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Sample records for grade realizado pelo

  1. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's "Grade Span and…

  2. Grade Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Where to locate the 7th and 8th grade is a perennial question. While there are many variations, three approaches are most often used---include them in a 7-12 secondary campus, maintain a separate middle grades campus, or include them as part of a K-8 program. Research says that grade configuration is inconclusive at best and there is no research…

  3. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  4. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  5. The Case against Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research shows that grades diminish students' interest in whatever they're learning, discourage students from taking academic risks, and reduce the quality of students' thinking, writes Kohn. Contrary to what many people assume, grades are not necessary to promote achievement. Attempts to "improve" grading--such as standards-based…

  6. Differential Grading Standards Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strenta, A. Christopher; Elliott, Rogers

    1987-01-01

    Differential grading standards were examined in a sample of 1,029 Dartmouth College graduates. Fields of study that attracted students (as majors) who scored higher on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) employed stricter grading standards. These differential standards attenuated the substantial correlation between SAT scores and grades.…

  7. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system. PMID:27393141

  8. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  9. Redesigning Grading--Districtwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In the first years of his career as a high school math teacher, Matt Townsley was bothered by the fact that his grades penalized students for not learning content quickly. A student could master every standard, but low quiz grades and homework assignments they didn't complete because they didn't understand would lower their final grade,…

  10. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  11. Are Math Grades Cyclical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gerald J.; Dial, Micah

    1998-01-01

    The cyclical nature of mathematics grades was studied for a cohort of elementary school students from a large metropolitan school district in Texas over six years (average cohort size of 8495). The study used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Results indicate that grades do exhibit a significant cyclical pattern. (SLD)

  12. The Grades Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleenor, Andy; Lamb, Sarah; Anton, Jennifer; Stinson, Todd; Donen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    It can be quite alarming (and eye-opening) to see exactly how many of the grades students receive are based on their behaviors rather than their learning. Students should be assessed on what they know and can use rather than on their behavior. The reality, unfortunately, is that the opposite is often the case. Grades for students who work hard are…

  13. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  14. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  15. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  16. Grading to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winger, Tony

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher and instructional coach Tony Winger laments how traditional classroom grading practices lead to grades becoming a distraction from learning--a commodity students feel they work the system to attain--rather than a clear message to students and parents. Teachers' passion for their subjects is too often met with students'…

  17. Grading Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  18. [Grading of neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W; Schnabel, P A; Komminoth, P

    2016-07-01

    The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, <2 per 10 high-power fields (HPF) and the Ki-67 (index <3 %) and G2 tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %). Discrepancies between the number of mitoses and the Ki-67 index are not uncommon and in these cases the higher value of the two should be applied. The more differentiated tumors of the G3 type have to be differentiated from undifferentiated carcinomas of the small cell type and large cell type with a much poorer prognosis. Prognosis relevant grading of thyroid cancers is achieved by special subtyping so that the G1-G3 system is not applicable. The rare cancers of the parathyroid gland and of the pituitary gland are not graded. Adrenal tumors also have no grading system. The prognosis is dependent on the Ki-67 index and with some reservations on the established scoring systems. PMID:27379621

  19. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  20. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  1. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  2. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  3. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  4. [Grading of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Bohle, R M; Schnabel, P A

    2016-07-01

    In comparison with other tumor entities there is no common generally accepted grading system for lung cancer with clearly defined criteria and clinical relevance. In the recent fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2015 of tumors of the lungs, pleura, thymus and heart, there is no generally applicable grading for pulmonary adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas or rarer forms of carcinoma. Since the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of adenocarcinomas published in 2011, 5 different subtypes with significantly different prognosis are proposed. This results in an architectural (histologic) grading, which is usually applied to resection specimens. For squamous cell carcinoma the number of different histological subtypes in the new WHO classification was reduced compared to earlier versions but without a common grading system. In recent publications nesting and budding were proposed as the main (histologic) criteria for a grading of squamous cell carcinomas. The grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the lungs in comparison with NET in other organs is presented in a separate article in this issue. Certain rare tumor types are high grade per definition: small cell, large cell and pleomorphic carcinomas, carcinosarcomas and pulmonary blastomas. In the future it is to be expected that these developments will be further refined, e. g. by adding further subtypes for adenocarcinomas and cytologic and/or nuclear criteria for adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27356985

  5. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  6. Students Make the Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Cherie J.; Willis, Courtney W.

    2000-01-01

    Highlights classroom techniques that educators can use to promote intelligent, probing discussions on topics such as technology, human society, group behavior, social change, social conflicts, and global interdependence. Describes the graded discussion method. (SAH)

  7. Assigning Grades More Fairly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshier, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a simplified method for converting raw scores to standard scores and transforming them to "T-scores" for easy comparison of performance. Obtaining letter grades from T-scores is discussed. A reading list is included. (GH)

  8. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and...

  9. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and...

  10. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and...

  11. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and...

  12. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and...

  13. How Consistent Are Course Grades? An Examination of Differential Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Differential grading occurs when students in courses with the same content and curriculum receive inconsistent grades across teachers, schools, or districts. It may be due to many factors, including differences in teacher grading standards, district grading policies, student behavior, teacher stereotypes, teacher quality, and curriculum adherence.…

  14. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed. PMID:24602828

  15. The Meaning of College Grades in Three Grading Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiszler, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    To determine if college students (n=345) attribute different meanings to specific grades (depending on the nature of the grading system used), three grading systems were compared: competitive, mastery, and growth. In addition, students were asked to rate the meaning of a specific grade ("A,""B," or "C") in the context of one of the three grading…

  16. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed.

  17. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  1. Determinants of Elementary School Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey; Brown, James S.

    1985-01-01

    Grades given by primary school teachers were found to reflect classroom-specific achievement more than widely valued achievement measured by standardized test scores. The strongest determinant of grading, however, was found to be the effect that a grade in one subject has on the grade in a second subject. (Author/RM)

  2. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  3. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  5. Teachers' Experiences of Unfair Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Fredrik; Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    Grading is often perceived as one of a teacher's most difficult tasks. Despite most teachers endeavoring to grade their students as objectively as possible, many students feel that they are subject to unfair grading. The aim of this study is to describe what it is about a teacher's grading that contributes to the perception of unfairness. This…

  6. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  7. The RNA surveillance complex Pelo-Hbs1 is required for transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu; Zhao, Rui; Fang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Huanwei; Xuan, Yang; Ma, Yanting; Chen, Hongyan; Cai, Tao; Qi, Yijun; Xi, Rongwen

    2015-01-01

    Silencing of transposable elements (TEs) in the metazoan germline is critical for genome integrity and is primarily dependent on Piwi proteins and associated RNAs, which exert their function through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we report that the evolutionarily conserved Pelo (Dom34)-Hbs1 mRNA surveillance complex is required for transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline. In pelo mutant gonads, mRNAs and proteins of some selective TEs are up-regulated. Pelo is not required for piRNA biogenesis, and our studies suggest that Pelo may function at the translational level to silence TEs: This function requires interaction with Hbs1, and overexpression of RpS30a partially reverts TE-silencing defects in pelo mutants. Interestingly, TE silencing and spermatogenesis defects in pelo mutants can also effectively be rescued by expressing the mammalian ortholog of Pelo. We propose that the Pelo-Hbs1 surveillance complex provides another level of defense against the expression of TEs in the germline of Drosophila and possibly all metazoa. PMID:26124316

  8. Career Awareness: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

  9. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  10. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  11. First Grade Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Celeste

    1996-01-01

    A teacher describes how she integrated telecommunications and Internet technology into her first-grade language arts curriculum. The use of electronic mail to communicate with other student penpals generated student enthusiasm and motivation which improved reading and writing skills. Other projects included researching questions using Internet…

  12. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  13. Career Awareness: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

  14. Health, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

  15. Student Almanac. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This almanac is designed for use in the fifth grade course on regional studies which focuses on several case studies rather than on detailed study of each region. (The course is described in ED 062 226). For that reason the factual information is selected and includes figures relevant to the case studies in the regional areas of the Midwest, North…

  16. The Ninth Grade Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Several districts have taken a radical approach to middle/high school transitions, removing ninth-graders from the mix to give them the attention needed to succeed in high school. Three ninth-grade-only schools with 720 to 750 students in Virginia, Texas, and Pennsylvania are profiled. Students experience less social pressure from upper-classmen.…

  17. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  18. Second-Grade "Professors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhonghe; An, Shuhua; King, Joyce; Ramirez, Melissa; Evans, Stacee

    2009-01-01

    Finding ways to help primary-grade students overcome difficulties in solving mathematical word problems can be a daunting task for teachers in a regular classroom setting. Student challenges may include: (1) difficulty with vocabulary; (2) lack of confidence when solving problems; (3) confusion on the proper operation to use when solving a…

  19. Graphing for Any Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nibbelink, William

    1982-01-01

    An instructional sequence for teaching graphing that has been extensively field tested in kindergarten through grade six is detailed. The material begins with point graphs, employs a movable y-axis to begin with minimal clutter, and has graphs constructed before reading graphs is required. (MP)

  20. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  1. Pay for Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of paying students to earn good grades either in class or on standardized achievement tests has touched off a storm of controversy. Praised by some educators as a way of linking economic rewards to school performance, it is being tested in a number of large cities, such as New York, Baltimore and Chicago, as well as some smaller…

  2. Health, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

  3. Purpose-Driven Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  4. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  5. Reader. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    This textbook is the fourth in the official reading series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. This grade 4 reader…

  6. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  7. Grades as Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

  8. The Grades Transfer from One Grading Scale to Other Algorithmization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieponiene, Jurgita; Kulvietiene, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the consideration of grading scales used for education outcomes in different countries, describes likeness and differences of applied grading scales. Application of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) grading scale is investigated according of the analysis of scientific literature as well as cases of…

  9. Graded Readers: How the Publishers Make the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency. This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales. The findings…

  10. Write More, Grade Less: Five Practices for Effectively Grading Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the dilemmas that teachers frequently face is grading student papers. As a teacher, the author regularly reads research regarding instructional practices, grading, and assessment, but struggled to translate theory into practice in her own classroom. The intent of this article is to share one method of instructing and grading writing that…

  11. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  12. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  13. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  14. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  15. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  16. The Timing of Grade Skipping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yi-Lung; Lohman, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the following: (a) the impact of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and family income on the likelihood of whole-grade skipping between kindergarten and Grade 7 and (b) the effects of grade skipping during elementary or middle school on students' academic achievement in high school. The authors…

  17. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  18. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  19. Sources of Elementary School Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey; Brown, James S.

    The objective and subjective determinants that influence the way elementary school teachers grade students were explored. A longitudinal study was made of 213 students in 6 elementary schools as the students progressed from the first to the third grade. Possible determinants for assigning grades included student acquisition of valuable skills as…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  1. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  2. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  3. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  6. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  7. [Low grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sayilgan, Ayşe Tülay; Kamali, Gülçin; Ozcan, Deniz; Emre, Funda; Hatıpoğlu, Ayşe

    2012-01-01

    Sinonasal adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm which is classified as 'intestinal' or 'nonintestinal' type, depending on its resemblance to gastrointestinal mucosa. These tumors are associated with occupational and environmental carcinogens. In this study, a fifty-year-old oil-painter male patient with a low-grade nonintestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinoma originating from the left middle concha and ethmoid sinus is presented. Microscopical examination revealed many infiltrative glandular structures, most of which were cystically dilated and some of which were smaller in diameter, arranged back to back in loose fibrous stroma as well as intraglandular papillary and micropapillary structures forming complex branches or a cribriform pattern. The glands were lined by epithelial cells that were faintly eosinophilic and relatively abundant cubical/ cylinderical cytoplasms and mildly pleomorphic round/oval nuclei, with rare mitotic figures. Intraluminal and focally intracytoplasmic mucin was demonstrated with Alcian Blue, mucicarmin and PAS stains. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive with CK7; focally and weakly positive with CK20 and negative with CDX2 in accordance with the nonintestinal type. S-100, Actin and p63, applied for investigating the myoepithelial and salivary glandular origins, were all negative. Prognostic markers, TTF-1 and p53 were negative; while the Ki-67 index was 2%. The fact that intestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinomas are generally high grade, while nonintestinal tumors are histologically low grade makes this morphological and immunohistochemical-based classification valuable in predicting the prognosis of the disease. In addition to the morphological and immunohistochemical findings, clinical information stands out in the differentiation of the tumor from benign or malignant primary lesions or metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  8. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  9. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  10. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  11. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  12. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106 Grade...

  13. Grading the teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    2000-04-01

    Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

  14. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  15. Grade Point Average and Changes in (Great) Grade Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendorf, Craig A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines student grade expectations throughout a semester in which students offered their expectations three times during the course: (1) within the first week; (2) midway through the semester; and (3) the week before the final examination. Finds that their expectations decreased stating that their cumulative grade point average was related to the…

  16. Prediction of Grade of Dropout from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…

  17. Distinguishing grade I meningioma from higher grade meningiomas without biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Varlotto, John; Flickinger, John; Pavelic, Martin T.; Specht, Charles S.; Sheehan, Jonas M.; Timek, Dana T.; Glantz, Michael J.; Sogge, Steven; Dimaio, Christopher; Moser, Richard; Yunus, Shakeeb; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.; Upadhyay, Urvashi; Rava, Paul; Tangel, Matthew; Yao, Aaron; Kanekar, Sangam

    2015-01-01

    Background Many meningiomas are identified by imaging and followed, with an assumption that they are WHO Grade I tumors. The purpose of our investigation is to find clinical or imaging predictors of WHO Grade II/III tumors to distinguish them from Grade I meningiomas. Methods Patients with a pathologic diagnosis of meningioma from 2002–2009 were included if they had pre-operative MRI studies and pathology for review. A Neuro-Pathologist reviewed and classified all tumors by WHO 2007. All Brain MRI imaging was reviewed by a Neuro-radiologist. Pathology and Radiology reviews were blinded from each other and clinical course. Recursive partitioning was used to create predictive models for identifying meningioma grades. Results Factors significantly correlating with a diagnosis of WHO Grade II-III tumors in univariate analysis: prior CVA (p = 0.005), CABG (p = 0.010), paresis (p = 0.008), vascularity index = 4/4: (p = 0.009), convexity vs other (p = 0.014), metabolic syndrome (p = 0.025), non-skull base (p = 0.041) and non-postmenopausal female (p = 0.045). Recursive partitioning analysis identified four categories: 1. prior CVA, 2. vascular index (vi) = 4 (no CVA), 3. premenopausal or male, vi < 4, no CVA. 4. Postmenopausal, vi < 4, no CVA with corresponding rates of 73, 54, 35 and 10% of being Grade II-III meningiomas. Conclusions Meningioma patients with prior CVA and those grade 4/4 vascularity are the most likely to have WHO Grade II-III tumors while post-menopausal women without these features are the most likely to have Grade I meningiomas. Further study of the associations of clinical and imaging factors with grade and clinical behavior are needed to better predict behavior of these tumors without biopsy. PMID:26472106

  18. Health Curriculum Guide. Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syosset Central School District 2, NY.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade four. SUBJECT MATTER: Health education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This illustrated guide is divided into five "strands" or topics and a bibliography. The five strands are as follows: Physical Health; Sociological Health Problems; Mental Health; Environmental and Community Health; and Education for Survival. For…

  19. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  20. Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  1. Upgrading Metallurgical-Grade Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, L. M.; Moore, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    Closed-loop process produces semiconductor-grade silicon. Metallurgical-grade silicon converted to ultrapure silicon by reacting with hydrogen and silicon tetrahalide to form trihalosilane, purifying this intermediate and again decomposing to high purity silicon in third stage. Heterogeneously and homogeneously nucleated polycrystalline silicon used in semiconductor device applications and in silicon photovoltaic solar cell fabrication.

  2. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  3. Grade 3 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    The specific content areas and objectives from which the Alberta, Canada, Grade 3 Science Achievement Test questions were derived are outlined in this bulletin. The document contains: (1) curriculum summary (providing a general listing of the process skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, and subject matter covered at the grade 3 level); (2) a…

  4. Science: Grade 8. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  5. Nonpunitive Grading Practices and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Paul A.; Brydon, Charles W.

    Information pertaining to the overall grading standards and practices within the five Peralta Colleges is compiled and analyzed here. The report is presented in three parts. The first part deals with the historical background of traditional and non-punitive grading, the national trends toward innovation and experimentation with various forms of…

  6. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  7. Teaching Literacy in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paratore, Jeanne R.; McCormack, Rachel L.

    2005-01-01

    Second-grade classrooms are exciting places to visit. Children are consolidating their growing reading and writing expertise, exploring new genres, and becoming more effective communicators. This book takes the reader into several exemplary second-grade classrooms to demonstrate what teachers can do to optimize literacy learning for their…

  8. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  9. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  10. Science: Grade 9. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  11. Science: Grade 5. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  12. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  13. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  14. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  15. Science: Grade 3. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  16. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  17. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  18. Science: Grade 6. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  19. Towards Uniformity in Grading Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Libby; McCulloch, Elizabeth

    To study grading standards and consistency within the English department, 1600 freshmen at Rockland Community College were asked to complete a uniform exit essay at the end of English 101. After developing criteria for grading the papers, members of the department marked their own papers and one other set. Eight months later, 240 of the papers…

  20. [Regression grading in gastrointestinal tumors].

    PubMed

    Tischoff, I; Tannapfel, A

    2012-02-01

    Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy is a well-established and essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. Neoadjuvant treatment leads to regressive changes in tumors. To evaluate the histological tumor response different scoring systems describing regressive changes are used and known as tumor regression grading. Tumor regression grading is usually based on the presence of residual vital tumor cells in proportion to the total tumor size. Currently, no nationally or internationally accepted grading systems exist. In general, common guidelines should be used in the pathohistological diagnostics of tumors after neoadjuvant therapy. In particularly, the standard tumor grading will be replaced by tumor regression grading. Furthermore, tumors after neoadjuvant treatment are marked with the prefix "y" in the TNM classification. PMID:22293790

  1. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care. PMID:24684818

  2. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care.

  3. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  5. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have.... Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more than eight cherries per sample...

  6. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  9. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  10. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  11. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  12. Thermal rectification in graded materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Pereira, Emmanuel; Casati, Giulio

    2012-07-01

    In order to identify the basic conditions for thermal rectification we investigate a simple model with nonuniform, graded mass distribution. The existence of thermal rectification is theoretically predicted and numerically confirmed, suggesting that thermal rectification is a typical occurrence in graded systems, which are likely to be natural candidates for the actual fabrication of thermal diodes. In view of practical implications, the dependence of rectification on the asymmetry and system's size is studied.

  13. The Betrayal of the Gatekeepers: Grade Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Louis

    The problem of grade inflation and explanations for this phenomena are considered. Grade inflation is described as the positive change in grade point average of large numbers of students generally, over an extended period of time. The following array of causes or explanations are discussed: awarding high grades so that a student could go to…

  14. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  15. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  16. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  17. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  18. Grading: Why You Should Trust Your Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2016-01-01

    Many educators consider grades calculated from statistical algorithms more accurate, objective, and reliable than grades they calculate themselves. But in this research, the authors first asked teachers to use their professional judgment to choose a summary grade for hypothetical students. When the researchers compared the teachers' grade with the…

  19. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  20. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  1. 7 CFR 58.155 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Inspection, Grading and Official Identification... provisions of this subpart may be graded by the grader in accordance with the U.S. Standards for...

  2. Grade inflation: a problem in nursing?

    PubMed

    King-Jones, Malena; Mitchell, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article examines grade inflation in higher education and in nursing education. The factors related to grade inflation and consequences of grade inflation are explored. Actions that address grade inflation and recommendations for future research in nursing education are provided. PMID:22856061

  3. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score and high school grade point average after controlling for…

  4. Common Errors in Calculating Final Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The author has discovered that errors in grades often occur when scores are combined for final marks. These errors are not related to the grading individual assignments. Rather, they occur when teachers at all grade levels bring individual test and assignment scores together for the students' final grades. Unfortunately, professors of mathematics…

  5. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that...

  6. Teaching More by Grading Less (or Differently)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinske, Jeffrey; Tanner, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a brief history of grading in higher education in the United States. Authors, Schinske and Tanner then follow up with considerations of the potential purposes of grading and insights from research literature that has explored the influence of grading on teaching and learning. Schinske and Tanner then ask: Does grading provide…

  7. Grading Adaptations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Melissa; Munk, Dennis D.; Bursuck, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Issues surround grading for all students, especially those with disabilities, who are at increased risk for grades that are low, inaccurate, and lacking in meaning. Teachers often recognize grading issues and will exercise judgment in making informal adaptations to the regular grading system. When chosen collaboratively and implemented…

  8. Family LIfe Education Curriculum: Grade 7 through Grade 9 Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Schools, Fayetteville, NC.

    This document presents a curriculum unit in family life education for students in grades 7 through 9 that encompasses learning about human sexuality, interpersonal relationships, and roles within the family. The unit is designed to attain the following goals: (1) to help students gain a detailed knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and uniqueness…

  9. Comparing Chemistry Faculty Beliefs about Grading with Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutambuki, Jacinta; Fynewever, Herb

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we seek to understand the beliefs that chemistry faculty hold when grading student solutions in problem solving situations. We are particularly interested in examining whether a conflict exists between the chemistry faculty beliefs and the score they assign to students' solutions. The three categorical values identified in a similar…

  10. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children…

  11. Lessons in Law for Middle Grades: Grade Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Social Studies Education.

    These lessons are part of a project to make the study of law and legal concepts an integral part of the North Carolina social studies state curriculum, and the materials are correlated to this curriculum. Six lesson goals and numerous activities focus on the legal concepts of authority, justice, and responsibility. This packet for grade four…

  12. Lessons in Law for Middle Grades: Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Social Studies Education.

    These lessons are part of a project to make the study of law and legal concepts an integral part of the North Carolina social studies state curriculum, and these materials are correlated to this curriculum. Six lesson goals and numerous activities focus on the legal concepts of authority, justice, and responsibility. This packet for grade five…

  13. [Grading of gynecological tumors : Current aspects].

    PubMed

    Horn, L-C; Mayr, D; Brambs, C E; Einenkel, J; Sändig, I; Schierle, K

    2016-07-01

    Histopathological assessment of the tumor grade and cell type is central to the management and prognosis of various gynecological malignancies. Conventional grading systems for squamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the vulva, vagina and cervix are poorly defined. For endometrioid tumors of the female genital tract as well as for mucinous endometrial, ovarian and seromucinous ovarian carcinomas, the 3‑tiered FIGO grading system is recommended. For uterine neuroendocrine tumors the grading system of the gastrointestinal counterparts has been adopted. Uterine leiomyosarcomas are not graded. Endometrial stromal sarcomas are divided into low and high grades, based on cellular morphology, immunohistochemical and molecular findings. A chemotherapy response score was established for chemotherapeutically treated high-grade serous pelvic cancer. For non-epithelial ovarian malignancies, only Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors and immature teratomas are graded. At this time molecular profiling has no impact on the grading of tumors of the female genital tract. PMID:27379622

  14. Ninth Grade English: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating curriculum concepts in English to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and resource materials. State concepts for ninth grade English, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency "Bulletin 615" for instruction, are used in…

  15. Eighth Grade English: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating curriculum concepts in English to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and resource materials. State concepts for eighth grade English, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency "Bulletin 615" for instruction, are used in…

  16. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 7. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  17. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 4. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  18. Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

    This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 10. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

  19. Grading Philosophy Survey, Fall 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catonsville Community Coll., MD. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1989, a survey was conducted at Catonsville Community College to establish a consensus about the underlying philosophy governing the college's grading policy. The survey respondents included 167 full-time or adjunct faculty members, 15 student personnel professionals, 8 administrators, and 6 library, media, or telecommunications professionals.…

  20. Grade Three, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This third grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, that were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

  1. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  2. Teaching Music, Grades 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide has been prepared for use by both the music specialist and the classroom teacher in New York City. It outlines areas of musical subject matter appropriate for students in grades five and six. The materials are presented in six sections. "Rhythmic Experiences" introduces students to a variety of meters and rhythms through…

  3. Patriotic Observances. Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Materials and suggestions to help teachers in grades K-6 highlight special dates that hold significance for Canadian children are provided. The purpose is to arouse an awareness in children of their Canadian identity. The "patriotic observances" should take place at the beginning of every school day. Materials concerning Canadian natural wonders,…

  4. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  5. The Reliability of College Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  6. Industrial Education. Drafting. [Grade 9].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides a course on drafting to be used in the ninth grade. Thirteen goals are identified for the students to demonstrate: (1) a knowledge of the relationship between drafting and the work of designers, engineers, and architects; (2) an…

  7. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen Van Quan; And Others

    This illustrated primer, designed for second grade students in Vietnam, consists of stories depicting rural family life in Vietnam. The book is divided into the following six chapters: (1) Practicing Good Habits (health, play, helpfulness); (2) Duties at Home (grandparents, father and mother, servants, the extended family; (3) Duties in School…

  8. Grade Four, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This fourth grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

  9. Storybook Writing in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz-Lazarowitze, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Research literature on writing storybooks overlooks first graders. This is puzzling as children enter first grade having emergent literacy, in reading, writing, and story composition. It may reflect the belief that at this age children should learn to read and write (conventionally) as the curriculum demands, while elaborate writing is assumed to…

  10. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  11. School Grading and Institutional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline

    2011-01-01

    We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker…

  12. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  13. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  14. Seals. Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Explanations of a marine mammal rescue program and information on seals and sea lions are presented in this curriculum package for intermediate grade teachers. Activities are highlighted which focus on the natural history of harbor seals. This unit contains: (1) pre-trip activities (including fact sheets and worksheets on the different types of…

  15. Algebra: Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    A complete set of behavioral objectives for first-year algebra taught in any of grades 8 through 12 is presented. Three to six sample test items and answers are provided for each objective. Objectives were determined by surveying the most used secondary school algebra textbooks. Fourteen major categories are included: (1) whole numbers--operations…

  16. Determinants of Grades in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Pauline

    Interest in the relationship between student characteristics and interests and economics grades led to the administration of a questionnaire to 565 students enrolled in principles of economics classes. The students who completed the questionnaire were among 1,000 students in 27 sections of macro and micro principles courses at Southeast Missouri…

  17. The Hoosier Connection: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ira; And Others

    This eighth grade teacher's guide with student activities is designed to create greater awareness of Indiana, its geography, history, government, and future and is designed to be used as a supplement to the study of the U.S. Constitution and the Indiana Constitution. In the first section, entitled "Geography of Indiana," the lessons cover the…

  18. Woodworking: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    The woodworking collection is composed of 55 objectives and related evaluation items for use in grades 7 through 12. Each sample contains the objective, test items, and criteria for judging the adequacy of the response. Woodworking categories being measured include sharpening, adjusting, using and caring for tools; reading a working drawing; stock…

  19. Social Studies Handbook, First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    The handbook outlines a course of study in social studies for grade 1. The overall course objective is to teach children about the family's needs, the ways in which it satisfies them, and the interdependence of people in families and communities. Questioning techniques are used throughout the course. Questions which develop student thinking…

  20. The Ninth-Grade Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habeeb, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Across the country, high schools have found that their ninth-grade students have the highest rates of truancy, discipline referrals, failures, and retentions. A school's worst data points are usually found among freshmen. For this reason, proactive schools seek strategies for transitioning freshmen into high school. An effective freshman…

  1. Third Grade Social Studies Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park Forest Public Schools District 163, IL.

    As in other units in this series, this teaching guide is structured on the basis of one major generalization, supporting generalizations, and suggestions of learning activities and materials leading to an understanding of these ideas. For Grade 3, the major generalization is, "Skin color is only one of many obvious physical differences among…

  2. Sociology. Grades 11 & 12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton Township Schools, NJ.

    This curriculum guide presents both general information on K-12 social studies curriculum development and information specific to designing an 11th and 12th grade sociology curriculum. A foreword and preface describe Hamilton Township's (New Jersey) K-12 social studies program sequence, curriculum and instruction design criteria, and support…

  3. City Planning Unit: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, William Edward

    Described is a project designed to make government lessons and economics more appealing to sixth-grade students by having them set up and run a model city. General preparation procedures and set-up of the project, specific lesson plans, additional activities, and project evaluation are examined. An actual 3-dimensional model city was set up on…

  4. Outdoor Education--Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jean, Comp.; And Others

    Learning activities; lesson plans, and various resource materials are contained in this guide for the fifth grade outdoor education program in the Dixon Public Schools, Dixon, Illinois. Well over 100 activities are suggested, and many of these are described in detail. Although some information is specific to the Dixon program, which has access to…

  5. Science Equity in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlhaas, Kay; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Chu, Kwang-Lee

    2010-01-01

    The earliest national accountability tests occur at the fourth-grade level and the outcomes are aggregated. This national study exposes the depth of science education inequities a full year earlier by disaggregating third graders' demographic data with the science performance. A full 3-way ANOVA model was applied to test the 3 main effects…

  6. TEAM TEACHING IN ELEMENTARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    INFORMATION ON THE PRACTICE OF TEAM TEACHING IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES DRAWN FROM A SURVEY OF SCHOOL SYSTEMS HAVING SUCH PROBLEMS IS PRESENTED IN THIS CIRCULAR. OVER 400 SCHOOL SYSTEMS WITH ENROLLMENTS OF 12,000 AND ABOVE WERE INITIALLY SURVEYED, AND THE 169 WHICH INDICATED THEY USED SOME TEAM TEACHING WERE SENT QUESTIONNAIRES. THE PROGRAMS OF 76…

  7. Suggestions for Responding to the Dilemma of Grading Students' Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rebecca S.; Speck, Bruce W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the four-week summer Memphis (Tennessee) Urban Writing Institute, during which a furor erupted over the dilemma of grading. Provide a number of approaches to grading students' writing, including minimalist grading, cassette grading, collaborative grading, and portfolio grading. Suggests that teachers consider the grading dilemma and…

  8. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  9. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  10. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  11. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  12. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according...

  13. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  14. Grade Organization Patterns. ERS Reporter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    Information regarding grade organization patterns in 449 of the 515 school districts enrolling 12,000 or more pupils is reported in this national survey, which repeated a similar survey made in 1963. Results show that the predominant plan is that which follows the 6-3-3 pattern. Of interest are the four percent rise in the 4-4-4 or 5-3-4 middle…

  15. Standardization of grading embryo morphology.

    PubMed

    Racowsky, Catherine; Vernon, Michael; Mayer, Jacob; Ball, G David; Behr, Barry; Pomeroy, Kimball O; Wininger, David; Gibbons, William; Conaghan, Joseph; Stern, Judy E

    2010-08-01

    Standardization of morphologic assessment for an embryo grading system was developed and is being implemented by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART). A recent European consensus conference of embryologists from Europe and America is working toward adopting an embryo classification system modeled similarly to that of SART that, if adopted, would produce a de facto international standard to aid cross-border collaboration. PMID:20580357

  16. Grade Distribution. Community Colleges, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    Data on the grade point ratios (GPR's) and the distribution of grades earned were gathered and analyzed for all students enrolled in credit courses at the seven Hawaii community colleges during Fall 1978. These data indicate that the average assigned grade was 2.7, and that the credits-earned rate was 71%. As in previous semesters, the…

  17. Investigating Grade Inflation and Non-Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2009. This study investigated the presence of a general rise in high school grades without a corresponding rise in SAT scores, as well as different grading criteria between schools, as shown by differential relationships between AP course grades and exam scores. These…

  18. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 8, GRADE EIGHT SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FOURTEENTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE EIGHTH GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPT BRIEF SUMMARY OF SUBJECT MATTER CONTENT FOR GRADE 8, AND A CHART OF THE GRADE CONTENT FOR…

  19. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  20. The Effect of Effort Grading on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Omari H.

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, Benedict College--a Historically Black College in Columbia, SC--began enforcing a new grading policy called Success Equals Effort (SE[squared]). Under this policy, students taking freshman and sophomore level courses were assigned grades that explicitly rewarded not only content learning ("knowledge" grade) but also measures…

  1. First Grade Teacher Expectations in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Charles P.

    The focus of this study was on the expectations that first-grade teachers have of the mathematics skills of their incoming first-grade students. At the end of one school year and at the beginning of the next school year, first-grade teachers (n=64) in rural and urban settings completed the Mathematics Skills Expectations Survey (MSES). The MSES…

  2. Graded Course of Study, Science (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid City Schools, OH.

    This course of study specifies the science skills and concepts that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City Schools. Included are instructional objectives for the life, physical, and earth sciences for grades K to 6, suggested field trips and planetarium schedules (by elementary grade levels), and scope and sequence charts…

  3. Elementary Mathematics, Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Elementary math. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Introductory material focuses on the philosophy and objectives of instructional material. The guide is divided into six units covering grades 1-6. Each unit presents the general goals, materials needed, minimum program, skills to be developed,…

  4. Science for Grades 6-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 6-9. SUBJECT MATTER: General science, life science, earth science, and physical science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into separate sections for each grade. Each section is further subdivided into units. The major portion of each unit is laid out in four columns; column headings are concepts,…

  5. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  6. Community College Grading Policies. Agenda Item 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Allan

    Background information and a discussion of major issues accompany recommended state minimum standards for grading as presented by an ad hoc Grading Policy Study Group to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges. The report first notes the diversity of grading policies among the colleges and then outlines the Group's…

  7. Predicting Turkish Ninth Grade Students' Algebra Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2005-01-01

    The prediction of students' achievement in algebra in eighth and ninth grades has become a research interest for practical issues of placement. A group of simple, easily accessible variables was used to predict student performance in algebra after completion of eighth grade. The three variables of school type, grade level, and previous year…

  8. Analysis of Fall 1996 Course Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Ellen N.; Reece, Dee; Garner, Doris

    This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1996 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996, indicating that the number of A…

  9. Analysis of Fall 1995 Course Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pima Community Coll., Tucson, AZ. Office of Institutional Research.

    This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1995 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995, indicating that the number of A…

  10. Analysis of Fall 1994 Course Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pima Community Coll., Tucson, AZ. Office of Research and Planning.

    This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1994 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC), in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for fall 1979, 1984, 1989, and 1994, indicating that the number of…

  11. 7 CFR 29.1022 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1022 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group, quality, and color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grade. 29.1022 Section 29.1022 Agriculture...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1022 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1022 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group, quality, and color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade. 29.1022 Section 29.1022 Agriculture...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1022 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1022 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group, quality, and color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grade. 29.1022 Section 29.1022 Agriculture...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1022 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1022 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group, quality, and color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grade. 29.1022 Section 29.1022 Agriculture...

  15. Stability and Change in High School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of students' grades in high school courses during the academic year. Records of over 8,000 high school students from five large southeastern high schools were analyzed to determine the relationship between the first achievement grade students were assigned during an academic term and their final course grades.…

  16. 7 CFR 29.1022 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1022 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group, quality, and color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grade. 29.1022 Section 29.1022 Agriculture...

  17. Grade Inflation in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol

    Grade inflation has commanded increasing attention in the academic world in recent years, with administrators, faculty, and academic analysts unable to agree on whether grade inflation actually exists or is a myth to be debunked. This Digest reviews research in support of and against the existence of grade inflation. A statistical analysis report…

  18. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score; and high school GPA after controlling for test scores, a…

  19. 7 CFR 993.18 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.18 Grade. Grade means the classification of prunes for quality and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade. 993.18 Section 993.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  20. Guidelines for Grade Advancement of Precocious Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; Proctor, Theron B.; Black, Kathryn N.

    2002-01-01

    This reprint of an article on using grade advancement as a method for meeting the needs of some intellectually or academically gifted students is preceded by a commentary that concludes that popular sentiment and negative folklore supporting grade advancement are unfounded. Grade advancement guidelines are provided. (Contains references.) (CR)

  1. Fair & Accurate Grading for Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many changes in education over the past century, grading and reporting practices have essentially remained the same. In part, this is because few teacher preparation programs offer any guidance on sound grading practices. As a result, most current grading practices are grounded in tradition, rather than research on best practice. In an…

  2. Grading Considerations in Mathematics Classrooms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Little research is available specifically about grading practices in mathematics classrooms. However, there is research about grading practices in high schools, across content areas. Since their first use students, parents and others have assumed that grades are reliable measures of student achievement. "In short, most Americans have a basic trust…

  3. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  4. Student Perspectives of Grading in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe

    2015-01-01

    Recent state and federal legislations on educational accountability push evaluation and grading to the frontline. This study examined students' perspectives of grading in physical education. The participants included students (N = 39) from two middle schools. Data were collected through observation, student profile grading sheets and interviews.…

  5. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  6. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  7. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  8. Is Grade Inflation Related to Faculty Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezim, Boualem; Pariseau, Susan E.; Quinn, Frances

    2005-01-01

    The authors performed a statistical analysis to investigate whether grade inflation existed in the business school at a small private college in the northeast region of the United States. The results showed that grade inflation existed and exhibited a linear trend over a 20-year period. The authors found that grade inflation was related to faculty…

  9. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  10. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  11. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  12. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2205 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot. (b) Garlicky wheat. Wheat that contains in a...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  14. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  15. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  16. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  17. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  18. Stop Giving in to Higher Grades: Ten Suggestions on How to Fight Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Grade inflation has been a consistently ignored problem in the public schools and universities for over fifty years. Grades keep getting higher and higher for a multitude of reasons. Students expect high grades. Parents demand high grades of their children and teachers. Some administrators implicitly or explicitly require that their teachers give…

  19. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1405 Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to give a smutty appearance in mass, or that contains...

  20. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1405 Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to give a smutty appearance in mass, or that contains...

  1. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.1405 Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to give a smutty appearance in mass, or that contains...

  2. Ohio Proficiency Tests for Grade 12. Fact Sheet. Twelfth-Grade Proficiency Test in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    Twelfth-grade students in Ohio who have passed all the sections of the ninth-grade proficiency tests take the twelfth-grade tests. Beginning in 1995-96, these tests will include science, although science will not become a factor in earning a diploma until the year 2000. This fact sheet provides information about the Twelfth-grade Proficiency Test…

  3. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  4. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline variables). Relative to promoted children, retained children were found to benefit from retention in both the short and longer terms with respect to decreased teacher-rated hyperactivity, decreased peer-rated sadness and withdrawal, and increased teacher-rated behavioral engagement. Retained children had a short-term increase in mean peer-rated liking and school belongingness relative to promoted children, but this advantage showed a substantial decrease in the longer term. Retention had a positive short-term effect on children’s perceived school belonging and a positive longer term effect on perceived academic self-efficacy. Retention may bestow advantages in the short-term, but longer term detrimental effects on social acceptance may lead to the documented longer term negative effects of retention. PMID:20448829

  5. 7 CFR 56.20 - Who may obtain grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.20 Who may obtain grading service....

  6. 7 CFR 56.31 - Report of grading work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Reports § 56.31 Report of grading work. Reports of grading work...

  7. 7 CFR 56.19 - Prerequisites to grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Licensed and Authorized Graders § 56.19 Prerequisites to grading. Grading...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S....

  9. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S....

  10. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S....

  11. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S....

  12. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S....

  13. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S....

  14. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Ron; Cotton, Matthew; Harris, Ernest; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David

    2013-06-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in plate impact experiments can yield useful information about the dynamic properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to fabricate a graded-density flyer, termed the ``bed of nails'' (BON). A 2 mm thick x 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. Two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at The Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in free surface velocity over a period of about 2.5 microseconds. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum.

  15. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2014-05-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed of nails" (BON). A 2 mm thick × 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ~2.5 us, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress strain curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  16. Clinical grade expansion of MSCs.

    PubMed

    Capelli, C; Pedrini, O; Valgardsdottir, R; Da Roit, F; Golay, J; Introna, M

    2015-12-01

    Producing advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines represents a global challenge for the expansion of cells intended for human use. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from different sources are one of the most actively developed cell type for a variety of clinical applications in cellular therapy. Complying with GMP means defining accurately both the production process and the release criteria required for a final safe product. We have here reported our manufacturing experience on 103 consecutive clinical-grade in vitro expansions of both bone marrow-derived and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells together with description of methods and reagents utilized in our Cell Factory. The same animal- and serum-free medium, additioned with human platelet lysate, has been used for all the expansions performed. This is the largest experience published so far with this alternative and clinical-grade reagent (compared to the traditional fetal bovine serum) and shows the feasibility and the reproducibility of the method. Indeed, we have been able to produce a sufficient number of MSCs to treat 57 patients so far, enrolled in 7 different experimental phase I/II protocols. PMID:26092523

  17. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all. PMID:25288826

  18. 7 CFR 29.6155 - Summary of standard grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Three grades of binder Three grades of stripper B1 C1 B2 C2 B3 C3 Three grades of straight stripped Three grades of farm filler X1 Y1 X2 Y2 X3 Y3 Two grades of nondescript One grades of scrap N1 S...

  19. Does Learning-Centered Teaching Promote Grade Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostrom, Alison M.; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    When the grade distribution within a course shifts towards higher grades, it may be due to grade inflation or grade improvement. If the positive shift is accompanied by an increase in achievement or learning, it should be considered grade improvement, "not" grade inflation. Effective learning-centered teaching is designed to promote student…

  20. Practical management of grade III acromioclavicular separations.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Gabriel; Arciero, Robert A; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2008-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (AC) injuries are common in the young athletic population. There is general agreement that grade I and grade II separations are best managed nonoperatively, whereas grades IV to VI warrant surgical stabilization. In contrast, considerable controversy exists surrounding the best method of treatment for grade III AC separations. The trend in recent literature is toward the initial nonoperative management of these injuries. However, consideration of other factors such as type of sport, timing of injury relative to athletic season, or the throwing demands in an injured dominant arm may play a role in the decision to treat grade III injuries operatively or nonoperatively. We offer a protocol algorithm for treating grade III AC separations for managing this controversial injury.

  1. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  2. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  3. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  4. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  5. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating... sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  6. Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Angela J.; Fisher, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas encompass a heterogeneous set of tumors of different histologies. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently followed by supratentorial diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas. Recent research has implicated activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK pathway in tumorigenesis of these tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Overall survival rates for patients whose tumors are completely resected are 90% or greater, 10 years from diagnosis. Conversely, most optic pathway/hypothalamic, deep midline, and brain stem gliomas have minimal potential for resection; these tumors can be difficult to treat and deserve special attention. Combination chemotherapy is currently recommended as front-line adjuvant treatment for progressive or recurrent tumors. Second-line radiotherapy can also improve overall survival but is associated with more frequent and significant neurocognitive, endocrine, and other long-term toxicities. PMID:19841428

  7. Validation of sterilizing grade filtration.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, M W; Meltzer, T H

    2003-01-01

    Validation consideration of sterilizing grade filters, namely 0.2 micron, changed when FDA voiced concerns about the validity of Bacterial Challenge tests performed in the past. Such validation exercises are nowadays considered to be filter qualification. Filter validation requires more thorough analysis, especially Bacterial Challenge testing with the actual drug product under process conditions. To do so, viability testing is a necessity to determine the Bacterial Challenge test methodology. Additionally to these two compulsory tests, other evaluations like extractable, adsorption and chemical compatibility tests should be considered. PDA Technical Report # 26, Sterilizing Filtration of Liquids, describes all parameters and aspects required for the comprehensive validation of filters. The report is a most helpful tool for validation of liquid filters used in the biopharmaceutical industry. It sets the cornerstones of validation requirements and other filtration considerations. PMID:14620854

  8. To Grade or Not to Grade: Student Perceptions of the Effects of Grading a Course in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddan, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the benefits of introducing the typical course grading process to a work-integrated learning course in exercise science in order to motivate students to produce their best efforts in assessment tasks relevant to their future employability. The course had incorporated a non-graded pass/fail system of assessment since…

  9. Energy and Economics for the Elementary Grades. Unit I (Grades K-6). Lessons and Activities for the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backler, Alan

    Six lessons for students in grades K-3 and six lessons for students in grades 4-6 are presented. These lessons are designed to help students become more aware of the energy choices that they must make in the present and for the future and to understand that the costs of maintaining a specific standard of living and thriving national economy can be…

  10. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium;...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium;...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium;...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium;...

  14. How Minimal Grade Goals and Self-Control Capacity Interact in Predicting Test Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrams, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the prediction of school students' grades in an upcoming math test via their minimal grade goals (i.e., the minimum grade in an upcoming test one would be satisfied with). Due to its significance for initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior, self-control capacity was expected to moderate the relation between…

  15. Relationship between Second Grade Oral Reading Fluency and Third Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Samantha Kane; Schoeneberger, Jason; Tingle, Lynne; Algozzine, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is a critical feature and outcome of early literacy instruction and it has amassed great attention as a powerful predictor of success at all levels of schooling. We examined relationships between second grade oral reading fluency scores and third grade end-of-grade reading achievement scores for students (N = 9562) in a large…

  16. Beyond Grade Inflation: Grading Problems in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 30, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    College grades play important educational and social roles (Milton, Pollio, and Eison, 1986; Walvoord and Anderson, 1998). What is not well understood are the types of problems that exist in college grading practices. Conversations about grade inflation in higher education are often based on sparse anecdotal evidence and charged with value…

  17. Judging the Grade: Exploring the Judgement Processes Involved in Examination Grading Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Examiners' grading judgements are central to the maintenance of examination standards. This research investigated the judgement processes underpinning examination grading. Operating under a think aloud protocol, six examiners conducted a grading exercise for each of two geography A level examinations. They also "thought aloud" whilst marking some…

  18. Academic Achievement for Fifth-Grade Students in Elementary and Intermediate School Settings: Grade Span Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie P.; Clark, David; Moore, George W.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have addressed student achievement outcomes as a function of grade configurations for older elementary-aged students. Thus, this study was designed to determine differences between students' Grade 5 reading and mathematics achievement in elementary schools (K-5) as compared to intermediate schools (Grade 5, 5-6) for 5 academic…

  19. 7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Special Grade Requirements § 810.1005 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with sulfurous acid or any other bleaching agent. (b) Bright oats. Oats, except bleached oats, that are of good natural color. (c) Ergoty oats. Oats...

  20. 7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Grade Requirements § 810.1005 Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with sulfurous acid or any other bleaching agent. (b) Bright oats. Oats, except bleached oats, that are of good natural color. (c) Ergoty oats. Oats...

  1. Implications of the Effects of Grade Configurations on Fifth Grade Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Delonda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if grade level configuration and student achievement in science, specifically fifth grade Science TAKS scores are related. This study utilized a causal comparative (ex post facto) design to determine if a consistent relationship existed between fifth grade students' success on the science TAKS at the…

  2. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  3. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  4. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  5. A Crash Course on Giving Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Grades do a sufficient job of telling students how well their rank works in comparison with their classroom peers. But they fail to tell students what they actually might have failed at doing. The author promotes trying new ways to communicating grades to students that would be more helpful to students by telling them which particular skills they…

  6. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried,...

  7. Music. Grade 13. Curriculum S.16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 13. SUBJECT MATTER: Music. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The central portion of the guide is divided into six units: voice, strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion, and theory and form. Each unit is in list form. The guide is offset printed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A list of…

  8. Texas's Decision to Have Twelve Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watlington, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    A majority of American students have taken the journey through schools that progressed from first to twelfth grade. So by the 1913 Committee on the Economy of Time in Education, American education featured a twelve-grade system quickly evolving from the forces of consolidation and corporate efficiency. Such was not the reality in Texas schools.…

  9. Academic Testing and Grading with Spreadsheet Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Explains how spreadsheet software can be used in the design and grading of academic tests and in assigning grades. Macro programs and menu-driven software are highlighted and an example using IBM PCs and Lotus 1-2-3 software is given. (Author/LRW)

  10. Third Grade Literacy Policies: Identification, Intervention, Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie; Schimke, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Students not reading proficiently by the end of 3rd grade are four times more likely than proficient readers to drop out of high school. This fact and other recent research on the importance of early literacy skills have culminated in an intense focus on improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The challenges of improving literacy are, in turn,…

  11. 7 CFR 29.6028 - No Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No Grade. 29.6028 Section 29.6028 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6028 No Grade. A designation applied to a lot of tobacco classified...

  12. Elementary Science Guide -- 5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 5. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  13. Latin Vibes Curriculum: Sixth and Seventh Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Debra; And Others

    A sixth- and seventh-grade program "Latin Vibes," developed in response to a rising demand within the community for more student understanding of the evolution of the English language, is outlined. The courses for each grade chronicle the influences of Latin and the romance languages on the development of English over the centuries. The program…

  14. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

  15. 7 CFR 924.9 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grade. 924.9 Section 924.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... any one of the officially established grades of prunes as defined and set forth in the United...

  16. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 1, GRADE ONE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE FIRST GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPT TO BE TAUGHT IN GRADES K-3 FOR EACH OF THE FOUR AREAS AROUND WHICH THE PROGRAM…

  17. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 3, GRADE THREE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FOURTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE THIRD GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPTS TO BE TAUGHT IN GRADES K-3 FOR EACH OF THE FOUR AREAS AROUND WHICH THE PROGRAM…

  18. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 2, GRADE TWO SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE SECOND GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. A CHART INDICATES CONCEPTS TO BE TAUGHT IN GRADES K-3, IN EACH OF THE FOUR AREAS AROUND WHICH THE PROGRAM…

  19. Improving Reading in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Nell K.; Block, Meghan K.

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report "Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children," which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in pre-kindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by…

  20. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  1. Time Horizon in Students' Predictions of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manger, Terje; Teigen, Karl Halvor

    1988-01-01

    Eight and two months before their final exam, 252 undergraduates in Norway stated their expectations and hopes for examination grades. Correlations between expected and obtained grades were low. A shift from optimism to pessimism occurred. Results confirm the time horizon's crucial role in the prediction of academic achievement. (TJH)

  2. The USDA quality grades may mislead consumers.

    PubMed

    DeVuyst, E A; Lusk, J L; DeVuyst, M A

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to explore consumers' perceptions about and knowledge of USDA beef quality grades. Data were collected from over 1,000 consumers in online surveys in November and December 2013, and estimates were weighted to force the sample to mirror the U.S. population in terms of age, gender, education, and region of residence. When asked to rank Prime, Choice, and Select grades in terms of leanness, only 14.4% provided the correct ranking with 57.1% of respondents incorrectly indicating steaks grading Prime were the leanest. Despite perceptions that the Prime name indicated the leanest product, in a subsequent question, 55.6% of respondents thought Prime grade to be the juiciest of the 3 grades. In addition to inquiring about perceptions of the grade names, respondents also indicated perceptions of pictures of steaks. Only 14.5% of respondents correctly matched the steak pictures with their corresponding USDA quality grade name, an outcome that is statistically worse than would have occurred through pure random matching (P = 0.03). When asked to match pictures of steaks with expected prices, 54.8% of respondents incorrectly matched the picture of the Prime steak with the lowest price level. More highly educated consumers with greater preferences for steak consumption were more likely to provide correct answers. Results reveal substantial confusion over quality grading nomenclature and suggest the need for more education or for a transition toward more descriptive terminology at the retail level.

  3. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  4. Wiki Technology for Middle Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Debra Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to determine the pedagogical value of Wiki technology-enhanced instruction for middle grade students. The sample consisted of three Wiki projects representative of work from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade middle school students. The examination of the data collected from the three samples of Wiki…

  5. An Environmental Approach to Eighth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargo, Herbert J.

    This report outlines a method of teaching eighth-grade science with an environmental perspective. Areas of study normally found in junior high science curriculum are integrated with environmental concepts. This particular approach to 8th grade science is intended to be process oriented, field oriented, problem oriented, and relevant to the local…

  6. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  7. Guidelines for Teaching Grade 8 Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This document is designed to assist teachers and other school personnel in the planning and teaching of the eighth grade mathematics course. Contents include: (1) Overview of Grade 8 Mathematics (mission statement, purpose and philosophy, goals, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics, and uses…

  8. Guidelines for Teaching Grade 6 Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This document is designed to assist teachers and other school personnel in the planning and teaching of the sixth grade mathematics course. Contents include: (1) Overview of Grade 6 Mathematics (mission statement, purpose and philosophy, goals, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics, and uses…

  9. Grade Inflation: An Elementary and Secondary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sraiheen, Abdulwahab; Lesisko, Lee James

    2006-01-01

    School administrators in a small suburban school district in Southeastern Pennsylvania were concerned about grade inflation at the elementary and secondary levels. Specifically, they wanted to know if students in grades 5, 8, and 11 who scored at the basic or below basic performance level on the 2003-2004 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment…

  10. 7 CFR 29.6018 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6018 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group and quality and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade. 29.6018 Section 29.6018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  11. American History and Government. Grade 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeney, Abe D.; Nupen, Walter A.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 11. SUBJECT MATTER: American history and government. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material outlines the philosophy and the scope and sequence for the whole social studies program. The main body of the guide has seven sections (colonial years, federalism and expanding democracy, civil war and…

  12. Elementary Science Guide -- 1st Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 1. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Four units are…

  13. Recognizing Excellence in Middle-Grade Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John; Kasak, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Leaders in schools with grades 5 to 8 face unprecedented responsibilities in working with young adolescents. As schools respond to the mandates of No Child Left Behind, more than half of the students tested annually will be enrolled in these middle grades. This means that the success or failure rate of schools nationwide will be largely determined…

  14. Books on Renewable Energy for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of 20 books on renewable energy resources. These books are suitable for children in the elementary grades. Each entry includes the title, author(s) or editor(s), number of pages, price, publication date, recommended grade level(s), and source. (JN)

  15. Exploratory Programs in Alabama Middle Grades Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Allen, Michael G.; McKenna, Beverly

    Many educators believe that middle grades schools have a responsibility to capitalize on the natural curiosity of young adolescents through the use of an exploratory curriculum to help students understand the world in which they live. This study examined the status of middle grades exploratory programs in Alabama. A 22-item questionnaire was sent…

  16. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  17. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  18. Grade Repetition in Honduran Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper looks at several dimensions of the grade failure issue in Honduras using a unique data set compiled by the UMCE evaluation project in 1998 and 1999. The analytical framework incorporates econometric analysis of standardized tests and teacher pass/fail decisions for roughly 13,000 second and fourth grade students. The results show that…

  19. Student Self-Grading in Social Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes a social statistics class that engaged in self-grading. Students liked self-grading because they identified their own mistakes, it reinforced what they learned, and they received immediate feedback. Some students worried that others would cheat, but this assertion was not confirmed in the data and the possibility of cheating…

  20. Can Business Students Forecast Their Own Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines grade expectations of two groups of business students for their final course mark. We separate students that are on average "better" forecasters on the basis of them not making significant forecast errors during the semester from those students that are poor forecasters of their final grade. We find that the better…

  1. Elementary Science Guide -- 2nd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 2. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Four units are…

  2. [Bilingual Bicultural Curriculum for Mathematics: Grade Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, Roland; And Others

    Designed to assist bilingual teachers in providing a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and others whose native language is Spanish, this bilingual-bicultural mathematics curriculum guide for third grade is one of a series for preschool through fifth grade. The overall focus is on Puerto…

  3. What Do Workers Do?: Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Beverly A.

    The second grade instructional unit, part of a grade school level career education series, is designed to assist learners in relating present experiences to past and future ones. Before the main body of the lessons is described field test results are reported and key items are presented: the concepts, the estimated instructional time, the…

  4. Adjusting Grades? Let Ethics Be Your Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Among a number of lessons, this commentary suggests that oftentimes the grade a student receives in a class is not truly reflective of what that student learned. Certainly, assigning grades--at least for those who take their role as educators seriously--is one of the toughest tasks confronting the classroom teacher. Again and again, one reflects…

  5. Guiding Readers in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Denise N.; Williams, Jeffrey L.; Clark, Barbara; Hatteberg, Scott; Hauptman, Gayle Marek; Kozel, Claudia; Paris, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Guided reading is an instructional practice commonly used in primary and intermediate grades (Ford & Opitz, 2008; Fountas & Pinnell, 2001). It is used less in middle grades settings (Allen, 2000) where "one size-fits-all instruction" prevails (Allington, 2012). While teachers can read about the principles of guided reading in…

  6. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried,...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried,...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet...

  9. Elementary Science Guide -- 6th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 6. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  10. Preparing Teachers for the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornfreund, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Too often, early elementary teachers enter the classroom unprepared for the particular challenges of teaching children in grades 3 and under. Many were trained in programs that focused on older elementary grades, even though their license qualifies them to teach children as young as kindergarten. Teachers who obtained their certification through a…

  11. Elementary Science Guide -- 3rd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  12. Exploring Grade 1 Students' Textual Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on an aspect of Grade 1 children's literary understanding--the textual associations made by the students as they discussed nine picture books. This work extends the small body of research that has examined the responses of Grade 1 children (e.g., Kiefer, 1993; McGee, 1992; Sipe, 2000a), and also contributes to…

  13. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  14. Fifth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fifth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fifth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  15. Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  16. Seventh Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for seventh grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, seventh grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  17. First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  18. Sixth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for sixth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, sixth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  19. Eighth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for eighth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, eighth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  20. Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  1. Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  2. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  3. Good for Nothing: In-Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenneady, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Texas Education Association (TEA) show that 177,340 students (4.6 percent) in kindergarten through grade 12 were retained in 2001-02. This is enough students to fill Texas Stadium more than 2.5 times. Of this number, roughly 59,812 were elementary school students (grades kindergarten through six). There are several problems with in…

  4. Social Studies Curriculum Guide: Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    An outline of the knowledge and skills to be taught at grade seven in order to meet the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) social studies objectives is provided. Material is divided into four parts. Following an introduction, a one page description overviews the curriculum topic for grade six, world cultures and geography, and…

  5. Grade Inflation: Academic Standards in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lester H., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a provocative look at the issues and controversies surrounding grade inflation, and, more generally, grading practices in American higher education. The contributors confront the issues from a number of different disciplines and varying points of view. Topics explored include empirical evidence for and against the claim that…

  6. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  7. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  8. Typicality, graded membership, and vagueness.

    PubMed

    Hampton, James A

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined classes. The first section explains the importance of the relation between degrees of membership and typicality (or goodness of example) in conceptual categorization. The second and third section address arguments advanced by Osherson and Smith (1997), and Kamp and Partee (1995), that the two notions of degree of membership and typicality must relate to fundamentally different aspects of conceptual representations. A version of prototype theory-the Threshold Model-is proposed to counter these arguments and three possible solutions to the problems of logical selfcontradiction and tautology for vague categorizations are outlined. In the final section graded membership is related to the social construction of conceptual boundaries maintained through language use.

  9. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P < .001), and 6.5% of those who had not been bullied (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Both chronic and current bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  10. 7 CFR 56.4 - Basis of grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.4 Basis of grading service. (a) Any grading service in... the basis of the “United States Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Egg Shells.”...

  11. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  12. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  13. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  14. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  15. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  16. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  17. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  19. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  20. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  1. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  2. Geographic Skills in the Social Studies, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    The booklet identifies 217 geography skills to be acquired by students in kindergarten through grade six. It is intended to help teachers in developing geographical strands and outcomes in the elementary social studies curriculum. Skills are presented for three grade levels: kindergarten through grade two, grades three and four, and grades five…

  3. Grade Expectations: Informed or Uninformed Optimism, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanum, Soren; Bigatti, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    We investigated optimistic grade expectations among 258 college students from 2 contrasting perspectives: optimism as uninformed wishfulness and as an informed aspirational judgment. Results revealed considerable grade optimism; most students (70%) overestimated an average of 1 full grade. Grade expectations moderately predicted final grade but…

  4. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade celery stalks. Definitions...

  5. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade celery stalks. Definitions...

  6. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade celery stalks. Definitions...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1905 - Off-Grade tomatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade tomatoes. 51.1905 Section 51.1905... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Off-Grade § 51.1905 Off-Grade tomatoes. Tomatoes which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  16. Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsen, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

  17. Low-grade astrocytomas of childhood.

    PubMed

    Rekate, H L; Rakfal, S M

    1991-05-01

    Low-grade astrocytomas are the single most common form of pediatric brain tumor, representing 28% of the total. Prolonged survival and even cures can be expected in a substantial proportion of patients who present with these tumors. For a variety of reasons, the overall oncologic management of children with low-grade astrocytomas is extremely controversial. This article analyzes the available information related to the management of various forms of low-grade astrocytoma in childhood while awaiting the performance of a long-term national cooperative study on the natural history and management of this common pediatric brain tumor.

  18. 7 CFR 810.108 - Special grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Special Grades, Special Grade Requirements, and Special Grade...

  19. 7 CFR 810.108 - Special grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Special Grades, Special Grade Requirements, and Special Grade...

  20. 7 CFR 810.108 - Special grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Special Grades, Special Grade Requirements, and Special Grade...

  1. 7 CFR 56.41 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Prerequisites to Packaging Shell Eggs Identified with Grademarks § 56.41 Check grading officially identified product. Officially identified...

  2. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  3. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  4. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  5. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  6. 7 CFR 70.55 - Check grading officially identified product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit... identified poultry or rabbit products may be subject to final check grading prior to their shipment....

  7. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  8. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  9. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  10. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  11. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  12. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed and have fairly good...

  13. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed, which are clean, well...

  14. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed, which are clean, well...

  15. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  16. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are...

  17. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are fairly well developed and have fairly good...

  18. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  19. Histologic grading of urothelial papillary neoplasms: impact of combined grading (two-numbered grading system) on reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Burçin; Yörükoglu, Kutsal; Düzcan, Ender; Sen, Sait; Nese, Nalan; Sarsık, Banu; Akder, Aysegul; Sayhan, Sehnaz; Mungan, Uğur; Kirkali, Ziya

    2011-06-01

    The clinical management of tumor patients is often strongly influenced by the tumor grade. The presence of heterogeneity is well recognized in a variety of tumors. Overall grade is based on highest grade area identified within a tumor. Urothelial carcinoma often contains different histological grades within the same tumor. This study investigates the impact of a combined grading system on the reproducibility of papillary urothelial neoplasms. A set prepared for an earlier study consisting of ten cases of each category (papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), LGPUC, and HGPUC) was used. Agreement between pairs of pathologists was evaluated using κ statistics for the combined scoring system. Interobserver agreement was fair to substantial as reflected by κ values ranging from 0.24 to 0.74 (mean κ = 0.43). The combined scores of 2 and 3 which included PUNLMP showed the lowest degree of agreement and when this category was excluded from the analysis, interobserver agreement increased significantly (mean κ = 0.65; ranging from 0.43 to 0.92) in terms of combined scores of 4, 5, and 6. PUNLMP has been shown to be the least reproducible component of a combined scoring system even among experienced observers. Exclusion of PUNLMP from grading scheme seems to improve interobserver variability.

  20. Creative Composing in Language: Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Geraldine

    1978-01-01

    Considers creative writing a vital component of an effective language arts program for children in grades four, five, and six. Discusses the content, activities, and evaluation of a creative writing curriculum. (RL)

  1. Beef quality grading using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyamkondan, S.; Ray, N.; Kranzler, Glenn A.; Biju, Nisha

    2000-12-01

    A video image analysis system was developed to support automation of beef quality grading. Forty images of ribeye steaks were acquired. Fat and lean meat were differentiated using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Muscle longissimus dorsi (l.d.) was segmented from the ribeye using morphological operations. At the end of each iteration of erosion and dilation, a convex hull was fitted to the image and compactness was measured. The number of iterations was selected to yield the most compact l.d. Match between the l.d. muscle traced by an expert grader and that segmented by the program was 95.9%. Marbling and color features were extracted from the l.d. muscle and were used to build regression models to predict marbling and color scores. Quality grade was predicted using another regression model incorporating all features. Grades predicted by the model were statistically equivalent to the grades assigned by expert graders.

  2. Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…

  3. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3534 - No grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... watered, contains foreign matter, or has an odor foreign to the type. (See Rule 24, § 29.3625.)...

  8. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  9. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118

  10. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart...

  11. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart...

  12. How Zucchini Won Fifth-Grade Hearts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Denise

    1987-01-01

    A nutrition education program for grades K through 6 in Arizona is described, and essential elements of the program are given. Children learn about foods and the role of nutrients in health through gardening. (MT)

  13. Research on Spelling in Primary Grades (ERIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensenbaugh, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine conference papers and practica in the ERIC database that deal with spelling research in the primary grades. Notes that the entries in the annotated bibliography were published between 1990 and 1992. (RS)

  14. Valencia's Tooth: A First-Grade Operetta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lillian S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade class created an operetta about losing their teeth. The students told stories about losing teeth and made those stories into songs using Orff-type speech and music techniques. (AM)

  15. 7 CFR 58.157 - Inspection or grading certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and...

  16. Semiconductor grade, solar silicon purification project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S.; Rosler, D.; Jackson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion of metallurgical grade silicon into semiconductor grade silicon by way of a three step SiF2 polymer transport purification process was investigated. Developments in the following areas were also examined: (1) spectroscopic analysis and characterization of (SiF2) sub x polymer and Si sub x F sub y homologue conversion; (2) demonstration runs on the near continuous apparatus; (3) economic analysis; and (4) elemental analysis.

  17. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  18. An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-09-10

    The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

  19. Systematic review of grading practice: is there evidence of grade inflation?

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jayne H; Gray, Morag

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a systematic review of literature pertaining to the grading of practice within nursing, midwifery, medicine and allied health professions. From a total of 215 papers, 147 were included and data were extracted using a systematic data extraction tool. The focus of this paper relates to one of the emerging themes: the issue of grade inflation. The paper examines the grade inflation phenomenon: it discusses the reasons for grade inflation from a variety of perspectives. The paper reports on the suggestions made within the literature on how to control grade inflation, but these, the authors conclude, are not fully evaluated and should be adopted only where rigorous evaluation can carried out. It is imperative that evaluations include the usefulness, reliability and validity testing of rubrics or any other solutions to grade inflation that are adopted by clinicians and educators. PMID:22129576

  20. Fatigue Characterization of Functionally Graded Metallic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, F. S.

    2008-02-15

    Functionally graded components exhibit spatial variations of mechanical properties in contrast with, and as an alternative to, purely homogeneous components. A large class of graded materials, however, are in fact mostly homogeneous materials with property variations (chemical or mechanical) restricted to a specific area or layer produced by applying for example a coating or by introducing sub-surface residual stresses. However, it is also possible to obtain graded materials with a smooth transition of mechanical properties along the entire component, for example in a 40 mm component. This is possible, for example, by using centrifugal casting technique or incremental melting and solidification technique. In this paper we will study fully metallic functionally graded components with a smooth gradient, focusing on fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue propagation will be assessed in the direction parallel to the gradation (in different homogeneous layers of the functionally graded component) to assess what would be fatigue crack propagation on the direction perpendicular to the gradation. Fatigue crack growth rate (standard mode I fatigue crack growth) will be correlated to the mode I stress intensity factor range. Other mechanical properties of different layers of the component (Young's modulus) will also be considered in this analysis. The effect of residual stresses along the component gradation on crack propagation will also be taken into account. A qualitative analysis of the effects of some important features, present in functionally graded materials, will be made based on the obtained results.

  1. Combination genetic signature stratifies lower-grade gliomas better than histological grade

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Liu, Joseph Shu-Ming; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Liangfu; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    We studied if combination genetic signature potentially stratifies lower-grade gliomas better than histology by investigating 214 lower-grade gliomas for IDH1/2 and TERTp mutations, 1p/19q codeletion and EGFR amplification as to their impact on prognostication. Prognostic association of grading was independent of other prognostic variables including age, histological type, IDH1/2, 1p/19q and TERTp status. No single marker, including IDH1/2, superseded grading in prognostication, indicating grading was still a very important tool. Prognosis was most favorable in 31.7% of patients with IDH1/2 mutation and either 1p/19q codeletion or TERTp mutation (IDHmut-OT), intermediate in 45.8% of patients with IDH1/2 mutation only (IDHmut) and 16.9% of patients without any of the alterations (IDHwt), and poorest in 5.6% of patients with wild-type IDH1/2 and either TERTp mutation or EGFR amplification (IDHwt-ET). Our results suggested not all IDH1/2 wild-type lower-grade gliomas are aggressive and additional biomarkers are required to identify glioblastoma-equivalent tumors. Multivariate analysis revealed independent prognostic values of grading and genetic signature. Grade II IDHwt-ET gliomas exhibited shorter survival than IDH1/2 mutated grade III gliomas, suggesting combination genetic signature potentially superseded grading in prognostication. In summary, biomarker-based stratification is useful in the diagnosis and prognostication of lower-grade gliomas, and should be used together with grading. PMID:26369702

  2. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  3. [Grading of head and neck neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Agaimy, A; Weichert, W

    2016-07-01

    Tumors of the head and neck form a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms with significant differences in biological behavior and therapeutic strategies. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity represent the most frequent and, thus, clinically most important malignant neoplasms in this anatomical region. Similar to other neoplasms, grading of head and neck malignancies is based on evaluation of the tumor histology usually including both architectural and cytological features; however, the current consensus grading for head and neck SCC is of limited prognostic and therapeutic value and the reproducibility is low. Therefore, novel grading criteria have been proposed that are based on additional parameters, such as the type of tumor growth pattern at the invasive front (so-called tumor budding). These novel algorithms, however, have not yet been officially endorsed into guidelines. Salivary gland (SG) neoplasms, although less frequent, constitute a second important pathologically and clinically complex group of tumors at this location. In contrast to SCC, grading of these tumors is of high clinical importance. Based on the large variety of carcinoma entities of the SG, both entity-specific (e. g. mucoepidermoid carcinoma) algorithms but also algorithms, which are solely based on the recognition of a specific carcinoma variant with subsequent automatic assignment of the tumor grade (e. g. acinic cell carcinoma and salivary duct carcinoma) are in use. In the sinonasal tract, grading is important for non-intestinal type adenocarcinoma and esthesioneuroblastoma. In this article the most important grading schemes and criteria for head and neck malignancies are presented and their prognostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:27342593

  4. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Namala, Srilekha; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Devi, Sabitha; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horrati; Udayashankar, Urmila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients) in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells.

  5. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  6. Science for Iowa Schools, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nice, Karl; And Others

    This guide includes four units for use in each of grades 4 through 6. The fourth grade units are entitled Measurement Systems, Classification Systems, Bio-Control Systems, and Hydrologic Systems; the fifth grade units are Chemical Systems, Force Systems, Bio-Systems, and Astro-Systems; and the sixth grade units are Equilibrium Systems,…

  7. 7 CFR 56.65 - Procedures for appeal gradings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Appeal of A Grading Or Decision § 56.65 Procedures for appeal gradings. (a... the samples required in § 56.4(b). (c) Shell eggs shall not have been moved from the original place...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1901 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A. 51.1901 Section 51.1901 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Grades § 51.1901 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1902 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade B. 51.1902 Section 51.1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Grades § 51.1902 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of...

  10. Computer Literacy: Intermediate and Secondary Grades, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide outlines a course on computer literacy for junior or senior high school students reflecting the technology of the early 1980s. A chart shows computer literacy scope and sequence for students in kindergarten, grades 1-2, grades 3-6, and grades 7-9. Forty lessons for the intermediate grades and high school are then presented,…

  11. 7 CFR 52.1003 - Grades of dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dates Product Description, Styles, and Grades § 52.1003 Grades of dates. (a) U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy is the quality of whole or....S. Choice is the quality of whole or pitted dates other than whole dry dates for processing that...

  12. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  13. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  14. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  15. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  16. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from which the second reduction in grade was made for 2 years following the effective date of the second reduction in grade. (c) Notwithstanding § 536.207(a)(1), grade retention continues to apply to an... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Period of grade retention....

  17. Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Robert E.

    The thesis that low grades cause college students to give up receives some support from early psychological research and from current reinforcement theories. This study investigates the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first-exam grades for 192 students in a traditional grading system and 52 students in a pass-fail grading…

  18. Plus/Minus Grading: A within Instructor Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael L.; Feeney, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A three semester, within instructor, interrupted time series analysis of grading practices was conducted in order to observe the effects of the implementation of a plus minus grading system. Over 260 individual instructor's grades were compared before and after implementation of plus minus grading. The results indicate no overall effect of the…

  19. Grading as a Sadomasochistic Activity or an Erotic Benevolent Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjarks, Larry D.

    Numerous research studies have been conducted concerning the negative aspects of grading: the low correlations between academic success (high grades) and later vocational or professional success, possible sadomasochistic motives of teachers in awarding grades, and grade assignment resulting from the teacher's sense of duty or responsibility to…

  20. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of...

  1. 7 CFR 51.597 - U.S. Grade A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A. 51.597 Section 51.597 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.597 U.S. Grade A. U.S. Grade A shall consist of stalks...

  2. 7 CFR 51.598 - U.S. Grade B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade B. 51.598 Section 51.598 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.598 U.S. Grade B. U.S. Grade B shall consist of stalks...

  3. 7 CFR 56.31 - Report of grading work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Report of grading work. 56.31 Section 56.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Reports § 56.31 Report of grading work. Reports of grading work...

  4. 7 CFR 56.31 - Report of grading work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Report of grading work. 56.31 Section 56.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Reports § 56.31 Report of grading work. Reports of grading work...

  5. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  6. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  7. 7 CFR 28.512 - Leaf Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 2. 28.512 Section 28.512 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.512 Leaf Grade No. 2. Leaf grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  8. 7 CFR 28.511 - Leaf Grade No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 1. 28.511 Section 28.511 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.511 Leaf Grade No. 1. Leaf grade No. 1 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  9. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  10. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  11. 7 CFR 28.515 - Leaf Grade No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 5. 28.515 Section 28.515 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.515 Leaf Grade No. 5. Leaf grade No. 5 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  12. 7 CFR 28.513 - Leaf Grade No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 3. 28.513 Section 28.513 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.513 Leaf Grade No. 3. Leaf grade No. 3 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  13. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  14. 7 CFR 28.514 - Leaf Grade No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 4. 28.514 Section 28.514 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.514 Leaf Grade No. 4. Leaf grade No. 4 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  15. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  16. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  17. 7 CFR 28.516 - Leaf Grade No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 6. 28.516 Section 28.516 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.516 Leaf Grade No. 6. Leaf grade No. 6 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  18. Should You Allow Your Students to Grade Their Own Homework?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Allowing students to grade their own homework promises several advantages to both students and instructors. But does such a policy make sense? This paper reports the results of an experiment in which eight separate assignments completed by approximately 80 students were first graded by the students using a grading rubric, and then re-graded by a…

  19. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be...

  20. 7 CFR 51.601 - Off-Grade celery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade celery. 51.601 Section 51.601 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Off-Grade § 51.601 Off-Grade celery. Celery stalks which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be...

  1. 19 CFR 151.76 - Grading of wool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grading of wool. 151.76 Section 151.76 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.76 Grading of wool. (a... written request for another determination of grade or grades, stating the reason for the request....

  2. A Developmental Study of Student Perceptions of School Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ellis D.; Engelberg, Ruth A.

    Three dimensions of school children's viewpoints on grades were examined in a developmental framework: (1) sentiment and attitudes about being graded, (2) causal perceptions and attributions about why students get good grades; and (3) comprehension of simple and complex grading systems. A total of 293 boys and girls drawn from fourth through…

  3. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  4. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  5. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  6. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  7. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  12. 5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.201 Mandatory grade retention. (a) Subject to the requirements in this section and in §§ 536.102 and 536.203, an agency must provide grade retention to an employee... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory grade retention....

  13. 5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... §§ 536.102 and 536.203, an authorized agency official may provide grade retention to an employee moving... lower-graded position. (c) When an employee is offered a position with grade retention under this... entitlement to grade retention under § 536.201 if the agency actually moves the employee to the...

  14. [The clinical grading of subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Ducati, A

    1998-04-01

    Clinical grading scales for subarachnoid haemorrhages are exposed and discussed. These have been introduced by Botterell, in the middle fifties, to allow a better clinical evaluation, a more correct prognosis and, as a consequence, a more effective therapy. The most popular grading scale is, up to now, the one proposed by Hunt and Hess in 1968. The H-H scale divides patients in 5 groups or levels, whose severity is progressively increasing. A clinical study based on the H-H scale demonstrated that low grade patients (I-II) take advantage from early surgery; at the opposite, high grade patients (III-IV-V) achieve better results when treated with late surgery. To leave behind several difficulties in interpreting the clinical signs and therefore in using the H-H scale, in 1988 Drake, on behalf of the World Federation of Neuro-logical Surgeons, published an "universal" grading scale for subarachnoid haemorrhage, based upon the well known Glasgow Come Scale score and on the finding of a motor focal deficit. The WFNS Scale is nowadays recommended for universal use, being easy and compatible with formerly employed scales.

  15. Grades and Incentives: Assessing Competing Grade Point Average Measures and Postgraduate Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Albert H.

    2016-01-01

    In many educational settings, students may have an incentive to take courses where high grades are easier to achieve, potentially corroding student learning, evaluation of student achievement, and the fairness and efficiency of post-graduation labor outcomes. A grading system that takes into account heterogeneity of teacher standards and student…

  16. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  17. Distribution of Grades and Current Grade Point Ratios Earned, University of Hawaii, Community Colleges. Fall 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    Fall 1982 data on student achievement are presented for each of the community colleges of the University of Hawaii. Current grade point ratios (GPR's) and grade distributions are provided for all students registered in credit courses, students in continuing education courses, and students registered for the first time in the second 8-week session.…

  18. The Benefits of Standards-Based Grading: A Critical Evaluation of Modern Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iamarino, Danielle L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology and application of an assessment philosophy known as standards-based grading, via a critical comparison of standards-based grading to other assessment philosophies commonly employed at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary levels of education. Evidenced by examples of increased student engagement and…

  19. Development of a Study Skills Packet To Improve Grades in Ninth and Tenth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Ruth Lee

    A practicum developed a program of study skills to improve grades of ninth and tenth grade students in English and mathematics courses. The project contained three basic components: teacher inservices on study skills techniques in time management, reading textbooks, taking class notes, and preparing for and taking tests; student lessons for…

  20. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Analysis of Grade Point Average and Grades in Selected Courses for Students in Selected Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Vernon L.

    Comparing the performance of students majoring in Data Processing Programming, Dental Assisting, Electronics Technology and Mid-Management with control groups matched on the basis of sex and ACT scores, no apparant discrimination against the technical majors was found in terms of earned grade point averages or grades in selected courses, with the…

  6. Developmental Changes in Cognitive Persistence and Academic Achievement between Grade 4 and Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozsa, Krisztian; Morgan, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes changes in cognitive persistence, a key measure of mastery motivation, between the ages of 10 (grade 4) and 14 (grade 8). Prior research in the field of mastery motivation has focused mainly on early childhood. No longitudinal research findings have been published about age changes in mastery motivation during the school…

  7. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  8. Predictors and Outcomes Associated with Trajectories of Revenge Goals from Fourth Grade through Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study identified longitudinal trajectories of revenge goals in a sample of at-risk youth (N = 240; 63.3% male) followed from fourth grade through seventh grade. Three revenge goal trajectory groups were identified: a low-stable group, an increasing group, and a decreasing group. The increasing and decreasing groups were initially more…

  9. The Effects of Kindergarten through Second Grade Reading Instruction and Intervention on Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier-Metzger, Teresia

    2013-01-01

    State and local assessment data from 117 students in one school in the California Central Valley were examined to determine how much participation in a kindergarten through second grade multitiered reading intervention model contributed to third grade reading achievement, over and above the demographic factors of ethnicity, socioeconomic status,…

  10. The Grading Nemesis: An Historical Overview and a Current Look at Pass/Fail Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David

    1983-01-01

    A brief history of grading practices at American colleges and universities is given, along with results of a survey of the current uses of pass/fail grading. The pass/fail system is widely used for a limited number of elective courses. Its adoption peaked during the mid-1970s. (PP)

  11. Ohio Proficiency Tests for Grade 9. Fact Sheet. Ninth-Grade Proficiency Test in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    Beginning in the 1995-96 school year, the science test will be added to the Ninth-grade Proficiency Tests Program. Any student graduating after September 15, 2000 will be required to pass the Ninth-grade Proficiency Test in Science, as well as the other tests in reading, writing, mathematics, and citizenship. This fact sheet provides information…

  12. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. 21.29 Section 21.29 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... in special fields related to public health, the Surgeon General may specify that a candidate...

  13. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. 21.29 Section 21.29 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... in special fields related to public health, the Surgeon General may specify that a candidate...

  14. Research and Teaching: Midterm and First-Exam Grades Predict Final Grades in Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Philip A.; Barron, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Students routinely ignore negative feedback regarding their performances early in college science courses. In this study we analyzed the extent to which two standard forms of feedback, midterm and first-exam grades, correlated with final grades in several biology courses. The courses ranged from an introductory course for nonmajors to upper…

  15. Troubles with Grades, Grading, and Change: Learning from Adventures in Alternative Assessment Practices in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClam, Sherie; Sevier, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two teacher educators work to understand their attempts to transform teacher-student relations by altering traditional grading practices. Using actor-network theory, the authors examine the social effects produced across and throughout a school of education when they changed the meaning and significance of grades. Detailed analysis…

  16. Does Grade Inflation Affect the Credibility of Grades? Evidence from US Law School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2009-01-01

    While the nature and causes of university grade inflation have been extensively studied, little empirical research on the consequence of this phenomenon is currently available. The present study uses data for 48 US law schools to analyze admission decisions in 1995, 2000, and 2007, a period during which university grade inflation appears to have…

  17. 9 CFR 201.99 - Purchase of livestock by packers on a carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... packer on a USDA carcass grade shall be on an official (final—not preliminary) grade. If settlement and final payment are based upon any grades other than official USDA grades, such other grades shall be set... carcass grade, carcass weight, or carcass grade and weight basis. 201.99 Section 201.99 Animals and...

  18. On-line prediction of yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score using the MARC beef carcass image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center's beef carcass image analysis system to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commercial beef-processing facilities, image analysis was conducted on 800 carcasses on the beef-grading chain immediately after the conventional USDA beef quality and yield grades were applied. Carcasses were blocked by plant and observed calculated yield grade. The carcasses were then separated, with 400 carcasses assigned to a calibration data set that was used to develop regression equations, and the remaining 400 carcasses assigned to a prediction data set used to validate the regression equations. Prediction equations, which included image analysis variables and hot carcass weight, accounted for 90, 88, 90, 88, and 76% of the variation in calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score, respectively, in the prediction data set. In comparison, the official USDA yield grade as applied by online graders accounted for 73% of the variation in calculated yield grade. The technology described herein could be used by the beef industry to more accurately determine beef yield grades; however, this system does not provide an accurate enough prediction of marbling score to be used without USDA grader interaction for USDA quality grading.

  19. Axial grading of inert matrix fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Recktenwald, G. D.; Deinert, M. R.

    2012-07-01

    Burning actinides in an inert matrix fuel to 750 MWd/kg IHM results in a significant reduction in transuranic isotopes. However, achieving this level of burnup in a standard light water reactor would require residence times that are twice that of uranium dioxide fuels. The reactivity of an inert matrix assembly at the end of life is less than 1/3 of its beginning of life reactivity leading to undesirable radial and axial power peaking in the reactor core. Here we show that axial grading of the inert matrix fuel rods can reduce peaking significantly. Monte Carlo simulations are used to model the assembly level power distributions in both ungraded and graded fuel rods. The results show that an axial grading of uranium dioxide and inert matrix fuels with erbium can reduces power peaking by more than 50% in the axial direction. The reduction in power peaking enables the core to operate at significantly higher power. (authors)

  20. [Grading of soft tissue and bone sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Petersen, I; Wardelmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy grading is an essential element in the classification of sarcomas. It correlates with the prognosis of the disease and the risk of metastasis. This article presents the grading schemes for soft tissue, bone and pediatric sarcomas. It summarizes the histological criteria of the Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system and the Pediatric Oncology Group as well as the grading of bone tumors by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Furthermore, the potential relevance of gene expression signatures, the complexity index in sarcoma (CINSARC) and single genetic alterations (p53, MDM2, p16, SWI/SNF, EWSR1 fusions and PAX3/PAX7-FOXO1 fusions) for the prognosis of sarcomas are discussed.