Science.gov

Sample records for grade realizado pelo

  1. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's…

  2. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  3. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  4. Grading for Understanding--Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I…

  5. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an…

  6. Conversations about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine; Gullen, James; Erickson-Guy, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Grades often are determined by the unspoken values and beliefs of an autonomous teacher, but technology is making grading practices more transparent to parents, students, and educators. The ability to view the grade books of teachers who are teaching the same course in the same district is increasingly raising questions and challenges to what were…

  7. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  8. The Meaning of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Serna E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that students see grades as an indicator of effort unconnected to the content of the course while teachers regard grades as a measure of achievement within a discipline. Discusses some of the current controversies and approaches concerning grades and how they relate to school reform. (MJP)

  9. Assessment: How Do I "Grade" without Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    1993-01-01

    Examines the A through F system of letter grades used in most schools, suggesting reasons why this framework is inadequate. Proposes a new assessment model which has children demonstrate that they can accomplish a given task on their own. (MDM)

  10. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  11. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  12. What Is Fifth Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C.; Wallach, Christine

    2006-01-01

    One of the most consistent regularities observers would see in schools is the grouping of children by grade. The authors' work with schoolchildren causes them to ask, what is a grade beyond a group of children at a particular age? In this article, the authors share a glimpse of an activity involving inference and logical necessity that they…

  13. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  14. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  15. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the middle grades. They focus on Logo activities to sharpen visualization skills, use of spreadsheets, various uses of Apple microcomputer paddles, and writing a program from program output. All activities may be adapted for lower or higher grade levels. (JN)

  16. Growing beyond Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perchemlides, Natalia; Coutant, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Once students are asked to assess their own writing progress, they will begin to do their best for writing great prose instead of just great grades. Teachers will have to create a grade-free zone, allow students to set their own writing goals, provide a common language such as the Six Traits Model, and provide evaluation and instructional models…

  17. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  18. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  19. Making Grades More Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Pollio, Marty

    2016-01-01

    To expand and improve evidence of grading practices, we seized an opportunity presented by the implementation of standards-based grading practices at 11 high schools in Jefferson County Public Schools in Louisville, Ky. These high-needs schools faced substantial sanctions outlined by recently revised federal and state policies unless they made…

  20. Earth Science, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Public Schools, NY.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 7. SUBJECT MATTER: Earth science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material suggests a time schedule for the major units and gives details of the reference materials referred to in the text. The main text is presented in four columns: topical outline, basic understandings, suggested activities and…

  1. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  2. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  3. Upper Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-oriented teaching activities for the upper grades. They focus on the use of databases in history classes, checking taxes, examining aspects of the joystick button on Atari microcomputers, printing control using Logo, and a Logo program that draws whirling squares. All activities can be adapted for lower grades. (JN)

  4. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  5. View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade seen at left distance. New Priest Grade at center and right distance. Looking west - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  6. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  7. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  8. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  9. Assigning Grades More Fairly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshier, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a simplified method for converting raw scores to standard scores and transforming them to "T-scores" for easy comparison of performance. Obtaining letter grades from T-scores is discussed. A reading list is included. (GH)

  10. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Prostatic Neoplasia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ... nih.gov/pubmed/26956509 . Pierorazio PM, Walsh PC, Partin AW, Epstein JI. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data ...

  11. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed.

  12. How Consistent Are Course Grades? An Examination of Differential Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Differential grading occurs when students in courses with the same content and curriculum receive inconsistent grades across teachers, schools, or districts. It may be due to many factors, including differences in teacher grading standards, district grading policies, student behavior, teacher stereotypes, teacher quality, and curriculum adherence.…

  13. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  14. Teachers' Experiences of Unfair Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Fredrik; Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    Grading is often perceived as one of a teacher's most difficult tasks. Despite most teachers endeavoring to grade their students as objectively as possible, many students feel that they are subject to unfair grading. The aim of this study is to describe what it is about a teacher's grading that contributes to the perception of unfairness. This…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  1. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  2. Serving Grades Over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James K.

    This paper demonstrates a grade server that allows college students to access their grades over the Internet from the instructor's home page. Using a CGI (common gateway interface) program written in Visual Basic, the grades are read directly from an Excel spreadsheet and presented to the requester after he/she enters a password. The grade for…

  3. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  4. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  5. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  6. Purpose-Driven Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  7. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  8. Career Education, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse City School District, NY.

    Part of the Syracuse (New York) city school district's guided occupational orientation program, the student workbook consists of information and question sheets suitable for grade 6 career education studies on topics in the labor field, including labor laws, wages, and unions; job applications and interviews; on-the-job training; and social…

  9. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  10. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the early grades. They include creating musical tones using Atari PILOT, a simulation of traffic lights, teacher-friendly password protection, drawing the alphabet using Logo, and using the Commodore 64's special character graphics. (JN)

  11. Elementary Science: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 2 science curriculum guide contains three activity units: (1) insects; (2) measuring; and (3) sink or float. Each unit contains a rationale, teacher background material, lesson plans, and lists of resources including books, audiovisual materials, resource persons, and science activity modules. The lesson plans list the science processes…

  12. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  13. Health, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

  14. Reader. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    This textbook is the fourth in the official reading series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. This grade 4 reader…

  15. EIGHTH GRADE ENGLISH CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHING EIGHTH-GRADE ENGLISH WAS DEVELOPED IN 1965 AT UNIVERSITY CITY, MISSOURI. FOUR UNITS ARE PRESENTED IN DETAILED OUTLINE FORM--"PAST THROUGH PROLOGUE,""GROWING UP,""WHAT IS HUMOR," AND "HEROES, REAL AND UNREAL." THREE OTHER UNITS ARE SUGGESTED BUT NOT OUTLINED--"VALUE AND…

  16. Graded SPSS Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary J.

    The attached materials have been developed for use on the CSU CYBER Computer's Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSONL). The assignments are graded in difficulty and gradually introduce new commands and require the practice of previously learned commands. The handouts begin with basic instructions for logging on; then XEDIT is taught…

  17. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  18. Career Awareness: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

  19. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  20. Health, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

  1. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  2. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  3. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  4. Does Grade Inflation Decrease the Reliability of Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Royce, Jr.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of grade inflation on the reliability of undergraduate grade point averages at a university was examined. It was shown that there has been some decline in reliability, but this is ameliorated by the use of plus and minus attachments to grades. (JKS)

  5. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  6. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  7. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  8. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  9. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  10. Graded Causation and Defaults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    in philosophy and the law in part because of its connection with issues of moral and legal responsibility (see for example, Moore [2009] for a...viewpoints in the flower-watering example described in the introduction: (a) Beebee [2004] and Moore [2009], for example, argue against the existence...relevant sense) of his death. Moore [2009] uses this type of case to argue that our ordinary notion of actual causation is graded, rather than all-or

  11. The Unbearable Importance of Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parini, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Grading is one of the primary venues of teaching. In this article, the author shares his experience of grading papers. He alleges that the hardest papers to grade are those where nothing is really "wrong" with the prose or the argument, where everything is "sort of" correct but nothing is vivid, nothing quite original. Students must learn in time…

  12. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  13. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  14. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  15. Field grading in capacitor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T. E.; Sarjeant, W. J.; Nunnally, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Some of the results of modeling electric fields in the margin of a bogey plastic film liquid impregnant capacitor are presented where effects of foil edge shape, different impregnants, and grading wires are examined. It is concluded that placement tolerance and connection problems make grading wires impractical and that folded foil edges are still the best solution to field grading.

  16. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  18. Grade inflation: a problem in nursing?

    PubMed

    King-Jones, Malena; Mitchell, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article examines grade inflation in higher education and in nursing education. The factors related to grade inflation and consequences of grade inflation are explored. Actions that address grade inflation and recommendations for future research in nursing education are provided.

  19. Grading the teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    2000-04-01

    Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

  20. The evolving Gleason grading system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-02-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s-1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new "Grade Group" system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate.

  1. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  2. Prediction of Grade of Dropout from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…

  3. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies English language resources endorsed by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing The Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12. Resources in this annotated bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process based on their high level of fidelity…

  4. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  5. Learning-Centered Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Conni

    2012-01-01

    The research on grading practice over two decades is clear: grading practices are firmly held beliefs that are near and dear to the teaching professional. At a time when government, business and industry, and the general public are calling for an accountability of student knowledge and abilities, classroom assessment practices could be…

  6. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  7. Science: Grade 3. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  8. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  9. Health Curriculum Guide. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syosset Central School District 2, NY.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade five. SUBJECT MATTER: Health education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide is illustrated with drawings and bound in a spiral binder. It is divided into five "strands" or topics and a bibliography. The five strands are as follows: Physical Health; Sociological Health Problems; Mental Health; Environmental and…

  10. Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  11. Science: Grade 8. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  12. Science: Grade 5. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  13. Science: Grade 6. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  14. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  15. Science: Grade 9. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  16. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  17. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  18. Group Grades Miss the Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Spencer

    1995-01-01

    Some teachers justify group grading for cooperative projects using specious arguments that invoke real-world comparison, employment skills, motivation, teacher workload, and credit for teamwork. This article argues that group grades are blatantly unfair, invalidate report cards, undermine motivation, convey the wrong message, violate individual…

  19. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  20. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  1. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  2. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  3. Science: Grade 2. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  4. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  5. Grading System and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Several papers have proposed that the grading system affects students' incentives to exert effort. In particular, the previous literature has compared student effort under relative and absolute grading systems, but the results are mixed and the implications of the models have not been empirically tested. In this paper, I build a model where…

  6. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  7. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  8. Alternatives to Grading Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.

    The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…

  9. First Grade Pre-Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Pre-Screening is designed to be used at the start of the first grade school year so that teachers can obtain information about their incoming students. This information is intended to give teachers insight about what math and reading skills a student may or may not have at the beginning of the year. The information can aid teachers…

  10. Science: Grade 1. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  11. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  13. Grading a Large Organic Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Marjorie

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problems of grading an organic laboratory course. Proposes that the grade should be based as: products--30 percent of the grade; notebooks--30 percent of the grade; exams and final report--40 percent of the grade. Gives an exception policy for special considerations. (MVL)

  14. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have.... Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more than eight cherries per sample...

  15. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care.

  16. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  18. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  19. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  20. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  1. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  2. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  3. School Organization: Grade Span. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    This paper examines grade spans (grade configurations) and their importance in community school systems. Research has shown that geographic location often dictates the kind of grade configuration districts use. Furthermore, every grade configuration has strengths and weaknesses, and school officials must focus on developing the positive potential…

  4. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score and high school grade point average after controlling for…

  5. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  6. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  7. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  8. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  9. Grading: Why You Should Trust Your Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2016-01-01

    Many educators consider grades calculated from statistical algorithms more accurate, objective, and reliable than grades they calculate themselves. But in this research, the authors first asked teachers to use their professional judgment to choose a summary grade for hypothetical students. When the researchers compared the teachers' grade with the…

  10. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have at least the following attributes: (1) At least a reasonably... system outlined in this subpart. Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more...

  11. Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Grading Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated three strategies for assigning examinees to grading categories in computerized adaptive testing. The expected a posteriori-based method had more correct classifications in the middle range of grade levels and more errors for the extremes than the golden section search grading test and the Z-score grading test. (SLD)

  12. Health Education Curriculum Guide. Grade 9 Through Grade 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This guide has been prepared to assist teachers of grades nine through twelve students in the implementation of health education into the curriculum. The book contains student objectives, suggested activities, and pertinent questions which will provide the basic tools to meet program goals. The ten major areas of instruction are: 1) consumer…

  13. Health Education Curriculum Guide. Grade 5 Through Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This guide has been prepared to assist the teacher of grades five through eight students in the implementation of health education into the curriculum. The booklet contains student objectives, suggested activities, and pertinent questions which will provide the basic tools to meet program goals. The ten major areas of instruction are: 1) consumer…

  14. Family LIfe Education Curriculum: Grade 7 through Grade 9 Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Schools, Fayetteville, NC.

    This document presents a curriculum unit in family life education for students in grades 7 through 9 that encompasses learning about human sexuality, interpersonal relationships, and roles within the family. The unit is designed to attain the following goals: (1) to help students gain a detailed knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and uniqueness…

  15. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  16. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  17. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  18. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  19. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  20. Ohio Proficiency Tests for Grade 12. Fact Sheets. Twelfth-Grade Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    Beginning in February 1994, twelfth-grade students who have passed the Ohio Ninth-grade Proficiency Tests in all areas will take the Twelfth-grade Proficiency Tests in writing, reading, mathematics, and citizenship. This fact sheet describes the Twelfth-grade Proficiency Test in mathematics, which is designed to measure a twelfth-grade level of…

  1. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  2. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  3. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  4. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  5. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  6. Instructional and Grading Practices That Change Grading Fidelity: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, final course grades of sixth- through eighth-grade language arts, mathematics, and eighth grade science students at the primary research site, Site A (pseudonym), suggest a high degree of grade inflation or disassociation when grade point averages (GPA) were compared to actual student performance levels as measured by annual state…

  7. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

  8. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

  9. Anomalies and graded coisotropic branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi

    2006-03-01

    We compute the anomaly of the axial U(1) current in the A-model on a Calabi-Yau manifold, in the presence of coisotropic branes discovered by Kapustin and Orlov. Our results relate the anomaly-free condition to a recently proposed definition of graded coisotropic branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds. More specifically, we find that a coisotropic brane is anomaly-free if and only if it is gradable. We also comment on a different grading for coisotropic submanifolds introduced recently by Oh.

  10. Modeling First Grade Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne E.; Williams, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesized model examining reading proficiency across first grade. It addressed how alphabetics at the beginning of the year were mediated by applied and automated skills at the middle of the year to explain actualized reading at the end of the year. The alphabetic skills of 102 first graders were measured in October and the…

  11. The Hoosier Connection: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ira; And Others

    This eighth grade teacher's guide with student activities is designed to create greater awareness of Indiana, its geography, history, government, and future and is designed to be used as a supplement to the study of the U.S. Constitution and the Indiana Constitution. In the first section, entitled "Geography of Indiana," the lessons…

  12. Grade Two, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This second grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

  13. Let's Eliminate the Eighth Grade!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, William R.

    2008-01-01

    With tongue tentatively hovering in the direction of the distal side of the tooth line and the lining of the inner cheek, the author suggests terminating the elementary school years with the seventh grade and requiring completion of nine to twelve months of paid work experience before the resumption of high school. Maintaining that a practical…

  14. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 7. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  15. Grade Four, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This fourth grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

  16. Grading Philosophy Survey, Fall 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catonsville Community Coll., MD. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1989, a survey was conducted at Catonsville Community College to establish a consensus about the underlying philosophy governing the college's grading policy. The survey respondents included 167 full-time or adjunct faculty members, 15 student personnel professionals, 8 administrators, and 6 library, media, or telecommunications professionals.…

  17. Teaching Music, Grades 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide has been prepared for use by both the music specialist and the classroom teacher in New York City. It outlines areas of musical subject matter appropriate for students in grades five and six. The materials are presented in six sections. "Rhythmic Experiences" introduces students to a variety of meters and rhythms…

  18. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  19. Grade Three, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This third grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, that were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

  20. Storybook Writing in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz-Lazarowitze, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Research literature on writing storybooks overlooks first graders. This is puzzling as children enter first grade having emergent literacy, in reading, writing, and story composition. It may reflect the belief that at this age children should learn to read and write (conventionally) as the curriculum demands, while elaborate writing is assumed to…

  1. The Humanistic Method of Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Otis Clovis

    1981-01-01

    Sets forth a guideline for incorporating humanism into grading with built-in adjustments that accommodate some human weaknesses. Built-in adjustments cancel or neutralize some of the blunders that are inherent in the teaching, learning, and testing processes that reflect student assessment. (Author)

  2. Contract grading in clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schoolcraft, V; Delaney, C

    1982-01-01

    The use of contracts in grading clinical performance has provided faculty with a solution to two important problems. One has been how to ensure that students are graded consistently among the various faculty who are grading the same clinical component of a course. The second has been to increase the opportunity for individualized attention to student learning needs. We have been pleased to see all the faculty members increase their input and involvement in the continuing modifications of the contract. Although we have taken the major responsibility for the semi-annual revisions of the contract, other faculty members have been increasingly more explicit in their evaluations and suggestions as their experience with the contract has expanded. Their confidence in this method of clinical evaluation has increased with each semester of use. We plan to continue in the refinement of the instrument and will develop materials for the use of other faculty groups who are interested in developing similar contracts. We are also designing a survey to attempt to discover how widespread is the use of contract grading in clinical areas.

  3. Learning by Sharing Graded Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisin, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Discusses using students' graded papers as a "text" to be read and commented upon by other students. Notes that sharing students' papers (and the teacher's comments) (1) reassures the students that they are not the only ones making errors; (2) deepens their understanding of literature; and (3) increases their awareness of writing styles and…

  4. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  5. Caney's Third Grade Rocket Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, Joe; Hudiburg, George E.

    1984-01-01

    This narrative description of a special program for third-grade students to raise funds for and to construct, launch, and fly their own rockets illustrates benefits of heightened confidence and self-perception among participants, hands-on experience in a highly technical area, and increased community support and involvement. (MM)

  6. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 10. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  7. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  8. The Reliability of College Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  9. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen Van Quan; And Others

    This illustrated primer, designed for second grade students in Vietnam, consists of stories depicting rural family life in Vietnam. The book is divided into the following six chapters: (1) Practicing Good Habits (health, play, helpfulness); (2) Duties at Home (grandparents, father and mother, servants, the extended family; (3) Duties in School…

  10. Teacher's Guide, Health. Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui huy Bao; And Others

    This is the teaching guide accompanying the elementary health instructional program designed for children at the first grade level in Vietnam. The goal is to integrate the school program with the realities of the health conditions in the community. The teaching method outlined in the guide is based on three principals: (1) preparation at home, (2)…

  11. 8th Grade Canadian Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinek, Gilbert; Schoenike, Paul

    Ideas are offered for helping eighth-grade students incorporate an at-home field trip to Canada into a social studies unit. The teachers who developed the unit state that students can complete the 21-day imaginary trip in five hours of classroom time when appropriate materials are available and the classroom environment is conducive to working on…

  12. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  13. Linguistics in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, John

    1965-01-01

    When the science of linguistics is treated as a variety of ways for searching for truth and theory, rather than as a body of established theories, it can be taught successfully in the early grades. Some of the generalizations in linguistics (e.g., the articulatory description of differences between significant sounds, of the classification of…

  14. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  15. School Grading and Institutional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline

    2011-01-01

    We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker…

  16. Elementary School Dance. Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for second grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  17. Elementary School Dance. Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for first grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  18. Elementary School Dance. Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for sixth grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  19. Elementary School Dance. Grade Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Bill

    Outlines are presented for 30 creative dance lessons for third grade children. Each lesson description includes: (1) a statement of the lesson objective; (2) an overview of how the lesson illuminates a general concept of dancing; (3) musical equipment needed; (4) introductory activities; (5) tasks for skill development; (6) suggestions for the…

  20. Seals. Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Explanations of a marine mammal rescue program and information on seals and sea lions are presented in this curriculum package for intermediate grade teachers. Activities are highlighted which focus on the natural history of harbor seals. This unit contains: (1) pre-trip activities (including fact sheets and worksheets on the different types of…

  1. Speaking Aids Through the Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    This book contains a selection of activities, techniques, and sources to be used by those who are concerned with oral communication experiences of children and youth. Chapter topics are as follows: (1) multi-sensory awareness: speaking and acting for kindergarten through third grade; (2) kinesics and drama for primary children; (3) imaginative…

  2. Writing Assessment Handbook, Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook, intended for English language arts teachers, principals, curriculum and testing specialists, superintendents, and all educators interested in preparing students for the grade 8 California Assessment Program (CAP) writing assessment, provides the practitioner with information about the content of the test, the rationale underlying…

  3. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  4. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 4. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  5. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  6. Woodworking: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    The woodworking collection is composed of 55 objectives and related evaluation items for use in grades 7 through 12. Each sample contains the objective, test items, and criteria for judging the adequacy of the response. Woodworking categories being measured include sharpening, adjusting, using and caring for tools; reading a working drawing; stock…

  7. Third Grade Social Studies Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park Forest Public Schools District 163, IL.

    As in other units in this series, this teaching guide is structured on the basis of one major generalization, supporting generalizations, and suggestions of learning activities and materials leading to an understanding of these ideas. For Grade 3, the major generalization is, "Skin color is only one of many obvious physical differences among…

  8. Teaching Literacy in Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Susan I.; Wells, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    For students, fifth grade is a time of increasing independence and responsibility. Yet fifth-graders vary widely in their reading and writing abilities--and they are still young enough to require considerable teacher support. Depicting an exemplary teacher in action, this indispensable book presents innovative, practical strategies for creating an…

  9. Metric Measurement: Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection is comprised of 63 objectives and corresponding sample test items for evaluation of students in grades K-8. Correct answers or criteria for judging the adequacy of student responses are provided. Major categories in the collection are: (1) preparing to use the metric system--decimal and fractional notation; (2) measurement--length,…

  10. Lies; Damned Lies; Statistics; and Law School Grades. Grade Conferences from Hell: Measurement Error in Law School Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangerin, Paul T.

    This paper addresses problems confronting law school teachers in grading law school exams and assigning letter grades. Using prototypical dialogue and scenarios, the paper examines mathematical and statistical issues that contribute to grading errors. Discussed in relation to real world data and the bar exam are: differential weighting, combining…

  11. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  12. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  13. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  14. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  15. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  16. Academic Interest Rates and Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, James F.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the causes and effects of the devaluation of honors grades over the past fifteen years noting particularly effects on transcripts and grades as a means of exchange and suggesting faculty responsibility for restoration of academic standards. (JT)

  17. Fair & Accurate Grading for Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many changes in education over the past century, grading and reporting practices have essentially remained the same. In part, this is because few teacher preparation programs offer any guidance on sound grading practices. As a result, most current grading practices are grounded in tradition, rather than research on best practice. In an…

  18. Student Perspectives of Grading in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe

    2015-01-01

    Recent state and federal legislations on educational accountability push evaluation and grading to the frontline. This study examined students' perspectives of grading in physical education. The participants included students (N = 39) from two middle schools. Data were collected through observation, student profile grading sheets and interviews.…

  19. Contract Grading in Speech Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Cassandra L.; And Others

    This document presents contract grading as a system of evaluation for speech communication courses at the high school or college level. Contract grading can provide the means to reduce the element of threat that impedes effective interpersonal communication between teacher and student. Contract grading is a business like arrangement whereby the…

  20. Grade Inflation: Magnitude, Causes, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garten, Edward D.; Olday, David B.

    The extent of grade inflation at the college level, possible causes of the phenomenon, and its potential consequences for colleges and universities and the individual student are discussed. Grade inflation since 1965 has been attributed to the following possible causes: grade point averages (GPA) have increased because of real changes in high…

  1. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  2. Investigating Grade Inflation and Non-Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2009. This study investigated the presence of a general rise in high school grades without a corresponding rise in SAT scores, as well as different grading criteria between schools, as shown by differential relationships between AP course grades and exam scores. These…

  3. Grade Inflation in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol

    Grade inflation has commanded increasing attention in the academic world in recent years, with administrators, faculty, and academic analysts unable to agree on whether grade inflation actually exists or is a myth to be debunked. This Digest reviews research in support of and against the existence of grade inflation. A statistical analysis report…

  4. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  5. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score; and high school GPA after controlling for test scores, a…

  6. Is Grade Inflation Related to Faculty Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezim, Boualem; Pariseau, Susan E.; Quinn, Frances

    2005-01-01

    The authors performed a statistical analysis to investigate whether grade inflation existed in the business school at a small private college in the northeast region of the United States. The results showed that grade inflation existed and exhibited a linear trend over a 20-year period. The authors found that grade inflation was related to faculty…

  7. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  8. Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

  9. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  10. Graded Course of Study, Science (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid City Schools, OH.

    This course of study specifies the science skills and concepts that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City Schools. Included are instructional objectives for the life, physical, and earth sciences for grades K to 6, suggested field trips and planetarium schedules (by elementary grade levels), and scope and sequence charts…

  11. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  12. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  13. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Flaxseed Grades and Grade... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. 810.604 Section 810.604 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  14. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Flaxseed Grades and Grade... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. 810.604 Section 810.604 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  15. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  16. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1405 Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to give a smutty appearance in mass, or that contains...

  18. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1405 Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to give a smutty appearance in mass, or that contains...

  19. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1405 Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to give a smutty appearance in mass, or that contains...

  20. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  1. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  2. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.405 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn. (b) Flint and dent corn. Corn that consists of a mixture...

  3. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.405 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn. (b) Flint and dent corn. Corn that consists of a mixture...

  4. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.405 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn. (b) Flint and dent corn. Corn that consists of a mixture...

  5. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.405 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn. (b) Flint and dent corn. Corn that consists of a mixture...

  6. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.405 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn. (b) Flint and dent corn. Corn that consists of a mixture...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  9. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  10. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  11. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  12. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... combination, 10 or more rodent pellets, bird droppings, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 11/8... slightly weathered shall be graded not higher than U.S. No. 3. 2 Oats that are badly stained or materially weathered shall be graded not higher than U.S. No. 4. Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements...

  13. 7 CFR 810.207 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.207 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Blighted barley. Barley that contains more than 4.0 percent of fungus-damaged and/or mold-damaged kernels. (b) Ergoty...

  14. 7 CFR 810.207 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.207 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Blighted barley. Barley that contains more than 4.0 percent of fungus-damaged and/or mold-damaged kernels. (b) Ergoty...

  15. 7 CFR 810.207 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.207 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Blighted barley. Barley that contains more than 4.0 percent of fungus-damaged and/or mold-damaged kernels. (b) Ergoty...

  16. 7 CFR 810.207 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.207 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Blighted barley. Barley that contains more than 4.0 percent of fungus-damaged and/or mold-damaged kernels. (b) Ergoty...

  17. 7 CFR 810.207 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.207 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Blighted barley. Barley that contains more than 4.0 percent of fungus-damaged and/or mold-damaged kernels. (b) Ergoty...

  18. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  19. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  20. Stop Giving in to Higher Grades: Ten Suggestions on How to Fight Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Grade inflation has been a consistently ignored problem in the public schools and universities for over fifty years. Grades keep getting higher and higher for a multitude of reasons. Students expect high grades. Parents demand high grades of their children and teachers. Some administrators implicitly or explicitly require that their teachers give…

  1. 7 CFR 810.1605 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1605 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Garlicky soybeans. Soybeans that contain 5 or more green garlic bulblets or an equivalent quantity of dry or partly...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1005 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with sulfurous acid or any other bleaching agent....

  3. 7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1005 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with sulfurous acid or any other bleaching agent....

  4. 7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1005 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with sulfurous acid or any other bleaching agent....

  5. Self-Graded and Teacher-Graded Achievement in a BSCS High School Biology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Wallace Martin

    The effect of self-grading on biology students exposed to the same instruction (except grading) in an upper-middle class public school was investigated by comparing self-graded and teacher-graded populations in (1) achievement in high school biology, (2) level of aspiration behavior, (3) critical thinking skills, and (4) productivity. The…

  6. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  7. Grade inflation: should we be concerned?

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Judith M; Care, W Dean

    2004-10-01

    Grade inflation is defined as an increase in grade point average without an associated increase in overall student ability. The literature supports the idea that grade inflation is rampant throughout higher education. Shoemaker and DeVos described the scope of the problem in higher education in general and note the lack of existing empirical information in nursing education. Given the perceived problem in faculties of nursing, the widespread nature of the issue of grade inflation across universities and colleges, and the lack of empirical data, understanding the nature of grade inflation is important. This article will discuss a study designed to investigate the extent to which grade inflation is an issue within a western Canadian faculty of nursing. Recommendations related to grade inflation are discussed.

  8. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  9. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline variables). Relative to promoted children, retained children were found to benefit from retention in both the short and longer terms with respect to decreased teacher-rated hyperactivity, decreased peer-rated sadness and withdrawal, and increased teacher-rated behavioral engagement. Retained children had a short-term increase in mean peer-rated liking and school belongingness relative to promoted children, but this advantage showed a substantial decrease in the longer term. Retention had a positive short-term effect on children’s perceived school belonging and a positive longer term effect on perceived academic self-efficacy. Retention may bestow advantages in the short-term, but longer term detrimental effects on social acceptance may lead to the documented longer term negative effects of retention. PMID:20448829

  10. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S....

  11. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S....

  12. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S....

  13. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S....

  14. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S....

  15. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S....

  16. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2014-05-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed of nails" (BON). A 2 mm thick × 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ~2.5 us, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress strain curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  17. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  18. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the ‘increases in grade point average’ definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all. PMID:25288826

  19. Does Learning-Centered Teaching Promote Grade Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostrom, Alison M.; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    When the grade distribution within a course shifts towards higher grades, it may be due to grade inflation or grade improvement. If the positive shift is accompanied by an increase in achievement or learning, it should be considered grade improvement, "not" grade inflation. Effective learning-centered teaching is designed to promote student…

  20. Graded Synaptic Transmission between Spiking Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graubard, Katherine; Raper, Jonathan A.; Hartline, Daniel K.

    1980-06-01

    Graded synaptic transmission occurs between spiking neurons of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. In addition to eliciting spike-evoked inhibitory potentials in postsynaptic cells, these neurons also release functionally significant amounts of transmitter below the threshold for action potentials. The spikeless postsynaptic potentials grade in amplitude with presynaptic voltage and can be maintained for long periods. Graded synaptic transmission can be modulated by synaptic input to the presynaptic neuron.

  1. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  2. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies). PMID:28377738

  3. Energy and Economics for the Elementary Grades. Unit I (Grades K-6). Lessons and Activities for the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backler, Alan

    Six lessons for students in grades K-3 and six lessons for students in grades 4-6 are presented. These lessons are designed to help students become more aware of the energy choices that they must make in the present and for the future and to understand that the costs of maintaining a specific standard of living and thriving national economy can be…

  4. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium;...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium;...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium;...

  7. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  8. 7 CFR 810.1605 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Special Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special grades and special grade requirements. 810.1605 Section 810.1605 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  9. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special grades and special grade requirements. 810.1405 Section 810.1405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  10. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1605 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Special Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special grades and special grade requirements. 810.1605 Section 810.1605 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  12. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special grades and special grade requirements. 810.1405 Section 810.1405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  14. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  15. Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Grading through the Use of Computer-Assisted Grading Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, Linda; Anglin, Kenneth; Schumann, Paul L.; Kaliski, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the use of computer-assisted grading rubrics compared to other grading methods with respect to the efficiency and effectiveness of different grading processes for subjective assignments. The test was performed on a large Introduction to Business course. The students in this course were randomly assigned to four treatment groups…

  16. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test weight...) Contain 8 or more stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2... combination, 10 or more rodent pellets, bird droppings, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per... which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass...), 2 or more rodent pellets, bird droppings, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 11/8...

  18. 7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per... which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass...), 2 or more rodent pellets, bird droppings, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 11/8...

  19. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test weight...) Contain 8 or more stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2... combination, 10 or more rodent pellets, bird droppings, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per...

  20. 7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per... which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass...), 2 or more rodent pellets, bird droppings, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 11/8...

  1. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 810.604 Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. Grade Minimum test weight per bushel (pounds... aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more... pellets, bird dropping, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 11/8 to 11/4 quarts of...

  2. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight per..., 3, or 4; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones or any number of stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria...

  3. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements § 810.604 Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. Grade Minimum test weight per bushel (pounds... aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more... pellets, bird dropping, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 11/8 to 11/4 quarts of...

  4. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight per..., 3, or 4; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones or any number of stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria...

  5. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 810.604 Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. Grade Minimum test weight per bushel (pounds... aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more... pellets, bird dropping, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 11/8 to 11/4 quarts of...

  6. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  7. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  8. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  9. How Minimal Grade Goals and Self-Control Capacity Interact in Predicting Test Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the prediction of school students' grades in an upcoming math test via their minimal grade goals (i.e., the minimum grade in an upcoming test one would be satisfied with). Due to its significance for initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior, self-control capacity was expected to moderate the relation between…

  10. Beyond Grade Inflation: Grading Problems in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 30, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    College grades play important educational and social roles (Milton, Pollio, and Eison, 1986; Walvoord and Anderson, 1998). What is not well understood are the types of problems that exist in college grading practices. Conversations about grade inflation in higher education are often based on sparse anecdotal evidence and charged with value…

  11. Grade-Appropriate Literacy and South African Grade Seven Learners' Classroom Writing in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the writing of grade seven learners in English as an additional language at four differently resourced schools in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Because grade seven is the start of the senior phase of schooling, it is vital that learners achieve grade-level competence in the language used as medium of instruction.…

  12. Judging the Grade: Exploring the Judgement Processes Involved in Examination Grading Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Examiners' grading judgements are central to the maintenance of examination standards. This research investigated the judgement processes underpinning examination grading. Operating under a think aloud protocol, six examiners conducted a grading exercise for each of two geography A level examinations. They also "thought aloud" whilst…

  13. Student Self-Grading in Social Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes a social statistics class that engaged in self-grading. Students liked self-grading because they identified their own mistakes, it reinforced what they learned, and they received immediate feedback. Some students worried that others would cheat, but this assertion was not confirmed in the data and the possibility of cheating…

  14. Can Business Students Forecast Their Own Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines grade expectations of two groups of business students for their final course mark. We separate students that are on average "better" forecasters on the basis of them not making significant forecast errors during the semester from those students that are poor forecasters of their final grade. We find that the better…

  15. INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM FOR ELEMENTARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NICHOLS, MARGUERITE; AND OTHERS

    AN INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM FOR GRADES 2, 4, AND 5 WAS INITIATED AT PLATEAU VALLEY SCHOOL IN COLLBRAN, COLORADO, IN AN EFFORT TO RAISE THE ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS. THE PROGRAM AT EACH GRADE LEVEL IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE METHODS USED TO GATHER PRELIMINARY DATA, IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF…

  16. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  17. Teachers Guide to Economics in Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Hugh, Ed.; Ouchi, Albert, Ed.

    This guide is one of a series intended to present a carefully designed plan to teach a progression of economic concepts in the elementary and secondary grades. The guides vary somewhat according to the grade level, however, they all follow the same general pattern. A table of contents lists a number of basic concepts or "Big Ideas"…

  18. Grade Repetition in Honduran Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper looks at several dimensions of the grade failure issue in Honduras using a unique data set compiled by the UMCE evaluation project in 1998 and 1999. The analytical framework incorporates econometric analysis of standardized tests and teacher pass/fail decisions for roughly 13,000 second and fourth grade students. The results show that…

  19. Power-grade butanol recovery and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, R.

    1982-02-12

    As an alternative to the traditional recovery systems, it was proposed in a previous publication that the n-butanol/acetone/ethanol fermentation products could be recovered as a power grade fuel blend and used directly as a fuel. This would affect a savings in process energy requirements because each chemical component would not have to be processed individually to technical grade purity. Further, some residual water could be tolerated in the fuel blend. To develop such a power grade fuel recovery scheme beyond the conceptual stage, the Energy Research and Resource Division of the Kansas Energy Office undertook a two-fold program to demonstrate and test a power grade butanol/acetone/ethanol fuel recovery system, and further to demonstrate the feasibility of using the fuel blend in a standard type engine. A development program was initiated to accomplish the following objectives: design and test an operational power grade butanol recovery plant that would operate at one liter per hour output; and test and assess the performance of power grade butanol in a spark ignition automotive engine. This project has demonstrated that recovery of a power grade butanol fuel blend is simple and can be accomplished at a considered energy advantage over ethanol. It was further demonstrated that such a power grade blend works well in a typical spark ignition engine.

  20. 7 CFR 29.6018 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade. 29.6018 Section 29.6018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6018 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group and quality...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6028 - No Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No Grade. 29.6028 Section 29.6028 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6028 No Grade. A designation applied to a lot of tobacco classified...

  2. Books on Renewable Energy for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of 20 books on renewable energy resources. These books are suitable for children in the elementary grades. Each entry includes the title, author(s) or editor(s), number of pages, price, publication date, recommended grade level(s), and source. (JN)

  3. Elementary Science Guide -- 3rd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  4. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  5. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Ruth

    This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  6. Latin Vibes Curriculum: Sixth and Seventh Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Debra; And Others

    A sixth- and seventh-grade program "Latin Vibes," developed in response to a rising demand within the community for more student understanding of the evolution of the English language, is outlined. The courses for each grade chronicle the influences of Latin and the romance languages on the development of English over the centuries. The program…

  7. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filetti, Jean; Wright, Mary; King, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a faculty member's status--either tenured or tenure-track--might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices.…

  8. The USDA quality grades may mislead consumers.

    PubMed

    DeVuyst, E A; Lusk, J L; DeVuyst, M A

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to explore consumers' perceptions about and knowledge of USDA beef quality grades. Data were collected from over 1,000 consumers in online surveys in November and December 2013, and estimates were weighted to force the sample to mirror the U.S. population in terms of age, gender, education, and region of residence. When asked to rank Prime, Choice, and Select grades in terms of leanness, only 14.4% provided the correct ranking with 57.1% of respondents incorrectly indicating steaks grading Prime were the leanest. Despite perceptions that the Prime name indicated the leanest product, in a subsequent question, 55.6% of respondents thought Prime grade to be the juiciest of the 3 grades. In addition to inquiring about perceptions of the grade names, respondents also indicated perceptions of pictures of steaks. Only 14.5% of respondents correctly matched the steak pictures with their corresponding USDA quality grade name, an outcome that is statistically worse than would have occurred through pure random matching (P = 0.03). When asked to match pictures of steaks with expected prices, 54.8% of respondents incorrectly matched the picture of the Prime steak with the lowest price level. More highly educated consumers with greater preferences for steak consumption were more likely to provide correct answers. Results reveal substantial confusion over quality grading nomenclature and suggest the need for more education or for a transition toward more descriptive terminology at the retail level.

  9. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  10. Wiki Technology for Middle Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Debra Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to determine the pedagogical value of Wiki technology-enhanced instruction for middle grade students. The sample consisted of three Wiki projects representative of work from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade middle school students. The examination of the data collected from the three samples of Wiki…

  11. Recognizing Excellence in Middle-Grade Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John; Kasak, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Leaders in schools with grades 5 to 8 face unprecedented responsibilities in working with young adolescents. As schools respond to the mandates of No Child Left Behind, more than half of the students tested annually will be enrolled in these middle grades. This means that the success or failure rate of schools nationwide will be largely determined…

  12. Grade Inflation: An Elementary and Secondary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sraiheen, Abdulwahab; Lesisko, Lee James

    2006-01-01

    School administrators in a small suburban school district in Southeastern Pennsylvania were concerned about grade inflation at the elementary and secondary levels. Specifically, they wanted to know if students in grades 5, 8, and 11 who scored at the basic or below basic performance level on the 2003-2004 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment…

  13. Grade Inflation: Academic Standards in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lester H., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a provocative look at the issues and controversies surrounding grade inflation, and, more generally, grading practices in American higher education. The contributors confront the issues from a number of different disciplines and varying points of view. Topics explored include empirical evidence for and against the claim that…

  14. Exploring Grade 1 Students' Textual Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on an aspect of Grade 1 children's literary understanding--the textual associations made by the students as they discussed nine picture books. This work extends the small body of research that has examined the responses of Grade 1 children (e.g., Kiefer, 1993; McGee, 1992; Sipe, 2000a), and also contributes to…

  15. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried,...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried,...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet...

  19. Elementary Science Guide -- 5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 5. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  20. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  1. Teachers Guide to Economics in Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Hugh, Ed.; Ouchi, Albert, Ed.

    Teachers who wish to enrich the present social studies curriculum with economic education will find this a useful guide. Learning activities and multi-media resources are suggested which help to illucidate major and supporting concepts in economics for the third grade level. Fundamental concepts for this grade are: 1) a land-use map shows where…

  2. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 1, GRADE ONE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE FIRST GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPT TO BE TAUGHT IN GRADES K-3 FOR EACH OF THE FOUR AREAS AROUND WHICH THE PROGRAM…

  3. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 2, GRADE TWO SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE SECOND GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPTS TO BE TAUGHT IN GRADES K-3, IN EACH OF THE FOUR AREAS AROUND WHICH THE PROGRAM…

  4. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 3, GRADE THREE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FOURTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE THIRD GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPTS TO BE TAUGHT IN GRADES K-3 FOR EACH OF THE FOUR AREAS AROUND WHICH THE PROGRAM…

  5. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  6. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  7. Texas's Decision to Have Twelve Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watlington, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    A majority of American students have taken the journey through schools that progressed from first to twelfth grade. So by the 1913 Committee on the Economy of Time in Education, American education featured a twelve-grade system quickly evolving from the forces of consolidation and corporate efficiency. Such was not the reality in Texas schools.…

  8. Teachers' Grading Practices: Meaning and Values Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Youyi; Cheng, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and…

  9. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  10. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  11. Historical Thinking in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillpot, Elise

    2012-01-01

    This article shares findings of how two third-grade children who have systematically studied history in grades K-3 analyzed historical sources on a topic about which they had no prior knowledge. In think-aloud interviews, the children analyzed written documents on the 1887 Dawes Severalty Act. One of the children, who tested on the third-grade…

  12. Elementary Science Guide -- 6th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 6. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  13. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  14. Social Studies Curriculum Guide: Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    An outline of the knowledge and skills to be taught at grade seven in order to meet the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) social studies objectives is provided. Material is divided into four parts. Following an introduction, a one page description overviews the curriculum topic for grade six, world cultures and geography, and…

  15. Preparing Teachers for the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornfreund, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Too often, early elementary teachers enter the classroom unprepared for the particular challenges of teaching children in grades 3 and under. Many were trained in programs that focused on older elementary grades, even though their license qualifies them to teach children as young as kindergarten. Teachers who obtained their certification through a…

  16. Music. Grade 13. Curriculum S.16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 13. SUBJECT MATTER: Music. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The central portion of the guide is divided into six units: voice, strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion, and theory and form. Each unit is in list form. The guide is offset printed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A list of…

  17. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted... system outlined in this subpart. Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more than... accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart. Canned red tart pitted cherries of this...

  18. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  19. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  20. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P < .001), and 6.5% of those who had not been bullied (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Both chronic and current bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  1. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade celery stalks. Definitions...

  2. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade celery stalks. Definitions...

  3. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade celery stalks. Definitions...

  4. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  5. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  6. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  7. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  8. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  12. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  13. 7 CFR 56.31 - Report of grading work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Reports § 56.31 Report of grading work. Reports of grading work performed... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Report of grading work. 56.31 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 56.31 - Report of grading work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Reports § 56.31 Report of grading work. Reports of grading work performed... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of grading work. 56.31 Section...

  15. Grade Expectations: Informed or Uninformed Optimism, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanum, Soren; Bigatti, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    We investigated optimistic grade expectations among 258 college students from 2 contrasting perspectives: optimism as uninformed wishfulness and as an informed aspirational judgment. Results revealed considerable grade optimism; most students (70%) overestimated an average of 1 full grade. Grade expectations moderately predicted final grade but…

  16. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  17. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  19. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  20. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  3. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  5. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan; Gao, Nansha; Songhua, Cao

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  6. Surgical management of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Carter S; Straus, David; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    Low-grade gliomas represent a wide spectrum of intra-axial brain tumors with diverse presentations, radiographic and surgical appearances, and prognoses. While there remains a role for biopsy, a growing body of evidence shows that aggressive surgical resection of low-grade gliomas may improve symptoms, extend progression-free survival (PFS), and even cure a select few patients. With the application of preoperative functional imaging, intraoperative navigation, and cortical stimulation, neurosurgeons are able to perform more complete resections while limiting the risk to patients. In this article, we describe the surgical management and current operative techniques used in the treatment of low-grade gliomas.

  7. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  8. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed, which are clean, well...

  9. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  10. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  11. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  12. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  13. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  14. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  15. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed and have fairly good...

  16. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  17. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed, which are clean, well...

  18. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed and have fairly good...

  19. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  20. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  1. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  2. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  3. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  4. "Making the grade:" noncognitive predictors of medical students' clinical clerkship grades.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Katherine B.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev N.; Lau, Steven K. M.; Andriole, Dorothy A.; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Because clinical clerkship grades are associated with resident selection and performance and are largely based on residents'/attendings' subjective ratings, it is important to identify variables associated with clinical clerkship grades. METHODS: U.S. medical students who completed > or =1 of the following required clinical clerkships--internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, neurology and psychiatry--were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey, which inquired about demographics, degree program, perceived quality of clerkship experiences, assertiveness, reticence and clerkship grades. RESULTS: A total of 2395 medical students (55% women; 57% whites) from 105 schools responded. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors independently associated with receiving lower clerkship grades (high pass/pass or B/C) compared with the highest grade (honors or A). Students reporting higher quality of clerkship experiences were less likely to report lower grades in all clerkships. Older students more likely reported lower grades in internal medicine (P = 0.02) and neurology (P < 0.001). Underrepresented minorities more likely reported lower grades in all clerkships (P < 0.001); Asians more likely reported lower grades in obstetrics/gynecology (P = 0.007), pediatrics (P = 0.01) and neurology (P = 0.01). Men more likely reported lower grades in obstetrics/gynecology (P < 0.001) and psychiatry (P = 0.004). Students reporting greater reticence more likely reported lower grades in internal medicine (P = 0.02), pediatrics (P = 0.02) and psychiatry (P < 0.05). Students reporting greater assertiveness less likely reported lower grades in all clerkships (P < 0.03) except IM. CONCLUSIONS: The independent associations between lower clerkship grades and nonwhite race, male gender, older age, lower quality of clerkship experiences, and being less assertive and more reticent are concerning and merit further investigation. PMID

  5. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.) [30...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.) [30...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  10. On the Structure of Graded Lie Superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón Martín, Antonio J.; Sánchez Delgado, José M.

    2012-08-01

    We study the structure of graded Lie superalgebras with arbitrary dimension and over an arbitrary field 𝕂. We show that any of such algebras 𝔏 with a symmetric G-support is of the form 𝔏 = U + ∑jIj with U a subspace of 𝔏1 and any Ij a well-described graded ideal of 𝔏, satisfying [Ij, Ik] = 0 if j≠k. Under certain conditions, it is shown that 𝔏 = (⨁k∈K Ik) ⊕ (⨁q ∈Q Iq), where any Ik is a gr-simple graded ideal of 𝔏 and any Iq is a completely determined low-dimensional non-gr-simple graded ideal of 𝔏, satisfying [Iq, Iq'] = 0 for any q'∈Q with q ≠q'.

  11. Valencia's Tooth: A First-Grade Operetta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lillian S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade class created an operetta about losing their teeth. The students told stories about losing teeth and made those stories into songs using Orff-type speech and music techniques. (AM)

  12. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  13. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains.

  14. What grades and achievement tests measure

    PubMed Central

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ. PMID:27830648

  15. How Zucchini Won Fifth-Grade Hearts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Denise

    1987-01-01

    A nutrition education program for grades K through 6 in Arizona is described, and essential elements of the program are given. Children learn about foods and the role of nutrients in health through gardening. (MT)

  16. Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…

  17. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks - one narrative and two expository prompts. Children's written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications.

  18. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  19. Semiconductor grade, solar silicon purification project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S.; Rosler, D.; Jackson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion of metallurgical grade silicon into semiconductor grade silicon by way of a three step SiF2 polymer transport purification process was investigated. Developments in the following areas were also examined: (1) spectroscopic analysis and characterization of (SiF2) sub x polymer and Si sub x F sub y homologue conversion; (2) demonstration runs on the near continuous apparatus; (3) economic analysis; and (4) elemental analysis.

  20. An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-09-10

    The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

  1. Concurrent primary peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma and endometrial high-grade serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Megan G; Deavers, Michael T; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda

    2015-05-01

    A 64-yr-old postmenopausal woman with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance on her Pap test was found to have endometrial serous carcinoma (high grade) involving a polyp in a subsequent endometrial biopsy. She underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with multiple biopsies of the peritoneum. Microscopic examination of the entirely submitted uterus showed no residual serous carcinoma. Multiple foci of low-grade serous tumor with extensive calcifications and psammoma bodies were identified on the surfaces of the left fallopian tube, ovaries, and biopsies of the peritoneum, consistent with peritoneal primary low-grade serous carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of low-grade serous carcinoma of the peritoneum with a concurrent (high-grade) serous carcinoma of the endometrium arising from an endometrial polyp.

  2. Systematic review of grading practice: is there evidence of grade inflation?

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jayne H; Gray, Morag

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a systematic review of literature pertaining to the grading of practice within nursing, midwifery, medicine and allied health professions. From a total of 215 papers, 147 were included and data were extracted using a systematic data extraction tool. The focus of this paper relates to one of the emerging themes: the issue of grade inflation. The paper examines the grade inflation phenomenon: it discusses the reasons for grade inflation from a variety of perspectives. The paper reports on the suggestions made within the literature on how to control grade inflation, but these, the authors conclude, are not fully evaluated and should be adopted only where rigorous evaluation can carried out. It is imperative that evaluations include the usefulness, reliability and validity testing of rubrics or any other solutions to grade inflation that are adopted by clinicians and educators.

  3. Fatigue Characterization of Functionally Graded Metallic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    Functionally graded components exhibit spatial variations of mechanical properties in contrast with, and as an alternative to, purely homogeneous components. A large class of graded materials, however, are in fact mostly homogeneous materials with property variations (chemical or mechanical) restricted to a specific area or layer produced by applying for example a coating or by introducing sub-surface residual stresses. However, it is also possible to obtain graded materials with a smooth transition of mechanical properties along the entire component, for example in a 40 mm component. This is possible, for example, by using centrifugal casting technique or incremental melting and solidification technique. In this paper we will study fully metallic functionally graded components with a smooth gradient, focusing on fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue propagation will be assessed in the direction parallel to the gradation (in different homogeneous layers of the functionally graded component) to assess what would be fatigue crack propagation on the direction perpendicular to the gradation. Fatigue crack growth rate (standard mode I fatigue crack growth) will be correlated to the mode I stress intensity factor range. Other mechanical properties of different layers of the component (Young's modulus) will also be considered in this analysis. The effect of residual stresses along the component gradation on crack propagation will also be taken into account. A qualitative analysis of the effects of some important features, present in functionally graded materials, will be made based on the obtained results.

  4. A clinically useful simplified blastocyst grading system.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alison; Brearley, Sophie; Ahitan, Saran; Chamberlain, Sarah; Davey, Tracey; Zujovic, Lyndsey; Hopkisson, James; Campbell, Bruce; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new simplified blastocyst grading system (A: fully expanded, clear inner cell mass, cohesive trophectoderm; B: not yet expanded, clear inner cell mass, cohesive trophectoderm; C: small inner cell mass ± irregular trophectoderm ± excluded/degenerate cells) was clinically useful. All day-5 single embryo transfers between 15 June 2009 and 29 June 2012 were reviewed. Implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were related to embryo quality. Five embryologists were asked to grade and decide the clinical fate of 80 images of day-5 embryos on two occasions 4-6 weeks apart. Implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates decreased with deteriorating embryo quality. A highly significant (P < 0.01) difference was observed between the groups. Inter-observer agreement was substantial for grade allocation (K = 0.63) and clinical decision-making (K = 0.66). Intra-observer agreement ranged from substantial (K = 0.71) to almost perfect (K = 0.88) for grade allocation, and was almost perfect for clinical fate determination (K ≥ 0.84). This grading system is quick and easy to use, effectively predicts IVF outcome and has levels of agreement similar to, if not better than, those associated with more complex grading systems.

  5. Fatigue Characterization of Functionally Graded Metallic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, F. S.

    2008-02-15

    Functionally graded components exhibit spatial variations of mechanical properties in contrast with, and as an alternative to, purely homogeneous components. A large class of graded materials, however, are in fact mostly homogeneous materials with property variations (chemical or mechanical) restricted to a specific area or layer produced by applying for example a coating or by introducing sub-surface residual stresses. However, it is also possible to obtain graded materials with a smooth transition of mechanical properties along the entire component, for example in a 40 mm component. This is possible, for example, by using centrifugal casting technique or incremental melting and solidification technique. In this paper we will study fully metallic functionally graded components with a smooth gradient, focusing on fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue propagation will be assessed in the direction parallel to the gradation (in different homogeneous layers of the functionally graded component) to assess what would be fatigue crack propagation on the direction perpendicular to the gradation. Fatigue crack growth rate (standard mode I fatigue crack growth) will be correlated to the mode I stress intensity factor range. Other mechanical properties of different layers of the component (Young's modulus) will also be considered in this analysis. The effect of residual stresses along the component gradation on crack propagation will also be taken into account. A qualitative analysis of the effects of some important features, present in functionally graded materials, will be made based on the obtained results.

  6. Subchondral bone histology and grading in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Olli-Matti; Finnilä, Mikko; Thevenot, Jerome; Saarakkala, Simo; Lehenkari, Petri

    2017-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) has often regarded as a disease of articular cartilage only. New evidence has shifted the paradigm towards a system biology approach, where also the surrounding tissue, especially bone is studied more vigorously. However, the histological features of subchondral bone are only poorly characterized in current histological grading scales of OA. The aim of this study is to specifically characterize histological changes occurring in subchondral bone at different stages of OA and propose a simple grading system for them. Design 20 patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery were randomly selected for the study and series of osteochondral samples were harvested from the tibial plateaus for histological analysis. Cartilage degeneration was assessed using the standardized OARSI grading system, while a novel four-stage grading system was developed to illustrate the changes in subchondral bone. Subchondral bone histology was further quantitatively analyzed by measuring the thickness of uncalcified and calcified cartilage as well as subchondral bone plate. Furthermore, internal structure of calcified cartilage-bone interface was characterized utilizing local binary patterns (LBP) based method. Results The histological appearance of subchondral bone changed drastically in correlation with the OARSI grading of cartilage degeneration. As the cartilage layer thickness decreases the subchondral plate thickness and disorientation, as measured with LBP, increases. Calcified cartilage thickness was highest in samples with moderate OA. Conclusion The proposed grading system for subchondral bone has significant relationship with the corresponding OARSI grading for cartilage. Our results suggest that subchondral bone remodeling is a fundamental factor already in early stages of cartilage degeneration. PMID:28319157

  7. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  8. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Namala, Srilekha; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Devi, Sabitha; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horrati; Udayashankar, Urmila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients) in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells. PMID:27756984

  9. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be...

  10. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  12. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  13. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  16. Science for Iowa Schools, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nice, Karl; And Others

    This guide includes four units for use in each of grades 4 through 6. The fourth grade units are entitled Measurement Systems, Classification Systems, Bio-Control Systems, and Hydrologic Systems; the fifth grade units are Chemical Systems, Force Systems, Bio-Systems, and Astro-Systems; and the sixth grade units are Equilibrium Systems,…

  17. 7 CFR 70.60 - Report of grading work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of grading work. 70.60 Section 70.60... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY... grading work. Reports of grading work performed within official plants shall be forwarded to...

  18. 7 CFR 70.60 - Report of grading work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Report of grading work. 70.60 Section 70.60... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY... grading work. Reports of grading work performed within official plants shall be forwarded to...

  19. Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Robert E.

    The thesis that low grades cause college students to give up receives some support from early psychological research and from current reinforcement theories. This study investigates the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first-exam grades for 192 students in a traditional grading system and 52 students in a pass-fail grading…

  20. Friendship and adjustment: a focus on mixed-grade friendships.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Spencer, Sarah V

    2010-11-01

    Research on friendship and adjustment has traditionally focused on same-sex, same-grade, and same-school peers. Recent evidence, however, suggests that many adolescents have other-sex and other-school friends that significantly impact their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine young adolescents' experiences with mixed-grade friendships (friendships between adolescents in the same school but of different grades), a type of friendship about which little is known. Participants were 179 seventh grade and 178 eighth grade students (55 percent female; M age = 13.2 years, SD = .68) who reported on their same-grade and mixed-grade friendships and loneliness. Peer nominations of same-grade aggression, anxious-withdrawal, victimization and rejection were also collected. Descriptive analyses revealed that 83 percent of students reported having a mixed-grade friend, 36 percent of these friendships being mutual. Adolescents who made mixed-grade nominations and who had mutual mixed-grade friendships reported less loneliness than other adolescents. Results also suggested that mixed-grade friends may protect same-grade friendless girls from feelings of loneliness, and eighth grade same-grade friendless adolescents and anxious-withdrawn boys from victimization. Taken together, findings strongly suggest that mixed-grade friendships are developmentally significant peer relationships during early adolescence.

  1. 5 CFR 531.414 - Interim within-grade increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim within-grade increase. 531.414... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.414 Interim within-grade increase. (a) An interim within-grade increase shall be granted to an employee who has: (1) Appealed a negative...

  2. Gleason and Fuhrman no longer make the grade.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Nacey, John N; Srigley, John R

    2016-03-01

    Grading is an important prognostic parameter for prostate adenocarcinoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, the most frequently used classifications fail to account for advances in our understanding of the diagnostic features, classification and/or behaviour of these tumours. In 2005 and 2014, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed changes to Gleason scoring with the adoption of the ISUP grading for prostate cancer in 2014 (grade 1, score 3 + 3; grade 2, score 3 + 4; grade 3, score 4 + 3; grade 4, score 8; grade 5, score 9-10). Internationally the Fuhrman grading system is widely employed despite criticisms related to its application, validity, and reproducibility. In 2012, the ISUP established a grading system for RCC (grade 1, the nucleolus is not seen or is inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2, nucleoli are eosinophilic and clearly visible at ×400 magnification; grade 3, nucleoli are clearly visible at ×100 magnification; grade 4, tumours show extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology). This grading has been validated for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. It was further recommended that chromophobe RCC not be graded. For other morphotypes of RCC, ISUP grading has not been validated as a prognostic parameter, but can be used for descriptive purposes.

  3. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  4. Plus/Minus Grading: A within Instructor Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael L.; Feeney, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A three semester, within instructor, interrupted time series analysis of grading practices was conducted in order to observe the effects of the implementation of a plus minus grading system. Over 260 individual instructor's grades were compared before and after implementation of plus minus grading. The results indicate no overall effect of the…

  5. Should You Allow Your Students to Grade Their Own Homework?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Allowing students to grade their own homework promises several advantages to both students and instructors. But does such a policy make sense? This paper reports the results of an experiment in which eight separate assignments completed by approximately 80 students were first graded by the students using a grading rubric, and then re-graded by a…

  6. Gradings on the real form 𝔢6,-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Cristina; Guido, Valerio

    2016-10-01

    We describe four fine gradings on the real form 𝔢6,-26 of the complex Lie algebra 𝔢6. They are precisely the gradings whose complexifications are fine gradings on the complex algebra. The universal grading groups are Z2 6 , Z × Z2 4 , Z 2 × Z2 3 , and Z 4 × Z2 4 .

  7. Computer Literacy: Intermediate and Secondary Grades, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide outlines a course on computer literacy for junior or senior high school students reflecting the technology of the early 1980s. A chart shows computer literacy scope and sequence for students in kindergarten, grades 1-2, grades 3-6, and grades 7-9. Forty lessons for the intermediate grades and high school are then presented,…

  8. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A. 51.597 Section 51.597 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  10. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  11. Grade Retention: A Three Part Series. Policy Briefs. Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy [and] Cost-Benefit Analysis of Grade Retention [and] Grade Retention: The Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Claire; Glennie, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This document compiles a series of three policy briefs focused on the subject of grade retention. The first brief, "Grade Retention: A Flawed Education Strategy," suggests educators and policymakers caution the use of grade retention as a remedy for poor student performance. As concluded by the majority of past studies, grade retention is a failed…

  12. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  13. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  15. Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.

    PubMed

    Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance.

  16. Low grade metamorphism of mafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Peter

    1995-07-01

    Through most of this past century, metamorphic petrologists in the United States have paid their greatest attention to high grade rocks, especially those which constitute the core zones of exhumed, mountain belts. The pioneering studies of the 50's through the 80's, those which applied the principles of thermodynamics to metamorphic rocks, focused almost exclusively on high temperature systems, for which equilibrium processes could be demonstrated. By the 1980's, metamorphic petrologists had developed the methodologies for deciphering the thermal and baric histories of mountain belts through the study of high grade rocks. Of course, low grade metamorphic rocks - here defined as those which form at pressures and temperatures up to and including the greenschist facies - had been well known and described as well, initially through the efforts of Alpine and Circum-Pacific geologists who recognized that they constituted an integral and contiguous portion of mountain belts, and that they underlay large portions of accreted terranes, many of oceanic origins. But until the mid 80's, much of the effort in studying low grade rocks - for a comprehensive review of the literature to that point see Frey (1987) - had been concentrated on mudstones, volcanoclastic rocks, and associated lithologies common to continental mountain belts and arcs. In the mid 80's, results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) rather dramatically mitigated a shift in the study of low grade metamorphic rocks.

  17. Cafeteria-Style Grading in General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.

    2001-04-01

    Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.

  18. 7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Principles Governing the... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204 Section 810.1204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  19. 7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Principles Governing the... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204 Section 810.1204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN...

  20. Developmental Changes in Cognitive Persistence and Academic Achievement between Grade 4 and Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozsa, Krisztian; Morgan, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes changes in cognitive persistence, a key measure of mastery motivation, between the ages of 10 (grade 4) and 14 (grade 8). Prior research in the field of mastery motivation has focused mainly on early childhood. No longitudinal research findings have been published about age changes in mastery motivation during the school…

  1. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. 21.29 Section 21.29 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... in special fields related to public health, the Surgeon General may specify that a candidate...

  2. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. 21.29 Section 21.29 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... in special fields related to public health, the Surgeon General may specify that a candidate...

  3. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. 21.29 Section 21.29 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... in special fields related to public health, the Surgeon General may specify that a candidate...

  4. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. 21.29 Section 21.29 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... in special fields related to public health, the Surgeon General may specify that a candidate...

  5. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. 21.29 Section 21.29 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... in special fields related to public health, the Surgeon General may specify that a candidate...

  6. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  7. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  8. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  9. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  10. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  11. Third-Grade Reading Policies. Reading/Literacy: Preschool to Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The third-grade year is considered a pivotal point in a child's educational career, as a critical shift in learning takes place--one where basic reading skills are established and can begin to be utilized for more complex learning. State policymakers are well aware of the importance of ensuring that all students are reading at grade level by the…

  12. The Gateway Grade: The Ninth Grade Academy Practice in Terms of Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starke, Adam Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the concept of the ninth grade academy structure in Texas high schools affects a variety of variables indicative of student achievement. Data representative of performance by students served in 30 schools with a separately structured ninth grade academy were compared to data representative of…

  13. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  14. Grade Stability in a Criterion-Referenced Grading System: The Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on…

  15. Does Grade Inflation Affect the Credibility of Grades? Evidence from US Law School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2009-01-01

    While the nature and causes of university grade inflation have been extensively studied, little empirical research on the consequence of this phenomenon is currently available. The present study uses data for 48 US law schools to analyze admission decisions in 1995, 2000, and 2007, a period during which university grade inflation appears to have…

  16. The Effects of Kindergarten through Second Grade Reading Instruction and Intervention on Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier-Metzger, Teresia

    2013-01-01

    State and local assessment data from 117 students in one school in the California Central Valley were examined to determine how much participation in a kindergarten through second grade multitiered reading intervention model contributed to third grade reading achievement, over and above the demographic factors of ethnicity, socioeconomic status,…

  17. Problem Solving, Recall, and Isomorphic Transfer among Third-Grade and Sixth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Barry; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explores third and sixth grade children's acquisition and analogical transfer of the base of a relatively complex problem. One group at each grade level received two analogs of a scheduling problem; other groups received only one analog or a transfer task. After criterial performance, all children were transferred to an isomorphic analog and…

  18. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  19. Making the Grade: Understanding Learning and Grade Orientations of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    First-year undergraduate students enter college with varying expectations, motivations, and goals and are being bombarded with messages about the importance of grades, sometimes to the detriment of learning. This descriptive, cross-sectional study employs LOGO II to describe the learning and grade orientations of first-year students and identify…

  20. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography. Common Curriculum Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies the new English-language resources with new components endorsed by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing the Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12. Resources listed in this annotated bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process…

  1. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography. Common Curriculum Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies the new English-language resources with new components endorsed by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing "The Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12." Resources listed in this annotated bibliography were selected through a collaborative review…

  2. Grades and Incentives: Assessing Competing Grade Point Average Measures and Postgraduate Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Albert H.

    2016-01-01

    In many educational settings, students may have an incentive to take courses where high grades are easier to achieve, potentially corroding student learning, evaluation of student achievement, and the fairness and efficiency of post-graduation labor outcomes. A grading system that takes into account heterogeneity of teacher standards and student…

  3. Genomic Grade Index: An important tool for assessing breast cancer tumor grade and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Metzger Filho, Otto; Ignatiadis, Michail; Sotiriou, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Different multi-gene expression signatures have been shown to outperform classic histopathologic variables and therefore represent an important step towards personalizing breast cancer treatment. In particular, gene profiles overcome many of the limitations observed with classic histopathologic variables. The Genomic Grade Index (GGI) is a gene expression signature developed to better define histologic grade assessment. GGI divides classic histologic grade into low and high risk, instead of grades 1, 2 and 3. The ability of GGI to predict response to chemotherapy and separate hormone receptor positive breast cancer subtypes has also been demonstrated. This article critically reviews the limitations inherent in classic histologic grade evaluation; it also reviews the process of gene signature development in general and then focuses on GGI, its biologic significance, comparison with different gene signatures, and its applicability to clinical practise.

  4. Axial grading of inert matrix fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Recktenwald, G. D.; Deinert, M. R.

    2012-07-01

    Burning actinides in an inert matrix fuel to 750 MWd/kg IHM results in a significant reduction in transuranic isotopes. However, achieving this level of burnup in a standard light water reactor would require residence times that are twice that of uranium dioxide fuels. The reactivity of an inert matrix assembly at the end of life is less than 1/3 of its beginning of life reactivity leading to undesirable radial and axial power peaking in the reactor core. Here we show that axial grading of the inert matrix fuel rods can reduce peaking significantly. Monte Carlo simulations are used to model the assembly level power distributions in both ungraded and graded fuel rods. The results show that an axial grading of uranium dioxide and inert matrix fuels with erbium can reduces power peaking by more than 50% in the axial direction. The reduction in power peaking enables the core to operate at significantly higher power. (authors)

  5. Vagueness, graded membership, and conceptual spaces.

    PubMed

    Douven, Igor

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with a version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership that relies on the conceptual spaces framework. Three studies are reported, one to construct a particular shape space, one to detect which shapes representable in that space are typical for certain sorts of objects, and one to elicit degrees of category membership for the various shapes from which the shape space was constructed. Taking Kamp and Partee's proposal as given, the first two studies allowed us to predict the degrees to which people would judge shapes representable in the space to be members of certain categories. These predictions were compared with the degrees that were measured in the third study. The comparison yielded a test of the account of graded membership at issue. The outcome of this test was found to support the conceptual spaces version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership.

  6. Debate-Proof Grades: Experiences and Challenges of Using a Grading Rubric in a Social Welfare Policy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedoyin, Christson A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences and challenges of a graduate teaching assistant in using a grading rubric in a social welfare policy course. Using a grading rubric as a debate-proof strategy against the grade entitlement of students is expatiated. In addition, the benefits of using grading rubrics to achieve CSWE/EPAS competency…

  7. Pneumatically switchable graded index metamaterial lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodasevych, I. E.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Powell, D. A.; Rowe, W. S. T.; Mitchell, A.

    2013-01-01

    A low-profile pneumatically switchable graded index metamaterial lens operating at 9 GHz is proposed and practically demonstrated. An effective graded refractive index is engineered using an array of electric resonators of differing resonant frequency. Normal orientation of the resonators allows ultrathin single metamaterial layer lens design. Switching between focusing and non-focusing states is practically demonstrated by shorting the gaps in split ring resonators and eliminating the resonant response and the phase difference between the elements across the lens with pneumatically actuated metal patches that are pressed against the gaps of the resonators as the pressure in the chamber is reduced.

  8. Refining of metallurgical-grade silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietl, J.

    1986-01-01

    A basic requirement of large scale solar cell fabrication is to provide low cost base material. Unconventional refining of metallurical grade silicon represents one of the most promising ways of silicon meltstock processing. The refining concept is based on an optimized combination of metallurgical treatments. Commercially available crude silicon, in this sequence, requires a first pyrometallurgical step by slagging, or, alternatively, solvent extraction by aluminum. After grinding and leaching, high purity qualtiy is gained as an advanced stage of refinement. To reach solar grade quality a final pyrometallurgical step is needed: liquid-gas extraction.

  9. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  10. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  11. Studies on high grade cerebral gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Bleehen, N.M. )

    1990-04-01

    A brief review of attempts in the United Kingdom to improve the results of treatment of high grade (grade 3, 4) supra-tentorial astrocytomas is presented. The radiosensitizer misonidazole failed to improve the results of post-surgical radiotherapy, however, multivariate analysis of data from these patients has provided a prognostic index of use in defining good and poor prognosis patients. An overview study of adjuvant nitrosourea therapy trials has shown a small significant advantage for the chemotherapy. A study of chemosensitization by benznidazole of CCNU treatment of patients in relapse failed to demonstrate any effect. 13 references.

  12. Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pudnos, Eric

    1992-01-01

    The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C.

  13. Making the Grade: Do Nebraska Teachers and Administrators Working in Public Schools in 7th-12th Grade Settings Agree about What Constitutes Sound Grading Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher sought to determine whether Nebraska teachers and administrators agreed about what constitutes sound grading practice. The results of this study indicated that Nebraska teachers and administrators working in public schools in 7th-12th grade settings did not always agree about what constituted sound grading practice.…

  14. 7th-12th Grade English/Language Arts Teachers and Their Classroom Grading Practices: Investigating the Use of Standards-Based Grading in Nebraska's Rural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Summer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A problem exists in grading practices accurately measuring student achievement. Both students' academic achievements and nonacademic factors, such as effort, homework completion, and behaviors continue to factor into grades. This combination can lead to inaccurate representation of true academic ability, rendering a grade useless. While…

  15. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 and micro vessel density: Grade II vs. Grade III astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Malhan, Priya; Husain, Nuzhat; Bhalla, Shalini; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Mazhar

    2010-01-01

    Histological classification and grading are prime procedures in the management of patients with astrocytoma, providing vital data for therapeutic decision making and prognostication. However, it has limitations in assessing biological tumor behavior. This can be overcome by using newer immunohistochemical techniques. This study was carried out to compare proliferative indices using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), extent of p53 expression and micro vessel morphometric parameters in patients with low grade and anaplastic astrocytoma. Twenty-five patients, each of grade II and grade III astrocytoma were evaluated using monoclonal antibodies to PCNA, p53 protein and factor VIII related antigen. PCNA, p53-labeling indices were calculated along with micro vessel morphometric analysis using Biovis Image plus Software. Patients with grade III astrocytoma had higher PCNA and p53 labeling indices as compared with grade II astrocytoma (29.14 plus/minus 9.87% vs. 16.84 plus/minus 6.57%, p 0.001; 18.18 plus/minus 6.14% vs. 6.14 plus/minus 7.23%, p 0.001, respectively). Micro vessel percentage area of patients with grade III astrocytoma was also (4.26 plus/minus 3.70 vs. 1.05 plus/minus 0.56, p 0.001), higher along with other micro vessel morphometric parameters. Discordance between histology and one or more IHC parameters was seen in 5/25 (20%) of patients with grade III astrocytoma and 9/25 (36%) of patients with grade II disease. PCNA and p53 labeling indices were positively correlated with Pearson's correlation, p less than 0.001 for both). Increased proliferative fraction, genetic alterations and neovascularization mark biological aggressiveness in astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical evaluation scores over meet the challenge of accurate prognostication of this potentially fatal malignancy.

  16. Designing and Grading Oral Communication Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Brooke L.

    1998-01-01

    To address concerns that college students do not develop adequate oral communication skills, guidelines are offered to faculty for designing oral presentation assignments within their courses, developing grading criteria, guiding students in their preparation for speaking, and addressing some of the unique challenges of this process, which include…

  17. Fifth Grade: Winter and Spring Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joel Robert, Ed.

    Activity plans for fifth grade outdoor education experiences comprise the bulk of this curriculum guide. Many of the outlines have been developed through practical application and experimentation by staff members of the Outdoor and Environmental Education Center (OEEC) of the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, City Schools. Activities and studies for the…

  18. Earth Science Content Guidelines Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA.

    Teams of teachers, other science educators, and scientists selected from a national search for project writers have proposed using the following set of questions to guide the inclusion of earth science content into the kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum. The Essential Questions are organized in a K-12 sequence by six content areas: (1) Solid…

  19. Outdoor Education Curriculum Guide, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Lakewood, CO.

    As developed for a 6th grade outdoor education program, this curriculum guide is organized around a common core designed to teach conservation and appreciation of natural resources. Program initiation, methods and procedures, information on natural resources, suggested time schedules, learning activities, nature hikes, and field trips are…

  20. An Analysis of the GCE A* Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acquah, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    The General Certificate of Education (GCE) A* grade was first awarded to students in 2010. It was introduced to assist higher education institutions in differentiating between the highest performing students and to promote and reward greater stretch and challenge. This paper, based on a synthesis of key policy documents, an analysis of…

  1. Aviation Science Activities for Elementary Grades. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide contains the procedures and lists of materials needed for 105 aviation activities, demonstrations, and experiments. These activities, demonstrations, and experiments (suitable for students in all elementary grades) are organized into three sections by major topic area: (1) properties of air; (2) factors related to airplane flight; and…

  2. Career Education Resource Units: Grades 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The units contained in this guide are intended primarily as resource materials to assist grade 4 teachers in identifying units into which career awareness concepts can be infused and also in identifying instructional activities that correlate basic skills and career education objectives. Introductory information includes a definition of career…

  3. Eighth Grade Agricultural Orientation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Designed to provide an introduction to as many of the subject areas in Oklahoma agricultural education programs as possible, this curriculum for Grade 8 contains 15 units that highlight many career areas in agriculture. Because this course may be a student's first exposure to production agriculture subjects, the curriculum begins with basic…

  4. The Mismatch between Assessment and Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Marcia M.

    1994-01-01

    Teachers are receiving mixed messages about assessment. Encouraged to use alternative assessment practices, they are expected to express a student's progress in a single letter grade. Interviews with eight urban middle school teachers participating in the QUASAR (Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning) Project…

  5. Westside Outdoor Teacher's Guide, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Lynn; And Others

    This illustrated guide includes activities in Creative Arts, Language Arts, Math, Science, and Social Studies. Activities progress from an animal rhyme quiz for lower grades, to projects for upper level students on soil testing, relative humidity, and solar heat collection. The guide emphasizes activities selected to motivate students to…

  6. Serendipity, Eighth Grade Concerns, and Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Josie; Pros, Jennifer; Marshall, Joan

    Graduate students (N=13) in a counselor education program in New York State participated in a study about what they thought were the main concerns of eighth grade students. A needs assessment is often a helpful method for counselors to plan and deliver services. The responses of the school counselor trainees were very different from the responses…

  7. Elementary Grades Students' Capacity for Functional Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria L.; Kaput, James J.

    2004-01-01

    This is a study of how urban elementary grades students develop and express functions. Data were analyzed according to the forms of representations students used, the progression in students' mathematical language and the operations they employed, and how they attended to one or more varying quantities. Findings indicate that students are capable…

  8. EIGHTH GRADE UNIT, SEA--RESTLESS GIANT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAPMAN, FRANK L.

    AN EIGHTH GRADE UNIT GUIDE ON OCEANOLOGY HAS BEEN DEVELOPED BY THE CARTERET COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF BEAUFORT, NORTH CAROLINA. NARRATIVE AND DIAGRAMMATIC DESCRIPTIONS DEAL WITH VARIOUS OCEAN PHENOMENA, SUCH AS TIDES, WAVES, CURRENTS, OCEAN FLOORS, BEACHES, ETC. CLASS QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE PROVIDED AT THE END OF EACH SECTION OF THE…

  9. Faculty Web Grade Entry: University of Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisala, Tandy R.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Phoenix is a large, private, four-year university with a commitment to providing timely and efficient student services. With continued growth and process improvement opportunities utilizing technology, the institution had an opportunity to automate and streamline grade processing. This article focuses on the Faculty Web Grade…

  10. Does Attendance Enhance Political Science Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2007-01-01

    This article tests a relationship between class attendance and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Georgia, University of Vermont, and University of Central Arkansas between the Fall 2000 and Spring 2006 semesters. The study employs ordinary least square estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis.…

  11. Does Instructional TV Make the Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes Michigan State University's use of telephone interviews to assess student attitudes in television courses and reviews data from a recent survey and classroom students' grades or attitudes toward mediated instruction. Evaluation utilization by producers, faculty, and administrators to improve instructional television is noted. (Author/MBR)

  12. Career Education Resource Units: Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The units contained in this guide are intended primarily as resource materials to assist grade 3 teachers in identifying units into which career awareness concepts can be infused and also in identifying instructional activities that correlate basic skills and career education objectives. Introductory information includes a definition of career…

  13. Factors Affecting Teachers' Grading and Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, C. Randy; Noonan, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Teachers' classroom grading and assessment practices are important elements of assessment reform. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of classroom learning factors such as class size, subject area, and school size on teachers' classroom assessment practices. The results of a survey of 513 high school teachers showed evidence that…

  14. Reading Aloud to Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Frances

    A study determined if regular listening to oral reading by the teacher affected fourth-grade students' level of comprehension. Subjects were 47 students from an elementary school in central New Jersey. Twenty-five students were read to for 30 minutes daily for 8 weeks in addition to their regular classroom reading instruction. The remaining 22…

  15. Experimental Course Report/Grade Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert B.

    Described is the development of an approach to the algebra of real numbers which includes three areas of mathematics not commonly found in grade 9--the theory of limits of infinite sequences, a frequent use of Cartesian co-ordinates, and algebra of matrices. Seventy per cent of the course is abstract axiomatic algebra and the remaining portion…

  16. A Call to Action: Transforming Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    At a very early age, students learn the point system and how school can be about the accumulation of points, not the accumulation of knowledge and skills. Grading systems are pervasive in districts across the nation, with questionable results. For example, a southern school district was highlighted in a 2009 Associated Press story for selling test…

  17. English Literature Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection is composed of objectives and evaluation items in poetry, novel, short story, drama, and essay for Senior High, Grades 10-12. Each objective contains four elements: (1) the objective, (2) measurement items, (3) means for judging the adequacy of the student response, and (4) an IOX (Instructional Objectives Exchange) acceptability…

  18. Connections: Ocean Environments. Unit Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.

    Ocean Environments for Grade 5 is a 12-week interdisciplinary ocean environmental unit designed for teachers to use with their students. The unit emphasizes investigation and understanding of our ocean environments, including their geological, physical, and biological characteristics. It also stresses awareness of public policy decisions related…

  19. 7 CFR 922.9 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN... established grades of apricots as defined and set forth in: (a) United States Standards for Apricots (§§ 51... thereon; (b) Standards for apricots issued by the State of Washington or amendments thereto,...

  20. 7 CFR 922.9 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN... established grades of apricots as defined and set forth in: (a) United States Standards for Apricots (§§ 51... thereon; (b) Standards for apricots issued by the State of Washington or amendments thereto,...