers as long as these alterations may impair its capacity to induce cell cycle arrest, DNA repair mechanisms, and apoptosis. Although TP53 alterations have been studied in astrocytic tumors, there is a lack of analysis considering specific TP53 mutations and their associations with p53 immunostainning, polymorphisms and their significance among the histological grades. Thus, we analyzed TP53 alterations in exons 2-11, including the codon 72 polymorphism, using DNA sequencing in 96 astrocytic gliomas (18 grade I, 20 grade II, 14 grade III, and 44 grade IV). Also, immunohistochemistry was assessed to evaluate the p53 protein expression. In this study, we found that the higher histological grades were statistically associated with TP53 mutations. Some of these mutations, such as TP53 P98T and TP53 G244S, seemed to be a specific marker for the higher grades, and the TP53 E286K mutation appears to be a World Health Organization grade III-IV progression marker. Also, the TP53 P98T mutation, in exon 4, is very likely to be important on the stabilization of the p53 protein, leading to its immunopositivity and it is potentially associated with the TP53 72Pro/Pro genotype.

  12. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  13. Neurosurgical management of adult diffuse low grade gliomas in Canada: a multi-center survey.

    PubMed

    Khan, Osaama H; Mason, Warren; Kongkham, Paul N; Bernstein, Mark; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2016-01-01

    Adult diffuse low-grade gliomas are slow growing, World Health Organization grade II lesions with insidious onset and ultimate anaplastic transformation. The timing of surgery remains controversial with polarized practices continuing to govern patient management. As a result, the management of these patients is variable. The goal of this questionnaire was to evaluate practice patterns in Canada. An online invitation for a questionnaire including diagnostic, preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative parameters and three cases with magnetic resonance imaging data with questions to various treatment options in these patients was sent to practicing neurosurgeons and trainees. Survey was sent to 356 email addresses with 87 (24.7%) responses collected. The range of years of practice was less than 10 years 36% (n = 23), 11-20 years 28% (n = 18), over 21 years 37% (n = 24). Twenty-two neurosurgery students of various years of training completed the survey. 94% (n = 47) of surgeons and trainees (n = 20) believe that we do not know the "right treatment". 90% of surgeons do not obtain formal preoperative neurocognitive assessments. 21% (n = 13) of surgeons and 23% of trainees (n = 5) perform a biopsy upon first presentation. A gross total resection was believed to increase progression free survival (surgeons: 75%, n = 46; trainees: 95%, n = 21) and to increase overall survival (surgeons: 64%, n = 39, trainees: 68%, n = 15). Intraoperative MRI was only used by 8% of surgeons. Awake craniotomy was the procedure of choice for eloquent tumors by 80% (n = 48) of surgeons and 100% of trainees. Of those surgeons who perform awake craniotomy 93% perform cortical stimulation and 38% performed subcortical stimulation. Using the aid of three hypothetical cases with progressive complexities in tumor eloquence there was a trend for younger surgeons to operate earlier, and use awake craniotomy to obtain greater extent of resection with the aid of cortical stimulation when compared to

  14. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Methods Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l1l2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. Results We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase

  15. DISTINCT COPY NUMBER ALTERATIONS AND INCIDENCE OF CHROMOTHRIPSIS ASSOCIATED WITH GRADE AND PROGNOSIS IN IDH MUTANT AND WILD-TYPE GLIOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Howard; Cohen, Adam; Aldape, Ken; Sato, Mariko; Mason, Clint; Diefes, Kristin; Heathcock, Lindsey; Abegglen, Lisa; Shrieve, Dennis; Couldwell, William; Schiffman, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both IDH mutated (IDHmut) and wild-type (IDHwt) lower grade gliomas can progress to GBM. However, a detailed study of alterations associated with progression of these molecularly distinct tumor types has not been described. Here we perform an analysis of copy number alterations (CNA) across all grades (Grade II-II and Grade IV) IDHmut vs IDHwt infiltrating gliomas. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 94 patient FFPE glioma samples from 4 clinical and molecular groups: Grade II-III IDHwt (n = 17), Grade II-III IDHmut (n = 28), Grade IV IDHwt (n = 25), and Grade IV IDHmut (n = 24). CNA were detected by molecular inversion probes (OncoScan FFPE Express, Affymetrix) and analyzed with Nexus Copy Number Software (BioDiscovery). GISTIC was used to define deletions and amplifications. Chromothripsis (“chromosomal shattering”) was defined using stringent criteria of at least ten switches of CNA in individual chromosomes. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering of CNAs demonstrated distinct clusters within IDHmut gliomas that correlated with grade. However, within IDHwt gliomas all grades clustered together regardless of grade, with Chr7 amplification (including EGFR) and loss of Chr10 (including PTEN) seen in most tumors. IDHwt Grade II-III and Grade IV tumors both displayed relatively poor prognosis (median survivals of 65.4 and 37.4 weeks). However, IDHmut gliomas had better survival for all grades (604.3 weeks for Grade II-III and 270.3 weeks for Grade IV). Grade IV IDHmut gliomas were more likely to have gains of 1q25.3 (SMG7, NCF2), 1q32.1 (KIF14, DDX59, BTG2), 6p21.1 (HSP90AB1 and other genes) and loss of 3p21 compared with Grade II-III. Functional analyses showed that IDHwt tumors had more amplifications in receptor tyrosine kinases and their downstream pathways. In terms of novel prognostic markers within IDHmut Grade II-III tumors, multivariate analysis identified loss of estrogen receptor B and loss of 10q26.3 containing part of GLRX3 as poor prognostic

  16. Early change in glucose metabolic rate measured using FDG-PET in patients with high-grade glioma predicts response to temozolomide but not temozolomide plus radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Charnley, Natalie; West, Catharine M; Barnett, Carolyn M; Brock, Catherine; Bydder, Graeme M; Glaser, Mark; Newlands, Ed S; Swindell, Ric; Matthews, Julian; Price, Pat

    2006-10-01

    To compare the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) to predict response to temozolomide vs. temozolomide plus radiotherapy. Nineteen patients with high-grade glioma (HGG) were studied. Patients with recurrent glioma received temozolomide 75 mg/m2 daily for 7 weeks (n=8). Newly diagnosed patients received temozolomide 75 mg/m2 daily plus radiotherapy 60 Gy/30 fractions over 6 weeks, followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide 200 mg/m2/day (Days 1-5 q28) starting 1 month after radiotherapy (n=11). [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at baseline, and 7 and 19 weeks after initiation of temozolomide administration. Changes in glucose metabolic rate (MRGlu) and MRI response were correlated with patient survival. In the temozolomide-alone group, patients who survived>26 vs. or=25%, survived longer than nonresponders with mean survival times of 75 weeks (95% CI, 34-115 vs. 20 weeks (95% CI, 14-26) (p=0.0067). In the small group of patients studied, there was no relationship between MRI response and survival (p=0.52). For patients receiving temozolomide plus radiotherapy, there was no difference in survival between PET responders and nonresponders (p=0.32). Early changes in MRGlu predict response to temozolomide, but not temozolomide plus radiotherapy.

  17. BAFF, APRIL, TWEAK, BCMA, TACI and Fn14 proteins are related to human glioma tumor grade: immunohistochemistry and public microarray data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pelekanou, Vassiliki; Notas, George; Kampa, Marilena; Tsentelierou, Eleftheria; Stathopoulos, Efstathios N; Tsapis, Andreas; Castanas, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are common and lethal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Genetic alterations, inflammatory and angiogenic processes have been identified throughout tumor progression; however, treatment still remains palliative for most cases. Biological research on parameters influencing cell survival, invasion and tumor heterogeneity identified several cytokines interfering in CNS inflammation, oxidative stress and malignant transformation, including TNF-superfamily (TNFSF) members. In this report we performed a meta-analysis of public gene-array data on the expression of a group of TNFSF ligands (BAFF, APRIL, TWEAK) and their receptors (BAFF-R, TACI, BCMA, Fn14) in gliomas. In addition, we investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) the tumor cells' expression of these ligands and receptors in a series of 56 gliomas of different grade. We show that in IHC, BAFF and APRIL as well as their cognate receptors (BCMA, TACI) and Fn14 expression correlate with tumor grade. This result was not evidenced in micro-arrays meta-analysis. Finally, we detected for the first time Fn14, BAFF, BCMA and TACI in glioma-related vascular endothelium. Our data, combined with our previous report in glioma cell lines, suggest a role for these receptors and ligands in glioma biology and advance these molecules as potential markers for the classification of these tumors to the proliferative, angiogenic or stem-like molecular subtype.

  18. Immune Suppression during Oncolytic Virotherapy for High-Grade Glioma; Yes or No?

    PubMed

    Koks, Carolien A E; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Graf, Norbert; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses have been seriously considered for glioma therapy over the last 20 years. The oncolytic activity of several oncolytic strains has been demonstrated against human glioma cell lines and in in vivo xenotransplant models. So far, four of these stains have additionally completed the first phase I/II trials in relapsed glioma patients. Though safety and feasibility have been demonstrated, therapeutic efficacy in these initial trials, when described, was only minor. The role of the immune system in oncolytic virotherapy for glioma remained much less studied until recent years. When investigated, the immune system, adept at controlling viral infections, is often hypothesized to be a strong hurdle to successful oncolytic virotherapy. Several preclinical studies have therefore aimed to improve oncolytic virotherapy efficacy by combining it with immune suppression or evasion strategies. More recently however, a new paradigm has developed in the oncolytic virotherapy field stating that oncolytic virus-mediated tumor cell death can be accompanied by elicitation of potent activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity that greatly improves the efficacy of certain oncolytic strains. Therefore, it seems the three-way interaction between oncolytic virus, tumor and immune system is critical to the outcome of antitumor therapy. In this review we discuss the studies which have investigated how the immune system and oncolytic viruses interact in models of glioma. The novel insights generated here hold important implications for future research and should be incorporated into the design of novel clinical trials.

  19. Amino acid positron emission tomography to monitor chemotherapy response and predict seizure control and progression-free survival in WHO grade II gliomas.

    PubMed

    Roelcke, Ulrich; Wyss, Matthias T; Nowosielski, Martha; Rudà, Roberta; Roth, Patrick; Hofer, Silvia; Galldiks, Norbert; Crippa, Flavio; Weller, Michael; Soffietti, Riccardo

    2016-05-01

    Patients with WHO grade II glioma may respond to chemotherapy that is currently not standardized regarding timing and treatment duration. Metabolic changes during chemotherapy may precede structural tumor volume reductions. We therefore compared time courses of amino acid PET and MRI responses to temozolomide (TMZ) and assessed whether responses correlated with seizure control and progression-free survival (PFS). PET and MRI were performed before and during TMZ chemotherapy. Tumor volumes were calculated using regions-of-interest analysis. Amino acid uptake was also quantified as metabolically active tumor volume and tumor-to-cerebellum uptake ratio. One hundred twenty-five PET and 125 MRI scans from 33 patients were analyzed. Twenty-five patients showed metabolic responses that exhibited an exponential time course with a 25% reduction of the active volume on average after 2.3 months. MRI responses followed a linear course with a 25% reduction after 16.8 months. Reduction of metabolically active tumor volumes, but not reduction of PET uptake ratios or MRI tumor volumes, correlated with improved seizure control following chemotherapy (P = .012). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that a decrease of the active tumor volume of ≥80.5% predicts a PFS of ≥60 months (P = .018) and a decrease of ≥64.5% a PFS of ≥48 months (P = .037). Amino acid PET is superior to MRI for evaluating TMZ responses in WHO grade II glioma patients. The response delay between both imaging modalities favors amino acid PET for individually tailoring the duration of chemotherapy. Additional studies should investigate whether this personalized approach is appropriate with regard to outcome. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Amino acid positron emission tomography to monitor chemotherapy response and predict seizure control and progression-free survival in WHO grade II gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Roelcke, Ulrich; Wyss, Matthias T.; Nowosielski, Martha; Rudà, Roberta; Roth, Patrick; Hofer, Silvia; Galldiks, Norbert; Crippa, Flavio; Weller, Michael; Soffietti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with WHO grade II glioma may respond to chemotherapy that is currently not standardized regarding timing and treatment duration. Metabolic changes during chemotherapy may precede structural tumor volume reductions. We therefore compared time courses of amino acid PET and MRI responses to temozolomide (TMZ) and assessed whether responses correlated with seizure control and progression-free survival (PFS). Methods PET and MRI were performed before and during TMZ chemotherapy. Tumor volumes were calculated using regions-of-interest analysis. Amino acid uptake was also quantified as metabolically active tumor volume and tumor-to-cerebellum uptake ratio. Results One hundred twenty-five PET and 125 MRI scans from 33 patients were analyzed. Twenty-five patients showed metabolic responses that exhibited an exponential time course with a 25% reduction of the active volume on average after 2.3 months. MRI responses followed a linear course with a 25% reduction after 16.8 months. Reduction of metabolically active tumor volumes, but not reduction of PET uptake ratios or MRI tumor volumes, correlated with improved seizure control following chemotherapy (P = .012). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that a decrease of the active tumor volume of ≥80.5% predicts a PFS of ≥60 months (P = .018) and a decrease of ≥64.5% a PFS of ≥48 months (P = .037). Conclusions Amino acid PET is superior to MRI for evaluating TMZ responses in WHO grade II glioma patients. The response delay between both imaging modalities favors amino acid PET for individually tailoring the duration of chemotherapy. Additional studies should investigate whether this personalized approach is appropriate with regard to outcome. PMID:26578622

  1. Evaluating changes in tumor volume using magnetic resonance imaging during the course of radiotherapy treatment of high-grade gliomas: Implications for conformal dose-escalation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tsien, Christina . E-mail: ctsien@umich.edu; Gomez-Hassan, Diana; Haken, Randall K. ten; Tatro, Daniel C.; Junck, L.; Chenevert, T.L.; Lawrence, T.

    2005-06-01

    Objective: To determine whether changes in tumor volume occur during the course of conformal 3D radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during treatment and whether these changes had an impact on tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: Between December 2000 and January 2004, 21 patients with WHO Grades 3 to 4 supratentorial malignant gliomas treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy (median dose, 70 Gy) were enrolled in a prospective clinical study. All patients underwent T1-weighted contrast-enhancing and T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at approximately 1 to 2 weeks before radiotherapy, during radiotherapy (Weeks 1 and 3), and at routine intervals thereafter. All MRI scans were coregistered to the treatment-planning CT. Gross tumor volume (GTV Pre-Rx) was defined from a postoperative T1-weighted contrast-enhancing MRI performed 1 to 2 weeks before start of radiotherapy. A second GTV (GTV Week 3) was defined by use of an MRI performed during Week 3 of radiotherapy. A uniform 0.5 cm expansion of the respective GTV, PTV (Pre-Rx), and PTV (Week 3) was applied to the final boost plan. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were used to analyze any potential adverse changes in tumor coverage based on Week 3 MRI. Results: All MRI scans were reviewed independently by a neuroradiologist (DGH). Two patients were noted to have multifocal disease at presentation and were excluded from analysis. In 19 cases, changes in the GTV based on MRI at Week 3 during radiotherapy were as follows: 2 cases had an objective decrease in GTV ({>=}50%); 12 cases revealed a slight decrease in the rim enhancement or changes in cystic appearance of the GTV; 2 cases showed no change in GTV; and 3 cases demonstrated an increase in tumor volume. Both cases with objective decreases in GTV during treatment were Grade 3 tumors. No cases of tumor progression were noted in Grade 3 tumors during treatment. In comparison, three of 12 Grade 4

  2. Gross-total resection of temporal low grade gliomas is a critically important factor in achieving seizure-freedom.

    PubMed

    Meguins, Lucas Crociati; Adry, Rodrigo Antônio Rocha da Cruz; Silva Júnior, Sebastião Carlos da; Pereira, Carlos Umberto; Oliveira, Jean Gonçalves de; Morais, Dionei Freitas de; Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria de; Marques, Lúcia Helena Neves

    2015-11-01

    To present a surgical series of patients with low grade temporal gliomas causing intractable epilepsy, focusing on long-term seizure outcome. A retrospective study was conducted with patients with temporal low-grade gliomas (LGG). Sixty five patients with were operated in our institution. Males were more affected than females and the mean age at surgery was 32.3 ± 8.4 (9-68 years). The mean age at seizure onset was 25.7 ± 9.2 (11-66 years). Seizure outcome was classified according with Engel classification. After one year of follow up, forty two patients (64.6%) were Engel I; seventeen (26.2%) Engel II; four (6.2%) Engel III and two (3.1%) Engel IV. Statistically significant difference in seizure outcome was obtained when comparing the extension of resection. Engel I was observed in 39 patients (69.6%) with total resection and in only 3 (33.3%) patients with partial resection. Gross-total resection of temporal LGGs is a critically important factor in achieving seizure-freedom.

  3. Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Alan; Burford, Anna; Carvalho, Diana; Izquierdo, Elisa; Fazal-Salom, Janat; Taylor, Kathryn R; Bjerke, Lynn; Clarke, Matthew; Vinci, Mara; Nandhabalan, Meera; Temelso, Sara; Popov, Sergey; Molinari, Valeria; Raman, Pichai; Waanders, Angela J; Han, Harry J; Gupta, Saumya; Marshall, Lynley; Zacharoulis, Stergios; Vaidya, Sucheta; Mandeville, Henry C; Bridges, Leslie R; Martin, Andrew J; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Chandler, Christopher; Ng, Ho-Keung; Li, Xingang; Mu, Kun; Trabelsi, Saoussen; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben; Kisljakov, Alexei N; Konovalov, Dmitry M; Moore, Andrew S; Carcaboso, Angel Montero; Sunol, Mariona; de Torres, Carmen; Cruz, Ofelia; Mora, Jaume; Shats, Ludmila I; Stavale, João N; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Reis, Rui M; Entz-Werle, Natacha; Farrell, Michael; Cryan, Jane; Crimmins, Darach; Caird, John; Pears, Jane; Monje, Michelle; Debily, Marie-Anne; Castel, David; Grill, Jacques; Hawkins, Cynthia; Nikbakht, Hamid; Jabado, Nada; Baker, Suzanne J; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W; Fouladi, Maryam; von Bueren, André O; Baudis, Michael; Resnick, Adam; Jones, Chris

    2017-09-26

    We collated data from 157 unpublished cases of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and 20 publicly available datasets in an integrated analysis of >1,000 cases. We identified co-segregating mutations in histone-mutant subgroups including loss of FBXW7 in H3.3G34R/V, TOP3A rearrangements in H3.3K27M, and BCOR mutations in H3.1K27M. Histone wild-type subgroups are refined by the presence of key oncogenic events or methylation profiles more closely resembling lower-grade tumors. Genomic aberrations increase with age, highlighting the infant population as biologically and clinically distinct. Uncommon pathway dysregulation is seen in small subsets of tumors, further defining the molecular diversity of the disease, opening up avenues for biological study and providing a basis for functionally defined future treatment stratification. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New concepts in the management of diffuse low-grade glioma: Proposal of a multistage and individualized therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse low-grade glioma grows, migrates along white matter tracts, and progresses to high-grade glioma. Rather than a “wait and see” policy, an aggressive attitude is now recommended, with early surgery as the first therapy. Intraoperative mapping, with maximal resection according to functional boundaries, is associated with a longer overall survival (OS) while minimizing morbidity. However, most studies have investigated the role of only one specific treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) without taking a global view of managing the cumulative time while preserving quality of life (QoL) versus time to anaplastic transformation. Our aim is to switch towards a more holistic concept based upon the anticipation of a personalized and long-term multistage therapeutic approach, with online adaptation of the strategy over the years using feedback from clinical, radiological, and histomolecular monitoring. This dynamic strategy challenges the traditional approach by proposing earlier therapy, by repeating treatments, and by reversing the classical order of therapies (eg, neoadjuvant chemotherapy when maximal resection is impossible, no early radiotherapy) to improve OS and QoL. New individualized management strategies should deal with the interactions between the course of this chronic disease, reaction brain remapping, and oncofunctional modulation elicited by serial treatments. This philosophy supports a personalized, functional, and preventive neuro-oncology. PMID:25087230

  5. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D. . E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  6. New concepts in the management of diffuse low-grade glioma: Proposal of a multistage and individualized therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse low-grade glioma grows, migrates along white matter tracts, and progresses to high-grade glioma. Rather than a "wait and see" policy, an aggressive attitude is now recommended, with early surgery as the first therapy. Intraoperative mapping, with maximal resection according to functional boundaries, is associated with a longer overall survival (OS) while minimizing morbidity. However, most studies have investigated the role of only one specific treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) without taking a global view of managing the cumulative time while preserving quality of life (QoL) versus time to anaplastic transformation. Our aim is to switch towards a more holistic concept based upon the anticipation of a personalized and long-term multistage therapeutic approach, with online adaptation of the strategy over the years using feedback from clinical, radiological, and histomolecular monitoring. This dynamic strategy challenges the traditional approach by proposing earlier therapy, by repeating treatments, and by reversing the classical order of therapies (eg, neoadjuvant chemotherapy when maximal resection is impossible, no early radiotherapy) to improve OS and QoL. New individualized management strategies should deal with the interactions between the course of this chronic disease, reaction brain remapping, and oncofunctional modulation elicited by serial treatments. This philosophy supports a personalized, functional, and preventive neuro-oncology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laack, Nadia N; Brown, Paul D; Ivnik, Robert J; Furth, Alfred F; Ballman, Karla V; Hammack, Julie E; Arusell, Robert M; Shaw, Edward G; Buckner, Jan C

    2005-11-15

    To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  8. In vivo assessment of high-grade glioma biochemistry using microdialysis: a study of energy-related molecules, growth factors and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Carpenter, Keri L H; Price, Stephen J; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Microdialysis enables measurement of the chemistry of the cerebral extracellular fluid. This study's objective was to utilise microdialysis to monitor levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate and glycerol in patients following surgery for intrinsic brain tumours, and to assess the concentration of growth factors, cytokines and other proteins involved in the pathogenesis of high-grade gliomas in vivo. Eight patients with suspected high-grade gliomas were studied. Seven of these underwent resection with one microdialysis catheter placed at the tumour resection margin and, in six of these seven cases, a second microdialysis catheter in macroscopically normal peritumour tissue. The remaining glioma patient had an image-guided biopsy with a single catheter inserted stereotactically at the tumour margin. Histology demonstrated WHO IV glioblastoma in five cases, WHO III anaplastic astrocytoma in two cases, and one cerebral lymphoma. In the high-grade gliomas (WHO IV and III), tumour margin microdialysates consistently showed significantly lower glucose, higher lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio, higher glutamate and higher glycerol, relative to peritumour microdialysates (P < 0.05). These results indicate that malignant glioma margin tissue is metabolically extremely active. There was great variability in the microdialysate concentrations of growth factors (TGFalpha, EGF, VEGF), cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2). Notably, microdialysates from the glioma resection margin demonstrated significantly higher IL-8 concentration and higher MMP-2/TIMP-1 ratio when compared to peritumour microdialysates (P < 0.05), suggesting an environment favouring invasion and angiogenesis at the tumour margin. Microdialysis is a promising technique to study in vivo glioma metabolism, and may assist in the development of new therapies.

  9. Association between small heat shock protein B11 and the prognostic value of MGMT promoter methylation in patients with high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen; Li, Mingyang; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Chuanbao; Cai, Jinquan; Wang, Kuanyu; Wu, Anhua

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT This study investigated the role and prognostic value of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in glioma. METHODS Data from 3 large databases of glioma samples (Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data, and GSE16011), which contained whole-genome messenger RNA microarray expression data and patients' clinical data, were analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to validate protein expression in another set of 50 glioma specimens. RESULTS Of 28 HSPs, 11 were overexpressed in high-grade glioma (HGG) compared with low-grade glioma. A univariate Cox analysis revealed that HSPB11 has significant prognostic value for each glioma grade, which was validated by a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. HSPB11 expression was associated with poor prognosis and was independently correlated with overall survival (OS) in HGG. This study further explored the combined role of HSPB11 and other molecular markers in HGG, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. HSPB11 expression was able to refine the prognostic value of IDH1 mutation in patients with HGG. However, when combined with MGMT promoter methylation status, among patients with a methylated MGMT promoter, those with lower levels of HSPB11 expression had longer OS and progression-free survival than patients with higher levels of HSPB11 expression or with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Moreover, within the MGMT promoter methylation group, patients with low levels of HSPB11 expression were more sensitive to combined radiochemotherapy than those with high levels of HSPB11 expression, which may explain why some patients with HGG with a methylated MGMT promoter show tolerance to radiochemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS HSPB11 was identified as a novel prognostic marker in patients with HGG. Together with MGMT promoter methylation status, HSPB11 expression can predict outcome for patients with HGG and identify those who

  10. [Expression and significance of ABCG2 in human malignant glioma].

    PubMed

    Chu, Liang; Huang, Qiang; Zhai, De-Zhong; Zhu, Qing; Huo, Hong-Mei; Dong, Jun; Qian, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Ai-Dong; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yi-Lu

    2007-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCG2 is a marker derived from hematopoietic stem cells. However, its role in tumorigenesis and malignant progression of glioma is unclear. This study was to investigate the expression and significance of ABCG2 in gliomas of different malignant grades. A microarray chip containing glioma tissues of different malignant grades, implanted glioma xenografts in nude mice, spheroids of glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells was prepared and examined for the expression of ABCG2 with immunohistochemical staining. The positive rate of ABCG2 was 26.8% in the 71 specimens of human glioma tissues, with 11.1% in grade I gliomas, 8% in grade II gliomas, 43.5% in grade III gliomas, and 42.9% in grade IV gliomas; it was significantly higher in grade III-IV gliomas than in grade I-II gliomas (chi2=10.710, P=0.001). The positive rate of ABCG2 was 100% in implanted glioma xenografts in nude mice, gliomas stem cells, and neural stem cells. It was also expressed in some normal tissues. The positive cells surrounded and invaded into vessels in glioma tissues. ABCG2 is overexpressed in glioma stem cells, glioma tissues of higher grades, and implanted glioma xenografts. The positive cells distribute around vessels in glioma tissues.

  11. Experimental use of photodynamic therapy in high grade gliomas: a review focused on 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Tetard, Marie-Charlotte; Vermandel, Maximilien; Mordon, Serge; Lejeune, Jean-Paul; Reyns, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of a laser light exposure of tumor cells photosensitized by general or local administration of a pharmacological agent. Nowadays, PDT is a clinically established modality for treatment of many cancers. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has proven its rational in fluoro-guided resection of malignant gliomas due to a selective tumor uptake and minimal skin sensitization. Moreover, the relatively specific accumulation of photosensitizing PPIX within the tumor cells has gained interest in the PDT of malignant gliomas. Several experimental and clinical studies have then established ALA-PDT as a valuable adjuvant therapy in the management of malignant gliomas. However, the procedure still requires optimizations in the fields of tissue oxygenation status, photosensitizer concentration or scheme of laser light illumination. In this extensive review, we focused on the methods and results of ALA-PDT for treating malignant gliomas in experimental conditions. The biological mechanisms, the effects on tumor and normal brain tissue, and finally the critical issues to optimize the efficacy of ALA-PDT were discussed.

  12. Early versus delayed postoperative radiotherapy for treatment of low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, J Manuel; Venteicher, Andrew S; Patil, Chirag G

    2015-01-01

    Background In most people with low-grade gliomas (LGG), the primary treatment regimen remains a combination of surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy. However, the optimal timing of radiotherapy is controversial. It is unclear whether to use radiotherapy in the early postoperative period, or whether radiotherapy should be delayed until tumour progression occurs. Objectives To assess the effects of early postoperative radiotherapy versus radiotherapy delayed until tumour progression for low-grade intracranial gliomas in people who had initial biopsy or surgical resection. Search methods We searched up to September 2014 the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8, 2014), MEDLINE (1948 to Aug week 3, 2014), and EMBASE (1980 to Aug week 3, 2014) to identify trials for inclusion in this Cochrane review. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared early versus delayed radiotherapy following biopsy or surgical resection for the treatment of people with newly diagnosed intracranial LGG (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, astroblastoma, xanthoastrocytoma, or ganglioglioma). Radiotherapy may include conformal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with linear accelerator or cobalt-60 sources, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and risk of bias, and extracted study data. We resolved any differences between review authors by discussion. Adverse effects were also extracted from the study report. We performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model with inverse variance weighting. Main results We included one large, multi-institutional, prospective RCT, involving 311 participants; the risk of bias in this study was unclear. This study found that early postoperative radiotherapy is associated with an increase in time to

  13. Local injection of the 90Y-labelled peptidic vector DOTATOC to control gliomas of WHO grades II and III: an extended pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, T; Hofer, S; Eichhorn, K; Wasner, M; Zimmerer, S; Freitag, P; Probst, A; Gratzl, O; Reubi, J-C; Maecke, R; Mueller-Brand, J; Merlo, A

    2002-04-01

    We have previously presented preliminary observations on targeting somatostatin receptor-positive malignant gliomas of all grades by local injection of the radiolabelled peptidic vector 90Y-DOTATOC. We now report on our more thorough clinical experience with this novel compound, focussing on low-grade and anaplastic gliomas. Small peptidic vectors have the potential to target invisible infiltrative disease within normal surrounding brain tissue, thereby opening a window of opportunity for early intervention. Five progressive gliomas of WHO grades II and III and five extensively debulked low-grade gliomas were treated with varying fractions of 90Y-DOTATOC. The vectors were locally injected into the resection cavity or into solid tumour. The activity per single injection ranged from 555 to 1,875 MBq, and the cumulative activity from 555 to 7,030 MBq, according to tumour volumes and eloquence of the affected brain area, yielding dose estimates from 76+/-15 to 312+/-62 Gy. Response was assessed by the clinical status, by steroid dependence and, every 4-6 months, by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. In the five progressive gliomas, lasting responses were obtained for at least 13-45 months without the need for steroids. Radiopeptide brachytherapy had been the only modality applied to counter tumour progression. Interestingly, we observed the slow transformation of a solid, primarily inoperable anaplastic astrocytoma into a resectable multi-cystic lesion 2 years after radiopeptide brachytherapy. Based on these observations, we also assessed the feasibility of local radiotherapy following extensive debulking, which was well tolerated. Targeted beta-particle irradiation based on diffusible small peptidic vectors appears to be a promising modality for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  14. Viability screen on pediatric low grade glioma cell lines unveils a novel anti-cancer drug of the steroid biosynthesis inhibitor family.

    PubMed

    Ajeawung, Norbert Fonya; Maltais, René; Jones, Chris; Poirier, Donald; Kamnasaran, Deepak

    2013-03-01

    Pediatric low grade gliomas are the most common central nervous system tumors and are still incurable among a subset of patients despite current treatment modalities. Steroid biosynthesis occurs in a wide variety of organs including the brain, to mediate an assortment of functions, including a proposed role in the growth of gliomas. Hence, targeting steroid biosynthesis and/or their signaling pathways, is anticipated as an effective approach for treating gliomas. In this study, we investigated whether our chemical library of steroid inhibitors can modulate the growth of pediatric low grade glioma cell lines (Res186, Res259, R286), and subsequently identified a potent inhibitor of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3, referred to as DK16, which functions by attenuating cell viability, proliferation, migration/invasion and anchorage independent growth and conversely induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose and duration dependent manner. Further investigations into the mechanisms of how DK16 functions showed that this drug increased the BAX/BCL2 expression ratio, induced phosphatidylserine externalization, and mitochondrial membrane depolarizations culminating to the release and nuclear translocation of AIF. In addition, treatments of low grade glioma cell lines with DK16 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic mediators including CDK2 and CTSL1, and with the converse diminished expression of pro-survival and migratory/invasion genes like PRKCA, TERT, MAPK8, MMP1 and MMP2. Our findings collectively demonstrate the potent anti-neoplastic properties of DK16, a steroid biosynthesis inhibitor, on the growth of pediatric low grade gliomas.

  15. Improving contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX for high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoneda, Tetsuya; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Shimajiri, Shohei; Tanaka, Tohru; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent is the gold standard for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The compound 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) undergoes a high rate of cellular uptake, particularly in cancer cells. In addition, fluorescence-guided resection with 5-ALA is widely used for imaging HGGs. 5-ALA is water soluble, while protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is water insoluble. It was speculated whether converting from 5-ALA to PpIX may relatively increase intracellular water content, and consequently, might enhance the T2 signal intensity in HGG. The aim of the present study was to assess whether 5-ALA-induced PpIX enhances the T2 signal intensity in patients with HGGs. A total of 4 patients who were candidates for HGG surgical treatment were prospectively analyzed with preoperative MRI. Patients received oral doses of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg) 3 h prior to anesthesia. At 2.5 h post-5-ALA administration, T2-weighted images (T2WIs) were obtained from all patients. Subsequently, tumors were evaluated via fluorescence using a modified operating microscope. Fluorescent tumor tissues were obtained to analyze the accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX within the tumors, which was confirmed quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The MRI T2 signal intensity within the tumors was evaluated prior to and following 5-ALA administration. Three glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were included in the analysis. Intraoperatively, all GBMs exhibited strong fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced PpIX, whilst no fluorescence was observed in the AO sample. HPLC analysis indicated a higher accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX in the GBM samples compared with the AO sample. In total, 48 regions of interest were identified within the tumors from T2-WIs. In the GBM group, the relative T2 signal intensity value within the tumors following 5-ALA administration was significantly increased compared with the T2 signal

  16. Phase II Trial of Radiotherapy After Hyperbaric Oxygenation With Multiagent Chemotherapy (Procarbazine, Nimustine, and Vincristine) for High-Grade Gliomas: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Inoue, Osamu; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Saito, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Iraha, Shiro; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed high-grade gliomas were administered radiotherapy in daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days per week up to a total dose of 60 Gy. Each fraction was administered immediately after HBO, with the time interval from completion of decompression to start of irradiation being less than 15 minutes. Chemotherapy consisting of procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine and was administered during and after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 57 patients (39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled from 2000 to 2006, and the median follow-up of 12 surviving patients was 62.0 months (range, 43.2-119.1 months). All 57 patients were able to complete a total radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy immediately after HBO with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. The median overall survival times in all 57 patients, 39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas, were 20.2 months, 17.2 months, and 113.4 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade alone was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p < 0.001). During treatments, no patients had neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage, and no serious nonhematologic or late toxicities were seen in any of the 57 patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy delivered immediately after HBO with multiagent chemotherapy was safe, with virtually no late toxicities, and seemed to be effective in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  17. Phase II trial of radiotherapy after hyperbaric oxygenation with multiagent chemotherapy (procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine) for high-grade gliomas: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Inoue, Osamu; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Saito, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Iraha, Shiro; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas. Patients with histologically confirmed high-grade gliomas were administered radiotherapy in daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days per week up to a total dose of 60 Gy. Each fraction was administered immediately after HBO, with the time interval from completion of decompression to start of irradiation being less than 15 minutes. Chemotherapy consisting of procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine and was administered during and after radiotherapy. A total of 57 patients (39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled from 2000 to 2006, and the median follow-up of 12 surviving patients was 62.0 months (range, 43.2-119.1 months). All 57 patients were able to complete a total radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy immediately after HBO with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. The median overall survival times in all 57 patients, 39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas, were 20.2 months, 17.2 months, and 113.4 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade alone was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p < 0.001). During treatments, no patients had neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage, and no serious nonhematologic or late toxicities were seen in any of the 57 patients. Radiotherapy delivered immediately after HBO with multiagent chemotherapy was safe, with virtually no late toxicities, and seemed to be effective in patients with high-grade gliomas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F.; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  19. Evaluation of non-supervised MALDI mass spectrometry imaging combined with microproteomics for glioma grade III classification.

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, Emilie; Duhamel, Marie; Wisztorski, Maxence; Gimeno, Jean-Pascal; Zairi, Fahed; Escande, Fabienne; Reyns, Nicolas; Kobeissy, Firas; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Salzet, Michel; Fournier, Isabelle

    2016-11-24

    An integrated diagnosis using molecular features is recommended in the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Our aim was to explore non-targeted molecular classification using MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) associated to microproteomics in order to classify anaplastic glioma by integration of clinical data. We used fresh-frozen tissue sections to perform MALDI MSI of proteins based on their digestion peptides after in-situ trypsin digestion of the tissue sections and matrix deposition by micro-spraying. The generated 70μm spatial resolution image datasets were further processed by individual or global segmentation in order to cluster the tissues according to their molecular protein signature. The clustering gives 3 main distinct groups. Within the tissues the ROIs (regions of interest) defined by these groups were used for microproteomics by micro-extraction of the tryptic peptides after on-tissue enzymatic digestion. More than 2500 proteins including 22 alternative proteins (AltProt) are identified by the Shotgun microproteomics. Statistical analysis on the basis of the label free quantification of the proteins shows a similar classification to the MALDI MSI segmentation into 3 groups. Functional analysis performed on each group reveals sub-networks related to neoplasia for group 1, glioma with inflammation for group 2 and neurogenesis for group 3. This demonstrates the interest on these new non-targeted large molecular data combining both MALDI MSI and microproteomics data, for tumor classification. This analysis provides new insights into grade III glioma organization. This specific information could allow a more accurate classification of the biopsies according to the prognosis and the identification of potential new targeted therapeutic options. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann.

  20. A systematic pipeline for the objective comparison of whole-brain spectroscopic MRI with histology in biopsy specimens from grade III glioma.

    PubMed

    Cordova, J Scott; Gurbani, Saumya S; Olson, Jeffrey J; Liang, Zhongxing; Cooper, Lee A D; Shu, Hui-Kuo G; Schreibmann, Eduard; Neill, Stewart G; Hadjipanayis, Constantinos G; Holder, Chad A; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis, prognosis, and management of patients with gliomas are largely dictated by the pathological analysis of tissue biopsied from a selected region within the lesion. However, due to the heterogeneous and infiltrative nature of gliomas, identifying the optimal region for biopsy with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be quite difficult. This is especially true for low grade gliomas, which often are non-enhancing tumors. To improve the management of patients with these tumors, the field of neuro-oncology requires an imaging modality that can specifically identify a tumor's most anaplastic/aggressive region(s) for biopsy targeting. The addition of metabolic mapping using spectroscopic MRI (sMRI) to supplement conventional MRI could improve biopsy targeting and, ultimately, diagnostic accuracy. Here, we describe a pipeline for the integration of state-of-the-art, high-resolution whole-brain 3D sMRI maps into a stereotactic neuronavigation system for guiding biopsies in gliomas with nonenhancing components. We also outline a machine-learning method for automated histology analysis that generates normalized, quantitative metrics describing tumor infiltration in immunohistochemically-stained tissue specimens. As a proof of concept, we describe the combination of these two techniques in a small cohort of grade III glioma patients. In this work, we aim to set forth a systematic pipeline to stimulate histopathology-image validation of advanced MRI techniques, such as sMRI.

  1. A systematic pipeline for the objective comparison of whole-brain spectroscopic MRI with histology in biopsy specimens from grade III glioma

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, J. Scott; Gurbani, Saumya S.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Liang, Zhongxing; Cooper, Lee A. D.; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Schreibmann, Eduard; Neill, Stewart G.; Hadjipanayis, Constantinos G.; Holder, Chad A.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis, prognosis, and management of patients with gliomas are largely dictated by the pathological analysis of tissue biopsied from a selected region within the lesion. However, due to the heterogeneous and infiltrative nature of gliomas, identifying the optimal region for biopsy with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be quite difficult. This is especially true for low grade gliomas, which often are non-enhancing tumors. To improve the management of patients with these tumors, the field of neuro-oncology requires an imaging modality that can specifically identify a tumor’s most anaplastic/aggressive region(s) for biopsy targeting. The addition of metabolic mapping using spectroscopic MRI (sMRI) to supplement conventional MRI could improve biopsy targeting and, ultimately, diagnostic accuracy. Here, we describe a pipeline for the integration of state-of-the-art, high-resolution whole-brain 3D sMRI maps into a stereotactic neuronavigation system for guiding biopsies in gliomas with nonenhancing components. We also outline a machine-learning method for automated histology analysis that generates normalized, quantitative metrics describing tumor infiltration in immunohistochemically-stained tissue specimens. As a proof of concept, we describe the combination of these two techniques in a small cohort of grade III glioma patients. In this work, we aim to set forth a systematic pipeline to stimulate histopathology-image validation of advanced MRI techniques, such as sMRI. PMID:27489883

  2. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy plus bevacizumab after response to bevacizumab plus irinotecan as a rescue treatment for high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Moreno, Antonio José; García-Gómez, Raquel; Albert-Antequera, María; Almendros-Blanco, Piedad; De Las Peñas-Bataller, Ramón; González-Vidal, Verónica; López-Torrecilla, José Luis; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the possibility of implementing a new scheme of rescue treatment after relapse or progression of high-grade glioma (HGG) treated at the first-line with bevacizumab and irinotecan (BVZ+CPT11), evaluating the response and toxicity of associating BVZ and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (BVZ+FSRT). Materials and methods We retrospectively analysed data from 59 patients with relapse of HGG. Nine patients with HGG relapse after treatment using the Stupp protocol that were treated with BVZ+CPT11 for progression between July 2007 and August 2012, after which the response was assessed according to the Revised Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. BVZ was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg and FSRT up to a prescribed dose of 30 Gy, 500 cGy per fraction, three days a week. The median follow-up was 38 months. Results The treatment was well-tolerated by all patients. The response after nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3–6 months was progression in two patients, stable disease in four, and three patients had a partial response. The median overall survival (OS) from diagnosis until death or the last control was 36.8 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.8 months. The results from tumour sub-group analysis indicated that the PFS was not statistically significant although it seemed that it was higher in grade-III. The OS was higher in grade-III gliomas. Conclusions The combination of BVZ+FSRT as a second-line HGG relapse rescue treatment is well-tolerated and seems to offer promising results. We believe that multi-centre prospective studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy and toxicity of this therapeutic approach. PMID:25949228

  3. Intensity modulated radiation therapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for the treatment of high grade glioma: a dosimetric comparison.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon M; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Kachris, Stefanos; Vogds, Betty J; DeRouen, Melissa; Gittleman, Alicia E; DeWyngaert, Keith; Vlachaki, Maria T

    2007-04-19

    The present study compared the dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) techniques in patients treated for high-grade glioma. A total of 20 patients underwent computed tomography treatment planning in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging fusion. Prescription dose and normal-tissue constraints were identical for the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. The prescribed dose was 59.4 Gy delivered at 1.8 Gy per fraction using 4-10 MV photons. Normal-tissue dose constraints were 50-54 Gy for the optic chiasm and nerves, and 55-60 Gy for the brainstem. The IMRT plan yielded superior target coverage as compared with the 3D-CRT plan. Specifically, minimum and mean planning target volume cone down doses were 54.52 Gy and 61.74 Gy for IMRT and 50.56 Gy and 60.06 Gy for 3D-CRT (p < or = 0.01). The IMRT plan reduced the percent volume of brainstem receiving a dose greater than 45 Gy by 31% (p = 0.004) and the percent volume of brain receiving a dose greater than 18 Gy, 24 Gy, and 45 Gy by 10% (p = 0.059), 14% (p = 0.015), and 40% (p < or = 0.0001) respectively. With IMRT, the percent volume of optic chiasm receiving more than 45 Gy was also reduced by 30.40% (p = 0.047). As compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT significantly increased the tumor control probability (p < or = 0.005) and lowered the normal-tissue complication probability for brain and brainstem (p < 0.033). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy improved target coverage and reduced radiation dose to the brain, brainstem, and optic chiasm. With the availability of new cancer imaging tools and more effective systemic agents, IMRT may be used to intensify tumor doses while minimizing toxicity, therefore potentially improving outcomes in patients with high-grade glioma.

  4. Expression of lncRNAs in Low-Grade Gliomas and Glioblastoma Multiforme: An In Silico Analysis.

    PubMed

    Reon, Brian J; Anaya, Jordan; Zhang, Ying; Mandell, James; Purow, Benjamin; Abounader, Roger; Dutta, Anindya

    2016-12-01

    Each year, over 16,000 patients die from malignant brain cancer in the US. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating neurogenesis and brain tumor progression. To better understand the role of lncRNAs in brain cancer, we performed a global analysis to identify and characterize all annotated and novel lncRNAs in both grade II and III gliomas as well as grade IV glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]). We determined the expression of all lncRNAs in over 650 brain cancer and 70 normal brain tissue RNA sequencing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other publicly available datasets. We identified 611 induced and 677 repressed lncRNAs in glial tumors relative to normal brains. Hundreds of lncRNAs were specifically expressed in each of the three lower grade glioma (LGG) subtypes (IDH1/2 wt, IDH1/2 mut, and IDH1/2 mut 1p19q codeletion) and the four subtypes of GBMs (classical, mesenchymal, neural, and proneural). Overlap between the subtype-specific lncRNAs in GBMs and LGGs demonstrated similarities between mesenchymal GBMs and IDH1/2 wt LGGs, with 2-fold higher overlap than would be expected by random chance. Using a multivariate Cox regression survival model, we identified 584 and 282 lncRNAs that were associated with a poor and good prognosis, respectively, in GBM patients. We developed a survival algorithm for LGGs based on the expression of 64 lncRNAs that was associated with patient prognosis in a test set (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.168, 95% CI = 1.765-2.807, p < 0.001) and validation set (HR = 1.921, 95% CI = 1.333-2.767, p < 0.001) of patients from TCGA. The main limitations of this study are that further work is needed to investigate the clinical relevance of our findings, and that validation in an independent dataset is needed to determine the robustness of our survival algorithm. This work identifies a panel of lncRNAs that appear to be prognostic in gliomas and provides a critical resource for

  5. Expression of lncRNAs in Low-Grade Gliomas and Glioblastoma Multiforme: An In Silico Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reon, Brian J.; Anaya, Jordan; Zhang, Ying; Abounader, Roger; Dutta, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Background Each year, over 16,000 patients die from malignant brain cancer in the US. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating neurogenesis and brain tumor progression. To better understand the role of lncRNAs in brain cancer, we performed a global analysis to identify and characterize all annotated and novel lncRNAs in both grade II and III gliomas as well as grade IV glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]). Methods and Findings We determined the expression of all lncRNAs in over 650 brain cancer and 70 normal brain tissue RNA sequencing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other publicly available datasets. We identified 611 induced and 677 repressed lncRNAs in glial tumors relative to normal brains. Hundreds of lncRNAs were specifically expressed in each of the three lower grade glioma (LGG) subtypes (IDH1/2 wt, IDH1/2 mut, and IDH1/2 mut 1p19q codeletion) and the four subtypes of GBMs (classical, mesenchymal, neural, and proneural). Overlap between the subtype-specific lncRNAs in GBMs and LGGs demonstrated similarities between mesenchymal GBMs and IDH1/2 wt LGGs, with 2-fold higher overlap than would be expected by random chance. Using a multivariate Cox regression survival model, we identified 584 and 282 lncRNAs that were associated with a poor and good prognosis, respectively, in GBM patients. We developed a survival algorithm for LGGs based on the expression of 64 lncRNAs that was associated with patient prognosis in a test set (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.168, 95% CI = 1.765–2.807, p < 0.001) and validation set (HR = 1.921, 95% CI = 1.333–2.767, p < 0.001) of patients from TCGA. The main limitations of this study are that further work is needed to investigate the clinical relevance of our findings, and that validation in an independent dataset is needed to determine the robustness of our survival algorithm. Conclusions This work identifies a panel of lncRNAs that appear to be prognostic in

  6. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1

    PubMed Central

    Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R.; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2016-01-01

    Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) “stem-like” cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance. PMID:27213425

  7. Extracellular Vesicles from High-Grade Glioma Exchange Diverse Pro-oncogenic Signals That Maintain Intratumoral Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Franz; Mineo, Marco; Rooj, Arun K; Nakano, Ichiro; Charest, Al; Weissleder, Ralph; Breakefield, Xandra O; Chiocca, E Antonio; Godlewski, Jakub; Bronisz, Agnieszka

    2016-05-15

    A lack of experimental models of tumor heterogeneity limits our knowledge of the complex subpopulation dynamics within the tumor ecosystem. In high-grade gliomas (HGG), distinct hierarchical cell populations arise from different glioma stem-like cell (GSC) subpopulations. Extracellular vesicles (EV) shed by cells may serve as conduits of genetic and signaling communications; however, little is known about how HGG heterogeneity may impact EV content and activity. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of EVs isolated from patient-derived GSC of either proneural or mesenchymal subtypes. EV signatures were heterogeneous, but reflected the molecular make-up of the GSC and consistently clustered into the two subtypes. EV-borne protein cargos transferred between proneural and mesenchymal GSC increased protumorigenic behaviors in vitro and in vivo Clinically, analyses of HGG patient data from the The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that proneural tumors with mesenchymal EV signatures or mesenchymal tumors with proneural EV signatures were both associated with worse outcomes, suggesting influences by the proportion of tumor cells of varying subtypes in tumors. Collectively, our findings illuminate the heterogeneity among tumor EVs and the complexity of HGG heterogeneity, which these EVs help to maintain. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2876-81. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1.

    PubMed

    Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2016-05-19

    Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) "stem-like" cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance.

  9. A nonradiated grade II glioma that underwent delayed malignant transformation to a gliosarcoma with meningeal growth and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Rech, Fabien; Rigau, Valerie; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-11-01

    Secondary gliosarcomas are rare tumors, especially those arising from a World Health Organization (WHO) grade II glioma not irradiated. We report a case with subtotal resection for a WHO grade II oligoastrocytoma, without adjuvant treatment, whose metaplastic transformation into gliosarcoma suddenly occurred 4 years later with meningeal dissemination. We show a favorable outcome after therapeutic management of this rare entity. A 46 year-old woman underwent surgery for a right premotor WHO grade II oligoastrocytoma discovered incidentally. Because of a subtotal resection with only 1 cc of residue, no complementary therapy was given, and the patient enjoyed a normal life for 4 years. In the meantime, the magnetic resonance images performed every 6 months showed a very low growth rate. Suddenly, the tumor switched toward a gliosarcoma profile with meningeal dissemination. Reoperation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were performed, enabling a control of the disease with 15 months of follow-up (i.e., with radiologic shrinkage of the multiple lesions and preservation of quality of life). A delayed sarcomatous transformation can acutely occur with a low proliferation index in a nonirradiated WHO grade II oligoastrocytoma. Furthermore, an aggressive therapeutic strategy can allow control of secondary gliosarcomas, even in cases of leptomeningeal spreading. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Dual-labeling with 5-aminolevulinic acid and fluorescein for fluorescence-guided resection of high-grade gliomas: technical note.

    PubMed

    Suero Molina, Eric; Wölfer, Johannes; Ewelt, Christian; Ehrhardt, André; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Stummer, Walter

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Fluorescence guidance with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) helps improve resections of malignant gliomas. However, one limitation is the low intensity of blue light for background illumination. Fluorescein has recently been reintroduced into neurosurgery, and novel microscope systems are available for visualizing this fluorochrome, which highlights all perfused tissues but has limited selectivity for tumor detection. Here, the authors investigate a combination of both fluorochromes: 5-ALA for distinguishing tumor and fluorescein for providing tissue fluorescence of adjacent brain tissue. METHODS The authors evaluated 6 patients who harbored cerebral lesions suggestive of high-grade glioma. Patients received 5-ALA (20 mg/kg) orally 4 hours before induction of anesthesia. Low-dose fluorescein (3 mg/kg intravenous) was injected immediately after anesthesia induction. Pentero microscopes (equipped either with Yellow 560 or Blue 400 filters) were used to visualize fluorescence. To simultaneously visualize both fluorochromes, the Yellow 560 module was combined with external blue light illumination (D-light C System). RESULTS Fluorescein-induced fluorescence created a useful background for protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence, which appeared orange to red, surrounded by greenly fluorescent normal brain and edematous tissue. Green brain-tissue fluorescence was helpful in augmenting background. Levels of blue illumination that were too strong obscured PPIX fluorescence. Unspecific extravasation of fluorescein was noted at resection margins, which did not interfere with PPIX fluorescence detection. CONCLUSIONS Dual labeling with both PPIX and fluorescein fluorescence is feasible and gives superior background information during fluorescence-guided resections. The authors believe that this technique carries potential as a next step in fluorescence-guided resections if it is completely integrated into the surgical microscope.

  11. Impact of tumor location and pathological discordance on survival of children with midline high-grade gliomas treated on Children's Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945.

    PubMed

    Eisenstat, David D; Pollack, Ian F; Demers, Alain; Sapp, Mark V; Lambert, Pascal; Weisfeld-Adams, James D; Burger, Peter C; Gilles, Floyd; Davis, Richard L; Packer, Roger; Boyett, James M; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2015-02-01

    Children with high-grade glioma (HGG) have a poor prognosis compared to those with low-grade glioma (LGG). Adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial, but its optimal use remains undetermined. Histology and extent of resection are important prognostic factors. We tested the hypothesis that patients with midline HGG treated on Children's Cancer Group Study (CCG) CCG-945 have a worse prognosis compared to the entire group. Of 172 children eligible for analysis, 60 had midline tumors primarily localized to the thalamus, hypothalamus and basal ganglia. Time-to-progression and death were determined from the date of initial diagnosis, and survival curves were calculated. Univariate analyses were undertaken for extent of resection, chemotherapy regimen, anatomic location, histology, proliferation index, MGMT status and p53 over-expression. For the entire midline tumor group, 5-year PFS and OS were 18.3 ± 4.8 and 25 ± 5.4 %, respectively. Many patients only had a biopsy (43.3 %). The sub-groups with near/total resection and hypothalamic location appeared to have better PFS and OS. However, the effect of tumor histology on OS was significant for children with discordant diagnoses on central pathology review of LGG compared to HGG. Proliferative index (MIB-1 > 36 %), MGMT and p53 over-expression correlated with poor outcomes. Children treated on CCG-945 with midline HGG have a worse prognosis when compared to the entire group. The midline location may directly influence the extent of resection. Central pathology review and entry of patients on clinical trials continue to be priorities to improve outcomes for children with HGG.

  12. Metabolic syndrome factors and risk of postoperative depression in high-grade glioma patients in a 1.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-tong; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-chao; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Chao; Shao, Jun-fei

    2014-10-01

    To date, the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of glioma-related depression is still unclear, and no study investigates this relationship. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression in high-grade patients. A total of 386 high-grade glioma patients participated in blood sample collection for metabolic syndrome factors analysis and the hospital anxiety and depression scale testing. The association between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression was assessed using Cox regression proportional hazards models, and Student's t tests were used to evaluate the differences in demographic variables and clinical characteristics in subgroups. The incidence of postoperative depression in our 1.5-year follow-up was 30.5%. We found the risk of postoperative depression was elevated with increased blood glucose level [hazard ratios (HR) 2.277, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.201-4.320, top vs. bottom quartile]. The hazard ratio was increased for z-scores of blood glucose (HR 1.672 per unit standard deviation, 95% CI 1.311-2.133] and of the combined metabolic syndrome score (HR 1.080, 95% CI 1.000-1.167). In addition, risk of postoperative depression risk was increased in high-grade glioma patients with high blood glucose levels (≥6.0 mmol/l) (HR 2.084, 95% CI 1.235-3.515). However, we did not find significant associations between postoperative depression and other metabolic syndrome factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Depression is prevalent among patients with high-grade glioma after operation. Blood glucose level is positively associated with the risk of postoperative depression, and might be involved in the etiology of postoperative depression, and may predict its development in high-grade glioma patients.

  13. Molecular classification of diffuse cerebral WHO grade II/III gliomas using genome- and transcriptome-wide profiling improves stratification of prognostically distinct patient groups.

    PubMed

    Weller, Michael; Weber, Ruthild G; Willscher, Edith; Riehmer, Vera; Hentschel, Bettina; Kreuz, Markus; Felsberg, Jörg; Beyer, Ulrike; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Kaulich, Kerstin; Steinbach, Joachim P; Hartmann, Christian; Gramatzki, Dorothee; Schramm, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Schackert, Gabriele; Simon, Matthias; Martens, Tobias; Boström, Jan; Hagel, Christian; Sabel, Michael; Krex, Dietmar; Tonn, Jörg C; Wick, Wolfgang; Noell, Susan; Schlegel, Uwe; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Pietsch, Torsten; Loeffler, Markus; von Deimling, Andreas; Binder, Hans; Reifenberger, Guido

    2015-05-01

    Cerebral gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II and III represent a major challenge in terms of histological classification and clinical management. Here, we asked whether large-scale genomic and transcriptomic profiling improves the definition of prognostically distinct entities. We performed microarray-based genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses of primary tumor samples from a prospective German Glioma Network cohort of 137 patients with cerebral gliomas, including 61 WHO grade II and 76 WHO grade III tumors. Integrative bioinformatic analyses were employed to define molecular subgroups, which were then related to histology, molecular biomarkers, including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations, and patient outcome. Genomic profiling identified five distinct glioma groups, including three IDH1/2 mutant and two IDH1/2 wild-type groups. Expression profiling revealed evidence for eight transcriptionally different groups (five IDH1/2 mutant, three IDH1/2 wild type), which were only partially linked to the genomic groups. Correlation of DNA-based molecular stratification with clinical outcome allowed to define three major prognostic groups with characteristic genomic aberrations. The best prognosis was found in patients with IDH1/2 mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Patients with IDH1/2 wild-type gliomas and glioblastoma-like genomic alterations, including gain on chromosome arm 7q (+7q), loss on chromosome arm 10q (-10q), TERT promoter mutation and oncogene amplification, displayed the worst outcome. Intermediate survival was seen in patients with IDH1/2 mutant, but 1p/19q intact, mostly astrocytic gliomas, and in patients with IDH1/2 wild-type gliomas lacking the +7q/-10q genotype and TERT promoter mutation. This molecular subgrouping stratified patients into prognostically distinct groups better than histological classification. Addition of gene expression

  14. Dynamic susceptibility contrast and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI characteristics to distinguish microcystic meningiomas from traditional Grade I meningiomas and high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Namath S; Moisi, Marc D; Keogh, Bart; McCullough, Brendan J; Rostad, Steven; Newell, David; Gwinn, Ryder; Foltz, Gregory; Mayberg, Marc; Aguedan, Brian; Good, Valerie; Fouke, Sarah J

    2016-06-10

    OBJECTIVE Microcystic meningioma (MM) is a meningioma variant with a multicystic appearance that may mimic intrinsic primary brain tumors and other nonmeningiomatous tumor types. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI techniques provide imaging parameters that can differentiate these tumors according to hemodynamic and permeability characteristics with the potential to aid in preoperative identification of tumor type. METHODS The medical data of 18 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of MM were identified through a retrospective review of procedures performed between 2008 and 2012; DSC imaging data were available for 12 patients and DCE imaging data for 6. A subcohort of 12 patients with Grade I meningiomas (i.e., of meningoepithelial subtype) and 54 patients with Grade IV primary gliomas (i.e., astrocytomas) was also included, and all preoperative imaging sequences were analyzed. Clinical variables including patient sex, age, and surgical blood loss were also included in the analysis. Images were acquired at both 1.5 and 3.0 T. The DSC images were acquired at a temporal resolution of either 1500 msec (3.0 T) or 2000 msec (1.5 T). In all cases, parameters including normalized cerebral blood volume (CBV) and transfer coefficient (kTrans) were calculated with region-of-interest analysis of enhancing tumor volume. The normalized CBV and kTrans data from the patient groups were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, and post hoc statistical comparisons among groups were conducted with the Bonferroni adjustment. RESULTS Preoperative DSC imaging indicated mean (± SD) normalized CBVs of 5.7 ± 2.2 ml for WHO Grade I meningiomas of the meningoepithelial subtype (n = 12), 4.8 ± 1.8 ml for Grade IV astrocytomas (n = 54), and 12.3 ± 3.8 ml for Grade I meningiomas of the MM subtype (n = 12). The normalized CBV measured within the enhancing portion of the tumor was significantly higher in the MM subtype than in typical meningiomas and Grade

  15. Feasibility Testing and Refinement of a Supportive Educational Intervention for Carers of Patients with High-Grade Glioma - a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Halkett, Georgia K B; Lobb, Elizabeth A; Miller, Lisa; Shaw, Thérèse; Moorin, Rachael; Long, Anne; King, Anne; Clarke, Jenny; Fewster, Stephanie; Nowak, Anna K

    2017-02-11

    The aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a family carer intervention for carers of patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). The intervention consisted of: (1) an initial telephone assessment of carer needs; (2) a personalised tabbed resource file; (3) nurse-led home visit; and (4) ongoing telephone support. Two consumer representatives reviewed the intervention resources. The intervention was then piloted with participants who were the primary carer for patients undergoing treatment for HGG in Western Australia. Two consumers provided feedback on the resource, and 10 carers participated in the pilot. Positive feedback was received about the resource manual and intervention. Suggestions were also made for changes which were implemented into the trial. The surveys were shortened based on feedback. Participants identified a large range of issues during nursing assessments which would not otherwise be identified or addressed for carers receiving routine care. As a result of providing the intervention, the nurse was able to make referrals to address needs that were identified. This pilot study enabled us to refine and test the Care-IS intervention and test the feasibility and acceptability of proposed survey instruments. We were also able to estimate recruitment and retention and the overall study timeline required for the randomised controlled trial we are now conducting. It has also demonstrated the role of the nurse who delivered the intervention and allowed us to refine communication and referral pathways.

  16. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shanshan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Lu, Shilong; Li, Yufa; Feng, Lyujin; Zhang, Yi; Heo, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wen, Zhibo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To show the ability of using the amide-proton-transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central-nervous-system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Methods Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CESTtotal), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Results The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to the normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTWmax, APTWmax-min, and CESTtotal signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), while the APTWmin and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTWmax-min had the highest area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1%) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. Conclusions The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. PMID:25925361

  17. Lessons from brain mapping in surgery for low-grade glioma: insights into associations between tumour and brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Duffau, Hugues

    2005-08-01

    Surgical treatment of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) aims to maximise the amount of tumour tissue resected, while minimising the risk of functional sequelae. In this review I address the issue of how to reconcile these two conflicting goals. First, I review the natural history of LGG-growth, invasion, and anaplastic transformation. Second, I discuss the contribution of new techniques, such as functional mapping, to our understanding of brain reorganisation in response to progressive growth of LGG. Third, I consider the clinical implications of interactions between tumour progression and brain plasticity. In particular, I show how longitudinal studies (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) could allow us to optimise the surgical risk-to-benefit ratios. I will also discuss controversial issues such as defining surgical indications for LGGs, predicting the risk of postoperative deficit, aspects of operative surgical neuro-oncology (eg, preoperative planning and preservation of functional areas and tracts), and postoperative functional recovery.

  18. A new strategy to improve coregistration of SPECT and MR images in patients with high grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Tacchella, Jean-Marc; Roullot, Elodie; Lefort, Muriel; Cohen, Mike-Ely; Guillevin, Rémy; Petrirena, Grégorio; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Habert, Marie-Odile; Yeni, Nathanaëlle; Kas, Aurélie; Frouin, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to optimize the coregistration of Technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT and MRI data in case of patients with high grade glioma. It consists in a personalized approach which selects, for each data set, the best registration method among several ones. To achieve this selection, a quantitative dedicated evaluation criterion based on the average intensities within specific anatomical structures corresponding to physiological areas of uptake of Sestamibi was defined. The strategy was applied to sixty-two data sets using nine registration methods based on mutual information and chamfer distance registration approaches, with different settings. It was implemented within the Anatomist/Brainvisa environment, using its basic registration functions. The visual evaluation by experts indicated that this strategy provides 60% good quality registrations, and 26% intermediate quality ones. Compared to the single use of the best global registration method, the number of registrations of good quality was multiplied by 1.4 when using the data specific strategy.

  19. High-Grade Glioma of the Ventrolateral Medulla in an Adult: Case Presentation and Discussion of Surgical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Angela; Le, Viet; Konakondla, Sanjay; Miller, Douglas C.; Hopkins, Tamera; Litofsky, N. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background. High-grade gliomas of the brainstem are rare in adults and are particularly rare in the anterolateral medulla. We describe an illustrative case and discuss the diagnostic and treatment issues associated with a tumor in this location, including differential diagnosis, anatomical considerations for options for surgical management, multimodality treatment, and prognosis. Case Description. A 69-year-old woman presented with a 3-week history of progressive right lower extremity weakness. She underwent an open biopsy via a far lateral approach with partial condylectomy, which revealed a glioblastoma. Concurrent temozolomide and radiation were completed; however, she elected to stop her chemotherapy after 5.5 weeks of treatment. She succumbed to her disease 11 months after diagnosis. Conclusions. Biopsy can be performed relatively safely to provide definitive diagnosis to guide treatment, but long-term prognosis is poor. PMID:27242937

  20. An inverse problem formulation for parameter estimation of a reaction-diffusion model of low grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Amir; Mang, Andreas; Biros, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a parameter estimation problem for a model of low-grade glioma growth. Our goal is to estimate the spatial distribution of tumor concentration, as well as the magnitude of anisotropic tumor diffusion. We use a constrained optimization formulation with a reaction-diffusion model that results in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In our formulation, we estimate the parameters using partially observed, noisy tumor concentration data at two different time instances, along with white matter fiber directions derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The optimization problem is solved with a Gauss-Newton reduced space algorithm. We present the formulation and outline the numerical algorithms for solving the resulting equations. We test the method using synthetic dataset and compute the reconstruction error for different noise levels and detection thresholds for monofocal and multifocal test cases. PMID:25963601

  1. Stochastic modelling of slow-progressing tumors: Analysis and applications to the cell interplay and control of low grade gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Clara Rojas; Fernández Calvo, Gabriel; Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Tumor-normal cell interplay defines the course of a neoplastic malignancy. The outcome of this dual relation is the ultimate prevailing of one of the cells and the death or retreat of the other. In this paper we study the mathematical principles that underlay one important scenario: that of slow-progressing cancers. For this, we develop, within a stochastic framework, a mathematical model to account for tumor-normal cell interaction in such a clinically relevant situation and derive a number of deterministic approximations from the stochastic model. We consider in detail the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the deterministic model and study the stability analysis. We then focus our model to the specific case of low grade gliomas, where we introduce an optimal control problem for different objective functionals under the administration of chemotherapy. We derive the conditions for which singular and bang-bang control exist and calculate the optimal control and states.

  2. Impact of [18F]-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine PET imaging on target definition for radiation therapy of high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Munck af Rosenschold, Per; Costa, Junia; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Lundemann, Michael J.; Law, Ian; Ohlhues, Lars; Engelholm, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to assess the impact of amino-acid 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography (PET) on the volumetric target definition for radiation therapy of high-grade glioma versus the current standard using MRI alone. Specifically, we investigated the influence of tumor grade, MR-defined tumor volume, and the extent of surgical resection on PET positivity. Methods Fifty-four consecutive high-grade glioma patients (World Health Organization grades III–IV) with confirmed histology were scanned using FET-PET/CT and T1 and T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI. Gross tumor volume and clinical target volumes (CTVs) were defined in a blinded fashion based on MRI and subsequently PET, and volumetric analysis was performed. The extent of the surgical resection was reviewed using postoperative MRI. Results Overall, for ∼90% of the patients, the PET-positive volumes were encompassed by T1 MRI with contrast-defined tumor plus a 20-mm margin. The tumor volume defined by PET was larger for glioma grade IV (P < .001) and smaller for patients with more extensive surgical resection (P = .004). The margin required to be added t