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Sample records for grade level readability

  1. Readability Levels of Second Grade Hi-Lo Reading Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hllgendorff, Patricia H.

    The revised Spache Readability Formula and the Fry Readability Formula were applied to 20 selected reading materials designed for adolescents reading at second grade level. Three samples from each text were examined. The results using the Spache formula corresponded to the publisher's stated readability levels, with no significant variability…

  2. Readability Levels of First and Second Grade Basal Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Yvette

    The Fry Readability Formula was used to determine the readability levels of 12 first and second grade basal texts. These texts were part of the Ginn 360, Ginn 720, and Macmillan Series "r" basal reader series. The results showed that 4 of the 12 books tested did not correspond closely to the publisher's readability levels. The Ginn 720 text for…

  3. The Readability Graph Validated at Primary Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    The validity of Fry's Readability Graph for determining grade level readability scores was compared with the Spache Formula, the cloze technique, and oral reading in the case of seven primary-level books. Descriptions of these four indicated that to determine grade level, Fry's Readability Graph plots the total number of syllables with the total…

  4. Readability Levels of the 1975 Third Grade Macmillan Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Ernestine Williams

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of third-grade books in the New Macmillan Reading Program reveals that the books exceeded the publisher's designation of readability and did not progress in difficulty from easy to more difficult. Findings suggest the need for more complete and reliable information from publishers concerning textbook readability. (FL)

  5. Readability Levels of Dental Patient Education Brochures.

    PubMed

    Boles, Catherine D; Liu, Ying; November-Rider, Debra

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dental patient education brochures produced since 2000 to determine if there is any change in the Flesch-Kincaid grade level readability. A convenience sample of 36 brochures was obtained for analysis of the readability of the patient education material on multiple dental topics. Readability was measured using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level through Microsoft Word. Pearson's correlation was used to describe the relationship among the factors of interest. Backward model selection of multiple linear regression model was used to investigate the relationship between Flesch-Kincaid Grade level and a set of predictors included in this study. A convenience sample (n=36) of dental education brochures produced from 2000 to 2014 showed a mean Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level of 9.15. Weak to moderate correlations existed between word count and grade level (r=0.40) and characters count and grade level (r=0.46); strong correlations were found between grade level and average words per sentence (r=0.70), average characters per word (r=0.85) and Flesch Reading Ease (r=-0.98). Only 1 brochure out of the sample met the recommended sixth grade reading level (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level 5.7). Overall, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level of all brochures was significantly higher than the recommended sixth grade reading level (p<0.0001). The findings from this study demonstrated that there has generally been an improvement in the Flesch-Kincaid grade level readability of the brochures. However, the majority of the brochures analyzed are still testing above the recommended sixth grade reading level. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  6. Readability versus Leveling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Shows some similarities and differences between readability formulas and leveling procedures and reports some current large-scale uses of readability formulas. Presents a dictionary definition of readability and leveling, and a history and background of readability and leveling. Discusses what goes into determining readability and leveling scores.…

  7. Readability Level of Standardized Test Items and Student Performance: The Forgotten Validity Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Margaret A.; Homan, Susan P.

    2004-01-01

    Test validity issues considered by test developers and school districts rarely include individual item readability levels. In this study, items from a major standardized test were examined for individual item readability level and item difficulty. The Homan-Hewitt Readability Formula was applied to items across three grade levels. Results of…

  8. Readability Level of Spanish-Language Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Audiology and Otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Coco, Laura; Colina, Sonia; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the readability level of the Spanish versions of several audiology- and otolaryngology-related patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and include a readability analysis of 2 translation approaches when available—the published version and a “functionalist” version—using a team-based collaborative approach including community members. Method Readability levels were calculated using the Fry Graph adapted for Spanish, as well as the Fernandez-Huerta and the Spaulding formulae for several commonly used audiology- and otolaryngology-related PROMs. Results Readability calculations agreed with previous studies analyzing audiology-related PROMs in English and demonstrated many Spanish-language PROMs were beyond the 5th grade reading level suggested for health-related materials written for the average population. In addition, the functionalist versions of the PROMs yielded lower grade-level (improved) readability levels than the published versions. Conclusion Our results suggest many of the Spanish-language PROMs evaluated here are beyond the recommended readability levels and may be influenced by the approach to translation. Moreover, improved readability may be possible using a functionalist approach to translation. Future analysis of the suitability of outcome measures and the quality of their translations should move beyond readability and include an evaluation of the individual's comprehension of the written text. PMID:28892821

  9. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p < 0.0001) and the AMA/NIH recommended readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p < 0.0001). Invasive procedure consent forms have readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Relationship between Readability Level of Mississippi's Middle Schools' Websites and Seventh Grade Language Arts MCT2 Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Anna Marlene Graves

    2011-01-01

    Today's educators face the unprecedented challenge of increasing achievement for all students. One response has been to increase and improve parent involvement and school-to-home communication through the use of school websites. The quantitative section of this study analyzed the readability grade level of the website as it relates to state test…

  11. Readability levels of health pamphlets distributed in hospitals and health centres in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kondilis, B K; Akrivos, P D; Sardi, T A; Soteriades, E S; Falagas, M E

    2010-10-01

    Health literacy is important in the medical and social sciences due to its impact on behavioural and health outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about it in Greece, including patients' level of understanding health brochures and pamphlets distributed in Greek hospitals and clinics. Observational study in the greater metropolitan area of Athens, Greece. Pamphlets and brochures written in the Greek language were collected from 17 hospitals and healthcare centres between the spring and autumn of 2006. Readability of pamphlets using the Flesch-Kincaid, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Fog methods was calculated based on a Greek readability software. Out of 70 pamphlets collected from 17 hospitals, 37 pamphlets met the criteria for the study. The average readability level of all scanned pamphlets was ninth to 10th grade, corresponding to a readability level of 'average'. A highly significant difference (P<0.001) was found between private and public hospitals using the Flesch-Kincaid and SMOG readability scales. Pamphlets from private hospitals were one grade more difficult than those from public hospitals. Approximately 43.7% of the Greek population aged ≥20 years would not be able to comprehend the available pamphlets, which were found to have an average readability level of ninth to 10th grade. Further research examining readability levels in the context of health literacy in Greece is warranted. This effort paves the way for additional research in the field of readability levels of health pamphlets in the Greek language, the sources of health information, and the level of understanding of key health messages by the population. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Naqvi, Syed S.; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P.; Weiss, Arnold‐Peter C.; Born, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Materials and methods To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman–Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Results Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p < 0.0001) and the AMA/NIH recommended readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Invasive procedure consent forms have readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. PMID:26678039

  13. The Readability of an Unreadable Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    The Dale-Chall Readability Formula and the Fry Readability Graph were used to analyze passages of Plato's "Parmenides," a notoriously difficult literary piece. The readability levels of the text ranged from fourth to eighth grade (Dale-Chall) and from sixth to tenth grade (Fry), indicating the limitations of the readability tests. (DF)

  14. The readability of American Academy of Pediatrics patient education brochures.

    PubMed

    Freda, Margaret Comerford

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) patient education brochures. Seventy-four brochures were analyzed using two readability formulas. Mean readability for all 74 brochures was grade 7.94 using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, and grade 10.1 with SMOG formula (P = .001). Using the SMOG formula, no brochures were of acceptably low (< or =8th grade) readability levels (range 8.3 to 12.7). Using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, 41 of the 74 had acceptable readability levels (< or =8th grade). The SMOG formula routinely assessed brochures 2 to 3 grade levels higher than did the Flesch-Kincaid formula. Some AAP patient education brochures have acceptably low levels of readability, but at least half are written at higher than acceptable readability levels for the general public. This study also demonstrated statistically significant variability between the two different readability formulas; had only the SMOG formula been used, all of the brochures would have had unacceptably high readability levels. Readability is an essential concept for patient education materials. Professional associations that develop and market patient education materials should test for readability and publish those readability levels on each piece of patient education so health care providers will know if the materials are appropriate for their patients.

  15. Readability of websites containing information on dental implants.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Anderson, Nina K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2014-12-01

    It is recommended that health-related materials for patients be written at sixth grade level or below. Many websites oriented toward patient education about dental implants are available, but the readability of these sites has not been evaluated. To assess readability of patient-oriented online information on dental implants. Websites containing patient-oriented information on dental implants were retrieved using the Google search engine. Individual and mean readability/grade levels were calculated using standardized formulas. Readability of each website was classified as easy (≤ 6th-grade level) or difficult (≥ 10th grade level). Thirty nine websites with patient-oriented information on dental implant were found. The average readability grade level of these websites was 11.65 ± 1.36. No website scored at/below the recommended 6th grade level. Thirty four of 39 websites (87.18%) were difficult to read. The number of characters, words, and sentences on these sites varied widely. All patient-oriented websites on dental implants scored above the recommended grade level, and majority of these sites were "difficult" in their readability. There is a dire need to create patient information websites on implants, which the majority can read. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Readability of Self-Report Alcohol Misuse Measures

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Sugarman, Dawn E; Kaufman, Julia S; Park, Sara; Weiss, Roger D; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Self-report measures of alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorders are valuable assessment tools for both research and clinical practice settings. However, readability is often overlooked when establishing the validity of these measures, which may result in measures written at a reading-grade level that is higher than the ability level of many potential respondents. The aim of the current study was to estimate the reading-grade level of validated measures of alcohol misuse and associated problems. Method: A total of 45 measures were identified, and reading-grade level was calculated using three validated readability formulas. Results: The majority of measures were written above the recommended reading-grade level for patient materials (5th–6th grade), with particularly poor readability for measure instructions. Conclusions: Given that many self-report alcohol misuse measures are written at a high reading-grade level, the consideration of readability is important when selecting measures for use in research and practice settings. Moreover, the development or modification of measures to target low-literacy populations may facilitate the broader applicability of these instruments. PMID:24650827

  17. Readability of Online Materials for Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Santos, Pauline Joy F; Daar, David A; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is a popular aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedure. However, little is known about the content and readability of online materials for patient education. The recommended grade level for educational materials is 7th to 8th grade according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This study aims to assess the readability of online patient resources for rhinoplasty. The largest public search engine, Google, was queried using the term "rhinoplasty" on February 26, 2016. Location filters were disabled and sponsored results excluded to avoid any inadvertent search bias. The 10 most popular websites were identified and all relevant, patient-directed information within one click from the original site was downloaded and saved as plain text. Readability was analyzed using five established analyses (Readability-score.com, Added Bytes, Ltd., Sussex, UK). Analysis of ten websites demonstrates an average grade level of at least 12 th grade. No material was at the recommended 7 th to 8 th grade reading level (Flesch-Kincaid, 11.1; Gunning-Fog, 14.1; Coleman-Liau, 14.5; SMOG 10.4; Automated Readability, 10.7; Average Grade Level, 12.2). Overall Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease Index was 43.5, which is rated as "difficult." Online materials available for rhinoplasty exceed NIH-recommended reading levels, which may prevent appropriate decision-making in patients considering these types of surgery. Outcomes of this study identify that Plastic Surgeons should be cognizant of available online patient materials and make efforts to develop and provide more appropriate materials. Readability results can also contribute to marketing strategy and attracting a more widespread interest in the procedure.

  18. Readability of Online Materials for Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Pauline Joy F; Daar, David A; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rhinoplasty is a popular aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedure. However, little is known about the content and readability of online materials for patient education. The recommended grade level for educational materials is 7th to 8th grade according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This study aims to assess the readability of online patient resources for rhinoplasty. METHODS The largest public search engine, Google, was queried using the term “rhinoplasty” on February 26, 2016. Location filters were disabled and sponsored results excluded to avoid any inadvertent search bias. The 10 most popular websites were identified and all relevant, patient-directed information within one click from the original site was downloaded and saved as plain text. Readability was analyzed using five established analyses (Readability-score.com, Added Bytes, Ltd., Sussex, UK). RESULTS Analysis of ten websites demonstrates an average grade level of at least 12th grade. No material was at the recommended 7th to 8th grade reading level (Flesch-Kincaid, 11.1; Gunning-Fog, 14.1; Coleman-Liau, 14.5; SMOG 10.4; Automated Readability, 10.7; Average Grade Level, 12.2). Overall Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease Index was 43.5, which is rated as “difficult.” CONCLUSION Online materials available for rhinoplasty exceed NIH-recommended reading levels, which may prevent appropriate decision-making in patients considering these types of surgery. Outcomes of this study identify that Plastic Surgeons should be cognizant of available online patient materials and make efforts to develop and provide more appropriate materials. Readability results can also contribute to marketing strategy and attracting a more widespread interest in the procedure. PMID:29651397

  19. Readability of online patient education materials from the AAOS web site.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Sanjeev; Badarudeen, Sameer; Unes Kunju, Shebna

    2008-05-01

    One of the goals of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) is to disseminate patient education materials that suit the readability skills of the patient population. According to standard guidelines from healthcare organizations, the readability of patient education materials should be no higher than the sixth-grade level. We hypothesized the readability level of patient education materials available on the AAOS Web site would be higher than the recommended grade level, regardless when the material was available online. Readability scores of all articles from the AAOS Internet-based patient information Web site, "Your Orthopaedic Connection," were determined using the Flesch-Kincaid grade formula. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of the 426 unique articles was 10.43. Only 10 (2%) of the articles had the recommended readability level of sixth grade or lower. The readability of the articles did not change with time. Our findings suggest the majority of the patient education materials available on the AAOS Web site had readability scores that may be too difficult for comprehension by a substantial portion of the patient population.

  20. Readability of Online Patient Education Materials From the AAOS Web Site

    PubMed Central

    Badarudeen, Sameer; Unes Kunju, Shebna

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) is to disseminate patient education materials that suit the readability skills of the patient population. According to standard guidelines from healthcare organizations, the readability of patient education materials should be no higher than the sixth-grade level. We hypothesized the readability level of patient education materials available on the AAOS Web site would be higher than the recommended grade level, regardless when the material was available online. Readability scores of all articles from the AAOS Internet-based patient information Web site, “Your Orthopaedic Connection,” were determined using the Flesch-Kincaid grade formula. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of the 426 unique articles was 10.43. Only 10 (2%) of the articles had the recommended readability level of sixth grade or lower. The readability of the articles did not change with time. Our findings suggest the majority of the patient education materials available on the AAOS Web site had readability scores that may be too difficult for comprehension by a substantial portion of the patient population. PMID:18324452

  1. Readability of patient education materials on the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Han, Alex; Truntzer, Jeremy; Daniels, Alan H

    2014-11-01

    The recommended readability of patient education materials by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. However, online resources may be too complex for some patients to understand, and poor health literacy predicts inferior health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website's patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would have a Flesch-Kincaid formula grade above the sixth grade. All 65 patient education entries of the AOSSM website were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. The average (standard deviation) readability of all 65 articles was grade level 10.03 (1.44); 64 articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level, which is the maximum level recommended by the AMA and NIH. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 4.03 grade levels (95% CI, 3.7-4.4; P < 0.0001). We found post-hoc that only 7 articles had a readability score ≤ an eighth-grade level, the average reading level of US adults. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 2.03 grade levels (95% CI, 1.7-2.4; P < 0.0001). The readability of online AOSSM patient education materials exceeds the readability level recommended by the AMA and NIH, and is above the average reading level of the majority of US adults. This online information may be of limited utility to most patients due to a lack of comprehension. Our study provides a clear example of the need to improve the readability of specific education material in order to maximize the efficacy of multimedia sources.

  2. Analyzing readability of medicines information material in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Kasesnik, Karin; Kline, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Readability has been claimed to be an important factor for understanding texts describing health symptoms and medications. Such texts may be a factor which indirectly affects the health of the population. Despite the expertise of physicians, the readability of information sources may be important for acquiring essential treatment information. The aim of this study was to measure the readability level of medicines promotion material in Slovenia. Methods: The Flesch readability formula was modified to comply with Slovene texts. On the basis of determining the Slovene readability algorithm, the readability ease related to the readability grade level of different Slovene texts was established. In order to estimate an adjustment of the texts to the recommended readability grade level of the targeted population, readability values of English texts were set. One sample t-test and standard deviations from the arithmetic mean values were used as statistical tests. Results: The results of the research showed low readability scores of the Slovene texts. Difficult readability values were seen in different types of examined texts: in patient information leaflets, in the summaries of product characteristics, in promotional materials, while describing over-the-counter medications and in the materials for creating disease awareness. Especially low readability values were found within the texts belonging to promotional materials intended for the physicians. None of researched items, not even for the general public, were close to primary school grade readability levels and therefore could not be described as easily readable. Conclusion: This study provides an understanding of the level of readability of selected Slovene medicines information material. It was concluded that health-related texts were not compliant with general public or with healthcare professional needs. PMID:23093886

  3. Comparative Readability Analysis of Online Patient Education Resources on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rishabh; Nawaz, Mohammad; Lam, Linh; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos T

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health recommend a readability grade level of less than 7th grade for patient directed information. In this study, we use validated readability metrics to analyze patient information from prominent websites pertaining to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The terms "Crohn's Disease," "Ulcerative Colitis," and "Inflammatory Bowel Disease" were queried on Google and Bing. Websites containing patient education material were saved as a text file and then modified through expungement of medical terminology that was described within the text. Modified text was then divided into subsections that were analyzed using six validated readability scales. None of the websites analyzed in this study achieved an estimated reading grade level below the recommended 7th grade. The median readability grade level (after modification) was 11.5 grade levels for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The treatment subsection required the highest level of education with a median readability grade of 12th grade (range of 6.9 to 17). Readability of online patient education material from the analyzed popular websites far exceeds the recommended level of being less than 7th grade. Patient education resources should be revised to achieve wider health literacy.

  4. A Framework for Readability Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.; Jacobson, Milton D.

    There is a need for basic readability research and for an easily applied and accurate new readability formula. Two steps taken toward the development of such a formula are the revision of a vocabulary list for primary grades and the combination of reading exercises given at different grade levels into a single scale of ascending difficulty. Much…

  5. The Readability Levels of the 1981 Scott, Foresman and Co. Basal Texts and Their Comparison with the 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Bonnie

    Fry's Readability Graph was used to determine the readability levels of the 1981 Scott, Foresman and Co. basal textbook series for grades one through six. The readability levels were then compared to those established for the 1978 edition. In the 1981 edition, all stories were handscored. Poems, skill lessons, and plays were not examined in order…

  6. Readability of Online Health Information: A Meta-Narrative Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Daraz, Lubna; Morrow, Allison S; Ponce, Oscar J; Farah, Wigdan; Katabi, Abdulrahman; Majzoub, Abdul; Seisa, Mohamed O; Benkhadra, Raed; Alsawas, Mouaz; Larry, Prokop; Murad, M Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Online health information should meet the reading level for the general public (set at sixth-grade level). Readability is a key requirement for information to be helpful and improve quality of care. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the readability of online health information in the United States and Canada. Out of 3743 references, the authors included 157 cross-sectional studies evaluating 7891 websites using 13 readability scales. The mean readability grade level across websites ranged from grade 10 to 15 based on the different scales. Stratification by specialty, health condition, and type of organization producing information revealed the same findings. In conclusion, online health information in the United States and Canada has a readability level that is inappropriate for general public use. Poor readability can lead to misinformation and may have a detrimental effect on health. Efforts are needed to improve readability and the content of online health information.

  7. Readability assessment of the American Rhinologic Society patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Kasabwala, Khushabu; Misra, Poonam; Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2013-04-01

    The extensive amount of medical literature available on the Internet is frequently accessed by patients. To effectively contribute to healthcare decision-making, these online resources should be worded at a level that is readable by any patient seeking information. The American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommend the readability of patient information material should be between a 4th to 6th grade level. In this study, we evaluate the readability of online patient education information available from the American Rhinologic Society (ARS) website using 9 different assessment tools that analyze the materials for reading ease and grade level of the target audience. Online patient education material from the ARS was downloaded in February 2012 and assessed for level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) Grading, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning-Fog Index, FORCAST formula, Raygor Readability Estimate, the Fry Graph, and the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula. Each article was pasted as plain text into a Microsoft® Word® document and each subsection was analyzed using the software package Readability Studio Professional Edition Version 2012.1. All healthcare education materials assessed were written between a 9th grade and graduate reading level and were considered "difficult" to read by the assessment scales. Online patient education materials on the ARS website are written above the recommended 6th grade level and may require revision to make them easily understood by a broader audience. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. Unsuitable readability levels of patient information pertaining to dementia and related diseases: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Weih, Markus; Reinhold, Angelika; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Sulimma, Anne-Kathrin; Klein, Harald; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    Our study investigated the readability of printed material about dementia that is offered to patients and caregivers. Comparisons of various brochures (at least three standard pages in length) on dementia and related disorders were made using automated measuring by the SMOG readability index grade. 118 brochures were assessed (25 in English, 93 in German), for which the mean readability was found to be high school/college level as measured by the SMOG readability index (grade 13.6 +/- 1.8). No differences in readability were observed between materials produced by pharmaceutical companies and other sources. Furthermore, recently published brochures were not more readable than older ones. Shorter brochures, English brochures and those containing medical facts were easier to read than longer ones, those written in German or brochures primarily addressing psychosocial care/social issues. The sentence length was above the 20 word recommendation in 25% of the brochures. The average font size of the brochure texts was small (mean font size 11.1 +/- 1.6 point) with only 25% of brochures having a font size of 12 or more, as recommended. Written patient information and educational material of more than three standard pages is often published at unsuitably high readability levels using small fonts. Information material about dementia should be designed and tested prior to distribution among patients and caregivers. Future studies should address material shorter than three pages and material for younger caregivers.

  9. Readability of Trauma-Related Patient Education Materials From the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; P Thomas, Nathan; Yang, Heejae; Daniels, Alan H; Born, Christopher T

    2016-02-01

    According to the american medical association (AMA) and the national institutes of health (NIH), the recommended readability of patient education materials should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. The online patient education information produced by the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons (AAOS) may be too complicated for some patients to understand. This study evaluated whether the AAOS's online trauma-related patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Ninety-nine articles from the "Broken Bones and Injuries" section of the AAOS-produced patient education website, orthoinfo.org, were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely-used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. Results for each webpage were compared to the AMA/NIH recommended sixth-grade reading level and the average reading level of U.S. adults (eighth-grade). The mean (SD) grade level readability for all patient education articles was 8.8 (1.1). All but three of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. The readability of the articles exceeded this level by an average of 2.8 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.6 - 3.0; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the average readability of the articles exceeded the average reading skill level of U.S. adults (eighth grade) by nearly an entire grade level (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0; P < 0.0001). The majority of the trauma-related articles from the AAOS patient education website have readability levels that may make comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the patient population.

  10. Readability, content, and quality of online patient education materials on preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lange, Elizabeth M S; Shah, Anuj M; Braithwaite, Brian A; You, Whitney B; Wong, Cynthia A; Grobman, William A; Toledo, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the readability, content, and quality of patient education materials addressing preeclampsia. Websites of U.S. obstetrics and gynecology residency programs were searched for patient education materials. Readability, content, and quality were assessed. A one-sample t-test was used to evaluate mean readability level compared with the recommended 6th grade reading level. Mean readability levels were higher using all indices (p < 0.001). Content was variable with good website understandability, but poor actionability. The mean readability was above the recommended 6th grade reading level. The content, readability, and actionability of preeclampsia patient education materials should be improved.

  11. Readability of "Dear Patient" device advisory notification letters created by a device manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Luke A; Sharma, Arjun; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) recommended that cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) manufacturers use advisory notification letters to communicate with affected patients. To evaluate the readability of the HRS sample "patient device advisory notification" letter and those created by 1 CIED manufacturer. The HRS sample letter and 25 Boston Scientific Corporation letters dated from 2005 through 2011 were evaluated by using 6 readability tests. Readability (Flesch-Kincaid score) of the HRS sample letter was grade level 12.5, and median readability of the device manufacturer letters was grade level 12.8 (range 10.8-18.9). Similar results were obtained by using other readability scales. No letters had readability scores at the National Work Group on Literacy and Health's recommended reading level-fifth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this recommended level by an average of 7.7 grades (95% confidence interval 6.9-8.5; P<.001). Likewise, no letters had readability scores at the average reading level of US adults-eighth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this level by an average of 4.7 grades (95% confidence interval 3.9-5.5; P< .001). The readability of the HRS sample letter and those created by a CIED manufacturer significantly exceeded the recommended and average US adults' reading skill levels. Such letters are unlikely to be informative to many patients. CIED manufacturers should ensure that advisory letters are comprehensible to most affected patients. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clearly written, easily comprehended? The readability of websites providing information on epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele

    2015-03-01

    There is a general need for high-quality, easily accessible, and comprehensive health-care information on epilepsy to better inform the general population about this highly stigmatized neurological disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health literacy level of eight popular English-written websites that provide information on epilepsy in quantitative terms of readability. Educational epilepsy material on these websites, including 41 Wikipedia articles, were analyzed for their overall level of readability and the corresponding academic grade level needed to comprehend the published texts on the first reading. The Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) was used to assess ease of comprehension while the Gunning Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook scales estimated the corresponding academic grade level needed for comprehension. The average readability of websites yielded results indicative of a difficult-to-fairly-difficult readability level (FRE results: 44.0±8.2), with text readability corresponding to an 11th academic grade level (11.3±1.9). The average FRE score of the Wikipedia articles was indicative of a difficult readability level (25.6±9.5), with the other readability scales yielding results corresponding to a 14th grade level (14.3±1.7). Popular websites providing information on epilepsy, including Wikipedia, often demonstrate a low level of readability. This can be ameliorated by increasing access to clear and concise online information on epilepsy and health in general. Short "basic" summaries targeted to patients and nonmedical users should be added to articles published in specialist websites and Wikipedia to ease readability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Readability of AAOS Patient Education Materials: Evaluating the Progress Since 2008.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Heather; Zhang, Dafang; Dyer, George S M

    2016-09-07

    The Internet has become a major resource for patients; however, patient education materials are frequently written at relatively high levels of reading ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of patient education materials on the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) web site. Readability scores were calculated for all patient education articles on the AAOS web site using 5 algorithms: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) Grade, Coleman-Liau Index, and Gunning-Fog Index. The mean readability scores were compared across the anatomic categories to which they pertained. Using a liberal measure of readability, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, 3.9% of articles were written at or below the recommended sixth-grade reading level, and 84% of the articles were written above the eighth-grade reading level. Articles in the present study had a lower mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level than those available in 2008 (p < 0.00005). Articles categorized as "Hand & Wrist" or "Foot & Ankle" had significantly lower mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores than the mean for all categories (p < 0.0005). Regardless of the algorithm used, the mean readability levels of AAOS articles are higher than generally recommended. Although the mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was lower in the present study than it was in 2008, a need remains to improve the readability of AAOS patient education articles. Ensuring that online patient education materials are written at an appropriate reading grade level would be expected to improve physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  14. Readability of online patient education materials on adult reconstruction Web sites.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, Daniil L; Hashem, Jenifer; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    Recommended readability of patient education materials is sixth-grade level or lower. Readability of 212 patient education materials pertaining to adult reconstruction topics available from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, and 3 other specialty and private practitioner Web sites was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid grade formula. The mean Flesch-Kincaid score was 11.1 (range, 3-26.5). Only 5 (2%) articles had a readability level of sixth grade or lower. Readability of most of the articles for patient education on adult reconstruction Web sites evaluated may be too advanced for a substantial portion of patients. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal readability level of health information on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Readability and Understandability of Online Vocal Cord Paralysis Materials.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Vini; Chandy, Zachariah; Hseih, Amy; Bui, Thanh-Lan; Verma, Sunil P

    2016-03-01

    Patients use several online resources to learn about vocal cord paralysis (VCP). The objective of this study was to assess the readability and understandability of online VCP patient education materials (PEMs), with readability assessments and the Patient Education Materials Evaluation Tool (PEMAT), respectively. The relationship between readability and understandability was then analyzed. Descriptive and correlational design. Online PEMs were identified by performing a Google search with the term "vocal cord paralysis." After scientific webpages, news articles, and information for medical professionals were excluded, 29 articles from the first 50 search results were considered. Readability analysis was performed with 6 formulas. Four individuals with different educational backgrounds conducted understandability analysis with the PEMAT. Fleiss's Kappa interrater reliability analysis determined consistency among raters. Correlation between readability and understandability was determined with Pearson's correlation test. The reading level of the reviewed articles ranged from grades 9 to 17. Understandability ranged from 29% to 82%. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong negative correlation between materials' readability and understandability (r = -0.462, P < .05). Online PEMs pertaining to VCP are written above the recommended reading levels. Overall, materials written at lower grade levels are more understandable. However, articles of identical grade levels had varying levels of understandability. The PEMAT may provide a more critical evaluation of the quality of a PEM when compared with readability formulas. Both readability and understandability should be used to evaluate PEMs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  16. Readability of Orthopedic Trauma Patient Education Materials on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rohith; Yi, Paul H; Morshed, Saam

    In this study, we used the Flesch-Kincaid Readability Scale to determine the readability levels of orthopedic trauma patient education materials on the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) website and to examine how subspecialty coauthorship affects readability level. Included articles from the AAOS online patient education library and the AAOS OrthoPortal website were categorized as trauma or broken bones and injuries on the AAOS online library or were screened by study authors for relevance to orthopedic trauma. Subsequently, the Flesch-Kincaid scale was used to determine each article's readability level, which was reported as a grade level. Subspecialty coauthorship was noted for each article. A total of 115 articles from the AAOS website were included in the study and reviewed. Mean reading level was grade 9.1 for all articles reviewed. Nineteen articles (16.5%) were found to be at or below the eighth-grade level, and only 1 article was at or below the sixth-grade level. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between articles coauthored by the various orthopedic subspecialties and those authored exclusively by AAOS. Orthopedic trauma readability materials on the AAOS website appear to be written at a reading comprehension level too high for the average patient to understand.

  17. How readable are Australian paediatric oral health education materials?

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Lam, Andy S F; Karami, Zahra; Do, Loc Giang; Harris, Mark Fort

    2014-09-02

    The objective of this study was to analyse the readability of paediatric oral health education leaflets available in Australia. Forty paediatric oral health education materials were analysed for general readability according to the following parameters: Thoroughness; Textual framework; Terminology; and Readability (Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Gunning Fog index (Fog) and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG)). Leaflets produced by the industry were among the hardest to read with an average readability at the 8th grade (8.4 ± 0.1). The readability of leaflets produced by the commercial sector was at the 7th grade (7.1 ± 1.7) and the government at the 6th grade (6.3 ± 1.9). The FKGL consistently yielded readabilities 2 grades below the Fog and SMOG indexes. In the content analyses, 14 essential paediatric oral health topics were noted and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was identified as the most commonly used jargon term. Paediatric oral health education materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely and may be difficult to read for disadvantaged populations in Australia. A redesign of these leaflets while taking literacy into consideration is suggested.

  18. Evaluation of the readability of ACOG patient education pamphlets. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

    PubMed

    Freda, M C; Damus, K; Merkatz, I R

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate whether ACOG's patient education pamphlets comply with the recommended readability level for health education materials intended for the general public. All 100 English-language pamphlets available during 1997 (created or revised between 1988 and 1997) were evaluated using four standard readability formulas. Mean readability levels of ACOG's pamphlets were between grade 7.0 to grade 9.3, depending on the formula used. Analysis of readability over the 10 years showed a trend toward lower readability levels. Analysis by category of pamphlet found that the lowest readability levels were in "Especially for teens" pamphlets. Our data suggested that most of ACOG's patient education pamphlets currently available are written at a higher readability level than recommended for the general public. The readability of those pamphlets improved in the 10 years since the organization published its first pamphlet, but the goal of sixth-grade readability level has not been reached.

  19. Assessing readability formula differences with written health information materials: application, results, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Wern; Miller, Michael J; Schmitt, Michael R; Wen, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    Readability formulas are often used to guide the development and evaluation of literacy-sensitive written health information. However, readability formula results may vary considerably as a result of differences in software processing algorithms and how each formula is applied. These variations complicate interpretations of reading grade level estimates, particularly without a uniform guideline for applying and interpreting readability formulas. This research sought to (1) identify commonly used readability formulas reported in the health care literature, (2) demonstrate the use of the most commonly used readability formulas on written health information, (3) compare and contrast the differences when applying common readability formulas to identical selections of written health information, and (4) provide recommendations for choosing an appropriate readability formula for written health-related materials to optimize their use. A literature search was conducted to identify the most commonly used readability formulas in health care literature. Each of the identified formulas was subsequently applied to word samples from 15 unique examples of written health information about the topic of depression and its treatment. Readability estimates from common readability formulas were compared based on text sample size, selection, formatting, software type, and/or hand calculations. Recommendations for their use were provided. The Flesch-Kincaid formula was most commonly used (57.42%). Readability formulas demonstrated variability up to 5 reading grade levels on the same text. The Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability formula performed most consistently. Depending on the text sample size, selection, formatting, software, and/or hand calculations, the individual readability formula estimated up to 6 reading grade levels of variability. The SMOG formula appears best suited for health care applications because of its consistency of results, higher level of expected

  20. Quantitative analysis of the level of readability of online emergency radiology-based patient education resources.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; D'Angelo, Michael; White, Michael D; Prabhu, Arpan V; Cox, Mougnyan; Agarwal, Nitin; Deshmukh, Sandeep

    2018-04-01

    The vast amount of information found on the internet, combined with its accessibility, makes it a widely utilized resource for Americans to find information pertaining to medical information. The field of radiology is no exception. In this paper, we assess the readability level of websites pertaining specifically to emergency radiology. Using Google, 23 terms were searched, and the top 10 results were recorded. Each link was evaluated for its readability level using a set of ten reputable readability scales. The search terms included the following: abdominal ultrasound, abdominal aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, appendicitis, cord compression, CT abdomen, cholecystitis, CT chest, diverticulitis, ectopic pregnancy, epidural hematoma, dural venous thrombosis, head CT, MRI brain, MR angiography, MRI spine, ovarian torsion, pancreatitis, pelvic ultrasound, pneumoperitoneum, pulmonary embolism, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. Any content that was not written for patients was excluded. The 230 articles that were assessed were written, on average, at a 12.1 grade level. Only 2 of the 230 articles (1%) were written at the third to seventh grade recommended reading level set forth by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and American Medical Association (AMA). Fifty-two percent of the 230 articles were written so as to require a minimum of a high school education (at least a 12th grade level). Additionally, 17 of the 230 articles (7.3%) were written at a level that exceeded an undergraduate education (at least a 16th grade level). The majority of websites with emergency radiology-related patient education materials are not adhering to the NIH and AMA's recommended reading levels, and it is likely that the average reader is not benefiting fully from these information outlets. With the link between health literacy and poor health outcomes, it is important to address the online content in this area of radiology, allowing for patient to more fully benefit

  1. Are Online Zenker's Diverticulum Materials Readable and Understandable?

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Vini; Chandy, Zachariah; Verma, Sunil P

    2016-11-01

    Patients use a multitude of resources to learn about Zenker's diverticulum (ZD). The objectives of this study were to assess the readability and understandability of online materials on ZD, evaluate them against the existing criteria, and investigate the relationship between readability and understandability. The first 50 webpages from an online search for ZD were analyzed. Twenty-one webpages had materials intended for patients and were included in the study. The patient education materials (PEMs) were analyzed using 6 readability tools. Four individuals used the Patient Education Materials Evaluation Tool (PEMAT) to assess the understandability. Fleiss κ interrater reliability analysis determined consistency among the raters. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficient analyzed the relationship between readability and understandability. The reading grade level of the materials reviewed ranged from 10th to 16th grade while the understandability ranged from 31% to 74%. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong negative correlation between readability and understandability (r = -0.62, P < .05). Fleiss' κ interrater reliability for the raters demonstrated substantial agreement between the 4 raters (κ = 0.64). Online PEMs pertaining to ZD are written well above the recommended reading level. Materials written at a lower reading level are more understandable. A wide range of understandability exists among materials with identical reading grade levels. Health care providers need to create new PEMs for ZD that are available online that are both readable and understandable. The PEMAT and readability formulas can provide a framework for authors to create these materials. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. Assessing the Readability of Online Information About Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Manish P; Swindell, Hasani W; Westermann, Robert W; Rosneck, James T; Lynch, T Sean

    2018-04-06

    To investigate the current readability of online information pertaining to hip arthroscopy. The terms "hip arthroscopy" and "hip scope" were entered into the advanced search functions of Google, Yahoo!, and Bing on March 25, 2017, and results from the first 3 pages were analyzed. Results were required to be unique, accessible websites with information about hip arthroscopy conveyed primarily via analyzable text. Two reviewers applied inclusion criteria to the initial 97 results, discussing to reach consensus in cases of disagreement. Overall, 60 unique results were reviewed with 48 meeting inclusion criteria. Websites were categorized as physician-sponsored, academic, commercial, governmental and nonprofit organization (NPO), or unspecified. Readability was measured via 6 different indices: the Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease (FRE), Gunning Fog Score, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), and Automated Readability Index (ARI) along with an average grade level and readability classification score. Forty-eight unique websites were assessed for readability, with physician-sponsored webpages composing the majority (47.92%) followed by academic sources (35.42%). The webpages' average grade level, incorporating information from all 6 metrics, was 12.79 ± 1.98. The current readability of online information pertaining to hip arthroscopy is at an inappropriately high reading level compared with the sixth-grade level recommended by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health, thus introducing significant barriers to understanding for many patients. Online materials should be edited to reduce word and sentence length and complexity, use simpler terms, and minimize use of passive voice to facilitate patient knowledge acquisition and understanding of online information about hip arthroscopy. This study shows that the current readability of online information on hip arthroscopy exceeds the suggested sixth-grade reading level. It

  3. Readability of Healthcare Literature for Hepatitis B and C.

    PubMed

    Meillier, Andrew; Patel, Shyam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M S

    2015-12-01

    Patients increasingly use the Internet for educational material concerning health and diseases. This information can be utilized to teach the population of hepatitis B and C if properly written at the necessary grade level of the intended patient population. We explored the readability of online resources concerning hepatitis B and C. Google searches were performed for "Hepatitis B" and "Hepatitis C." The Internet resources that were intended for patient education were used with specific exclusions. Articles were taken from 19 and 23 different websites focusing on the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis B and C, respectively. The articles were analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Solutions, Vandalia, OH) using 10 different readability scales. The results were compared and averaged to identify the anticipated academic grade level required to understand the information. The average readability scores of the 10 scales had ranges of 9.7-16.4 for hepatitis B and 9.2-16.4 for hepatitis C. The average academic reading grade level for hepatitis B was 12.6 ± 2.1 and for hepatitis C was 12.7 ± 2.1. There was no significant discrepancy between the hepatitis B and C Internet resource averaged grade levels. The resources accessed by patients are higher than the previously determined necessary grade level for patients to properly understand the intended information. The American Medical Association recommends material should be simplified to grade levels below the sixth grade level to benefit the ideal proportion of the patient population.

  4. Readability Assessment of Online Patient Education Material on Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kher, Akhil; Johnson, Sandra; Griffith, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Online health information is being used more ubiquitously by the general population. However, this information typically favors only a small percentage of readers, which can result in suboptimal medical outcomes for patients. The readability of online patient education materials regarding the topic of congestive heart failure was assessed through six readability assessment tools. The search phrase "congestive heart failure" was employed into the search engine Google. Out of the first 100 websites, only 70 were included attending to compliance with selection and exclusion criteria. These were then assessed through six readability assessment tools. Only 5 out of 70 websites were within the limits of the recommended sixth-grade readability level. The mean readability scores were as follows: the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (9.79), Gunning-Fog Score (11.95), Coleman-Liau Index (15.17), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index (11.39), and the Flesch Reading Ease (48.87). Most of the analyzed websites were found to be above the sixth-grade readability level recommendations. Efforts need to be made to better tailor online patient education materials to the general population.

  5. Readability of Online Patient Educational Resources Found on NCI-Designated Cancer Center Web Sites.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stephen A; Francis, David; Hullett, Craig R; Morris, Zachary S; Fisher, Michael M; Brower, Jeffrey V; Bradley, Kristin A; Anderson, Bethany M; Bassetti, Michael F; Kimple, Randall J

    2016-06-01

    The NIH and Department of Health & Human Services recommend online patient information (OPI) be written at a sixth grade level. We used a panel of readability analyses to assess OPI from NCI-Designated Cancer Center (NCIDCC) Web sites. Cancer.gov was used to identify 68 NCIDCC Web sites from which we collected both general OPI and OPI specific to breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers. This text was analyzed by 10 commonly used readability tests: the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Flesch Reading Ease scale, Flesch-Kinaid Grade Level, FORCAST scale, Fry Readability Graph, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook index, New Fog Count, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph, and Coleman-Liau Index. We tested the hypothesis that the readability of NCIDCC OPI was written at the sixth grade level. Secondary analyses were performed to compare readability of OPI between comprehensive and noncomprehensive centers, by region, and to OPI produced by the American Cancer Society (ACS). A mean of 30,507 words from 40 comprehensive and 18 noncomprehensive NCIDCCs was analyzed (7 nonclinical and 3 without appropriate OPI were excluded). Using a composite grade level score, the mean readability score of 12.46 (ie, college level: 95% CI, 12.13-12.79) was significantly greater than the target grade level of 6 (middle-school: P<.001). No difference between comprehensive and noncomprehensive centers was identified. Regional differences were identified in 4 of the 10 readability metrics (P<.05). ACS OPI provides easier language, at the seventh to ninth grade level, across all tests (P<.01). OPI from NCIDCC Web sites is more complex than recommended for the average patient. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  6. Readability assessment of patient education materials on major otolaryngology association websites.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Li, Shawn; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Various otolaryngology associations provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEM) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of otolaryngology-related IPEMs on various otolaryngology association websites and to determine whether they are above the recommended reading level for patient education materials. Analysis of patient education materials from 9 major otolaryngology association websites. The readability of 262 otolaryngology-related IPEMs was assessed with 8 numerical and 2 graphical readability tools. Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) analysis. Mean readability scores for each otolaryngology association website were compared. Mean website readability scores using Flesch Reading Ease test, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Coleman-Liau Index, SMOG grading, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST Formula, New Fog Count Test, Raygor Readability Estimate, and the Fry Readability Graph ranged from 20.0 to 57.8, 9.7 to 17.1, 10.7 to 15.9, 11.6 to 18.2, 10.9 to 15.0, 8.6 to 16.0, 10.4 to 12.1, 8.5 to 11.8, 10.5 to 17.0, and 10.0 to 17.0, respectively. ANOVA results indicate a significant difference (P < .05) between the websites for each individual assessment. The IPEMs found on all otolaryngology association websites exceed the recommended fourth- to sixth-grade reading level.

  7. Readability analysis of online resources related to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kathleen D; Vargas, Christina R; Ho, Olivia A; Chuang, Danielle J; Weiss, Jonathan; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-11-01

    Patients seeking health information commonly use the Internet as the first source for material. Studies show that well-informed patients have increased involvement, satisfaction, and healthcare outcomes. As one-third of Americans have only basic or below basic health literacy, the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend patient-directed health resources be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study evaluates the readability of commonly accessed online resources on lung cancer. A search for "lung cancer" was performed using Google and Bing, and the top 10 websites were identified. Location services were disabled, and sponsored sites were excluded. Relevant articles (n = 109) with patient-directed content available directly from the main sites were downloaded. Readability was assessed using 10 established methods and analyzed with articles grouped by parent website. The average reading grade level across all sites was 11.2, with a range from 8.8 (New Fog Count) to 12.2 (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook). The average Flesch Reading Ease score was 52, corresponding with fairly difficult to read text. The readability varied when compared by individual website, ranging in grade level from 9.2 to 15.2. Only 10 articles (9%) were written below a sixth-grade level and these tended to discuss simpler topics. Patient-directed online information about lung cancer exceeds the recommended sixth-grade reading level. Readability varies between individual websites, allowing physicians to direct patients according to level of health literacy. Modifications to existing materials can significantly improve readability while maintaining content for patients with low health literacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Readability of Spine-Related Patient Education Materials From Leading Orthopedic Academic Centers.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Justine H; Yi, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional analysis of online spine-related patient education materials from leading academic centers. To assess the readability levels of spine surgery-related patient education materials available on the websites of academic orthopedic surgery departments. The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular resource for patient education. Yet many previous studies have found that Internet-based orthopedic-related patient education materials from subspecialty societies are written at a level too difficult for the average American; however, no prior study has assessed the readability of spine surgery-related patient educational materials from leading academic centers. All spine surgery-related articles from the online patient education libraries of the top five US News & World Report-ranked orthopedic institutions were assessed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of articles amongst the five academic institutions and articles were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the recommended sixth- or eight-grade levels. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of readability assessment were assessed. A total of 122 articles were reviewed. The mean overall FK grade level was 11.4; the difference in mean FK grade level between each department varied significantly (range, 9.3-13.4; P < 0.0001). Twenty-three articles (18.9%) had a readability level at or below the eighth grade level, and only one (0.8%) was at or below the sixth grade level. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were both excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 1 for both). Online patient education materials related to spine from academic orthopedic centers are written at a level too high for the average patient, consistent with spine surgery-related patient education materials provided by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and spine subspecialty societies. This study

  9. Readability analysis of online health information about overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin; Shee, Kevin; Yap, Ronald L

    2017-09-01

    Despite the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) and the widespread accessibility of patient education information on the Internet, the readability of this information and its potential impact on patient decision-making are not known. This study evaluates the readability of OAB material online in the context of website ownership and the Health on the Net standard for information reliability. Three Internet search platforms were queried daily with OAB-related keywords for 30 days. Readability analysis was performed using the SMOG test, Dale-Chall readability formula, and Fry readability graph. Websites were stratified by ownership type and Health on the Net certification to compare readability metrics. After 270 total searches, 57 websites were analyzed. Mean SMOG reading grade was 10.7 (SD = 1.6) and 10.1 in an adjusted calculation to reduce overestimation from medical jargon. Mean Dale-Chall score was 9.2 (SD = 0.9), or grade 13-15. Mean Fry graph coordinates (177 syllables, 5.9 sentences) corresponded to grade 15. Only seven sites (12%) were predicted to be readable by the average adult with an eighth-grade reading level. Mean reading grades were not significantly different between academic versus commercial sites and Health on the Net-certified versus non-certified sites. A large majority of online information about OAB treatment exceeds the reading ability of most adults. Neither websites sponsored by academic institutions nor those certified by the Health on the Net standard have easier readability. The readability of health information online may be distinct from reliability in the context of urological literacy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Readability evaluation of Internet-based patient education materials related to the anesthesiology field.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Jung, Michael; Mccaffery, Kirsten J; McCarthy, Robert J; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of the current investigation was to assess the readability of Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology. We hypothesized that the majority of patient education materials would not be written according to current recommended readability grade level. Online patient education materials describing procedures, risks, and management of anesthesia-related topics were identified using the search engine Google (available at www.google.com) using the terms anesthesia, anesthesiology, anesthesia risks, and anesthesia care. Cross-sectional evaluation. None. Assessments of content readability were performed using validated instruments (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formulae, the Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, the New Dale-Chall Test, the Fry graph, and the Flesch Reading Ease score). Ninety-six Web sites containing Internet patient education materials (IPEMs) were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) readability grade level for all evaluated IPEMs was 13.5 (12.0-14.6). All the evaluated documents were classified at a greater readability level than the current recommended readability grade, P < .001. Readability grades were not significantly different among different IPEM sources. Assessment by the Flesch Reading Ease test classified all but 4 IPEMs as at least fairly difficult to read. Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology are currently written far above the recommended readability grade level. High complexity of written education materials likely limits access of information to millions of American patients. Redesign of online content of Web sites that provide patient education material regarding anesthesia could be an important step in improving access to information for patients with poor health literacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Are condom instructions readable? Results of a readability study.

    PubMed Central

    Richwald, G A; Wamsley, M A; Coulson, A H; Morisky, D E

    1988-01-01

    The use of condoms has assumed a central position in the current strategy to prevent sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. The effectiveness of condoms in disease prophylaxis is dependent, to a degree, on their correct use. Condom manufacturers routinely include information on condom use either printed on the actual package or in an enclosed package insert. With the use of three readability formulas, the reading grade level was determined for 14 different sets of instructions included with 25 brands of condoms manufactured by 7 domestic and 1 overseas manufacturer. The readability formulas, when applied to instructions for condom use, estimated that, conservatively, 8 of the 14 instructions required at least reading at the level of a high school graduate and none required less than a 10th grade level. Clearly written instructions and simple concepts could assist current and future condom users in the correct use of condoms and improve the effectiveness of condoms in the prevention of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:3136494

  12. Is the Readability of Spine-Related Patient Education Material Improving?: An Assessment of Subspecialty Websites.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Cheatham, Morgan; Naqvi, Syed S; Marthi, Siddharth; Dang, Victor; Palumbo, Mark A; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of spine-related patient education materials (PEMs) from subspecialty websites. The aim of this study was to assess the readability of spine-related PEMs and compare to readability data from 2008. Many spine patients use the Internet for health information. Several agencies recommend that the readability of online PEMs should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level, as health literacy predicts health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the North American Spine Society (NASS), American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) online PEMs meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. All publicly accessible spine-related entries within the patient education section of the NASS, AANS, and AAOS websites were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula. Readability scores were also compared with a similar 2008 analysis. Comparative statistics were performed. A total of 125 entries from the subspecialty websites were analyzed. The average (SD) readability of the online articles was grade level 10.7 (2.3). Of the articles, 117 (93.6%) had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. The readability of the articles exceeded the maximum recommended level by an average of 4.7 grade levels (95% CI, 4.292-5.103; P < 0.001). Compared with 2008, the three societies published more spine-related patient education articles (61 vs. 125, P = 0.045) and the average readability level improved from 11.5 to 10.7 (P = 0.018). Of three examined societies, only one showed significant improvement over time. Our findings suggest that the spine-related PEMs on the NASS, AAOS, and AANS websites have readability levels that may make comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the patient population. Although some progress has been made in the readability of PEMs over the past 7 years, additional improvement is necessary. 2.

  13. Readability Assessment of Online Patient Education Material on Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Online health information is being used more ubiquitously by the general population. However, this information typically favors only a small percentage of readers, which can result in suboptimal medical outcomes for patients. Objective The readability of online patient education materials regarding the topic of congestive heart failure was assessed through six readability assessment tools. Methods The search phrase “congestive heart failure” was employed into the search engine Google. Out of the first 100 websites, only 70 were included attending to compliance with selection and exclusion criteria. These were then assessed through six readability assessment tools. Results Only 5 out of 70 websites were within the limits of the recommended sixth-grade readability level. The mean readability scores were as follows: the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (9.79), Gunning-Fog Score (11.95), Coleman-Liau Index (15.17), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index (11.39), and the Flesch Reading Ease (48.87). Conclusion Most of the analyzed websites were found to be above the sixth-grade readability level recommendations. Efforts need to be made to better tailor online patient education materials to the general population. PMID:28656111

  14. Readability of patient information and consent documents in rheumatological studies.

    PubMed

    Hamnes, Bente; van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-07-16

    Before participation in medical research an informed consent must be obtained. This study investigates whether the readability of patient information and consent documents (PICDs) corresponds to the average educational level of participants in rheumatological studies in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway. 24 PICDs from studies were collected and readability was assessed independently using the Gunning's Fog Index (FOG) and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grading. The mean score for the FOG and SMOG grades were 14.2 (9.0-19.0) and 14.2 (12-17) respectively. The mean FOG and SMOG grades were 12.7 and 13.3 in the Dutch studies, 15.0 and 14.9 in the Danish studies, and 14.6 and 14.3 in the Norwegian studies, respectively. Out of the 2865 participants, more than 57 % had a lower educational level than the highest readability score calculated in the individual study. As the readability level of the PICDs did not match the participants' educational level, consent may not have been valid, as the participants may have had a limited understanding of what they agreed to participate in. There should be more focus on the readability of PICDs. National guidelines for how to write clear and unambiguous PICDs in simple and easily understandable language could increase the focus on the readability of PICD.

  15. Readability assessment of online patient education materials provided by the European Association of Urology.

    PubMed

    Betschart, Patrick; Zumstein, Valentin; Bentivoglio, Maico; Engeler, Daniel; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Abt, Dominik

    2017-12-01

    To assess the readability of the web-based patient education material provided by the European Association of Urology. English patient education materials (PEM) as available in May 2017 were obtained from the EAU website. Each topic was analyzed separately using six well-established readability assessment tools, including Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), SMOG Grade Level (SMOG), Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Flesch Reading Ease Formula (FRE) and Fry Readability Graph (FRG). A total of 17 main topics were identified of which separate basic and in-depth information is provided for 14 topics. Calculation of grade levels (FKGL, SMOG, CLI, GFI) showed readability scores of 7th-13th grade for basic information, 8th-15th grade for in-depth information and 7th-15th grade for single PEM. Median FRE score was 54 points (range 45-65) for basic information and 56 points (41-64) for in-depth information. The FRG as a graphical assessment revealed only 13 valid results with an approximate 8th-17th grade level. The EAU provides carefully worked out PEM for 17 urological topics. Although improved readability compared to similar analyses was found, a simplification of certain chapters might be helpful to facilitate better patient understanding.

  16. A readability assessment of online stroke information.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nikhil; Tridimas, Andreas; Fitzsimmons, Paul R

    2014-07-01

    Patients and carers increasingly access the Internet as a source of health information. Poor health literacy is extremely common and frequently limits patient's comprehension of health care information literature. We aimed to assess the readability of online consumer-orientated stroke information using 2 validated readability measures. The 100 highest Google ranked consumer-oriented stroke Web pages were assessed for reading difficulty using the Flesch-Kincaid and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formulae. None of the included Web pages complied with the current readability guidelines when readability was measured using the gold standard SMOG formula. Mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 10.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.97-10.9) and mean SMOG grade 12.1 (95% CI 11.7-12.4). Over half of the Web pages were produced at graduate reading levels or above. Not-for-profit Web pages were significantly easier to read (P=.0006). The Flesch-Kincaid formula significantly underestimated reading difficulty, with a mean underestimation of 1.65 grades (95% CI 1.49-1.81), P<.0001. Most consumer-orientated stroke information Web sites require major text revision to comply with readability guidelines and to be comprehensible to the average patient. The Flesch-Kincaid formula significantly underestimates reading difficulty, and SMOG should be used as the measure of choice. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Readability of the Patient Education Section of the AOFAS Website.

    PubMed

    Bluman, Eric M; Foley, Ryan P; Chiodo, Christopher P

    2009-04-01

    One of the goals of the AOFAS website is to provide easily understandable information about orthopaedic foot and ankle conditions to the public. However, validation of this goal has not been conducted. Evaluation of text reading level is frequently performed using the Flesch-Kincaid formula (FKF). This study evaluated whether the patient information section of the AOFAS website meets recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Seventy-nine publicly accessible entries within the patient education section of the AOFAS website were analyzed for grade level readability using the FKF. Two entries were unable to be effectively evaluated using the FKF. The average grade reading level of all patient education entries was 8.3 (95% CI 7.8 to 8.9). Only 20.8% of entries were at or below a 6th grade reading level. Almost 30% were above the 8th grade level. The average grade levels of the constituent sections were: ;;Ailments and Conditions'', 8.7; ;;Steps to Recovery'', 7.1; ;;Adult Feet'', 8.3; ;;Children's Feet'', 7.5; ;;Foot Health and Fitness'', 7.8; ;;Shoes'', 8.5; and ;;Glossary'', 10.1. The percentage of entries within these sections below a 7th grade reading level were 13%, 30%, 0%, 0%, 43%, 24% and 0%, respectively. The percentage of entries at or below the recommended 6th grade reading level on the AOFAS website compared favorably with other orthopaedic organizations' websites. However, the majority still exceeds a recommended reading level. To enhance the readability of patient education materials, we believe use of computer aided readability assessment tools should be considered in future website revisions.

  18. Readability assessment of online urology patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Colaco, Marc; Svider, Peter F; Agarwal, Nitin; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Jackson, Imani M

    2013-03-01

    The National Institutes of Health, American Medical Association, and United States Department of Health and Human Services recommend that patient education materials be written at a fourth to sixth grade reading level to facilitate comprehension. We examined and compared the readability and difficulty of online patient education materials from the American Urological Association and academic urology departments in the Northeastern United States. We assessed the online patient education materials for difficulty level with 10 commonly used readability assessment tools, including the Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, New Dale-Chall Test, Coleman-Liau index, New Fog Count, Raygor Readability Estimate, FORCAST test and Fry score. Most patient education materials on the websites of these programs were written at or above the eleventh grade reading level. Urological online patient education materials are written above the recommended reading level. They may need to be simplified to facilitate better patient understanding of urological topics. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of the Readability of Selected Instructions, Publications and Forms Commonly Used by Adults and the Minimum Literacy Level as Defined by the United States Office of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beris, Carole

    The Fry Readability Graph was used to assess the approximate readability level of each of 23 selected instructions, publications, and forms commonly used by adults in order to compare their readability levels with the minimum literacy level as defined by the United States Office of Education (approximately the eighth grade level). The results…

  20. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  1. Readability of Patient Education Materials From the Web Sites of Orthopedic Implant Manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Meghan M; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil I; Cross, Michael B; Della Valle, Craig J

    2017-12-01

    Prior studies indicate that orthopedic patient education materials are written at a level that is too high for the average patient. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of online patient education materials provided by orthopedic implant manufacturers. All patient education articles available in 2013 from the web sites of the 5 largest orthopedic implant manufacturers were identified. Each article was evaluated with the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. The number of articles with readability ≤ the eighth-grade level (average reading ability of US adults) and the sixth-grade level (recommended level for patient education materials) was determined. Mean readability levels of each company's articles were compared using analysis of variance (significance set at P < .05). A total of 581 articles were reviewed from the 5 largest implant manufacturers. The mean overall FK grade level was 10.9 (range, 3.8-16.1). Only 58 articles (10%) were written ≤ the eighth-grade level, and only 13 (2.2%) were ≤ the sixth-grade level. The mean FK grade level was significantly different among groups (Smith & Nephew = 12.0, Stryker = 11.6, Biomet = 11.3, DePuy = 10.6, Zimmer = 10.1; P < .0001). The majority of patient education materials from implant manufacturers are written at a level too high to be comprehended by the average patient. Future efforts should be made to improve the readability of orthopedic patient education materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Readability of Online Patient Education Materials Related to IR.

    PubMed

    McEnteggart, Gregory E; Naeem, Muhammad; Skierkowski, Dorothy; Baird, Grayson L; Ahn, Sun H; Soares, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online patient education materials (OPEM) related to common diseases treated by and procedures performed by interventional radiology (IR). The following websites were chosen based on their average Google search return for each IR OPEM content area examined in this study: Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), National Library of Medicine, RadiologyInfo, Mayo Clinic, WebMD, and Wikipedia. IR OPEM content area was assessed for the following: peripheral arterial disease, central venous catheter, varicocele, uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and deep vein thrombosis. The following algorithms were used to estimate and compare readability levels: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formula, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Coleman-Liau Index. Data were analyzed using general mixed modeling. On average, online sources that required beyond high school grade-level readability were Wikipedia (15.0), SIR (14.2), and RadiologyInfo (12.4); sources that required high school grade-level readability were CIRSE (11.3), Mayo Clinic (11.0), WebMD (10.6), and National Library of Medicine (9.0). On average, OPEM on uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, varicocele, and peripheral arterial disease required the highest level of readability (12.5, 12.3, 12.3, and 12.2, respectively). The IR OPEM assessed in this study were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and the health literacy level of the average American adult. Many patients in the general public may not have the ability to read and understand health information in IR OPEM. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Readability Assessment of Online Patient Abdominoplasty Resources.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Nicole A; Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-02-01

    Limited functional health literacy is recognized as an important contributor to health disparities in the United States. As internet access becomes more universal, there is increasing concern about whether patients with poor or marginal literacy can access understandable healthcare information. As such, the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend that patient information be written at a sixth grade level. This study identifies the most popular online resources for patient information about abdominoplasty and evaluates their readability in the context of average American literacy. The two largest internet search engines were queried for "tummy tuck surgery" to simulate a patient search in lay terms. The ten most popular sites common to both search engines were identified, and all relevant articles from the main sites were downloaded. Sponsored results were excluded. Readability analysis of the articles was performed using ten established tests. Online information about abdominoplasty from the ten most popular publically available websites had an overall average readability of 12th grade. Mean reading grade level scores among tests were: Coleman-Liau 11.9, Flesch-Kincaid 11.4, FORCAST 11.1, Fry 13, Gunning Fog 13.5, New Dale-Chall 11.8, New Fog Count 9.9, Raygor Estimate 12, and SMOG 13.4; Flesch Reading Ease index score was 46. Online patient resources about abdominoplasty are uniformly above the recommended target readability level and are likely too difficult for many patients to understand. A range of readability identified among websites could allow surgeons to guide patients to more appropriate resources for their literacy skills.

  4. Evaluation of the Readability of Dermatological Postoperative Patient Information Leaflets Across England.

    PubMed

    Hunt, William T N; McGrath, Emily J

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative patient information leaflets (PILs) provide important guidance to patients after skin surgery. Readability is a method of evaluating information for text comprehension. The recommended level for PIL readability is US grade ≤6. To evaluate the readability of public English dermatological postoperative PILs. All dermatology departments in England were requested to provide their postoperative PILs. Patient information leaflets were evaluated using Readability Studio (Oleander Software, Vandalia, OH). Two preselected parameters were also noted: whether the PIL was doctor or nurse-written, and whether the PIL was Information Standard hallmarked. Eighty-five of one hundred thirty (65.4%) of PILs were evaluated. Only 29.4% of the PILs were grade level ≤6 with Flesch-Kincaid. The mean readability levels were 7.8 for Flesch-Kincaid, 67 for Flesch reading ease, 10.5 for Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), 9.4 for Gunning-Fog, 8 for Fry, and 9.8 for FORCAST. No instruments demonstrated a significant difference between doctor (6) and nurse-written (7) PILs. Two instruments found that the 3 Information Standard hallmarked PILs had a higher (harder) readability than ordinary PILs (n = 82) (Gunning-Fog, p = .029*; SMOG p = .049*). Most English postoperative dermatological PILs' readability levels exceed recommendations (US grade ≤6). Departmental PILs should be reviewed to ensure that they are comprehensible to their patients.

  5. Comparative Readability of Shoulder and Elbow Patient Education Materials within Orthopaedic Websites.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Melamed, Eitan; Capo, John T

    2015-12-01

    There is growing concern that the readability of online orthopaedic patient education materials are too difficult for the general public to fully understand. It is recommended that this information be at the sixth grade reading level or lower. This study compared the readability of shoulder and elbow education articles from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) websites. Seventy-six patient education articles from the AAOS and ASSH concerning shoulder and elbow disorders were evaluated. Each article was assessed for the number of years since its last update, word count, percentage of passive sentences, Flesch Reading Ease score, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grade, and New Dale-Chall grade level. Only one article was at or below the sixth grade reading level. The AAOS and ASSH articles had the following respective scores: a mean Flesch Reading Ease score of 54.3 and 51.8, Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 9.4 and 10.3, SMOG grade of 8.5 and 9.4, and New Dale-Chall grade of 10.4 and 11.0. Articles from the AAOS were longer (p < 0.001), had a lower percentage of passive sentences (p < 0.001), and were more recently updated (p = 0.02) than their ASSH counterparts. Higher percentages of passive sentences were found to correlate with more difficult readability. Patient education materials regarding the shoulder and elbow on the AAOS and ASSH websites have readability scores above the recommended reading level. These may be too challenging for the majority of patients to read and consequently serve as a barrier to proper patient education. Reducing the percentage of passive sentences may serve as a novel target for improving readability.

  6. Readability of spine-related patient education materials from subspecialty organization and spine practitioner websites.

    PubMed

    Vives, Michael; Young, Lyle; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of spine-related websites available to the general public. To assess the readability of spine-related patient educational materials available on professional society and individual surgeon or practice based websites. The Internet has become a valuable source of patient education material. A significant percentage of patients, however, find this Internet based information confusing. Healthcare experts recommend that the readability of patient education material be less than the sixth grade level. The Flesch-Kincaid grade level is the most widely used method to evaluate the readability score of textual material, with lower scores suggesting easier readability. We conducted an Internet search of all patient education documents on the North American Spine Society (NASS), American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), and a sample of 10 individual surgeon or practice based websites. The Flesch-Kincaid grade level of each article was calculated using widely available Microsoft Office Word software. The mean grade level of articles on the various professional society and individual/practice based websites were compared. A total of 121 articles from the various websites were available and analyzed. All 4 categories of websites had mean Flesch-Kincaid grade levels greater than 10. Only 3 articles (2.5%) were found to be at or below the sixth grade level, the recommended readability level for adult patients in the United States. There were no significant differences among the mean Flesch-Kincaid grade levels from the AAOS, NASS, AANS, and practice-based web-sites (P = 0.065, ANOVA). Our findings suggest that most of the Spine-related patient education materials on professional society and practice-based websites have readability scores that may be too high, making comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the United States adult population.

  7. A Study of the Measured Readability Level of Selected Intermediate Grade Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuVall, Charles R.

    It was the purpose of this study to determine the readability level of all social studies textbooks authorized for purchase in the adoption made by the Textbook Commission of the Indiana State Board of Education on December 12, 1968 for five years beginning July 1, 1969. A thorough search of the literature and research did not reveal that their…

  8. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  9. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11–12 years old. Aims To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Results Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15–16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Conclusions Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. PMID:26382948

  10. Assessing Online Patient Education Readability for Spine Surgery Procedures.

    PubMed

    Long, William W; Modi, Krishna D; Haws, Brittany E; Khechen, Benjamin; Massel, Dustin H; Mayo, Benjamin C; Singh, Kern

    2018-03-01

    Increased patient reliance on Internet-based health information has amplified the need for comprehensible online patient education articles. As suggested by the American Medical Association and National Institute of Health, spine fusion articles should be written for a 4th-6th-grade reading level to increase patient comprehension, which may improve postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine the readability of online health care education information relating to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and lumbar fusion procedures. Online health-education resource qualitative analysis. Three search engines were utilized to access patient education articles for common cervical and lumbar spine procedures. Relevant articles were analyzed for readability using Readability Studio Professional Edition software (Oleander Software Ltd). Articles were stratified by organization type as follows: General Medical Websites (GMW), Healthcare Network/Academic Institutions (HNAI), and Private Practices (PP). Thirteen common readability tests were performed with the mean readability of each compared between subgroups using analysis of variance. ACDF and lumbar fusion articles were determined to have a mean readability of 10.7±1.5 and 11.3±1.6, respectively. GMW, HNAI, and PP subgroups had a mean readability of 10.9±2.9, 10.7±2.8, and 10.7±2.5 for ACDF and 10.9±3.0, 10.8±2.9, and 11.6±2.7 for lumbar fusion articles. Of 310 total articles, only 6 (3 ACDF and 3 lumbar fusion) were written for comprehension below a 7th-grade reading level. Current online literature from medical websites containing information regarding ACDF and lumbar fusion procedures are written at a grade level higher than the suggested guidelines. Therefore, current patient education articles should be revised to accommodate the average reading level in the United States and may result in improved patient comprehension and postoperative outcomes.

  11. Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Saurin; Cherla, Deepa V; Shukla, Pratik A; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2012-09-01

    Various professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and health care-related Web sites provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEMs) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the 6th-grade reading level recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. The purpose of this study is to assess the readability of facial fracture (FF)-related IPEMs and compare readability levels of IPEMs provided by four sources: professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and miscellaneous sources. Analysis of IPEMs on FFs available on Google.com. The readability of 41 FF-related IPEMs was assessed with four readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. Only 4.9% of IPEMs were written at or below the 6th-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were: FRES 54.10, FKGL 9.89, SMOG 12.73, and Gunning FOG 12.98, translating into FF-related IPEMs being written at a "difficult" writing level, which is above the level of reading understanding of the average American adult. IPEMs related to FFs are written above the recommended 6th-grade reading level. Consequently, this information would be difficult to understand by the average US patient. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Readability assessment of online tracheostomy care resources.

    PubMed

    Kong, Keonho Albert; Hu, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    To assess the readability of online tracheostomy care resources. Cross-sectional study. Academic center. A Google search was performed for "tracheostomy care" in January 2014. The top 50 results were categorized into major versus minor websites and patient-oriented versus professional-oriented resources. These websites were evaluated with the following readability tools: Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG). Readability scores for the websites were FRES 57.21 ± 16.71 (possible range = 0-100), FKGL 8.33 ± 2.84 (possible range = 3-12), SMOG 11.25 ± 2.49 (possible range = 3-19), and GFOG 11.43 ± 4.07 (possible range = 3-19). There was no significant difference in all 4 readability scores between major (n = 41) and minor (n = 9) websites. Professional-oriented websites (n = 19) had the following readability scores: FRES 40.77 ± 11.69, FKGL 10.93 ± 2.48, SMOG 13.29 ± 2.32, and GFOG 14.91 ± 3.98. Patient-oriented websites (n = 31) had the following readability scores: FRES 67.29 ± 9.91, FKGL 6.73 ± 1.61, SMOG 10.01 ± 1.64, and GFOG 9.30 ± 2.27. Professional-oriented websites had more difficult readability scores than patient-oriented websites for FRES (P < .00), FKGL (P < .00), SMOG (P < .00), and GFOG (P < .00). Online tracheostomy care resources were written at a level more difficult than the recommended fourth- to sixth-grade level for written health information. There was no significant difference in readability between major and minor websites. Professional-oriented websites were more difficult to read than patient-oriented websites. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  13. Readability assessment of Internet-based patient education materials related to endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Cherla, Deepa V; Sanghvi, Saurin; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Numerous professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals provide Internet-based patient education materials (PEMs) to the general public, but not all of this information is written at a reading level appropriate for the average patient. The National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Health and Human Services recommend that PEMs be written at or below the sixth-grade level. Our purpose was to assess the readability of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS)-related PEMs available on the Internet and compare readability levels of PEMs provided by three sources: professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals. A descriptive and correlational design was used for this study. The readability of 31 ESS-related PEMs was assessed with four different readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. The majority of PEMs (96.8%) were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL (P < .001). Only one article (3.2%) had an FKGL at or below the sixth-grade level. The mean readability values were: FRES 47.1 ± 13.4, FKGL 10.7 ± 2.4, SMOG 13.7 ± 1.6, and Gunning FOG 12.4 ± 2.7. Current Internet-based PEMs related to ESS, regardless of source type, were written well above the recommended sixth-grade level. Materials from the hospitals/university-affiliated websites had lower readability scores, but were still above recommended levels. Web-based PEMs pertaining to ESS should be written with the average patient in mind. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Assessing the content, presentation, and readability of dental informed consents.

    PubMed

    Glick, Aaron; Taylor, David; Valenza, John A; Walji, Muhammad F

    2010-08-01

    Informed consents are important aids in helping patients make optimal decisions. Little knowledge exists about the quality of dental informed consents. Fifty-two informed consents used throughout the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Dental Branch were evaluated based on the quality of their content, readability, and presentation. Content quality was judged on four basic elements: description of procedure, risk, benefits, and alternatives. Of the clinical consents, 26 percent of forms contained all four of the basic content elements, 48 percent contained three of four elements, 16 percent contained two of four elements, and 10 percent contained one of four elements. Presentation quality was judged on twelve criteria items. The average clinical consent included seven out of twelve presentation items, and the average nonclinical consent included eight out of twelve items. Readability was judged using three standard instruments for rating readability: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade-Level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grading. Average Flesch-Kincaid Grade-Level was 12.7 (range, 7.4 to 19.1), significantly higher than the recommended ninth grade level (p<.001). The results suggest that many existing dental informed consents may be improved by 1) increasing the comprehensiveness of the content, 2) improving the design and layout, and 3) reducing the readability levels for patient comprehension.

  15. Readability and suitability assessment of patient education materials in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Rennie L; Von Feldt, Joan M; Schumacher, H Ralph; Merkel, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Web-based patient education materials and printed pamphlets are frequently used by providers to inform patients about their rheumatic disease. Little attention has been given to the readability and appropriateness of patient materials. The objective of this study was to examine the readability and suitability of commonly used patient education materials for osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and vasculitis. Five or 6 popular patient resources for each disease were chosen for evaluation. Readability was measured using the Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level and suitability was determined by the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), a score that considers characteristics such as content, graphics, layout/topography, and cultural appropriateness. Three different reviewers rated the SAM score and means were used in the analysis. Twenty-three resources written on the 4 diseases were evaluated. The education material for all 4 diseases studied had readability above the eighth-grade level and readability did not differ among the diseases. Only 5 of the 23 resources received superior suitability scores, and 3 of these 5 resources were written for OA. All 4 diseases received adequate suitability scores, with OA having the highest mean suitability score. Most patient education materials for rheumatic diseases are written at readability levels above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and have only adequate suitability. Developing more appropriate educational resources for patients with rheumatic diseases may improve patient comprehension. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Readability of Orthopaedic Patient-reported Outcome Measures: Is There a Fundamental Failure to Communicate?

    PubMed

    Perez, Jorge L; Mosher, Zachary A; Watson, Shawna L; Sheppard, Evan D; Brabston, Eugene W; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent A

    2017-08-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to quantify patients' perceptions of functional ability. The American Medical Association and NIH suggest patient materials be written at or below 6th to 8th grade reading levels, respectively, yet one recent study asserts that few PROMs comply with these recommendations, and suggests that the majority of PROMs are written at too high of a reading level for self-administered patient use. Notably, this study was limited in its use of only one readability algorithm, although there is no commonly accepted, standard readability algorithm for healthcare-related materials. Our study, using multiple readability equations and heeding equal weight to each, hopes to yield a broader, all-encompassing estimate of readability, thereby offering a more accurate assessment of the readability of orthopaedic PROMS. (1) What proportion of orthopaedic-related PROMs and orthopaedic-related portions of the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) are written at or below the 6th and 8th grade levels? (2) Is there a correlation between the number of questions in the PROM and reading level? (3) Using systematic edits based on guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, what proportion of PROMs achieved American Medical Association and NIH-recommended reading levels? Eighty-six (86) independent, orthopaedic and general wellness PROMs, drawn from commonly referenced orthopaedic websites and prior studies, were chosen for analysis. Additionally, owing to their increasing use in orthopaedics, four relevant short forms, and 11 adult, physical health question banks from the PROMIS ® , were included for analysis. All documents were analyzed for reading grade levels using 19 unique readability algorithms. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS Version 22.0. The majority of the independent PROMs (64 of 86; 74%) were written at or below the 6th grade level, with 81 of 86

  17. Readability assessment of patient education materials from the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation.

    PubMed

    Kasabwala, Khushabu; Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2012-09-01

    Americans are increasingly turning to the Internet as a source of health care information. These online resources should be written at a level readily understood by the average American. This study evaluates the readability of online patient education information available from the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) professional Web site using 7 different assessment tools that analyze the materials for reading ease and grade level of its target audience. Analysis of Internet-based patient education material from the AAO-HNSF Web site. Online patient education material from the AAO-HNSF was downloaded in January 2012 and assessed for level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, SMOG grading, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning-Fog Index, Raygor Readability Estimate graph, and Fry Readability graph. The text from each subsection was pasted as plain text into Microsoft Word document, and each subsection was subjected to readability analysis using the software package Readability Studio Professional Edition Version 2012.1. All health care education material assessed is written between an 11th grade and graduate reading level and is considered "difficult to read" by the assessment scales. Online patient education materials on the AAO-HNSF Web site are written above the recommended 6th grade level and may need to be revised to make them more easily understood by a broader audience.

  18. Readability of Brochures Produced by State of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, William G.; Pharr, Paula

    1980-01-01

    A study of the readability of governmental pamphlets produced by the State of Florida, based on the use of the Flesch Reading Ease Formula and the Dale-Chall Formula, suggests that if a seventh or eighth grade readability level is considered an appropriate standard for public information brochures, the brochures tested may be too complex…

  19. The Development and Validation of a Formula for Measuring Single-Sentence Test Item Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Susan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted with 782 elementary school students to determine whether the Homan-Hewitt Readability Formula could identify the readability of a single-sentence test item. Results indicate that a relationship exists between students' reading grade levels and responses to test items written at higher readability levels. (SLD)

  20. Readability assessment of online ophthalmic patient information.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Matthew R; Barry, Robert J; Denniston, Alastair K

    2013-12-01

    Patients increasingly use the Internet to access information related to their disease, but poor health literacy is known to impact negatively on medical outcomes. Multiple agencies have recommended that patient-oriented literature be written at a fourth- to sixth-grade (9-12 years of age) reading level to assist understanding. The readability of online patient-oriented materials related to ophthalmic diagnoses is not yet known. To assess the readability of online literature specifically for a range of ophthalmic conditions. Body text of the top 10 patient-oriented websites for 16 different ophthalmic diagnoses, covering the full range of ophthalmic subspecialties, was analyzed for readability, source (United Kingdom vs non-United Kingdom, not for profit vs commercial), and appropriateness for sight-impaired readers. Four validated readability formulas were used: Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Fog Index (GFOG). Data were compared with the Mann-Whitney test (for 2 groups) and Kruskal-Wallis test (for more than 2 groups) and correlation was assessed by the Spearman r. None of the 160 webpages had readability scores within published guidelines, with 83% assessed as being of "difficult" readability. Not-for-profit webpages were of significantly greater length than commercial webpages (P = .02) and UK-based webpages had slightly superior readability scores compared with those of non-UK webpages (P = .004 to P < .001, depending on the readability formula used). Of all webpages evaluated, only 34% included facility to adjust text size to assist visually impaired readers. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess readability of patient-focused webpages specifically for a range of ophthalmic diagnoses. In keeping with previous studies in other medical conditions, we determined that readability scores were inferior to those recommended, irrespective of the measure used. Although

  1. Readability and quality of wikipedia pages on neurosurgical topics.

    PubMed

    Modiri, Omeed; Guha, Daipayan; Alotaibi, Naif M; Ibrahim, George M; Lipsman, Nir; Fallah, Aria

    2018-03-01

    Wikipedia is the largest online encyclopedia with over 40 million articles, and generating 500 million visits per month. The aim of this study is to assess the readability and quality of Wikipedia pages on neurosurgical related topics. We selected the neurosurgical related Wikipedia pages based on the series of online patient information articles that are published by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). We assessed readability of Wikipedia pages using five different readability scales (Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch Kincaid Grade Level, Gunning Fog Index, SMOG) Grade level, and Coleman-Liau Index). We used the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Clear Communication Index as well as the DISCERN Instrument to evaluate the quality of each Wikipedia article. We identified a total of fifty-five Wikipedia articles that corresponded with patient information articles published by the AANS. This constitutes 77.46% of the AANS topics. The mean Flesch Kincaid reading ease score for all of the Wikipedia articles we analyzed is 31.10, which indicates that a college-level education is necessary to understand them. In comparison to the readability analysis for the AANS articles, the Wikipedia articles were more difficult to read across every scale. None of the Wikipedia articles meet the CDC criterion for clear communications. Our analyses demonstrated that Wikipedia articles related to neurosurgical topics are associated with higher grade levels for reading and also below the expected levels of clear communications for patients. Collaborative efforts from the neurosurgical community are needed to enhance the readability and quality of Wikipedia pages related to neurosurgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the readability of patient education materials from surgical subspecialties.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Shah, Ravi; Schmitt, Paul J; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Carmel, Peter W; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet as a source of information on medical conditions. Because the average American adult reads at a 7th- to 8th-grade level, the National Institutes of Health recommend that patient education material be written between a 4th- and 6th-grade level. In this study, we assess and compare the readability of patient education materials on major surgical subspecialty Web sites relative to otolaryngology. Descriptive and correlational design. Patient education materials from 14 major surgical subspecialty Web sites (American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, American Society of General Surgeons, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Pediatric Surgical Association, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Society for Thoracic Surgeons, and American Urological Association) were downloaded and assessed for their level of readability using 10 widely accepted readability scales. The readability level of patient education material from all surgical subspecialties was uniformly too high. Average readability levels across all subspecialties ranged from the 10th- to 15th-grade level. Otolaryngology and other surgical subspecialties Web sites have patient education material written at an education level that the average American may not be able to understand. To reach a broader population of patients, it might be necessary to rewrite patient education material at a more appropriate level. N/A. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  4. The Quality and Readability of Information Available on the Internet Regarding Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dafang; Schumacher, Charles; Harris, Mitchel B.; Bono, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design An Internet-based evaluation of Web sites regarding lumbar fusion. Objective The Internet has become a major resource for patients; however, the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion is unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion and to determine whether these measures changed with Web site modality, complexity of the search term, or Health on the Net Code of Conduct certification. Methods Using five search engines and three different search terms of varying complexity (“low back fusion,” “lumbar fusion,” and “lumbar arthrodesis”), we identified and reviewed 153 unique Web site hits for information quality and readability. Web sites were specifically analyzed by search term and Web site modality. Information quality was evaluated on a 5-point scale. Information readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid score for reading grade level. Results The average quality score was low. The average reading grade level was nearly six grade levels above that recommended by National Work Group on Literacy and Health. The quality and readability of Internet information was significantly dependent on Web site modality. The use of more complex search terms yielded information of higher reading grade level but not higher quality. Conclusions Higher-quality information about lumbar fusion conveyed using language that is more readable by the general public is needed on the Internet. It is important for health care providers to be aware of the information accessible to patients, as it likely influences their decision making regarding care. PMID:26933614

  5. The Quality and Readability of Information Available on the Internet Regarding Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dafang; Schumacher, Charles; Harris, Mitchel B; Bono, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Study Design An Internet-based evaluation of Web sites regarding lumbar fusion. Objective The Internet has become a major resource for patients; however, the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion is unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality and readability of Internet information regarding lumbar fusion and to determine whether these measures changed with Web site modality, complexity of the search term, or Health on the Net Code of Conduct certification. Methods Using five search engines and three different search terms of varying complexity ("low back fusion," "lumbar fusion," and "lumbar arthrodesis"), we identified and reviewed 153 unique Web site hits for information quality and readability. Web sites were specifically analyzed by search term and Web site modality. Information quality was evaluated on a 5-point scale. Information readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid score for reading grade level. Results The average quality score was low. The average reading grade level was nearly six grade levels above that recommended by National Work Group on Literacy and Health. The quality and readability of Internet information was significantly dependent on Web site modality. The use of more complex search terms yielded information of higher reading grade level but not higher quality. Conclusions Higher-quality information about lumbar fusion conveyed using language that is more readable by the general public is needed on the Internet. It is important for health care providers to be aware of the information accessible to patients, as it likely influences their decision making regarding care.

  6. Online Patient Resources for Liposuction: A Comparative Analysis of Readability.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Christina R; Ricci, Joseph A; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-03-01

    As patients strive to become informed about health care, inadequate functional health literacy is a significant barrier. Nearly half of American adults have poor or marginal health literacy skills and the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association have recommended that patient information should be written at a sixth grade level. The aim of this study is to identify the most commonly used online patient information about liposuction and to evaluate its readability relative to average American literacy. An internet search of "liposuction" was performed and the 10 most popular websites identified. User and location data were disabled and sponsored results excluded. All relevant, patient-directed articles were downloaded and formatted into plain text. Articles were then analyzed using 10 established readability tests. A comparison group was constructed to identify the most popular online consumer information about tattooing. Mean readability scores and specific article characteristics were compared. A total of 80 articles were collected from websites about liposuction. Readability analysis revealed an overall 13.6 grade reading level (range, 10-16 grade); all articles exceeded the target sixth grade level. Consumer websites about tattooing were significantly easier to read, with a mean 7.8 grade level. These sites contained significantly fewer characters per word and words per sentence, as well as a smaller proportion of complex, long, and unfamiliar words. Online patient resources about liposuction are potentially too difficult for a large number of Americans to understand. Liposuction websites are significantly harder to read than consumer websites about tattooing. Aesthetic surgeons are advised to discuss with patients resources they use and guide patients to appropriate information for their skill level.

  7. Readability of patient education materials in ophthalmology: a single-institution study and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew M; Muir, Kelly W; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2016-08-03

    Patient education materials should be written at a level that is understandable for patients with low health literacy. The aims of this study are (1) to review the literature on readability of ophthalmic patient education materials and (2) to evaluate and revise our institution's patient education materials about glaucoma using evidence-based guidelines on writing for patients with low health literacy. A systematic search was conducted on the PubMed/MEDLINE database for studies that have evaluated readability level of ophthalmic patient education materials, and the reported readability scores were assessed. Additionally, we collected evidence-based guidelines for writing easy-to-read patient education materials, and these recommendations were applied to revise 12 patient education handouts on various glaucoma topics at our institution. Readability measures, including Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and word count were calculated for the original and revised documents. The original and revised versions of the handouts were then scored in random order by two glaucoma specialists using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument, a grading scale used to evaluate suitability of health information materials for patients. Paired t test was used to analyze changes in readability measures, word count, and SAM score between original and revised handouts. Finally, five glaucoma patients were interviewed to discuss the revised materials, and patient feedback was analyzed qualitatively. Our literature search included 13 studies that evaluated a total of 950 educational materials. Among the mean FKGL readability scores reported in these studies, the median was 11 (representing an eleventh-grade reading level). At our institution, handouts' readability averaged a tenth-grade reading level (FKGL = 10.0 ± 1.6), but revising the handouts improved their readability to a sixth-grade reading level (FKGL = 6.4 ± 1.2) (p < 0.001). Additionally, the

  8. Improving the readability of online foot and ankle patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Evan D; Hyde, Zane; Florence, Mason N; McGwin, Gerald; Kirchner, John S; Ponce, Brent A

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the need for improving the readability of many patient education materials to increase patient comprehension. This study's purpose was to determine the readability of foot and ankle patient education materials and to determine the extent readability can be improved. We hypothesized that the reading levels would be above the recommended guidelines and that decreasing the sentence length would also decrease the reading level of these patient educational materials. Patient education materials from online public sources were collected. The readability of these articles was assessed by a readability software program. The detailed instructions provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were then used as a guideline for performing edits to help improve the readability of selected articles. The most quantitative guideline, lowering all sentences to less than 15 words, was chosen to show the effect of following the NIH recommendations. The reading levels of the sampled articles were above the sixth to seventh grade recommendations of the NIH. The MedlinePlus website, which is a part of the NIH website, had the lowest reading level (8.1). The articles edited had an average reduction of 1.41 grade levels, with the lowest reduction in the Medline articles of 0.65. Providing detailed instructions to the authors writing these patient education articles and implementing editing techniques based on previous recommendations could lead to an improvement in the readability of patient education materials. This study provides authors of patient education materials with simple editing techniques that will allow for the improvement in the readability of online patient educational materials. The improvement in readability will provide patients with more comprehendible education materials that can strengthen patient awareness of medical problems and treatments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to mammography for breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    AlKhalili, Rend; Shukla, Pratik A; Patel, Ronak H; Sanghvi, Saurin; Hubbi, Basil

    2015-03-01

    The US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) recommends that Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs) be written below the sixth-grade reading level to target the average American adult. This study was designed to determine the readability of IPEMs regarding mammography for breast cancer screening. Three-hundred mammography-related Web sites were reviewed for IPEMs. Forty-two IPEMs that met the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct were assessed for readability level with four readability indices that use existing algorithms based on word and sentence length to quantitatively analyze Internet sources for language intricacy including the following: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG; GFOG). Results were compared to national recommendations, and intergroup analysis was performed. No IPEMs (0%) regarding mammography were written at or below the sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 49.04 ± 10.62; FKGL, 10.71 ± 2.01; SMOG, 13.33 ± 1.67; and Gunning FOG, 14.32 ± 2.18. These scores indicate that the readability of mammography IPEMs is written at a "difficult" level, significantly above the recommended sixth-grade reading level (P < .05) determined by the USDHHS. IPEMs related to mammography are written well above the recommended sixth-grade level and likely reflect other IPEMs in diagnostic radiology. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Readability analysis of healthcare-oriented education resources from the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Misra, Poonam; Agarwal, Nitin; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Hansberry, David R; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Deficient health literacy remains a widespread public issue. As such, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that all patient resources should be written around a sixth-grade level. The authors evaluate healthcare-oriented resources specified for patient use on the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) Web site in order to identify potential areas of improvement and highlight those sections that may serve as paradigms for future revisions. Descriptive and correlational design. Seventeen healthcare-oriented resources specifically for patients were downloaded in February 2012 from the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Web site. Readability assessments of each article were performed using Readability Studio Professional Edition Version 2012.1. These tests included the Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, SMOG Grading, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning-Fog Index, the New Fog Count, the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST formula, Raygor Readability Estimate, and the Fry Graph. Patient health education material found on the AAFPRS Web site has been found to be written at an average grade level of 12th grade using 10 different readability scales. Modifications of the patient education section of the AAFPRS Web site can increase the readability of the literature, and allow greater comprehension among a wider audience. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. An exploratory study of older adults' comprehension of printed cancer information: is readability a key factor?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    Printed cancer information often is written at or beyond high school reading levels, despite lower average literacy abilities of the public. The objectives of this exploratory study were twofold: (1) to evaluate older adults' comprehension of breast (BC), prostate (PC), and colorectal (CC) cancer information; and (2) to determine if comprehension of BC, PC, and CC information varies according to text readability. Comprehension of printed cancer resources was evaluated with 44 community-dwelling older adults using the Cloze procedure and recall questions. Participants' comprehension scores were compared with Simple Measure of Gobbledegook (SMOG) readability scores (<grade 13 vs. grade 13+). Overall, older adults had satisfactory comprehension of cancer information as measured by Cloze (.86 +/- .01) and recall (.71 +/- .02). For CC information written at grade 13, however, a significant negative correlation between readability and Cloze comprehension was found (r(s) = -.44, SE = .17, p = .019), indicating poorer participant comprehension at higher readability levels. Comprehension of BC or PC information did not vary by readability level. Though readability plays a role in older adults' understanding of cancer information, cancer type and content are also important factors that influence comprehension. Use of plain language is recommended for CC resources.

  12. Readability of Patient Education Materials in Hand Surgery and Health Literacy Best Practices for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Kristie; Prince, Latrina Y; Schnaekel, Asa; Couch, Cory G; Stephenson, John M; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to update a portion of a 2008 study of patient education materials from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand Web site with new readability results, to compare the results to health literacy best practices, and to make recommendations to the field for improvement. A sample of 77 patient education documents were downloaded from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand Web site, handcare.org, and assessed for readability using 4 readability tools. Mean readability grade-level scores were derived. Best practices for plain language for written health materials were compiled from 3 government agency sources. The mean readability of the 77 patient education documents in the study was 9.3 grade level. This reading level is reduced from the previous study in 2008 in which the overall mean was 10.6; however, the current sample grade level still exceeds recommended readability according to best practices. Despite a small body of literature on the readability of patient education materials related to hand surgery and other orthopedic issues over the last 7 years, readability was not dramatically improved in our current sample. Using health literacy as a framework, improvements in hand surgery patient education may result in better understanding and better outcomes for patients seeing hand surgeons. Improved understanding of patient education materials related to hand surgery may improve preventable negative outcomes that are clinically significant as well as contribute to improved quality of life for patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Accuracy and Readability of Websites on Kidney and Bladder Cancers.

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A; Alghofaili, Maha M; Alsultan, Rana M; Alrumaih, Najla S

    2017-03-09

    The aim of this study was to assess the scientific accuracy and the readability level of websites on kidney and bladder cancers. The search engines Google™, Yahoo™ and Bing™ were searched independently by assessors in November 2014 using the following keywords: "bladder cancer", "kidney cancer", "patient bladder cancer", "patient kidney cancer" and "bladder and kidney cancer". Only English-language websites were selected on the bases of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Assessors independently reviewed the findings and evaluated the accuracy and quality of each website by using the DISCERN and the LIDA instruments. The readability of the websites was calculated using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index and the Coleman-Liau Readability Index. Sixty-two websites were finally included in the study. The overall accuracy scores varied; for the DISCERN, the range was 28 to 76; out of 80 (mean ± SD, 47.1 ± 12.1; median = 46.0, interquartile range (IQR) = 19.2), and for the LIDA, the range was 52 to 125; out of 144 (mean ± SD, 101.9 ± 15.2; median, 103; IQR, 16.5). The creators of these websites were universities and research centres (n = 25, 40%), foundations and associations (n = 10, 16%), commercial and pharmaceutical companies (n = 13, 21%), charities and volunteer work (n = 4, 6%) and non-university educational bodies (n = 10, 16%). The readability scores (mean ± SD) were 11.2 ± 2.2 for the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index and 11.2 ± 1.6 for the Coleman-Liau Readability Index. The accuracy and the quality of the websites on kidney and bladder cancers varied. In most websites, there were deficiencies in clarity of aims, presenting symptoms, investigations and treatment options. The readability matched grades 10-11 literacy levels-a level above the public readability level. The study highlights the needs for further improvement of the online information created for public and patients with kidney and bladder

  14. Readability Analysis of the Package Leaflets for Biological Medicines Available on the Internet Between 2007 and 2013: An Analytical Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The package leaflet included in the packaging of all medicinal products plays an important role in the transmission of medicine-related information to patients. Therefore, in 2009, the European Commission published readability guidelines to try to ensure that the information contained in the package leaflet is understood by patients. Objective The main objective of this study was to calculate and compare the readability levels and length (number of words) of the package leaflets for biological medicines in 2007, 2010, and 2013. Methods The sample of this study included 36 biological medicine package leaflets that were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in three different years: 2007, 2010, and 2013. The readability of the selected package leaflets was obtained using the following readability formulas: SMOG grade, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt’s perspicuity index. The length (number of words) of the package leaflets was also measured. Afterwards, the relationship between these quantitative variables (three readability indexes and length) and categorical (or qualitative) variables were analyzed. The categorical variables were the year when the package leaflet was downloaded, the package leaflet section, type of medicine, year of authorization of biological medicine, and marketing authorization holder. Results The readability values of all the package leaflets exceeded the sixth-grade reading level, which is the recommended value for health-related written materials. No statistically significant differences were found between the three years of study in the readability indexes, although differences were observed in the case of the length (P=.002), which increased over the study period. When the relationship between readability indexes and length and the other variables was analyzed, statistically significant differences were found between package leaflet sections (P<.001) and between the groups of medicine only with regard

  15. Readability Analysis of the Package Leaflets for Biological Medicines Available on the Internet Between 2007 and 2013: An Analytical Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Piñero-López, María Ángeles; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2016-05-25

    The package leaflet included in the packaging of all medicinal products plays an important role in the transmission of medicine-related information to patients. Therefore, in 2009, the European Commission published readability guidelines to try to ensure that the information contained in the package leaflet is understood by patients. The main objective of this study was to calculate and compare the readability levels and length (number of words) of the package leaflets for biological medicines in 2007, 2010, and 2013. The sample of this study included 36 biological medicine package leaflets that were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in three different years: 2007, 2010, and 2013. The readability of the selected package leaflets was obtained using the following readability formulas: SMOG grade, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt's perspicuity index. The length (number of words) of the package leaflets was also measured. Afterwards, the relationship between these quantitative variables (three readability indexes and length) and categorical (or qualitative) variables were analyzed. The categorical variables were the year when the package leaflet was downloaded, the package leaflet section, type of medicine, year of authorization of biological medicine, and marketing authorization holder. The readability values of all the package leaflets exceeded the sixth-grade reading level, which is the recommended value for health-related written materials. No statistically significant differences were found between the three years of study in the readability indexes, although differences were observed in the case of the length (P=.002), which increased over the study period. When the relationship between readability indexes and length and the other variables was analyzed, statistically significant differences were found between package leaflet sections (P<.001) and between the groups of medicine only with regard to the length over the three studied

  16. A readability analysis of elementary-level science textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, Robyn

    Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For

  17. Varying Readability of Science-Based Text in Elementary Readers: Challenges for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Fazio, Xavier; Gunning, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation compared readability formulae to publishers' identified reading levels in science-based elementary readers. Nine well-established readability indices were calculated and comparisons were made with the publishers' identified grade designations and between different genres of text. Results revealed considerable variance among the…

  18. Readability assessment of package inserts of biological medicinal products from the European medicines agency website.

    PubMed

    Piñero-López, Ma Ángeles; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2014-07-01

    Package inserts that accompany medicines are a common source of information aimed at patients and should match patient abilities in terms of readability. Our objective was to determine the degree of readability of the package inserts for biological medicinal products commercially available in 2007 and compare them with the readability of the same package inserts in 2010. A total of 33 package inserts were selected and classified into five groups according to the type of medicine: monoclonal antibody-based products, cytokines, therapeutic enzymes, recombinant blood factors and other blood-related products, and recombinant hormones. The package inserts were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in 2007 and 2010. Readability was evaluated for the entire text of five of the six sections of the package inserts and for the 'Annex' when there was one. Three readability formulas were used: SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) grade, Flesh-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt's perspicuity index. No significant differences were found between the readability results for the 2007 package inserts and those from 2010 according to any of the three readability indices studied (p>0.05). However, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the readability scores of the sections of the package inserts in both 2007 and 2010. The readability of the package inserts was above the recommended sixth grade reading level (ages 11-12) and may lead to difficulties of understanding for people with limited literacy. All the sections should be easy to read and, therefore, the readability of the medicine package inserts studied should be improved.

  19. Readability assessment of online thyroid surgery patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Cherla, Deepa V; Sanghvi, Saurin; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Published guidelines recommend written health information be written at or below the sixth-grade level. We evaluate the readability of online materials related to thyroid surgery. Thyroid surgery materials were evaluated using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG), and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Thirty-one documents were evaluated. FRES scores ranged from 29.3 to 67.8 (possible range = 0 to 100), and averaged 50.5. FKGL ranged from 6.9 to 14.9 (possible range = 3 to 12), and averaged 10.4. SMOG scores ranged from 11.8 to 14.5 (possible range = 3 to 19), and averaged 13.0. GFOG scores ranged from 10.6 to 18.0 (possible range = 3 to 19), and averaged 13.5. Readability scores for online thyroid surgery materials are higher (i.e., more difficult) than the recommended levels. However, readability is only one aspect of comprehension. Written information should be designed with that fact in mind. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Comparison of Readability in Science-Based Texts: Implications for Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tiffany; Fazio, Xavier; Ciampa, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Science curriculum standards were mapped onto various texts (literacy readers, trade books, online articles). Statistical analyses highlighted the inconsistencies among readability formulae for Grades 2-6 levels of the standards. There was a lack of correlation among the readability measures, and also when comparing different text sources. Online…

  1. Can Readability Formulas Be Used to Successfully Gauge Difficulty of Reading Materials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Greene, Diana J.

    2014-01-01

    A grade level of reading material is commonly estimated using one or more readability formulas, which purport to measure text difficulty based on specified text characteristics. However, there is limited direction for teachers and publishers regarding which readability formulas (if any) are appropriate indicators of actual text difficulty. Because…

  2. Readability of informed consent forms in clinical trials conducted in a skin research center

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Aniseh; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining informed consents is one of the most fundamental principles in conducting a clinical trial. In order for the consent to be informed, the patient must receive and comprehend the information appropriately. Complexity of the consent form is a common problem that has been shown to be a major barrier to comprehension for many patients. The objective of this study was to assess the readability of different templates of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in clinical trials in the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL), Tehran, Iran. This study was conducted on ICFs of 45 clinical trials of the CRTSDL affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. ICFs were tested for reading difficulty, using the readability assessments formula adjusted for the Persian language including the Flesch–Kincaid reading ease score, Flesch–Kincaid grade level, and Gunning fog index. Mean readability score of the whole text of ICFs as well as their 7 main information parts were calculated. The mean ± SD Flesch Reading Ease score for all ICFs was 31.96 ± 5.62 that is in the difficult range. The mean ± SD grade level was calculated as 10.71 ± 1.8 (8.23–14.09) using the Flesch–Kincaid formula and 14.64 ± 1.22 (12.67–18.27) using the Gunning fog index. These results indicate that the text is expected to be understandable for an average student in the 11th grade, while the ethics committee recommend grade level 8 as the standard readability level for ICFs. The results showed that the readability scores of ICFs assessed in our study were not in the acceptable range. This means they were too complex to be understood by the general population. Ethics committees must examine the simplicity and readability of ICFs used in clinical trials. PMID:27471590

  3. The quality and readability of internet information regarding clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dafang; Schumacher, Charles; Harris, Mitchel Byron

    2016-03-01

    The internet has become a major source of health information for patients. However, there has been little scrutiny of health information available on the internet to the public. Our objectives were to evaluate the quality and readability of information available on the internet regarding clavicle fractures and whether they changed with academic affiliation of the website or with complexity of the search term. Through a prospective evaluation of 3 search engines using 3 different search terms of varying complexity ("broken collarbone," "collarbone fracture," and "clavicle fracture"), we evaluated 91 website hits for quality and readability. Websites were specifically analyzed by search term and by website type. Information quality was evaluated on a four-point scale, and information readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid score for reading grade level. The average quality score for our website hits was low, and the average reading grade level was far above the recommended level. Academic websites offered significantly higher quality information, whereas commercial websites offered significantly lower quality information. The use of more complex search terms yielded information of higher reading grade level but not higher quality. Current internet information regarding clavicle fractures is of low quality and low readability. Higher quality information utilizing more accessible language on clavicle fractures is needed on the internet. It is important to be aware of the information accessible to patients prior to their presentation to our clinics. Patients should be advised to visit websites with academic affiliations and to avoid commercial websites. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Readability of Healthcare Literature for Gastroparesis and Evaluation of Medical Terminology in Reading Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Meillier, Andrew; Patel, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic condition that can be further enhanced with patient understanding. Patients' education resources on the Internet have become increasingly important in improving healthcare literacy. We evaluated the readability of online resources for gastroparesis and the influence by medical terminology. Google searches were performed for "gastroparesis", "gastroparesis patient education material" and "gastroparesis patient information". Following, all medical terminology was determined if included on Taber's Medical Dictionary 22nd Edition. The medical terminology was replaced independently with "help" and "helping". Web resources were analyzed with the Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Solutions, Vandalia, OH) using 10 different readability scales. The average of the 26 patient education resources was 12.7 ± 1.8 grade levels. The edited "help" group had 6.6 ± 1.0 and "helping" group had 10.4 ± 2.1 reading levels. In comparing the three groups, the "help" and "helping" groups had significantly lower readability levels (P < 0.001). The "help" group was significantly less than the "helping" group (P < 0.001). The web resources for gastroparesis were higher than the recommended reading level by the American Medical Association. Medical terminology was shown to be the cause for this elevated readability level with all, but four resources within the recommended grade levels following word replacement.

  5. Readability assessment of online patient education materials from academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery departments.

    PubMed

    Svider, Peter F; Agarwal, Nitin; Choudhry, Osamah J; Hajart, Aaron F; Baredes, Soly; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the readability of online patient education materials among academic otolaryngology departments in the mid-Atlantic region, with the purpose of determining whether these commonly used online resources were written at a level readily understood by the average American. A readability analysis of online patient education materials was performed using several commonly used readability assessments including the Flesch Reading Ease Score, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, the New Dale-Chall Test, the Coleman-Liau Index, the New Fog Count, the Raygor Readability Estimate, the FORCAST test, and the Fry Graph. Most patient education materials from these programs were written at or above an 11th grade reading level, considerably above National Institutes of Health guidelines for recommended difficulty. Patient educational materials from academic otolaryngology Web sites are written at too difficult a reading level for a significant portion of patients and can be simplified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High Interest - Low Vocabulary Science Books, Reading Level Grades 1-4 (Prepared for the Remedial Reading Teacher).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gott, Margaret E., Comp.; Wailes, James R., Comp.

    This booklist is intended for elementary school science students with high interest and low vocabulary skills. The Spache Readability Scale, Dale-Chall formula, sentence structure, paragraph flow, illustration, and diagram analysis or publishers stated grade level were used to determine grade level designations. The included interest level varies…

  7. Readability of patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America web sites.

    PubMed

    Badarudeen, Sameer; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2008-01-01

    While experts recommend that the readability of patient education materials should be less than the sixth grade level, the available information pertaining to orthopaedic diseases may be excessively complex for some to read and comprehend. The Flesch-Kincaid grade level is the most widely used tool to evaluate the readability score of a given text, with a lower grade level suggesting easier readability. The goal of our study was to assess the readability of pediatric orthopaedic patient education materials that were developed by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) and were accessible to the general public through the Internet. All articles from the "Children" section of the patient education library, "Your Orthopaedic Connection," on the AAOS web site and the "Parent/Patient" section on the POSNA web site were identified. The Flesch-Kincaid grade level of each article was determined with use of Microsoft Office Word software. The mean grade levels of articles that were available in 2001 were compared with those accessible in 2007. Fifty-seven unique articles were available in 2007 on both web sites compared with twenty-five articles available in 2001. The readability score of only one (2%) of the currently available articles was less than sixth grade level. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of the currently available articles was 8.9 compared with 8.7 for the articles available in 2001 (p = 0.71). Our findings suggest that most of the pediatric orthopaedic patient education materials available on the AAOS and POSNA web sites have readability scores that may be too high, making comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the United States population.

  8. Readability Formulas and User Perceptions of Electronic Health Records Difficulty: A Corpus Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients’ comprehension. Numerous studies have evaluated the difficulty of health-related text using readability formulas such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning-Fog Index (GFI). They conclude that the materials are often written at a grade level higher than common recommendations. Objective The objective of our study was to explore the relationship between the aforementioned readability formulas and the laypeople’s perceived difficulty on 2 genres of text: general health information and EHR notes. We also validated the formulas’ appropriateness and generalizability on predicting difficulty levels of highly complex technical documents. Methods We collected 140 Wikipedia articles on diabetes and 242 EHR notes with diabetes International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code. We recruited 15 Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) users to rate difficulty levels of the documents. Correlations between laypeople’s perceived difficulty levels and readability formula scores were measured, and their difference was tested. We also compared word usage and the impact of medical concepts of the 2 genres of text. Results The distributions of both readability formulas’ scores (P<.001) and laypeople’s perceptions (P=.002) on the 2 genres were different. Correlations of readability predictions and laypeople’s perceptions were weak. Furthermore, despite being graded at similar levels, documents of different genres were still perceived with different

  9. Readability Formulas and User Perceptions of Electronic Health Records Difficulty: A Corpus Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2017-03-02

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients' comprehension. Numerous studies have evaluated the difficulty of health-related text using readability formulas such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning-Fog Index (GFI). They conclude that the materials are often written at a grade level higher than common recommendations. The objective of our study was to explore the relationship between the aforementioned readability formulas and the laypeople's perceived difficulty on 2 genres of text: general health information and EHR notes. We also validated the formulas' appropriateness and generalizability on predicting difficulty levels of highly complex technical documents. We collected 140 Wikipedia articles on diabetes and 242 EHR notes with diabetes International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code. We recruited 15 Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) users to rate difficulty levels of the documents. Correlations between laypeople's perceived difficulty levels and readability formula scores were measured, and their difference was tested. We also compared word usage and the impact of medical concepts of the 2 genres of text. The distributions of both readability formulas' scores (P<.001) and laypeople's perceptions (P=.002) on the 2 genres were different. Correlations of readability predictions and laypeople's perceptions were weak. Furthermore, despite being graded at similar levels, documents of different genres were still perceived with different difficulty (P<.001). Word usage in the 2 related genres

  10. The readability of psychosocial wellness patient resources: improving surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kugar, Meredith A; Cohen, Adam C; Wooden, William; Tholpady, Sunil S; Chu, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Patient education is increasingly accessed with online resources and is essential for patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The average American adult reads at a seventh grade level, and the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) recommend that information be written at a sixth-grade reading level. Health literacy plays an important role in the disease course and outcomes of all patients, including those with depression and likely other psychiatric disorders, although this is an area in need of further study. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze written, online mental health resources on the Veterans Health Administration (VA) website, and other websites, using readability assessment instruments. An internet search was performed to identify written patient education information regarding mental health from the VA (the VA Mental Health Website) and top-rated psychiatric hospitals. Seven mental health topics were included in the analysis: generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and suicide. Readability analyses were performed using the Gunning Fog Index, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the Coleman-Liau Index, the SMOG Readability Formula, and the Automated Readability Index. These scores were then combined into a Readability Consensus score. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare the mean values, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Twelve of the best hospitals for psychiatry 2016-2017 were identified. Nine had educational material. Six of the nine cited the same resource, The StayWell Company, LLC (StayWell Company, LLC; Yardley, PA), for at least one of the mental health topics analyzed. The VA mental health website (http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov) had a significantly higher readability consensus than six of the top psychiatric hospitals (P < 0.05, P = 0.0067, P = 0.019, P = 0.041, P = 0

  11. Readability and comprehensibility of patient education material in hand-related web sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Steve W; Capo, John T; Orillaza, Nathaniel

    2009-09-01

    As patients are more frequently referring to the Internet for information on their musculoskeletal problems, the readability and comprehensibility of these educational materials becomes increasingly more important to most of the lay public. In this study, we investigated the readability of the currently available web sites of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) that pertain to hand and wrist problems, to assess their usefulness as a source for patient information. We analyzed all articles available in 2008 from the AAOS web site within the Patient Education Library under the heading, "Hand & Wrist" and from the ASSH web site under the heading, "Hand Conditions." A total of 83 articles were identified for hand conditions. Each article was analyzed by the Flesch-Kincaid program available in Microsoft Office Word software and the Dale-Chall grade-level assessor. These program models analyze all words in the specified text and return a grade level that corresponds to the difficulty level of the text. The AAOS web sites contained 34 articles with a mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 8.5 and a mean Dale-Chall grade level of 8.8. The ASSH web site contained 49 articles showing a mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 10.4 and a mean Dale-Chall grade level of 10.8. Our results suggest that the patient education materials found on the AAOS and ASSH web sites have readability scores that are higher than the recommended reading levels and thus may be too difficult to be understood by a substantial portion of the U.S. population.

  12. Online Tonsillectomy Resources: Are Parents Getting Consistent and Readable Recommendations?

    PubMed

    Wozney, Lori; Chorney, Jill; Huguet, Anna; Song, Jin Soo; Boss, Emily F; Hong, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Objective Parents frequently refer to information on the Internet to confirm or broaden their understanding of surgical procedures and to research postoperative care practices. Our study evaluated the readability, comprehensiveness, and consistency around online recommendations directed at parents of children undergoing tonsillectomy. Study Design A cross-sectional study design was employed. Setting Thirty English-language Internet websites. Subjects and Methods Three validated measures of readability were applied and content analysis was employed to evaluate the comprehensiveness of information in domains of perioperative education. Frequency effect sizes and percentile ranks were calculated to measure dispersion of recommendations across sites. Results The mean readability level of all sites was above a grade 10 level with fewer than half of the sites (n = 14, 47%) scoring at or below the eight-grade level. Provided information was often incomplete with a noted lack of psychosocial support and skills-training recommendations. Content analysis showed 67 unique recommendations spanning the full perioperative period. Most recommendations had low consensus, being reported in 5 or fewer sites (frequency effect size <16%). Conclusion Many online parent-focused resources do not meet readability recommendations, portray incomplete education about perioperative care and expectations, and provide recommendations with low levels of consensus. Up-to-date mapping of the research evidence around recommendations is needed as well as improved efforts to make online information easier to read.

  13. Readability of American online patient education materials in urologic oncology: a need for simple communication.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Amanda; Nielsen, Matthew E; Raynor, Mathew C; Woods, Michael E; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B

    2015-02-01

    To determine the readability levels of reputable cancer and urologic Web sites addressing bladder, prostate, kidney, and testicular cancers. Online patient education materials (PEMs) for bladder, prostate, kidney, and testicular malignancies were evaluated from the American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Urology Care Foundation, Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Kidney Cancer Association, and Testicular Cancer Resource Center. Grade level was determined using several readability indices, and analyses were performed on the basis of cancer type, Web site, and content area (general, causes, risk factors and prevention, diagnosis and staging, treatment, and post-treatment). Estimated grade level of online PEMs ranged from 9.2 to 14.2 with an overall mean of 11.7. Web sites for kidney cancer had the least difficult readability (11.3) and prostate cancer had the most difficult readability (12.1). Among specific Web sites, the most difficult readability levels were noted for the Urology Care Foundation Web site for bladder and prostate cancer and the Kidney Cancer Association and Testicular Cancer Resource Center for kidney and testes cancer. Readability levels within content areas varied on the basis of the disease and Web site. Online PEMs in urologic oncology are written at a level above the average American reader. Simplification of these resources is necessary to improve patient understanding of urologic malignancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Readability, complexity, and suitability of online resources for mastectomy and lumpectomy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Singh, Mansher; Singhal, Dhruv; Rudd, Rima; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-05-15

    Nearly half of American adults have low or marginal health literacy. This negatively affects patients' participation, decision-making, satisfaction, and overall outcomes especially when there is a mismatch between information provided and the skills of the intended audience. Recommendations that patient information be written below the sixth grade level have been made for over three decades. This study compares online resources for mastectomy versus lumpectomy using expanded metrics including readability level, complexity, and density of data and overall suitability for public consumption. The 10 highest ranked Web sites for mastectomy and lumpectomy were identified using the largest Internet engine (Google). Each Web site was assessed for readability (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook), complexity (PMOSE/iKIRSCH), and suitability (Suitability Assessment of Materials). Scores were analyzed by each Web site and overall. Readability analysis showed a significant reading grade level difference between mastectomy and lumpectomy online information (15.4 and 13.9, P = 0.04, respectively). Complexity analysis via PMOSE/iKIRSCH revealed a mean score of 6.5 for mastectomy materials corresponding to "low" complexity and eighth to 12 th grade education. Lumpectomy literature had a lower PMOSE/iKIRSCH score of 5.8 corresponding to a "very low" complexity and fourth to eighth grade education (P = 0.05). Suitability assessment showed mean values of 41% and 46% (P = 0.83) labeled as the lowest level of "adequacy" for mastectomy and lumpectomy materials, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high for both complexity and suitability analysis. Online resources for the surgical treatment of breast cancer are above the recommended reading grade level. The suitability level is barely adequate indicating a need for revision. Online resources for mastectomy have a higher reading grade level than do materials for lumpectomy and tend to be more complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  15. Readability of Spanish language online information for the initial treatment of burns.

    PubMed

    Votta, Kaitlyn; Metivier, Meghan; Romo, Stephanie; Garrigan, Hannah; Drexler, Alana; Nodoushani, Ariana; Sheridan, Robert

    2018-06-01

    This study's aim is to identify the most popular online resources for burn treatment information available in the Spanish language, and to evaluate the readability of this information. The phrase "tratamiento de quemaduras" (burn treatment) was entered into search engines Google and Bing on 9/15/2014 and 9/13/2017. The top 12 Spanish web results on each site were identified and analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition v2012.1. The software generated a "mean grade reading level" for each article, or the grade of students that could be expected to understand the article's language. 21 distinct articles were identified at T1 and 17 at T2, with seven overlapping between T1 and T2. The average grade reading level of all the websites ranged from 7.8 to 13.8 at T1 (approximately 8th grade to sophomore year of college) and 7.8 to 12.2 at T2. No websites were within 1 standard deviation of the American Medical Association recommended 6th grade reading level. With readability showing little improvement during the past three years, providers should be aware of the complexity of online literature, and the potential complications this presents to patients. Additionally, burn centers should prioritize generating more accessible information for the Spanish speaking public. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Consent information leaflets – readable or unreadable?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to assess the readability of leaflets about urological procedures provided by the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) to evaluate their suitability for providing information. Methods Information leaflets were assessed using three measures of readability: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) grade formulae. The scores were compared with national literacy statistics. Results Relatively good readability was demonstrated using the Flesch Reading Ease (53.4–60.1) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (6.5–7.6) methods. However, the average SMOG index (14.0–15.0) for each category suggests that the majority of the leaflets are written above the reading level of an 18-year-old. Using national literacy statistics, at least 43% of the population will have significant difficultly understanding the majority of these leaflets. Conclusions The results suggest that comprehension of the leaflets provided by the BAUS is likely to be poor. These leaflets may be used as an adjunct to discussion but it is essential to ensure that all the information necessary to make an informed decision has been conveyed in a way that can be understood by the patient. PMID:27867520

  17. Readability of arthroscopy-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and Arthroscopy Association of North America Web sites.

    PubMed

    Yi, Paul H; Ganta, Abhishek; Hussein, Khalil I; Frank, Rachel M; Jawa, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We sought to assess the readability levels of arthroscopy-related patient education materials available on the Web sites of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We identified all articles related to arthroscopy available in 2012 from the online patient education libraries of AAOS and AANA. After performing follow-up editing, we assessed each article with the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of the articles from the AAOS Web site and the AANA Web site were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the eighth-grade level (the average reading ability of the US adult population) and sixth-grade level (the widely recommended level for patient education materials). Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability of FK grade assessment were evaluated. A total of 62 articles were reviewed (43 from AAOS and 19 from AANA). The mean overall FK grade level was 10.2 (range, 5.2 to 12). The AAOS articles had a mean FK grade level of 9.6 (range, 5.2 to 12), whereas the AANA articles had a mean FK grade level of 11.4 (range, 8.7 to 12); the difference was significant (P < .0001). Only 3 articles had a readability level at or below the eighth-grade level and only 1 was at or below the sixth-grade level; all were from AAOS. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 1 for both). Online patient education materials related to arthroscopy from AAOS and AANA may be written at a level too difficult for a large portion of the patient population to comprehend. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of readability, understandability, and completeness of pediatric hospital medicine discharge instructions.

    PubMed

    Unaka, Ndidi I; Statile, Angela; Haney, Julianne; Beck, Andrew F; Brady, Patrick W; Jerardi, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    The average American adult reads at an 8th-grade level. Discharge instructions written above this level might increase the risk of adverse outcomes for children as they transition from hospital to home. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a large urban academic children's hospital to describe readability levels, understandability scores, and completeness of written instructions given to families at hospital discharge. Two hundred charts for patients discharged from the hospital medicine service were randomly selected for review. Written discharge instructions were extracted and scored for readability (Fry Readability Scale [FRS]), understandability (Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool [PEMAT]), and completeness (5 criteria determined by consensus). Descriptive statistics enumerated the distribution of readability, understandability, and completeness of written discharge instructions. Of the patients included in the study, 51% were publicly insured. Median age was 3.1 years, and median length of stay was 2.0 days. The median readability score corresponded to a 10th-grade reading level (interquartile range, 8-12; range, 1-13). Median PEMAT score was 73% (interquartile range, 64%-82%; range, 45%-100%); 36% of instructions scored below 70%, correlating with suboptimal understandability. The diagnosis was described in only 33% of the instructions. Although explicit warning signs were listed in most instructions, 38% of the instructions did not include information on the person to contact if warning signs developed. Overall, the readability, understandability, and completeness of discharge instructions were subpar. Efforts to improve the content of discharge instructions may promote safe and effective transitions home. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:98-101. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  19. Readability analysis of patient information on the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery website.

    PubMed

    Greywoode, Jewel; Bluman, Eric; Spiegel, Joseph; Boon, Maurits

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the readability of patient-oriented online health information (OHI) presented on the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) website. Review of the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) grade level for 104 articles on the AAO-HNS website. The FK grade level for 104 articles was determined using the readability calculator available within Microsoft Office Word 2003. The interobserver reliability for the FK grade level was determined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for 52 entries. The average FK grade reading level of the articles was 10.8 (range 6.3-16.7; 95% CI, 10.4-11.2). Eighty-one percent of the articles were written at a ninth grade level or higher. The intraclass correlation was good (r = 0.83) for the 52 articles that were independently reviewed. This analysis has shown that the average reading level for each article on the AAO-HNS site was higher than the recommended sixth grade reading level. Although the AAO-HNS site is written at a higher level than that suggested for the general public, it is important to realize that readability is just one consideration in the evaluation of OHI comprehension. Physicians need to be cognizant of their patients' ability to read and comprehend written information and tailor their educational material appropriately.

  20. Variation in the Readability of Items Within Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, José L.; Morales, Leo S.; Liu, Honghu; Hays, Ron D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the variation in the readability of survey items within 2 widely used health-related quality-of-life surveys: the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire–25 (VFQ-25) and the Short Form Health Survey, version 2 (SF-36v2). Flesch-Kincaid and Flesch Reading Ease formulas were used to estimate readability. Individual survey item scores and descriptive statistics for each survey were calculated. Variation of individual item scores from the mean survey score was graphically depicted for each survey. The mean reading grade level and reading ease estimates for the VFQ-25 and SF-36v2 were 7.8 (fairly easy) and 6.4 (easy), respectively. Both surveys had notable variation in item readability; individual item readability scores ranged from 3.7 to 12.0 (very easy to difficult) for the VFQ-25 and 2.2 to 12.0 (very easy to difficult) for the SF-36v2. Because survey respondents may not comprehend items with readability scores that exceed their reading ability, estimating the readability of each survey item is an important component of evaluating survey readability. Standards for measuring the readability of surveys are needed. PMID:16401705

  1. Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to uterine artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratik; Sanghvi, Saurin P; Lelkes, Valdis M; Kumar, Abhishek; Contractor, Sohail

    2013-04-01

    To determine the readability of Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs) created by United States hospitals and universities and clinical practices and miscellaneous health care-associated Web sites regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a marker for IPEMs in general. Two hundred unique Web sites were evaluated for patient-related articles on UAE. Web sites produced by US hospitals and universities and clinical practices, as well as miscellaneous health care-associated Web sites meeting the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct criteria were included in the database. By using mathematical regression algorithms based on word and sentence length to quantitatively analyze reading materials for language intricacy, readability of 40 UAE-related IPEMs was assessed with four indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG). Scores were evaluated against national recommendations, and intergroup analysis was performed. None of the IPEMs were written at or below the sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 43.98; FKGL, 10.76; SMOG, 13.63; and GFOG, 14.55. These scores indicate that the readability of UAE IPEMs is written at an advanced level, significantly above the recommended 6th grade reading level (P<.05) determined by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. IPEMs related to UAE generated by hospitals, clinical practices, and miscellaneous health care-associated Web sites are written above the recommended sixth grade level. IPEMs for other disease entities may also reflect similar results. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality and readability of information materials for people with brain tumours and their families.

    PubMed

    Langbecker, Danette; Janda, Monika

    2012-12-01

    Written information is commonly used to inform patients about their disease and treatment but must be evidence-based and understandable to be useful. This study assessed the quality of the content and the readability of information brochures for people affected by brain tumours. We randomly selected 18 publicly available brochures. Brochures were assessed by criteria to assess the quality of content using the DISCERN instrument. Readability was tested using three commonly used formulas, which yield the reading grade level required to comprehend the brochure (sixth grade level recommended). The mean overall DISCERN score was 3.17 out of a maximum of 5 (moderate quality); only one achieved a rating greater than 4 (high quality). Only one brochure met the sixth grade readability criteria. Although brochures may have accurate content, few satisfied all of the recommended criteria to evaluate their content. Existing brochures need to be critically reviewed and simplified and consumer-focused brochures, produced.

  3. Evaluation of the Informational Content, Readability and Comprehensibility of Online Health Information on Monogenic Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yue; Maloney, Kristin A; Roter, Debra L; Pollin, Toni I

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the informational content, readability, suitability and comprehensibility of websites offering educational information about monogenic diabetes available to patients. The top 20 results from 15 queries in four search engines were screened. Content analysis was performed by two independent coders. Readability was determined using Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL) and Simplified Measure of Goobledygook (SMOG). The Comprehensibility Assessment of Materials (SAM + CAM) scale was utilized to evaluate website suitability and comprehensibility. Only 2% (N = 29) of 1200 screened websites met inclusion criteria. Content analysis showed that 16 websites presented information on at least the most common forms of MODY (1, 2 and 3), four addressed the utility of genetic counseling, and none included support resources for patients. All websites exceeded the consensus readability level (6th grade) as assessed by FKGL (10.1 grade) and SMOG (12.8 ± 1.5 grades). Although the majority (N = 20) of websites had an overall "adequate" to "superior" quality score (SAM + CAM score > = 40%), more than one-third scored "not suitable" in categories of content, literacy demand, graphics, and learning motivation. The online educational resources for monogenic diabetes have a high readability level and require improvement in ease of use and comprehensibility for patients with diabetes.

  4. Readability of Wikipedia Pages on Autoimmune Disorders: Systematic Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Brigo, Francesco; Sharif, Kassem; Amital, Howard; McGonagle, Dennis; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Adawi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background In the era of new information and communication technologies, the Internet is being increasingly accessed for health-related information. Indeed, recently published patient surveys of people with autoimmune disorders confirmed that the Internet was reported as one of the most important health information sources. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia launched in 2001, is generally one of the most visited websites worldwide and is often consulted for health-related information. Objective The main objective of this investigation was to quantitatively assess whether the Wikipedia pages related to autoimmune disorders can be easily accessed by patients and their families, in terms of readability. Methods We obtained and downloaded a list of autoimmune disorders from the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA) website. We analyzed Wikipedia articles for their overall level of readability with 6 different quantitative readability scales: (1) the Flesch Reading Ease, (2) the Gunning Fog Index, (3) the Coleman-Liau Index, (4) the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, (5) the Automated Readability Index (ARI), and (6) the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Further, we investigated the correlation between readability and clinical, pathological, and epidemiological parameters. Moreover, each Wikipedia analysis was assessed according to its content, breaking down the readability indices by main topic of each part (namely, pathogenesis, treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis plus a section containing paragraphs not falling into any of the previous categories). Results We retrieved 134 diseases from the AARDA website. The Flesch Reading Ease yielded a mean score of 24.34 (SD 10.73), indicating that the sites were very difficult to read and best understood by university graduates, while mean Gunning Fog Index and ARI scores were 16.87 (SD 2.03) and 14.06 (SD 2.12), respectively. The Coleman-Liau Index and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level yielded mean scores of 14

  5. Readability of menopause web sites: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Deborah H

    2012-01-01

    More women are frequently referring to the Internet for health information, yet the readability of information about menopause on the Internet has not been widely studied. To address this gap, this study examined the readability of information about menopause on 25 Internet Web sites. Findings included that information on the Web sites had a reading level higher than the recommended sixth-grade level, and culturally appropriate health information was lacking. Health educators and practitioners are in a pivotal role to help women understand information useful for healthcare decisions. Several criteria are discussed to help practitioners evaluate Web sites.

  6. Readability of Educational Materials to Support Parent Sexual Communication With Their Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Lin, Jessica S; Constantine, Norman A

    2016-05-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, expectations, and knowledge from parents to their children and adolescents. Many parents seek information and guidance to support talking with their children about sex and sexuality. Parent education materials can deliver this guidance but must use appropriate readability levels to facilitate comprehension and motivation. This study appraised the readability of educational materials to support parent sexual communication with their children. Fifty brochures, pamphlets, and booklets were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index methods. Mean readability grade-level scores were 8.3 (range = 4.5-12.8), 9.7 (range = 5.5-14.9), and 10.1 (range = 6.7-13.9), respectively. Informed by National Institutes of Health-recommended 6th to 7th grade levels and American Medical Association-recommended 5th to 6th grade levels, percentages falling at or below the 7.0 grade level were calculated as 38%, 12%, and 2% and those falling at or below the 6.0 grade level were calculated as 12%, 2%, and 0% based on the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and SMOG methods, respectively. These analyses indicate that the majority of educational materials available online to support parents' communication with their children about sex and sexuality do not meet the needs of many or most parents. Efforts to improve the accessibility of these materials are warranted.

  7. The readability of pediatric patient education materials on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, D M; Kingsley, P; Johnson-West, J

    2001-07-01

    Literacy is a national and international problem. Studies have shown the readability of adult and pediatric patient education materials to be too high for average adults. Materials should be written at the 8th-grade level or lower. To determine the general readability of pediatric patient education materials designed for adults on the World Wide Web (WWW). GeneralPediatrics.com (http://www.generalpediatrics.com) is a digital library serving the medical information needs of pediatric health care providers, patients, and families. Documents from 100 different authoritative Web sites designed for laypersons were evaluated using a built-in computer software readability formula (Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid reading levels) and hand calculation methods (Fry Formula and SMOG methods). Analysis of variance and paired t tests determined significance. Eighty-nine documents constituted the final sample; they covered a wide spectrum of pediatric topics. The overall Flesch Reading Ease score was 57.0. The overall mean Fry Formula was 12.0 (12th grade, 0 months of schooling) and SMOG was 12.2. The overall Flesch-Kincaid grade level was significantly lower (P<.0001), at a mean of 7.1, when compared with the other 2 methods. All author and institution groups had an average reading level above 10.6 by the Fry Formula and SMOG methods. Pediatric patient education materials on the WWW are not written at an appropriate reading level for the average adult. We propose that a practical reading level and how it was determined be included on all patient education materials on the WWW for general guidance in material selection. We discuss suggestions for improved readability of patient education materials.

  8. Creating a Gold Standard for the Readability Measurement of Health Texts

    PubMed Central

    Kandula, Sasikiran; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Developing easy-to-read health texts for consumers continues to be a challenge in health communication. Though readability formulae such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level have been used in many studies, they were found to be inadequate to estimate the difficulty of some types of health texts. One impediment to the development of new readability assessment techniques is the absence of a gold standard that can be used to validate them. To overcome this deficiency, we have compiled a corpus of 324 health documents consisting of six different types of texts. These documents were manually reviewed and assigned a readability level (1-7 Likert scale) by a panel of five health literacy experts. The expert assigned ratings were found to be highly correlated with a patient representative’s readability ratings (r = 0.81, p<0.0001). PMID:18999150

  9. Health literacy and the Internet: a study on the readability of Australian online health information.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Almost 80% of Australian Internet users seek out health information online so the readability of this information is important. This study aimed to evaluate the readability of Australian online health information and determine if it matches the average reading level of Australians. Two hundred and fifty-one web pages with information on 12 common health conditions were identified across sectors. Readability was assessed by the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulas, with grade 8 adopted as the average Australian reading level. The average reading grade measured by F-K and SMOG was 10.54 and 12.12 respectively. The mean FRE was 47.54, a 'difficult-to-read' score. Only 0.4% of web pages were written at or below grade 8 according to SMOG. Information on dementia was the most difficult to read overall, while obesity was the most difficult among government websites. The findings suggest that the readability of Australian health websites is above the average Australian levels of reading. A quantifiable guideline is needed to ensure online health information accommodates the reading needs of the general public to effectively use the Internet as an enabler of health literacy. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Health Literacy: Readability of ACC/AHA Online Patient Education Material.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Karan; George, Praveen; Evans, Matthew C; Miller, Weldon J; Liu, Stanley S

    To determine whether the online patient education material offered by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) is written at a higher level than the 6th-7th grade level recommended by the National Institute of Health (NIH). Online patient education material from each website was subjected to reading grade level (RGL) analysis using the Readability Studio Professional Edition. One-sample t testing was used to compare the mean RGLs obtained from 8 formulas to the NIH-recommended 6.5 grade level and 8th grade national mean. In total, 372 articles from the ACC website and 82 from the AHA were studied. Mean (±SD) RGLs for the 454 articles were 9.6 ± 2.1, 11.2 ± 2.1, 11.9 ± 1.6, 10.8 ± 1.6, 9.7 ± 2.1, 10.8 ± 0.8, 10.5 ± 2.6, and 11.7 ± 3.5 according to the Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG Index), Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), Gunning-Fog Index (GFI), New Dale-Chall reading level formula (NDC), FORCAST, Raygor Readability Estimate (RRE), and Fry Graph (Fry), respectively. All analyzed articles had significantly higher RGLs than both the NIH-recommended grade level of 6.5 and the national mean grade level of 8 (p < 0.00625). Patient education material provided on the ACC and AHA websites is written above the NIH-recommended 6.5 grade level and 8th grade national mean reading level. Additional studies are required to demonstrate whether lowering the RGL of this material improves outcomes among patients with cardiovascular disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Readability of HIV/AIDS educational materials: the role of the medium of communication, target audience, and producer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wells, J A

    1994-12-01

    The reading difficulty of many HIV/AIDS brochures and pamphlets limits their effectiveness. This analysis addresses correlates of readability in 136 HIV/AIDS educational items. Readability is measured using the SMOG Index. The medium of communication is significantly related to readability: comic books and brochures are, on average, more readable than books and pamphlets (10.9 versus 11.9). The target audience also differentiates readability. Materials for HIV antibody test seekers, the general community, and sexually active adults have a more difficult reading grade, averaging 12.1, whereas materials for ethnic minorities average a more readable 9.2. The producer organization's type and location are unrelated to readability, but an AIDS-specific organizational focus correlates with better readability (grade 10.8 vs. 11.8). These findings remain significant in multivariate analysis. The results indicate that brochures and comics are more likely to be comprehended by low-literacy populations, that an understanding of the literacy of target audiences is needed to produce materials with appropriate reading levels, and that policies to influence producer organizations may result in the creation of more readable materials.

  12. What parents are reading about laryngomalacia: Quality and readability of internet resources on laryngomalacia.

    PubMed

    Corredera, Erica; Davis, Kara S; Simons, Jeffrey P; Jabbour, Noel

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to measure the quality and readability of websites related to laryngomalacia, and to compare the quality and readability scores for the sites accessed through the most popular search engines. Laryngomalacia is a common diagnosis in children but is often difficult for parents to comprehend. As information available on the internet is unregulated, the quality and readability of this information may vary. An advanced search on Google, Yahoo, and Bing was conducted using the terms "laryngomalacia" OR "soft larynx" OR "floppy voice box." The first ten websites meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated, for each search engine. Quality and readability were assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Flesch reading ease scoring (FRES) and Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL) tests, respectively. The top 10 hits on each search engine yielded 15 unique web pages. The median DISCERN score (out of a possible high-score of 80) was 48.5 (SD 12.6). The median USA grade-level estimated by the FKGL was 11.3 (SD 1.4). Only one website (6.7%), had a readability score in the optimal range of 6th to 8th grade reading level. DISCERN scores did not correlate with FKGL scores (r = 0.10). Online information discussing laryngomalacia often varies in quality and may not be easily comprehensible to the public. It is important for healthcare professionals to understand the quality of health information accessible to patients as it may influence medical decision-making by patient families. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An analysis of the readability characteristics of oral health information literature available to the public in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Furlan, Ashlea

    2016-03-17

    The effectiveness of print-based health promotion materials is dependent on their readability. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of print-based oral health information literature publically available in Tasmania, Australia. Oral health education brochures were collected from 11 dental clinics across Tasmania and assessed for structure and format, content and readability. Reading level was calculated using three widely-used measures: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) reading grade level. The FKGL of the 67 brochures sampled ranged from grade 3 to 13. The grade level for government health department brochures (n = 14) ranged from grade 4 to 11 (5.6 ± 1.8). Reading levels for materials produced by commercial sources (n = 22) ranged from 3 to 13 (8.3 ± 2.1), those from professional associations (n = 22) ranged from grade 7 to 11 (8.9 ± 0.9) and brochures produced by other sources (n = 9) ranged from 5 to 10 (7.6 ± 1.5). The SMOG test was positively correlated with the FKGL (rs = 0.92, p < 0.001) though consistently rated materials 2-3 grades higher. The reading level required to comprehend brochures published by government sources were, on average, lower than those from commercial, professional and other sources. Government materials were also more likely to contain fewer words and professional jargon terms than brochures from the other sources. A range of oral health information brochures were publically available for patients in both public and private dental clinics. However, their readability characteristics differed. Many brochures required a reading skill level higher than that suited to a large proportion of the Tasmanian population. Readability and other characteristics of oral health education materials should be assessed to ensure their suitability for use with patients, especially those suspected of having low literacy skills.

  14. The Effect of Technology-Based Altered Readability Levels on Struggling Readers' Science Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Matthew T.; Coyne, Michael; Dunn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study examining how altered readability levels affected struggling readers' (N = 288) comprehension of scientific concepts and vocabulary. Specifically, the researchers were interested in learning what effect altered readability levels have when low ability readers participate in a technology-based science…

  15. Evaluation of the Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Patient Resources for the Management of Articular Cartilage Defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dean; Jayakar, Rohit G; Leong, Natalie L; Leathers, Michael P; Williams, Riley J; Jones, Kristofer J

    2017-04-01

    Objective Patients commonly use the Internet to obtain their health-related information. The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, accuracy, and readability of online patient resources for the management of articular cartilage defects. Design Three search terms ("cartilage defect," "cartilage damage," "cartilage injury") were entered into 3 Internet search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo). The first 25 websites from each search were collected and reviewed. The quality and accuracy of online information were independently evaluated by 3 reviewers using predetermined scoring criteria. The readability was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) grade score. Results Fifty-three unique websites were evaluated. Quality ratings were significantly higher in websites with a FK score >11 compared to those with a score of ≤11 ( P = 0.021). Only 10 websites (19%) differentiated between focal cartilage defects and diffuse osteoarthritis. Of these, 7 (70%) were elicited using the search term "cartilage defect" ( P = 0.038). The average accuracy of the websites was high (11.7 out of maximum 12), and the average FK grade level (13.4) was several grades higher than the recommended level for readable patient education material (eighth grade level). Conclusions The quality and readability of online patient resources for articular cartilage defects favor those with a higher level of education. Additionally, the majority of these websites do not distinguish between focal chondral defects and diffuse osteoarthritis, which can fail to provide appropriate patient education and guidance for available treatment. Clinicians should help guide patients toward high-quality, accurate, and readable online patient education material.

  16. Readability of Wikipedia Pages on Autoimmune Disorders: Systematic Quantitative Assessment.

    PubMed

    Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Brigo, Francesco; Sharif, Kassem; Amital, Howard; McGonagle, Dennis; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Adawi, Mohammad

    2017-07-18

    In the era of new information and communication technologies, the Internet is being increasingly accessed for health-related information. Indeed, recently published patient surveys of people with autoimmune disorders confirmed that the Internet was reported as one of the most important health information sources. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia launched in 2001, is generally one of the most visited websites worldwide and is often consulted for health-related information. The main objective of this investigation was to quantitatively assess whether the Wikipedia pages related to autoimmune disorders can be easily accessed by patients and their families, in terms of readability. We obtained and downloaded a list of autoimmune disorders from the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA) website. We analyzed Wikipedia articles for their overall level of readability with 6 different quantitative readability scales: (1) the Flesch Reading Ease, (2) the Gunning Fog Index, (3) the Coleman-Liau Index, (4) the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, (5) the Automated Readability Index (ARI), and (6) the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Further, we investigated the correlation between readability and clinical, pathological, and epidemiological parameters. Moreover, each Wikipedia analysis was assessed according to its content, breaking down the readability indices by main topic of each part (namely, pathogenesis, treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis plus a section containing paragraphs not falling into any of the previous categories). We retrieved 134 diseases from the AARDA website. The Flesch Reading Ease yielded a mean score of 24.34 (SD 10.73), indicating that the sites were very difficult to read and best understood by university graduates, while mean Gunning Fog Index and ARI scores were 16.87 (SD 2.03) and 14.06 (SD 2.12), respectively. The Coleman-Liau Index and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level yielded mean scores of 14.48 (SD 1.57) and 14.86 (1

  17. Factors Influencing the Readability of Student-Generated Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, JoBeth

    An investigation examined student-generated texts in terms of both traditional and more theoretically valid readability to determine what factors influence comprehension when children read their own, peer, and adult-written texts. Seventy dictated stories created in an earlier study, along with 4 first-grade level stories from the "Reader's…

  18. The Readability of Online Patient Information About Mohs Micrographic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Christina R; DePry, Jennifer; Lee, Bernard T; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2016-10-01

    Mohs micrographic surgery has become increasingly used in the treatment of cutaneous malignancies over the past decade. Concurrently, more patients are using the Internet as a resource for medical information than ever before. The average American adult reads at an eighth grade level. The American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health have recommended a sixth grade target reading level for patient health materials. This study evaluates the readability of currently available online information about Mohs micrographic surgery in the context of these recommendations. An Internet search for the term "Mohs surgery" was performed and the first 10 results were identified. Patient information from each primary site was downloaded and formatted into plain text. Readability was assessed using 9 established tests; text was analyzed both overall and by Web site for comparison. A total of 101 articles were collected from the first 10 Web site search results; the overall average reading level was 14.4. All articles exceeded the recommended sixth grade reading level. Online resources about Mohs micrographic surgery are too difficult for many patients to read. The paucity of appropriately written patient information available on the Internet may hinder informed decision-making, participation, and subsequent postoperative satisfaction.

  19. Assessing Readability and Reliability of Online Patient Information Regarding Vestibular Schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Harry; Amin, Nikul; Lakhani, Raj; Martin, Andrew J; Patel, Parag M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to objectively assess the quality and readability of websites related to vestibular schwannomas. Patients are increasingly seeking information on confirmed or suspected diagnoses through the Internet. Clinicians are often concerned regarding the accuracy, quality, and readability of web-based sites. Online information relating to vestibular schwannoma was searched using the three most popular search engines. The terms "acoustic neuroma" and "vestibular schwannoma" were used. The top 50 results from each site were assessed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Gunning-Fog Index. Quality of website information was scored using the DISCERN tool. Of 300 search results analyzed, 58 separate appropriate websites were identified. The mean readability score using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 10.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.84-10.70). The mean Flesch Reading Ease Score was 48.75 (95% CI 46.57-50.92). The Gunning-Fog Index was 13.40 (95% CI 12.92-13.89). These scores equate to someone finishing secondary school/first year university student. DISCERN scores were highly variable but consistently demonstrated great variability in quality of information. Online patient information on vestibular schwannoma is highly variable in quality. Although there are a wide range of different websites easily available to patients on their condition and its treatment options, the information is written at a difficult level which may exceed the understanding level of many patients as it is written at a higher than average level of expected reading ability.

  20. Readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ganta, Abhishek; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil; Frank, Rachel M

    2014-04-01

    Although studies have revealed high readability levels of orthopedic patient education materials, no study has evaluated sports medicine-related patient education materials. We conducted a study to assess the readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). All sports medicine patient education articles available online in 2012 from the AAOS and the AOSSM, including the Stop Sports Injuries Campaign (STOP), were identified, and their readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) readability test. Mean overall FK grade level of the 170 articles reviewed (104 from AAOS, 36 from AOSSM, 30 from STOP) was 10.2. Mean FK levels for the 3 sources were 9.5 (AAOS), 11.0 (AOSSM), and 11.5 (STOP) (P = .16). Fifteen (8.8%) of the 170 articles had a readability level at or below eighth grade (average reading level of US adults); only 2 (1.2%) of the 170 articles were at or below the recommended sixth-grade level. The majority of sports medicine-related patient education materials from AAOS and AOSSM had reading levels higher than recommended, indicating that the majority of the patient population may find it difficult to comprehend these articles.

  1. The readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Nova; Ahmad, Fatuma

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. Application of SMOG, FRY and SAM tests to assess the readability and suitability of a selection of sexual health leaflets. SMOG and FRY scores illustrate an average reading level of grade 9. SAM scores indicate that 59% of leaflets are superior in design and 41% are average in design. Leaflets generally perform well in the categories of content, literacy demand, typography and layout. They perform poorly in use of graphics, learning stimulation/motivation and cultural appropriateness. Sexual health leaflets have a reading level that is too high. Leaflets perform well on the suitability scores indicating they are reasonably suitable. There are a number of areas where sexual health leaflets could improve their design. Numerous practical techniques are suggested for improving the readability and suitability of sexual health leaflets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the Readability of Medical Documents: A Ranking Approach.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2018-03-23

    The use of electronic health record (EHR) systems with patient engagement capabilities, including viewing, downloading, and transmitting health information, has recently grown tremendously. However, using these resources to engage patients in managing their own health remains challenging due to the complex and technical nature of the EHR narratives. Our objective was to develop a machine learning-based system to assess readability levels of complex documents such as EHR notes. We collected difficulty ratings of EHR notes and Wikipedia articles using crowdsourcing from 90 readers. We built a supervised model to assess readability based on relative orders of text difficulty using both surface text features and word embeddings. We evaluated system performance using the Kendall coefficient of concordance against human ratings. Our system achieved significantly higher concordance (.734) with human annotators than did a baseline using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, a widely adopted readability formula (.531). The improvement was also consistent across different disease topics. This method's concordance with an individual human user's ratings was also higher than the concordance between different human annotators (.658). We explored methods to automatically assess the readability levels of clinical narratives. Our ranking-based system using simple textual features and easy-to-learn word embeddings outperformed a widely used readability formula. Our ranking-based method can predict relative difficulties of medical documents. It is not constrained to a predefined set of readability levels, a common design in many machine learning-based systems. Furthermore, the feature set does not rely on complex processing of the documents. One potential application of our readability ranking is personalization, allowing patients to better accommodate their own background knowledge. ©Jiaping Zheng, Hong Yu. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  3. Health literacy and the readability of written information for hormone therapies.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Health education and counseling are important elements of the care provided by clinicians. Counseling efforts may involve helping women to understand their options for symptom management related to various reproductive life transitions. In light of this, the need for information during the menopausal transition is critical for assisting women with their health care decisions. Yet the Institute of Medicine estimates that approximately half the adult population in the United States has difficulty understanding and using health information. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates the distribution of written information for estrogen-containing products; however, the readability of information for these pharmaceutical products has not been widely studied. To address this gap, this study examined the readability of written information for FDA-approved prescription menopausal hormone therapies (N = 31). Readability of the written information about hormone therapies from 31 hormone therapy products was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level formulas. The reading level ranged from 6.70 to 12.30, with an average grade level of 9.33 (ninth-grade reading level). All but one of the hormone therapy products evaluated in this study exceeded the recommended sixth-grade reading level for written health information. In addition, only 48% of the written information instructions in the study sample (n = 15) included illustrations. Assessment of written information about menopausal hormone therapies showed that the majority of the materials are written at a high reading level. These findings have implications for health literacy and counseling efforts when helping women to understand their options for menopausal symptom management. Midwives, nurses, and other health care providers may need to supplement written information with additional consumer-friendly written information, utilize illustrations, and use verbal instructions more frequently

  4. Readability of Written Materials for CKD Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Morony, Suzanne; Flynn, Michaela; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Jansen, Jesse; Webster, Angela C

    2015-06-01

    The "average" patient has a literacy level of US grade 8 (age 13-14 years), but this may be lower for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current guidelines suggest that patient education materials should be pitched at a literacy level of around 5th grade (age 10-11 years). This study aims to evaluate the readability of written materials targeted at patients with CKD. Systematic review. Patient information materials aimed at adults with CKD and written in English. Patient education materials designed to be printed and read, sourced from practices in Australia and online at all known websites run by relevant international CKD organizations during March 2014. Quantitative analysis of readability using Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid tools. We analyzed 80 materials. Both Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid analyses suggested that most materials required a minimum of grade 9 (age 14-15 years) schooling to read them. Only 5% of materials were pitched at the recommended level (grade 5). Readability formulas have inherent limitations and do not account for visual information. We did not consider other media through which patients with CKD may access information. Although the study covered materials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, all non-Internet materials were sourced locally, and it is possible that some international paper-based materials were missed. Generalizability may be limited due to exclusion of non-English materials. These findings suggest that patient information materials aimed at patients with CKD are pitched above the average patient's literacy level. This issue is compounded by cognitive decline in patients with CKD, who may have lower literacy than the average patient. It suggests that information providers need to consider their audience more carefully when preparing patient information materials, including user testing with a low-literacy patient population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  5. THE READABILITY OF SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEWPORT, JOHN F.

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE OF THE READABILITY LEVELS OF NINE CONTINUOUS SERIES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS, GRADES 1-6. THE FOLLOWING SCIENCE SERIES WERE EVALUATED--ALLYN AND BACON, AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY, GINN, HARPER AND ROW, HEATH, LYONS AND CARNAHAN, MACMILLAN, SINGER, AND WINSTON. THE SPACHE FORMULA (SAFIER METHOD) WAS APPLIED TO…

  6. How Readable Is BPH Treatment Information on the Internet? Assessing Barriers to Literacy in Prostate Health

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kevin; Yap, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Information about benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become increasingly accessible on the Internet. Though the ability to find such material is encouraging, its readability and impact on informing patient decision making are not known. To evaluate the readability of Internet-based information about BPH in the context of website ownership and Health on the Net certification, three search engines were queried daily for 1 month with BPH-related keywords. Website ownership data and Health on the Net certification status were verified. Three readability analyses were performed: SMOG test, Dale–Chall readability formula, and Fry readability graph. An adjusted SMOG calculation was performed to reduce overestimation from medical jargon. After a total of 270 searches, 52 websites met inclusion criteria. Mean SMOG grade was 10.6 (SD = 1.4) and 10.2 after adjustment. Mean Dale–Chall score was 9.1 (SD = 0.6), or Grades 13 to 15. Mean Fry graph coordinates (173 syllables, 5.1 sentences) corresponded to Grade 15. Seven sites (13%) were at or below the average adult reading level based on SMOG; none of the sites qualified based on the other tests. Readability was significantly poorer for academic versus commercial sites and for Health on the Net-certified versus noncertified sites. In conclusion, online information about BPH treatment markedly exceeds the reading comprehension of most U.S. adults. Websites maintained by academic institutions and certified by the Health on the Net standard have more difficult readability. Efforts to improve literacy with respect to urological health should target content readability independent of reliability. PMID:27903952

  7. How Readable Is BPH Treatment Information on the Internet? Assessing Barriers to Literacy in Prostate Health.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin; Yap, Ronald L

    2017-03-01

    Information about benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become increasingly accessible on the Internet. Though the ability to find such material is encouraging, its readability and impact on informing patient decision making are not known. To evaluate the readability of Internet-based information about BPH in the context of website ownership and Health on the Net certification, three search engines were queried daily for 1 month with BPH-related keywords. Website ownership data and Health on the Net certification status were verified. Three readability analyses were performed: SMOG test, Dale-Chall readability formula, and Fry readability graph. An adjusted SMOG calculation was performed to reduce overestimation from medical jargon. After a total of 270 searches, 52 websites met inclusion criteria. Mean SMOG grade was 10.6 ( SD = 1.4) and 10.2 after adjustment. Mean Dale-Chall score was 9.1 ( SD = 0.6), or Grades 13 to 15. Mean Fry graph coordinates (173 syllables, 5.1 sentences) corresponded to Grade 15. Seven sites (13%) were at or below the average adult reading level based on SMOG; none of the sites qualified based on the other tests. Readability was significantly poorer for academic versus commercial sites and for Health on the Net-certified versus noncertified sites. In conclusion, online information about BPH treatment markedly exceeds the reading comprehension of most U.S. adults. Websites maintained by academic institutions and certified by the Health on the Net standard have more difficult readability. Efforts to improve literacy with respect to urological health should target content readability independent of reliability.

  8. Printed health information materials: evaluation of readability and suitability.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Carol; Hosei, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This study examined readability and suitability of printed health information materials colleted from multiple sources. In phase I, nursing students used Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG; McLaughlin, 1969) to assess the readability of 21 materials collected from the community. In phases II and III, nursing students and registered nurses used SMOG and the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM; Doak, Doak, & Root, 1996) to evaluate 15 prenatal materials from a Healthy Start program. SMOG assigns a reading grade level based on the number of words with 3 or more syllables. SAM has 22 items in 6 evaluation areas: content, literacy demand, graphics, layout and typography, learning stimulation and motivation, and cultural appropriateness. Major findings included that 53% to 86% of the printed materials had a reading level at or higher than 9th grade; materials lacked summary, interaction, and modeled behaviors, and registered nurses rated more materials as not suitable and fewer as superior for suitability qualities than students. Improving printed materials to have lower reading levels and better suitability qualities are indicated.

  9. The Readability of Online Resources for Mastopexy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-01-01

    As more patients use Internet resources for health information, there is increasing interest in evaluating the readability of available online materials. The National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend that patient educational content be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study evaluates the most popular online resources for information about mastopexy relative to average adult literacy in the United States. The 12 most popular sites returned by the largest Internet search engine were identified using the search term "breast lift surgery." Relevant articles from the main sites were downloaded and formatted into text documents. Pictures, captions, links, and references were excluded. The readability of these 100 articles was analyzed overall and subsequently by site using 10 established readability tests. Subgroup analysis was performed for articles discussing the benefits of surgery and those focusing on risks. The overall average readability of online patient information was 13.3 (range, 11.1-15). There was a range of average readability scores overall across the 12 sites from 8.9 to 16.1, suggesting that some may be more appropriate than others for patient demographics with different health literacy levels. Subgroup analysis revealed that articles discussing the risks of mastopexy were significantly harder to read (mean, 14.1) than articles about benefits (11.6). Patient-directed articles from the most popular online resources for mastopexy information are uniformly above the recommended reading level and likely too difficult to be understood by a large number of patients in the United States.

  10. How Readable are Spanish-Language Medicaid Applications?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Julie S.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Nationally, Hispanics comprise nearly one-quarter of all non-elderly Medicaid recipients. We evaluated readability, layout characteristics, and document complexity of state-issued Spanish-language Medicaid enrollment applications. We located and analyzed Internet-based Spanish enrollment applications from 37 states and the District of Columbia. We calculated the readability of each Medicaid enrollment application “Signature” page using the Spanish Lexile Analyzer. We assessed application layout characteristics utilizing the User-Friendliness Tool, and we evaluated document complexity using the PMOSE/IKIRSCH scale. The average Lexile score estimated an 11th–12th grade reading level (M = 1184, SD = 192) for “Signature” pages of enrollment applications. Most applications used small font size and lacked adequate white space. Document complexity ranged from level 3 (moderate) to level 5 (very high); the majority of applications ranked at level 4 (high). Spanish-language Medicaid enrollment applications should be revised to adhere to low-literacy guidelines, which may improve the accessibility of Medicaid coverage for eligible Spanish-speaking families. PMID:21213122

  11. Enhancing the Radiologist-Patient Relationship through Improved Communication: A Quantitative Readability Analysis in Spine Radiology.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, D R; Donovan, A L; Prabhu, A V; Agarwal, N; Cox, M; Flanders, A E

    2017-06-01

    More than 75 million Americans have less than adequate health literacy skills according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Readability scores are used as a measure of how well populations read and understand patient education materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of Web sites dedicated to patient education for radiologic spine imaging and interventions. Eleven search terms relevant to radiologic spine imaging were searched on the public Internet, and the top 10 links for each term were collected and analyzed to determine readability scores by using 10 well-validated quantitative readability assessments from patient-centered education Web sites. The search terms included the following: x-ray spine, CT spine, MR imaging spine, lumbar puncture, kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty, discogram, myelogram, cervical spine, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. Collectively, the 110 articles were written at an 11.3 grade level (grade range, 7.1-16.9). None of the articles were written at the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommended 3rd-to-7th grade reading levels. The vertebroplasty articles were written at a statistically significant ( P < .05) more advanced level than the articles for x-ray spine, CT spine, and MR imaging spine. Increasing use of the Internet to obtain health information has made it imperative that on-line patient education be written for easy comprehension by the average American. However, given the discordance between readability scores of the articles and the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommended guidelines, it is likely that many patients do not fully benefit from these resources. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Readability Assessment of Patient Information about Lymphedema and Its Treatment.

    PubMed

    Seth, Akhil K; Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-02-01

    Patient use of online resources for health information is increasing, and access to appropriately written information has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and overall outcomes. The American Medical Association and the National Institutes of Health recommend that patient materials be written at a sixth-grade reading level. In this study, the authors simulated a patient search of online educational content for lymphedema and evaluated readability. An online search for the term "lymphedema" was performed, and the first 12 hits were identified. User and location filters were disabled and sponsored results were excluded. Patient information from each site was downloaded and formatted into plain text. Readability was assessed using established tests: Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Flesch Reading Ease Index, FORCAST Readability Formula, Fry Graph, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall Formula, New Fog Count, Raygor Readability Estimate, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook Readability Formula. There were 152 patient articles downloaded; the overall mean reading level was 12.6. Individual website reading levels ranged from 9.4 (cancer.org) to 16.7 (wikipedia.org). There were 36 articles dedicated to conservative treatments for lymphedema; surgical treatment was mentioned in nine articles across four sites. The average reading level for conservative management was 12.7, compared with 15.6 for surgery (p < 0.001). Patient information found through an Internet search for lymphedema is too difficult for many American adults to read. Websites queried had a range of readability, and surgeons should direct patients to sites appropriate for their level. There is limited information about surgical treatment available on the most popular sites; this information is significantly harder to read than sections on conservative measures.

  13. Quality and readability assessment of websites related to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Olivier S.D.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease for which a limited number of information sources for patients exist. The role of the Internet in the patient–physician relationship is increasing. More and more patients search for online health information, which should be of good quality and easy readable. The study aim was to investigate the quality and readability of English online health information about RRP. Study Design Quality and readability assessment of online information. Methods Relevant information was collected using three different search engines and seven different search terms. Quality was assessed with the DISCERN instrument. The Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) and average grade level (AGL) were determined to measure readability of the English websites. Results Fifty‐one English websites were included. The mean DISCERN score of the websites is 28.1 ± 9.7 (poor quality); the mean FRES is 41.3 ± 14.9 (difficult to read); and the mean AGL is 12.6 ± 2.3. Conclusion The quality and readability of English websites about RRP is alarmingly poor. Level of Evidence NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2293–2297, 2017 PMID:28233911

  14. An evaluation of the readability of drinking water quality reports: a national assessment.

    PubMed

    Roy, Siddhartha; Phetxumphou, Katherine; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency mandates that community water systems (or water utilities) provide annual consumer confidence reports (CCRs)--water quality reports--to their consumers. These reports encapsulate information regarding sources of water, detected contaminants, regulatory compliance, and educational material. These reports have excellent potential for providing the public with accurate information on the safety of tap water, but there is a lack of research on the degree to which the information can be understood by a large proportion of the population. This study evaluated the readability of a nationally representative sample of 30 CCRs, released between 2011 and 2013. Readability (or 'comprehension difficulty') was evaluated using Flesch-Kincaid readability tests. The analysis revealed that CCRs were written at the 11th-14th grade level, which is well above the recommended 6th-7th grade level for public health communications. The CCR readability ease was found to be equivalent to that of the Harvard Law Review journal. These findings expose a wide chasm that exists between current water quality reports and their effectiveness toward being understandable to US residents. Suggestions for reorienting language and scientific information in CCRs to be easily comprehensible to the public are offered.

  15. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving readability of informed consents for research at an academic medical institution.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Kristie B; Prince, Latrina Y; Moore, Tina D; James, Laura P; Holland, Jennifer R; Trudeau, Christopher R

    2017-12-01

    The final rule for the protection of human subjects requires that informed consent be "in language understandable to the subject" and mandates that "the informed consent must be organized in such a way that facilitates comprehension." This study assessed the readability of Institutional Review Board-approved informed consent forms at our institution, implemented an intervention to improve the readability of consent forms, and measured the first year impact of the intervention. Readability assessment was conducted on a sample of 217 Institutional Review Board-approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015. A plain language informed consent template was developed and implemented and readability was assessed again after 1 year. The mean readability of the baseline sample was 10th grade. The mean readability of the post-intervention sample (n=82) was seventh grade. Providing investigators with a plain language informed consent template and training can promote improved readability of informed consents for research.

  17. Cauda equina syndrome: assessing the readability and quality of patient information on the Internet.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Shane Ciaran; Baker, Joseph Frederick; Fitzgerald, Conall; Fleming, Christina; Rowan, Fiachra; Byrne, Damien; Synnott, Keith

    2014-05-01

    A readability and quality control Internet-based study using recognized quality scoring systems. To assess the readability and quality of Internet information relating to cauda equina syndrome accessed through common search engines. Access to health-related Internet information has increased dramatically during the past decade. A significant proportion of this information has been demonstrated to be set at too high a level for general comprehension. Despite this, searching for health-related information is now the third most popular online activity. A total of 125 cauda equina syndrome Web sites were analyzed from the 5 most popular Internet search engines: Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask, and AOL. Web site authorship was classified: academic, physician, medico-legal, commercial, or discussion/social media. Readability of each Web site was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease score, the Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and the Gunning Fog Index. Quality was calculated using the DISCERN instrument and The Journal of the American Medical Association benchmark criteria. The presence of HON-code certification was also assessed. Fifty-two individual Web sites were identified and assessed. The majority of Web sites were academic or physician compiled (53.8%; 28/52); however, a significant minority of Web sites were medico-legal related (19.2%; 10/52). Just 13.5% (7/52) of Web sites were at or below the recommended sixth-grade readability level. HON-code certified Web sites achieved significantly greater DISCERN (P = 0.0006) and The Journal of the American Medical Association (P = 0.0002) scores. Internet information relating to cauda equina syndrome is of variable quality and largely set at an inappropriate readability level. Given this variability in quality, health care providers should direct patients to known sources of reliable, readable online information. Identification of reliable sources may be aided by known markers of quality such as HON-code certification.

  18. How reliable is computerized assessment of readability?

    PubMed

    Mailloux, S L; Johnson, M E; Fisher, D G; Pettibone, T J

    1995-01-01

    To assess the consistency and comparability of readability software programs, four software programs (Corporate Voice, Grammatix IV, Microsoft Word for Windows, and RightWriter) were compared. Standard materials included 28 pieces of printed educational materials on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome distributed nationally and the Gettysburg Address. Statistical analyses for the educational materials revealed that each of the three formulas assessed (Flesch-Kincaid, Flesch Reading Ease, and Gunning Fog Index) provided significantly different grade equivalent scores and that the Microsoft Word program provided significantly lower grade levels and was more inconsistent in the scores provided. For the Gettysburg Address, considerable variation was revealed among formulas, with the discrepancy being up to two grade levels. When averaging across formulas, there was a variation of 1.3 grade levels between the four software programs. Given the variation between formulas and programs, implications for decisions based on results of these software programs are provided.

  19. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India's Major Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Raj, S; Sharma, V L; Singh, A J; Goel, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words "Health" and "Information" were used on search engines "Google" and "Yahoo." Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making.

  20. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India's Major Search Engines

    PubMed Central

    Raj, S.; Sharma, V. L.; Singh, A. J.; Goel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words “Health” and “Information” were used on search engines “Google” and “Yahoo.” Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making. PMID:27119025

  1. Readability, complexity, and suitability analysis of online lymphedema resources.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Singh, Mansher; Lee, Bernard T; Rudd, Rima; Singhal, Dhruv

    2017-06-01

    Over 72% of Americans use online health information to assist in health care decision-making. Previous studies of lymphedema literature have focused only on reading level of patient-oriented materials online. Findings indicate they are too advanced for most patients to comprehend. This, more comprehensive study, expands the previous analysis to include critical elements of health materials beyond readability using assessment tools to report on the complexity and density of data as well as text design, vocabulary, and organization. The top 10 highest ranked websites on lymphedema were identified using the most popular search engine (Google). Website content was analyzed for readability, complexity, and suitability using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, PMOSE/iKIRSCH, and Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), respectively. PMOSE/iKIRSCH and SAM were performed by two independent raters. Fleiss' kappa score was calculated to ensure inter-rater reliability. Online lymphedema literature had a reading grade level of 14.0 (SMOG). Overall complexity score was 6.7 (PMOSE/iKIRSCH) corresponding to "low" complexity and requiring a 8th-12th grade education. Fleiss' kappa score was 80% (P = 0.04, "substantial" agreement). Overall suitability score was 45% (SAM) correlating to the lowest level of "adequate" suitability. Fleiss' kappa score was 76% (P = 0.06, "substantial" agreement). Online resources for lymphedema are above the recommended levels for readability and complexity. The suitability level is barely adequate for the intended audience. Overall, these materials are too sophisticated for the average American adult, whose literacy skills are well documented. Further efforts to revise these materials are needed to improve patient comprehension and understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Readability of Magazines of Interest to Reading-Deficit Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Maurice; And Others

    The reading abilities of low achieving high school students at two schools were compared to the readability levels of the magazines in which they showed interest. The median tested reading ability of these students was reported as third/fourth grade by their reading teachers. The reading specialist at one high school reported that boys had an…

  3. Most American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' online patient education material exceeds average patient reading level.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Sharma, Pranav; Wang, Jing; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-04-01

    Advancing health literacy has the potential to improve patient outcomes. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' (AAOS) online patient education materials serve as a tool to improve health literacy for orthopaedic patients; however, it is unknown whether the materials currently meet the National Institutes of Health/American Medical Association's recommended sixth grade readability guidelines for health information or the mean US adult reading level of eighth grade. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the mean grade level readability of online AAOS patient education materials; and (2) to determine what proportion of the online materials exceeded recommended (sixth grade) and mean US (eighth grade) reading level. Reading grade levels for 99.6% (260 of 261) of the online patient education entries from the AAOS were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid formula built into Microsoft Word software. Mean grade level readability of the AAOS patient education materials was 9.2 (SD ± 1.6). Two hundred fifty-one of the 260 articles (97%) had a readability score above the sixth grade level. The readability of the AAOS articles exceeded the sixth grade level by an average of 3.2 grade levels. Of the 260 articles, 210 (81%) had a readability score above the eighth grade level, which is the average reading level of US adults. Most of the online patient education materials from the AAOS had readability levels that are far too advanced for many patients to comprehend. Efforts to adjust the readability of online education materials to the needs of the audience may improve the health literacy of orthopaedic patients. Patient education materials can be made more comprehensible through use of simpler terms, shorter sentences, and the addition of pictures. More broadly, all health websites, not just those of the AAOS, should aspire to be comprehensible to the typical reader.

  4. Readability of Orthopaedic Oncology-related Patient Education Materials Available on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Shah, Akash K; Yi, Paul H; Stein, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    A person's health literacy is one of the most important indicators of a patient's health status. According to national recommendations, patient education materials should be written at no higher than the sixth- to eighth-grade reading level. The purpose of our study was to assess the readability of online patient education materials related to orthopaedic oncology on the websites of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), American Cancer Society (ACS), Bone and Cancer Foundation (BCF), and National Cancer Institute (NCI). We searched the online patient education libraries of the AAOS, ACS, BCF, and NCI for all articles related to orthopaedic oncology. The Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability score was calculated for each article and compared between sources. A total of 227 articles were identified with an overall mean FK grade level of 9.8. Stratified by source, the mean FK grade levels were 10.1, 9.6, 11.1, and 9.5 for the AAOS, ACS, BCF, and NCI, respectively (P < 0.003). Only 31 articles (14%) and 1 article (0.4%) were at or below the recommended eighth- and sixth-grade levels, respectively. Online patient education materials related to orthopaedic oncology appear to be written at a level above the comprehension ability of the average patient. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  5. Critical Analysis of the Quality, Readability, and Technical Aspects of Online Information Provided for Neck-Lifts.

    PubMed

    Rayess, Hani; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Gupta, Amar; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Carron, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients using the internet to obtain health information is growing. This material is unregulated and heterogeneous and can influence patient decisions. To compare the quality, readability, and technical aspects of online information about neck-lifts provided by private practice websites vs academic medical centers and reference sources. In this cross-sectional analysis conducted between November 2015 and January 2016, a Google search of the term neck-lift was performed, and the first 45 websites were evaluated. The websites were categorized as private practice vs other. Private websites (PWs) included sites created by private practice physicians. Other websites (OWs) were created by academic medical centers or reference sources. Quality, readability, and technical aspects of online websites related to neck-lifts. Quality was assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Health on the Net principles (HONcode). Readability was assessed using 7 validated and widely used criteria. Consensus US reading grade level readability was provided by a website (readabilityformulas.com). Twelve technical aspects were evaluated based on criteria specified by medical website creators. Forty-five websites (8 OWs [18%] and 37 PWs [82%]) were analyzed. There was a significant difference in quality between OWs and PWs based on the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The DISCERN overall mean (SD) scores were 2.3 (0.5) for OWs and 1.3 (0.3) for PWs (P < .001). Of a total possible score of 14 using the HONcode analysis, the mean (SD) was 8.6 (1.8) (range, 5-11) for OW, and the mean (SD) was 5.8 (1.7) (range, 2-9) for PW. The mean (SD) readability consensus reading grade level scores were 11.7 (1.9) for OWs and 10.6 (1.9) for PWs. Of a total possible score of 12, the mean (SD) technical scores were 6.3 (1.8) (range, 4-9) for OWs and 6.4 (1.5) (range, 3-9) for PWs. Compared with PWs, OWs had a significantly higher quality score based on both the DISCERN criteria and

  6. Readability and Comprehension of Self-Report Binge Eating Measures

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Lauren K.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. Results: All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depends on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. PMID:23557814

  7. Quality and readability of websites for patient information on tonsillectomy and sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ethan; Jabbour, Noel; Aaronson, Nicole Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Tonsillectomy is a common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Internet allows patients direct access to medical information. Since information on the Internet is largely unregulated, quality and readability are variable. This study evaluates the quality and readability of the most likely visited websites presenting information on sleep apnea and tonsillectomy. The three most popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo) were queried with the phrase "sleep apnea AND tonsillectomy." The DISCERN instrument was used to assess quality of information. Readability was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKGL) and Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). Out of the maximum of 80, the average DISCERN quality score for the websites was 55.1 (SD- 12.3, Median- 60.5). The mean score for FRES was 42.3 (SD- 15.9, Median- 45.5), which falls in the range defined as difficult. No website was above the optimal score of 65. The mean score for the FKGL was US grade-level of 10.7 (SD- 1.6, Median- 11.6). Only 4(27%) websites were in the optimal range of 6-8. There was very weak correlation between FRES and DISCERN (r = 0.07) and FKGL and DISCERN (r = 0.21). Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in the US. However, the internet information readily available to patients varies in quality. Additionally, much of the information is above the recommended grade level for comprehension by the public. By being aware of what information patients are reading online, physicians can better explain treatments and address misunderstandings. Physicians may consider using similar methods to test the readability for their own resources for patient education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Readability Levels of Health-Based Websites: From Content to Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutten, Mary; McFarland, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Three of the national health education standards include decision-making, accessing information and analyzing influences. WebQuests are a popular inquiry-oriented method used by secondary teachers to help students achieve these content standards. While WebQuests support higher level thinking skills, the readability level of the information on the…

  9. Readability Assessment of Internet-Based Patient Education Materials Related to Parathyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Sanghvi, Saurin; Cherla, Deepa V; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-07-01

    Patient education is critical in obtaining informed consent and reducing preoperative anxiety. Written patient education material (PEM) can supplement verbal communication to improve understanding and satisfaction. Published guidelines recommend that health information be presented at or below a sixth-grade reading level to facilitate comprehension. We investigate the grade level of online PEMs regarding parathyroid surgery. A popular internet search engine was used to identify PEM discussing parathyroid surgery. Four formulas were used to calculate readability scores: Flesch Reading Ease (FRE), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG), and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Thirty web-based articles discussing parathyroid surgery were identified. The average FRE score was 42.8 (±1 standard deviation [SD] 16.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 36.6-48.8; range, 6.1-71.3). The average FKGL score was 11.7 (±1 SD 3.3; 95% CI, 10.5-12.9; range, 6.1-19.0). The SMOG scores averaged 14.2 (±1 SD 2.6; 95% CI, 13.2-15.2; range, 10.7-21.9), and the GFOG scores averaged 15.0 (±1 SD 3.5; 95% CI, 13.7-16.3; range, 10.6-24.8). Online PEM on parathyroid surgery is written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level. Improving readability of PEM may promote better health education and compliance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Uterine Artery Embolization: An Analysis of Online Patient Information Quality and Readability with Historical Comparison.

    PubMed

    Murray, Timothy E; Mansoor, Tayyaub; Bowden, Dermot J; O'Neill, Damien C; Lee, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Investigators aimed to assess online information describing uterine artery embolization (UAE) to examine the quality and readability of websites patients are accessing. A list of applicable, commonly used searchable terms was generated, including "Uterine Artery Embolization," "Fibroid Embolization," "Uterine Fibroid Embolization," and "Uterine Artery Embolisation." Each possible term was assessed across the five most-used English language search engines to determine the most commonly used term. The most common term was then investigated across each search engine, with the first 25 pages returned by each engine included for analysis. Duplicate pages, nontext content such as video or audio, and pages behind paywalls were excluded. Pages were analyzed for quality and readability using validated tools including DISCERN score, JAMA Benchmark Criteria, HONcode Certification, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and Gunning-Fog Index. Secondary features such as age, rank, author, and publisher were recorded. The most common applicable term was "Uterine Artery Embolization" (492,900 results). Mean DISCERN quality of information provided by UAE websites is "fair"; however, it has declined since comparative 2012 studies. Adherence to JAMA Benchmark Criteria has reduced to 6.7%. UAE website readability remains more difficult than the World Health Organization-recommended 7-8th grade reading levels. HONcode-certified websites (35.6%) demonstrated significantly higher quality than noncertified websites. Quality of online UAE information remains "fair." Adherence to JAMA benchmark criteria is poor. Readability is above recommended 7-8th grade levels. HONcode certification was predictive of higher website quality, a useful guide to patients requesting additional information. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Readability of online patient education materials for velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Xie, Deborah X; Wang, Ray Y; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar

    2018-01-01

    Evaluate the readability of online and mobile application health information about velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Top website and mobile application results for search terms "velopharyngeal insufficiency", "velopharyngeal dysfunction", "VPI", and "VPD" were analyzed. Readability was determined using 10 algorithms with Readability Studio Professional Edition (Oleander Software Ltd; Vandalia, OH). Subgroup analysis was performed based on search term and article source - academic hospital, general online resource, peer-reviewed journal, or professional organization. 18 unique articles were identified. Overall mean reading grade level was a 12.89 ± 2.9. The highest reading level among these articles was 15.47-approximately the level of a college senior. Articles from "velopharyngeal dysfunction" had the highest mean reading level (13.73 ± 2.11), above "velopharyngeal insufficiency" (12.30 ± 1.56) and "VPI" (11.66 ± 1.70). Articles from peer-reviewed journals had the highest mean reading level (15.35 ± 2.79), while articles from academic hospitals had the lowest (12.81 ± 1.66). There were statistically significant differences in reading levels between the different search terms (P < 0.01) and article source types (P < 0.05). Only one mobile application was identified with VPI information, with a readability of 10.68. Despite published reading level guidelines, online patient education materials for VPI are disseminated with language too complex for most readers. There is also a lack of VPI-related mobile application data available for patients. Patients will benefit if future updates to websites and disseminated patient information are undertaken with health literacy in mind. Future studies will investigate patient comprehension of these materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Readability analysis of internet-based patient information regarding skull base tumors.

    PubMed

    Misra, Poonam; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Agarwal, Nitin; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2012-09-01

    Readability is an important consideration in assessing healthcare-related literature. In order for a source of information to be the most beneficial to patients, it should be written at a level appropriate for the audience. The National Institute of Health recommends that health literature be written at a maximum level of sixth grade. This is not uniformly found in current health literature, putting patients with lower reading levels at a disadvantage. In February 2012, healthcare-oriented education resources were retrieved from websites obtained using the Google search phrase skull base tumors. Of the first 25 consecutive, unique website hits, 18 websites were found to contain information for patients. Ten different assessment scales were utilized to assess the readability of the patient-specific web pages. Patient-oriented material found online for skull base tumors was written at a significantly higher level than the reading level of the average US patient. The average reading level of this material was found to be at a minimum of eleventh grade across all ten scales. Health related material related to skull base tumors available through the internet can be improved to reach a larger audience without sacrificing the necessary information. Revisions of this material can provide significant benefit for average patients and improve their health care.

  14. Readability Assessment of Online Uveitis Patient Education Materials.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Samantha; Tsui, Edmund; Mohammed, Taariq; Tseng, Joseph

    2017-12-29

    To evaluate the readability of online uveitis patient education materials. A Google search in November 2016 was completed using search term "uveitis" and "uveitis inflammation." The top 50 websites with patient-centered information were selected and analyzed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Gunning FOG Index (GFI), and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed t-tests. The mean word count of the top 50 websites was 1162.7 words, and averaged 16.2 words per sentence. For these websites, the mean FRES was 38.0 (range 4-66, SD = 12.0), mean FKGL was 12.3 (range 6.8-19, SD = 2.4), mean SMOG score was 14.4 (range 9.8-19, SD = 1.8), and the mean Gunning FOG index was 14.0 (range 8.6-19, SD = 2.0). The majority of online patient directed uveitis materials are at a higher reading level than that of the average American adult.

  15. Readability of the Most Commonly Accessed Arthroscopy-Related Online Patient Education Materials.

    PubMed

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Krochak, Ryan; Richardson, Nicholas; Garofolo, Garret; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Erez, Orry

    2018-04-01

    To assess the readability and comprehension of written text by the most commonly visited websites containing patient education materials on common conditions that can be treated arthroscopically. We examined 50 websites, assessed independently by 2 orthopaedic surgery residents (S.A. and G.G.), with educational materials on 5 common conditions treated by arthroscopic surgeons: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, meniscus tear, hip labral tear, shoulder labral tear, and rotator cuff tear. Following a Google search for each condition, we analyzed the 10 most visited websites for each disorder using a widely used and validated tool for assessing the reading levels of written materials (Flesch-Kincaid formula). The average grade reading level of the 50 websites studied was 9.90 with a reading ease of 52.14 ("fairly difficult, high school"). Only 26% of the websites were at or below the national average of an eighth-grade reading level. Of the 5 conditions treated by arthroscopic surgery, ACL tear had the highest average grade reading level at 10.73 ± 1.54, whereas meniscus tear had the lowest at 9.31 ± 1.81. Every condition in this study had an average readability at or above the ninth-grade reading level. The most frequently accessed materials for patients with injuries requiring arthroscopic surgery exceeds the readability recommendations of the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health, as well as the average reading ability of US adults. Given the fact that these are the most commonly visited websites by the lay public, there needs to be a greater emphasis on tailoring written information to the literacy levels of the patient population. This study emphasizes the discrepancy between the recommended versus the measured reading levels of online patient education materials related to conditions treated by arthroscopic surgeons. The subject matter of these conditions is inherently complex; thus, relying solely on text to inform patients

  16. A quantitative readability analysis of patient education resources from gastroenterology society websites.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Patel, Sahil R; Agarwal, Prateek; Agarwal, Nitin; John, Elizabeth S; John, Ann M; Reynolds, James C

    2017-06-01

    The lay public frequently access and rely on online information as a source of their medical knowledge. Many medical societies are unaware of national patient education material guidelines and subsequently fail to meet them. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the readability of patient education materials within the medical field of gastroenterology. Two hundred fourteen articles pertaining to patient education materials were evaluated with ten well-established readability scales. The articles were available on the websites for the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG), and the NIH section National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc analysis were conducted to determine any differences in level of readability between websites. The 214 articles were written at an 11.8 ± 2.1 grade level with a range of 8.0 to 16.0 grade level. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc analysis determined the ACG was written at a significantly (p < 0.05) more difficult level when compared to the AGA, the BSG, and the NIDDK websites. No differences were noted when comparing the ASGE website. None of the patient education materials were written at a level that met national guidelines. If the materials are redrafted, the general American public will likely have a greater understanding of the gastroenterology content.

  17. A Comparison of Two Methods of Assessing Textbook Readability of Selected College Level Electronics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Donald Max

    Fifty-eight students enrolled in basic electronics courses from three state colleges in Missouri, were involved in comparing the cloze readability technique with the Flesch Reading Ease Formula to ascertain the effectiveness of each in assessing the readability of selected college level electronics textbooks. Pearson product-moment correlations…

  18. Constructing and validating readability models: the method of integrating multilevel linguistic features with machine learning.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chen, Ju-Ling; Cha, Ji-Her; Tseng, Hou-Chiang; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-06-01

    Multilevel linguistic features have been proposed for discourse analysis, but there have been few applications of multilevel linguistic features to readability models and also few validations of such models. Most traditional readability formulae are based on generalized linear models (GLMs; e.g., discriminant analysis and multiple regression), but these models have to comply with certain statistical assumptions about data properties and include all of the data in formulae construction without pruning the outliers in advance. The use of such readability formulae tends to produce a low text classification accuracy, while using a support vector machine (SVM) in machine learning can enhance the classification outcome. The present study constructed readability models by integrating multilevel linguistic features with SVM, which is more appropriate for text classification. Taking the Chinese language as an example, this study developed 31 linguistic features as the predicting variables at the word, semantic, syntax, and cohesion levels, with grade levels of texts as the criterion variable. The study compared four types of readability models by integrating unilevel and multilevel linguistic features with GLMs and an SVM. The results indicate that adopting a multilevel approach in readability analysis provides a better representation of the complexities of both texts and the reading comprehension process.

  19. Readability and quality assessment of websites related to microtia and aural atresia.

    PubMed

    Alamoudi, Uthman; Hong, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Many parents and children utilize the Internet for health-related information, but the quality of these websites can vary. The objective of this study was to assess the quality and readability of microtia and aural atresia related websites. The search engine Google was queried with the terms 'microtia' and 'aural atresia.' The first 30 results were evaluated, and those websites containing original information written in English were reviewed. Quality of content was assessed with the DISCERN instrument, and readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKGL) and the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) tests. Each website was also reviewed for ownership and the date of last update. Sixteen microtia and 14 aural atresia websites were included for full review. The mean DISCERN score for microtia websites was 54.4 (SD=8.3), and for aural atresia websites it was 47.6 (SD=10.7), which indicates 'good' and 'fair' quality of content, respectively. Readability assessments showed an average reading level requiring a grade 10 education on FKGL, and only one microtia (6.3%) and one aural atresia (7.1%) websites were deemed to be at 'reasonable' reading level on FRES. High-quality websites that are considered easily comprehensible to the general public were lacking. Since parents and children may use websites when making treatment decisions, physicians should be aware of the quality of health information pertaining to their area of expertise available on the Internet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are English-language pedometer instructions readable?

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Bielak, Kenneth; Linn, Brian

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated readability and related features of English-language instructions accompanying pedometers, including reading grade level, layout/formatting characteristics, and emphasis of key points. We identified 15 pedometers currently available for purchase in the US. Reading grade level was calculated using Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) and SMOG formulas. Text point size was measured with a C-Thru Ruler. Page and illustration dimensions were measured to the nearest millimeter (mm) with a standard ruler. Layout features were evaluated using the criteria from the User-Friendliness Tool. FK scores ranged from 8th to 11th grade, while SMOG scores ranged from 8th to 12th grade. Text point size averaged 6.9 +/- 1.9 (range = 4-11). Instructions averaged 8.7 +/- 9.0 (range = 0-36) illustrations, most about the size of a US quarter. While many instructions avoided use of specialty fonts (n = 12; 80.0%), most used a minimal amount of white space. Just 4 (26.7%) sets of instructions highlighted the target goal of 10,000 steps-per-day. Pedometer instructions should be revised to meet the recommended 6th grade reading level. Paper size instructions are printed on should be enlarged, thereby allowing for larger text and illustrations, and additional white space. Recommended number of steps per day and proper pedometer positioning should also be predominantly highlighted.

  1. Assessing the readability of thirty-nine behavior-modification training manuals and primers

    PubMed Central

    Andrasik, Frank; Murphy, William D.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-nine behavior-modification training manuals and primers, sampling various topical areas, were subjected to a readability analysis. Reading-ease scores were computed by the formula developed by Flesch. The texts sampled ranged from very difficult (appropriate for college graduates) to fairly easy (appropriate for readers at the seventh-grade level). PMID:16795559

  2. Quality and readability assessment of websites related to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    San Giorgi, Michel R M; de Groot, Olivier S D; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease for which a limited number of information sources for patients exist. The role of the Internet in the patient-physician relationship is increasing. More and more patients search for online health information, which should be of good quality and easy readable. The study aim was to investigate the quality and readability of English online health information about RRP. Quality and readability assessment of online information. Relevant information was collected using three different search engines and seven different search terms. Quality was assessed with the DISCERN instrument. The Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) and average grade level (AGL) were determined to measure readability of the English websites. Fifty-one English websites were included. The mean DISCERN score of the websites is 28.1 ± 9.7 (poor quality); the mean FRES is 41.3 ± 14.9 (difficult to read); and the mean AGL is 12.6 ± 2.3. The quality and readability of English websites about RRP is alarmingly poor. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2293-2297, 2017. © 2017 The Authors The Laryngoscope published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society Inc, “The Triological Society” and American Laryngological Association (ALA).

  3. The Evaluation of High School Geography 9 and High School Geography 11 Text Books with Some Formulas of Readability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecit, Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate readability of 9th and 11th grade geography text-books currently used in schools. As known, one of the most fundamental features in a text-book is the readability of the text by students. In addition, it is also very important that the fluency and suitability of books match age level. In this study, the…

  4. Diabetes websites accredited by the Health On the Net Foundation Code of Conduct: readable or not?

    PubMed

    Kusec, Sanja; Brborovic, Ognjen; Schillinger, Dean

    2003-01-01

    Health information posted on the Internet has become a popular mode of communication with the population at large because millions of people now use the Internet to gather health information. Many studies on readability have shown that patient education information is frequently written at the reading level too high for the average population to understand, and the same holds true for health information on the Internet. The aim of this study was to determine the readability levels of health information found on diabetes-related websites displaying HONcode logo, which indicates to high quality of the information provided. The 99 websites tested for readability using the Flesch Reading Ease formula and Flesch-Kincaid level showed FRE score 2.1 to 79.6, with the mean 41.7 (10th grade, 8th month Flesch-Kincaid level), which indicates that 86.9% of these materials would be too difficult to read for the average adult population. It is suggested that the readability level, and the name of the formula used, be used on the websites themselves to help the Internet users decide which sites could be of the greatest benefit to them.

  5. Readability of patient information pamphlets in urogynecology.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Krista M L; O'Sullivan, David M; Harvey, David P; Lasala, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reading level of frequently used patient information pamphlets and documents in the field of urogynecology. Urogynecology pamphlets were identified from a variety of sources. Readability was determined using 4 different accepted formulas: the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the simple measure of gobbledygook Index, the Coleman-Liau Index, and the Gunning Fog index. The scores were calculated using an online calculator (http://www.readability-score.com). Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. The average of the 4 scores was calculated for each pamphlet. Subsequently, Z-scores were used to standardize the averages between the reading scales. Of the 40 documents reviewed, only a single pamphlet met the National Institutes of Health-recommended reading level. This document was developed by the American Urological Association and was specifically designated as a "Low-Literacy Brochure." The remainder of the patient education pamphlets, from both industry-sponsored and academic-sponsored sources, consistently rated above the recommended reading level for maximum comprehension. The majority of patient education pamphlets, from both industry-sponsored and academic-sponsored sources, are above the reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health for maximum patient comprehension. Future work should be done to improve the educational resources available to patients by simplifying the verbiage in these documents.

  6. Readability Trends of Online Information by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that patient education materials published by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation may be too difficult for the average reader to understand. The purpose of this study was to determine if current educational materials show improvements in readability. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting The Patient Health Information section of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation website. Subjects and Methods All patient education articles were extracted in plain text. Webpage navigation, references, author information, appointment information, acknowledgments, and disclaimers were removed. Follow-up editing was also performed to remove paragraph breaks, colons, semicolons, numbers, percentages, and bullets. Readability grade was calculated with the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning-Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed. Results A total of 126 articles from 7 topics were analyzed. Readability levels across all 6 tools showed that the difficulty of patient education materials exceeded the abilities of an average American. As compared with previous studies, current educational materials by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation have shown a decrease in difficulty. Intra- and interobserver reliability were both excellent, with intraclass coefficients of 0.99 and 0.96, respectively. Conclusion Improvements in readability is an encouraging finding and one that is consistent with recent trends toward improved health literacy. Nevertheless, online patient educational material is still too difficult for the average reader. Revisions may be necessary for current materials to benefit a larger readership.

  7. Reading and Readability Affect on E-Learning Success in a Fortune 100 Company: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Denis Michael Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between employees' reading skills, E-learning readability, student learning, and student satisfaction. The Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) form 10 Level A instrument evaluated student-reading skills. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index course assessed…

  8. Readability of websites containing information about prostate cancer treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ellimoottil, Chandy; Polcari, Anthony; Kadlec, Adam; Gupta, Gopal

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 90 million American adults have literacy skills that test below a high school reading level. Websites written above this level can pose a challenge for those seeking online information about prostate cancer treatment options. In this study we determine the readability of selected websites using a systematic search process and validated readability formulas. We identified the 3 most popular keywords from 513 terms related to prostate cancer treatment options. We then systematically collected 270 websites from the top 3 search engines, and excluded from study those that were nonEnglish, not primarily text, irrelevant and/or duplicated. We used the Flesch-Kincaid grade level and Flesch Reading Ease to determine scores for each site. A total of 62 unique websites were analyzed. Median Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 12.0 (range 8.0 to 12.0) and median Flesch Reading Ease score was 38.1 (range 0.0 to 65.5). Only 3 sites (4.8%) were written below a high school reading level (less than 9.0). Few websites with discussions on prostate cancer treatment options are written below a high school reading level. This is problematic for a third of Americans who seek to further educate themselves using online resources. Clinicians can use this information to guide their patients to appropriate websites. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A text comprehension approach to questionnaire readability: An example using gambling disorder measures.

    PubMed

    Peter, Samuel C; Whelan, James P; Pfund, Rory A; Meyers, Andrew W

    2018-06-14

    Although readability has been traditionally operationalized and even become synonymous with the concept of word and sentence length, modern text analysis theory and technology have shifted toward multidimensional comprehension-based analytic techniques. In an effort to make use of these advancements and demonstrate their general utility, 6 commonly used measures of gambling disorder were submitted to readability analyses using 2 of these advanced approaches, Coh-Metrix and Question Understanding Aid (QUAID), and one traditional approach, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. As hypothesized, significant variation was found across measures, with some questionnaires emerging as more appropriate than others for use in samples that may include individuals with low literacy. Recommendations are made for the use of these modern approaches to readability to inform decisions on measure selection and development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Emotioncy: A Potential Measure of Readability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadamn, Reza; Abbasnejad, Hannaheh

    2016-01-01

    Given the deficiencies of readability formulae as reliable tools for measuring text readability in educational settings, this study aims to offer a new measure to improve the current methods of testing the readability levels of texts through the incorporation of the newly-developed concept of emotioncy. To this end, a group of 221 students were…

  11. Readability Levels of the Reading Passages in the ITED: Final Report. Iowa Testing Programs Research Report. Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Robert

    The readability level of passages from three subtests of the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED), Forms X-6 and Y-6, were compared with the readability level of passages selected from the Des Moines Resister, Reader's Digest, Time, Newsweek, Saturday Review, and 18 high school textbooks from the fields of social studies, science, and…

  12. Readability, suitability, and health content assessment of web-based patient education materials on colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chenlu; Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Agrawal, Deepak

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the Unites States are still below target level. Web-based patient education materials are used by patients and providers to provide supplemental information on CRC screening. Low literacy levels and patient perceptions are significant barriers to screening. There are little data on the quality of these online materials from a health literacy standpoint or whether they address patients' perceptions. To evaluate the readability, suitability, and health content of web-based patient education materials on colon cancer screening. Descriptive study. Web-based patient materials. Twelve reputable and popular online patient education materials were evaluated. Readability was measured by using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level, and suitability was determined by the Suitability Assessment of Materials, a scale that considers characteristics such as content, graphics, layout/typography, and learning stimulation. Health content was evaluated within the framework of the Health Belief Model, a behavioral model that relates patients' perceptions of susceptibility to disease, severity, and benefits and barriers to their medical decisions. Each material was scored independently by 3 reviewers. Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level score, Suitability Assessment of Materials score, health content score. Readability for 10 of 12 materials surpassed the maximum recommended sixth-grade reading level. Five were 10th grade level and above. Only 1 of 12 materials received a superior suitability score; 3 materials received inadequate scores. Health content analysis revealed that only 50% of the resources discussed CRC risk in the general population and <25% specifically addressed patients at high risk, such as African Americans, smokers, patients with diabetes, and obese patients. For perceived barriers to screening, only 8.3% of resources discussed embarrassment, 25% discussed pain with colonoscopy, 25% addressed cost of colonoscopy, and none

  13. A Systematic Assessment of Google Search Queries and Readability of Online Gynecologic Oncology Patient Education Materials.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alexandra; Stewart, J Ryan; Gaskins, Jeremy; Medlin, Erin

    2018-01-20

    The Internet is a major source of health information for gynecologic cancer patients. In this study, we systematically explore common Google search terms related to gynecologic cancer and calculate readability of top resulting websites. We used Google AdWords Keyword Planner to generate a list of commonly searched keywords related to gynecologic oncology, which were sorted into five groups (cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer) using five patient education websites from sgo.org . Each keyword was Google searched to create a list of top websites. The Python programming language (version 3.5.1) was used to describe frequencies of keywords, top-level domains (TLDs), domains, and readability of top websites using four validated formulae. Of the estimated 1,846,950 monthly searches resulting in 62,227 websites, the most common was cancer.org . The most common TLD was *.com. Most websites were above the eighth-grade reading level recommended by the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). The SMOG Index was the most reliable formula. The mean grade level readability for all sites using SMOG was 9.4 ± 2.3, with 23.9% of sites falling at or below the eighth-grade reading level. The first ten results for each Google keyword were easiest to read with results beyond the first page of Google being consistently more difficult. Keywords related to gynecologic malignancies are Google-searched frequently. Most websites are difficult to read without a high school education. This knowledge may help gynecologic oncology providers adequately meet the needs of their patients.

  14. Readability, suitability, and characteristics of asthma action plans: examination of factors that may impair understanding.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Shonna; Gupta, Ruchi S; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Wolf, Michael S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Antler, Lauren; Sanchez, Dayana C; Lau, Claudia Hillam; Dreyer, Benard P

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of the complexity of asthma management has led to the development of asthma treatment guidelines that include the recommendation that all pediatric asthma patients receive a written asthma action plan. We assessed the readability, suitability, and characteristics of asthma action plans, elements that contribute to the effectiveness of action plan use, particularly for those with limited literacy. This was a descriptive study of 30 asthma action plans (27 state Department of Health (DOH)-endorsed, 3 national action plans endorsed by 6 states). (1) readability (as assessed by Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Forcast), (2) suitability (Suitability Assessment of Materials [SAM], adequate: ≥ 0.4; unsuitable: <0.4), (3) action plan characteristics (peak flow vs symptom-based, symptoms, recommended actions). Mean (SD) overall readability grade level was 7.2 (1.1) (range = 5.7-9.8); 70.0% were above a sixth-grade level. Mean (SD) suitability score was 0.74 (0.14). Overall, all action plans were found to be adequate, although 40.0% had an unsuitable score in at least 1 factor. The highest percent of unsuitable scores were found in the categories of layout/typography (30.0%), learning stimulation/motivation (26.7%), and graphics (13.3%). There were no statistically significant differences between the average grade level or SAM score of state DOH developed action plans and those from or adapted from national organizations. Plans varied with respect to terms used, symptoms included, and recommended actions. Specific improvements in asthma action plans could maximize patient and parent understanding of appropriate asthma management and could particularly benefit individuals with limited literacy skills.

  15. Readability of internet-sourced patient education material related to "labour analgesia".

    PubMed

    Boztas, Nilay; Omur, Dilek; Ozbılgın, Sule; Altuntas, Gözde; Piskin, Ersan; Ozkardesler, Sevda; Hanci, Volkan

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the readability of Internet-sourced patient education materials (PEMs) related to "labour analgesia." In addition to assessing the readability of websites, we aimed to compare commercial, personal, and academic websites.We used the most popular search engine (http://www.google.com) in our study. The first 100 websites in English that resulted from a search for the key words "labour analgesia" were scanned. Websites that were not in English, graphs, pictures, videos, tables, figures and list formats in the text, all punctuation, the number of words in the text is less than 100 words, feedback forms not related to education, (Uniform Resource Locator) URL websites, author information, references, legal disclaimers, and addresses and telephone numbers were excluded.The texts included in the study were assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (FOG) readability formulae. The number of Latin words within the text was determined.Analysis of 300-word sections of the texts revealed that the mean FRES was 47.54 ± 12.54 (quite difficult), mean FKGL and SMOG were 11.92 ± 2.59 and 10.57 ± 1.88 years of education, respectively, and mean Gunning FOG was 14.71 ± 2.76 (very difficult). Within 300-word sections, the mean number of Latin words was identified as 16.56 ± 6.37.In our study, the readability level of Internet-sourced PEM related to "labour analgesia" was identified to be quite high indicating poor readability.

  16. Readability of the Most Commonly Accessed Online Patient Education Materials Pertaining to Pathology of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Garofolo-Gonzalez, Garret; Montuori, Michael; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Hashem, Jennifer; Edelstein, David Marc

    2017-08-01

    The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that patient education materials be written at no higher than a sixth-grade reading level. We examined 100 online educational materials for the 10 hand conditions most commonly treated by hand surgeons, as reported by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The listed conditions were carpal tunnel syndrome, basal joint arthritis of the thumb, de Quervain syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, ganglion cysts, hand fractures, trigger finger, extensor tendon injuries, flexor tendon injuries, and mallet finger. Following a Google search for each condition, we analyzed the 10 most visited websites for each disorder utilizing the Flesch-Kincaid formula. The average grade reading level of the 100 websites studied was 9.49 with a reading ease of 53.03 ("fairly difficult high school"). Only 29% of the websites were at or below the national average of an eighth-grade reading level. Carpal tunnel syndrome had the highest average grade reading level at 10.32 (standard deviation: 1.52), whereas hand fractures had the lowest at 8.14 (2.03). Every hand condition in this study had an average readability at or above the ninth-grade reading level. The most frequently accessed materials for common maladies of the hand exceed both the readability limits recommended by the AMA and NIH, and the average reading ability of most US adults. Therefore, the most commonly accessed websites pertaining to hand pathology may not be comprehended by the audience for which it is intended.

  17. Availability and Readability of Online Patient Education Materials Regarding Regional Anesthesia Techniques for Perioperative Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gunjan; Howard, Steven K; Kou, Alex; Kim, T Edward; Butwick, Alexander J; Mariano, Edward R

    2017-10-01

    Patient education materials (PEM) should be written at a sixth-grade reading level or lower. We evaluated the availability and readability of online PEM related to regional anesthesia and compared the readability and content of online PEM produced by fellowship and nonfellowship institutions. With IRB exemption, we constructed a cohort of online regional anesthesia PEM by searching Websites from North American academic medical centers supporting a regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine fellowships and used a standardized Internet search engine protocol to identify additional nonfellowship Websites with regional anesthesia PEM based on relevant keywords. Readability metrics were calculated from PEM using the TextStat 0.1.4 textual analysis package for Python 2.7 and compared between institutions with and without a fellowship program. The presence of specific descriptive PEM elements related to regional anesthesia was also compared between groups. PEM from 17 fellowship and 15 nonfellowship institutions were included in analyses. The mean (SD) Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level for PEM from the fellowship group was 13.8 (2.9) vs 10.8 (2.0) for the nonfellowship group (p = 0.002). We observed no other differences in readability metrics between fellowship and nonfellowship institutions. Fellowship-based PEM less commonly included descriptions of the following risks: local anesthetic systemic toxicity (p = 0.033) and injury due to an insensate extremity (p = 0.003). Available online PEM related to regional anesthesia are well above the recommended reading level. Further, fellowship-based PEM posted are at a higher reading level than PEM posted by nonfellowship institutions and are more likely to omit certain risk descriptions. 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Further issues in determining the readability of self-report items: comment on McHugh and Behar (2009).

    PubMed

    Schinka, John A

    2012-10-01

    Issues regarding the readability of self-report assessment instruments, methods for establishing the reading ability level of respondents, and guidelines for development of scales designed for marginal readers have been inconsistently addressed in the literature. A recent study by McHugh and Behar (2009) provided new findings relevant to these issues. McHugh and Behar calculated indices of readability separately for the instructions and the item sets of 105 self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Results revealed substantial variability in readability among the measures, with most measures being written at or above the mean reading grade level in the United States. These results were consistent with those reported previously by Schinka and Borum (1993, 1994) in analyses of the readability of commonly used self-report psychopathology and personality inventories. In their discussion, McHugh and Behar addressed implications of their findings for clinical assessment and for scale development. I expand on their comments by addressing the failure to consider vocabulary difficulty, a major shortcoming of readability indices that examine only text complexity. I demonstrate how vocabulary difficulty influences readability and discuss additional considerations and possible solutions for addressing the gap between scale readability and the reading skill level of the self-report respondent. The work of McHugh and Behar clearly demonstrates that the issues of reading ability that arise in collecting self-report data are neither simple nor straightforward. Comments are offered to focus attention on the problems identified by their work. These problems will require additional effort on the part of researchers and clinicians in order to obtain reliable, valid estimates of clinical status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Readability and quality assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Narwani, Vishal; Nalamada, Keerthana; Lee, Michael; Kothari, Prasad; Lakhani, Raj

    2016-04-01

    Patients are increasingly using the internet to access health-related information. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability and quality of laryngeal cancer-related websites. Patient education materials were identified by performing an internet search using 3 search engines. Readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and Gunning Fog Index (GFI). The DISCERN instrument was utilized to assess quality of health information. A total of 54 websites were included in the analysis. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 48.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.8-51.6); FKGL, 10.9 (95% CI = 10.3-11.5); and GFI, 13.8 (95% CI = 11.3-16.3). These scores suggest that, on average, online information about patients with laryngeal cancer is written at an advanced level. The mean DISCERN score was 49.8 (95% CI = 45.4-54.2), suggesting that online information is of variable quality. Our study suggests much of the laryngeal cancer information available online is of suboptimal quality and written at a level too difficult for the average adult to read comfortably. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Readability of patient discharge instructions with and without the use of electronically available disease-specific templates.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stephanie K; Giannelli, Kyla; Boxer, Robert; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Low health literacy is common, leading to patient vulnerability during hospital discharge, when patients rely on written health instructions. We aimed to examine the impact of the use of electronic, patient-friendly, templated discharge instructions on the readability of discharge instructions provided to patients at discharge. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 233 patients discharged from a large tertiary care hospital to their homes following the implementation of a web-based "discharge module," which included the optional use of diagnosis-specific templated discharge instructions. We compared the readability of discharge instructions, as measured by the Flesch Reading Ease Level test (FREL, on a 0-100 scale, with higher scores indicating greater readability) and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level test (FKGL, measured in grade levels), between discharges that used templated instructions (with or without modification) versus discharges that used clinician-generated instructions (with or without available templated instructions for the specific discharge diagnosis). Templated discharge instructions were provided to patients in 45% of discharges. Of the 55% of patients that received clinician-generated discharge instructions, the majority (78.1%) had no available templated instruction for the specific discharge diagnosis. Templated discharge instructions had higher FREL scores (71 vs. 57, P < .001) and lower FKGL scores (5.6 vs. 7.6, P < .001), compared to clinician-generated discharge instructions. The use of electronically available templated discharge instructions was associated with better readability (a higher FREL score and a lower FKGL score) than the use of clinician-generated discharge instructions. The main reason for clinicians to create discharge instructions was the lack of available templates for the patient's specific discharge diagnosis. Use of electronically available templated discharge instructions may be a viable option to improve the

  1. Readability of internet-sourced patient education material related to “labour analgesia”

    PubMed Central

    Boztas, Nilay; Omur, Dilek; Ozbılgın, Sule; Altuntas, Gözde; Piskin, Ersan; Ozkardesler, Sevda; Hanci, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the readability of Internet-sourced patient education materials (PEMs) related to “labour analgesia.” In addition to assessing the readability of websites, we aimed to compare commercial, personal, and academic websites. We used the most popular search engine (http://www.google.com) in our study. The first 100 websites in English that resulted from a search for the key words “labour analgesia” were scanned. Websites that were not in English, graphs, pictures, videos, tables, figures and list formats in the text, all punctuation, the number of words in the text is less than 100 words, feedback forms not related to education, (Uniform Resource Locator) URL websites, author information, references, legal disclaimers, and addresses and telephone numbers were excluded. The texts included in the study were assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (FOG) readability formulae. The number of Latin words within the text was determined. Analysis of 300-word sections of the texts revealed that the mean FRES was 47.54 ± 12.54 (quite difficult), mean FKGL and SMOG were 11.92 ± 2.59 and 10.57 ± 1.88 years of education, respectively, and mean Gunning FOG was 14.71 ± 2.76 (very difficult). Within 300-word sections, the mean number of Latin words was identified as 16.56 ± 6.37. In our study, the readability level of Internet-sourced PEM related to “labour analgesia” was identified to be quite high indicating poor readability. PMID:29137057

  2. A critical review of the readability of online patient education resources from RadiologyInfo.Org.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; John, Ann; John, Elizabeth; Agarwal, Nitin; Gonzales, Sharon F; Baker, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    Health consumers and their families rely on the Internet as a source of authoritative information regarding the procedures used to reach a diagnosis, effect treatment, and influence prognosis. In radiology, online materials can be a means by which to offer patients comprehensible explanations of the capabilities, the risks and rewards, and the techniques under our purview. Consequently, estimations of health literacy should take into account the reading level of the average American when composing and transmitting such information to the lay public without the mediation of a referring physician. In December 2012, patient education reports from the files of RadiologyInfo.org, a jointly sponsored website of the American College of Radiology and the Radiological Society of North America, were downloaded to assess their textual sophistication. All 138 patient education articles including the glossary were analyzed for their respective level of "readability" using the following 10 evaluative scales: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook Grading, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall scale, FORCAST, Fry graph, Raygor Readability Estimate, and New Fog Count. The 138 online patient education articles were written, on average, between the 10th and 14th grade levels, which exceeds both the American Medical Association and the National Institutes of Health recommendations that patient education resources be comprehensible to those who read no higher than the seventh grade level. Patients may accrue a greater benefit from written articles available on RadiologyInfo.org if the texts were revised to be in compliance with the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association grade level recommendations. This could lead to a broadened appreciation of the capabilities of radiology's role in general and enhanced understanding of imaging techniques and their application to clinical practice.

  3. Survey of quality, readability, and social reach of websites on osteosarcoma in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine G; Roter, Debra L; Cohen, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about Internet resources for adolescent patients. This study assessed the quality, readability, and social reach of websites on an illustrative adolescent cancer diagnosis, osteosarcoma. The top 50 results from four queries in two search engines were screened. Quality and readability were determined using standard DISCERN tool, Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kinkaid Grade. Social reach was gauged by social networking links, global website traffic, and a pilot adolescent-specificity measure. Of 400 websites assessed, 56 (14%) met inclusion criteria. Websites' mean quality was fair (49.8 on 75-point scale; range 31.0-66.0, poor to excellent); 86% failed readability standards (Grade>8); 75% offered at least one social networking link; and 34% offered site-specific social media. More than 60% received over 50,000 visits in the past month. Only 12.5% included adolescent-specific content. Of the 10 websites ranked highest for quality, only one achieved both readability targets and adolescent-specific content. Although some patient-oriented websites on osteosarcoma are of acceptable quality, most failed readability targets, and few appeared to address adolescents. Better awareness of Internet health resources and social media for adolescents with cancer is needed to address gaps, promote health literacy and facilitate patient-provider communication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality and readability of information pamphlets on hearing and paediatric hearing loss in the Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Karin; Githinji, Esther

    2014-02-01

    The implementation of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programmes is necessary in order to facilitate the early identification of hearing loss. An important component of EHDI is parental education. International and national guidelines stipulating that comprehensive, unbiased and appropriate information pamphlets should be provided to parents as part of EHDI programmes, however little is known about the availability and readability of such materials in South Africa. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the availability of information pamphlets on hearing and hearing loss in children at public hospitals in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. In addition, the quality and readability levels of these pamphlets were determined. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was employed for this study. Information on the availability of leaflets at public health hospitals was obtained through a telephonic survey. Twenty-one information pamphlets available at these hospitals were then evaluated to determine the quality and readability levels. It was found that 73% of audiology departments at public hospitals in Gauteng had information pamphlets available on hearing and hearing loss in children. Of the pamphlets evaluated, the majority were rated to 'present with serious problems' questioning the quality of the content included. In addition, it was found that on average the readability level of these pamphlets were at a sixth-grade level, much higher that the recommended fourth-grade reading level. The need for development of quality educational material focused on providing parents with unbiased, comprehensive and appropriate information on hearing and hearing loss in children has been highlighted. Proposed guidelines were recommended to assist audiologists in this endeavour. The importance of providing appropriate parental educational materials for the success of EHDI in South Africa should not be underestimated. Copyright © 2013

  5. Smart Language: Readers, Readability, and the Grading of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBay, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce the research on readability, defined here as reading ease. The first part of the book covers how people read. A series of national literacy surveys show that the average person in the U.S. and most other countries are adults of limited reading skills. For example, the average adult in the U.S. reads at the…

  6. Readability of Hospice Materials to Prepare Families for Caregiving at the Time of Death

    PubMed Central

    Kehl, Karen A.; McCarty, Kayla N.

    2012-01-01

    Many health care materials are not written at levels that can be understood by most lay people. In this descriptive study, we examined the readability of documents used by hospices to prepare families for caregiving at the time of death. We used two common formulae to examine the documents. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 8.95 (SD 1.80). The mean Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade level was 11.06 (SD 1.36). When we used the Colors Label Ease for Adult Readers instrument, it became evident that medical terminology was the primary reason for the high grade levels. Most documents (78%) included medical terms that were directly (46.2%) or indirectly (25.6%) explained in the text. Modification of hospice materials could improve families’ comprehension of information important for optimal end-of-life care. PMID:22492500

  7. Evaluating the quality and readability of Internet information sources regarding the treatment of swallowing disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Hu, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    The Internet has become a popular resource for patient education. The information it provides, however, is rarely peer-reviewed, and its quality may be a concern. Since the average American reads at an 8th grade level, the American Medical Association and the National Institutes of Health have recommended that health information be written at a 4th to 6th grade level. We performed a study to assess the quality and readability of online information regarding the treatment of swallowing disorders. A Google search for "swallowing treatment" was conducted. We studied the first 50 websites that appeared on the search engine's results with the use of the DISCERN quality index tool, the Flesch Ease of Reading Score (FRES), and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL) readability test. DISCERN is a validated 16-item questionnaire used to assess the quality of written health information; FRES and FKGL are used to assess readability. We classified the websites as either patient-targeted or professional-targeted sites, as well as either major or minor. The overall DISCERN score was 1.61 ± 0.61 (range: 1 to 5), the overall FRES was 39.1 ± 19.0 (range: 1 to 100), and the overall FKGL was 11.8 ± 3.4 (range: 3 to 12). As would be expected, patient-targeted websites had significantly higher FRES and significantly lower FKGL scores than did the professional-targeted websites (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively); there was no significant difference between the two in DISCERN scores. The major websites had significantly higher DISCERN scores than did the minor sites (p = 0.002); there were no significant differences in FRES and FKGL scores. We conclude that online information sources regarding the treatment of swallowing disorders were of suboptimal quality in that information was written at a level too difficult for the average American to easily understand. Also, the patient-targeted websites were written at a lower reading level, and the major websites contained a higher quality

  8. Assessment of readability, quality and popularity of online information on ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Mozafarpour, Sarah; Norris, Briony; Borin, James; Eisner, Brian H

    2018-02-12

    To evaluate the quality and readability of online information on ureteral stents. Google.com was queried using the search terms "ureteric stent", "ureteral stent", "double J stent" and, "Kidney stent" derived from Google AdWords. Website popularity was determined using Google Rank and the Alexa tool. Website quality assessment was performed using the following criteria: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, Health on the Net (HON) criteria, and a customized DISCERN questionnaire. The customized DISCERN questionnaire was developed by combining the short validated DISCERN questionnaire with additional stent-specific items including definition, placement, complications, limitations, removal and "when to seek help". Scores related to stent items were considered as the "stent score" (SS). Readability was evaluated using five readability tests. Thirty-two websites were included. The mean customized DISCERN score and "stent score" were 27.1 ± 7.1 (maximum possible score = 59) and 14.6 ± 3.8 (maximum possible score = 24), respectively. A minority of websites adequately addressed "stent removal" and "when to seek medical attention". Only two websites (6.3%) had HON certification (drugs.com, radiologyinfo.org) and only one website (3.3%) met all JAMA criteria (bradyurology.blogspot.com). Readability level was higher than the American Medical Association recommendation of sixth-grade level for more than 75% of the websites. There was no correlation between Google rank, Alexa rank, and the quality scores (P > 0.05). Among the 32 most popular websites on the topic of ureteral stents, online information was highly variable. The readability of many of the websites was far higher than standard recommendations and the online information was questionable in many cases. These findings suggest a need for improved online resources in order to better educate patients about ureteral stents and also should inform physicians that popular websites may

  9. Assessing the Readability of College Textbooks in Public Speaking: Attending to Entry Level Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, David E.

    2011-01-01

    More research is needed that examines textbooks intended for the entry level college classroom. This study offers valuable information to academics that adopt a public speaking textbook for instruction as well as objective feedback to the collective authors. Readability levels of 22 nationally published textbooks, based on McGlaughlin's (1969)…

  10. An online readability analysis of pathology-related patient education articles: an opportunity for pathologists to educate patients.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Arpan V; Kim, Christopher; Crihalmeanu, Tudor; Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; DeFrances, Marie C; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E

    2017-07-01

    Information for patients regarding their clinical conditions and treatment options is widely available online. The American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommend that online patient-oriented materials be written at no higher than a seventh-grade reading level to ensure full comprehension by the average American. This study sought to determine whether online patient-oriented materials explaining common pathology procedures are written at appropriate reading levels. Ten pathology procedures that patients would likely research were queried into Google search, and plain text from the first 10 Web sites containing patient education materials for each procedure was analyzed using 10 validated readability scales. We determined mean reading levels of materials grouped by readability scale, procedure, and Web site domain, the overall average reading level of all resources, and popular Web site domains. One hundred Web sites were accessed; one was omitted for short length (<100 words). The average reading grade level of the 99 materials, none of which met national health literacy guidelines (range, 7.3-17.4), was 10.9. Twenty-nine articles (29%) required a high school education for full comprehension, and 4 (4%) required an undergraduate college education. Most frequently accessed Web site domains included medlineplus.gov, webmd.com (both accessed 7 times), and labtestsonline.org (accessed 6 times). Average reading levels of the 11 most commonly accessed Web sites ranged from 8.25 (patient.info) to 12.25 (mayoclinic.org). Readability levels of most online pathology-related patient education materials exceeded those recommended by national health literacy guidelines. These patient education materials should be revised to help patients fully understand them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality and readability of English-language internet information for aphasia.

    PubMed

    Azios, Jamie H; Bellon-Harn, Monica; Dockens, Ashley L; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2017-08-14

    Little is known about the quality and readability of treatment information in specific neurogenic disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this study was to assess quality and readability of English-language Internet information available for aphasia treatment. Forty-three aphasia treatment websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analysed using quality and readability assessments. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Websites exhibited low quality with few websites obtaining Health On the Net (HON) certification or clear, thorough information as measured by the DISCERN. Regardless of website origin, readability scores were also poor. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on aphasia treatment websites ranged from 13 to 16 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of non-profit organisations. Current aphasia treatment websites were found to exhibit low levels of quality and readability, creating potential accessibility problems for people with aphasia and significant others. Websites including treatment information for aphasia must be improved in order to increase greater information accessibility.

  12. A comparison of the readability of two patient-reported outcome measures used to evaluate foot surgery.

    PubMed

    Alvey, James; Palmer, Simon; Otter, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the outcome of surgical intervention is an integral part of modern-day healthcare provision. The increasing requirement to monitor patient-reported outcomes highlights the need for patients to be able to read and understand health outcomes questionnaires. The present study compared the readability of 2 commonly used, validated, foot surgery outcome questionnaires (the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire) using the Flesch Reading Ease score and the Flesch-Kincaid grade level score. The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire had a significantly greater (p < .003) score for reading ease and a significantly lower reading grade score (p < .005) than the Foot Health Status Questionnaire. These findings suggest the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire is a more suitable instrument in terms of readability and comprehension for a greater proportion of the population undergoing hallux valgus surgery. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. South Carolina Word List, Grades 1-12. Basic Skills Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Designed as a resource for reading teachers who are attempting to enhance their students' fundamental reading skills and to permit the more rigorous determination of readability levels for both instructional materials and testing devices, this word list provides a grade-by-grade set of key words students need to master for grades 1 through 12 The…

  14. Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students?

    PubMed Central

    Azer, Samy A; AlSwaidan, Nourah M; Alshwairikh, Lama A; AlShammari, Jumana M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate accuracy of content and readability level of English Wikipedia articles on cardiovascular diseases, using quality and readability tools. Methods Wikipedia was searched on the 6 October 2013 for articles on cardiovascular diseases. Using a modified DISCERN (DISCERN is an instrument widely used in assessing online resources), articles were independently scored by three assessors. The readability was calculated using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The inter-rater agreement between evaluators was calculated using the Fleiss κ scale. Results This study was based on 47 English Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases. The DISCERN scores had a median=33 (IQR=6). Four articles (8.5%) were of good quality (DISCERN score 40–50), 39 (83%) moderate (DISCERN 30–39) and 4 (8.5%) were poor (DISCERN 10–29). Although the entries covered the aetiology and the clinical picture, there were deficiencies in the pathophysiology of diseases, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment. The number of references varied from 1 to 127 references; 25.9±29.4 (mean±SD). Several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made in the articles. The readability of articles was 14.3±1.7 (mean±SD); consistent with the readability level for college students. In comparison, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition had more tables, less references and no significant difference in number of graphs, images, illustrations or readability level. The overall agreement between the evaluators was good (Fleiss κ 0.718 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). Conclusions The Wikipedia entries are not aimed at a medical audience and should not be used as a substitute to recommended medical resources. Course designers and students should be aware that Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases lack accuracy, predominantly due to errors of omission. Further improvement of the Wikipedia content of cardiovascular entries would be needed before they

  15. Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students?

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A; AlSwaidan, Nourah M; Alshwairikh, Lama A; AlShammari, Jumana M

    2015-10-06

    To evaluate accuracy of content and readability level of English Wikipedia articles on cardiovascular diseases, using quality and readability tools. Wikipedia was searched on the 6 October 2013 for articles on cardiovascular diseases. Using a modified DISCERN (DISCERN is an instrument widely used in assessing online resources), articles were independently scored by three assessors. The readability was calculated using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The inter-rater agreement between evaluators was calculated using the Fleiss κ scale. This study was based on 47 English Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases. The DISCERN scores had a median=33 (IQR=6). Four articles (8.5%) were of good quality (DISCERN score 40-50), 39 (83%) moderate (DISCERN 30-39) and 4 (8.5%) were poor (DISCERN 10-29). Although the entries covered the aetiology and the clinical picture, there were deficiencies in the pathophysiology of diseases, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment. The number of references varied from 1 to 127 references; 25.9±29.4 (mean±SD). Several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made in the articles. The readability of articles was 14.3±1.7 (mean±SD); consistent with the readability level for college students. In comparison, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition had more tables, less references and no significant difference in number of graphs, images, illustrations or readability level. The overall agreement between the evaluators was good (Fleiss κ 0.718 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). The Wikipedia entries are not aimed at a medical audience and should not be used as a substitute to recommended medical resources. Course designers and students should be aware that Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases lack accuracy, predominantly due to errors of omission. Further improvement of the Wikipedia content of cardiovascular entries would be needed before they could be considered a supplementary resource

  16. Assessing the reading level of online sarcoma patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaan S; Sheppard, Evan D; Siegel, Herrick J; Ponce, Brent A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients rely on patient education materials (PEMs) to gather information regarding their disease. Patients who are better informed about their illness have better health outcomes. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that PEMs be written at a sixth- to seventh-grade reading level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of online PEMs of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions. We identified relevant online PEMs from the following websites: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, academic training centers, sarcoma specialists, Google search hits, Bonetumor.org, Sarcoma Alliance, Sarcoma Foundation of America, and Medscape. We used 10 different readability instruments to evaluate the reading level of each website's PEMs. In assessing 72 websites and 774 articles, we found that none of the websites had a mean readability score at or below 7 (seventh grade). Collectively, all websites had a mean readability score of 11.4, and the range of scores was grade level 8.9 to 15.5. None of the PEMs in this study of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions met the NIH recommendation for PEM reading levels. Concerted efforts to improve the reading level of orthopedic oncologic PEMs are necessary.

  17. How are we communicating about clinical trials?: an assessment of the content and readability of recruitment resources.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Foster, Caroline; General, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trials (CTs) are important for advancing public health and medical research, however, CT recruitment is challenging. The high reading level of CT information and the technical language of providers or researchers can serve as barriers to recruitment. Prior studies on the informed consent process found that consent documents often contain complicated terms. Limited research has examined resources specifically used to recruit individuals into CTs. The purpose of this study was to examine the content and readability of CT recruitment education resources in one U.S. state. Convenience sampling was employed for the collection of CT recruitment materials. A codebook was developed based on previous content analyses and emergent themes from statewide focus groups about CTs. A total of 127 materials were collected and analyzed (37.8% print; 62.2% Web). Most content was focused on treatment-related CTs (60.6%). Inclusion criteria related to specific disease conditions (88.9%) and age (73.6%) were described most often. Only 30% of resources had an explicit call to action. Overall mean readability level was Grade 11.7. Web-based materials were significantly more likely to be written at a higher grade level than print materials (p ≤ .0001). Readability also differed significantly according to resource distributor/creator, CT type, person quoted, and presence or absence of inclusion criteria and an explicit call to action. Our study provides insight into the content and difficulty level of recruitment materials intended to provide initial information about a CT. Future studies should examine individuals' comprehension of recruitment materials and how participation intentions are associated with recruitment messages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Availability and readability of emergency preparedness materials for deaf and hard-of-hearing and older adult populations: issues and assessments.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Linda; Ivey, Susan L; Huang, Debbie; Engelman, Alina; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Gurung, Sidhanta; Kealey, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A major public health challenge is to communicate effectively with vulnerable populations about preparing for disasters and other health emergencies. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and older adults are particularly vulnerable during health emergencies and require communications that are accessible and understandable. Although health literacy studies indicate that the readability of health communication materials often exceeds people's literacy levels, we could find no research about the readability of emergency preparedness materials (EPM) intended for Deaf/HH and older adult populations. The objective of this study was to explore issues related to EPM for Deaf/HH and older adult populations, to assess the availability and readability of materials for these populations, and to recommend improvements. In two California counties, we interviewed staff at 14 community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Deaf/HH clients and 20 CBOs serving older adults selected from a stratified, random sample of 227 CBOs. We collected 40 EPM from 10 CBOs and 2 public health departments and 40 EPM from 14 local and national websites with EPM for the public. We used computerized assessments to test the U.S. grade reading levels of the 16 eligible CBO and health department EPM, and the 18 eligible website materials. Results showed that less than half of CBOs had EPM for their clients. All EPM intended for clients of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tested above the recommended 4(th) grade reading level, and 91% of the materials intended for clients of older adult-serving CBOs scored above the recommended 6(th) grade level. EPM for these populations should be widely available through CBOs and public health departments, adhere to health literacy principles, and be accessible in alternative formats including American Sign Language. Developers should engage the intended users of EPM as co-designers and testers. This study adds to the limited literature about EPM for these populations.

  19. An analysis of the readability of patient information and consent forms used in research studies in anaesthesia in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H E; Bramley, D E P

    2012-11-01

    The provision of written information is a component of the informed consent process for research participants. We conducted a readability analysis to test the hypothesis that the language used in patient information and consent forms in anaesthesia research in Australia and New Zealand does not meet the readability standards or expectations of the Good Clinical Practice Guidelines, the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia and the Health Research Council of New Zealand. We calculated readability scores for 40 patient information and consent forms using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook and Flesch-Kincaid formulas. The mean grade level of patient information and consent forms when using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook and Flesch-Kincaid readability formulas was 12.9 (standard deviation of 0.8, 95% confidence interval 12.6 to 13.1) and 11.9 (standard deviation 1.1, 95% confidence interval 11.6 to 12.3), respectively. This exceeds the average literacy and comprehension of the general population in Australia and New Zealand. Complex language decreases readability and negatively impacts on the informed consent process. Care should be exercised when providing written information to research participants to ensure language and readability is appropriate for the audience.

  20. Readability of ASPS and ASAPS educational web sites: an analysis of consumer impact.

    PubMed

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-04-01

    Patients use the Internet to educate themselves about health-related topics, and learning about plastic surgery is a common activity for enthusiastic consumers in the United States. How to educate consumers regarding plastic surgical procedures is a continued concern for plastic surgeons when faced with the growing portion of the American population having relatively low health care literacy. The usefulness of health-related education materials on the Internet depends largely on their comprehensibility and understandability for all who visit the Web sites. The authors studied the readability of patient education materials related to common plastic surgery procedures from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) Web sites and compared them with materials on similar topics from 10 popular health information-providing sites. The authors found that all analyzed documents on the ASPS and ASAPS Web sites targeted to the consumers were rated to be more difficult than the recommended reading grade level for most American adults, and these documents were consistently among the most difficult to read when compared with the other health information Web sites. The Internet is an increasingly popular avenue for patients to educate themselves about plastic surgery procedures. Patient education material provided on ASPS and ASAPS Web sites should be written at recommended reading grade levels to ensure that it is readable and comprehensible to the targeted audience.

  1. Reassessing the Accuracy and Use of Readability Formulae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janan, Dahlia; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to review readability formulae and offer a critique, based on a comparison of the grading of a variety of texts given by six well-known formulae. Methodology: A total of 64 texts in English were selected either by or for native English speaking children aged between six and 11 years. Each text was assessed…

  2. Analysis of the accuracy and readability of herbal supplement information on Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer; Lam, Connie; Palmisano, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the completeness and readability of information found in Wikipedia for leading dietary supplements and assess the accuracy of this information with regard to safety (including use during pregnancy/lactation), contraindications, drug interactions, therapeutic uses, and dosing. Cross-sectional analysis of Wikipedia articles. The contents of Wikipedia articles for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were retrieved on July 24, 2012, and evaluated for organization, content, accuracy (as compared with information in two leading dietary supplement references) and readability. Accuracy of Wikipedia articles. No consistency was noted in how much information was included in each Wikipedia article, how the information was organized, what major categories were used, and where safety and therapeutic information was located in the article. All articles in Wikipedia contained information on therapeutic uses and adverse effects but several lacked information on drug interactions, pregnancy, and contraindications. Wikipedia articles had 26%-75% of therapeutic uses and 76%-100% of adverse effects listed in the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and/or Natural Standard. Overall, articles were written at a 13.5-grade level, and all were at a ninth-grade level or above. Articles in Wikipedia in mid-2012 for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were frequently incomplete, of variable quality, and sometimes inconsistent with reputable sources of information on these products. Safety information was particularly inconsistent among the articles. Patients and health professionals should not rely solely on Wikipedia for information on these herbal supplements when treatment decisions are being made.

  3. Determining the efficacy of the chronic disease self-management programme and readability of 'living a healthy life with chronic conditions' in a New Zealand setting.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J J-Y; Arenhold, F; Braakhuis, A J

    2016-11-01

    Self-management programmes are an increasingly popular way of treating chronic diseases. This study aims to determine the efficacy of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in a New Zealand context by assessing course outcomes and readability of the accompanying reference guide Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Conditions, 4th Edition. This is a cross-sectional pre-post study conducted in Auckland between August 2009 and September 2015, using CDSMP participants' baseline and follow-up Health Education Intervention Questionnaire (heiQ TM ) data. Readability of the guide was assessed using the Gunning Fog Index, Coleman Liau, Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch Kincaid Grade Level and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook scores. Significant evidence of improvement (P ≤ 0.001) was observed in seven of the eight domains measured by the heiQ TM (Deakin University, Centre for Population Health Research, Melbourne, Vic., Australia). The greatest improvements were seen in skill and technique acquisition (mean change score 0.25, P ≤ 0.001) and self-monitoring and insight (0.18, P ≤ 0.001). There was little evidence of improvement in health service navigation (0.04, P = 0.17). Readability analyses indicate that a person needs to be reading at a minimum of U.S. 8th grade level in order to understand the text, and possibly up to 11th grade. The CDSMP is effective for improving patient self-efficacy in the New Zealand setting. However, adaptation of the programme to support better health service navigation is warranted. The readability of the reference guide is not suitable for this setting and requires further improvement. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Examining the Reading Level of Internet Medical Information for Common Internal Medicine Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Nora; Baird, Grayson L; Garg, Megha

    2016-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that health materials be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, which has generally not been achieved in online reading materials. Up to the present time, there have not been any assessments focused on the reading level of online educational materials across the most popular consumer Web sites for common internal medicine diagnoses. In this study, we examined the readability of open-access online health information for 9 common internal medicine diagnoses. Nine of the most frequently encountered inpatient and ambulatory internal medicine diagnoses were selected for analysis. In November and December 2014, these diagnoses were used as search terms in Google, and the top 5 Web sites across all diagnoses and a diagnosis-specific site were analyzed across 5 validated reading indices. On average, the lowest reading grade-level content was provided by the NIH (10.7), followed by WebMD (10.9), Mayo Clinic (11.3), and diagnosis-specific Web sites (11.5). Conversely, Wikipedia provided content that required the highest grade-level readability (14.6). The diagnoses with the lowest reading grade levels were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10.8), followed by diabetes (10.9), congestive heart failure (11.7), osteoporosis (11.7) and hypertension (11.7). Depression had the highest grade-level readability (13.8). Despite recommendations for patient health information to be written at a grade 6-7 reading level, our examination of online educational materials pertaining to 9 common internal medicine diagnoses revealed reading levels significantly above the NIH recommendation. This was seen across both diagnosis-specific and general Web sites. There is a need to improve the readability of online educational materials made available to patients. These improvements have the potential to greatly enhance patient awareness, engagement, and physician-patient communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Web-based information on oral dysplasia and precancer of the mouth - Quality and readability.

    PubMed

    Alsoghier, Abdullah; Ni Riordain, Richeal; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen

    2018-07-01

    The numbers of individuals with oral cancer are increasing. This cancer is preceded by oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). There remains no detailed study of the online information presently available for patients with OED or indeed what information such patients may require to be appropriately informed regarding their condition. Hence, the aim of the present study is to assess the patient-oriented web content with respect to OED. The first 100 websites yielded from nine searches performed using different search terms and engines were considered. These were assessed for content, quality (DISCERN instrument, Journal of the American Medical Association benchmarks, and Health on Net seal) and readability (Flesch Reading Ease Score and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level). There was a general scarcity of OED content across the identified websites. Information about authors, sources used to compile the publication, treatment, and shared decision were limited or absent. Only 6% and 27% of the websites achieved all the four JAMA benchmarks and HON seal, respectively. The average readability level was at 10th grade (US schools), which far exceeds the recommended levels of written health information. At present patients seeking information on OED are likely to have difficulty in finding reliable information from the Web about this disorder and its possible impact upon their life. Further work is thus required to develop a web-based resource regarding OED that addresses the shortfalls demonstrated by the current study. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Manual for Readable Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klare, George R.

    One of the ways to handle the increasing demands on readers' skills is to make writing more readable. The problem has two different aspects: predicting how readable writing will be to a reader, and producing writing that is readable to that reader. Prediction is relatively simple, and can be done statistically with readability formulas. Production…

  7. The quality of websites addressing fibromyalgia: an assessment of quality and readability using standardised tools

    PubMed Central

    MacDermid, Joy C; Wilkins, Seanne; Gibson, Jane; Shaw, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients living with fibromyalgia strongly prefer to access health information on the web. However, the majority of subjects in previous studies strongly expressed their concerns about the quality of online information resources. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing online fibromyalgia information resources for content, quality and readability by using standardised quality and readability tools. Methods The first 25 websites were identified using Google and the search keyword ‘fibromyalgia’. Pairs of raters independently evaluated website quality using two structured tools (DISCERN and a quality checklist). Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease score maps. Results Ranking of the websites' quality varied by the tool used, although there was general agreement about the top three websites (Fibromyalgia Information, Fibromyalgia Information Foundation and National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases). Content analysis indicated that 72% of websites provided information on treatment options, 68% on symptoms, 60% on diagnosis and 40% on coping and resources. DISCERN ratings classified 32% websites as ‘very good’, 32% as ‘good and 36% as ‘marginal’. The mean overall DISCERN score was 36.88 (good). Only 16% of websites met the recommended literacy level grade of 6–8 (range 7–15). Conclusion Higher quality websites tended to be less readable. Online fibromyalgia information resources do not provide comprehensive information about fibromyalgia, and have low quality and poor readability. While information is very important for those living with fibromyalgia, current resources are unlikely to provide necessary or accurate information, and may not be usable for most people. PMID:22021777

  8. The quality of websites addressing fibromyalgia: an assessment of quality and readability using standardised tools.

    PubMed

    Daraz, Lubna; Macdermid, Joy C; Wilkins, Seanne; Gibson, Jane; Shaw, Lynn

    2011-07-31

    Background Patients living with fibromyalgia strongly prefer to access health information on the web. However, the majority of subjects in previous studies strongly expressed their concerns about the quality of online information resources. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing online fibromyalgia information resources for content, quality and readability by using standardised quality and readability tools. Methods The first 25 websites were identified using Google and the search keyword 'fibromyalgia'. Pairs of raters independently evaluated website quality using two structured tools (DISCERN and a quality checklist). Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease score maps. Results Ranking of the websites' quality varied by the tool used, although there was general agreement about the top three websites (Fibromyalgia Information, Fibromyalgia Information Foundation and National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases). Content analysis indicated that 72% of websites provided information on treatment options, 68% on symptoms, 60% on diagnosis and 40% on coping and resources. DISCERN ratings classified 32% websites as 'very good', 32% as 'good and 36% as 'marginal'. The mean overall DISCERN score was 36.88 (good). Only 16% of websites met the recommended literacy level grade of 6-8 (range 7-15). Conclusion Higher quality websites tended to be less readable. Online fibromyalgia information resources do not provide comprehensive information about fibromyalgia, and have low quality and poor readability. While information is very important for those living with fibromyalgia, current resources are unlikely to provide necessary or accurate information, and may not be usable for most people.

  9. A descriptive study of the readability of patient information leaflets designed by nurses.

    PubMed

    Mumford, M E

    1997-11-01

    Written patient information materials can be valuable communication tools for teaching and reinforcing the verbal message, especially in the present climate of today's health service where patients are in hospital for such short times. They are only useful if the patient is able to read and understand them, otherwise they become an expensive waste of resources. Various studies have shown that many healthcare information leaflets are written at university or postgraduate level and would cause problems with understanding for many people reading them. This study set out to examine the readability of nurse-designed written information leaflets using the Flesch Reading Ease score and the FOG and SMOG readability formulae. This descriptive study used a sample of 24 leaflets designed by trained nurses in a large teaching hospital. The results produced a mean grade of 11.3 with a range of 8.9 to 14.8. This was similar to the results of other studies and meant that patients may have difficulty comprehending the information. It would appear that little progress has been made in 40 years in this area and potential reasons are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of readability formulae and other guidelines available for developing information leaflets are explored. Recommendations for further research are made.

  10. Prostate Cancer Information Available in Health-Care Provider Offices: An Analysis of Content, Readability, and Cultural Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Seel, Jessica S; Yelton, Brooks; Steck, Susan E; McCormick, Douglas P; Payne, Johnny; Minter, Anthony; Deutchki, Elizabeth K; Hébert, James R; Friedman, Daniela B

    2018-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States, and African American men have the highest incidence among men in the United States. Little is known about the PrCA-related educational materials being provided to patients in health-care settings. Content, readability, and cultural sensitivity of materials available in providers' practices in South Carolina were examined. A total of 44 educational materials about PrCA and associated sexual dysfunction was collected from 16 general and specialty practices. The content of the materials was coded, and cultural sensitivity was assessed using the Cultural Sensitivity Assessment Tool. Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook were used to assess readability. Communication with health-care providers (52.3%), side effects of PrCA treatment (40.9%), sexual dysfunction and its treatment (38.6%), and treatment options (34.1%) were frequently presented. All materials had acceptable cultural sensitivity scores; however, 2.3% and 15.9% of materials demonstrated unacceptable cultural sensitivity regarding format and visual messages, respectively. Readability of the materials varied. More than half of the materials were written above a high-school reading level. PrCA-related materials available in health-care practices may not meet patients' needs regarding content, cultural sensitivity, and readability. A wide range of educational materials that address various aspects of PrCA, including treatment options and side effects, should be presented in plain language and be culturally sensitive.

  11. Readability: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Barron; Spinks, Nelda

    1991-01-01

    Investigates readability levels of correspondence sent out by Gulf Coast area business offices. Finds that a large majority of the correspondence sent out from the offices under study is written at too high a reading level. Finds also that the greatest problem lies in syllable intensity--the use of "big" words where everyday words would have…

  12. Third Molars on the Internet: A Guide for Assessing Information Quality and Readability

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, David; Sambrook, Paul; Armfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background Directing patients suffering from third molars (TMs) problems to high-quality online information is not only medically important, but also could enable better engagement in shared decision making. Objectives This study aimed to develop a scale that measures the scientific information quality (SIQ) for online information concerning wisdom tooth problems and to conduct a quality evaluation for online TMs resources. In addition, the study evaluated whether a specific piece of readability software (Readability Studio Professional 2012) might be reliable in measuring information comprehension, and explored predictors for the SIQ Scale. Methods A cross-sectional sample of websites was retrieved using certain keywords and phrases such as “impacted wisdom tooth problems” using 3 popular search engines. The retrieved websites (n=150) were filtered. The retained 50 websites were evaluated to assess their characteristics, usability, accessibility, trust, readability, SIQ, and their credibility using DISCERN and Health on the Net Code (HoNCode). Results Websites’ mean scale scores varied significantly across website affiliation groups such as governmental, commercial, and treatment provider bodies. The SIQ Scale had a good internal consistency (alpha=.85) and was significantly correlated with DISCERN (r=.82, P<.01) and HoNCode (r=.38, P<.01). Less than 25% of websites had SIQ scores above 75%. The mean readability grade (10.3, SD 1.9) was above the recommended level, and was significantly correlated with the Scientific Information Comprehension Scale (r=.45. P<.01), which provides evidence for convergent validity. Website affiliation and DISCERN were significantly associated with SIQ (P<.01) and explained 76% of the SIQ variance. Conclusion The developed SIQ Scale was found to demonstrate reliability and initial validity. Website affiliation, DISCERN, and HoNCode were significant predictors for the quality of scientific information. The Readability Studio

  13. Third Molars on the Internet: A Guide for Assessing Information Quality and Readability.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Kamal; Brennan, David; Sambrook, Paul; Armfield, Jason

    2015-10-06

    Directing patients suffering from third molars (TMs) problems to high-quality online information is not only medically important, but also could enable better engagement in shared decision making. This study aimed to develop a scale that measures the scientific information quality (SIQ) for online information concerning wisdom tooth problems and to conduct a quality evaluation for online TMs resources. In addition, the study evaluated whether a specific piece of readability software (Readability Studio Professional 2012) might be reliable in measuring information comprehension, and explored predictors for the SIQ Scale. A cross-sectional sample of websites was retrieved using certain keywords and phrases such as "impacted wisdom tooth problems" using 3 popular search engines. The retrieved websites (n=150) were filtered. The retained 50 websites were evaluated to assess their characteristics, usability, accessibility, trust, readability, SIQ, and their credibility using DISCERN and Health on the Net Code (HoNCode). Websites' mean scale scores varied significantly across website affiliation groups such as governmental, commercial, and treatment provider bodies. The SIQ Scale had a good internal consistency (alpha=.85) and was significantly correlated with DISCERN (r=.82, P<.01) and HoNCode (r=.38, P<.01). Less than 25% of websites had SIQ scores above 75%. The mean readability grade (10.3, SD 1.9) was above the recommended level, and was significantly correlated with the Scientific Information Comprehension Scale (r=.45. P<.01), which provides evidence for convergent validity. Website affiliation and DISCERN were significantly associated with SIQ (P<.01) and explained 76% of the SIQ variance. The developed SIQ Scale was found to demonstrate reliability and initial validity. Website affiliation, DISCERN, and HoNCode were significant predictors for the quality of scientific information. The Readability Studio software estimates were associated with scientific

  14. The Principles of Readability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBay, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…

  15. Evaluating the Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Resources Pertaining to Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, Jason P; Rosenbaum, Andrew J; Abousayed, Mostafa; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; DiPreta, John A

    2016-02-01

    The Internet is one of the most widely utilized resources for health-related information. Evaluation of the medical literature suggests that the quality and accuracy of these resources are poor and written at inappropriately high reading levels. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the quality, accuracy, and readability of online resources pertaining to hallux valgus. Two search terms ("hallux valgus" and "bunion") were entered into Google, Yahoo, and Bing. With the use of scoring criteria specific to hallux valgus, the quality and accuracy of online information related to hallux valgus was evaluated by 3 reviewers. The Flesch-Kincaid score was used to determine readability. Statistical analysis was performed with t tests and significance was determined by P values <.05. Sixty-two unique websites were evaluated. Quality was significantly higher with use of the search term "bunion" as compared to "hallux valgus" (P = .045). Quality and accuracy were significantly higher in resources authored by physicians as compared to nonphysicians (quality, P = .04; accuracy, P < .001) and websites without commercial bias (quality, P = .038; accuracy, P = .011). However, the reading level was significantly more advanced for websites authored by physicians (P = .035). Websites written above an eighth-grade reading level were significantly more accurate than those written at or below an eighth-grade reading level (P = .032). The overall quality of online information related to hallux valgus is poor and written at inappropriate reading levels. Furthermore, the search term used, authorship, and presence of commercial bias influence the value of these materials. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to become familiar with patient education materials, so that appropriate recommendations can be made regarding valuable resources. Level IV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Readability, credibility and quality of patient information for hypogonadism and testosterone replacement therapy on the Internet.

    PubMed

    McBride, J A; Carson, C C; Coward, R M

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of hypogonadism and use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are rising, while data evaluating the complexity and quality of health-care information available to patients on the Internet for hypogonadism or TRT are lacking. This study focuses on characterizing the readability, credibility and quality of patient-centered information for hypogonadism on the Internet. A Google search was performed to identify top-ranked websites offering patient-centered information on hypogonadism and TRT. Readability was quantified by reading grade level using several validated instruments. Credibility and quality were determined by several additional criteria, including authorship, references, health-care information quality certification and breadth of topic discussion. Twenty of 75 total sites identified (27%) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were evaluated. The mean reading grade level was 13.1 (interquartile range 11.7-15.1), with all websites demonstrating reading levels significantly above recommended levels. Less than half (45%) of the sites were neither authored nor reviewed by a physician, 60% contained at least one reference and 40% were certified for displaying quality health-care information. Over half (55%) did not comprehensively discuss management of hypogonadism or mention treatment-associated risks. In conclusion, the majority of patient-centered information available on the Internet regarding hypogonadism or TRT is of poor quality and too complex for the average patient to comprehend. These results highlight a critical shortage in easily accessible, high-quality, comprehensible online patient health-care information on hypogonadism and TRT.

  17. Quality and Readability of English-Language Internet Information for Voice Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dueppen, Abigail J; Bellon-Harn, Monica L; Radhakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability and quality of English-language Internet information related to vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders. This study extends recent work because it evaluates readability, content quality, and website origin across broader search criteria than previous studies evaluating online voice material. Eighty-five websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analyzed using quality and readability assessments. The entire web page was evaluated; however, no information or links beyond the first page was reviewed. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Websites exhibited acceptable quality as measured by the DISCERN. However, only one website obtained the Health On the Net certification. Significant differences in quality were found among website origin, with government websites receiving higher quality ratings. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on the websites ranged from 8 to 9 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of nonprofit organizations. Current vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders websites were found to exhibit acceptable levels of quality and readability. However, highly rated Internet information related to voice care should be made more accessible to voice clients through Health On the Net certification. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Patient-oriented methotrexate information sites on the Internet: a review of completeness, accuracy, format, reliability, credibility, and readability.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew E; Graydon, Sara L

    2009-01-01

    With continuing use of the Internet, rheumatologists are referring patients to various websites to gain information about medications and diseases. Our goal was to develop and evaluate a Medication Website Assessment Tool (MWAT) for use by health professionals, and to explore the overall quality of methotrexate information presented on common English-language websites. Identification of websites was performed using a search strategy on the search engine Google. The first 250 hits were screened. Inclusion criteria included those English-language websites from authoritative sources, trusted medical, physicians', and common health-related websites. Websites from pharmaceutical companies, online pharmacies, and where the purpose seemed to be primarily advertisements were also included. Product monographs or technical-based web pages and web pages where the information was clearly directed at patients with cancer were excluded. Two reviewers independently scored each included web page for completeness and accuracy, format, readability, reliability, and credibility. An overall ranking was provided for each methotrexate information page. Twenty-eight web pages were included in the analysis. The average score for completeness and accuracy was 15.48+/-3.70 (maximum 24) with 10 out of 28 pages scoring 18 (75%) or higher. The average format score was 6.00+/-1.46 (maximum 8). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level revealed an average grade level of 10.07+/-1.84, with 5 out of 28 websites written at a reading level less than grade 8; however, no web page scored at a grade 5 to 6 level. An overall ranking was calculated identifying 8 web pages as appropriate sources of accurate and reliable methotrexate information. With the enormous amount of information available on the Internet, it is important to direct patients to web pages that are complete, accurate, readable, and credible sources of information. We identified web pages that may serve the interests of both rheumatologists and

  19. Availability and Readability of Emergency Preparedness Materials for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing and Older Adult Populations: Issues and Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Neuhauser, Linda; Ivey, Susan L.; Huang, Debbie; Engelman, Alina; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Gurung, Sidhanta; Kealey, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A major public health challenge is to communicate effectively with vulnerable populations about preparing for disasters and other health emergencies. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and older adults are particularly vulnerable during health emergencies and require communications that are accessible and understandable. Although health literacy studies indicate that the readability of health communication materials often exceeds people’s literacy levels, we could find no research about the readability of emergency preparedness materials (EPM) intended for Deaf/HH and older adult populations. The objective of this study was to explore issues related to EPM for Deaf/HH and older adult populations, to assess the availability and readability of materials for these populations, and to recommend improvements. In two California counties, we interviewed staff at 14 community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Deaf/HH clients and 20 CBOs serving older adults selected from a stratified, random sample of 227 CBOs. We collected 40 EPM from 10 CBOs and 2 public health departments and 40 EPM from 14 local and national websites with EPM for the public. We used computerized assessments to test the U.S. grade reading levels of the 16 eligible CBO and health department EPM, and the 18 eligible website materials. Results showed that less than half of CBOs had EPM for their clients. All EPM intended for clients of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tested above the recommended 4th grade reading level, and 91% of the materials intended for clients of older adult-serving CBOs scored above the recommended 6th grade level. EPM for these populations should be widely available through CBOs and public health departments, adhere to health literacy principles, and be accessible in alternative formats including American Sign Language. Developers should engage the intended users of EPM as co-designers and testers. This study adds to the limited literature about EPM for these populations. PMID

  20. Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. General Education Div.

    The Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a collection of education and health data on more than 750,000 migrant children in grades K-12 in the United States (except Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and the outlying territories of Puerto Rico and the Mariana and Marshall Islands. The active file…

  1. Quality and readability of internet-based information on halitosis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jung Hwan; Kim, Eui Joo; Kim, Ji Rak; Kim, Moon Jong; Chung, Jin Woo; Park, Ji Woon

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate quality and readability of Internet-based information on halitosis. An Internet search through 3 engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing) was done with the terms ("bad breath," "halitosis," "oral malodor," "foul breath," "mouth malodor," "breath malodor," "fetor ex ore," "fetor oris," "ozostomia," and "stomatodysodia"). The first 50 websites from each engine resulting from each search term were screened. Included websites were evaluated using Health on the Net (HON) criteria, Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, DISCERN, Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP), Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade level. A total of 101 websites were included. HON, DISCERN, EQIP, and FRE score were 42.9%, 37.6%, 37.4%, and 51.9% of the maximum score, respectively. Fewer than 50% of sites displayed attribution, disclosure, and currency according to JAMA benchmarks. HON score, DISCERN score, and EQIP score had significant correlation with each other and were significantly higher in sites displaying the HON seal. The current quality and readability of informative websites on halitosis are generally low and poorly organized. Clinicians should be able to assess the Internet-based information on halitosis, as well as give accurate advice and guide patients concerning this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Informed consent and the readability of the written consent form.

    PubMed

    Sivanadarajah, N; El-Daly, I; Mamarelis, G; Sohail, M Z; Bates, P

    2017-11-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to objectively ascertain the level of readability of standardised consent forms for orthopaedic procedures. Methods Standardised consent forms (both in summary and detailed formats) endorsed by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) were retrieved from orthoconsent.com and assessed for readability. This involved using an online tool to calculate the validated Flesch reading ease score (FRES). This was compared with the FRES for the National Health Service (NHS) Consent Form 1. Data were analysed and interpreted according to the FRES grading table. Results The FRES for Consent Form 1 was 55.6, relating to the literacy expected of an A level student. The mean FRES for the BOA summary consent forms (n=27) was 63.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.2-66.0) while for the detailed consent forms (n=32), it was 68.9 (95% CI: 67.7-70.0). All BOA detailed forms scored >60, correlating to the literacy expected of a 13-15-year-old. The detailed forms had a higher FRES than the summary forms (p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the BOA endorsed standardised consent forms are much easier to read and understand than the NHS Consent Form 1, with the detailed BOA forms being the easiest to read. Despite this, owing to varying literacy levels, a significant proportion of patients may struggle to give informed consent based on the written information provided to them.

  3. Initial Readability Assessment of Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tian; Elhadad, Noémie; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Various search engines are available to clinical trial seekers. However, it remains unknown how comprehensible clinical trial eligibility criteria used for recruitment are to a lay audience. This study initially investigated this problem. Readability of eligibility criteria was assessed according to (i) shallow and lexical characteristics through the use of an established, generic readability metric; (ii) syntactic characteristics through natural language processing techniques; and (iii) health terminological characteristics through an automated comparison to technical and lay health texts. We further stratified clinical trials according to various study characteristics (e.g., source country or study type) to understand potential factors influencing readability. Mainly caused by frequent use of technical jargons, a college reading level was found to be necessary to understand eligibility criteria text, a level much higher than the average literacy level of the general American population. The use of technical jargons should be minimized to simplify eligibility criteria text. PMID:26958204

  4. A Software Application for Assessing Readability in the Japanese EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozasa, Toshiaki; Weir, George R. S.; Fukui, Masayasu

    2010-01-01

    We have been engaged in developing a readability index and its application software attuned for Japanese EFL learners. The index program, Ozasa-Fukui Year Level Program, Ver. 1.0, was used in developing the readability metric Ozasa-Fukui Year Level Index but tended to assume a high level of computer knowledge in its users. As a result, the…

  5. Universally Designed Text on the Web: Towards Readability Criteria Based on Anti-Patterns.

    PubMed

    Eika, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The readability of web texts affects accessibility. The Web Content Accessibility guidelines (WCAG) state that the recommended reading level should match that of someone who has completed basic schooling. However, WCAG does not give advice on what constitutes an appropriate reading level. Web authors need tools to help composing WCAG compliant texts, and specific criteria are needed. Classic readability metrics are generally based on lengths of words and sentences and have been criticized for being over-simplistic. Automatic measures and classifications of texts' reading levels employing more advanced constructs remain an unresolved problem. If such measures were feasible, what should these be? This work examines three language constructs not captured by current readability indices but believed to significantly affect actual readability, namely, relative clauses, garden path sentences, and left-branching structures. The goal is to see whether quantifications of these stylistic features reflect readability and how they correspond to common readability measures. Manual assessments of a set of authentic web texts for such uses were conducted. The results reveal that texts related to narratives such as children's stories, which are given the highest readability value, do not contain these constructs. The structures in question occur more frequently in expository texts that aim at educating or disseminating information such as strategy and journal articles. The results suggest that language anti-patterns hold potential for establishing a set of deeper readability criteria.

  6. Textbooks in Management, Marketing and Finance: An Analysis of Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Daniel J.; Thompson, G. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    Examines the readability of texts in basic junior level college courses in the fields of management, marketing, and finance. The readability model is described, along with its application and results. Specific texts and how they fared are listed in accompanying tables. (CT)

  7. Neural Networks for Readability Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    This paper describes and reports on the performance of six related artificial neural networks that have been developed for the purpose of readability analysis. Two networks employ counts of linguistic variables that simulate a traditional regression-based approach to readability. The remaining networks determine readability from "visual…

  8. Readability in 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormuth, John R., Ed.

    This bulletin presents four papers on how to control, manipulate, and predict the readability of printed materials. The first paper describes trends in readability brought about by research tools developed by psychologists and linguists. The second paper explores the effects of word frequency in printed materials on comprehension and concludes…

  9. Assessing the Accuracy and Readability of Online Health Information for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Storino, Alessandra; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Watkins, Ammara A; Vargas, Christina; Mancias, Joseph D; Bullock, Andrea; Demirjian, Aram; Moser, A James; Kent, Tara S

    2016-09-01

    The degree to which patients are empowered by written educational materials depends on the text's readability level and the accuracy of the information provided. The association of a website's affiliation or focus on treatment modality with its readability and accuracy has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. To compare the readability and accuracy of patient-oriented online resources for pancreatic cancer by treatment modality and website affiliation. An online search of 50 websites discussing 5 pancreatic cancer treatment modalities (alternative therapy, chemotherapy, clinical trials, radiation therapy, and surgery) was conducted. The website's affiliation was identified. Readability was measured by 9 standardized tests, and accuracy was assessed by an expert panel. Nine standardized tests were used to compute the median readability level of each website. The median readability scores were compared among treatment modality and affiliation categories. Accuracy was determined by an expert panel consisting of 2 medical specialists and 2 surgical specialists. The 4 raters independently evaluated all websites belonging to the 5 treatment modalities (a score of 1 indicates that <25% of the information is accurate, a score of 2 indicates that 26%-50% of the information is accurate, a score of 3 indicates that 51%-75% of the information is accurate, a score of 4 indicates that 76%-99% of the information is accurate, and a score of 5 indicates that 100% of the information is accurate). The 50 evaluated websites differed in readability and accuracy based on the focus of the treatment modality and the website's affiliation. Websites discussing surgery (with a median readability level of 13.7 and an interquartile range [IQR] of 11.9-15.6) were easier to read than those discussing radiotherapy (median readability level, 15.2 [IQR, 13.0-17.0]) (P = .003) and clinical trials (median readability level, 15.2 [IQR, 12.8-17.0]) (P = .002). Websites of nonprofit organizations

  10. Variable Quality and Readability of Patient-oriented Websites on Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Schreuders, Eline H; Grobbee, Esmée J; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon C W; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander J O

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is dependent on participation and subsequent adherence to surveillance. The internet increasingly is used for health information and is important to support decision making. We evaluated the accuracy, quality, and readability of online information on CRC screening and surveillance. A Website Accuracy Score and Polyp Score were developed, which awarded points for various aspects of CRC screening and surveillance. Websites also were evaluated using validated internet quality instruments (Global Quality Score, LIDA, and DISCERN), and reading scores. Two raters independently assessed the top 30 websites appearing on Google.com. Portals, duplicates, and news articles were excluded. Twenty websites were included. The mean website accuracy score was 26 of 44 (range, 9-41). Websites with the highest scores were www.cancer.org, www.bowelcanceraustralia.org, and www.uptodate.com. The median polyp score was 3 of 10. The median global quality score was 3 of 5 (range, 2-5). The median overall LIDA score was 74% and the median DISCERN score was 45, both indicating moderate quality. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 11th grade, rating the websites as difficult to read, 30% had a reading level acceptable for the general public (Flesch Reading Ease > 60). There was no correlation between the Google rank and the website accuracy score (r s  = -0.31; P = .18). There is marked variation in quality and readability of websites on CRC screening. Most websites do not address polyp surveillance. The poor correlation between quality and Google ranking suggests that screenees will miss out on high-quality websites using standard search strategies. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines: How Readable Are Internet-Based Patient Education Resources?

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David Richard; White, Michael D; D'Angelo, Michael; Prabhu, Arpan V; Kamel, Sarah; Lakhani, Paras; Sundaram, Baskaran

    2018-04-30

    Following the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial, several national societies from multiple disciplines have endorsed the use of low-dose chest CT to screen for lung cancer. Online patient education materials are an important tool to disseminate information to the general public regarding the proven health benefits of lung cancer screening. This study aims to evaluate the reading level at which these materials related to lung cancer screening are written. The four terms "pulmonary nodule," "radiation," "low-dose CT," and "lung cancer screening" were searched on Google, and the first 20 online resources for each term were downloaded, converted into plain text, and analyzed using 10 well-established readability scales. If the websites were not written specifically for patients, they were excluded. The 80 articles were written at a 12.6 ± 2.7 (mean ± SD) grade level, with grade levels ranging from 4.0 to 19.0. Of the 80 articles, 62.5% required a high school education to comprehend, and 22.6% required a college degree or higher (≥ 16th grade) to comprehend. Only 2.5% of the analyzed articles adhered to the recommendations of the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education materials be written at a 3rd- to 7th-grade reading level. Commonly visited online lung cancer screening-related patient education materials are written at a level beyond the general patient population's ability to comprehend and may be contributing to a knowledge gap that is inhibiting patients from improving their health literacy.

  12. Separating the Wheat From the Chaff: An Evaluation of Readability, Quality, and Accuracy of Online Health Information for Treatment of Peyronie Disease.

    PubMed

    Bompastore, Nicholas J; Cisu, Theodore; Holoch, Peter

    2018-04-30

    To characterize available information about Peyronie disease online and evaluate its readability, quality, accuracy, and respective associations with HONcode certification and website category. The search term "Peyronie disease" was queried on 3 major search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) and the first 50 search results on each search engine were assessed. All websites were categorized as institutional or reference, commercial, charitable, personal or patient support, or alternative medicine, and cross-referenced with the Health on the Net (HON) Foundation. Websites that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed for readability using 3 validated algorithms, for quality using the DISCERN instrument, and for accuracy by a fellowship-trained urologist. On average, online health information about treatment of Peyronie disease is written at or above the 11th grade level, exceeding the current reading guidelines of 6th-8th grade. The mean total DISCERN score for all website categories was 50.44 (standard deviation [SD] 11.94), the upper range of "fair" quality. The mean accuracy score of all online Peyronie treatment information was 2.76 (SD 1.23), corresponding to only 25%-50% accurate information. Both institutional or reference and HONcode-certified websites were of "good" quality (53.44, SD 11.64 and 60.86, SD 8.74, respectively). Institutional or reference websites were 50%-75% accurate (3.13, SD 1.20). Most of the online Peyronie disease treatment information is of mediocre quality and accuracy. The information from institutional or reference websites is of better quality and accuracy, and the information from HONcode-certified websites is of better quality. The mean readability of all websites exceeds the reading ability of most US adults by several grade levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  14. Assessing reading levels of health information: uses and limitations of flesch formula.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Pranay; MacDermid, Joy C

    2017-01-01

    Written health information is commonly used by health-care professionals (HCPs) to inform and assess patients in clinical practice. With growing self-management of many health conditions and increased information seeking behavior among patients, there is a greater stress on HCPs and researchers to develop and implement readable and understandable health information. Readability formulas such as Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKRGL) are commonly used by researchers and HCPs to assess if health information is reading grade appropriate for patients. In this article, we critically analyze the role and credibility of Flesch formula in assessing the reading level of written health information. FRE and FKRGL assign a grade level by measuring semantic and syntactic difficulty. They serve as a simple tool that provides some information about the potential literacy difficulty of written health information. However, health information documents often involve complex medical words and may incorporate pictures and tables to improve the legibility. In their assessments, FRE and FKRGL do not take into account (1) document factors (layout, pictures and charts, color, font, spacing, legibility, and grammar), (2) person factors (education level, comprehension, health literacy, motivation, prior knowledge, information needs, anxiety levels), and (3) style of writing (cultural sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and appropriateness), and thus, inadequately assess reading level. New readability measures incorporate pictures and use complex algorithms to assess reading level but are only moderately used in health-care research and not in clinical practice. Future research needs to develop generic and disease-specific readability measures to evaluate comprehension of a written document based on individuals' literacy levels, cultural background, and knowledge of disease.

  15. Spanish Readability Formulas for Elementary-Level Texts: A Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Weaver, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Uses two formulas developed for Spanish language text to analyze 9 stories that were read by 36 Spanish-speaking second graders with limited English proficiency. Finds that the Spanish readability formulas only weakly predicted student performance, indicating the need to pursue broader, qualitative indices of difficulty for Spanish text. (SG)

  16. The Reading Level of Government and Voluntary Health Organization Smoking Cessation Websites: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Shiplo, Samantha; Filippini, Taylor; Kabir, Zubair; Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Fowler, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (USDHHS) recommends that health material be written at or below a sixth-grade reading level to ensure readability. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the readability of online smoking cessation materials from several government and voluntary health organizations.…

  17. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords “Readability and Package Leaflet” and “Readability and Package Insert” in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the

  18. Readability and writing style analysis of selected allied health professional journals.

    PubMed

    Hedl, J J; Glazer-Waldman, H R; Parker, H J; Hopkins, K M

    1991-01-01

    Using US Department of Defense text sampling procedures, nine allied health journals were analyzed for readability and selected writing style indices via Right Writer, a commercial software program. Two indices of readability were computed for each journal as were several indices of writing style. The computed readability ranged from 13.0 to 15.4, depending upon the journal in question. Two journals showed the highest levels of readability (15.4) compared to the other seven journals. The writing style analyses indicated generally normal ranges for the descriptive and jargon indices, but seven journals showed below recommended strength indices. Sentence structure analyses indicated a need to reduce sentence structure complexity. Implications for journal editors and authors are discussed.

  19. Readability of Internet Information on Hearing: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Thorén, Elisabet Sundewall

    2015-09-01

    This systematic literature review asks the following question: “ What is the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hearing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care?” Searches were completed in three databases: CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus. Seventy-eight records were identified and systematically screened for eligibility: 8 records were included that contained data on the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hear ing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care. Records reported mean readability levels from 9 to over 14. In other words, people with hearing impairment and their significant others need 9 to 14 years of education to read and understand Internet information on hearing that they access in the context of their hearing care. The poor readability of Internet information on hearing has been well documented; it is time to focus on valid and sustainable initiatives that address this problem.

  20. The Assessment of Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Educational Resources for Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    PubMed

    Ghodasra, Jason H; Wang, Dean; Jayakar, Rohit G; Jensen, Andrew R; Yamaguchi, Kent T; Hegde, Vishal V; Jones, Kristofer J

    2018-01-01

    To critically evaluate the quality, accuracy, and readability of readily available Internet patient resources for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a treatment modality for musculoskeletal injuries. Using the 3 most commonly used Internet search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo), the search term "platelet rich plasma" was entered, and the first 50 websites from each search were reviewed. The website's affiliation was identified. Quality was evaluated using 25-point criteria based on guidelines published by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, and accuracy was assessed with a previously described 12-point grading system by 3 reviewers independently. Readability was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) grade score. A total of 46 unique websites were identified and evaluated. The average quality and accuracy was 9.4 ± 3.4 (maximum 25) and 7.9 ± 2.3 (maximum 12), respectively. The average FK grade level was 12.6 ± 2.4, which is several grades higher than the recommended eighth-grade level for patient education material. Ninety-one percent (42/46) of websites were authored by physicians, and 9% (4/46) contained commercial bias. Mean quality was significantly greater in websites authored by health care providers (9.8 ± 3.1 vs 5.9 ± 4.7, P = .029) and in websites without commercial bias (9.9 ± 3.1 vs 4.5 ± 3.2, P = .002). Mean accuracy was significantly lower in websites authored by health care providers (7.6 ± 2.2 vs 11.0 ± 1.2, P = .004). Only 24% (11/46) reported that PRP remains an investigational treatment. The accuracy and quality of online patient resources for PRP are poor, and the information overestimates the reading ability of the general population. Websites authored by health care providers had higher quality but lower accuracy. Additionally, the majority of websites do not identify PRP as an experimental treatment, which may fail to provide appropriate patient understanding and expectations. Physicians should educate patients that many online

  1. Using Readability Tests to Improve the Accuracy of Evaluation Documents Intended for Low-Literate Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouame, Julien B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Readability tests are indicators that measure how easy a document can be read and understood. Simple, but very often ignored, readability statistics cannot only provide information about the level of difficulty of the readability of particular documents but also can increase an evaluator's credibility. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  2. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  3. Analysis of Readability and Interest of Marketing Education Textbooks: Implications for Special Needs Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The readability, reading ease, interest level, and writing style of 20 current textbooks in secondary marketing education were evaluated. Readability formulas consistently identified lower reading levels for special needs education, human interest scores were not very reliable information sources, and writing style was also a weak variable. (JOW)

  4. The quality and readability of colorectal cancer information on the internet.

    PubMed

    Grewal, P; Alagaratnam, S

    2013-01-01

    Patients can rapidly access the internet and more young people are using their mobile to access health-related information. The aim of this study is to assess the readability and quality of colorectal disease websites for colorectal cancer. We searched the Google, Yahoo and Bing for colorectal cancer. Readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade (FKG) and Gunning Fog Index (GFI). The LIDA tool and DISCERN instrument were used to measure the design and content of health information on the Internet. A sub-group analysis was performed on websites certified by HONcode and Information Standard against non-certified websites. The mean FRES were 56.3, mean FKG of 6.9, mean GFI of 9.5, equivalent to TIME magazine. The mean LIDA Tool overall score was 85.6% and mean DISCERN instrument was 52.2 (95% CI 45-59.4). This study shows that colorectal cancer websites were readable but potentially unreliable. Government certified sites were superior to non-certified sites. Improvements are required to provide patients with reliable information to make informed decisions on medical treatments. We propose that national cancer services develop reliable and easily readable information regarding the diagnosis and investigation of colorectal cancer. The site should provide adequate information regarding the treatment options and importantly how each treatment option would affect the patient's quality of life. Clinicians can then provide these websites to the patients before and after their consultations to allow the patient to be fully informed. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Readability of Principles of Macroeconomics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinkler, Sarah; Woods, James

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated principles of macroeconomics textbooks for readability using Coh-Metrix, a computational linguistics tool. Additionally, they conducted an experiment on Amazon's Mechanical Turk Web site in which participants ranked the readability of text samples. There was a wide range of scores on readability indexes both among…

  6. Readability Approaches: Implications for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Finding the right fit between students' reading ability and textbooks is very important for comprehension. Readability studies aim to analyse texts to find the right fit between students and texts. In this literature review, readability studies are classified under quantitative, qualitative and combined quantitative-qualitative readability…

  7. Privacy Policies for Apps Targeted Toward Youth: Descriptive Analysis of Readability

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gitanjali; Cheung, Cynthia; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background Due to the growing availability of consumer information, the protection of personal data is of increasing concern. Objective We assessed readability metrics of privacy policies for apps that are either available to or targeted toward youth to inform strategies to educate and protect youth from unintentional sharing of personal data. Methods We reviewed the 1200 highest ranked apps from the Apple and Google Play Stores and systematically selected apps geared toward youth. After applying exclusion criteria, 99 highly ranked apps geared toward minors remained, 64 of which had a privacy policy. We obtained and analyzed these privacy policies using reading grade level (RGL) as a metric. Policies were further compared as a function of app category (free vs paid; entertainment vs social networking vs utility). Results Analysis of privacy policies for these 64 apps revealed an average RGL of 12.78, which is well above the average reading level (8.0) of adults in the United States. There was also a small but statistically significant difference in word count as a function of app category (entertainment: 2546 words, social networking: 3493 words, and utility: 1038 words; P=.02). Conclusions Although users must agree to privacy policies to access digital tools and products, readability analyses suggest that these agreements are not comprehensible to most adults, let alone youth. We propose that stakeholders, including pediatricians and other health care professionals, play a role in educating youth and their guardians about the use of Web-based services and potential privacy risks, including the unintentional sharing of personal data. PMID:29301737

  8. The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

  9. [Readability of surgical informed consent in Spain].

    PubMed

    San Norberto, Enrique María; Gómez-Alonso, Daniel; Trigueros, José M; Quiroga, Jorge; Gualis, Javier; Vaquero, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    To assess the readability of informed consent documents (IC) of the different national surgical societies. During January 2012 we collected 504 IC protocols of different specialties. To calculate readability parameters the following criteria were assessed: number of words, syllables and phrases, syllables/word and word/phrase averages, Word correlation index, Flesch-Szigriszt index, Huerta Fernández index, Inflesz scale degree and the Gunning-Fog index. The mean Flesch-Szigriszt index was 50.65 ± 6,72, so readability is considered normal. There are significant differences between specialties such as Urology (43.00 ± 4.17) and Angiology and Vascular Surgery (63.00 ± 3.26, P<.001). No IC would be appropriate for adult readability according to the Fernández-Huerta index (total mean 55.77 ± 6.57); the IC of Angiology and Vascular Surgery were the closest ones (67.85 ± 3.20). Considering the Inflesz scale degree (total mean of 2.84 ± 3,23), IC can be described as «somewhat difficult». There are significant differences between the IC of Angiology and Vascular Surgery (3.23 ± 0.47) that could be qualified as normal, or Cardiovascular Surgery (2.79 ± 0.43) as «nearly normal readability»; and others such as Urology (1, 70 ± 0.46, P<.001) and Thoracic Surgery (1.90 ± 0.30, P<.001), with a readability between «very» and «somewhat» difficult. The Gunning-Fog indexes are far from the readability for a general audience (total mean of 26.29 ± 10,89). IC developed by scientific societies of different surgical specialties do not have an adequate readability for patients. We recommend the use of readability indexes during the writing of these consent forms. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Text Readability Using Cognitively Based Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Greenfield, Jerry; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2008-01-01

    Many programs designed to compute the readability of texts are narrowly based on surface-level linguistic features and take too little account of the processes which a reader brings to the text. This study is an exploratory examination of the use of Coh-Metrix, a computational tool that measures cohesion and text difficulty at various levels of…

  11. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Preetinder S; Gill, Tejkaran S; Kamath, Ashwini; Whisnant, Billy

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms) are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving health care-related literature and, in turn, promoting health literacy. Based on the comprehensive literature review and assessment of the 40 documents associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury, recommendations have been made for improving the readability, suitability, and usability of health care-related documents. The recommendations are

  12. Reading Level and Length of Written Research Consent Forms

    PubMed Central

    Foe, Gabriella; Lally, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 100 Institutional Review Board approved consent forms (CFs), we assessed pages, reading levels, and whether they included essential elements. CF page numbers ranged from 3 to 28 (mean, 10.3) and readability ranged from grades 5.6 to 28.9 (mean, 11.6). The CF mean score for including essential elements was 90.8% (range: 63.5–100%). There were no significant differences by specialty in number of pages (p = 0.053), but surgical specialties had the highest readability (mean, 13.1), and pediatrics the lowest (10.5), p = 0.008. While approved CFs generally included the Office for Human Research Protections recommended essential elements, they were very long, and even pediatric forms, which had the lowest reading levels, were written on average at a tenth grade level. Researchers need guidance to resolve pressure between regulatory mandates and guidelines and “keeping it simple and clear.” PMID:25580939

  13. Predicting the Readability of FORTRAN Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domangue, J. C.; Karbowski, S. A.

    This paper reports the results of two studies of the readability of FORTRAN programs, i.e., the ease with which a programmer can read and analyze programs already written, particularly in the processes of maintenance and debugging. In the first study, low-level characteristics of 202 FORTRAN programs stored on the general-use UNIX systems at Bell…

  14. Determining Readability: How to Select and Apply Easy-to-Use Readability Formulas to Assess the Difficulty of Adult Literacy Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    There are many readability tools that instructors can use to help adult learners select reading materials. We describe and compare different types of readability tools: formulas calculated by hand, tools found on the Web, tools embedded in a word processing program, and readability tools found in a commercial software program. Practitioners do not…

  15. Readability Formulas as Applied to College Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Campbell R.

    1982-01-01

    Determines from empirical information on the application of four readability formulas to a group of widely used college economics textbooks that there is no consistency in the absolute reading levels or the rank orderings of these books. (AEA)

  16. Evaluating the Quality and Readability of Internet Information on Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Fozia; Anderson, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The Internet is a highly powerful resource for patients and provides an extensive amount of information on medical conditions. It is therefore important that the information accessible is accurate, up to date, and at an appropriate comprehensive level for the general public. This article aims to evaluate the quality of patient information on meningiomas. The term meningioma was searched using the following search engines: Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask, and AOL. The top 100 meningioma Web sites were analyzed for readability using the Flesch Reading Ease score and the Flesch-Kincaid grade level. The quality of each Web page was assessed with the DISCERN instrument and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Clear Communication Index (CCI). The quality of information on the Internet on meningiomas is highly variable. The overall mean Flesch Reading Ease score was 43.1 (standard deviation = 13.3) and the mean Flesch-Kincaid grade of all the Web sites was 11.2 (standard deviation = 2.3). This finding suggests that the information is on average difficult to read. Only one Web site was at the recommended seventh-grade level and the remainder were above this grade. Only one third of the Web pages had Health On the Net Code of Conduct or The Information Standard certification and were found to be significantly of higher quality: DISCERN (P = 0.022) and CDC CCI (P = 0.027). More than 50% of the Web sites had significantly poor or average DISCERN scores and only 2 Web sites fulfilled the CDC CCI criteria. It is recommended that clinicians personally research material for their patients to be able to guide them to reliable and accurate Web sites. It is also encouraged to become Health On the Net Code of Conduct/The Information Standard certified because this may indicate information of high quality. In addition, it is also recommended that authors of existing information assess the quality of their online health information against the CDC CCI criteria. Crown

  17. The accessibility, readability, and quality of online resources for gender affirming surgery.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Christina R; Ricci, Joseph A; Lee, Michelle; Tobias, Adam M; Medalie, Daniel A; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-09-01

    The transgender population is disproportionally affected by health disparities related to access to care. In many communities, transgender specialists are geographically distant and locally available medical professionals may be unfamiliar with unique needs of transgender patients. As a result, use of Internet resources for information about gender affirming surgery is particularly important. This study simulates a patient search for online educational material about gender affirming surgery and evaluates the accessibility, readability, and quality of the information. An Internet search for the term "transgender surgery" was performed, and the first 10 relevant hits were identified. Readability was assessed using 10 established tests: Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, FORCAST, Fry, Gunning Fog, New Dale-Chall, New Fog Count, Raygor Estimate, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Flesch Reading Ease. Quality was assessed using Journal of the American Medical Association criteria and the DISCERN instrument. Review of 69 results was required to identify 10 sites with relevant patient information. There were 97 articles collected; overall mean reading level was 14.7. Individual Web site reading levels ranged from 12.0 to 17.5. All articles and Web sites exceeded the recommended sixth grade level. Quality ranged from 0 to 4 (Journal of the American Medical Association) and 35 to 79 (DISCERN) across Web sites. Web sites with relevant patient information about gender affirming surgery were difficult to identify from search results. The content of these sites universally exceeded the recommended reading level. A wide range of Web site quality was noted, and this may further complicate successful navigation. Barriers in access to appropriately written patient information on the Internet may contribute to disparities in referral, involvement, satisfaction, and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Privacy Policies for Apps Targeted Toward Youth: Descriptive Analysis of Readability.

    PubMed

    Das, Gitanjali; Cheung, Cynthia; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew; Bloss, Cinnamon

    2018-01-04

    Due to the growing availability of consumer information, the protection of personal data is of increasing concern. We assessed readability metrics of privacy policies for apps that are either available to or targeted toward youth to inform strategies to educate and protect youth from unintentional sharing of personal data. We reviewed the 1200 highest ranked apps from the Apple and Google Play Stores and systematically selected apps geared toward youth. After applying exclusion criteria, 99 highly ranked apps geared toward minors remained, 64 of which had a privacy policy. We obtained and analyzed these privacy policies using reading grade level (RGL) as a metric. Policies were further compared as a function of app category (free vs paid; entertainment vs social networking vs utility). Analysis of privacy policies for these 64 apps revealed an average RGL of 12.78, which is well above the average reading level (8.0) of adults in the United States. There was also a small but statistically significant difference in word count as a function of app category (entertainment: 2546 words, social networking: 3493 words, and utility: 1038 words; P=.02). Although users must agree to privacy policies to access digital tools and products, readability analyses suggest that these agreements are not comprehensible to most adults, let alone youth. We propose that stakeholders, including pediatricians and other health care professionals, play a role in educating youth and their guardians about the use of Web-based services and potential privacy risks, including the unintentional sharing of personal data. ©Gitanjali Das, Cynthia Cheung, Camille Nebeker, Matthew Bietz, Cinnamon Bloss. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 04.01.2018.

  19. A Readability Analysis of Selected Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Daniel J.; Thompson, G. Rodney

    1981-01-01

    To aid secondary school and college level economics teachers as they select textbooks for introductory economics courses, this article recounts how teachers can use the Flesch Reading Ease Test to measure readability. Data are presented on application of the Flesch Reading Ease Test to 15 introductory economics textbooks. (Author/DB)

  20. Sunlight-readable display technology: a dual-use case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Randall D.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes our vision of sunlight readable color display requirements, an alternate technology that offers a high level of performance, and how we implemented it for the military avionics display market. This knowledge base and product development experience was then applied with a comparable level of performance to commercial applications. The successful dual use of this technology for these two diverse markets is presented. Details of the technical commonality and a comparison of the design and performance differences are presented. A basis for specifying the required level of performance for a sunlight readable full color display is discussed. With the objective of providing a high level of image brightness and high ambient light rejection, a display architecture using collimated light is used. The resulting designs of two military cockpit display products, with contrast ratios above 20:1 in sunlight are shown. The performance of a commercial display providing several thousand foot- Lamberts of image brightness is presented.

  1. Simulation-Based Rule Generation Considering Readability

    PubMed Central

    Yahagi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, T.; Hara, T.; Ota, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rule generation method is proposed for an aircraft control problem in an airport. Designing appropriate rules for motion coordination of taxiing aircraft in the airport is important, which is conducted by ground control. However, previous studies did not consider readability of rules, which is important because it should be operated and maintained by humans. Therefore, in this study, using the indicator of readability, we propose a method of rule generation based on parallel algorithm discovery and orchestration (PADO). By applying our proposed method to the aircraft control problem, the proposed algorithm can generate more readable and more robust rules and is found to be superior to previous methods. PMID:27347501

  2. A systematic review of readability and comprehension instruments used for print and web-based cancer information.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2006-06-01

    Adequate functional literacy skills positively influence individuals' ability to take control of their health. Print and Web-based cancer information is often written at difficult reading levels. This systematic review evaluates readability instruments (FRE, F-K, Fog, SMOG, Fry) used to assess print and Web-based cancer information and word recognition and comprehension tests (Cloze, REALM, TOFHLA, WRAT) that measure people's health literacy. Articles on readability and comprehension instruments explicitly used for cancer information were assembled by searching MEDLINE and Psyc INFO from 1993 to 2003. In all, 23 studies were included; 16 on readability, 6 on comprehension, and 1 on readability and comprehension. Of the readability investigations, 14 focused on print materials, and 2 assessed Internet information. Comprehension and word recognition measures were not applied to Web-based information. None of the formulas were designed to determine the effects of visuals or design factors that could influence readability and comprehension of cancer education information.

  3. Assessing the Readability of Materials for Elementary ESL Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.; Propst, Ivan K., Jr.

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of readability indices, standard cloze procedure, and the matching cloze procedure as determinants of the readability of supplementary English materials for elementary ESL students in a Pacific Island context. A review of readability indices and the standard cloze procedure indicated that neither procedure is…

  4. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Methods Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed. Results Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n = 40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n = 6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n = 24) or were of poor quality (n = 16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1 - 12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5 - 10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n = 18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n = 8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n = 4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n = 31) and no data on test characteristics (n = 8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n = 4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n = 2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC

  5. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Philippe; Maltha, Jessica; Hermans, Veerle; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Jacobs, Jan

    2011-02-13

    The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed. Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n=40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n=6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n=24) or were of poor quality (n=16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1-12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5-10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n=4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n=2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC. Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better

  6. [Global analysis of the readability of the informed consent forms used in public hospitals of Spain].

    PubMed

    Mariscal-Crespo, M I; Coronado-Vázquez, M V; Ramirez-Durán, M V

    To analyse the readability of informed consent forms (ICF) used in Public Hospitals throughout Spain, with the aim of checking their function of providing comprehensive information to people who are making any health decision no matter where they are in Spain. A descriptive study was performed on a total of 11,339 ICF received from all over Spanish territory, of which 1617 ICF were collected from 4 web pages of Health Portal and the rest (9722) were received through email and/or telephone contact from March 2012 to February 2013. The readability level was studied using the Inflesz tool. A total of 372 ICF were selected and analysed using simple random sampling. The Inflesz scale and the Flesch-Szigriszt index were used to analyse the readability. The readability results showed that 62.4% of the ICF were rated as a "little difficult", the 23.4% as "normal", and the 13.4% were rated as "very difficult". The highest readability means using the Flesch index were scored in Andalusia with a mean of 56.99 (95% CI; 55.42-58.57) and Valencia with a mean of 51.93 (95% CI; 48.4-55.52). The lowest readability means were in Galicia with a mean of 40.77 (95% CI; 9.83-71.71) and Melilla, mean=41.82 (95% CI; 35.5-48.14). The readability level of Spanish informed consent forms must be improved because their scores using readability tools could not be classified in normal scales. Furthermore, there was very wide variability among Spanish ICF, which showed a lack of equity in information access among Spanish citizens. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Readability and Comprehension of the Geriatric Depression Scale and PROMIS® Physical Function Items in Older African Americans and Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Sylvia H.; Jones, Loretta; Calderón, José L.; Hays, Ron D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and physical function are especially important health domains for the elderly. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Function Item Bank are two surveys commonly used to measure these domains. It is unclear if these two instruments adequately measure these aspects of health in minority elderly. Objective To estimate the readability of the GDS and PROMIS® Physical Function items and to assess their comprehensibility by a sample of African American and Latino elderly. Methods Readability was estimated using the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K) and Flesch-Reading-Ease (FRE) formulae for English versions, and a Spanish adaptation of the FRE formula for the Spanish versions. Comprehension of the GDS and PROMIS items by minority elderly was evaluated with 30 cognitive interviews. Results Readability estimates of a number of items in English and Spanish of the GDS and PROMIS physical functioning items exceed the recommended 5th grade level, or were rated as fairly difficult, difficult, or very difficult to read. Cognitive interviews revealed that many participants felt that more than the two (yes/no) GDS response options were needed to answer the questions. Wording of several PROMIS items was considered confusing and responses potentially uninterpretable because they were based on physical aids. Conclusions Problems with item wording and response options of the GDS and PROMIS Physical Function items may negatively affect reliability and validity of measurement when used with minority elderly. PMID:27599978

  8. Web-based information on the treatment of oral leukoplakia - quality and readability.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakijja, Paswach; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen; Ni Riordain, Richeal

    2016-09-01

    To categorise the content and assess the quality and readability of the online information regarding the treatment for oral leukoplakia. An online search using the term 'leukoplakia treatment' was carried out on 8th June 2015 using the Google search engine. The content, quality and readability of the first 100 sites were explored. The quality of the web information was assessed using the following tools, the DISCERN instrument and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks for website analysis and the HON seal. Readability was assessed via the Flesch Reading Ease Score. The search strategy generated 357 000 sites on the Google search engine. Due to duplicate links, non-operating links and irrelevant links, a total of 47 of the first 100 websites were included in this study. The mean overall rating achieved by included websites using the DISCERN instrument was 2.3. With regard to the JAMA benchmarks, the vast majority of examined websites (95.7%) completely fulfilled the disclosure benchmark and less than 50% of included websites met the three remaining criteria. A mean total readability score of 47.5 was recorded with almost 90% of websites having a readability level ranging from fairly difficult to very difficult. Based on this study, the online health information regarding oral leukoplakia has challenging readability with content of questionable accuracy. As patients often search for health information online, it would be prudent for clinicians to highlight the caution with which online information should be interpreted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Readability of neurosurgery-related patient education materials provided by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Paul J; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Most professional organizations now provide patient information material, and not all of this material is appropriate for the average American adult to comprehend. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the United States Department of Health and Human Services recommend that patient education materials be written at the sixth-grade level. Our aim was to assess the readability of neurosurgery-related patient education material and compare it with The American Medical Association, NIH, and United States Department of Health and Human Services recommendations. Materials provided by the American Association of Neurologic Surgeons (AANS) and the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and National Institutes of Health were assessed with the Flesch-Kincaid grade level and Flesch Reading Ease score with Microsoft Office Word software. None of the articles had Flesch-Kincaid grade levels at or below the sixth-grade level. All articles on the AANS Conditions and Treatments section were written at or above the ninth-grade level; three of the AANS Camera-Ready Fact Sheets and four of the NIH/NLM articles were written between the seventh- and eighth-grade levels. Current patient education material provided by the AANS is written well above the recommended level. Material from the NLM and NIH performed better, but was still above the recommended sixth-grade level. Education materials should contain information relevant to patients' conditions, be accurate in the information they present, and be written with the average patient in mind. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MDA and AAEM informational brochures: can patients read them?

    PubMed

    Galloway, Gloria; Murphy, Peggy; Chesson, Andrew L; Martinez, Karen

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patient literacy and the readability of patient education brochures from the American Academy of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and Muscular Dystrophy Association. Materials with the appropriate readability and suitability are more likely to provide instruction patients will understand. The readability of the brochure was assessed with Grammatik (Fry, 1977), the literacy of the participants with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy (REALM) in Medicine test, and the suitability of the brochure was tested with the Suitability Assessment of Materials measure (Doak, Doak, & Root, 1993). The average REALM score for participation in this study correlated with a reading level of 7th-8th grade. All six brochures were found to be too difficult for many patients. Readability levels in four of the brochures were at 11th- or 12th-grade levels, one at 9th grade, and one at 10th grade. Materials with readability levels for 9th grade or higher should be rewritten to be understandable by most Americans, or supplemental instruction should be given. Readability and suitability assessments should be made to determine whether educational materials are appropriate for patients.

  11. Quality and readability of online information resources on insomnia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Yang, Albert C; Duan, Ying; Dong, Ming; Yeung, Albert S

    2017-09-01

    The internet is a major source for health information. An increasing number of people, including patients with insomnia, search for remedies online; however, little is known about the quality of such information. This study aimed to evaluate the quality and readability of insomnia-related online information. Google was used as the search engine, and the top websites on insomnia that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated for quality and readability. The analyzed websites belonged to nonprofit, commercial, or academic organizations and institutions such as hospitals and universities. Insomnia-related websites typically included definitions (85%), causes and risk factors (100%), symptoms (95%), and treatment options (90%). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) was the most commonly recommended approach for insomnia treatment, and sleep drugs are frequently mentioned. The overall quality of the websites on insomnia is moderate, but all the content exceeded the recommended reading ease levels. Concerns that must be addressed to increase the quality and trustworthiness of online health information include sharing metadata, such as authorship, time of creation and last update, and conflicts of interest; providing evidence for reliability; and increasing the readability for a layman audience.

  12. [Systematic analysis of the readability of patient information on the websites of clinics for plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Schaller, H-E; Medved, F; Lüers, J-C

    2014-12-01

    The Internet is becoming increasing-ly important as a source of information for patients in medical issues. However, many patients have problems to adequately understand texts, especially with medical content. A basic requirement to understand a written text is the read-ability of a text. The aim of the present study was to examine texts on the websites of German -plastic-surgical hospitals with patient information regarding their readability. In this study, the read-ability of texts of 27 major departments of plastic and Hand surgery in Germany was systematically analysed using 5 recognised readability indices. First, texts were searched based on 20 representative key words and themes. Thereafter, texts were assigned to one of 3 major themes in order to enable statistical analysis. In addition to the 5 readability indices, further objective text parameters were also recorded. Overall, 288 texts were found for analyzation. Most articles were found on the topic of "handsurgery" (n=124), less were found for "facial plastic surgery" (n=80) and "flaps, breast and reconstructive surgery" (n=84). Consistently, all readability indices showed a poor readability for the vast majority of analysed texts with the text appearing readable only for readers with a higher educational level. No significant differences in readability were found between the 3 major themes. Especially in the communication of medical information, it is important to consider the knowledge and education of the addressee. The texts studied consistently showed a readability that is understandable only for academics. Thus, a large part of the intended target group is probably not reached. In order to adequately deliver online information material, a revision of the analysed internet texts appears to be recommendable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. An Analysis of the Readability of Financial Accounting Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Flesch formula was used to calculate the readability of 15 financial accounting textbooks. The 15 textbooks represented introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels and also were classified by five different publishers. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis revealed some significant differences. (Author/CT)

  14. Readability of the Written Study Information in Pediatric Research in France

    PubMed Central

    Ménoni, Véronique; Lucas, Noël; Leforestier, Jean-François; Doz, François; Chatellier, Gilles; Jacqz-Aigain, Evelyne; Giraud, Carole; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim was to evaluate the readability of research information leaflets (RIL) for minors asked to participate in biomedical research studies and to assess the factors influencing this readability. Methods and Findings All the pediatric protocols from three French pediatric clinical research units were included (N = 104). Three criteria were used to evaluate readability: length of the text, Flesch's readability score and presence of illustrations. We compared the readability of RIL to texts specifically written for children (school textbooks, school exams or extracts from literary works). We assessed the effect of protocol characteristics on readability. The RIL had a median length of 608 words [350 words, 25th percentile; 1005 words, 75th percentile], corresponding to two pages. The readability of the RIL, with a median Flesch score of 40 [30; 47], was much poorer than that of pediatric reference texts, with a Flesch score of 67 [60; 73]. A small proportion of RIL (13/91; 14%) were illustrated. The RIL were longer (p<0.001), more readable (p<0.001) and more likely to be illustrated (p<0.009) for industrial than for institutional sponsors. Conclusion Researchers should routinely compute the reading ease of study information sheets and make greater efforts to improve the readability of written documents for potential participants. PMID:21494689

  15. Discriminability measures for predicting readability of text on textured backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, L. F.; Hill, A. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the text contrast is low, and that spatial frequency content of the background affects readability. These results were not well predicted by the single variables of text contrast (Spearman rank correlation = -0.64) and background RMS contrast (0.08), but a global masking index and a spatial-frequency-selective masking index led to better predictions (-0.84 and -0.81, respectively). c2000 Optical Society of America.

  16. What's New in Children's Literature for the Children of Louisiana? A Selected Annotated Bibliography with Readability Levels (Selected) and Associated Louisiana Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    An annotated list of children's books published within the last 15 years and related to Louisiana culture, environment, and economics are linked to the Louisiana Content Standards. Readability levels of selected books are included, providing guidance as to whether a book is appropriate for independent student use. The thirty-three books listed are…

  17. Text Readability and Intuitive Simplification: A Comparison of Readability Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David B.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Texts are routinely simplified for language learners with authors relying on a variety of approaches and materials to assist them in making the texts more comprehensible. Readability measures are one such tool that authors can use when evaluating text comprehensibility. This study compares the Coh-Metrix Second Language (L2) Reading Index, a…

  18. Evaluating the quality and readability of thyroplasty information on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Ting, Kimberly; Hu, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    To assess the quality and readability of thyroplasty information available on the Internet. Cross-sectional study. We conducted a Google search for "thyroplasty treatment" and analyzed the first 50 Web sites using the DISCERN instrument, the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL) score. DISCERN is a 16-item validated questionnaire used to assess the quality of written health information for patients. FRES and FKGL are commonly used instruments to assess readability of written information. We also further analyzed major versus minor and patient-targeted versus professional Web sites. Overall DISCERN score was 2.20 ± 0.60. Overall FRES score was 29.68 ± 16.64. Overall FKGL score was 13.07 ± 3.95. We found significant differences between patient-targeted and professional Web sites on FRES (43.80 ± 2.78 and 18.58 ± 9.04, respectively) and FKGL (11.46 ± 3.36 and 14.33 ± 4.30, respectively) (P < 0.00 and P = 0.01, respectively). We also found significant differences between major and minor Web sites on DISCERN (2.35 ± 2.35 and 1.95 ± 0.61, respectively), FRES (24.75 ± 14.61 and 37.71 ± 16.97, respectively), and FKGL (14.19 ± 3.68 and 11.24 ± 3.77, respectively) (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). Thyroplasty information available online is of suboptimal quality and written at a level too difficult for the average American adult to read comfortably. Major Web sites have higher quality information but are more difficult to read. Professional Web sites are also more difficult to read than patient-targeted Web sites. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of online patient education materials from major ophthalmologic associations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Agarwal, Nitin; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Langer, Paul D

    2015-04-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet to supplement finding medical information, which can be complex and requires a high level of reading comprehension. Online ophthalmologic materials from major ophthalmologic associations should be written at an appropriate reading level. To assess ophthalmologic online patient education materials (PEMs) on ophthalmologic association websites and to determine whether they are above the reading level recommended by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health. Descriptive and correlational design. Patient education materials from major ophthalmology websites were downloaded from June 1, 2014, through June 30, 2014, and assessed for level of readability using 10 scales. The Flesch Reading Ease test, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning Fog Index, New Fog Count, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST scale, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph, and Fry Readability Graph were used. Text from each article was pasted into Microsoft Word and analyzed using the software Readability Studio professional edition version 2012.1 for Windows. Flesch Reading Ease score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade, Coleman-Liau Index score, Gunning Fog Index score, New Fog Count, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula score, FORCAST score, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph score, and Fry Readability Graph score. Three hundred thirty-nine online PEMs were assessed. The mean Flesch Reading Ease score was 40.7 (range, 17.0-51.0), which correlates with a difficult level of reading. The mean readability grade levels ranged as follows: 10.4 to 12.6 for the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level; 12.9 to 17.7 for the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test; 11.4 to 15.8 for the Coleman-Liau Index; 12.4 to 18.7 for the Gunning Fog Index; 8.2 to 16.0 for the New Fog Count; 11.2 to 16.0 for the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula; 10.9 to 12.5 for the FORCAST scale; 11

  20. A Polio Immunization Pamphlet with Increased Appeal and Simplified Language Does Not Improve Comprehension to an Acceptable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Arnold, Connie; Murphy, Peggy W.; Herbst, Melissa; Bocchini, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Two polio-vaccine pamphlets written on a sixth-grade level were compared for readability, comprehension, and preference among a broad range of parents. The easy-to-read version was widely preferred, and comprehension was significantly higher. However, the use of instructional graphics was required to achieve an acceptable level of comprehension.…

  1. Matching Readers to Instructional Materials: The Use of Classic Readability Measures for Students with Language Learning Disabilities and Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotula, Andrea Winokur

    2003-01-01

    The matching of students with language learning disabilities and dyslexia to appropriate reading materials is discussed, and formal and informal methods are presented for determining reading levels for accuracy, fluency, and comprehension instruction and practice. The Spache Readability Formula, the New Dale-Challe Readability Formula, and…

  2. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. Methods The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Results Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02–4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). Conclusion The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China. PMID:27701471

  3. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02-4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China.

  4. Readability of alphanumeric characters having various contrast levels as a function of age and illumination mode.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-07-01

    Readability data of alphanumeric characters that vary in figure-to- ground contrast ratio were obtained from 36 subjects; 12 subjects were placed in each of three age groups (20-25 yr, 40-45 yr, and 60-65 yr). Minimum illuminance required to identify...

  5. Development of SMOG-Cro readability formula for healthcare communication and patient education.

    PubMed

    Brangan, Sanja

    2015-03-01

    Effective communication shows a positive impact on patient satisfaction, compliance and medical outcomes, at the same time reducing the healthcare costs. Written information for patients needs to correspond to health literacy levels of the intended audiences. Readability formulas correlate well with the reading and comprehension tests but are considered an easier and quicker method to estimate a text difficulty. SMOG readability formula designed for English language needs to be modified if used for texts in other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a readability formula based on SMOG, that could be used to estimate text difficulty of written materials for patients in Croatian language. Contras- tive analysis of English and Croatian language covering a corpus of almost 100,000 running words showed clear linguis- tic differences in the number of polysyllabic words. The new formula, named SMOG-Cro, is presented as an equation: SMOG-Cro = 2 + √4+ syllables, with the score showing the number of years of education a person needs to be able to understand a piece of writing. The presented methodology could help in the development of readability formulas for other languages. We hope the results of this study are soon put into practice for more effective healthcare communication and patient education, and for development of a health literacy assessment tool in Croatian language.

  6. The Relationship between Delivery Models and the Grade-Level Reading Development of Sixth-Grade English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Holly Weber

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between delivery models (the class size reduction model and the sheltered instruction model) and language development levels on the grade-level reading development of sixth-grade English learners (ELs) attending public middle schools in metro Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument used to measure grade-level mastery…

  7. Online patient information from radiation oncology departments is too complex for the general population.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stephen A; Francis, David M; Hullet, Craig R; Morris, Zachary S; Brower, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Bethany M; Bradley, Kristin A; Bassetti, Michael F; Kimple, Randall J

    Nearly two-thirds of cancer patients seek information about their diagnosis online. We assessed the readability of online patient education materials found on academic radiation oncology department Web sites to determine whether they adhered to guidelines suggesting that information be presented at a sixth-grade reading level. The Association of American Medical Colleges Web site was used to identify all academic radiation oncology departments in the United States. One-third of these department Web sites were selected for analysis using a random number generator. Both general information on radiation therapy and specific information regarding various radiation modalities were collected. To test the hypothesis that the readability of these online educational materials was written at the recommended grade level, a panel of 10 common readability tests was used. A composite grade level of readability was constructed using the 8 readability measures that provide a single grade-level output. A mean of 5605 words (range, 2058-12,837) from 30 department Web sites was collected. Using the composite grade level score, the overall mean readability level was determined to be 13.36 (12.83-13.89), corresponding to a collegiate reading level. This was significantly higher than the target sixth-grade reading level (middle school, t (29) = 27.41, P < .001). Online patient educational materials from academic radiation oncology Web sites are significantly more complex than recommended by the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Services. To improve patients' comprehension of radiation therapy and its role in their treatment, our analysis suggests that the language used in online patient information should be simplified to communicate the information at a more appropriate level. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  9. A Study of Readability of Texts in Bangla through Machine Learning Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated text readability in Bangla language. Text readability is an indicator of the suitability of a given document with respect to a target reader group. Therefore, text readability has huge impact on educational content preparation. The advances in the field of natural language processing have enabled the automatic…

  10. Survey of Commercially Available Computer-Readable Bibliographic Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains the results of a survey of 94 U. S. organizations, and 36 organizations in other countries that were thought to prepare machine-readable data bases. Of those surveyed, 55 organizations (40 in U. S., 15 in other countries) provided completed camera-ready forms describing 81 commercially available, machine-readable data bases…

  11. Readability--The Situation Today. Reading Education Report No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Alice

    Defining readability in both the narrow sense of formula use and refinement and the broader sense of the processing and comprehension of language, this paper argues for the need for more research focusing on readability as a way of improving the match between reader and text. Following a brief introduction, the paper reviews current readability…

  12. Online Health Information Regarding Male Infertility: An Evaluation of Readability, Suitability, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Stephanie; Barr, Helena J; Idelson, Rachel; Lambert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Many men lack knowledge about male infertility, and this may have consequences for their reproductive and general health. Men may prefer to seek health information online, but these sources of information vary in quality. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if online sources of information regarding male infertility are readable, suitable, and of appropriate quality for Internet users in the general population. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate online sources resulting from search engine queries. The following categories of websites were considered: (1) Canadian fertility clinics, (2) North American organizations related to fertility, and (3) the first 20 results of Google searches using the terms “male infertility” and “male fertility preservation” set to the search locations worldwide, English Canada, and French Canada. Websites that met inclusion criteria (N=85) were assessed using readability indices, the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), and the DISCERN tool. The associations between website affiliation (government, university/medical, non-profit organization, commercial/corporate, private practice) and Google placement to readability, suitability, and quality were also examined. Results None of the sampled websites met recommended levels of readability. Across all websites, the mean SAM score for suitability was 45.37% (SD 11.21), or “adequate”, while the DISCERN mean score for quality was 43.19 (SD 10.46) or “fair”. Websites that placed higher in Google obtained a higher overall score for quality with an r (58) value of -.328 and a P value of .012, but this position was not related to readability or suitability. In addition, 20% of fertility clinic websites did not include fertility information for men. Conclusions There is a lack of high quality online sources of information on male fertility. Many websites target their information to women, or fail to meet established

  13. Online Health Information Regarding Male Infertility: An Evaluation of Readability, Suitability, and Quality.

    PubMed

    Robins, Stephanie; Barr, Helena J; Idelson, Rachel; Lambert, Sylvie; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2016-10-21

    Many men lack knowledge about male infertility, and this may have consequences for their reproductive and general health. Men may prefer to seek health information online, but these sources of information vary in quality. The objective of this study is to determine if online sources of information regarding male infertility are readable, suitable, and of appropriate quality for Internet users in the general population. This study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate online sources resulting from search engine queries. The following categories of websites were considered: (1) Canadian fertility clinics, (2) North American organizations related to fertility, and (3) the first 20 results of Google searches using the terms "male infertility" and "male fertility preservation" set to the search locations worldwide, English Canada, and French Canada. Websites that met inclusion criteria (N=85) were assessed using readability indices, the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), and the DISCERN tool. The associations between website affiliation (government, university/medical, non-profit organization, commercial/corporate, private practice) and Google placement to readability, suitability, and quality were also examined. None of the sampled websites met recommended levels of readability. Across all websites, the mean SAM score for suitability was 45.37% (SD 11.21), or "adequate", while the DISCERN mean score for quality was 43.19 (SD 10.46) or "fair". Websites that placed higher in Google obtained a higher overall score for quality with an r (58) value of -.328 and a P value of .012, but this position was not related to readability or suitability. In addition, 20% of fertility clinic websites did not include fertility information for men. There is a lack of high quality online sources of information on male fertility. Many websites target their information to women, or fail to meet established readability criteria for the general population. Since men may prefer to

  14. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    PubMed

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Readability and Recall of Short Prose Passages: A Theoretical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James R.; Kintsch, Walter

    1980-01-01

    To support the view of readability as an interaction between a text and the reader's prose-processing capabilities, this article applies an extended and formalized version of the Kintch and van Dijk prose-processing model to 20 texts of varying readability. (Author/GSK)

  16. Teachers' Grade-Level Reassignments: Evidence From Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummet, Quentin; Gershenson, Seth; Hayes, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Teacher churning likely harms student achievement. However, the phenomenon of within-school grade-level teacher reassignments is understudied. The current study provides descriptive evidence on the frequency and predictors of within-school teacher grade switching using both longitudinal administrative data from Michigan and nationally…

  17. Evaluation of online consumer medication information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karissa Y; Metzger, Anne; Wigle, Patricia R; Choe, Pearl J

    2011-06-01

    Millions of Americans search the Internet for health-related information; however, the readability and comprehensiveness of consumer medication information (CMI) on the Internet has not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability and comprehensiveness of online CMI. The readability and comprehensiveness of consumer drug information found on 3 well-known Web sites (Medline Plus, Yahoo Health, and WebMD) was evaluated; in particular, information related to 10 commonly prescribed medications. Readability was assessed using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Fry Readability Graph (FRG) tools; comprehensiveness of information was evaluated using the Keystone action plan criteria. Using SMOG, the mean reading level of each Web site was 13th grade level or higher. Using the FRG, the mean reading level was 10th grade or higher. Out of the 24 points in the Keystone action plan criteria, information found on each of the Web sites was deemed accurate with mean score of 21, 21, and 19 for Medline Plus, Yahoo Health, and WebMD, respectively. For the medications reviewed, CMI found on Web sites was accurate when assessed using the Keystone action plan criteria. The readability levels were higher than the recommended sixth grade level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring the Readability of Elementary Algebra Using the Cloze Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald

    The relationship to readability of ten variables characterizing structural properties of mathematical prose was investigated in elementary algebra textbooks. Readability was measured by algebra student's responses to two forms of cloze tests. Linear and currilinear correlations were calculated between each structural variable and the cloze test.…

  19. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  20. O-Level Grades and Teachers' Estimates as Predictors of the A-Level Results of UCCA Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, R. J. L.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation studied the relationship between both GCE O-level examination grades and teachers' estimates of A-level examination grades, and actual A-level grades obtained by a sample of university applicants. Moderate levels of correlation were reported in both cases, although teachers' estimates appeared to be slightly better predictors.…

  1. Readability and Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  2. Evaluating Text Complexity and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Zamaletdinov, Radif R.; Gorodetskaya, Ludmila A.; Gabitov, Azat I.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of an exploratory study of the use of T.E.R.A., an automated tool measuring text complexity and readability based on the assessment of five text complexity parameters: narrativity, syntactic simplicity, word concreteness, referential cohesion and deep cohesion. Aimed at finding ways to utilize T.E.R.A. for…

  3. Dr Google: The readability and accuracy of patient education websites for Graves' disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Amanda C; Idriss, Almoatazbellah; Ahern, Susan; Lin, Elizabeth; Elfenbein, Dawn M

    2017-11-01

    National guidelines emphasize the importance of incorporating patient preferences into the recommendations for the treatment of Graves' disease. Many patients use the Internet to obtain health information, and search results can affect their treatment decisions. This study compares the readability and accuracy of patient-oriented online resources for the treatment of Graves' disease by website affiliation and treatment modality. A systematic Internet search was used to identify the top websites discussing the treatment of Graves' disease. Readability was measured using 5 standardized tests. Accuracy was assessed by a blinded, expert panel, which scored the accuracy of sites on a scale of 1 to 5. Mean readability and accuracy scores were compared among website affiliations and treatment modalities. We identified 13 unique websites, including 2 academic, 2 government, 5 nonprofit, and 4 private sites. There was a difference in both readability (mean 13.2, range 9.1-15.7, P = .003) and accuracy (mean 4.04, range 2.75-4.50, P = .019) based on website affiliation. Government sites (mean readability 11.1) were easier to read than academic (14.3, P < .01), nonprofit (13.9, P < .01), and private sites (13.5, P < .05). Academic sites (mean accuracy 4.50) were more accurate than private sites (3.56, P < .05). Online patient resources for the treatment of Graves' disease are written at an inappropriately high reading level. Academic sites contain both the most accurate and the most difficult to read information. Private sites represented the majority of our top results but contained the least accurate information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Machine Learning Approach to Measurement of Text Readability for EFL Learners Using Various Linguistic Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The present paper introduces and evaluates a readability measurement method designed for learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability measurement method (a regression model) estimates the text readability based on linguistic features, such as lexical, syntactic and discourse features. Text readability refers to the…

  5. Reading apps for children: Readability from the design perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Wasan Abdulwahab; Husni, Husniza

    2017-10-01

    Electronic reading for young children opens new avenues especially with the advance of modern reading devices. The readability of mobile learning applications has received extensive attention by the designers and developers. The reason for such concern is due to its importance in determining usability related issues especially in the design context for children. In many cases, children find it difficult to interact with mobile reading apps. This is because apps for reading and for entertainment require different features. As such, this study sets out three objectives: 1) to evaluate five reading apps for young children from design perspectives; 2) to examine the readability for current existing mobile apps for reading and 3) to propose and evaluate mobile apps UI guideline for readability. Readability indices, observation and interview were conducted on 6 - 8 years old students. The obtained result showed that certain reading apps provide better reading experience for children than others. Some of the reasons are mostly related to the design characteristics embedded within the app. In addition, the use of animation was found to stimulate children reading experience as it is believed to offer the interactivity elements to gain their interest and willingness to read. These findings are believed to provide the recommendations and insights for designers of reading apps for children.

  6. The quality and readability of online consumer information about gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Aleksandra; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2015-03-01

    The Internet has become an important source of health-related information for consumers, among whom younger women constitute a notable group. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the quality and readability of online information about gynecologic cancer using validated instruments and (2) to relate the quality of information to its readability. Using the Alexa Rank, we obtained a list of 35 Web pages providing information about 7 gynecologic malignancies. These were assessed using the Health on the Net (HON) seal of approval, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, and the DISCERN instrument. Flesch readability score was calculated for sections related to symptoms and signs and treatment. Less than 30% of the Web pages displayed the HON seal or achieved all JAMA benchmarks. The majority of the treatment sections were of moderate to high quality according to the DISCERN. There was no significant relationship between the presence of the HON seal and readability. Web pages achieving all JAMA benchmarks were significantly more difficult to read and understand than Web pages that missed any of the JAMA benchmarks. Treatment-related content of moderate to high quality as assessed by the DISCERN had a significantly better readability score than the low-quality content. The online information about gynecologic cancer provided by the most frequently visited Web pages is of variable quality and in general difficult to read and understand. The relationship between the quality and readability remains unclear. Health care providers should direct their patients to reliable material online because patients consider the Internet as an important source of information.

  7. Readability and Item Difficulty of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Fifth-Grade Science Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Conn; Carpenter, Clint

    2008-01-01

    The development of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test involves input from educators across the state. The development process attempts to create an assessment that reflects the skills and content understanding of students at the tested grade level. This study attempts to determine other factors that can affect student performance on…

  8. Readability Comparison of Pro- and Anti-Cancer Screening Online Messages in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than those in western countries. Health professionals publish pro-cancer screening messages on the internet to encourage audiences to undergo cancer screening. However, the information provided is often difficult to read for lay persons. Further, anti-cancer screening activists warn against cancer screening with messages on the Internet. We aimed to assess and compare the readability of pro- and anti-cancer screening online messages in Japan using a measure of readability. Methods: We conducted web searches at the beginning of September 2016 using two major Japanese search engines (Google.jp and Yahoo!.jp). The included websites were classified as “anti”, “pro”, or “neutral” depending on the claims, and “health professional” or “non-health professional” depending on the writers. Readability was determined using a validated measure of Japanese readability. Statistical analysis was conducted using two-way ANOVA. Results: In the total 159 websites analyzed, anti-cancer screening online messages were generally easier to read than pro-cancer screening online messages, Messages written by health professionals were more difficult to read than those written by non-health professionals. Claim × writer interaction was not significant. Conclusion: When health professionals prepare pro-cancer screening materials for publication online, we recommend they check for readability using readability assessment tools and improve text for easy comprehension when necessary. PMID:28125867

  9. The Readability of Electronic Cigarette Health Information and Advice: A Quantitative Analysis of Web-Based Information.

    PubMed

    Park, Albert; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Mike

    2017-01-06

    The popularity and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased across all demographic groups in recent years. However, little is currently known about the readability of health information and advice aimed at the general public regarding the use of e-cigarettes. The objective of our study was to examine the readability of publicly available health information as well as advice on e-cigarettes. We compared information and advice available from US government agencies, nongovernment organizations, English speaking government agencies outside the United States, and for-profit entities. A systematic search for health information and advice on e-cigarettes was conducted using search engines. We manually verified search results and converted to plain text for analysis. We then assessed readability of the collected documents using 4 readability metrics followed by pairwise comparisons of groups with adjustment for multiple comparisons. A total of 54 documents were collected for this study. All 4 readability metrics indicate that all information and advice on e-cigarette use is written at a level higher than that recommended for the general public by National Institutes of Health (NIH) communication guidelines. However, health information and advice written by for-profit entities, many of which were promoting e-cigarettes, were significantly easier to read. A substantial proportion of potential and current e-cigarette users are likely to have difficulty in fully comprehending Web-based health information regarding e-cigarettes, potentially hindering effective health-seeking behaviors. To comply with NIH communication guidelines, government entities and nongovernment organizations would benefit from improving the readability of e-cigarettes information and advice. ©Albert Park, Shu-Hong Zhu, Mike Conway. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 06.01.2017.

  10. A Practical Note on Readability Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauk, Walter

    1969-01-01

    Compares the readability formulas devised by Fry and McLaughlin to the Dale-Chall formula and reports similar results with the Fry and Dale-Chall formulas, but variant results using the McLaughlin formula. Bibliography. (MD)

  11. Grade-Level Retention in Texas Public Schools, 2015-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This annual report provides information for the 2015-16 school year on grade-level retention in the Texas public school system. Data on retention are provided by student characteristics, including grade level; race/ethnicity; gender; degree of English proficiency; and economic, at-risk, immigrant, migrant, and overage statuses. Data also are…

  12. Assessing the readability of ClinicalTrials.gov

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Danny TY; Hanauer, David A; Mei, Qiaozhu; Clark, Patricia M; An, Lawrence C; Proulx, Joshua; Zeng, Qing T; Vydiswaran, VG Vinod; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective ClinicalTrials.gov serves critical functions of disseminating trial information to the public and helping the trials recruit participants. This study assessed the readability of trial descriptions at ClinicalTrials.gov using multiple quantitative measures. Materials and Methods The analysis included all 165 988 trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as of April 30, 2014. To obtain benchmarks, the authors also analyzed 2 other medical corpora: (1) all 955 Health Topics articles from MedlinePlus and (2) a random sample of 100 000 clinician notes retrieved from an electronic health records system intended for conveying internal communication among medical professionals. The authors characterized each of the corpora using 4 surface metrics, and then applied 5 different scoring algorithms to assess their readability. The authors hypothesized that clinician notes would be most difficult to read, followed by trial descriptions and MedlinePlus Health Topics articles. Results Trial descriptions have the longest average sentence length (26.1 words) across all corpora; 65% of their words used are not covered by a basic medical English dictionary. In comparison, average sentence length of MedlinePlus Health Topics articles is 61% shorter, vocabulary size is 95% smaller, and dictionary coverage is 46% higher. All 5 scoring algorithms consistently rated CliniclTrials.gov trial descriptions the most difficult corpus to read, even harder than clinician notes. On average, it requires 18 years of education to properly understand these trial descriptions according to the results generated by the readability assessment algorithms. Discussion and Conclusion Trial descriptions at CliniclTrials.gov are extremely difficult to read. Significant work is warranted to improve their readability in order to achieve CliniclTrials.gov’s goal of facilitating information dissemination and subject recruitment. PMID:26269536

  13. Assessing the readability of ClinicalTrials.gov.

    PubMed

    Wu, Danny T Y; Hanauer, David A; Mei, Qiaozhu; Clark, Patricia M; An, Lawrence C; Proulx, Joshua; Zeng, Qing T; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Zheng, Kai

    2016-03-01

    ClinicalTrials.gov serves critical functions of disseminating trial information to the public and helping the trials recruit participants. This study assessed the readability of trial descriptions at ClinicalTrials.gov using multiple quantitative measures. The analysis included all 165,988 trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as of April 30, 2014. To obtain benchmarks, the authors also analyzed 2 other medical corpora: (1) all 955 Health Topics articles from MedlinePlus and (2) a random sample of 100,000 clinician notes retrieved from an electronic health records system intended for conveying internal communication among medical professionals. The authors characterized each of the corpora using 4 surface metrics, and then applied 5 different scoring algorithms to assess their readability. The authors hypothesized that clinician notes would be most difficult to read, followed by trial descriptions and MedlinePlus Health Topics articles. Trial descriptions have the longest average sentence length (26.1 words) across all corpora; 65% of their words used are not covered by a basic medical English dictionary. In comparison, average sentence length of MedlinePlus Health Topics articles is 61% shorter, vocabulary size is 95% smaller, and dictionary coverage is 46% higher. All 5 scoring algorithms consistently rated CliniclTrials.gov trial descriptions the most difficult corpus to read, even harder than clinician notes. On average, it requires 18 years of education to properly understand these trial descriptions according to the results generated by the readability assessment algorithms. Trial descriptions at CliniclTrials.gov are extremely difficult to read. Significant work is warranted to improve their readability in order to achieve CliniclTrials.gov's goal of facilitating information dissemination and subject recruitment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2015. This work is written by US Government

  14. Nuclear Medicine and Resources for Patients: How Complex are Online Patient Educational Materials?

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Shah, Kush; Agarwal, Nitin; Kim, Sung M; Intenzo, Charles M

    2018-02-02

    The Internet is a major source of healthcare information for patients. The American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommend that consumer healthcare websites be written between a 3rd and 7th grade level. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of readability of patient education websites pertaining to nuclear medicine. Methods: Ten search terms were Googled and the top 10 links for each term were collected and analyzed for their level of readability using 10 well-established readability scales. Results: Collectively the 99 articles were written at an 11.8 grade level (standard deviation of 3.4). Only 5 of the 99 articles were written at the NIH and AMA recommended 3rd to 7th grade. Conclusion: There is a clear discordance between the readability level of nuclear medicine related imaging terms with the NIH and AMA guidelines. This disconnect may negatively impact patient understanding contributing to poor health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  15. How Readable Are Parenting Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Marie J.; Dowling, William D.

    1979-01-01

    The author's style of writing has implications for the ease with which the written material can be read. Using the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, the mean readability score, the standard deviation, and range are given for 50 parenting books. Discussion suggests how the list might be used by parent educators. (Author)

  16. Can consumers trust web-based information about celiac disease? Accuracy, comprehensiveness, transparency, and readability of information on the internet.

    PubMed

    McNally, Shawna L; Donohue, Michael C; Newton, Kimberly P; Ogletree, Sandra P; Conner, Kristen K; Ingegneri, Sarah E; Kagnoff, Martin F

    2012-04-04

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that affects approximately 1% of the US population. Disease is characterized by damage to the small intestinal lining and malabsorption of nutrients. Celiac disease is activated in genetically susceptible individuals by dietary exposure to gluten in wheat and gluten-like proteins in rye and barley. Symptoms are diverse and include gastrointestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Treatment requires strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. The Internet is a major source of health information about celiac disease. Nonetheless, information about celiac disease that is available on various websites often is questioned by patients and other health care professionals regarding its reliability and content. To determine the accuracy, comprehensiveness, transparency, and readability of information on 100 of the most widely accessed websites that provide information on celiac disease. Using the search term celiac disease, we analyzed 100 of the top English-language websites published by academic, commercial, nonprofit, and other professional (nonacademic) sources for accuracy, comprehensiveness, transparency, and reading grade level. Each site was assessed independently by 3 reviewers. Website accuracy and comprehensiveness were probed independently using a set of objective core information about celiac disease. We used 19 general criteria to assess website transparency. Website readability was determined by the Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level. Results for each parameter were analyzed independently. In addition, we weighted and combined parameters to generate an overall score, termed website quality. We included 98 websites in the final analysis. Of these, 47 (48%) provided specific information about celiac disease that was less than 95% accurate (ie, the predetermined cut-off considered a minimum acceptable level of accuracy). Independent of whether the information posted was accurate, 51 of 98 (52%) websites contained less than

  17. Can Consumers Trust Web-Based Information About Celiac Disease? Accuracy, Comprehensiveness, Transparency, and Readability of Information on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Shawna L; Donohue, Michael C; Newton, Kimberly P; Ogletree, Sandra P; Conner, Kristen K; Ingegneri, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that affects approximately 1% of the US population. Disease is characterized by damage to the small intestinal lining and malabsorption of nutrients. Celiac disease is activated in genetically susceptible individuals by dietary exposure to gluten in wheat and gluten-like proteins in rye and barley. Symptoms are diverse and include gastrointestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Treatment requires strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. The Internet is a major source of health information about celiac disease. Nonetheless, information about celiac disease that is available on various websites often is questioned by patients and other health care professionals regarding its reliability and content. Objectives To determine the accuracy, comprehensiveness, transparency, and readability of information on 100 of the most widely accessed websites that provide information on celiac disease. Methods Using the search term celiac disease, we analyzed 100 of the top English-language websites published by academic, commercial, nonprofit, and other professional (nonacademic) sources for accuracy, comprehensiveness, transparency, and reading grade level. Each site was assessed independently by 3 reviewers. Website accuracy and comprehensiveness were probed independently using a set of objective core information about celiac disease. We used 19 general criteria to assess website transparency. Website readability was determined by the Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level. Results for each parameter were analyzed independently. In addition, we weighted and combined parameters to generate an overall score, termed website quality. Results We included 98 websites in the final analysis. Of these, 47 (48%) provided specific information about celiac disease that was less than 95% accurate (ie, the predetermined cut-off considered a minimum acceptable level of accuracy). Independent of whether the information posted was accurate, 51 of

  18. The Readability of Information Literacy Content on Academic Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adriene

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study addressing the readability of content on academic libraries' Web sites, specifically content intended to improve users' information literacy skills. Results call for recognition of readability as an evaluative component of text in order to better meet the needs of diverse user populations. (Contains 8 tables.)

  19. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  20. Social Studies and Grade Level Content Expectations in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeChano-Cook, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Michigan Department of Education (MDOE) unveiled Social Studies Grade Level Content Expectations (GLCEs) that went into implementation during the 2008-2009 academic year. The purpose of this research was to examine social studies teaching in grades K-8 and what effects, if any, the GLCEs had on the curriculum in these grades.…

  1. Readability of consumer health information on the internet: a comparison of U.S. government-funded and commercially funded websites.

    PubMed

    Risoldi Cochrane, Zara; Gregory, Philip; Wilson, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has become an extremely prevalent means of communicating health information to consumers. Guidelines for selecting reliable health information websites give preference to U.S. government sites over commercially funded sites. However, these websites are not useful to consumers unless they are able to read and understand them. The authors' objective was to compare the readability of Internet health information intended for consumers found on U.S. government-funded websites versus that found on commercially funded websites. Consumer health websites were identified through a systematic Internet search. Webpages for 10 common health topics were extracted from each website. Readability of webpages was determined by 3 validated measures: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level, and SMOG Formula. Mean readability of government-funded and commercially funded websites was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Commercially funded websites were significantly more difficult to read as measured by Flesch Reading Ease (49.7 vs. 55.6 for government-funded sites, p = .002) and Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level (10.1 vs. 9.3, p = .012). There was no significant difference according to SMOG Formula (12.8 vs. 13.2, p = .150). The overall readability of Internet health information intended for consumers was poor. Efforts should be made to ensure that health information communicated via the Internet is easy for consumers to read and understand.

  2. Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD): Improving Machine Readability for ICARTT Data Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northup, E. A.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B.; Wang, D.; Chen, G.

    2015-12-01

    NASA has conducted airborne tropospheric chemistry studies for about three decades. These field campaigns have generated a great wealth of observations, including a wide range of the trace gases and aerosol properties. The ASDC Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) is designed to meet the user community needs for manipulating aircraft data for scientific research on climate change and air quality relevant issues. TAD makes use of aircraft data stored in the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) file format. ICARTT has been the NASA standard since 2010, and is widely used by NOAA, NSF, and international partners (DLR, FAAM). Its level of acceptance is due in part to it being generally self-describing for researchers, i.e., it provides necessary data descriptions for proper research use. Despite this, there are a number of issues with the current ICARTT format, especially concerning the machine readability. In order to overcome these issues, the TAD team has developed an "idealized" file format. This format is ASCII and is sufficiently machine readable to sustain the TAD system, however, it is not fully compatible with the current ICARTT format. The process of mapping ICARTT metadata to the idealized format, the format specifics, and the actual conversion process will be discussed. The goal of this presentation is to demonstrate an example of how to improve the machine readability of ASCII data format protocols.

  3. Mobile applications and patient education: Are currently available GERD mobile apps sufficient?

    PubMed

    Bobian, Michael; Kandinov, Aron; El-Kashlan, Nour; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Mayerhoff, Ross; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Raza, S Naweed

    2017-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of mobile applications (apps) in patient education, there has been little inquiry evaluating the quality of these resources. Because poor health literacy has been associated with inferior health outcomes, evaluating the quality of patient education materials takes on great importance. Our objective was to employ validated readability tools for the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) mobile apps. GERD-specific apps found in the Apple App Store (Apple Inc., Cupertino CA) were evaluated using the Readability Studio Professional Version 2015 for Windows (Oleander Software, Ltd, Vandalia, OH). All text was evaluated using nine validated algorithms measuring readability including Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grading, Gunning Fog index, Coleman-Liau, New Fog Count formula, Raygor Readability Estimate, FORCAST, Fry graph, and Flesch Reading Ease score. Average reading grade levels for individual GERD apps ranged from 9.6 to 12.9 (interquartile range 10.3-12). The average reading grade level for all apps analyzed was 11.1 ± 0.2 standard error of the mean (SEM), with an average Flesch Reading Ease score for all mobile apps analyzed of 51 ± 2.05 (SEM), falling into the "fairly difficult" category given by this measure. Raygor Readability estimates that most mobile apps have a reading grade level between 10 and 12, with the majority of this outcome due to long words. This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of assessing readability of mobile health apps. Our findings suggest significant gaps in potential comprehension between the apps analyzed and the average reader, diminishing the utility of these resources. We hope our findings influence future mobile health-related app development and thereby improve patient outcomes in GERD and other chronic diseases. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:1775-1779, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Uppercase and lowercase computer printout increases readability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, W. W.; Jonsberg, M. B.

    1965-01-01

    Print chain of 120 characters facilitates production of computer printout in both uppercase and lowercase characters. Although the output speed is reduced, the use of the print chain increases the computer printout readability.

  5. The readability of scientific texts is decreasing over time

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Clarity and accuracy of reporting are fundamental to the scientific process. Readability formulas can estimate how difficult a text is to read. Here, in a corpus consisting of 709,577 abstracts published between 1881 and 2015 from 123 scientific journals, we show that the readability of science is steadily decreasing. Our analyses show that this trend is indicative of a growing use of general scientific jargon. These results are concerning for scientists and for the wider public, as they impact both the reproducibility and accessibility of research findings. PMID:28873054

  6. Beginning Reading at All Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumann, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    A third-grade teacher's account of her struggle to determine the most appropriate methods for teaching reading skills includes grouping techniques, methods for creating interest in reading among the students, techniques for diagnosing reading levels, and a fifth dimensional approach to teaching beginning reading. (JN)

  7. Evaluation of internet-based patient education materials from internal medicine subspecialty organizations: will patients understand them?

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; John, Elizabeth S; John, Ann M; Agarwal, Prateek; Reynolds, James C; Baker, Stephen R

    2017-06-01

    The majority of Americans use the Internet daily, if not more often, and many search online for health information to better understand a diagnosis they have been given or to research treatment options. The average American reads at an eighth-grade level. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability of online patient education materials on the websites of 14 professional organizations representing the major internal medicine subspecialties. We used ten well-established quantitative readability scales to assess written text from patient education materials published on the websites of the major professional organizations representing the following subspecialty groups: allergy and immunology, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, geriatrics, hematology, hospice and palliative care, infectious disease, nephrology, oncology, pulmonology and critical care, rheumatology, sleep medicine, and sports medicine. Collectively the 540 articles analyzed were written at an 11th-grade level (SD 1.4 grade levels). The sleep medicine and nephrology websites had the most readable materials, written at an academic grade level of 8.5 ± 1.5 and 9.0 ± 0.2, respectively. Material at the infectious disease site was written at the most difficult level, with average readability corresponding to grades 13.9 ± 0.3. None of the patient education materials we reviewed conformed to the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines requiring that patient education articles be written at a third- to seventh-grade reading level. If these online resources were rewritten, it is likely that more patients would derive benefit from reading them.

  8. A survey of machine readable data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, P.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two of the machine readable data bases available to the technologist and researcher in the natural sciences and engineering are described and compared with the data bases and date base services offered by NASA.

  9. Readability and the Production of Instructional Text in the Royal Navy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Conclusions 28 References 35 Appendix A Royal Naval Educational and Training Establishrents Surveyed during the Project. Appendix B Readability and the...systematic assessment has been recognised for sone time. Educators understandably showed an interest in readability. Klare [351 reported cases of...covered, the purposes of the study were explained and discussed. 2. Subjects: Contact was made with all the major educational and training establishments

  10. Remotely readable fiber optic compass

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Swift, Gregory W.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

  11. Remotely readable fiber optic compass

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.; Garrett, S.L.

    1985-04-30

    A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

  12. Gray scale enhances display readability of bitmapped documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostberg, Olov; Disfors, Dennis; Feng, Yingduo

    1994-05-01

    Bitmapped images of high resolution, say 300 dpi rastered documents, stored in the memory of a PC are at best only borderline readable on the PC's display screen (say a 72 dpi VGA monitor). Results from a series of exploratory psycho-physical experiments, using the Adobe PhotoshopR software, show that the readability can be significantly enhanced by making use of the monitor's capability to display shades of gray. It is suggested that such a gray scale adaptation module should be bundled to all software products for electronic document management. In fact, fax modems are already available in which this principle is employed, hereby making it possible to read incoming fax documents directly on the screen.

  13. 37 CFR 1.825 - Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof. 1.825 Section 1.825 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.825 Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy... copy of the computer readable form (§ 1.821(e)) including all previously submitted data with the...

  14. 37 CFR 1.825 - Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof. 1.825 Section 1.825 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.825 Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy... copy of the computer readable form (§ 1.821(e)) including all previously submitted data with the...

  15. 37 CFR 1.825 - Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof. 1.825 Section 1.825 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.825 Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy... copy of the computer readable form (§ 1.821(e)) including all previously submitted data with the...

  16. 37 CFR 1.825 - Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof. 1.825 Section 1.825 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.825 Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy... copy of the computer readable form (§ 1.821(e)) including all previously submitted data with the...

  17. 37 CFR 1.825 - Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of sequence listing and computer readable copy thereof. 1.825 Section 1.825 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.825 Amendments to or replacement of sequence listing and computer readable copy... copy of the computer readable form (§ 1.821(e)) including all previously submitted data with the...

  18. Impact of Leveled Reading Books on the Fluency and Comprehension Levels of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Melissa Paige

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this nonequivalent, control group, pretest-posttest design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leveled book programs on first-grade students' oral reading fluency rates and comprehension levels. This study was conducted over a 10-week time span with four first-grade classes. All of the students in each class were given a…

  19. Readability and Comprehension of the Geriatric Depression Scale and PROMIS® Physical Function Items in Older African Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Paz, Sylvia H; Jones, Loretta; Calderón, José L; Hays, Ron D

    2017-02-01

    Depression and physical function are particularly important health domains for the elderly. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) physical function item bank are two surveys commonly used to measure these domains. It is unclear if these two instruments adequately measure these aspects of health in minority elderly. The aim of this study was to estimate the readability of the GDS and PROMIS ® physical function items and to assess their comprehensibility using a sample of African American and Latino elderly. Readability was estimated using the Flesch-Kincaid and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulae for English versions, and a Spanish adaptation of the FRE formula for the Spanish versions. Comprehension of the GDS and PROMIS ® items by minority elderly was evaluated with 30 cognitive interviews. Readability estimates of a number of items in English and Spanish of the GDS and PROMIS ® physical functioning items exceed the U.S. recommended 5th-grade threshold for vulnerable populations, or were rated as 'fairly difficult', 'difficult', or 'very difficult' to read. Cognitive interviews revealed that many participants felt that more than the two (yes/no) GDS response options were needed to answer the questions. Wording of several PROMIS ® items was considered confusing, and interpreting responses was problematic because they were based on using physical aids. Problems with item wording and response options of the GDS and PROMIS ® physical function items may reduce reliability and validity of measurement when used with minority elderly.

  20. Are we failing to communicate? Internet-based patient education materials and radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Ramchand, Tekchand; Patel, Shyam; Kraus, Carl; Jung, Jin; Agarwal, Nitin; Gonzales, Sharon F; Baker, Stephen R

    2014-09-01

    Patients frequently turn to the Internet when seeking answers to healthcare related inquiries including questions about the effects of radiation when undergoing radiologic studies. We investigate the readability of online patient education materials concerning radiation safety from multiple Internet resources. Patient education material regarding radiation safety was downloaded from 8 different websites encompassing: (1) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency, (3) the European Society of Radiology, (4) the Food and Drug Administration, (5) the Mayo Clinic, (6) MedlinePlus, (7) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and (8) the Society of Pediatric Radiology. From these 8 resources, a total of 45 articles were analyzed for their level of readability using 10 different readability scales. The 45 articles had a level of readability ranging from 9.4 to the 17.2 grade level. Only 3/45 (6.7%) were written below the 10th grade level. No statistical difference was seen between the readability level of the 8 different websites. All 45 articles from all 8 websites failed to meet the recommendations set forth by the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education resources be written between the 3rd and 7th grade level. Rewriting the patient education resources on radiation safety from each of these 8 websites would help many consumers of healthcare information adequately comprehend such material. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

  2. Analysis of readability and quality of web pages addressing both common and uncommon topics in pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Adorisio, Ottavio; Silveri, Massimiliano; Rivosecchi, Massimo; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Scottoni, Federico; Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina

    2012-06-01

    The quality medical information on Internet is highly variable. The aim of this study is to determine if Web pages addressing four common pediatric surgical topics (CT) and four uncommon pediatric surgical topics (UT) differ significantly in terms of quality and/or characteristics. We performed an Internet search regarding four CT, addressing more frequent clinical conditions with an incidence≤1:1.500 children (inguinal hernia, varicocele, umbilical hernia, and phimosis) and four UT addressing less frequent clinical conditions with an incidence≥1:1.500 children (anorectal malformation, intestinal atresia, gastroschisis, and omphalocele), using a popular search engine (Google). We evaluated readability with the Flesch reading ease (FRE) and the Flesch-Kincaid grade (FKG) and quality of content using the site checker of the HON Code of Conduct (HON code) for each website. In this study, 30/40 websites addressing CT versus 33/50 addressing UT responded to our criteria. No differences statistically significant in advertisements between the two groups were found (15 vs. 16%) (p>0.05). No differences were found in terms of time from last update, owner/author type, financial disclosure, accreditation, or advertising. CT had higher quality level according to the HON code (6.54±1.38 vs. 5.05±1.82) (p<0.05). Mean FRE was 47.38±14.27 versus 46.24±14.56, respectively, for CT and UT (p>0.05). The mean FKG was 8.1±1.9 for CT versus 8±1.9 for UT (p>0.05). Websites devoted to pediatric surgical topics have higher readability and quality information for disease diagnosis and natural history. Otherwise, the quality of pediatric surgical information on the Internet is high for CT and UT. A high reading level is required to use these resources. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. [Readability and internet accessibility of informative documents for spinal cord injury patients in Spanish].

    PubMed

    Bea-Muñoz, M; Medina-Sánchez, M; Flórez-García, M T

    2015-01-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries and their carers have access to leaflets on Internet that they can use as educational material to complement traditional forms of education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the readability of informative documents in Spanish, obtained from Internet and aimed at patients with spinal cord injuries. A search was made with the Google search engine using the following key words: recommendation, advice, guide, manual, self-care, education and information, adding spinal cord injury, paraplegia and tetraplegia to each of the terms. We analyzed the first 50 results of each search. The readability of the leaflets was studied with the Flesch-Szigriszt index and the INFLESZ scale, both available on the INFLESZ program. Also indicated were year of publication, country and number of authors of the documents obtained. We obtained 16 documents, developed between 2001 and 2011. Readability oscillated between 43.34 (some-what difficult) and 62 (normal), with an average value of 51.56 (somewhat difficult). Only 4 pamphlets (25%) showed a Flesch-Szigriszt index of ≥ 55 (normal). There was no difference in readability by year, authors or country of publication. The readability of 75% of the documents studied was "somewhat difficult" according to the INFLESZ scale. These results coincide with previous studies, in both Spanish and English. If the readability of this type of documents is improved, it will be easier to achieve their educational goal.

  4. Evaluating the complexity of online patient education materials about brain aneurysms published by major academic institutions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Adeeb, Nimer; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Moore, Justin M; Patel, Apar S; Kim, Christopher; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Health care education resources are increasingly available on the Internet. A majority of people reference these resources at one point or another. A threshold literacy level is needed to comprehend the information presented within these materials. A key component of health literacy is the readability of educational resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association have recommended that patient education materials be written between a 4th- and a 6th-grade education level. The authors assessed the readability of online patient education materials about brain aneurysms that have been published by several academic institutions across the US. METHODS Online patient education materials about brain aneurysms were downloaded from the websites of 20 academic institutions. The materials were assessed via 8 readability scales using Readability Studio software (Oleander Software Solutions), and then were statistically analyzed. RESULTS None of the patient education materials were written at or below the NIH's recommended 6th-grade reading level. The average educational level required to comprehend the texts across all institutions, as assessed by 7 of the readability scales, was 12.4 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD). The Flesch Reading Ease Scale classified the materials as "difficult" to understand, correlating with a college-level education or higher. An ANOVA test found that there were no significant differences in readability among the materials from the institutions (p = 0.215). CONCLUSIONS Brain aneurysms affect 3.2% of adults 50 years or older across the world and can cause significant patient anxiety and uncertainty. Current patient education materials are not written at or below the NIH's recommended 4th- to 6th-grade education level.

  5. Computational Text Analysis: A More Comprehensive Approach to Determine Readability of Reading Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Anealka; Fook, Chan Yuen; Alsree, Zubaida

    2010-01-01

    Reading materials are considered having high readability if readers are interested to read the materials, understand the content of the materials and able to read the materials fluently. In contrast, reading materials with low readability discourage readers from reading the materials, create difficulties for readers to understand the content of…

  6. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  7. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  8. A comparative analysis of minimally invasive and open spine surgery patient education resources.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Feghhi, Daniel P; Gupta, Raghav; Hansberry, David R; Quinn, John C; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M

    2014-09-01

    The Internet has become a widespread source for disseminating health information to large numbers of people. Such is the case for spine surgery as well. Given the complexity of spinal surgeries, an important point to consider is whether these resources are easily read and understood by most Americans. The average national reading grade level has been estimated to be at about the 7th grade. In the present study the authors strove to assess the readability of open spine surgery resources and minimally invasive spine surgery resources to offer suggestions to help improve the readability of patient resources. Online patient education resources were downloaded in 2013 from 50 resources representing either traditional open back surgery or minimally invasive spine surgery. Each resource was assessed using 10 scales from Readability Studio Professional Edition version 2012.1. Patient education resources representing traditional open back surgery or minimally invasive spine surgery were all found to be written at a level well above the recommended 6th grade level. In general, minimally invasive spine surgery materials were written at a higher grade level. The readability of patient education resources from spine surgery websites exceeds the average reading ability of an American adult. Revisions may be warranted to increase quality and patient comprehension of these resources to effectively reach a greater patient population.

  9. Quality and readability of online patient information regarding sclerotherapy for venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Pass, Jonathan H; Patel, Amani H; Stuart, Sam; Barnacle, Alex M; Patel, Premal A

    2018-05-01

    Patients often use the internet as a source of information about their condition and treatments. However, this information is unregulated and varies in quality. To evaluate the readability and quality of online information for pediatric and adult patients and caregivers regarding sclerotherapy for venous malformations. "Venous malformation sclerotherapy" was entered into Google, and results were reviewed until 20 sites that satisfied predefined inclusion criteria were identified. Scientific and non-patient-focused web pages were excluded. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score and American Medical Association reading difficulty recommendations and quality was assessed using Journal of the American Medical Association standards and assessing if the site displayed HONcode (Health on the Net Code) certification. Assessment of the breadth of relevant information was made using a predefined checklist. Forty-nine search engine results were reviewed before 20 sites were identified for analysis. Average Flesch Reading Ease Score was 44 (range: 24.2-70.1), representing a "fairly difficult" reading level. None of the sites had a Flesch Reading Ease Score meeting the American Medical Association recommendation of 80-90. Only one site met all four Journal of the American Medical Association quality criteria (average: 2.1). None of the sites displayed a HONcode seal. The information most frequently found was: sclerotherapy is performed by radiologists, multiple treatments may be needed and surgery is an alternative treatment. Online information regarding sclerotherapy for venous malformations is heterogeneous in quality and breadth of information, and does not meet readability recommendations for patient information. Radiologists should be aware of and account for this when meeting patients.

  10. Literacy assessment of family health history tools for public health prevention.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Gallo, R E; Fleisher, L; Miller, S M

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically identify and evaluate the readability and document complexity of currently available family history tools for the general public. Three steps were undertaken to identify family history tools for evaluation: (a) Internet searches, (b) expert consultation, and (c) literature searches. Tools identified were assessed for readability using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability formula. The complexity of documents (i.e., forms collecting family history information) was assessed using the PMOSE/IKIRSCH document readability formula. A total of 78 tools were identified, 47 of which met the criteria for inclusion. SMOG reading grade levels for multimedia-based tools ranged from 10.1 to 18.3, with an average score of 13.6. For print-based tools, SMOG ranged from 8.7 to 14.1, with an average score of 12.0. Document complexity ranged from very low complexity (level 1 proficiency) to high complexity (level 4 proficiency). The majority of tools are written at a reading grade level that is beyond the 8th grade average reading level in the United States. The lack of family history tools that are easy to read or use may compromise their potential effectiveness in identifying individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases in the general population. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Enhancing Literacy Instruction for Grade Level Readers in the Early Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Local school districts are under pressure to have elementary reading teachers understand how phonics, during teacher-led small group literacy instruction, can help students who read below grade level. Elementary teachers need research-based strategies regarding which reading instructions of letter-sound components are necessary to help students…

  12. [Systematic analysis of the readability of patient information on websites of German nonuniversity ENT hospitals].

    PubMed

    Meyer, M F; Bacher, R; Roth, K S; Beutner, D; Luers, J C

    2014-03-01

    Besides their function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. All patients should be able to understand medical information texts; regardless of their literacy skills and educational level. Online texts should thus have an appropriate structure to ease their comprehension. Patient information texts on every German nonuniversity ENT hospital website (n = 125) were systematically analysed. For ten different ENT topics a representative medical information text was extracted from each website. Using objective text parameters and five established readability indices, the texts were analysed in terms of their readability and structure. Furthermore, we stratified the analysis in relation to the hospital organisation system and geographical region in Germany. Texts from 142 internet sites could be used for the definite analysis. On average, texts consisted of 15 sentences and 237 words. Readability indices congruously showed that the analysed texts could generally only be understood by a well-educated or even academic reader. The majority of patient information texts on German hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. In order to fulfil their goal of adequately informing the general population about disease, therapeutic options and the particular focal points of the clinic, a revision of most medical texts on the websites of German ENT hospitals is recommended.

  13. Grade Level and Gender Differences in a School-Based Reading Tutoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…

  14. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokenes, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  15. Are we effectively informing patients? A quantitative analysis of on-line patient education resources from the American Society of Neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, D R; Agarwal, N; Gonzales, S F; Baker, S R

    2014-07-01

    The ubiquitous use of the Internet by the public in an attempt to better understand their health care requires the on-line resources written at an appropriate level to maximize comprehension for the average user. The National Institutes of Health and the American Medical Association recommend on-line patient education resources written at a third-to-seventh grade level. We evaluated the readability of the patient education resources provided on the Web site of the American Society of Neuroradiology (http://www.asnr.org/patientinfo/). All patient education material from the ASNR Web site and the Society of Neurointerventional Surgery Web site were downloaded and evaluated with the computer software, Readability Studio Professional Edition, by using 10 quantitative readability scales: the Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall, FORCAST Formula, Fry Graph, Raygor Reading Estimate, and New Fog Count. An unpaired t test was used to compare the readability level of resources available on the American Society of Neuroradiology and the Society of Neurointerventional Surgery Web sites. The 20 individual patient education articles were written at a 13.9 ± 1.4 grade level with only 5% written at <11th grade level. There was no statistical difference between the level of readability of the resources on the American Society of Neuroradiology and Society of Neurointerventional Surgery Web sites. The patient education resources on these Web sites fail to meet the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association. Members of the public may fail to fully understand these resources and would benefit from revisions that result in more comprehensible information cast in simpler language. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., States must use the ISO/IEC 15438:2006(E) Information Technology—Automatic identification and data... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or...

  17. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., States must use the ISO/IEC 15438:2006(E) Information Technology—Automatic identification and data... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or...

  18. BLS Machine-Readable Data and Tabulating Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFillipo, Tony

    This report describes the machine-readable data and tabulating routines that the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is prepared to distribute. An introduction discusses the LABSTAT (Labor Statistics) database and the BLS policy on release of unpublished data. Descriptions summarizing data stored in 25 files follow this format: overview, data…

  19. Machine-Readable Data Files in the Social Sciences: An Anthropologist and a Librarian Look at the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, H. Russell; Jones, Ray

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on problems in making machine-readable data files (MRDFs) accessible and in using them: quality of data in MRDFs themselves (social scientists' concern) and accessibility--availability of bibliographic control, quality of documentation, level of user skills (librarians' concern). Skills needed by social scientists and librarians are…

  20. Increasing Oral Reading Fluency of below Grade-Level Elementary Students through Parent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Louise I.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of elementary students in a rural school were promoted to a higher grade without having grade-level reading fluency skills, thereby becoming at risk of not reaching or maintaining their academic grade level reading skills. The purpose of this ex post facto quantitative study involving archival data analysis was to investigate…

  1. Asking the Right Questions: Developing Thinking Skills through Wisconsin's Grade Level Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratway, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to deal with the problem of generating the thinking skills needed for the 21st century, this article discusses how a statewide of 30 teachers developed Grade Level Foundations. The core component of the Grade Level Foundations for Social Studies consists of a set of questions that are designed to stimulate higher level thinking about…

  2. Measuring the Readability of Children's Trade Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Helen M.; Porter, Douglas

    In order to utilize interesting children's trade books in a systematic reading program, two readability formulas were devised based on a selection of children's trade books. Children's scores on selections from these books and judges' rankings were compared. The judges' decisions were considered to be highly credible and were used as the criterion…

  3. Influence of high ambient illuminance and display luminance on readability and subjective preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Andrén, Börje; Guo, Yi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Drott, Anton; Hermann, David S.

    2015-03-01

    Many devices, such as tablets, smartphones, notebooks, fixed and portable navigation systems are used on a (nearly) daily basis, both in in- and outdoor environments. It is often argued that contextual factors, such as the ambient illuminance in relation to characteristics of the display (e.g., surface treatment, screen reflectance, display luminance …) may have a strong influence on the use of such devices and corresponding user experiences. However, the current understanding of these influence factors is still rather limited. In this work, we therefore focus in particular on the impact of lighting and display luminance on readability, visual performance, subjective experience and preference. A controlled lab study (N=18) with a within-subjects design was performed to evaluate two car displays (one glossy and one matte display) in conditions that simulate bright outdoor lighting conditions. Four ambient luminance levels and three display luminance settings were combined into 7 experimental conditions. More concretely, we investigated for each display: (1) whether and how readability and visual performance varied with the different combinations of ambient luminance and display luminance and (2) whether and how they influenced the subjective experience (through self-reported valence, annoyance, visual fatigue) and preference. The results indicate a limited, yet negative influence of increased ambient luminance and reduced contrast on visual performance and readability for both displays. Similarly, we found that the self-reported valence decreases and annoyance and visual fatigue increase as the contrast ratio decreases and ambient luminance increases. Overall, the impact is clearer for the matte display than for the glossy display.

  4. Validation Study of Waray Text Readability Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyzon, Voltaire Q.; Corrales, Juven B.; Estardo, Wilfredo M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the Leyte Normal University developed a computer software--modelled after the Spache Readability Formula (1953) made for English--made to help rank texts that can is used by teachers or research groups on selecting appropriate reading materials to support the DepEd's MTB-MLE program in Region VIII, in the Philippines. However,…

  5. A Text Readability Continuum for Postsecondary Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Students who successfully exit high school may nevertheless be unprepared for postsecondary endeavors. Some point to a lack of basic skills attained in the public schools. However, no one has systematically compared the text demands of high school with those of the postsecondary world. If there is a gap in text readability then apparent student…

  6. (Biased) Grading of Students’ Performance: Students’ Names, Performance Level, and Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Bonefeld, Meike; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Biases in pre-service teachers’ evaluations of students’ performance may arise due to stereotypes (e.g., the assumption that students with a migrant background have lower potential). This study examines the effects of a migrant background, performance level, and implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background on performance assessment (assigned grades and number of errors counted in a dictation). Pre-service teachers (N = 203) graded the performance of a student who appeared to have a migrant background statistically significantly worse than that of a student without a migrant background. The differences were more pronounced when the performance level was low and when the pre-service teachers held relatively positive implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background. Interestingly, only performance level had an effect on the number of counted errors. Our results support the assumption that pre-service teachers exhibit bias when grading students with a migrant background in a third-grade level dictation assignment. PMID:29867618

  7. (Biased) Grading of Students' Performance: Students' Names, Performance Level, and Implicit Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bonefeld, Meike; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Biases in pre-service teachers' evaluations of students' performance may arise due to stereotypes (e.g., the assumption that students with a migrant background have lower potential). This study examines the effects of a migrant background, performance level, and implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background on performance assessment (assigned grades and number of errors counted in a dictation). Pre-service teachers ( N = 203) graded the performance of a student who appeared to have a migrant background statistically significantly worse than that of a student without a migrant background. The differences were more pronounced when the performance level was low and when the pre-service teachers held relatively positive implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background. Interestingly, only performance level had an effect on the number of counted errors. Our results support the assumption that pre-service teachers exhibit bias when grading students with a migrant background in a third-grade level dictation assignment.

  8. Further Issues in Determining the Readability of Self-Report Items: Comment on McHugh and Behar (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinka, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Issues regarding the readability of self-report assessment instruments, methods for establishing the reading ability level of respondents, and guidelines for development of scales designed for marginal readers have been inconsistently addressed in the literature. A recent study by McHugh and Behar (2009) provided new findings relevant…

  9. Comparative analysis of online patient education material pertaining to hepatitis and its complications.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rishabh; Nawaz, Mohammad; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos T

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 50% of patients leave the doctor's office with a poor understanding of their diagnosis. Online patient education websites are becoming a major source of information for many of the patients. Here, we determine the reading grade level of online patient education materials on hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer and compare it with the National Institutes of Health-recommended reading grade level of sixth to seventh grade or under. A Google search was performed to retrieve patient reading materials. Text was modified to remove medical terms that were defined within the article. Documents were then divided into categories of introduction, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Each document was then analyzed using six validated readability tests to determine the grade level and complexity on the basis of the number of words, syllables, or number of uncommon words. Modified documents had a mean readability score of 10.23, although the recommended score is less than 7.0. Cirrhosis had the highest reading grade level, with a median of 11.3, whereas hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma had the easiest readability, with a median of 9.5. Furthermore, treatment subsection was the most difficult, with a median score of 10.8. Patient reading materials reviewed in this study were written well above the recommended reading grade level. These findings suggest review of patient education materials in an effort to close the gap between the average reading level and the reading materials.

  10. Alterations of the levels of primary antioxidant enzymes in different grades of human astrocytoma tissues.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Bing-Shian; Chen, Chih-Wei; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Yang, Mei-Lin; Hsu, Jee-Ching; Hsu, Yung-Hsing

    2018-06-03

    Malignant astrocytoma is the most commonly occurring brain tumor in humans. Oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cancers. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was found to exert tumor suppressive effect in basic research, but increased SOD2 protein level was associated with higher aggressiveness of human astrocytomas. However, studies reporting alterations of antioxidant enzymes in human astrocytomas often employed less accurate methods or included different types of tumors. Here we analyzed the mRNA levels, activities, and protein levels of primary antioxidant enzymes in control brain tissues and various grades of astrocytomas obtained from 40 patients. SOD1 expression, SOD1 activity, and SOD1 protein level were lower in Grade IV astrocytomas. SOD2 expression was lower in low-grade (Grades I and II) and Grade III astrocytomas than in controls, but SOD2 expression and SOD2 protein level were higher in Grade IV astrocytomas than in Grade III astrocytomas. Although there was no change in SOD2 activity and a lower activity of citrate synthase (CS), the MnSOD:CS ratio increased in Grade IV astrocytomas compared with controls and low-grade astrocytomas. Furthermore, SOD1 activity, CS activity, SOD1 expression, GPX4 expression, and GPX4 protein level were inversely correlated with the malignancy, whereas catalase activity, catalase protein, SOD2 protein level, and the SOD2:CS ratio were positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. Lower SOD2:CS ratio was associated with poor outcomes for Grade IV astrocytomas. This is the first study to quantify changes of various primary antioxidant enzymes in different grades of astrocytomas at different levels concurrently in human astrocytomas.

  11. Readability Revisited? The Implications of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, David; Janan, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The concept of readability has had a variable history, moving from a position where it was considered as a very important topic for those responsible for producing texts and matching those texts to the abilities and needs of learners, to its current declining visibility in the education literature. Some important work has been coming from the USA…

  12. Informed consent recall and comprehension in orthodontics: traditional vs improved readability and processability methods.

    PubMed

    Kang, Edith Y; Fields, Henry W; Kiyak, Asuman; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R

    2009-10-01

    Low general and health literacy in the United States means informed consent documents are not well understood by most adults. Methods to improve recall and comprehension of informed consent have not been tested in orthodontics. The purposes of this study were to evaluate (1) recall and comprehension among patients and parents by using the American Association of Orthodontists' (AAO) informed consent form and new forms incorporating improved readability and processability; (2) the association between reading ability, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables and recall and comprehension; and (3) how various domains (treatment, risk, and responsibility) of information are affected by the forms. Three treatment groups (30 patient-parent pairs in each) received an orthodontic case presentation and either the AAO form, an improved readability form (MIC), or an improved readability and processability (pairing audio and visual cues) form (MIC + SS). Structured interviews were transcribed and coded to evaluate recall and comprehension. Significant relationships among patient-related variables and recall and comprehension explained little of the variance. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient recall and parent recall and comprehension. Recall was better than comprehension, and parents performed better than patients. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient treatment comprehension and risk recall and parent treatment recall and comprehension. Patients and parents both overestimated their understanding of the materials. Improving the readability of consent materials made little difference, but combining improved readability and processability benefited both patients' recall and parents' recall and comprehension compared with the AAO form.

  13. Reply to "Further issues in determining the readability of self-report items: comment on McHugh and Behar (2009)".

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2012-12-01

    In his commentary on our previously published article "Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety," J. Schinka (2012) argued for the importance of considering readability of patient materials and highlighted limitations of existing methodologies for this assessment. Schinka's commentary articulately described the weaknesses of readability assessment and emphasized the importance of the development of improved strategies for assessing readability to maximize the validity of self-report measures in applied settings. In our reply, we support and extend Schinka's argument, highlighting the importance of consideration of the range of factors (e.g., use of reverse-scored items) that may increase respondent difficulty with comprehension. Consideration of the readability of self-report symptom measures is critical to the validity of these measures in both clinical practice and research settings.

  14. Convergence Toward Common Standards in Machine-Readable Cataloging *

    PubMed Central

    Gull, C. D.

    1969-01-01

    The adoption of the MARC II format for the communication of bibliographic information by the three National Libraries of the U.S.A. makes it possible for those libraries to converge on the remaining necessary common standards for machine-readable cataloging. Three levels of standards are identified: fundamental, the character set; intermediate, MARC II; and detailed, the codes for identifying data elements. The convergence on these standards implies that the National Libraries can create and operate a Joint Bibliographic Data Bank requiring standard book numbers and universal serial numbers for identifying monographs and serials and that the system will thoroughly process contributed catalog entries before adding them to the Data Bank. There is reason to hope that the use of the MARC II format will facilitate catalogers' decision processes. PMID:5782261

  15. Use of a New Set of Linguistic Features to Improve Automatic Assessment of Text Readability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimi, Takehiko; Kotani, Katsunori; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The present paper proposes and evaluates a readability assessment method designed for Japanese learners of EFL (English as a foreign language). The proposed readability assessment method is constructed by a regression algorithm using a new set of linguistic features that were employed separately in previous studies. The results showed that the…

  16. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Henry Draper Catalogue (edition 1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine-readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version was corrected; letters indicating supplemental stars in the BD have been moved to a new byte to distinguish them from double-star components; and the machine readable portion of The Henry Draper Extension (HDE) (HA 100) was converted to the same format as the main catalog, with additional data added as necessary.

  17. Readability of Directions on Potentially Hazardous Household Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyrczak, Fred

    1976-01-01

    The study focused on an analysis of the readability of directions on harmful household products. High school students' reading ability was tested using eight sets of sample directions. The results of the study indicate a need for improving the students' ability to read directions on such products. (EC)

  18. Testing a Readable Writing Approach to Text Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Thomas M.; Kabance, Paula

    1982-01-01

    The present findings imply that a readability formula is not an effective writing production criterion, even when the writer does not deliberately write to the formula. Comprehensibility of text might be better controlled through the proper use of the transformer concept (MacDonald-Ross and Waller). (Author/PN)

  19. How Readability and Topic Incidence Relate to Performance on Mathematics Story Problems in Computer-Based Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkington, Candace; Clinton, Virginia; Ritter, Steven N.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Solving mathematics story problems requires text comprehension skills. However, previous studies have found few connections between traditional measures of text readability and performance on story problems. We hypothesized that recently developed measures of readability and topic incidence measured by text-mining tools may illuminate associations…

  20. Does Machine-Readable Documentation on Online Hosts and CD-ROMs Have a Role or Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephen; Oppenheim, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Reports results of a United Kingdom-based mail survey of database users, CD-ROM producers, and hosts to assess trends and views concerning documentation in machine-readable form. Cost, convenience, and ease of use of print manuals are cited as reasons for the reluctance to switch to machine-readable documentation. Sample surveys are included.…

  1. The SEER Readability Technique: How Practicable is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffelmeyer, Frederick A.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates the practicability of the Singer Eyeball Estimate of Readability (SEER) techniques with 32 college students. Reveals that only two of the students met SEER's criterion for being considered acceptable judges. Concludes that the criterion is overly stringent and proposes a revised criterion designed to make the SEER technique more…

  2. Tools for Assessing Readability of Statistics Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Lawrence; Wagler, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article provides tools and rationale for instructors in math and science to make their assessment and curriculum materials (more) readable for students. The tools discussed (MSWord, LexTutor, Coh-Metrix TEA) are readily available linguistic analysis applications that are grounded in current linguistic theory, but present output that can…

  3. Teaching the Middle School Grade-Level Outcomes with Standards-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Rettig, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the grade-level outcomes to be assessed on middle school (grades 6-8) physical education. Specifically, the article describes how to teach basic tactics and strategies while applying fundamental movement patterns to the various game and movement categories (invasion, net/wall, target, fielding/striking, dance/rhythms, &…

  4. Quality, Readability, and Understandability of German Booklets Addressing Melanoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Brütting, Julia; Reinhardt, Lydia; Bergmann, Maike; Schadendorf, Dirk; Weber, Christiane; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Berking, Carola; Meier, Friedegund

    2018-05-07

    Booklets are the preferably used form among patient education materials and are often handed out during medical consultations in dermatological oncology settings. However, little is known about how beneficial they are and whether they correspond to essential quality characteristics. To assess the quality, readability, and understandability of currently freely available booklets written in German addressing melanoma patients (MP). Melanoma booklets in accordance with predefined criteria were searched and analyzed. Three reviewers independently assessed their quality and understandability by applying the DISCERN tool and PEMAT-P. The Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) was calculated to determine readability. Nine booklets addressing MP were analyzed. The overall median DISCERN score was 3.6 (interquartile range (IQR) 2.9-4.1), median PEMAT-P score was 91% (IQR 83-94.5), and median FRES was 43 (IQR 33.5-47.5), indicating a medium quality, a high application of understandability elements, but low readability in at least half of the booklets. Incomplete reporting on treatments and insufficient meta-information caused the main quality deficits. There is a need of content and didactic revision of German booklets for MP to raise their quality and to make them beneficial and understandable for more patients. An adaption in accordance with evidence-based criteria and an even stronger involvement of MP in assessment and development of patient education material are considered to be the best approaches.

  5. Reading Rate, Readability, and Variations in Task-Induced Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1976-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that task variables account for previous findings that reading rate is unaffected by readability. The findings suggest that when appropriate reading tasks are chosen, reading rate can be used to infer underlying processes in reading. (Author/DEP)

  6. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  7. Readability of New Aviation Chart Symbology in Day and NVG Reading Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Anthony S; Larsen, Terje

    2017-11-01

    The Swedish Air Force (SwAF) conducted a study in 2010 to harmonize portrayal of aeronautical info (AI) on SwAF charts with NATO standards. A mismatch was found concerning vertical obstructions (VO). Norway regarded Sweden's existing symbology as a way to solve the problem of overcrowded air charts and the two countries started to cooperate. The result of this development was a new set of symbology for obstacles. The aim of this study was to test the readability of the new obstacle and power line symbols compared to the old symbols. We also wished to assess the readability in NVG illumination conditions, particularly regarding the new symbols compared to the old. In a randomized controlled study design, 21 volunteer military pilots from the Norwegian and Swedish Air Force were asked to perform tracking and chart-reading tests. The chart-reading test scored both errors and readability using a predefined score index. Subjective scoring was also done at the end of the test day. Overall response time improved by approximately 20% using the new symbology and error rate decreased by approximately 30-90% where statistically significant differences were found. The tracking test turned out to be too difficult due to several factors in the experimental design. Even though some caution should be shown in drawing conclusions from this study, the general trends seem well supported with the number of aircrew subjects we were able to recruit.Wagstaff AS, Larsen T. Readability of new aviation chart symbology in day and NVG reading conditions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(11):978-984.

  8. Computer-Based Readability Testing of Information Booklets for German Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Keinki, Christian; Zowalla, Richard; Pobiruchin, Monika; Huebner, Jutta; Wiesner, Martin

    2018-04-12

    Understandable health information is essential for treatment adherence and improved health outcomes. For readability testing, several instruments analyze the complexity of sentence structures, e.g., Flesch-Reading Ease (FRE) or Vienna-Formula (WSTF). Moreover, the vocabulary is of high relevance for readers. The aim of this study is to investigate the agreement of sentence structure and vocabulary-based (SVM) instruments. A total of 52 freely available German patient information booklets on cancer were collected from the Internet. The mean understandability level L was computed for 51 booklets. The resulting values of FRE, WSTF, and SVM were assessed pairwise for agreement with Bland-Altman plots and two-sided, paired t tests. For the pairwise comparison, the mean L values are L FRE  = 6.81, L WSTF  = 7.39, L SVM  = 5.09. The sentence structure-based metrics gave significantly different scores (P < 0.001) for all assessed booklets, confirmed by the Bland-Altman analysis. The study findings suggest that vocabulary-based instruments cannot be interchanged with FRE/WSTF. However, both analytical aspects should be considered and checked by authors to linguistically refine texts with respect to the individual target group. Authors of health information can be supported by automated readability analysis. Health professionals can benefit by direct booklet comparisons allowing for time-effective selection of suitable booklets for patients.

  9. Gender and Grade-Level Comparisons in the Structure of Problem Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on Jessor's theory (1987) the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated across gender and grade-level among adolescents. In addition, gender and grade-level differences in problem behavior engagement were addressed examining latent mean differences. Using a sample of 6504 adolescents drawn from the…

  10. Can Patients Comprehend the Educational Materials that Hospitals Provide about Common IR Procedures?

    PubMed

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Hawkins, C Matthew; O'Keefe, John J; Khan, Ramsha; Duszak, Richard

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online education materials offered by hospitals describing commonly performed interventional radiology (IR) procedures. Online patient education materials from 402 hospitals selected from the Medicare Hospital Compare database were assessed. The presence of an IR service was determined by representation in the Society of Interventional Radiology physician finder directory. Patient online education materials about (i) uterine artery embolization for fibroid tumors, (ii) liver cancer embolization, (iii) varicose vein treatment, (iv) central venous access, (v) inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, (vi) nephrostomy tube insertion, (vii) gastrostomy tube placement, and (viii) vertebral augmentation were targeted and assessed by using six validated readability scoring systems. Of 402 hospitals sampled, 156 (39%) were presumed to offer IR services. Of these, 119 (76%) offered online patient education material for one or more of the eight service lines. The average readability scores corresponding to grade varied between the ninth- and 12th-grade levels. All were higher than the recommended seventh-grade level (P < .05) except for nephrostomy and gastrostomy tube placement. Average Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease scores ranged from 42 to 69, corresponding with fairly difficult to difficult readability for all service lines except IVC filter and gastrostomy tube placement, which corresponded with standard readability. A majority of hospitals offering IR services provide at least some online patient education material. Most, however, are written significantly above the reading comprehension level of most Americans. More attention to health literacy by hospitals and IR physicians is warranted. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  12. Predicting Third Grade Reading Achievement for Mexican-American Students from Lower Socioeconomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Frances Ann Bennett

    The purpose of this study was to determine if measures of first grade readiness, scholastic aptitude, and reading achievement were significant predictors of third grade reading achievement for Mexican-American students from two lower socioeconomic levels. The sample included 94 third grade students for whom the following measurements had been…

  13. Visual readability analysis: how to make your writings easier to read.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Daniela; Spretke, David; Stoffel, Andreas; Keim, Daniel A

    2012-05-01

    We present a tool that is specifically designed to support a writer in revising a draft version of a document. In addition to showing which paragraphs and sentences are difficult to read and understand, we assist the reader in understanding why this is the case. This requires features that are expressive predictors of readability, and are also semantically understandable. In the first part of the paper, we, therefore, discuss a semiautomatic feature selection approach that is used to choose appropriate measures from a collection of 141 candidate readability features. In the second part, we present the visual analysis tool VisRA, which allows the user to analyze the feature values across the text and within single sentences. Users can choose between different visual representations accounting for differences in the size of the documents and the availability of information about the physical and logical layout of the documents. We put special emphasis on providing as much transparency as possible to ensure that the user can purposefully improve the readability of a sentence. Several case studies are presented that show the wide range of applicability of our tool. Furthermore, an in-depth evaluation assesses the quality of the measure and investigates how well users do in revising a text with the help of the tool.

  14. Radiation Oncology and Online Patient Education Materials: Deviating From NIH and AMA Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Arpan V; Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Clump, David A; Heron, Dwight E

    2016-11-01

    Physicians encourage patients to be informed about their health care options, but much of the online health care-related resources can be beneficial only if patients are capable of comprehending it. This study's aim was to assess the readability level of online patient education resources for radiation oncology to conclude whether they meet the general public's health literacy needs as determined by the guidelines of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA). Radiation oncology-related internet-based patient education materials were downloaded from 5 major professional websites (American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American Brachytherapy Society, RadiologyInfo.org, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group). Additional patient education documents were downloaded by searching for key radiation oncology phrases using Google. A total of 135 articles were downloaded and assessed for their readability level using 10 quantitative readability scales that are widely accepted in the medical literature. When all 10 assessment tools for readability were taken into account, the 135 online patient education articles were written at an average grade level of 13.7 ± 2.0. One hundred nine of the 135 articles (80.7%) required a high school graduate's comprehension level (12th-grade level or higher). Only 1 of the 135 articles (0.74%) met the AMA and NIH recommendations for patient education resources to be written between the third-grade and seventh-grade levels. Radiation oncology websites have patient education material written at an educational level above the NIH and AMA recommendations; as a result, average American patients may not be able to fully understand them. Rewriting radiation oncology patient education resources would likely contribute to the patients' understanding of their health and treatment options, making each physician-patient interaction more productive

  15. Radiation Oncology and Online Patient Education Materials: Deviating From NIH and AMA Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, Arpan V.; Hansberry, David R.; Agarwal, Nitin

    Purpose: Physicians encourage patients to be informed about their health care options, but much of the online health care–related resources can be beneficial only if patients are capable of comprehending it. This study's aim was to assess the readability level of online patient education resources for radiation oncology to conclude whether they meet the general public's health literacy needs as determined by the guidelines of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA). Methods: Radiation oncology–related internet-based patient education materials were downloaded from 5 major professional websites (American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Associationmore » of Physicists in Medicine, American Brachytherapy Society, (RadiologyInfo.org), and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group). Additional patient education documents were downloaded by searching for key radiation oncology phrases using Google. A total of 135 articles were downloaded and assessed for their readability level using 10 quantitative readability scales that are widely accepted in the medical literature. Results: When all 10 assessment tools for readability were taken into account, the 135 online patient education articles were written at an average grade level of 13.7 ± 2.0. One hundred nine of the 135 articles (80.7%) required a high school graduate's comprehension level (12th-grade level or higher). Only 1 of the 135 articles (0.74%) met the AMA and NIH recommendations for patient education resources to be written between the third-grade and seventh-grade levels. Conclusion: Radiation oncology websites have patient education material written at an educational level above the NIH and AMA recommendations; as a result, average American patients may not be able to fully understand them. Rewriting radiation oncology patient education resources would likely contribute to the patients' understanding of their health and treatment options, making

  16. Middle School Students' Statistical Literacy: Role of Grade Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolcu, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender and grade level on middle school students' statistical literacy. The study was conducted in the spring semester of the 2012-2013 academic year with 598 middle-school students (grades 6-8) from three public schools in Turkey. The data were collected using the Statistical Literacy Test, developed based on…

  17. Variation in Strategy Use across Grade Level by Pattern Generalization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored variation of strategy use in pattern generalization across different generalization types and across grade level. A test was designed to assess students' strategy use in pattern generalization tasks. The test was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. The findings of this study…

  18. Mammography Patient Information at Hospital Websites: Most Neither Comprehensible Nor Guideline Supported.

    PubMed

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Singh, Kush; Gilbert, Kirven; Khan, Ramsha; Duszak, Abigail M; Duszak, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Ongoing controversy regarding screening mammography guidelines has created confusion for many patients. Given recommendations that patient educational material be prepared at or below the 7th grade reading level of average Americans, the purpose of this study was to assess the readability of online mammography information offered by hospitals nationwide. During 2015, online mammography patient educational materials were identified for all Medicare-recognized hospitals nationwide for which screening mammography metrics were publicly available. Patient educational materials were assessed using six validated readability score algorithms. All references to official screening guidelines were captured. Of 4105 hospitals nationwide, 3252 had websites and confirmable screening mammography services. Of those, 1753 (54%) offered mammography information material online. Only 919 (28%) referenced any professional society guidelines. After excluding information not formatted in HTML and shorter than 100 words (to improve algorithm reliability), 1524 hospital mammography webpages were assessed for grade level scores. Nationally, the mean of each readability score for all hospitals varied between the 10th and 14th grade levels, all higher than the recommended 7th grade level (p < 0.001). At the individual hospital level, only 14 hospitals (0.4%) had mean scores at or below the 7th grade level. Of U.S. hospitals that offer screening mammography and have websites, only 54% provide online mammography educational material. Of those, only 0.4% present information at a reading level comprehensible to average Americans, and only 28% offer specific information to help patients reconcile conflicting guidelines. Health systems offering mammography should strive to better meet women's health information and literacy needs.

  19. The Effects of Control for Ability Level on EFL Reading of Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to examine how EFL learners of English reacted to graded readers in terms of reading strategy use, comprehension, speed, and attitude as well as motivation when control for ability level was determined. Eighty Thai high school students placed into their own reading level of graded readers by the scores gained from the graded…

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease: An evaluation of health information on the internet

    PubMed Central

    Azer, Samy A; AlOlayan, Thekra I; AlGhamdi, Malak A; AlSanea, Malak A

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality and accuracy of websites written to the public on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and assess their readability level. METHODS Google™, Bing™, and Yahoo™ search engines were searched independently by three researchers in December 2014. Only English-language websites were selected on the basis of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Researchers independently evaluated the quality of each website by using the DISCERN and the HONcode instruments. The readability levels were calculated using two formulas; the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index, and the Coleman-Liau Readability Index. The agreement between the evaluators was calculated using Cohen kappa coefficient. RESULTS Eighty-four websites were finally identified. Scores varied from a minimum DISCERN score of 18 to a maximum of 68 [mean ± SD, 42.2 ± 10.7; median = 41.5, interquartile range, interquartile range (IQR) = 15.8] and a minimum score of HONcode of 0.14 and a maximum of 0.95 (mean ± SD, 0.16 ± 0.19; median = 0.45, IQR = 0.29). Most of these websites were reviewed in 2014 and 2015 (n = 51). The creators of these websites were: universities and research centers (n = 25, 30%), foundations and associations (n = 15, 18%), commercial and pharmaceutical companies (n = 25, 30%), charities and volunteer work (n = 9, 10%), and non-university educational bodies (n = 10, 12%). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level readability score (mean ± SD) was 11.9 ± 2.4 and the Coleman-Liau Readability Index score was 12.6 ± 1.5. Significant correlation was found between the two readability scores (R2 = 0.509, P = 0.001). The overall agreement between evaluators measured by Cohen kappa coefficient was in the range of 0.804-0.876; rated as "Good". CONCLUSION The DISCERN and the HONcode scores of websites varied and the readability levels of most websites were above the public readability level. The study highlights the areas that need further

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease: An evaluation of health information on the internet.

    PubMed

    Azer, Samy A; AlOlayan, Thekra I; AlGhamdi, Malak A; AlSanea, Malak A

    2017-03-07

    To evaluate the quality and accuracy of websites written to the public on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and assess their readability level. Google™, Bing™, and Yahoo™ search engines were searched independently by three researchers in December 2014. Only English-language websites were selected on the basis of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Researchers independently evaluated the quality of each website by using the DISCERN and the HONcode instruments. The readability levels were calculated using two formulas; the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Index, and the Coleman-Liau Readability Index. The agreement between the evaluators was calculated using Cohen kappa coefficient. Eighty-four websites were finally identified. Scores varied from a minimum DISCERN score of 18 to a maximum of 68 [mean ± SD, 42.2 ± 10.7; median = 41.5, interquartile range, interquartile range (IQR) = 15.8] and a minimum score of HONcode of 0.14 and a maximum of 0.95 (mean ± SD, 0.16 ± 0.19; median = 0.45, IQR = 0.29). Most of these websites were reviewed in 2014 and 2015 ( n = 51). The creators of these websites were: universities and research centers ( n = 25, 30%), foundations and associations ( n = 15, 18%), commercial and pharmaceutical companies ( n = 25, 30%), charities and volunteer work ( n = 9, 10%), and non-university educational bodies ( n = 10, 12%). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level readability score (mean ± SD) was 11.9 ± 2.4 and the Coleman-Liau Readability Index score was 12.6 ± 1.5. Significant correlation was found between the two readability scores (R 2 = 0.509, P = 0.001). The overall agreement between evaluators measured by Cohen kappa coefficient was in the range of 0.804-0.876; rated as "Good". The DISCERN and the HONcode scores of websites varied and the readability levels of most websites were above the public readability level. The study highlights the areas that need further improvement and development

  2. The Reading Grade Level of Common Measures in Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Scott A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide easily accessible readability information for 49 parent- and 35 child- and adolescent-report measures commonly used by clinicians and researchers. There is a great deal of variability in reading ability required across measures. The majority of parent-report measures (65%) required reading ability above…

  3. Readability of Informed Consent Documents at University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustgarten, Samuel D.; Elchert, Daniel M.; Cederberg, Charles; Garrison, Yunkyoung L.; Ho, Y. C. S.

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which clients understand the nature and anticipated course of therapy is referred to as informed consent. Counseling psychologists often provide informed consent documents to enhance the education of services and for liability purposes. Professionals in numerous health care settings have evaluated the readability of their informed…

  4. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  5. A Synthesis of Research on Color, Typography, and Graphics as they Relate to Readability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    READABILITY THESIS Melvin E. Lamoreaux Captain, USAF ________AF IT/GLM/LSH/85S-40 ___- D T~DTIC ELECTE NOV 2 1 85 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE E AIR...UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio I Thi document hA= been p d i hP rel alse .,,ci I ,. 11 10 108...definitions of readability. For example, E. D . Hirsch, Jr., defines ;" adabiflty by the time and effort needed when, *assuming ... two texts convey the

  6. Student selection: are the school-leaving A-level grades in biology and chemistry important?

    PubMed

    Green, A; Peters, T J; Webster, D J

    1993-01-01

    This study determined the relationships of grades in A-level biology and chemistry with examination success or failure during the medical course. By inspection of medical student records, A-level grades at entry to medical school and examination performance were obtained for 128 (91%) of the students who sat their final MBBCh examination at the University of Wales College of Medicine in June 1988. The majority, 92 (72%), completed their medical school careers with no professional examination failures; 15 failed examinations just in the period up to 2nd MB; 11 failed examinations in the clinical period only and 10 failed examinations in both periods. Whereas grade achieved in A-level chemistry was not associated with undergraduate examination performance, students with a grade A or B in A-level biology were less likely to have problems than the others (21% compared with 47%; the difference of 26% has a 95% confidence interval of 7% to 44%). Specifically, there appears to be a strong relationship between a low grade in biology and difficulties in the preclinical examinations. Moreover, for those who have difficulties at this stage, this association continues later in the course.

  7. The validation of science virtual test to assess 7th grade students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic (SVT-MH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sya’bandari, Y.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The method used in this research was descriptive research for profiling the validation of SVT-MH to measure students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic in junior high school. The subject is junior high school students of 7th grade (13 years old) while science teacher and expert as the validators. The instruments that used as a tool to obtain the data are rubric expert judgment (content, media, education) and rubric of readability test. There are four steps to validate SVT-MH in 7th grade Junior High School. These steps are analysis of core competence and basic competence based on Curriculum 2013, expert judgment (content, media, education), readability test and trial test (limited and larger trial test). The instrument validation resulted 30 items that represent 8 elements and 21 sub-elements to measure students’ critical thinking based on Inch in matter and heat topic. The alpha Cronbach (α) is 0.642 which means that the instrument is sufficient to measure students’ critical thinking matter and heat topic.

  8. Toward Ensuring Health Equity: Readability and Cultural Equivalence of OMERACT Patient-reported Outcome Measures.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Welch, Vivian; Rader, Tamara; Lyddiatt, Anne; Clerehan, Rosemary; Christensen, Robin; Boonen, Annelies; Goel, Niti; Maxwell, Lara J; Toupin-April, Karine; De Wit, Maarten; Barton, Jennifer; Flurey, Caroline; Jull, Janet; Barnabe, Cheryl; Sreih, Antoine G; Campbell, Willemina; Pohl, Christoph; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Singh, Jasvinder A; Tugwell, Peter S; Guillemin, Francis

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group participants to gain their perspectives on the importance of comprehensibility and cross-cultural adaptation for PROM. Thirty-one OMERACT delegates attended the equity session. Twenty-six participants agreed that PROM should be assessed for comprehensibility and for use of suitable methods (4 abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement for improving translation and adaptation. Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures.

  9. Toward Ensuring Health Equity: Readability and Cultural Equivalence of OMERACT Patient-reported Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Welch, Vivian; Rader, Tamara; Lyddiatt, Anne; Clerehan, Rosemary; Christensen, Robin; Boonen, Annelies; Goel, Niti; Maxwell, Lara J.; Toupin-April, Karine; De Wit, Maarten; Barton, Jennifer; Flurey, Caroline; Jull, Janet; Barnabe, Cheryl; Sreih, Antoine G.; Campbell, Willemina; Pohl, Christoph; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Tugwell, Peter S.; Guillemin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. Methods The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group participants to gain their perspectives on the importance of comprehensibility and cross-cultural adaptation for PROM. Results Thirty-one OMERACT delegates attended the equity session. Twenty-six participants agreed that PROM should be assessed for comprehensibility and for use of suitable methods (4 abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement for improving translation and adaptation. Conclusion Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures. PMID:26077410

  10. How Effective Are Patient Education Materials in Educating Patients?

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Toprak, Sadiye; Kiliç, Seçil

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the patient education materials prepared and published by nurses and physicians in terms of the qualitative properties of these materials, including readability, understandability, and actionability. A total of 38 patient education materials prepared by nurses and physicians in a university hospital in Turkey were evaluated. The readability of the materials was assessed using the formulas proposed by Atesman and Cetinkaya. The Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) form was used for estimating the understandability and actionability. Data were analyzed using the percentile and mean values, and the Kendall's Tau-c and correlation tests were used for interobserver agreement. According to the assessments based on the readability formulas, 55.3% of the materials were moderately difficult, while 81.6% had instructional-level readability (U.S. Grades 8 and 9) with a moderate to low level of understandability and actionability. Consequently, the patient education materials evaluated in our study had a moderate level of readability, understandability, and actionability.

  11. Southern Durchmusterung (Schoenfeld 1886): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.; Ochsenbein, Francois

    1989-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The Southern Durchmusterung (SD) was computerized at the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg and at the Astronomical Data Center at the National Space Science Data Center, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Corrigenda listed in the original SD volume and published by Kuenster and Sticker were incorporated into the machine file. In addition, one star indicated to be missing in a published list, and later verified, is flagged so that it can be omitted from computer plotted charts if desired. Stars deleted in the various errata lists were similarly flagged, while those with revised data are flagged and listed in a separate table. This catalog covers the zones -02 to -23 degrees; zones +89 to -01 degrees (the Bonner Durchmusterung) are included in a separate catalog available in machine-readable form.

  12. The Analysis of Reading Skills and Visual Perception Levels of First Grade Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…

  13. The Impact of School Environment and Grade Level on Student Delinquency: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Celia C.; Kim, Young S.; Allen, Thomas M.; Allen, Andrea N.; Minugh, P. Allison; Lomuto, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    Effects on delinquency made by grade level, school type (based on grade levels accommodated), and prosocial school climate were assessed, controlling for individual-level risk and protective factors. Data were obtained from the Substance Abuse Services Division of Alabama's state mental health agency and analyzed via hierarchical linear modeling,…

  14. Radiology Online Patient Education Materials Provided by Major University Hospitals: Do They Conform to NIH and AMA Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Arpan V; Donovan, Ashley L; Crihalmeanu, Tudor; Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Beriwal, Sushil; Kale, Hrishikesh; Heller, Matthew

    The internet creates opportunities for Americans to access medical information about imaging tests and modalities to guide them in their medical decision-making. Owing to health literacy variations in the general population, the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommend patient education resources to be written between the third and seventh grade levels. Our purpose is to quantitatively assess the readability levels of online radiology educational materials, written for the public, in 20 major university hospitals. In September and October 2016, we identified 20 major university hospitals with radiology residency-affiliated hospital systems. On each hospital׳s website, we downloaded all radiology-related articles written for patient use. A total of 375 articles were analyzed for readability level using 9 quantitative readability scales that are well validated in the medical literature. The 375 articles from 20 hospital systems were collectively written at an 11.4 ± 3.0 grade level (range: 8.4-17.1). Only 11 (2.9%) articles were written at the recommended third to seventh grade levels. Overall, 126 (33.6%) were written above a full high-school reading level. University of Washington Medical Center׳s articles were the most readable with a reading level corresponding to 7.9 ± 0.9. The vast majority of websites at major academic hospitals with radiology residencies designed to provide patients with information about imaging were written above the nationally recommended health literacy guidelines to meet the needs of the average American. This may limit the benefit that patients can derive from these educational materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Colorectal cancer screening patient education materials-how effective is online health information?

    PubMed

    John, Elizabeth Sheena; John, Ann M; Hansberry, David R; Thomas, Prashant J; Agarwal, Prateek; Deitch, Christopher; Chokhavatia, Sita

    2016-12-01

    Patients screened for colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently turn to the Internet to improve their understanding of tests used for detection, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), and CT colonography. It was of interest to determine the quality and readability levels of online health information. The screening tools were googled, and the top 20 results of each test were analyzed for readability, accessibility, usability, and reliability. The 80 articles excluded scientific literature and blogs. We used ten validated readability scales to measure grade levels, and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly statistical different (HSD) post hoc analyses to determine any statistically significant differences among the four diagnostic tests. The LIDA tool assessed overall quality by measuring accessibility, usability, and reliability. The 80 articles were written at an 11.7 grade level, with CT colonography articles written at significantly higher levels than FOBT articles, F(3, 75) = 3.07, p = 0.033. LIDA showed moderate percentages in accessibility (83.9 %), usability (73.0 %), and reliability (75.9 %). Online health information about CRC screening tools are written at higher levels than the National Institute of Health (NIH) and American Medical Association (AMA) recommended third to seventh grade levels. More patients could benefit from this modality of information if it were written at a level and quality that would better facilitate understanding.

  16. Home Pregnancy Test Kits: How Readable Are the Instructions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Carol Ann

    At the conclusion of their study on home pregnancy test kits, Valinas and Perlman (1982) suggested that the instructions accompanying the kits be revised to make them easier to read. A study was undertaken to determine the readability of the printed instructions accompanying five home pregnancy test kits (Daisy II, Answer, Acu-Test, Predictor, and…

  17. Reference Manual for Machine-Readable Bibliographic Descriptions. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierickx, H., Ed.; Hopkinson, A., Ed.

    A product of the UNISIST International Centre for Bibliographic Descriptions (UNIBIB), this reference manual presents a standardized communication format for the exchange of machine-readable bibliographic information between bibliographic databases or other types of bibliographic information services, including libraries. The manual is produced in…

  18. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  19. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  20. Online palliative care and oncology patient education resources through Google: Do they meet national health literacy recommendations?

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Arpan V; Crihalmeanu, Tudor; Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; Glaser, Christine; Clump, David A; Heron, Dwight E; Beriwal, Sushil

    The Google search engine is a resource commonly used by patients to access health-related patient education information. The American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health recommend that patient education resources be written at a level between the third and seventh grade reading levels. We assessed the readability levels of online palliative care patient education resources using 10 readability algorithms widely accepted in the medical literature. In October 2016, searches were conducted for 10 individual terms pertaining to palliative care and oncology using the Google search engine; the first 10 articles written for the public for each term were downloaded for a total of 100 articles. The terms included palliative care, hospice, advance directive, cancer pain management, treatment of metastatic disease, treatment of brain metastasis, treatment of bone metastasis, palliative radiation therapy, palliative chemotherapy, and end-of-life care. We determined the average reading level of the articles by readability scale and Web site domain. Nine readability assessments with scores equivalent to academic grade level found that the 100 palliative care education articles were collectively written at a 12.1 reading level (standard deviation, 2.1; range, 7.6-17.3). Zero articles were written below a seventh grade level. Forty-nine (49%) articles were written above a high school graduate reading level. The Flesch Reading Ease scale classified the articles as "difficult" to read with a score of 45.6 of 100. The articles were collected from 62 Web site domains. Seven domains were accessed 3 or more times; among these, www.mskcc.org had the highest average reading level at a 14.5 grade level (standard deviation, 1.4; range, 13.4-16.1). Most palliative care education articles readily available on Google are written above national health literacy recommendations. There is need to revise these resources to allow patients and their families to derive the most

  1. Quality of patient education materials for rehabilitation after neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Sarris, Christina; Hansberry, David R; Lin, Matthew J; Barrese, James C; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of online patient education materials for rehabilitation following neurological surgery. Materials were obtained from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). After removing unnecessary formatting, the readability of each site was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level evaluations with Microsoft Office Word software. The average values of the Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level were 41.5 and 11.8, respectively, which are well outside the recommended reading levels for the average American. Moreover, no online section was written below a ninth grade reading level. Evaluations of several websites from the NINDS, NLM, AOTA, and AAOS demonstrated that their reading levels were higher than that of the average American. Improved readability might be beneficial for patient education. Ultimately, increased patient comprehension may correlate to positive clinical outcomes.

  2. Grade Inflation: Reality or Myth? Student Preparation Level vs. Grades at Brigham Young University, 1975-1994. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Danny R.

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which grade inflation has existed at Brigham Young University (BYU) after accounting for increased preparation levels of entering students over time. Analyses were conducted for the university at large and individual colleges. The study first developed a model to forecast student grade point…

  3. Reply to "Further Issues in Determining the Readability of Self-Report Items: Comment on McHugh and Behar (2009)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    In his commentary on our previously published article "Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety," J. Schinka (2012) argued for the importance of considering readability of patient materials and highlighted limitations of existing methodologies for this assessment. Schinka's commentary articulately described the weaknesses of…

  4. Readability of self-illuminated signs obscured by black fuel-fire smoke.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-07-01

    This study, using black fuel-fire generated smoke, is a partial replication of an earlier study using an inert white smoke as the obscuring agent in the study of the readability of smoke-obscured, self-illuminated emergency exit signs. : The results ...

  5. How well are health information websites displayed on mobile phones? Implications for the readability of health information.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    Issue addressed More than 87% of Australians own a mobile phone with Internet access and 82% of phone owners use their smartphones to search for health information, indicating that mobile phones may be a powerful tool for building health literacy. Yet, online health information has been found to be above the reading ability of the general population. As reading on a smaller screen may further complicate the readability of information, this study aimed to examine how health information is displayed on mobile phones and its implications for readability. Methods Using a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling, a sample of 270 mobile webpages with information on 12 common health conditions was generated for analysis, they were categorised based on design and position of information display. Results The results showed that 71.48% of webpages were mobile-friendly but only 15.93% were mobile-friendly webpages designed in a way to optimise readability, with a paging format and queried information displayed for immediate viewing. Conclusion With inadequate evidence and lack of consensus on how webpage design can best promote reading and comprehension, it is difficult to draw a conclusion on the effect of current mobile health information presentation on readability. So what? Building mobile-responsive websites should be a priority for health information providers and policy-makers. Research efforts are urgently required to identify how best to enhance readability of mobile health information and fully capture the capabilities of mobile phones as a useful device to increase health literacy.

  6. Junior High Basals: Effective Hi/Lo Materials for Remedial High School Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvermann, Donna E.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the results of an analysis of the appropriateness of eighth-grade basal reading materials for remedial instruction of ninth- and tenth-grade students who read two to three years below grade level. Readability, interest appeal, and representation of content areas are considered. Three data tables and a 14-item reference list are included.…

  7. The role of readability in effective health communication: an experiment using a Japanese health information text on chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yukiko

    2013-09-01

    This study identifies the most significant readability factors and examines ways of improving and evaluating Japanese health information text in terms of ease of reading and understanding. Six different Japanese texts were prepared based on an original short text written by a medical doctor for a hospital web site intended for laypersons regarding chronic suppurative otitis media. Four were revised for single readability factor (syntax, vocabulary, or text structure) and two were modified in all three factors. Using a web-based survey, 270 high school students read one of the seven texts, including the original, completed two kinds of comprehension tests, and answered questions on their impressions of the text's readability. Significantly higher comprehension test scores were shown in the true or false test for a mixed text that presented important information first for better text structure. They were also found in the cloze test for a text using common vocabulary and a cohesive mixed text. Vocabulary could be a critical single readability factor when presumably combined with better text structure. Using multiple evaluation methods can help assess comprehensive readability. The findings on improvement and evaluation methods of readability can be applied to support effective health communication. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group Health Information and Libraries Journal.

  8. Grade-Level Declines in Perceived Academic Support from Peers: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell

    2017-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that perceived academic support from peers positively predicts school adjustment. In this cross-sectional study, we provide evidence that perceived academic support from peers declines from 3rd to 8th grade and that this decline is partially mediated by grade-level declines in perceptions that academic success…

  9. Comparison of Different Methods of Grading a Level Turn Task on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Bruce E.; Crier, tomyka

    2003-01-01

    With the advancements in the computing power of personal computers, pc-based flight simulators and trainers have opened new avenues in the training of airplane pilots. It may be desirable to have the flight simulator make a quantitative evaluation of the progress of a pilot's training thereby reducing the physical requirement of the flight instructor who must, in turn, watch every flight. In an experiment, University students conducted six different flights, each consisting of two level turns. The flights were three minutes in duration. By evaluating videotapes, two certified flight instructors provided separate letter grades for each turn. These level turns were also evaluated using two other computer based grading methods. One method determined automated grades based on prescribed tolerances in bank angle, airspeed and altitude. The other method used was deviations in altitude and bank angle for performance index and performance grades.

  10. Relationship between Legible Handwriting and Level of Success of Third Grade Students in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Seher; Küçükayar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify third-grade students' performance levels for written expression and handwriting and to find the relationship between these performances. The study is based on relational screening model. It is carried out with 110 third grade students. Students' levels of success in handwriting and in written expression are evaluated…

  11. Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Lessons: The Interaction Effect between Grade Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the interaction effect between grade level and gender with respect to students' attitudes toward chemistry lessons taught in secondary schools. The sample consisted of 954 chemistry students in grades Secondary 4-7 (approximately 16-19 years of age) in Hong Kong. Students' attitudes were…

  12. Breast reconstruction post mastectomy- Let's Google it. Accessibility, readability and quality of online information.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Noel P; Lang, Bronagh; Angelov, Sophia; McGarrigle, Sarah A; Boyle, Terence J; Al-Azawi, Dhafir; Connolly, Elizabeth M

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the readability, accessibility and quality of information pertaining to breast reconstruction post mastectomy on the Internet in the English language. Using the Google © search engine the keywords "Breast reconstruction post mastectomy" were searched for. We analyzed the top 75 sites. The Flesch Reading Ease Score and Gunning Fog Index were calculated to assess readability. Web site quality was assessed objectively using the University of Michigan Consumer Health Web site Evaluation Checklist. Accessibility was determined using an automated accessibility tool. In addition, the country of origin, type of organisation producing the site and presence of Health on the Net (HoN) Certification status was recorded. The Web sites were difficult to read and comprehend. The mean Flesch Reading Ease scores were 55.5. The mean Gunning Fog Index scores was 8.6. The mean Michigan score was 34.8 indicating weak quality of websites. Websites with HoN certification ranked higher in the search results (p = 0.007). Website quality was influenced by organisation type (p < 0.0001) with academic/healthcare, not for profit and government sites having higher Michigan scores. 20% of sites met the minimum accessibility criteria. Internet information on breast reconstruction post mastectomy and procedures is poorly written and we suggest that Webpages providing information must be made more readable and accessible. We suggest that health professionals should recommend Web sites that are easy to read and contain high-quality surgical information. Medical information on the Internet should be readable, accessible, reliable and of a consistent quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality assessment of online patient education resources for peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Suresh, Ragha; Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M

    2013-03-01

    Given its practicality, the internet is a primary resource for patients afflicted with diseases like peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, it is important that the readily available online resources on peripheral neuropathy are tailored to the general public, particularly concerning readability. Patient education resources were downloaded from the US National Library of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuropathy.org, GBS/CIDP Foundation International, Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association, Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, and Neuropathy Action Foundation websites. All patient education material related to peripheral neuropathy was evaluated for its level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The FRE scores averaged 43.4 with only the US National Library of Medicine scoring above 60 (76.5). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores averaged 11.0. All scores were above a seventh-grade level except the US National Library of Medicine, which had a score of a fifth-grade reading level. Most Americans may not fully benefit from patient education resources concerning peripheral neuropathy education on many of the websites. Only the US National Library of Medicine, which is written at a fifth-grade level, is likely to benefit the average American. © 2013 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  14. The Readability and Complexity of District-Provided School-Choice Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marc L.; Nagro, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public school choice has become a common feature in American school districts. Any potential benefits that could be derived from these policies depend heavily on the ability of parents and students to make informed and educated decisions about their school options. We examined the readability and complexity of school-choice guides across a sample…

  15. The Índice Flesch-Szigriszt and Spanish Lexile Analyzer to evaluate Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Samih J; Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Evaluate the reading difficulty of Spanish patient education materials using the validated Índice Flesch-Szigriszt (INFLESZ) and Spanish Lexile Analyzer, and to identify relationships between English and Spanish readability formulas. Cross-sectional analysis. All otolaryngology-related patient education articles written in Spanish from the health libraries of the top 10 US News & World Report-ranked hospitals, top 10 Doximity-ranked otolaryngology residencies, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery website, and the US National Library of Medicine online section on ears, nose and throat were collected. Reading difficulty was assessed using the INFLESZ and Spanish Lexile Analyzer. Additional readability assessments included the traditional English tools: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook score. A total of 497 articles were reviewed. The average INFLESZ score for all articles was 57.75, which is considered normal and requires the reading ability of a student who finished Escuela Secundaria Obligatoria or 10th grade equivalent in the United States. The average Spanish Lexile measure for all articles was 1062L, equivalent to a reading level between the 6th and 12th grade. English readability tools calculated a more difficult reading level compared to Spanish tools when performed on the same text. Current Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology may be too difficult for the average Spanish-speaking reader to understand. Future improvements may be warranted to improve the readability of educational materials and increase health literacy. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E21-E26, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Professional Staffing Levels and Fourth-Grade Student Research in Rural Schools with High-Poverty Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla Steege; Donham, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Rural schools in high-poverty areas are often understaffed. This descriptive phenomenological study examined fourth-grade state research projects in high-poverty rural Iowa schools to reveal the influence of school librarians' staffing levels on student learning of research skills. To determine evidence of students' critical literacy, ethical use…

  17. Item Readability and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2003 in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Edith R.; Reddy, Vijay

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between readability of 73 text-only multiple-choice questions from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 and performance of two groups of South African learners: those with limited English-language proficiency (learners attending African schools) and those with better…

  18. National Survey of Patients’ Bill of Rights Statutes

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Dan M.; Hochhauser, Mark; Parker, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite vigorous national debate between 1999–2001 the federal patients’ bill of rights (PBOR) was not enacted. However, states have enacted legislation and the Joint Commission defined an accreditation standard to present patients with their rights. Because such initiatives can be undermined by overly complex language, we surveyed the readability of hospital PBOR documents as well as texts mandated by state law. METHODS State Web sites and codes were searched to identify PBOR statutes for general patient populations. The rights addressed were compared with the 12 themes presented in the American Hospital Association’s (AHA) PBOR text of 2002. In addition, we obtained PBOR texts from a sample of hospitals in each state. Readability was evaluated using Prose, a software program which reports an average of eight readability formulas. RESULTS Of 23 states with a PBOR statute for the general public, all establish a grievance policy, four protect a private right of action, and one stipulates fines for violations. These laws address an average of 7.4 of the 12 AHA themes. Nine states’ statutes specify PBOR text for distribution to patients. These documents have an average readability of 15th grade (range, 11.6, New York, to 17.0, Minnesota). PBOR documents from 240 US hospitals have an average readability of 14th grade (range, 8.2 to 17.0). CONCLUSIONS While the average U.S. adult reads at an 8th grade reading level, an advanced college reading level is routinely required to read PBOR documents. Patients are not likely to learn about their rights from documents they cannot read. PMID:19189192

  19. The Appropriateness of Language Found in Research Consent Form Templates: A Computational Linguistic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Villafranca, Alexander; Kereliuk, Stephanie; Hamlin, Colin; Johnson, Andrea; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate informed consent, consent forms should use language below the grade eight level. Research Ethics Boards (REBs) provide consent form templates to facilitate this goal. Templates with inappropriate language could promote consent forms that participants find difficult to understand. However, a linguistic analysis of templates is lacking. We reviewed the websites of 124 REBs for their templates. These included English language medical school REBs in Australia/New Zealand (n = 23), Canada (n = 14), South Africa (n = 8), the United Kingdom (n = 34), and a geographically-stratified sample from the United States (n = 45). Template language was analyzed using Coh-Metrix linguistic software (v.3.0, Memphis, USA). We evaluated the proportion of REBs with five key linguistic outcomes at or below grade eight. Additionally, we compared quantitative readability to the REBs' own readability standards. To determine if the template's country of origin or the presence of a local REB readability standard influenced the linguistic variables, we used a MANOVA model. Of the REBs who provided templates, 0/94 (0%, 95% CI = 0-3.9%) provided templates with all linguistic variables at or below the grade eight level. Relaxing the standard to a grade 12 level did not increase this proportion. Further, only 2/22 (9.1%, 95% CI = 2.5-27.8) REBs met their own readability standard. The country of origin (DF = 20, 177.5, F = 1.97, p = 0.01), but not the presence of an REB-specific standard (DF = 5, 84, F = 0.73, p = 0.60), influenced the linguistic variables. Inappropriate language in templates is an international problem. Templates use words that are long, abstract, and unfamiliar. This could undermine the validity of participant informed consent. REBs should set a policy of screening templates with linguistic software.

  20. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  1. Students' Level of Boredom, Boredom Coping Strategies, Epistemic Curiosity, and Graded Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among students' levels of boredom, boredom coping strategies, epistemic curiosity, and graded performance regarding mathematics lessons, with the intention to explore the mediating roles of boredom coping strategies and epistemic curiosity in the relationship between the level of boredom and graded…

  2. Analyzing the Reading Skills and Visual Perception Levels of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çayir, Aybala

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze primary school first grade students' reading levels and correlate their visual perception skills. For this purpose, students' reading speed, reading comprehension and reading errors were determined using The Informal Reading Inventory. Students' visual perception levels were also analyzed using…

  3. A search for ultraviolet-excess objects (Kondo, Noguchi, and Maehara 1984): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A list of 1186 ultraviolet-excess objects (designated KUV) was compiled as a result of a search conducted with the 105-cm Schmidt telescope of the Kiso station of the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory. This document describes the machine readable version of the KUV survey list and presents a sample listing showing the logical records as they are recorded in the machine readable catalog. The KUV data include equatorial coordinates, magnitudes, color indices, and identifications for previously cataloged objects.

  4. Two Disciplines of Examiners? The Effect of Professional Background and Level of Experience in Grade-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Odd Erik

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of examiners' level of experience and professional background on grades given in oral and written undergraduate examinations in psychology. Level of experience was found to have no significant effect. Clinical psychologists gave more laudabilis grades on oral exams and academic psychologists on essay exams. (JD)

  5. Serum endocan levels before and after surgery on low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Taner; Kemerdere, Rahsan; Inal, Berrin B; Yuksel, Odhan; Emre, Humeyra O; Ahmedov, Merdin; Baran, Oguz; Ates, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Endocan has been shown to be a marker for several cancers and may show degree of malignancy. The aim of this study is to assess serum levels of endocan before and after surgery on low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Endocan was assayed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in a total of 19 patients and 12 controls. Serial serum samples were obtained before and after surgery (1 st day, 1 st week, and 1 st month of surgery). Control samples were collected from cord blood during cesarean section. The results were compared with control brain tissues. Controls showed significantly lower serum endocan levels compared to before and after surgery ( P < 0.05). There is a trend of increase in mean serum levels from before surgery and during the very early period after surgery (during first week); however, in the first month, mean serum levels became lower. Endocan, a vital molecule for angiogenesis, is highly expressed before and after surgery in LGGs, but long-term data is needed. Furthermore, future studies should include high-grade gliomas to discuss whether endocan is associated with recurrence and response to treatment.

  6. Readability of Igbo Language Textbook in Use in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of Igbo language textbook in use in Nigerian secondary schools. Five Igbo Language textbook were evaluated. The study employed an evaluation research design. The study was conducted in South Eastern Geopolitical zone of Nigeria which is predominantly the Igbo tribe of Nigeria. Four hundred secondary school…

  7. Assessing the Readability of Geoscience Textbooks, Laboratory Manuals, and Supplemental Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…

  8. Reference Manual for Machine-Readable Descriptions of Research Projects and Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierickx, Harold; Hopkinson, Alan

    This reference manual presents a standardized communication format for the exchange between databases or other information services of machine-readable information on research in progress. The manual is produced in loose-leaf format to facilitate updating. Its first section defines in broad outline the format and content of applicable records. A…

  9. Variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches by pattern generalization type, strategy use and grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-02-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for the near and far pattern generalization types but not for the immediate generalization type. The findings showed that for the recursive strategy, the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for each of the three pattern generalization types. However, the figural reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the numerical reasoning approach for the functional strategy, for each generalization type. The findings also showed that the numerical reasoning was more dominant than the figural reasoning in lower grade levels (grades 4 and 5) for each generalization type. In contrast, the figural reasoning became more dominant than the numerical reasoning in the upper grade levels (grades 10 and 11).

  10. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-08-01

    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  11. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies: Effects on Vocabulary Recognition and Comprehension at the First Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peitz, Patricia; Vena, Patricia

    A study examined teaching methods for vocabulary at the first grade level. The study compared teaching vocabulary in context and teaching vocabulary in isolation. Subjects were 32 culturally diverse first-grade students from varying socio-economic backgrounds. The sample consisted of 14 boys and 18 girls, heterogeneously grouped. Two teacher-made…

  12. Online information for women and their families regarding reduced fetal movements is of variable quality, readability and accountability.

    PubMed

    Farrant, Kimberley; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-03-01

    reduced fetal movements (RFM) are experienced by 46-50% of women prior to the diagnosis of stillbirth. Empowering women with evidenced-based information regarding RFM may allow for prompt contact with a health care provider and access to appropriate management. Use of the Internet is growing in popularity as a source of pregnancy information to aid mothers׳ decision-making. This study aimed to identify and examine the available online information for pregnant women regarding RFM. a systematic search was performed using Google, Yahoo and Bing to identify the most popular websites giving information about RFM. The websites were assessed for readability, accountability and content using the Flesh-Kincaid ease of readability score; the Silberg criteria; and by comparison to evidence-based guidelines respectively. Chat forums were assessed using a qualitative thematic analysis. 70 information articles and 63 chat forums were analysed from 77 unique websites. The mean readability score was 65.7 (suitable for the average 13-15 year old) and therefore above the recommended level set for health materials; only 15 (21.4%) websites met all accountability criteria; and 43 (70%) websites contained information that was not in accordance with evidence-based recommendations. Typical questions on forums were 'Is this normal? What should I do?' and responses were 'Better safe than sorry', 'There is no harm in calling'. overall, there was wide variation in the quality of information regarding RFM on the Internet. However, the study identified four excellent websites on RFM that may be suitable sources of information for women. Women׳s uncertainty displayed in the chat forums may suggest that clearer, accessible guidance is needed if they experience RFM. the Internet can compliment and support current methods of antenatal information provision. However, due to varying levels of quality it is essential that professionals discuss and direct women to useful evidenced-based websites

  13. Are patients comprehending? A critical assessment of online patient educational materials.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh-Lan; Silva-Hirschberg, Catalina; Torres, Josefina; Armstrong, April W

    2018-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the readability, understandability, suitability and actionability of online psoriasis patient educational materials. A secondary aim was to identify areas for improvement. We conducted an evaluation study to assess online psoriasis patient educational materials from the American Academy of Dermatology and National Psoriasis Foundation available in July 2017. We used two validated assessment tools specific to online healthcare materials. Outcomes were expressed as percentages, where higher percentages corresponded to higher quality materials. Overall, the educational materials had a mean understandability score (72.7%) that was understandable; a suitability score (58.8%) that was adequate; a reading grade level (10.5) that was not readable; and an actionability score (54.7%) that was not actionable. Areas of improvement include reading grade level, visual aids, word choice, specific steps for actions and cultural appropriateness. Online psoriasis patient educational materials are understandable and suitable, but they are written above the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health's recommended 6th-8th grade reading level and are not actionable. Materials can benefit from decreasing reading grade level, including more visual elements, incorporating more actionable items and being culturally inclusive.

  14. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) of Vorontsov-Velyaminov et al, 1962-1968

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications, corrections, and the record format are provided for the machine-readable version of the "Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies.' In addition to hundreds of individual corrections, a detailed comparison of the machine-readable with the published catalogue resulted in the addition of 116 missing objects, the deletion of 10 duplicate records, and a format modification to increase storage efficiency.

  15. The Correlation between the Fourth Grade Students' Level of Functional Literacy and Metacognitive Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özenç, Emine Gül; Dikici, Hidayet

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at presenting the relationship between the fourth grade primary school students' level of functional literacy and metacognitive awareness. The study group of the research is made up of 406 fourth grade students attending school during 2015-2016 academic year in Nigde. This study adopts survey model and its data collection…

  16. Assessment of Readability and Learning of Easy-to-Read Educational Health Materials Designed and Written with the Help of Citizens by Means of Two Non-Alternative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghio, M. Monica; Fattori, Giuseppe; Ciardullo, Anna V.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: We compared two non-alternative methods to assess the readability and learning of easy-to-read educational health materials co-written by physicians, educators and citizens. Methods: Data from seven easy-to-read materials were analyzed. Readability formulae, and ad hoc data on readability and learning were also computed. Results: The…

  17. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  18. Grade-Level Differences in Future-Oriented Self-Concept During Early Adolescence: Potential Relevance to School Nursing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The middle school and early high school years are a time of significant development, including an increasing ability to envision oneself in the future. Little is known about how adolescents’ future-oriented self-concept (i.e., possible selves) differs across grade levels, although this knowledge may aid in establishing rapport with students and building effective health-promotion and risk reduction interventions. Therefore, this study explored grade-level differences in hoped for and feared possible selves in a sample of 6th – 9th grade students (n = 2,498; Mage = 12.72, SD = 1.15; 51.3% female). Findings suggest that adolescents list a variety of possible selves, and the content differs according to grade-level. These findings offer helpful insight for intervention work aimed at improving student outcomes and preventing risk behavior. Understanding what adolescents hope and fear for themselves in the future may be particularly beneficial for school nurses in identifying the unique challenges students experience and tailoring health-promotion efforts. PMID:27222444

  19. Grade-Level Differences in Future-Oriented Self-Concept During Early Adolescence: Potential Relevance to School Nursing.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer; Schmidt, Carissa J

    2016-12-01

    The middle school and early high school years are a time of significant development, including an increasing ability to envision oneself in the future. Little is known about how adolescents' future-oriented self-concept (i.e., possible selves) differs across grade levels, although this knowledge may aid in establishing rapport with students and building effective health promotion and risk reduction interventions. Therefore, this study explored grade-level differences in hoped for and feared possible selves in a sample of sixth- to ninth-grade students (n = 2,498; M age = 12.72, SD = 1.15; 51.3% female). Findings suggest that adolescents list a variety of possible selves, and the content differs according to grade level. These findings offer helpful insight for intervention work aimed at improving student outcomes and preventing risk behavior. Understanding what adolescents hope and fear for themselves in the future may be particularly beneficial for school nurses in identifying the unique challenges students experience and tailoring health promotion efforts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A visual grading study for different administered activity levels in bone scintigraphy.

    Pu