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Sample records for grado nic ii-nic

  1. Ferrocenyl-phospho-nic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bao-Zhang; Xu, Chao; Duan, Tai-Ke; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2011-08-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C(5)H(5))(C(5)H(6)O(3)P)], the phosphate group is bonded to the ferrocene unit with a P-C bond length of 1.749 (3) Å. In the crystal, six ferrocenyl-phospho-nic acid mol-ecules are connected by 12 strong inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a highly distorted octa-hedral cage. The volume of the octa-hedral cage is about 270 Å(3).

  2. Alfvénic rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Moslem, W. M.

    2012-02-01

    It is shown that the nonlinear interaction between the magnetic field-aligned circularly polarized (CP) dispersive Alfvén waves and low-frequency electrostatic perturbations give rise to Alfvénic rogue waves in magnetized plasmas. Our results reveal the left-hand CP Alfvénic wave supports both supersonic and subsonic Alfvénic rogue waves. The latter can propagate for backward wave only. The right-hand CP Alfvénic rouge waves appear on account of the amplitude modulation of the waves by quasi-stationary density modulations. The amplitude of the right-hand CP Alfvénic rogue waves decreases with the increase of the plasma number density, but it increases with the increase of the magnetic field strength. However, the amplitude of the subsonic left-hand CP Alfvénic rogue wave becomes stronger with the excess of the plasma number density, but it shrinks with stronger magnetic field strength. Finally, we briefly discuss the relevance of our investigation to the role of the nonlinear Alfvén waves that power the solar wind.

  3. NICS report links VOCs to respiratory problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-04-22

    Children who live near the chemical plants of Kanawha Valley, WV, suffer more acute and chronic respiratory aliments than those farther away, says a Harvard University School of Public Health report. In the $1-million, five-year study commissioned by the National Institute for Chemical Studies (NICS:Charleston, WV) and funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, proximity to chemical plants that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was linked to higher incidence of asthma, acute eye irritation, shortness of breath, and chronic cough. The researchers say they adjusted for most other factors, such as parental smoking and petroleum. {open_quotes}The research hypothesis was whether children in the valley had more symptoms,{close_quotes} says NICS president Paul Hill. {open_quotes}Yes, there is a difference.{close_quotes} The study showed that some ailments were up to 28% more prevalent in children in the valley than in other Kanawha County children.

  4. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the ‘core/shell’ interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon. PMID:22548846

  5. Overview of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Edward

    2010-11-01

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is now operational. NIF has conducted 192-beam implosion experiments with energies as high as 1.2 MJ and has also demonstrated the unprecedented energy and pulse shaping control required for ignition experiments. The successful commissioning of the NIF laser is the first step in demonstrating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition in the laboratory. The NIF ignition program is executed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)---a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, LLNL, General Atomics, the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Sandia National Laboratories, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other national and international partners. The NIC relies on a novel integrated experimental and computational program to tune the target to the conditions required for indirect-drive ignition. This approach breaks the tuning process into four phases. The first two phases involve tuning of the hohlraum and capsule to produce the correct radiation drive, symmetry, and shock timing conditions. The third phase consists of layered cryogenic implosions conducted with a 50%/49%/1% mixture of tritium, hydrogen, and deuterium (THD) respectively. The reduced yield from these THD targets allows the full diagnostic suite to be employed and the presence of the required temperature and fuel areal density to be verified. The final step is DT ignition implosions with expected gains of 10-20. DT ignition experiments will be conducted with Elaser ˜1.2 MJ. Laser energies of 1.8 MJ should be available for subsequent experiments. This talk will review the multi-phase tuning approach to the ignition effort, including the physics issues associated with the various steps, and current and future plans for the NIF ignition program.

  6. Using NANDA, NIC, and NOC in an undergraduate nursing practicum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly J; Craft-Rosenberg, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Although use of diagnoses originally developed by NANDA (now known as NANDA-I), NIC, and NOC in education and practice is increasing, many faculty members have not been educated in their use and may be reluctant to teach these languages. This article provides guidance on the use of NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC in clinical education. This guidance will facilitate both faculty and student learning.

  7. Representing public health nursing intervention concepts with HHCC and NIC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Ju; Bakken, Suzanne; Saba, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    It is imperative that public health nurses define their services and provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of interventions. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ex-tent to which two standardized nursing terminologies--Home Health Care Classification (HHCC) and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)--represent public health nursing practice according to core public health function in Public Health Nursing Intervention model. First, we divided all HHCC and NIC interventions into intervention focus levels: individual/family-focused, community-focused, and system-focused. Second, we categorized HHCC and NIC interventions according to core public health functions: assessment, policy development, and assurance and the categories of interventions in the PHI Model. We identified HHCC and NIC Nursing interventions that represented public health nursing concepts across core public health functions and categories of the PHI model. Analysis of the findings demonstrated that HHCC and NIC have terms for the concepts in the PHI model. Although HHCC and NIC cover many concepts in public health nursing practice, additional research is needed to extend these terminologies and to evaluate other standardized terminologies that can reflect more comprehensively public health nursing interventions.

  8. Alfvénic Slow Solar Wind: characteristics and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amicis, R.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent medium whose behavior is mostly determined by the nonlinear interaction between inward and outward propagating Alfvén waves. The purest examples of Alfvénic fluctuations are found in the trailing edges of fast solar wind streams. The slow wind usually has a lower degree of Alfvénicity being more strongly intermixed with structures of non-Alfvénic nature. However, as already found in the past, our recent analysis shows that under certain circumstances, even slow wind can be highly Alfvénic with fluctuations sometimes as wide as that of the fast wind. In this study we explore many facets of the Alfvénic slow solar wind spanning from the study of the source regions and their connection to coronal structures, to the micro-physics of distribution functions, anisotropies, to the role of turbulence and wave-particle interactions in solar wind heating, which are among the main topics of this session. It has been found that the Alfvénic slow wind is more similar to the fast wind rather than to the typical slow wind suggesting a similar origin for the two types of solar wind. Actually the Alfvénic slow wind does not originate from active regions or the cusp of the helmet streamers as the typical slow wind rather from the boundary between streamers and coronal holes. This would determine the similarities with the fast solar wind suggesting a major role played by the super-radial expansion responsible for the lower velocity. These new findings have relevant implications for the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, and for turbulence measurements close to the Sun.

  9. Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project from PIX to NICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The PIX follow-up project NICS is described. The purpose of PIX was access to X.25, the DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office. The development and implementation of higher protocols for levels 4-7 in the ISOSINN was the actual problem here. Results of the PIX project are given. NICS (Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project) is presented. International Protocols are reviewed. PAD service is described, which allows terminal access to DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office.

  10. Spontaneous emission of Alfvénic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, P. H.; López, R. A.; Vafin, S.; Kim, S.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2017-09-01

    Low-frequency fluctuations are pervasively observed in the solar wind. The present paper theoretically calculates the steady state spectra of low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) fluctuations of the Alfvénic type for thermal equilibrium plasma. The analysis is based upon a recently formulated theory of spontaneously emitted EM fluctuations in magnetized thermal plasmas. It is found that the fluctuations in the magnetosonic mode branch is constant, while the kinetic Alfvénic mode spectrum is dependent on a form factor that is a function of perpendicular wave number. Potential applicability of the present work in the wider context of heliospheric research is also discussed.

  11. Competency profile for registered nurses: NIC in gerontological nursing.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    A number of RNs provide both direct care and leadership in geriatric-care facilities. In this specialized area of care, the contributions of the RN are not well recognized. In this issue, we focus on gerontological nursing and how NIC can be used to describe and communicate this highly specialized role.

  12. Alfvénic tornadoes in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfvén waves (m-KAWs) in a magnetized plasma can propagate in the form of Alfvénic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum. By using the two-fluid model, together with Ampère's law, we derive the wave equation for 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with me/mi ≪ β ≪ 1, where me (mi) is the electron (ion) mass, β=4πn0kB (Te+Ti)/B02, n0 the unperturbed plasma number density, kB the Boltzmann constant, Te(Te) the electron (ion) temperature, and B0 the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The 3D m-KAW equation admits solutions in the form of a Laguerre-Gauss Alfvénic vortex beam or a twisted kinetic Alfvénic wave with plasma density whirls that support the dynamics of shear Alfvénic magnetic flux ropes in plasmas.

  13. Scalable NIC-based reduction on large-scale clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.; Fernández, J. C.; Petrini, F.; Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

    2003-01-01

    Many parallel algorithms require effiaent support for reduction mllectives. Over the years, researchers have developed optimal reduction algonduns by taking inm account system size, dam size, and complexities of reduction operations. However, all of these algorithm have assumed the faa that the reduction precessing takes place on the host CPU. Modem Network Interface Cards (NICs) sport programmable processors with substantial memory and thus introduce a fresh variable into the equation This raises the following intersting challenge: Can we take advantage of modern NICs to implementJost redudion operations? In this paper, we take on this challenge in the context of large-scale clusters. Through experiments on the 960-node, 1920-processor or ASCI Linux Cluster (ALC) located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we show that NIC-based reductions indeed perform with reduced latency and immed consistency over host-based aleorithms for the wmmon case and that these benefits scale as the system grows. In the largest configuration tested--1812 processors-- our NIC-based algorithm can sum a single element vector in 73 ps with 32-bi integers and in 118 with Mbit floating-point numnbers. These results represent an improvement, respeaively, of 121% and 39% with resvect w the {approx}roductionle vel MPI library

  14. NIC-based Reduction Algorithms for Large-scale Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, F; Moody, A T; Fernandez, J; Frachtenberg, E; Panda, D K

    2004-07-30

    Efficient algorithms for reduction operations across a group of processes are crucial for good performance in many large-scale, parallel scientific applications. While previous algorithms limit processing to the host CPU, we utilize the programmable processors and local memory available on modern cluster network interface cards (NICs) to explore a new dimension in the design of reduction algorithms. In this paper, we present the benefits and challenges, design issues and solutions, analytical models, and experimental evaluations of a family of NIC-based reduction algorithms. Performance and scalability evaluations were conducted on the ASCI Linux Cluster (ALC), a 960-node, 1920-processor machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which uses the Quadrics QsNet interconnect. We find NIC-based reductions on modern interconnects to be more efficient than host-based implementations in both scalability and consistency. In particular, at large-scale--1812 processes--NIC-based reductions of small integer and floating-point arrays provided respective speedups of 121% and 39% over the host-based, production-level MPI implementation.

  15. Magnetotail origins of auroral Alfvénic power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.; Brambles, O.; Damiano, P.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J.

    2012-09-01

    The generation of Alfvénic Poynting flux in the central plasma sheet and its polar distribution at low altitude are studied using three dimensional global simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. A 24-hour event simulation (4-5 Feb 2004) driven by solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data reproduces the global morphology of Alfvénic Poynting flux measured by the Polar satellite, including its dawn-dusk asymmetry. Controlled simulations show that the dawn-dusk asymmetry is regulated by the spatial variation in ionospheric conductance. The asymmetry disappears when the conductance is taken to be spatially uniform. The simulated Alfvénic Poynting flux is generated in the magnetotail by time-variable, fast flows emerging from nightside reconnection. The simulated fast flows are more intense in the premidnight sector as observed; this asymmetry also disappears when the ionospheric conductance is spatially uniform. Analysis of the wave propagation in the plasma sheet source region, near xGSM ≈ -15 RE, shows that as the fast flow brakes, a portion of its kinetic energy is transformed into the electromagnetic energy of intermediate and fast magnetohydrodynamic waves. The wave power is dominantly compressional in the source region and becomes increasingly Alfvénic as it propagates along magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere.

  16. 75 FR 48365 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    .... The NIC Cost Containment Online Resource Center (CCORC) will be housed on the NIC Web site and contain... downloaded from the NIC Web site at www.nicic.gov . All technical or programmatic questions concerning this... select option 1). Registration in the CCR can be done online at the CCR Web site: http://www.ccr.gov . A...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1212 - What are the other requirements pertaining to the NIC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of a hazardous waste combustion unit after October 12, 2005 must: (1) Prepare a draft NIC pursuant to... pertaining to the NIC? 63.1212 Section 63.1212 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.1212 What are the other requirements pertaining to the NIC? (a) Certification of intent to comply...

  18. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K

    1991-04-01

    Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.

  19. Concerted action of NIC relaxase and auxiliary protein MobC in RA3 plasmid conjugation.

    PubMed

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Moncalián, Gabriel; Cabezas, Matilde; Bartosik, Aneta A; de la Cruz, Fernando; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-08-01

    Conjugative transfer of the broad-host-range RA3 plasmid, the archetype of the IncU group, relies on the relaxase NIC that belongs to the as yet uncharacterized MOBP4 subfamily. NIC contains the signature motifs of HUH relaxases involved in Tyr nucleophilic attack. However, it differs in the residue involved in His activation for cation coordination and was shown here to have altered divalent cation requirements. NIC is encoded in the mobC-nic operon preceded directly by oriT, where mobC encodes an auxiliary transfer protein with a dual function: autorepressor and stimulator of conjugative transfer. Here an interplay between MobC and NIC was demonstrated. MobC is required for efficient NIC cleavage of oriT in supercoiled DNA whereas NIC assists MobC in repression of the mobC-nic operon. A 7-bp arm of IR3 (IR3a) was identified as the binding site for NIC and the crucial nucleotides in IR3a for NIC recognition were defined. Fully active oriTRA3 was delineated to a 47-bp DNA segment encompassing a conserved cleavage site sequence, the NIC binding site IR3a and the MobC binding site OM . This highly efficient RA3 conjugative system with defined requirements for minimal oriT could find ample applications in biotechnology and computational biology where simple conjugative systems are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The use of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) with cardiac patients receiving home health care.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Julia Stocker; Slowik, Linda Haynes

    2009-01-01

    To identify Nursing Interventions Classification interventions (NICs) commonly provided to cardiac home care patients and to explore differences among patients with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and patients with other cardiac disorders. The NICs provided to cardiac home care patients were recorded and analyzed to determine differences in frequencies across cardiac diagnoses. Frequent NICs provided in cardiac home care are similar across diagnoses, and include tissue perfusion management and patient education NICs. Variations can be detected and involve fluid monitoring/management, exercise promotion/teaching, and cardiac care NICs. Differences in nursing care among patients with similar medical diagnoses can be detected using NIC. Relevant knowledge of nursing care can be gleaned from analyzing NIC data generated in practice and can be used to plan, evaluate, and determine the effectiveness of nursing care.

  1. Helping nurses use NANDA, NOC, and NIC: novice to expert.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    The electronic health record (EHR) requires the use of standardized nursing languages such as NANDA, NOC, and NIC. Helping nurses use these languages for an EHR requires different educational strategies in 3 domains: intellectual, interpersonal, and technical. The author explains the rationale for changes in educational methods, expectations that educators and managers should set for students and nurses at various levels of expertise, and teaching strategies in each of the domains.

  2. [Analysis of NIC interventions in a neonatal intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Magdalena; Rodríguez, Dolores; Gómez, Dolores; Estrella, Pilar; Liz, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the nursing interventions NIC developed in the clinical practice by specialized nurses in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Descriptive study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of University Complex Hospital of León. The study population included all the neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 1 march to 30 november of 2011. Database was created with the statistical program Epi Info where NIC interventions were collected between the selected by the panel of experts. We collected a sum of 283 records of 44 neonates admitted with an average weight of 1705.5 gr and 14.3 days of age. Nurses have performed a total of 8861 NIC interventions. The highest percentage of interventions (47,1%) belong to the complex physiological domain, followed by the basic physiological (17,7%). We found 40,1%; 30,6% and 29,1% interventions in the early, late and night shifts. The highest percentage of interventions belong to the complex physiological domain although we can conclude that in the nursing clinical practice the solution of problems not only depend of interventions in that area but other areas such as family key intervention in the neonatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Ag(nic)2 (nic = nicotinate): a spin-canted quasi-2D antiferromagnet composed of square-planar S = 1/2 Ag(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Manson, Jamie L; Woods, Toby J; Lapidus, Saul H; Stephens, Peter W; Southerland, Heather I; Zapf, Vivien S; Singleton, John; Goddard, Paul A; Lancaster, Tom; Steele, Andrew J; Blundell, Stephen J

    2012-02-20

    Square-planar S = 1/2 Ag(II) ions in polymeric Ag(nic)(2) are linked by bridging nic monoanions to yield 2D corrugated sheets. Long-range magnetic order occurs below T(N) = 11.8(2) K due to interlayer couplings that are estimated to be about 30 times weaker than the intralayer exchange interaction.

  4. The design and implementation of application level transparent firewall system based on NIC driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xin; Xu, Yong

    2013-03-01

    On the analysis of the Intel 100 Mbps NIC driver, a scheme of implementing application level transparent firewall system using Intel 100 Mbps NIC driver was presented. Base on this scheme, the program can capture all network data packets through the NIC, analyze and process data according to the loaded rules and transmit packets. At the same time, this method can greatly improve the efficiency on depth analyzing network data in application-layer and rule matching.

  5. Quantitative determination of amorphous nicardipine hydrochloride in long acting formula (NIC-LA) using light anhydrous silicic acid.

    PubMed

    Kohinata, Takeru; Fujii, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Souichiro; Hamada, Noritaka; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2004-12-01

    We investigated a method to quantitatively determine amorphous nicardipine hydrochloride (NIC) in the NIC-long acting formula (LA) model formulas prepared using NIC, light anhydrous silicic acid (LASA) and carboxymethylethylcellulose (CMEC). Consequently, since the quantity of total NIC in the formula can be determined by means of HPLC and crystal NIC can be determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method because the heat of fusion (85.08 J/g) of NIC is constant and unaffected by excipients, we developed the HPLC-DSC method by which the quantity of amorphous NIC is calculated as the difference between the quantity of total NIC determined by HPLC and the quantity of crystal NIC determined by DSC. This practical HPLC-DSC method was confirmed to have good accuracy and reproducibility.

  6. Estimation of dissociation energy of NiC molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambasiva Rao, P.; Reddy, R. R.; Potukuchi, D. M.

    2006-03-01

    The experimental potential-energy curve for the electronic ground state of an astrophysically important NiC molecule is constructed by applying the Rydberg Klein Rees method as modified by Vanderslice et al. The ground state dissociation energy is estimated by a curve-fitting technique using the modified Lippincott potential function, and this estimated value of D0=3.454eV is in good agreement with the value of D0⩾3.34eV reported by Brugh and Morse.

  7. Korean nurses' experiences: the Influence of NNN (NANDA-I, NIC, NOC) terminologies on nursing workflow.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin

    2008-11-06

    The purpose of this study is to understand nurses' experiences about the impact of NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC on practical settings. This study used a qualitative approach. The subjects were ten nurses. All interviews were tape-recorded and the data were analyzed using qualitative theme analysis. Nurses' experiences with NANDA, NIC, and NOC have both positive and negative aspects.

  8. Malaysia, a Modern Miracle: Is It About to Become a NIC (Newly Industrializing Country)?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-13

    This study examines the status of the economy of Malaysia to determine whether it qualifies as being a Newly Industrializing Country (NIC). It...The growth rate of the economy has now become inadequate to propel the country much further toward NIC status. (Author)

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain NIC1, an Efficient Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain NIC1, an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterium, was isolated from tobacco leaves. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain NIC1, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. The genomic information will provide insights into its molecular mechanism for nicotine degradation. PMID:27417841

  10. Method/basis set dependence of NICS values among metallic nano-clusters and hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Badri, Zahra; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Rashidi-Ranjbar, Parviz

    2012-03-14

    The influence of various all-electron basis sets and effective core potentials employed along with several DFT functionals (B3LYP, B3PW91, BLYP, BP86 and M06) on the magnitude of nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) values in different metallic nano-clusters and hydrocarbons is studied. In general, it is demonstrated that the NICS values are very sensitive to the applied method/basis set; however, the method/basis set dependence is more prominent for computed NICS values in transition metal clusters. In hydrocarbons, medium-size basis sets perform roughly similar to large basis sets in most cases. It is also found that NICS(0) values are more sensitive to the method/basis set variation compared to the NICS values computed at 1 or 2 Å above the ring plane. However, in many cases, no broad-spectrum regulation is found for the effect of basis set/method on the magnitude of NICS values. A detailed study showed that bond length alternation in a molecule has an insignificant effect on the magnitude of NICS values so the influence of method/basis sets on the magnitude of NICS values mostly arises from the different predicted ring current intensities at various computational levels.

  11. [Analysis of publications on Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) from 1980 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Napoleão, Anamaria Alves; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado; de Carvalho, Emília Campos; Dalri, Maria Célia Barcellos

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the knowledge produced about the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) available in the scientific literature from January 1980 to January 2004. NIC is a taxonomy with activities performed by nurses. Authors searched Lilacs and Medline databases, materials at the Center for Nursing Classification-University of Iowa College of Nursing and a doctoral dissertation obtained from a private library. The works found referred to the application of NIC to practice, the languages used in information systems, the use of NIC in these systems and the presentation, construction, development and validation of a taxonomy, among others. Authors concluded that there are several possibilities related to the production of knowledge on NIC in Brazil and that it is necessary to encourage studies on this taxonomy, raising questions and generating new knowledge to contribute to the improvement of Brazilian Nursing.

  12. Predicting multiplanar cervical spine injury due to head-turned rear impacts using IV-NIC.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C; Panjabi, Manohar M; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Malcolmson, George F

    2006-09-01

    Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion (IV-NIC) hypothesizes that dynamic three-dimensional intervertebral motion beyond physiological limit may cause multiplanar soft-tissue injury. Present goals, using biofidelic whole human cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head in head-turned rear impacts, were to: (1) correlate IV-NIC with multiplanar injury, (2) determine IV-NIC injury threshold at each intervertebral level, and (3) determine time and mode of dynamic intervertebral motion that caused injury. Impacts were simulated at 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g horizontal accelerations of T1 vertebra (n = 6; average age: 80.2 years; four male, two female donors). IV-NIC was defined at each intervertebral level and in each motion plane as dynamic intervertebral rotation divided by physiological limit. Three-plane pre- and post-impact flexibility testing measured soft-tissue injury; that is significant increase in neutral zone (NZ) or range of motion (RoM) at any intervertebral level, above baseline. IV-NIC injury threshold was average IV-NIC peak at injury onset. IV-NIC extension peaks correlated best with multiplanar injuries (P < 0.001): extension RoM (R = 0.55) and NZ (R = 0.42), total axial rotation RoM (R = 0.42) and NZ (R = 0.41), and total lateral bending NZ (R = 0.39). IV-NIC injury thresholds ranged between 1.1 at C0-C1 and C3-C4 to 2.9 at C7-T1. IV-NIC injury threshold times were attained between 83.4 and 150.1 ms following impact. Correlation between IV-NIC and multiplanar injuries demonstrated that three-plane intervertebral instability was primarily caused by dynamic extension beyond the physiological limit during head-turned rear impacts.

  13. 77 FR 33000 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Resources for NIC's Web Site on Data Collection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Resources for NIC's Web Site on... Corrections (NIC) is seeking applications for the development of resources for NIC's Web site on data..., documents or other information sources (i.e. spreadsheets, Web sites) that provide examples of policy and...

  14. Towards an integrated model of the NIC layered implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, O.; Callahan, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S.; Marinak, M.; Meezan, N.; Milovich, J.; Olson, R.; Patel, M.; Robey, H.; Sepke, S.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign (NIC) cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60. Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. The model adjustments brought much of the simulated data into closer agreement with the experiment, with the notable exception of the measured yields, which were 15-40% of the calculated yields.

  15. Alfvénic localized structures in partially ionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhanian, Jafar; Rezaei, Arash

    2017-02-01

    The existence and dynamics of Alfvénic localized structures are investigated in partially ionized plasmas. We have employed the Hall magnetohydrodynamics model for partially ionized plasmas and shown that the evolution of a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive Alfvén wave is governed by a derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) type equation. In the Hall effect domination limit, this equation reduces to a standard DNLS equation that possesses localized solutions in the form of solitons and rogue waves. The dependence of the profile of these structures on the Hall parameter is addressed. When the ohmic and ambipolar effects are small but finite in comparison to the Hall effect, the evolution equation takes the form of a perturbed DNLS equation. In this limit, the dynamics of envelope soliton solution is examined by means of the soliton perturbation method, the moment method, to be precise.

  16. How to catch a parasite: Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) meets Fishbase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) is a free online software tool that suggests potential hosts for fish parasites. For a particular parasite species from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda), PaNic takes data from known hosts (maximum body length, growth rate, life span, age at first maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) and hypothesizes similar fish species that might serve as hosts to that parasite. Users can give varying weights to host attributes and create custom models. In addition to suggesting plausible hosts (with varying degrees of confidence), the models indicate known host species that appear to be outliers in comparison to other known hosts. These unique features make PaNic an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in fish parasitology. PaNic can be accessed at .

  17. Sub-Alfvénic reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations for tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, W.; Hassam, A. B.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-06-01

    A reduced set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is derived, applicable to large aspect ratio tokamaks and relevant for dynamics that is sub-Alfvénic with respect to ideal ballooning modes. This ordering optimally allows sound waves, Mercier modes, drift modes, geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM), zonal flows and shear Alfvén waves. Wavelengths long compared to the gyroradius but comparable to the minor radius of a typical tokamak are considered. With the inclusion of resistivity, tearing modes, resistive ballooning modes, Pfirsch-Schluter cells and the Stringer spin-up are also included. A major advantage is that the resulting system is two-dimensional in space, and the system incorporates self-consistent and dynamic Shafranov shifts. A limitation is that the system is valid only in radial domains where the tokamak safety factor, , is close to rational. In the tokamak core, the system is well suited to study the sawtooth discharge in the presence of Mercier modes. The systematic ordering scheme and methodology developed are versatile enough to reduce the more general collisional two-fluid equations or possibly the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the MHD ordering.

  18. Alfvénic solar wind powers substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, Eija; Hynönen, Reko; Mursula, Kalevi

    2017-04-01

    Alfvenic solar wind fluctuations (ALFs) are known to modulate geomagnetic activity. We have examined high-latitude geomagnetic activity over the solar cycle 23 and found out that increase of solar wind Alfvenicity enhance both auroral substorm intensity and substorm frequency. Alfvénic solar wind fluctuations are found throughout the solar cycle, but they are fastest, most frequent and geo-effective in the declining phase of the cycle, when the number of high-speed streams at the Earth's vicinity increases rapidly. We find a rapid transition from the predominance of slow (< 400 km/s) ALFs in 2002 to fast (> 600 km/s) ALFs in 2003, in coincidence with the rapid increase of substorm activity from late 2002 to early 2003. The Alfvénicity of solar wind increased by 40% from 2002 to 2003. After the transition the fast ALFs occur twice per solar rotation while in previous year only four fast ALF intervals were detected. Increase of solar wind Alfvénicity by 40% from 2002 to 2003, and transition from slow to fast Alfvén fluctuations coincide with the increase of auroral substorm intensity by 28% and substorm frequency by 43%.

  19. Silicon-Class Ablators for NIC Ignition Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Darwin; Salmonson, Jay; Haan, Steve

    2012-10-01

    We present design studies using silicon-class ablators (i.e., Si, SiC, SiB6, and SiB14) for NIC ignition capsules. These types of ablators have several advantages in that they: (a) require no internal dopant layers and are robust to M-band radiation; (b) have smooth outer surfaces; (c) have stable fuel-ablator interface; and (d) have good 1-D performance. The major disadvantage for some of the ablators in this class is the relatively smaller ablation stabilization. Consequently, the ablator is more susceptible to breakup caused by RT instabilities. However, smoother outer surfaces on this class of ablators can reduce the effect of RT instabilities. 2-D simulations of SiC ablators show ignition failure despite smooth surfaces and good 1-D performance. But SiB6 and SiB14 ablators exhibit promising behaviors. SiB6 (SiB14) ablators have high 1-D ignition margin and high peak core hydrodynamic pressure 880 (900) Gbar. The ablation scale length for SiB6 is longer than that for SiC and for SiB14 is comparable to that of plastic. Therefore, we expect acceptable performance for SiB6 and less RT growth for SiB14. 2-D simulations are now in progress.

  20. Ag3PO4 nanoparticle-decorated Ni/C nanocapsules with tunable electromagnetic absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Caiyun; Zhou, Pingping; Liu, Xianguo; Or, Siu Wing; Ho, S. L.

    2017-05-01

    Core/shell-structured nickel/carbon (Ni/C) nanocapsules with Ag3PO4 nanoparticle decoration (Ag3PO4@Ni/C) are prepared by an arc-discharge process and an ion-exchange process. The Ag3PO4@Ni/C nanocapsules show a clear decoration of Ag3PO4 nanoparticles of 4-20 nm diameter on the C shell of the Ni/C nanocapsules of ˜60 nm diameter. The amount of Ag3PO4 nanoparticles that can be decorated on the Ni/C nanocapsules depends on the volume of Na2HPO4 reactant used in the ion-exchange process. The Ag3PO4@Ni/C nanocapsules demonstrate interestingly high and tunable electromagnetic absorption properties with different amounts of Ag3PO4 nanoparticle decoration in the paraffin-bonded composites over the 2-18 GHz microwave range. The nanocapsules prepared with 100 ml Na2HPO4 exhibit much enhanced dielectric and magnetic losses for an improved electromagnetic impedance match. These result in a large reflection loss (RL) of -31.4 dB at 12.3 GHz for a small absorber thickness of 2.6 mm in conjunction with a very wide effective absorption bandwidth (for RL<-10 dB) of 14 GHz (4-18 GHz) at a wide absorber thickness range of 1.4-5.0 mm.

  1. Stellar winds and planetary bodies simulations: Magnetized obstacles in super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernisse, Y.; Riousset, J. A.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-03-01

    Most planetary bodies are moving in the solar wind, in a stellar wind, or in a plasma flow within the magnetosphere of a planet. The interaction of the body with the flowing plasma provides us with various interaction types, which mainly depend on the flow speed, the magnetization of the body, its conductivity, the presence of an ionosphere, and the size of the body. We establish two cornerstones representing highly magnetized obstacles embedded in a super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic plasma. Those two cornerstones complete the two cornerstones defined in our previous study on inert obstacles in super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic regimes. Tracking the transitions between these cornerstones enable better understanding of the feedback of the obstacle onto the plasma flow. Each interaction is studied by means of the hybrid model simulation code AIKEF. The results are summarized in three dimensional diagrams showing the current structures, which serve as a basis for our descriptions. We identify the major currents such as telluric, magnetosonic, Chapman-Ferraro, and bow-shock currents as the signatures of the particular state of development of the interaction region. We show that each type of interactions can be identified by studying the shape and the magnitude of its specific currents.

  2. An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awrach, James

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses distributed data management and access dynamically configurable high-speed access to data distributed and shared over wide-area high-speed network environments. An offload engine NIC (network interface card) is proposed that scales at nX10-Gbps increments through 100-Gbps full duplex. The Globus de facto standard was used in projects requiring secure, robust, high-speed bulk data transport. Novel extension mechanisms were derived that will combine these technologies for use by GridFTP, bandwidth management resources, and host CPU (central processing unit) acceleration. The result will be wire-rate encrypted Globus grid data transactions through offload for splintering, encryption, and compression. As the need for greater network bandwidth increases, there is an inherent need for faster CPUs. The best way to accelerate CPUs is through a network acceleration engine. Grid computing data transfers for the Globus tool set did not have wire-rate encryption or compression. Existing technology cannot keep pace with the greater bandwidths of backplane and network connections. Present offload engines with ports to Ethernet are 32 to 40 Gbps f-d at best. The best of ultra-high-speed offload engines use expensive ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) or NPUs (network processing units). The present state of the art also includes bonding and the use of multiple NICs that are also in the planning stages for future portability to ASICs and software to accommodate data rates at 100 Gbps. The remaining industry solutions are for carrier-grade equipment manufacturers, with costly line cards having multiples of 10-Gbps ports, or 100-Gbps ports such as CFP modules that interface to costly ASICs and related circuitry. All of the existing solutions vary in configuration based on requirements of the host, motherboard, or carriergrade equipment. The purpose of the innovation is to eliminate data bottlenecks within cluster, grid, and cloud computing systems

  3. Diguanylate cyclase NicD based signaling mechanism of nutrient-induced dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankita Basu; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion enables the transition from the biofilm to the planktonic growth state in response to various cues. While several P. aeruginosa proteins, including BdlA and the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases DipA, RbdA, and NbdA, have been shown to be required for dispersion to occur, little is known about dispersion cue sensing and the signaling translating these cues into the modulation c-di-GMP levels to enable dispersion. Using glutamate-induced dispersion as a model, we report that dispersion-inducing nutrient cues are sensed via an outside-in signaling mechanism by the diguanylate cyclase NicD belonging to a family of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. NicD directly interacts with BdlA and the phosphodiesterase DipA, with NicD, BdlA, and DipA being part of the same pathway required for dispersion. Glutamate-sensing by NicD results in NicD dephosphorylation and increased cyclase activity. Active NicD contributes to the non-processive proteolysis and activation of BdlA via phosphorylation and temporarily elevated c-di-GMP levels. BdlA, in turn, activates DipA, resulting in the overall reduction of c-di-GMP levels. Our results provide a basis for understanding the signaling mechanism based on NicD to induce biofilm dispersion that may be applicable to various biofilm-forming species and may have implications for the control of biofilm-related infections. PMID:25243483

  4. Diguanylate cyclase NicD-based signalling mechanism of nutrient-induced dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Basu Roy, Ankita; Sauer, Karin

    2014-11-01

    Dispersion enables the transition from the biofilm to the planktonic growth state in response to various cues. While several Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins, including BdlA and the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases DipA, RbdA, and NbdA, have been shown to be required for dispersion to occur, little is known about dispersion cue sensing and the signalling translating these cues into the modulation c-di-GMP levels to enable dispersion. Using glutamate-induced dispersion as a model, we report that dispersion-inducing nutrient cues are sensed via an outside-in signalling mechanism by the diguanylate cyclase NicD belonging to a family of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. NicD directly interacts with BdlA and the phosphodiesterase DipA, with NicD, BdlA, and DipA being part of the same pathway required for dispersion. Glutamate sensing by NicD results in NicD dephosphorylation and increased cyclase activity. Active NicD contributes to the non-processive proteolysis and activation of BdlA via phosphorylation and temporarily elevated c-di-GMP levels. BdlA, in turn, activates DipA, resulting in the overall reduction of c-di-GMP levels. Our results provide a basis for understanding the signalling mechanism based on NicD to induce biofilm dispersion that may be applicable to various biofilm-forming species and may have implications for the control of biofilm-related infections.

  5. Investigating Alfvénic wave propagation in coronal open-field regions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R. J.; Tomczyk, S.; Pinto, R.

    2015-01-01

    The physical mechanisms behind accelerating solar and stellar winds are a long-standing astrophysical mystery, although recent breakthroughs have come from models invoking the turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves. The existence of Alfvén waves far from the Sun has been known since the 1970s, and recently the presence of ubiquitous Alfvénic waves throughout the solar atmosphere has been confirmed. However, the presence of atmospheric Alfvénic waves does not, alone, provide sufficient support for wave-based models; the existence of counter-propagating Alfvénic waves is crucial for the development of turbulence. Here, we demonstrate that counter-propagating Alfvénic waves exist in open coronal magnetic fields and reveal key observational insights into the details of their generation, reflection in the upper atmosphere and outward propagation into the solar wind. The results enhance our knowledge of Alfvénic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, providing support and constraints for some of the recent Alfvén wave turbulence models. PMID:26213234

  6. Investigating Alfvénic wave propagation in coronal open-field regions.

    PubMed

    Morton, R J; Tomczyk, S; Pinto, R

    2015-07-27

    The physical mechanisms behind accelerating solar and stellar winds are a long-standing astrophysical mystery, although recent breakthroughs have come from models invoking the turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves. The existence of Alfvén waves far from the Sun has been known since the 1970s, and recently the presence of ubiquitous Alfvénic waves throughout the solar atmosphere has been confirmed. However, the presence of atmospheric Alfvénic waves does not, alone, provide sufficient support for wave-based models; the existence of counter-propagating Alfvénic waves is crucial for the development of turbulence. Here, we demonstrate that counter-propagating Alfvénic waves exist in open coronal magnetic fields and reveal key observational insights into the details of their generation, reflection in the upper atmosphere and outward propagation into the solar wind. The results enhance our knowledge of Alfvénic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, providing support and constraints for some of the recent Alfvén wave turbulence models.

  7. [Mapping the nursing care with the NIC for patients in risk for pressure ulcer].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Gabriela Silva; Santos, Cássia Teixeira Dos; Menegon, Dóris Baratz; Mello, Bruna Schroeder; Azambuja, Fernanda; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2014-06-01

    To identify the nursing care prescribed for patients in risk for pressure ulcer (PU) and to compare those with the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions. Cross mapping study conducted in a university hospital. The sample was composed of 219 adult patients hospitalized in clinical and surgical units. The inclusion criteria were: score ≤ 13 in the Braden Scale and one of the nursing diagnoses, Self-Care deficit syndrome, Impaired physical mobility, Impaired tissue integrity, Impaired skin integrity, Risk for impaired skin integrity. The data were collected retrospectively in a nursing prescription system and statistically analyzed by crossed mapping. It was identified 32 different nursing cares to prevent PU, mapped in 17 different NIC interventions, within them: Skin surveillance, Pressure ulcer prevention and Positioning. The cross mapping showed similarities between the prescribed nursing care and the NIC interventions.

  8. ALFVÉNIC WAVE HEATING OF THE UPPER CHROMOSPHERE IN FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Reep, J. W.; Russell, A. J. B. E-mail: arussell@maths.dundee.ac.uk

    2016-02-10

    We have developed a numerical model of flare heating due to the dissipation of Alfvénic waves propagating from the corona to the chromosphere. With this model, we present an investigation of the key parameters of these waves on the energy transport, heating, and subsequent dynamics. For sufficiently high frequencies and perpendicular wave numbers, the waves dissipate significantly in the upper chromosphere, strongly heating it to flare temperatures. This heating can then drive strong chromospheric evaporation, bringing hot and dense plasma to the corona. We therefore find three important conclusions: (1) Alfvénic waves, propagating from the corona to the chromosphere, are capable of heating the upper chromosphere and the corona, (2) the atmospheric response to heating due to the dissipation of Alfvénic waves can be strikingly similar to heating by an electron beam, and (3) this heating can produce explosive evaporation.

  9. Spiritual care activities of nurses using Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) labels.

    PubMed

    Cavendish, Roberta; Konecny, Lynda; Mitzeliotis, Claudia; Russo, Donna; Luise, Barbara; Lanza, Melissa; Medefindt, Judith; Bajo, Mary Ann McPartlan

    2003-01-01

    To describe the spiritual care activities of nurses as subsequently identified in the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) labels. Data were taken from a larger study that used a multiple triangulation research design to describe spiritual perspectives, interventions, and attitudes of 1,000 Sigma Theta Tau International members. Data analysis included descriptive and multivariate statistics for quantitative items, and content analysis for responses to questions. 97 respondents reported providing 32 spiritual care activities. Ten NIC labels actually mapped the nurses' spiritual care activities. Spiritual care activities involve a broad spectrum of interventions that may be unique to each patient. The 32 spiritual care activities described by the nurses provide new knowledge regarding core spiritual care activities. The use of NIC labels can facilitate documentation of spiritual care activities in diverse practice settings. This study supports greater specificity in describing spiritual care interventions to a level that allows replication and advancement of knowledge.

  10. Compressible sub-Alfvénic MHD turbulence in low-beta plasmas.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A

    2002-06-17

    We present a model for compressible sub-Alfvénic isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in low- beta plasmas and numerically test it. We separate MHD fluctuations into three distinct families: Alfvén, slow, and fast modes. We find that production of slow and fast modes by Alfvénic turbulence is suppressed. As a result, Alfvén modes in compressible regime exhibit scalings and anisotropy similar to those in incompressible regime. Slow modes passively mimic Alfvén modes. However, fast modes show isotropy and a scaling similar to acoustic turbulence.

  11. Nursing documentation with NANDA and NIC in a comprehensive HIS/EPR system.

    PubMed

    Flø, Kåre

    2006-01-01

    DIPS nursing documentation system facilitates that nurses can write several types of notes into the EPR. Within these notes the nurses can register NANDA diagnoses and NIC interventions with nursing activities. To choose NANDA and NIC the nurse can use a search engine, or she can choose a relevant Care plan guideline and pick the suggested diagnoses and interventions from there. Diagnoses and interventions with nursing activities registered are presented in a Care plan. When a nurse writes a note for a patient she will always be presented the Care plan and she can easy evaluate and update the Care plan.

  12. Fast-Particle-Driven Alfvénic Modes in a Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliner, J. J.; Forest, C. B.; Sarff, J. S.; Anderson, J. K.; Liu, D.; Nornberg, M. D.; Waksman, J.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Spong, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    Alfvénic modes are observed due to neutral beam injection for the first time in a reversed field pinch plasma. Modeling of the beam deposition and slowing down shows that the velocity and radial localization are high. This allows instability drive from inverse Landau damping of a bump-on-tail in the parallel distribution function or from free energy in the fast ion density gradient. Mode switching from a lower frequency toroidal mode number n=5 mode that scales with beam injection velocity to a higher frequency n=4 mode with Alfvénic scaling is observed.

  13. Effects of nicotine-specific antibodies, Nic311 and Nic-IgG, on the transfer of nicotine across the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Nekhayeva, Ilona A; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Pentel, Paul R; Keyler, Dan E; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2005-11-25

    The adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on fetal development are, in part, due to nicotine. These effects may be due to the actions of nicotine in fetal circulation or on placental functions. In pregnant rats, vaccination with a nicotine immunogen reduces the transfer of nicotine from the maternal to fetal circulation. However, extrapolation of these results to pregnant women might not be valid due to the well-recognized differences between human and rat placentas. In the current investigation, the effects of nicotine-specific antibodies on the transfer of nicotine from the maternal to fetal circuit of the dually perfused human placental lobule were determined. Two types of nicotine-specific antibodies were investigated; nicotine-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (Nic311, K(d) for nicotine 60nM) and IgG from rabbits vaccinated with a nicotine immunogen (Nic-IgG, K(d) 1.6nM). Transfer of the antibodies from maternal to fetal circuits was negligible. Both rabbit Nic-IgG and, to a lesser extent, mouse monoclonal Nic311 significantly reduced nicotine transfer from the maternal to fetal circuit as well as the retention of the drug by placental tissue. These effects were mediated by a substantial increase in the protein binding of nicotine and a reduction in the unbound nicotine concentration. Therefore, the data cited in this report suggest that the use of nicotine-specific antibodies might reduce fetal exposure to the drug, and that antibody affinity for nicotine is a key determinant of the extent of nicotine transfer.

  14. Complexes trans-[RuCl(2)(nic)(4)] and trans-[RuCl(2)(i-nic)(4)] as free radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Creczynski-Pasa, T B; Bonetti, V R; Beirith, A; Ckless, K; Konzen, M; Seifriz, I; Paula, M S; Franco, C V; Wilhelm Filho, D; Calixto, J B

    2001-09-01

    This study evaluates the action of the new ruthenium complexes trans-RuCl(2)(nic)(4)] (I) and trans-[RuCl(2)(i-nic)(4)] (II) as free radical scavengers. In our experiments, both compounds acted as scavengers of superoxide anion (O(2)*(-)), hydroxyl radicals (HO*) and nitrogen monoxide (formally known as 'nitric oxide'; NO*). In addition, complexes I and II potentiated the release of NO* from S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicilamine (SNAP), a NO* donor. Complex II, but not I, also decreased the nitrite levels in culture media of activated macrophages. A hypsochromic shift of lambda(max) and a significant change in half-wave potential (E(1/2)) was observed when NO* was added to the Complex II. Thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARS) levels were significantly reduced in rats treated for 1 week with Complex II plus tert-butylhydroperoxide, when compared to rats treated only with tert-butylhydroperoxide. None of the complexes showed cytotoxicity. These findings support the suggestion that the new ruthenium complexes, especially trans-[RuCl(2)(i-nic)(4)] or its derivatives, might provide potential therapeutic benefits in disorders where reactive nitrogen (RNS) or oxygen (ROS) species are involved.

  15. Cross Mapping Between the Priority Nursing Care for Stroke Patients Treated With Thrombolytic Therapy and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC).

    PubMed

    Nonnenmacher, Carine Lais; Ávila, Christiane Wahast; Mantovani, Vanessa Monteiro; de Oliveira Vargas, Mara Ambrosina; Echer, Isabel Cristina; de Fátima Lucena, Amália

    2016-06-09

    To verify the correspondence between the priority nursing care for stroke patients treated with thrombolytic therapy and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). A cross-mapping study with a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 expert nurses who described priority nursing care in clinical practice, and mapped it to the NIC. Eleven nursing care priorities cited by the nurses were mapped to eight NICs, including Thrombolytic Therapy Management (4270). There was correspondence between all priority nursing care interventions for stroke patients treated with thrombolytic therapy and the NIC. The nursing care cited by the nurses was corroborated by the NIC, providing evidence for the clinical practice. Verificar a correspondência entre os cuidados de enfermagem prioritários a pacientes com acidente vascular encefálico tratados com terapia trombolítica e a Classificação das Intervenções de Enfermagem (NIC). MÉTODOS: Estudo de mapeamento cruzado com uma entrevista semi-estruturada aplicada a 11 enfermeiros especialistas que descreveram os cuidados de enfermagem prioritários na prática clínica, e mapeados para a NIC. Onze cuidados de enfermagem prioritários foram citados pelos enfermeiros e mapeados em oito intervenções de enfermagem NIC, incluindo a Thrombolytic Therapy Management (4270). CONCLUSÕES: Houve correspondência entre todos os cuidados de enfermagem prioritários para pacientes com acidente vascular encefálico tratados com a terapia trombolítica e as intervençães de enfermagem NIC. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Os cuidados de enfermagem citados pelos enfermeiros foram corroborados pela NIC, produzindo evidências para a prática clínica. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  16. 77 FR 39741 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Curricula Review and Revision: NIC Trainer Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... follow the Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP) model and will incorporate blended learning... this project will be the incorporation of current research on adult learning and performance. The use... learning and performance has caused NIC's approach to shift to blended delivery. Blended learning...

  17. Association Between Pi1B Pulsations, Poleward Boundary Intensifications and Alfvénic Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, M.; Lund, E. J.; Ge, Y. S.; Lynch, K. A.; Mella, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work has related Pi1B pulsations to Alfvénic aurora at substorm onset [Lessard et al, JGR, 2011], as well as to fast flows in the magnetotail. The "Changing Aurora: In Situ and Camera Analysis of Dynamic Electron Precipitation Structures 2" (CASCADES2) sounding rocket was launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, into a Poleward Boundary Intensification (PBI) on 20 March 2009. During the event, THEMIS spacecraft were well-positioned to confirm the passage of fast flows on their way to the ionosphere, where the equatorward motion of the aurora is thought to track the earthward propagation of the flows. Other work previously showed the occurrence of Alfvénic aurora in conjunction with a PBI [Semeter et al., JGR, 2005], though the nature of the driver of these waves was not clear. During the CASCADES2 launch, induction coil magnetometers on the ground measured classic Pi1B pulsations, more typically associated with substorm onset. On the rocket, Alfvénic (and other) aurora was also clearly observed. As with substorm onset, the observations from this PBI event imply that fast flows deliver the wave power (seen as Pi1B signatures on the ground) to excite Alfvénic aurora.

  18. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  19. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  20. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  1. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  2. 27 CFR 478.131 - Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check. 478.131 Section 478.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND...

  3. Alfvénic instabilities driven by runaways in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fülöp, T.; Newton, S.

    2014-08-15

    Runaway particles can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields. Here, we address the possibility that such runaway ions and electrons excite Alfvénic instabilities. The magnetic perturbation induced by these modes can enhance the loss of runaways. This may have important implications for the runaway electron beam formation in tokamak disruptions.

  4. Case Study IV: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Networked Improvement Communities (NICs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.

    2015-01-01

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is a nonprofit, operating foundation with a long tradition of developing and studying ways to improve teaching practice. For the past three years, the Carnegie Foundation has initiated three different Networked Improvement Communities (NICs). The first, Quantway, is addressing the high…

  5. Statistical evidence for the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in solar coronal loops

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiajia; McIntosh, Scott W.; Bethge, Christian; De Moortel, Ineke; Threlfall, James

    2014-12-10

    Recent observations have demonstrated that waves capable of carrying large amounts of energy are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. However, the question of how this wave energy is dissipated (on which timescales and length scales) and released into the plasma remains largely unanswered. Both analytic and numerical models have previously shown that Alfvénic turbulence may play a key role not only in the generation of the fast solar wind, but in the heating of coronal loops. In an effort to bridge the gap between theory and observations, we expand on a recent study by analyzing 37 clearly isolated coronal loops using data from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter instrument. We observe Alfvénic perturbations with phase speeds which range from 250 to 750 km s{sup –1} and periods from 140 to 270 s for the chosen loops. While excesses of high-frequency wave power are observed near the apex of some loops (tentatively supporting the onset of Alfvénic turbulence), we show that this excess depends on loop length and the wavelength of the observed oscillations. In deriving a proportional relationship between the loop length/wavelength ratio and the enhanced wave power at the loop apex, and from the analysis of the line widths associated with these loops, our findings are supportive of the existence of Alfvénic turbulence in coronal loops.

  6. Theoretical calculation and experiment of microwave electromagnetic property of Ni(C) nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan-Feng, Zhang; Zhi-Feng, Hao; Bi, Zeng; Yan-Nan, Qian; Ying-Xin, Huang; Zhen-Da, Yang

    2016-04-01

    With the combination of the dielectric loss of the carbon layer with the magnetic loss of the ferromagnetic metal core, carbon-coated nickel (Ni(C)) nanoparticles are expected to be the promising microwave absorbers. Microwave electromagnetic parameters and reflection loss in a frequency range of 2 GHz-18 GHz for paraffin-Ni(C) composites are investigated. The values of relative complex permittivity and permeability, the dielectric and magnetic loss tangent of paraffin-Ni(C) composites are measured, respectively, when the weight ratios of Ni(C) nanoparticles are equal to 10 wt%, 40 wt%, 50 wt%, 70 wt%, and 80 wt% in paraffin-Ni(C) composites. The results reveal that Ni(C) nanoparticles exhibit a peak of magnetic loss at about 13 GHz, suggesting that magnetic loss and a natural resonance could be found at that frequency. Based on the measured complex permittivity and permeability, the reflection losses of paraffin-Ni(C) composites with different weight ratios of Ni(C) nanoparticles and coating thickness values are simulated according to the transmission line theory. An excellent microwave absorption is obtained. To be proved by the experimental results, the reflection loss of composite with a coating thickness of 2 mm is measured by the Arch method. The results indicate that the maximum reflection loss reaches -26.73 dB at 12.7 GHz, and below -10 dB, the bandwidth is about 4 GHz. The fact that the measured absorption position is consistent with the calculated results suggests that a good electromagnetic match and a strong microwave absorption can be established in Ni(C) nanoparticles. The excellent Ni(C) microwave absorber is prepared by choosing an optimum layer number and the weight ratio of Ni(C) nanoparticles in paraffin-Ni(C) composites. Project supported by the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014B010106005, 2013B051000077, and 2015A050502047) and the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou City, China (Grant No

  7. On the Origin of Highly Alfvénic Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amicis, R.; Bruno, R.

    2015-05-01

    Alfvénic fluctuations are a common feature in the solar wind and are found especially in the trailing edges of fast wind streams. The slow wind usually has a lower degree of Alfvénicity, being more strongly intermixed with structures of non-Alfvénic nature. In the present paper we show the first evidence in the interplanetary space of two different kinds of slow solar wind: one coming from coronal streamers or active regions and characterized by non-Alfvénic structures and the other one being highly Alfvénic and originating from the boundary of coronal holes. The Alfvénic character of fluctuations, either outward or inward, can be studied by means of the normalized cross-helicity, {{σ }C}, which is an indicator of the {\\boldsymbol{v}} -{\\boldsymbol{b}} alignment. The evolution of {{σ }C} toward lower values with increasing radial distance is interpreted both as a decrease of the presence of the outward modes and as a continuous production of inward modes within those regions such as stream shears where some plasma instability is active. On the other hand, the decrease of {{σ }C} is often related also to magnetic field and/or density enhancements which specifically act on the destruction of the {\\boldsymbol{v}} -{\\boldsymbol{b}} alignment. In the present analysis we study the role of compressibility presenting both case studies and a statistical analysis over different phases of solar cycle 23. Our findings indicate that the presence of regions of magnetic field compression generally play a major role in the depletion of {{σ }C} and thus in the destruction of the {\\boldsymbol{v}} -{\\boldsymbol{b}} alignment.

  8. [Analysis of the nursing interventions performed by public health nurses in health centers using the NIC].

    PubMed

    Kim, Souk-Young; Chin, Young Ran; Oh, Vock-Chang; Park, Eun-Jun; Yun, Soon Nyoung; Lee, In Sook

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify nursing interventions performed by public health nurses in health centers. Data was collected by the taxonomy of Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC 3rd: 486 nursing interventions) from 131 public health nurses in health centers and analyzed using descriptive statistics. As its result, more than 50% of public health nurses performed 137 nursing interventions at least monthly. The most frequently used intervention class was "activity and exercise management", followed by "physical comfort promotion", "community health promotion", "life span care", "coping assistance", "self care facilitation", "information management", "nutrition support", "community risk management" and "patient education". One hundred twenty nursing interventions were rarely performed by 90% or more of the nurses. Most of them were in the physical complex domain. In conclusion, 137 interventions were performed by public health nurses at least monthly. NIC is helpful to build a standardized language for public health nursing.

  9. [Interrelationship among "NANDA, NOC and NIC". A pilot study and an evaluation of a nursing document].

    PubMed

    Gomez de Segura Navarro, Carlota; Esain Larrambe, Ainhoa; Tina Majuelo, Pilar; Guembe Ibáñez, Irene; Fernández Perea, Laura; Narvaiza Solís, M Jesús

    2006-01-01

    (a) to determine the effectiveness of a nursing document which integrates nursing diagnoses, nursing treatments/actions (NIC), and results (NOC); (b) to verify the application of the aforementioned document in a hospitalization unit. A descriptive, transversal and observational study. Nursing documents (NANDA, NIC and NOC taxonomies). PHASES: 1st: analysis of the content in the nursing documentation for 23 pneumonic patients: Selection of nursing diagnoses and the most frequent interdependent problems. 2nd: Selection of results and nursing treatment/actions. 3rd: Elaboration of the document and a description of the Likert scales to define the state of the indicators for each result. 4th: A pilot study of the document applied to 12 patients. the application of the document permits one to identify the real status of a patient; to establish specific objectives; to improve the recording of data; to observe the effectiveness of treatment; to include educational activities; to give greater continuity and quality to a treatment plan.

  10. On the generation of solar spicules and Alfvénic waves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sykora, J; De Pontieu, B; Hansteen, V H; Rouppe van der Voort, L; Carlsson, M; Pereira, T M D

    2017-06-23

    In the lower solar atmosphere, the chromosphere is permeated by jets known as spicules, in which plasma is propelled at speeds of 50 to 150 kilometers per second into the corona. The origin of the spicules is poorly understood, although they are expected to play a role in heating the million-degree corona and are associated with Alfvénic waves that help drive the solar wind. We compare magnetohydrodynamic simulations of spicules with observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. Spicules are shown to occur when magnetic tension is amplified and transported upward through interactions between ions and neutrals or ambipolar diffusion. The tension is impulsively released to drive flows, heat plasma (through ambipolar diffusion), and generate Alfvénic waves. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. On the generation of solar spicules and Alfvénic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sykora, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Carlsson, M.; Pereira, T. M. D.

    2017-06-01

    In the lower solar atmosphere, the chromosphere is permeated by jets known as spicules, in which plasma is propelled at speeds of 50 to 150 kilometers per second into the corona. The origin of the spicules is poorly understood, although they are expected to play a role in heating the million-degree corona and are associated with Alfvénic waves that help drive the solar wind. We compare magnetohydrodynamic simulations of spicules with observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. Spicules are shown to occur when magnetic tension is amplified and transported upward through interactions between ions and neutrals or ambipolar diffusion. The tension is impulsively released to drive flows, heat plasma (through ambipolar diffusion), and generate Alfvénic waves.

  12. Effectiveness of nursing interventions in heart failure patients in home care using NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC.

    PubMed

    Azzolin, Karina; Mussi, Claudia Motta; Ruschel, Karen Brasil; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; de Fátima Lucena, Amália; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing interventions (NIC) using nursing outcomes (NOC) and based on NANDA-I nursing diagnoses in patients with heart failure in home care. In this longitudinal study, 23 patients with heart failure were followed for 6 months, in four home visits. During the visits, nursing diagnoses were established, outcomes assessed, and interventions implemented. Of the 11 NIC interventions implemented, eight proved effective, that is, showed significant improvement between the first and the fourth visit, according to scores obtained for six outcomes: knowledge: treatment regimen, knowledge: medication, compliance behavior, symptom control, activity tolerance, and energy conservation. NIC interventions health education, self-modification assistance, behavior modification, teaching: prescribed medication, teaching: disease process, nutritional counseling, telephone consultation, and energy conservation showed effective outcomes based on NOC scores, suggesting that the NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC linkage is useful in patients with heart failure in home care. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forumclínic: the shaping of virtual communities to assist patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Grau, Immaculada; Grajales Iii, Francisco J; Gene-Badia, Joan; Siso, Antoni; de Semir, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide new opportunities to complement traditional care while enhancing patient autonomy. With the objective to supplement patient care, a group of health professionals at the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona created Forumclínic, an online networking website in Spanish and Catalan. In 2008, seven web- and DVD-based chronic disease portals (Diabetes, Schizophrenia, Cardiac Ischemia, COPD, Depression, Breast Cancer and cardiovascular risk) were created with the following resources: multimedia patient education material; physician-specialist transcribed research (articles) news; an open question forum (for clinician-user and user-to-user interaction); and patient and specialist interview videos on the progress of disease, common diagnosis and treatment procedures; and information on the best or worst prognoses. Using data from Google Analytics, server logs were used to observe online behaviour patterns and user postings. This data combined with a mixed methods approach were used to evaluate the development of a virtual community (VC). A virtual community was developed when the number of forum visits was greater than those in the disease portal (definition). While nearly half of the visitors were from the Americas, the Schizophrenia, Breast Cancer, Depression and COPD forums met the criteria for and developed a virtual community. However, the Diabetes and Cardiac Ischemia forums did not reach VC status. It is also interesting to note that users in their late thirties and early forties were primarily women. The development of four virtual communities in Forumclínic seems to support the self-care needs of virtual patients. Users also reported appreciating the increased interaction with experts online and commonly collaborated with the forum moderator to guide and support other users with similar conditions in managing their health. Thence, we believe that Forumclínic is a good model to complement traditional patient care

  14. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) "Blue Team/Red Team" Simulated Campaigns (Sim-Cams)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen (Sim-Cam referee, M. D.; J Edwards (Blue Team leader; L J Suter (Red Team leader

    2010-08-01

    The Point design Target of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has specifications and tolerances that have been set using a multi variable sensitivity study (MVSS). The sub component interactions and sensitivities that feed the MVSS have been calculated using sophisticated target physics radiation hydro-codes. However, it is cannot be guaranteed that the point design configuration has been specified with enough precision for ignition to occur without first correcting for possible off-sets due to physics uncertainties in the data models used in these studies. For this reason the NIC includes a series of tuning experiments, which have been designed and sequenced to systematically remove potential off-sets in specified target and laser parameters as efficiently and effectively as possible. In order to test the tuning techniques and logic the NIC has been executing Simulated Campaigns (Sim-Cam's). In the Sim-Cam's are a Blue Team and a Red Team. The Blue Team conducts the experiments, making shot-to-shot decisions on how to adjust the laser pulse or target parameters, based on "experimental" data provided by the Red Team who simulate the laser, target and diagnostics performance. To capture a plausible off-set between nature and models the Red Team construct a new virtual reality by adjusting the physics data and models, keeping the changes within their best estimate of uncertainties. The Red Team also include much of the shot-to-shot variability due to small laser and target variations that can be expected in NIF experiments, as well as diagnostic noise. The details of all of this are kept hidden from the Blue Team. The Sim-Cam's also serve to test and improve the infrastructure and processes for executing the NIF experiments. The role of the Simulated Campaigns in preparing for the NIC experimental plan will be described, and some of the results discussed.

  15. Theoretical study of the solvent effect on the aromaticity of benzene: a NICS analysis.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Georgia M A; Dos Santos, Hélio F

    2014-03-01

    Nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) quantities for benzene-benzene and benzene-water species were obtained and are discussed in gas phase and in solution. Besides standard polarizable continuum model (PCM) calculations, sequential Monte Carlo/quantum mechanics (S-MC/QM) were also performed. Benzene was shown to be slightly more aromatic in condensate phase when we considered the average solvent configuration (ASEC) approach with explicit molecules.

  16. The range of Alfvénic turbulence scales in the topside auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchanskaya, I. V.; Kozelov, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    The minimal scale of the Alfvénic turbulence transverse to the external magnetic field in the topside auroral ionosphere is investigated using electric field observations of the FAST spacecraft (the resolution 512 s-1). The events in which the power law form of the electric fluctuation spectra with a 2.0-2.5 slope (typical of Alfvénic turbulence) remains unchanged down to acoustic gyroradius ρs or ion gyroradius ρi local values are illustrated for the first time. In this case, the character of spectrum variation does not change at the electron inertial length λe, which is much larger than ρs and ρi for FAST altitudes (apogee ~4000 km). We have tried to explain this experimental fact by consideration of the known scenarios of the appearance of a small transverse scale in an Alfvénic perturbation. It has been noted that the effects of front steepening in an inertial Alfvén wave with a finite amplitude, which propagates at an angle smaller than (me/mi)1/2 with respect to the transverse direction, can result in small transverse scales comparable with acoustic gyroradius appearing in a perturbation.

  17. Influence of seat geometry and seating posture on NIC(max) long-term AIS 1 neck injury predictability.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Linda; Kullgren, Anders

    2006-03-01

    Validated injury criteria are essential when developing restraints for AIS 1 neck injuries, which should protect occupants in a variety of crash situations. Such criteria have been proposed and attempts have been made to validate or disprove these. However, no criterion has yet been fully validated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of seat geometry and seating posture on the NIC(max) long-term AIS 1 neck injury predictability by making parameter analyses on reconstructed real-life rear-end crashes with known injury outcomes. Mathematical models of the BioRID II and three car seats were used to reconstruct 79 rear-end crashes involving 110 occupants with known injury outcomes. Correlations between the NIC(max) values and the duration of AIS 1 neck injuries were evaluated for variations in seat geometry and seating posture. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were also calculated to evaluate the NIC(max) predictability. Correlations between the NIC(max) values and the duration of AIS 1 neck injuries were found and these relations were used to establish injury risk curves for variations in seat geometry and seating posture. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values showed that the NIC(max) predicts long-term AIS 1 neck injuries also for variations in seat geometry and seating postures. The NIC(max) can be used to predict long-term AIS 1 neck injuries.

  18. Generation of Alfvénic waves and turbulence in reconnection jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Masahiro; Higashimori, Katsuaki

    2015-05-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic linear stability with the localized bulk flow oriented parallel to the neutral sheet is investigated, by including the Hall effect and the guide magnetic field. We observe three different unstable modes: a "streaming tearing" mode at a slow flow speed, a "streaming sausage" mode at a medium flow speed, and a "streaming kink" mode at a fast flow speed. The streaming tearing and sausage modes have a standard tearing mode-like structure with symmetric density fluctuations in the neutral sheet, while the kink mode has an asymmetric fluctuation. The growth rate of the streaming tearing mode decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, while the growth rates of the sausage and kink modes do not depend strongly on the Reynolds number. The sausage and kink modes can be unstable for not only super-Alfvénic flow but also sub-Alfvénic flow when the lobe density is low. The wavelengths of these unstable modes are of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of the plasma sheet. Their maximum growth rates are higher than that of a standard tearing mode, and under a strong guide magnetic field, the growth rates of the sausage and kink modes are enhanced, while under a weak guide magnetic field, they are suppressed. For a thin plasma sheet with the Hall effect, the fluctuations of the streaming modes can exist over the plasma sheet. These unstable modes may be regarded as being one of the processes generating Alfvénic turbulence in the plasma sheet during magnetic reconnection.

  19. Detection of cyclin D1 mRNA by hybridization sensitive NIC-oligonucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Kovaliov, Marina; Segal, Meirav; Kafri, Pinhas; Yavin, Eylon; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Fischer, Bilha

    2014-05-01

    A large group of fluorescent hybridization probes, includes intercalating dyes for example thiazole orange (TO). Usually TO is coupled to nucleic acids post-synthetically which severely limits its use. Here, we have developed a phosphoramidite monomer, 10, and prepared a 2'-OMe-RNA probe, labeled with 5-(trans-N-hexen-1-yl-)-TO-2'-deoxy-uridine nucleoside, dU(TO), (Nucleoside bearing an Inter-Calating moiety, NIC), for selective mRNA detection. We investigated a series of 15-mer 2'-OMe-RNA probes, targeting the cyclin D1 mRNA, containing one or several dU(TO) at various positions. dU(TO)-2'-OMe-RNA exhibited up to 7-fold enhancement of TO emission intensity upon hybridization with the complementary RNA versus that of the oligomer alone. This NIC-probe was applied for the specific detection of a very small amount of a breast cancer marker, cyclin D1 mRNA, in total RNA extract from cancerous cells (250 ng/μl). Furthermore, this NIC-probe was found to be superior to our related NIF (Nucleoside with Intrinsic Fluorescence)-probe which could detect cyclin D1 mRNA target only at high concentrations (1840 ng/μl). Additionally, dU(T) can be used as a monomer in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, thus avoiding the need for post-synthetic modification of oligonucleotide probes. Hence, we propose dU(TO) oligonucleotides, as hybridization probes for the detection of specific RNA in homogeneous solutions and for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Operational Use of Near Real Time Remote sensing Data at the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. Government agency that brings together the Department of Defense - Navy, Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Department of Homeland Security - U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to support coastal and marine sea ice operations and research in the Polar Regions. The NIC provides specialized strategic and tactical ice analyses to meet the operational needs of the U.S. government and is the only operational ice service in the world that monitors sea ice in both the Arctic, Antarctic regions as well as in other ice infested waters. NIC utilizes multiple sources of near real time satellite and in-situ observations as well as NWP and ocean-sea ice model output to produce sea ice analyses. Key users of NIC products in the Arctic include the Navy submarine force, National Weather Service, USCG and Canadian Coast Guard icebreakers, Military Sealift Command on re-supply missions to Antarctica and Greenland, and NOAA research vessels operating near sea ice cover in both hemispheres as well. Time series of NIC weekly or bi-weekly ice analysis charts, daily marginal ice zone and ice edge routine products, as well as tactical support annotated imagery are generated by expert analysts with wide access to near real time satellite imagery from VIS/IR to passive and active microwave sensors. The status of these satellite data streams and the expected availability of new capabilities in the near future will be discussed.

  1. Facile solid-state synthesis of Ni@C nanosheet-assembled hierarchical network for high-performance lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jinghe; Li, Qiyun; Zeng, Pan; Meng, Yulin; Zhang, Xiukui; Wu, Ping; Zhou, Yiming

    2017-08-01

    Micro/nano-architectured transition-metal@C hybrids possess unique structural and compositional features toward lithium storage, and are thus expected to manifest ideal anodic performances in advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we propose a facile and scalable solid-state coordination and subsequent pyrolysis route for the formation of a novel type of micro/nano-architectured transition-metal@C hybrid (i.e., Ni@C nanosheet-assembled hierarchical network, Ni@C network). Moreover, this coordination-pyrolysis route has also been applied for the construction of bare carbon network using zinc salts instead of nickel salts as precursors. When applied as potential anodic materials in LIBs, the Ni@C network exhibits Ni-content-dependent electrochemical performances, and the partially-etched Ni@C network manifests markedly enhanced Li-storage performances in terms of specific capacities, cycle life, and rate capability than the pristine Ni@C network and carbon network. The proposed solid-state coordination and pyrolysis strategy would open up new opportunities for constructing micro/nano-architectured transition-metal@C hybrids as advanced anode materials for LIBs.

  2. Turbulence generation during the head-on collision of Alfvénic wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, O.; Malara, F.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Parashar, T. N.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Veltri, P.

    2017-08-01

    The description of the Moffatt and Parker problem recently revisited by O. Pezzi et al. [Astrophys. J. 834, 166 (2017), 10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/166] is here extended by analyzing the features of the turbulence produced by the interaction of two colliding Alfvénic wave packets in a kinetic plasma. Although the approach based on the presence of linear modes features is still helpful in characterizing some low-energy fluctuations, other signatures, which go beyond the pure linear modes analysis, are recovered, such as the significant weakening of clear dispersion relations and the production of zero frequency fluctuations.

  3. 1-Ammonio-1-phosphono-pentane-1-phospho-nic acid.

    PubMed

    Bon, V V; Dudko, A V; Kozachkova, A N; Pekhnyo, V I

    2008-11-26

    The title compound, C(5)H(15)NO(6)P(2), was obtained by the reaction of penta-nenitrile with PCl(3) followed by the dropwise addition of water. The asymmetric unit contains one mol-ecule, which exists as a zwitterion with a positive charge on the -NH(3) group and a negative charge on one of the phospho-nic O atoms. The crystal structure displays N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding, which creates a three-dimensional network.

  4. High-level ab initio predictions for the ionization energy, bond dissociation energies, and heats of formation of nickel carbide (NiC) and its cation (NiC+).

    PubMed

    Lau, Kai-Chung; Chang, Yih Chung; Shi, Xiaoyu; Ng, C Y

    2010-09-21

    The ionization energy (IE) of NiC and the 0 K bond dissociation energies (D(0)) and heats of formation at 0 K (ΔH(o)(f0)) and 298 K (ΔH(o)(f298)) for NiC and NiC(+) are predicted by the wavefunction based CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS approach and the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method with Davidson correction (MRCI+Q). The CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS calculations presented here involve the approximation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit at the coupled cluster level up to full quadruple excitations along with the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE), high-order correlation, core-valence electronic (CV), spin-orbit coupling (SO), and scalar relativistic effect (SR) corrections. The present calculations provide the correct symmetry predictions for the ground states of NiC and NiC(+) to be (1)∑(+) and (2)∑(+), respectively. The CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS IE(NiC)=8.356 eV is found to compare favorably with the experimental IE value of 8.372 05±0.000 06 eV. The predicted IE(NiC) value at the MRCI+Q/cc-pwCV5Z level, including the ZPVE, SO, and SR effects is 8.00 eV, which is 0.37 eV lower than the experimental value. This work together with the previous experimental and theoretical investigations supports the conclusion that the CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS method is capable of providing reliable IE predictions for 3d-transition metal carbides, such as FeC and NiC. Furthermore, the CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS calculations give the prediction of D(0)(Ni-C)-D(0)(Ni(+)-C)=0.688 eV, which is also consistent with the experimental determination of 0.732 21±0.000 06 eV, whereas the MRCI+Q calculations (with relativistic and CV effects) predict a significantly lower value of 0.39 eV for D(0)(Ni-C)-D(0)(Ni(+)-C). The analysis of the correction terms shows that the CV and valence-valence electronic correlations beyond CCSD(T) wavefunction and the relativistic effect make significant contributions to the calculated thermochemical properties of NiC/NiC(+). For the experimental D(0) and ΔH(o)(f0) values of

  5. Mapping of nursing records into the NIC and the ICNP in a Korean oriental-medicine hospital.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Lee, Mikyoung; Jung, Ok Bun

    2006-01-01

    This study uses mapping methodology to examine the applicability of the Nursing Interventions Classification and the International Classification of Nursing Practice to nursing practice in a Korean Oriental-medicine hospital. Data were collected from the nursing records of 56 stroke patients in one unit, and intervention statements were mapped into NIC and ICNP. Of 147 unique nursing intervention statements extracted, 136 (92.52%) could be mapped into NIC and 99 (67.35%) statements could be completely mapped into ICNP. Using mapping methodology, this study validates that both NIC and ICNP would be useful for documenting nursing care in a Korean hospital, but it also identifies additional concepts that need to be represented in both of these standardized nursing languages. It is recommended that nurses be more careful in documenting their interventions and also that SNLs be developed further to more completely represent nursing practice.

  6. Identifying core NANDA-I nursing diagnoses, NIC interventions, NOC outcomes, and NNN linkages for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the core nursing diagnoses, interventions, outcomes, and linkages using standardized nursing terminologies for patients with heart failure (HF). For this study a retrospective descriptive design was used. The frequently used NANDA-I, NIC, NOC, and NNN linkages were identified through 272 inpatient records of patients discharged with HF in a midwestern community. The findings indicate that the top 10 NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC accounted for more than 50% of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. The most frequently used top 10 NNN linkages were identified for patients with HF. The identified core NANDA-I, NIC, NOC, and NNN linkages for HF from this study provide scope of practice of nurses working in HF clinics. © 2013 NANDA International, Inc.

  7. Compressional Alfvénic rogue and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M.

    2013-08-15

    Generation of compressional Alfvénic rogue and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas is investigated. Dispersive effect caused by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can balance the nonlinear steepening of waves leading to the formation of a soliton. The reductive perturbation method is used to obtain a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of the solitary wave. The height of a soliton is proportional to the soliton speed “U” and inversely proportional to plasma “β” (ratio of plasma thermal pressure to pressure of the confining magnetic field) and the width of soliton is proportional to the electron inertial length. KdV equation is used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable compressional Alfvénic wavepackets via the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The characteristics of rogue wave influenced by plasma “β” and the electron inertial length are described.

  8. Reconstruction of a broadband spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Viñas, Adolfo F; Moya, Pablo S.; Maneva, Yana G.; Araneda, Jaime A.

    2014-05-10

    Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibit a high degree of velocities and magnetic field correlations consistent with Alfvén waves propagating away and toward the Sun. Two remarkable properties of these fluctuations are the tendencies to have either positive or negative magnetic helicity (–1 ≤ σ {sub m} ≤ +1) associated with either left- or right- topological handedness of the fluctuations and to have a constant magnetic field magnitude. This paper provides, for the first time, a theoretical framework for reconstructing both the magnetic and velocity field fluctuations with a divergence-free magnetic field, with any specified power spectral index and normalized magnetic- and cross-helicity spectrum field fluctuations for any plasma species. The spectrum is constructed in the Fourier domain by imposing two conditions—a divergence-free magnetic field and the preservation of the sense of magnetic helicity in both spaces—as well as using Parseval's theorem for the conservation of energy between configuration and Fourier spaces. Applications to the one-dimensional spatial Alfvénic propagation are presented. The theoretical construction is in agreement with typical time series and power spectra properties observed in the solar wind. The theoretical ideas presented in this spectral reconstruction provide a foundation for more realistic simulations of plasma waves, solar wind turbulence, and the propagation of energetic particles in such fluctuating fields.

  9. Building 1D resonance broadened quasilinear (RBQ) code for fast ions Alfvénic relaxations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Duarte, Vinicius; Berk, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The performance of the burning plasma is limited by the confinement of superalfvenic fusion products, e.g. alpha particles, which are capable of resonating with the Alfvénic eigenmodes (AEs). The effect of AEs on fast ions is evaluated using a resonance line broadened diffusion coefficient. The interaction of fast ions and AEs is captured for cases where there are either isolated or overlapping modes. A new code RBQ1D is being built which constructs diffusion coefficients based on realistic eigenfunctions that are determined by the ideal MHD code NOVA. The wave particle interaction can be reduced to one-dimensional dynamics where for the Alfvénic modes typically the particle kinetic energy is nearly constant. Hence to a good approximation the Quasi-Linear (QL) diffusion equation only contains derivatives in the angular momentum. The diffusion equation is then one dimensional that is efficiently solved simultaneously for all particles with the equation for the evolution of the wave angular momentum. The evolution of fast ion constants of motion is governed by the QL diffusion equations which are adapted to find the ion distribution function.

  10. [NIC as a tool for assessing competences of nursing students in clinical placement at surgical units].

    PubMed

    Celma Vicente, Matilde; Ajuria-Imaz, Eloisa; Lopez-Morales, Manuel; Fernandez-Marín, Pilar; Menor-Castro, Alicia; Cano-Caballero Galvez, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the utility of a NIC standardized language to assess the extent of nursing student skills at Practicum in surgical units To identify the nursing interventions classification (NIC) that students can learn to perform in surgical units. To determine the level of difficulty in learning interventions, depending on which week of rotation in clinical placement the student is. Qualitative study using Delphi consensus technique, involving nurses with teaching experience who work in hospital surgical units, where students undertake the Practicum. The results were triangulated through a questionnaire to tutors about the degree of conformity. A consensus was reached about the interventions that students can achieve in surgical units and the frequency in which they can be performed. The level of difficulty of each intervention, and the amount of weeks of practice that students need to reach the expected level of competence was also determined. The results should enable us to design better rotations matched to student needs. Knowing the frequency of each intervention that is performed in each unit determines the chances of learning it, as well as the indicators for its assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relaxase of the Rhizobium etli Symbiotic Plasmid Shows nic Site cis-Acting Preference

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Lucas, María; Muñoz, Socorro; Herrera-Cervera, José A.; Olivares, José; de la Cruz, Fernando; Sanjuán, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical characterization of TraA, the relaxase of symbiotic plasmid pRetCFN42d from Rhizobium etli, is described. After purifying the relaxase domain (N265TraA), we demonstrated nic binding and cleavage activity in vitro and thus characterized for the first time the nick site (nic) of a plasmid in the family Rhizobiaceae. We studied the range of N265TraA relaxase specificity in vitro by testing different oligonucleotides in binding and nicking assays. In addition, the ability of pRetCFN42d to mobilize different Rhizobiaceae plasmid origins of transfer (oriT) was examined. Data obtained with these approaches allowed us to establish functional and phylogenetic relationships between different plasmids of this family. Our results suggest novel characteristics of the R. etli pSym relaxase for previously described conjugative systems, with emphasis on the oriT cis-acting preference of this enzyme and its possible biological relevance. PMID:16916896

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of Ni-C films from bis-(ethylcyclopentadienyl) nickel.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, S E; Protopopova, V S

    2011-09-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is widely used for deposition of various nickel-containing coatings, such as catalytic nickel thin films and nanoparticles, nickel silicide alloys and magnetic carbon-nickel nanocomposite layers. Here we report preliminary results from an attempt to use bis-(ethylcyclopentadienyl) nickel [(EtCp)2Ni] as a precursor for MOCVD of Ni-C thin films in the (EtCp)2Ni-Ar and (EtCp)2Ni-H2-Ar reaction systems. Mechanism of precursor fragmentation was proposed on the basis of the results from a study of gaseous reaction products in the exhaust line of the reactor by means of mass-spectrometry. It was found that an introduction of hydrogen in the gas phase led to an increase in conversion rate of the precursor. Deposited films were analyzed by means of atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS). The effect of hydrogen on growth rate, composition, and morphology of the deposited Ni-C films were experimentally studied.

  13. Measures of three-dimensional anisotropy and intermittency in strong Alfvénic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Chen, C. H. K.; Horbury, T. S.; Wicks, R. T.; Greenan, C. C.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the local anisotropy of numerically simulated strong Alfvénic turbulence with respect to two local, physically relevant directions: along the local mean magnetic field and along the local direction of one of the fluctuating Elsasser fields. We find significant scaling anisotropy with respect to both these directions: the fluctuations are `ribbon-like' - statistically, they are elongated along both the mean magnetic field and the fluctuating field. The latter form of anisotropy is due to scale-dependent alignment of the fluctuating fields. The intermittent scalings of the nth-order conditional structure functions in the direction perpendicular to both the local mean field and the fluctuations agree well with the theory of Chandran, Schekochihin & Mallet, while the parallel scalings are consistent with those implied by the critical-balance conjecture. We quantify the relationship between the perpendicular scalings and those in the fluctuation and parallel directions, and find that the scaling exponent of the perpendicular anisotropy (i.e. of the aspect ratio of the Alfvénic structures in the plane perpendicular to the mean magnetic field) depends on the amplitude of the fluctuations. This is shown to be equivalent to the anticorrelation of fluctuation amplitude and alignment at each scale. The dependence of the anisotropy on amplitude is shown to be more significant for the anisotropy between the perpendicular and fluctuation-direction scales than it is between the perpendicular and parallel scales.

  14. Ion beta dependence on the development of Alfvénic fluctuations in reconnection jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashimori, Katsuaki; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    The generation of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) to ion-scale fluctuations in collisionless magnetic reconnection is discussed using a two-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. It is shown that reconnection jets become turbulent specifically in low beta conditions, βi0<0.1-0.2 (where βi0 is the ion plasma beta in initial inflow regions). The fluctuations observed in reconnection jets consist of outgoing Alfvénic fluctuations. As probable candidates for the origin of Alfvénic fluctuations, this study focused on the dynamics in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and a current sheet. We suggest that PSBL ion dynamics play an important part in excitation and suppression of waves. PSBL beam ions drive Alfvén waves in MHD to ion scale, kλi<0.5 (λi is ion inertial length), independent of βi0. On the other hand, because the beam temperature is highly correlated with that of inflowing ions, the waves decay by cyclotron damping as the value of the inflow ion beta increases. Local linear analysis suggests that this damping signature changes in βi0˜0.1-0.2 and suppresses the wave activity of Alfvén modes in high beta reconnection jets.

  15. The relaxase of the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid shows nic site cis-acting preference.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Lucas, María; Muñoz, Socorro; Herrera-Cervera, José A; Olivares, José; de la Cruz, Fernando; Sanjuán, Juan

    2006-11-01

    Genetic and biochemical characterization of TraA, the relaxase of symbiotic plasmid pRetCFN42d from Rhizobium etli, is described. After purifying the relaxase domain (N265TraA), we demonstrated nic binding and cleavage activity in vitro and thus characterized for the first time the nick site (nic) of a plasmid in the family Rhizobiaceae. We studied the range of N265TraA relaxase specificity in vitro by testing different oligonucleotides in binding and nicking assays. In addition, the ability of pRetCFN42d to mobilize different Rhizobiaceae plasmid origins of transfer (oriT) was examined. Data obtained with these approaches allowed us to establish functional and phylogenetic relationships between different plasmids of this family. Our results suggest novel characteristics of the R. etli pSym relaxase for previously described conjugative systems, with emphasis on the oriT cis-acting preference of this enzyme and its possible biological relevance.

  16. [Development and application of microbiology data monitoring system (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in Akita Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masahide; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Tomoe; Tatsuko, Rumi; Kobayashi, Noriko; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Networking among regional hospitals recently became required for infection control activities in Japan. In Akita prefecture, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in 2010. Designated users can easily obtain microbiology data and compare it with other participating hospitals using this system. For example, users are able to compare the MRSA/MSSA ratio in Staphylococcus aureus with other participating hospitals in Akita-ReNICS. The effectiveness and assignment of this system were shown by a questionnaire administrated in 2013. In this paper, we clarify the current state and assignment of Akita-ReNICS and consider its effective application for better infection control activities.

  17. Identification and Comparison of Interventions Performed by Korean School Nurses and U.S. School Nurses Using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were…

  18. Identification and Comparison of Interventions Performed by Korean School Nurses and U.S. School Nurses Using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were…

  19. The Millimeter-Wave Spectrum of NiC (X1Σ+) and CoC (X2Σ+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, M. A.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2001-10-01

    The pure rotational spectra of two metal carbide species, NiC (X1Σ+) and CoC (X2Σ+), have been measured in the laboratory using millimeter/submillimeter direct absorption methods. The molecules were created by reacting metal vapor with CH4 in a DC discharge. Four rotational transitions of CoC were recorded, each consisting of 16 hyperfine components arising from the cobalt nuclear spin of I=7/2. Multiple transitions of the two most abundant nickel isotopomers, 58NiC and 60NiC, were additionally measured. The spectra were analyzed using the appropriate Hamiltonian and spectroscopic constants accurately determined. For CoC, this study included a complex hyperfine analysis of the magnetic, electric quadrupole, and nuclear spin-rotation terms. Cobalt and nickel are iron peak elements that may be produced via neutron capture processes in asymptotic giant branch stars. Dredge-up events mix these elements to the stellar surface, where they are incorporated into the expanding stellar envelope. CoC and NiC offer a means to trace these elements in carbon-rich circumstellar shells.

  20. Comparison of two speech privacy measurements, articulation index (AI) and speech privacy noise isolation class (NIC'), in open workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Heakyung C.; Loftness, Vivian

    2002-05-01

    Lack of speech privacy has been reported to be the main dissatisfaction among occupants in open workplaces, according to workplace surveys. Two speech privacy measurements, Articulation Index (AI), standardized by the American National Standards Institute in 1969, and Speech Privacy Noise Isolation Class (NIC', Noise Isolation Class Prime), adapted from Noise Isolation Class (NIC) by U. S. General Services Administration (GSA) in 1979, have been claimed as objective tools to measure speech privacy in open offices. To evaluate which of them, normal privacy for AI or satisfied privacy for NIC', is a better tool in terms of speech privacy in a dynamic open office environment, measurements were taken in the field. AIs and NIC's in the different partition heights and workplace configurations have been measured following ASTM E1130 (Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of Speech Privacy in Open Offices Using Articulation Index) and GSA test PBS-C.1 (Method for the Direct Measurement of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Subjective Judgments) and PBS-C.2 (Public Building Service Standard Method of Test Method for the Sufficient Verification of Speech-Privacy Potential (SPP) Based on Objective Measurements Including Methods for the Rating of Functional Interzone Attenuation and NC-Background), respectively.

  1. ION KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH CONSTANCY IN MULTI-FLUID SOLAR WIND ALFVÉNIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Matteini, L.; Horbury, T. S.; Schwartz, S. J.; Pantellini, F.; Velli, M.

    2015-03-20

    We investigate the properties of plasma fluid motion in the large-amplitude, low-frequency fluctuations of highly Alfvénic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles which, due to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low-frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform the proton velocity into the frame of Alfvénic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfvénic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfvénic turbulence, is the origin of the observed constancy of the magnetic field; while the constant velocity corresponding to constant energy can only be observed in the frame of the fluctuations, the corresponding constant total magnetic field, invariant for Galilean transformations, remains the observational signature in the spacecraft frame of the constant total energy in the Alfvén turbulence frame.

  2. A taxonomic note on Erionota acroleuca (Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, 1881) stat. rest. (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Guo-Xi; Lo, Yik Fui Philip

    2015-03-06

    The purpose of this paper is to restore Erionota acroleuca (Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, 1881) as a valid name, and to establish Erionota acroleuca apicalis de Jong & Treadaway, 1992 as a new subspecific combination, with its immature biology briefly introduced.

  3. Alfvénic field-aligned currents, ion upflow and electron precipitation during large geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Spencer; LaBelle, James; Chaston, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present four years of FAST observations of Alfvénic field-aligned currents (FACs) in the Northern Hemisphere coincident with 40 moderate (Dst < -50 nT) to very large geomagnetic storms. Superposed epoch analysis of Alfvénic activity of storm periods demonstrate a sharp increase in the probability of AlfvÉn wave occurrence just after storm commencement, and analysis based on storm phase shows that the probability of Alfvén wave occurrence increases by more than a factor of 5 on both dayside and nightside. Additionally, recently reported Van Allen Probes measurements in the magnetosphere imply a region (˜60-68 degrees invariant latitude) in the nightside ionosphere where Alfvén waves are statistically likely to be observed during storm main phase; we report statistical observations during main phase showing that this region instead corresponds to both intense electron precipitation (>10 mW m-2) and strong upflowing ion number flux (> 108 cm^{-2 s-1), while observed Alfvénic FAC occurrence rates are diminished relative to Van Allen Probes measurements. FAST observations also indicate that the most intense electron precipitation associated with Alfvénic FACs occurs pre-midnight during storm recovery phase.

  4. Nursing Intervention Classifications (NIC) validated for patients at risk of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Bavaresco, Taline; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2012-01-01

    to validate the Nursing Intervention Classifications (NIC) for the diagnosis 'Risk of Impaired Skin Integrity' in patients at risk of pressure ulcers (PU). the sample comprised 16 expert nurses. The data was collected with an instrument about the interventions and their definitions were scored on a Likert scale by the experts. The data was analyzed statistically, using the calculation of weighted averages (WA). The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (56/2010). nine interventions were validated as 'priority' (WA ≥0.80), among them Prevention of PU (MP=0.92); 22 as 'suggested' (WA >0.50 and <0.80) and 20 were discarded (WA ≤0.50). the prevention of PU results from the implementation of specific interventions related to the risk factors for development of the lesion, with implications for nursing practice, teaching and research.

  5. An automated identification method for Alfvénic streams and their geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snekvik, K.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Kilpua, K. E. J.

    2014-04-01

    Previous statistical studies have found a close relationship between high-speed streams and high-latitude geomagnetic activity. The speed by itself would increase the geoeffectivity of the solar wind. But it is also believed that pure Alfvénic fluctuations, often found in the trailing part of the streams, play a role in the solar wind driving of geomagnetic activity by amplifying the north-south component of the magnetic field (BZ), and thereby the dayside reconnection electric field. By automatically identifying slow and fast solar wind streams and by analyzing them for more than one solar cycle, we aimed to study the relation between speed, Alfvénicity, and BZ in the solar wind.

  6. [CARE NURSE AT REFRACTORY SPIRITUAL SUFFERING USING TAXONOMY NANDA-NOC-NIC].

    PubMed

    Morillo-martín, Mría Socorro; Galán González-Serna, José María; Romero-Serrano, Rocío; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Almudena; Medina, Eulalia Alburquerque

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces the concept of refractory spiritual suffering in the terminal patient, the factors that influence it, the possibility of their assessment and care approach emphasizing the role of nurse care to despair for identification and relief through the use of taxonomy NANDA-NOC-NIC (NNN). We conclude that it is necessary to incorporate into the care routine screening of spiritual suffering, assessment, prevention and interdisciplinary care. When direct care nursing developed aimed at improving levels of hope that the patient achieves his spiritual suffering terminal decline. In refractory spiritual suffering is necessary to consider the option of palliative sedation in which nurses have a crucial role both in their valuation for the indication and in the administration and evaluation of its therapeutic effects.

  7. [Nursing care for psychiatric patients defined by NANDA-NIC-NOC terminology: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Escalada Hernández, Paula; Muñoz Hermoso, Paula; Marro Larrañaga, Itxaso

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a synthesis of the most relevant studies describing nursing work in mental health by means of NNN taxonomy. Literature from 1990 to September 2011 was reviewed using the "scoping review" methodology. Three independent reviewers examined the articles which were found and selected those fulfilling the inclusion criteria for subsequent analysis. From the 220 articles obtained, 14 studies were finally included and divided into two groups. The aim of the first ten papers was examining the most frequent NANDA nursing diagnosis or/and NIC nursing interventions in different mental health care settings. The remaining four articles describe health care plans for psychiatric patients developed with NNN taxonomy. Combining results from both groups, the most prevalent diagnostic labels are: disturbed thought processes and impaired social interaction. This review has illustrated the lack of evidence in relation to NNN taxonomy in the field of mental health and the need of further research in this area.

  8. Charge transfer effects in electrocatalytic Ni-C revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, G. E.; Chin, X.-Y.; Burstein, G. T.; Sato, K.; Mizokawa, T.

    2012-06-04

    Binary Ni-C thin-film alloys, which have been shown to be passive against corrosion in hot sulphuric acid solution whilst also being electrocatalytically active, were investigated by XPS to determine the oxidation state of the metal and carbon components. The Ni component produces a Ni 2p spectrum similar to that of metallic nickel (i.e., no oxidation occurs) but with a 0.3 eV shift to higher binding energy (BE) due to electron donation to the carbon matrix. The C 1s peak shows a shift to lower BE by accepting electrons from the Ni nanocrystals. A cluster-model analysis of the observed Ni 2p spectrum is consistent with the electron transfer from the nickel to the carbon.

  9. POTENTIAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ONSET OF ALFVÉNIC TURBULENCE IN TRANS-EQUATORIAL CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    De Moortel, I.; Threlfall, J.; McIntosh, S. W.; Bethge, C.; Liu, J. E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu

    2014-02-20

    This study investigates Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter Doppler-shift observations of a large, off-limb, trans-equatorial loop system observed on 2012 April 10-11. Doppler-shift oscillations with a broad range of frequencies are found to propagate along the loop with a speed of about 500 km s{sup –1}. The power spectrum of perturbations travelling up from both loop footpoints is remarkably symmetric, probably due to the almost perfect north-south alignment of the loop system. Compared to the power spectrum at the footpoints of the loop, the Fourier power at the apex appears to be higher in the high-frequency part of the spectrum than expected from theoretical models. We suggest this excess high-frequency power could be tentative evidence for the onset of a cascade of the low-to-mid frequency waves into (Alfvénic) turbulence.

  10. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-09-17

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIF construction was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 27, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility, will ultimately produce 1.8-MJ, 500-TW of 351-nm third-harmonic, ultraviolet light. On March 10, 2009, total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began in August 2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments includes diagnostics, a cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational, integrated into the facility, and ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and will likely

  11. Improving generalization performance of natural gradient learning using optimized regularization by NIC.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeyoung; Murata, Noboru; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2004-02-01

    Natural gradient learning is known to be efficient in escaping plateau, which is a main cause of the slow learning speed of neural networks. The adaptive natural gradient learning method for practical implementation also has been developed, and its advantage in real-world problems has been confirmed. In this letter, we deal with the generalization performances of the natural gradient method. Since natural gradient learning makes parameters fit to training data quickly,the overfitting phenomenon may easily occur, which results in poor generalization performance. To solve the problem, we introduce the regularization term in natural gradient learning and propose an efficient optimizing method for the scale of regularization by using a generalized Akaike information criterion (network information criterion). We discuss the properties of the optimized regularization strength by NIC through theoretical analysis as well as computer simulations. We confirm the computational efficiency and generalization performance of the proposed method in real-world applications through computational experiments on benchmark problems.

  12. Analysis of NIC Cryogenic Layered Experiments via Integrated Hohlraum plus Capsule Post-Shot Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, O. S.; Cerjan, C. J.; Eder, D. C.; Springer, P. T.; Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, M. V.; Sepke, S. M.; Suter, L. J.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P. J.; Olson, R. E.

    2012-10-01

    We previously reported a simulation-based semi-empirical model of the NIC layered implosions [1]. In this model input parameters (chiefly laser power) are adjusted so that the simulated capsule's shock timing, time-dependent shell velocity, and imploded core shape closely match experimental measurements. We have applied this model to a growing database of layered implosions. We find that simulated ion temperatures agree well with experiments that are not heavily mixed. The model was able to predict the increase in neutron down-scattered ratio (DSR) that was seen experimentally when the laser peak power was lowered from 420 to 320 TW and extended in time to minimize shell re-expansion (so-called ``no-coasting'' pulse). The DSR correlates with calculated fuel adiabat and suggests that the improved fuel adiabat was the primary reason for the DSR improvement.[0pt] [1] Jones, et al., Phys of Plasma, 19, 056315 (2012)

  13. NIC/Q 2000: establishing habits for improvement in neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Horbar, Jeffrey D; Plsek, Paul E; Leahy, Kathy

    2003-04-01

    The Vermont Oxford Network is a group of health professionals who are committed to improving the quality and safety of medical care for newborn infants and their families. Neonatal Intensive Care Quality Improvement Collaborative Year 2000 (NIC/Q 2000) was the second in a series of multiorganization improvement collaboratives organized and administered by the Vermont Oxford Network. The objective of this collaborative was to make measurable improvements in the quality and safety of neonatal intensive care, develop new tools and resources for improvement specific to the neonatal intensive care unit setting, evaluate improvement progress, and disseminate the learning. The 34 centers that participated in NIC/Q 2000 learned and applied 4 key habits for improvement: the habit for change, the habit for evidence-based practice, the habit for systems thinking, and the habit for collaborative learning. A plan-do-study-act method of rapid-cycle improvement was an integral part of the habit for change. Multidisciplinary teams from the participating centers worked closely together in face-to-face meetings, conference calls, and dedicated e-mail listservs under the guidance of trained facilitators and expert faculty. Focus groups formed around specific improvement topics used critical appraisal of the published literature, detailed process analysis, benchmarking, and round-robin site visits to identify potentially better practices (PBPs). The focus groups developed a total of 51 PBPs. Each focus group has developed a "resource kit" summarizing its work. Many of these PBPs have been tested and implemented at the participating centers using rapid-cycle improvement. The PBPs and descriptions of individual center PDSA cycles are available to participants on NICQ.org, the dedicated Internet site for the collaborative. Collaborative quality improvement based on the 4 key habits can assist multidisciplinary neonatal intensive care unit teams in identifying, testing, and successfully

  14. Measuring the Alfvénic Nature of the Interstellar Medium: Velocity Anisotropy Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Leão, I. C.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Esquivel, A.

    2014-08-01

    The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel & Lazarian method to estimate the Alfvén Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from Position-Position-Velocity maps. We utilize three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic observations of velocity centroids with observational characteristics such as thermal broadening, cloud boundaries, noise, and radiative transfer effects of carbon monoxide. In addition, we investigate how the resulting anisotropy-Alfvén Mach number dependency found in Esquivel & Lazarian might change when taking the second moment of the Position-Position-Velocity cube or when using different expressions to calculate the velocity centroids. We find that the degree of anisotropy is related primarily to the magnetic field strength (i.e., Alfvén Mach number) and the line-of-sight orientation, with a secondary effect on sonic Mach number. If the line of sight is parallel to up to ≈45 deg off of the mean field direction, the velocity centroid anisotropy is not prominent enough to distinguish different Alfvénic regimes. The observed anisotropy is not strongly affected by including radiative transfer, although future studies should include additional tests for opacity effects. These results open up the possibility of studying the magnetic nature of the ISM using statistical methods in addition to existing observational techniques.

  15. LLNL Contribution to LLE FY09 Annual Report: NIC and HED Results

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Landen, O L; Hsing, W W; Fournier, K B

    2009-10-01

    In FY09, LLNL led 238 target shots on the OMEGA Laser System. Approximately half of these LLNL-led shots supported the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The remainder was dedicated to experiments for the high-energy-density stewardship experiments (HEDSE). Objectives of the LLNL led NIC campaigns at OMEGA included: (1) Laser-plasma interaction studies in physical conditions relevant for the NIF ignition targets; (2) Demonstration of Tr = 100 eV foot symmetry tuning using a reemission sphere; (3) X-ray scattering in support of conductivity measurements of solid density Be plasmas; (4) Experiments to study the physical properties (thermal conductivity) of shocked fusion fuels; (5) High-resolution measurements of velocity nonuniformities created by microscopic perturbations in NIF ablator materials; (6) Development of a novel Compton Radiography diagnostic platform for ICF experiments; and (7) Precision validation of the equation of state for quartz. The LLNL HEDSE campaigns included the following experiments: (1) Quasi-isentropic (ICE) drive used to study material properties such as strength, equation of state, phase, and phase-transition kinetics under high pressure; (2) Development of a high-energy backlighter for radiography in support of material strength experiments using Omega EP and the joint OMEGA-OMEGA-EP configuration; (3) Debris characterization from long-duration, point-apertured, point-projection x-ray backlighters for NIF radiation transport experiments; (4) Demonstration of ultrafast temperature and density measurements with x-ray Thomson scattering from short-pulse laser-heated matter; (5) The development of an experimental platform to study nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) physics using direct-drive implosions; (6) Opacity studies of high-temperature plasmas under LTE conditions; and (7) Characterization of copper (Cu) foams for HEDSE experiments.

  16. Measuring the Alfvénic nature of the interstellar medium: Velocity anisotropy revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Esquivel, A.

    2014-08-01

    The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel and Lazarian method to estimate the Alfvén Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from Position-Position-Velocity maps. We utilize three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic observations of velocity centroids with observational characteristics such as thermal broadening, cloud boundaries, noise, and radiative transfer effects of carbon monoxide. In addition, we investigate how the resulting anisotropy-Alfvén Mach number dependency found in Esquivel and Lazarian might change when taking the second moment of the Position-Position-Velocity cube or when using different expressions to calculate the velocity centroids. We find that the degree of anisotropy is related primarily to the magnetic field strength (i.e., Alfvén Mach number) and the line-of-sight orientation, with a secondary effect on sonic Mach number. If the line of sight is parallel to up to ≈45 deg off of the mean field direction, the velocity centroid anisotropy is not prominent enough to distinguish different Alfvénic regimes. The observed anisotropy is not strongly affected by including radiative transfer, although future studies should include additional tests for opacity effects. These results open up the possibility of studying the magnetic nature of the ISM using statistical methods in addition to existing observational techniques.

  17. Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; MacNaughton, W K; Zhang, X J; Thompson, J H; Charbonnet, R M; Bobrowski, P; Lao, J; Trentacosti, A M; Sandoval, M

    2000-07-01

    Sangre de grado is an Amazonian herbal medicine used to facilitate the healing of gastric ulcers and to treat gastritis, diarrhea, skin lesions, and insect stings. This study was designed to evaluate the gastrointestinal applications. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by brief serosal exposure of the fundus to acetic acid (80%). Sangre de grado was administered in drinking water at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions from the postoperative period to day 7. Guinea pig ileum secretory responses to capsaicin, electrical field stimulation, and the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) agonist [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P were examined in Ussing chambers. Sangre de grado facilitated the healing of experimental gastric ulcer, reducing myeloperoxidase activity, ulcer size, and bacterial content of the ulcer. The expression of proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 was upregulated by ulcer induction but reduced by sangre de grado treatment, particularly iNOS and IL-6. In Ussing chambers, sangre de grado impaired the secretory response to capsaicin but not to electrical field stimulation or the NK-1 agonist. We conclude that sangre de grado is a potent, cost-effective treatment for gastrointestinal ulcers and distress via antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and sensory afferent-dependent actions.

  18. High-level ab initio predictions for the ionization energy, bond dissociation energies, and heats of formation of nickel carbide (NiC) and its cation (NiC+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kai-Chung; Chang, Yih Chung; Shi, Xiaoyu; Ng, C. Y.

    2010-09-01

    The ionization energy (IE) of NiC and the 0 K bond dissociation energies (D0) and heats of formation at 0 K (ΔHof0) and 298 K (ΔHof298) for NiC and NiC+ are predicted by the wavefunction based CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS approach and the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method with Davidson correction (MRCI+Q). The CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS calculations presented here involve the approximation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit at the coupled cluster level up to full quadruple excitations along with the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE), high-order correlation, core-valence electronic (CV), spin-orbit coupling (SO), and scalar relativistic effect (SR) corrections. The present calculations provide the correct symmetry predictions for the ground states of NiC and NiC+ to be ∑1+ and ∑2+, respectively. The CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS IE(NiC)=8.356 eV is found to compare favorably with the experimental IE value of 8.372 05±0.000 06 eV. The predicted IE(NiC) value at the MRCI+Q/cc-pwCV5Z level, including the ZPVE, SO, and SR effects is 8.00 eV, which is 0.37 eV lower than the experimental value. This work together with the previous experimental and theoretical investigations supports the conclusion that the CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS method is capable of providing reliable IE predictions for 3d-transition metal carbides, such as FeC and NiC. Furthermore, the CCSDTQ(Full)/CBS calculations give the prediction of D0(NiC)-D0(Ni+C)=0.688 eV, which is also consistent with the experimental determination of 0.732 21±0.000 06 eV, whereas the MRCI+Q calculations (with relativistic and CV effects) predict a significantly lower value of 0.39 eV for D0(NiC)-D0(Ni+C). The analysis of the correction terms shows that the CV and valence-valence electronic correlations beyond CCSD(T) wavefunction and the relativistic effect make significant contributions to the calculated thermochemical properties of NiC/NiC+. For the experimental D0 and ΔHof0 values of NiC/NiC+, which are not known

  19. Alfvénic wave packets collision in a kinetic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Parashar, Tulasi N.; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco; Malara, Francesco; Matthaeus, William H.; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-04-01

    The problem of two colliding and counter-propagating Alfvénic wave packets has been investigated in detail since the late Seventies. In particular Moffatt [1] and Parker [2] showed that, in the framework of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), nonlinear interactions can develop only during the overlapping of the two packets. Here we describe a similar problem in the framework of the kinetic physics. The collision of two quasi-Alfvénic packets has been analyzed by means of MHD, Hall-MHD and kinetic simulations performed with two different hybrid codes: a PIC code [3] and a Vlasov-Maxwell code [4]. Due to the huge computational cost, only a 2D-3V phase space is allowed (two dimensions in the physical space, three dimensions in the velocity space). Preliminary results suggest that, as well as in the MHD case, the most relevant nonlinear effects occur during the overlapping of the two packets. For both the PIC and Vlasov cases, strong temperature anisotropies are present during the evolution of the wave packets. Moreover, due to the absence of numerical noise, Vlasov simulations show that the collision of the counter-propagating solitary waves produces a significant beam in the velocity distribution functions [5], which, instead, cannot be appreciated in PIC simulations. We remark that, beyond the interest of studying a well-known MHD problem in the realm of the kinetic physics, our results allows also to compare different numerical codes. [1] H.K. Moffatt, Field generation in electrically conducting fluids (Cambridge University Press, 1978). [2] E.N. Parker, Cosmical magnetic fields: their origin and their activity (Oxford University Press, 1979). [3] T.N. Parashar, M.A. Shay, P.A. Cassak and W.H. Matthaeus, Physics of Plasmas 16, 032310 (2009). [4] F. Valentini, P. Trávníček, F. Califano, P. Hellinger & A. Mangeney, Journal of Computational Physics 225, 753-770 (2007). [5] J. He, C. Tu, E. Marsch, C.H. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Pei, L. Zhang, C.S. Salem and S

  20. Collisions of two Alfvénic wave packets in a kinetic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, O.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Parashar, T.; Malara, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Veltri, P.

    2016-12-01

    The problem of two colliding and counter-propagating Alfvénic wave packets has been investigated in detail since the late Seventies. In particular Moffatt [1] and Parker [2] showed that, in the framework of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), nonlinear interactions can develop only during the overlapping of the two packets. Here we describe a similar problem in the framework of the kinetic physics. The collision of two quasi-Alfvénic packets has been analyzed by means of MHD, Hall-MHD and kinetic simulations performed with two different hybrid codes: a PIC code [3] and a Vlasov-Maxwell code [4]. Due to the huge computational cost, only a 2D-3V phase space is allowed (two dimensions in the physical space, three dimensions in the velocity space). Preliminary results suggest that, as well as in the MHD case, the most relevant nonlinear effects occur during the overlapping of the two packets. For both the PIC and Vlasov cases, strong temperature anisotropies are present during the evolution of the wave packets. Moreover, due to the absence of numerical noise, Vlasov simulations show that the collision of the counter-propagating solitary waves produces a significant beam in the velocity distribution functions [5], which, instead, cannot be appreciated in PIC simulations. We remark that, beyond the interest of studying a well-known MHD problem in the realm of the kinetic physics, our results allows also to compare different numerical codes. [1] H.K. Moffatt, Field generation in electrically conducting fluids (Cambridge University Press, 1978). [2] E.N. Parker, Cosmical magnetic fields: their origin and their activity (Oxford University Press, 1979). [3] T.N. Parashar, M.A. Shay, P.A. Cassak and W.H. Matthaeus, Physics of Plasmas 16, 032310 (2009). [4] F. Valentini, P. Trávníček, F. Califano, P. Hellinger & A. Mangeney, Journal of Computational Physics 225, 753-770 (2007). [5] J. He, C. Tu, E. Marsch, C.H. Chen, L. Wang, Z. Pei, L. Zhang, C.S. Salem and S

  1. Using NANDA, NIC, and NOC (NNN) language for clinical reasoning with the Outcome-Present State-Test (OPT) model.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Donald D; Kuiper, Ruthanne; Pesut, Daniel J; Williams, Randy L

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the degree to which standardized nursing language was used by baccalaureate nursing students completing Outcome-Present State-Test (OPT) model worksheets in a clinical practicum. METHODS. A scoring instrument was developed and 100 worksheets were retrospectively analyzed. NANDA nursing diagnoses were correctly stated in 92% of the OPT models. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) outcomes were explicitly stated in 22%, and implied in 72%. Interventions matched appropriate Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) activities in 61%. NANDA, NIC, and NOC (NNN) language was used inconsistently by students in this sample. If NNN language is to advance nursing knowledge, its promotion, representation in curriculum development, and active use is necessary. Educational research is needed on the facilitators and barriers to NNN language use.

  2. Stability and Growth Modes of Ni-C Clusters: A Study based on All-Electron Density Function Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zun; Ma, Qing-Min; Liu, Ying; Li, You-Cheng

    2008-04-01

    Growth modes of the free-standing NiCN (N <= 8) and Ni2CN (N <= 8) clusters are investigated by the all-electron density functional theory. The results reveal that there are two competing modes for the growth of these clusters: the linear chain and the ring structure without transannular bonds. The lowest-energy geometries of NiCN (N <= 8) are the linear chains with the Ni atom at one end, except for NiC2 and NiC7. The Ni2CN (N <= 8) clusters all prefer to the linear chains with the two Ni atoms at the two ends. Mülliken population analysis indicates that the total spin of the lowest-energy cluster show significant odd-even alternation. The NiMCN (M = 1,2) clusters with the even N are one and those with the odd-N are zero.

  3. Inhibition of neurogenic inflammation by the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Vergnolle, N; McKnight, W; Musah, R A; Davison, C A; Trentacosti, A M; Thompson, J H; Sandoval, M; Wallace, J L

    2001-09-01

    This study was designed to determine if the Amazonian medicinal sangre de grado, confers benefit by suppressing the activation of sensory afferent nerves. (i) vasorelaxation of rat mesenteric arteries in response to calcitonin gene-related peptide; (ii) rat paw edema in response to protease- activating peptide receptor 2-activating peptide; (iii) rat paw hyperalgesia in response to low-dose protease-activating peptide receptor 2-activating peptide or prostaglandin E2; (iv) gastric hyperemia in response luminal capsaicin; (v) a clinical trial of a sangre de grado balm in pest control workers. The parent botanical was fractionated for evaluation of potential active components. In preconstricted rat mesenteric arteries, highly diluted sangre de grado (1:10,000) caused a shift to the right of the calcitonin gene-related peptide dose-response curve (p < 0.01). Paw edema in response to protease-activating peptide receptor 2-activating peptide (500 microg) was reduced by as single topical administration sangre de grado balm (1% concentration, p < 0.01) for at least 6 h. Hyperalgesia induced by either low-dose protease-activating peptide receptor 2-activating peptide (50 microg) or prostaglandin E2 was prevented by sangre de grado balm. A fraction possessing analgesic and capsaicin antagonistic properties was isolated and high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that it was a proanthocyandin oligomer. In pest control workers, sangre de grado balm (Zangrado) was preferred over placebo, for the relief of itching, pain, discomfort, edema, and redness in response to wasps, fire ants, mosquitoes, bees, cuts, abrasions, and plant reactions. Subjects reported relief within minutes. We conclude that sangre de grado is a potent inhibitor of sensory afferent nerve mechanisms and supports its ethnomedical use for disorders characterized by neurogenic inflammation.

  4. Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind and the orientation of the underlying heliospheric magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Teh, W.

    2009-12-01

    In their purest form, Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are transverse fluctuations displaying coupled variations in velocity, V, and magnetic field, B, in which |B| remains nearly constant. Consequently, the fluctuations in the component of V and B corresponding to the direction of the underlying magnetic field vector, Bo, upon which the fluctuations are superimposed are always one-sided relative to base values rather than being equitably distributed about average values. Average values of the direction of B in the presence of large-amplitude Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind thus generally do not correspond to the direction of Bo, the quantity needed for comparisons with global models of the heliospheric magnetic field and for determining the parallel and perpendicular components of the fluctuation k-vectors. Here we illustrate the one-sided aspect of the fluctuations in Helios 1 data obtained at 0.36 AU at a time when Bo was directed nearly radially outward from the Sun. Using the Helios data and simulated data sets containing large amplitude Alfvénic fluctuations in which the direction of Bo is known precisely we demonstrate that the orientation of the average magnetic field vector, Bav, does not, in general, correspond to the direction of Bo. Minimum variance analysis of our simulated sets of Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind demonstrates that the minimum variance direction corresponds roughly to the direction of Bav, consistent with many previous observational studies, but does not correspond to the direction of propagation of the fluctuations, the group velocity of which is directed along Bo.

  5. A facile self-template strategy for synthesizing 1D porous Ni@C nanorods towards efficient microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Xingmiao; Quan, Bin; Ji, Guangbin; Liang, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2017-03-17

    Ni@C composites, which simultaneously possess porous, core-shell and 1D nanostructures have been synthesized with a facile self-template strategy. The precursors were obtained by a hydrothermal process using NiCl2 · 6H2O and nitrilotriacetic acid as the starting material and then annealed at 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C. The Ni@C composites annealed at 500 °C display a nanorod feature with a length of ∼3 μm and diameter of 230-500 nm. In addition, about 3 nm carbon shells and 4 nm Ni cores can be found in Ni@C nanorods. Attributed to the interconnected mesoporous texture in nanorods, strengthened interfacial polarization from core-shell structure, and better impedance matching benefiting from a great deal of pores, Ni@C nanorod composites exhibit perfect microwave absorption performance. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -26.3 dB can be gained at 10.8 GHz with a thickness of 2.3 mm. Moreover, the effective bandwidth (RL ≤ -10 dB) can be achieved, 5.2 GHz (12.24-17.4 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 1.8 mm, indicating its great potential in the microwave absorption field. Considering this technique is facile and effective, our study may provide a good reference for the synthesis of 1D carbon-based microwave absorbers with core-shell nanostructure.

  6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule and the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-01-06

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or "the Department'') is issuing this final rule to modify the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule to expressly permit certain HIPAA covered entities to disclose to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) the identities of individuals who are subject to a Federal "mental health prohibitor'' that disqualifies them from shipping, transporting, possessing, or receiving a firearm. The NICS is a national system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to conduct background checks on persons who may be disqualified from receiving firearms based on Federally prohibited categories or State law. Among the persons subject to the Federal mental health prohibitor established under the Gun Control Act of 1968 and implementing regulations issued by the Department of Justice (DOJ) are individuals who have been involuntarily committed to a mental institution; found incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity; or otherwise have been determined by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority to be a danger to themselves or others or to lack the mental capacity to contract or manage their own affairs, as a result of marked subnormal intelligence or mental illness, incompetency, condition, or disease. Under this final rule, only covered entities with lawful authority to make the adjudications or commitment decisions that make individuals subject to the Federal mental health prohibitor, or that serve as repositories of information for NICS reporting purposes, are permitted to disclose the information needed for these purposes. The disclosure is restricted to limited demographic and certain other information needed for NICS purposes. The rule specifically prohibits the disclosure of diagnostic or clinical information, from medical records or other sources, and any mental health information beyond the indication that the individual

  7. A facile self-template strategy for synthesizing 1D porous Ni@C nanorods towards efficient microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Xingmiao; Quan, Bin; Ji, Guangbin; Liang, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2017-03-01

    Ni@C composites, which simultaneously possess porous, core–shell and 1D nanostructures have been synthesized with a facile self-template strategy. The precursors were obtained by a hydrothermal process using NiCl2 · 6H2O and nitrilotriacetic acid as the starting material and then annealed at 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C. The Ni@C composites annealed at 500 °C display a nanorod feature with a length of ∼3 μm and diameter of 230–500 nm. In addition, about 3 nm carbon shells and 4 nm Ni cores can be found in Ni@C nanorods. Attributed to the interconnected mesoporous texture in nanorods, strengthened interfacial polarization from core–shell structure, and better impedance matching benefiting from a great deal of pores, Ni@C nanorod composites exhibit perfect microwave absorption performance. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of ‑26.3 dB can be gained at 10.8 GHz with a thickness of 2.3 mm. Moreover, the effective bandwidth (RL ≤ ‑10 dB) can be achieved, 5.2 GHz (12.24–17.4 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 1.8 mm, indicating its great potential in the microwave absorption field. Considering this technique is facile and effective, our study may provide a good reference for the synthesis of 1D carbon-based microwave absorbers with core–shell nanostructure.

  8. Deciphering the genetic determinants for aerobic nicotinic acid degradation: the nic cluster from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, José I; Canales, Angeles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek; García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo

    2008-08-12

    The aerobic catabolism of nicotinic acid (NA) is considered a model system for degradation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, some of which are major environmental pollutants; however, the complete set of genes as well as the structural-functional relationships of most of the enzymes involved in this process are still unknown. We have characterized a gene cluster (nic genes) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 responsible for the aerobic NA degradation in this bacterium and when expressed in heterologous hosts. The biochemistry of the NA degradation through the formation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine and maleamic acid has been revisited, and some gene products become the prototype of new types of enzymes with unprecedented molecular architectures. Thus, the initial hydroxylation of NA is catalyzed by a two-component hydroxylase (NicAB) that constitutes the first member of the xanthine dehydrogenase family whose electron transport chain to molecular oxygen includes a cytochrome c domain. The Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenase (NicX) converts 2,5-dihydroxypyridine into N-formylmaleamic acid, and it becomes the founding member of a new family of extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Further conversion of N-formylmaleamic acid to formic and maleamic acid is catalyzed by the NicD protein, the only deformylase described so far whose catalytic triad is similar to that of some members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily. This work allows exploration of the existence of orthologous gene clusters in saprophytic bacteria and some pathogens, where they might stimulate studies on their role in virulence, and it provides a framework to develop new biotechnological processes for detoxification/biotransformation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds.

  9. Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jichang; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-08-12

    The microstructure evolution of magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayers was investigated by varying the Ni and C layer thickness in the region of a few nanometers. For the samples having 2.6-nm-thick C layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.81 nm as the Ni layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 1.3 nm. Especially for the samples with Ni layers less than 2.0 nm, the interface width changes significantly due to the discontinuously distributed Ni crystallites. For the samples having 2.8-nm-thick Ni layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.59 nm when the C layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 0.7 nm. The evolution of interface microstructures with varied Ni and C layers is explained based on a proposed simple growth model of Ni and C layers.

  10. Alfvénic ion temperature gradient activities in a weak magnetic shear plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Ma, R. R.; Li, Y. Y.; Shi, Z. B.; Du, H. R.; Jiang, M.; Yu, L. M.; Yuan, B. S.; Li, Y. G.; Yang, Z. C.; Shi, P. W.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Liu, Yi.; Xu, M.; Xu, Y. H.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2016-11-01

    We report the first experimental evidence of Alfvénic ion temperature gradient (AITG) modes in HL-2A Ohmic plasmas. A group of oscillations with f=15\\text{--}40 \\text{kHz} and n=3\\text{--}6 is detected by various diagnostics in high-density Ohmic regimes. They appear in the plasmas with peaked density profiles and weak magnetic shear, which indicates that corresponding instabilities are excited by pressure gradients. The time trace of the fluctuation spectrogram can be either a frequency staircase, with different modes excited at different times or multiple modes may simultaneously coexist. Theoretical analyses by the extended generalized fishbone-like dispersion relation (GFLDR-E) reveal that mode frequencies scale with ion diamagnetic drift frequency and ηi , and they lie in KBM-AITG-BAE frequency ranges. AITG modes are most unstable when the magnetic shear is small in low pressure gradient regions. Numerical solutions of the AITG/KBM equation also shed light on why AITG modes can be unstable for weak shear and low pressure gradients. It is worth emphasizing that these instabilities may be linked to the internal transport barrier (ITB) and H-mode pedestal physics for weak magnetic shear.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of NicAlert cotinine test strips in saliva for verifying smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Fiona; Bullen, Chris; Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Chen, Mei-Hua; Walker, Natalie

    2008-04-01

    Semiquantitative immunoassay technology, in the form of rapid test strips, offers a less time-consuming and less costly alternative to other methods of verifying self-reported smoking status, such as gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC). Unfortunately, information on the validity and reliability of some test strips in urine and saliva samples is not always available. This paper describes the diagnostic accuracy of one type of test strip currently available (NicAlert cotinine test strips; NCTS). GC was used as the reference standard and saliva as the sample medium. The study involved 86 people (41 smokers and 45 nonsmokers) aged 18 years or over, who were able to understand written English and provide written consent. Pregnant women, women with infants less than 6 weeks old, and people who had eaten 30 min prior to sample collection were excluded. Two saliva samples were collected simultaneously from each participant, with one sample tested using NCTS and the other by GC analysis. People with at least 10 ng/ml cotinine (in both tests) in their saliva were considered smokers. NCTS were found to have a specificity of 95% (95% CI 89%-100%), a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI 85%-100%), a positive predictive value of 95% (95% CI 89%-100%), and a negative predictive value of 93% (95% CI 86%-100%). The use of NCTS is a valid and reliable method, compared with GC, to test saliva samples for verification of smoking status.

  12. Plasma Heating Inside Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections by Alfvénic Fluctuations Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Chi; He, Jiansen; Zhang, Lingqian; Richardson, John D.; Belcher, John W.; Tu, Cui

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear cascade of low-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations (AFs) is regarded as one of the candidate energy sources that heat plasma during the non-adiabatic expansion of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). However, AFs inside ICMEs were seldom reported in the literature. In this study, we investigate AFs inside ICMEs using observations from Voyager 2 between 1 and 6 au. It has been found that AFs with a high degree of Alfvénicity frequently occurred inside ICMEs for almost all of the identified ICMEs (30 out of 33 ICMEs) and for 12.6% of the ICME time interval. As ICMEs expand and move outward, the percentage of AF duration decays linearly in general. The occurrence rate of AFs inside ICMEs is much less than that in ambient solar wind, especially within 4.75 au. AFs inside ICMEs are more frequently presented in the center and at the boundaries of ICMEs. In addition, the proton temperature inside ICME has a similar “W”-shaped distribution. These findings suggest significant contribution of AFs on local plasma heating inside ICMEs.

  13. Linear growth rates of resistive tearing modes with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L. N.; Ma, Z. W.

    2014-07-15

    The tearing instability with sub-Alfvénic streaming flow along the external magnetic field is investigated using resistive MHD simulation. It is found that the growth rate of the tearing mode instability is larger than that without the streaming flow. With the streaming flow, there exist two Alfvén resonance layers near the central current sheet. The larger perturbation of the magnetic field in two closer Alfvén resonance layers could lead to formation of the observed cone structure and can largely enhance the development of the tearing mode for a narrower streaming flow. For a broader streaming flow, a larger separation of Alfvén resonance layers reduces the magnetic reconnection. The linear growth rate decreases with increase of the streaming flow thickness. The growth rate of the tearing instability also depends on the plasma beta (β). When the streaming flow is embedded in the current sheet, the growth rate increases with β if β < β{sub s}, but decreases if β > β{sub s}. The existence of the specific value β{sub s} can be attributed to competition between the suppressing effect of β and the enhancing effect of the streaming flow on the magnetic reconnection. The critical value β{sub s} increases with increase of the streaming flow strength.

  14. MHD-Kinetic Transition in Imbalanced Alfvénic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitenko, Yuriy; De Keyser, Johan

    2016-12-01

    Alfvénic turbulence in space is usually imbalanced: amplitudes of waves propagating parallel and anti-parallel to the mean magnetic field {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0 are unequal. It is commonly accepted that the turbulence is driven by (counter-)collisions between these counter-propagating wave fractions. Contrary to this, we found a new ion-scale dynamical range of the turbulence established by (co-)collisions among waves co-propagating in the same direction along {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0. Co-collisions become stronger than counter-collisions and produce steep non-universal spectra above certain wavenumbers dependent on the imbalance. Spectral indexes of the strong turbulence vary around ≳ -3, such that steeper spectra follow larger imbalances. Intermittency steepens the -3 spectra further, up to -3.7. Our theoretical predictions are compatible with steep variable spectra observed in the solar wind at ion kinetic scales, but further verifications are needed by correlating observed spectra with measured imbalances.

  15. Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jichang; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayers was investigated by varying the Ni and C layer thickness in the region of a few nanometers. For the samples having 2.6-nm-thick C layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.81 nm as the Ni layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 1.3 nm. Especially for the samples with Ni layers less than 2.0 nm, the interface width changes significantly due to the discontinuously distributed Ni crystallites. For the samples having 2.8-nm-thick Ni layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.59 nm when the C layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 0.7 nm. The evolution of interface microstructures with varied Ni and C layers is explained based on a proposed simple growth model of Ni and C layers. PMID:27515586

  16. Upper-hybrid wave-driven Alfvénic turbulence in magnetized dusty plasmas.

    PubMed

    Misra, A P; Banerjee, S

    2011-03-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of coupled electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH) and Alfvén waves (AWs) is revisited in a magnetized electron-ion plasma with charged dust impurities. A pair of nonlinear equations that describe the interaction of UH wave envelopes (including the relativistic electron mass increase) and the density as well as the compressional magnetic field perturbations associated with the AWs are solved numerically to show that many coherent solitary patterns can be excited and saturated due to modulational instability of unstable UH waves. The evolution of these solitary patterns is also shown to appear in the states of spatiotemporal coherence, temporal as well as spatiotemporal chaos, due to collision and fusion among the patterns in stochastic motion. Furthermore, these spatiotemporal features are demonstrated by the analysis of wavelet power spectra. It is found that a redistribution of wave energy takes place to higher harmonic modes with small wavelengths, which, in turn, results in the onset of Alfvénic turbulence in dusty magnetoplasmas. Such a scenario can occur in the vicinity of Saturn's magnetosphere as many electrostatic solitary structures have been observed there by the Cassini spacecraft.

  17. Electronic fine structure in the nickel carbide superconductor Th2NiC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Y.; Pickett, W. E.

    2013-07-01

    The recently reported nickel carbide superconductor body centered tetragonal I4/mmm Th2NiC2 with Tc=8.5 K increasing to 11.2 K upon alloying Th with Sc is found to have very fine structure in its electronic spectrum, according to density functional based first-principles calculations. The filled Ni 3d band complex is hybridized with C 2p and Th character to and through the Fermi level (EF), and a sharply structured density of states arises only when spin-orbit coupling is included, which splits a zone-center degeneracy, leaving a very flat band edge lying at the Fermi level. The flat part of the band corresponds to an effective mass mz*→∞ with large and negative mx*=my*. Although the region over which the effective mass characterization applies is less than 1% of the zone volume, it supplies on the order of half the states at (or just above) the Fermi level. The observed increase of Tc by hole doping is accounted for if the reference as-synthesized sample is minutely hole doped, which decreases the Fermi level density of states and will provide some stabilization. In this scenario, electron doping will increase the Fermi level density of states and the superconducting critical temperature. Vibrational properties are presented, and enough coupling to the C-Ni-C stretch mode at 70 meV is obtained to imply that superconductivity is electron-phonon mediated.

  18. [Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Noriko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tomoe; Obara, Toshikage; Takeda, Masahide; Moritoki, Yuki; Itoga, Masamichi; Ito, Wataru; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Kondoh, Katsuyuki; Chihara, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care system's clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computer's browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.

  19. Characterization of the Alfvénic slow solar wind: from turbulent spectra to particle distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amicis, Raffaella; Matteini, Lorenzo; Bruno, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent medium in which the energy cascade process is widely considered to result from the nonlinear interaction between the inward and outward propagating Alfvén waves. Fast and slow wind show a different behavior supporting the idea of an older turbulence in the slow wind and an Alfvénic younger turbulence in the fast wind. However, our study suggests that even slow wind can be sometimes highly Alfvénic and this has implications on the spectral features as well. Two kinds of slow solar wind can then be distinguished, characterized by different large-scale properties but also by different micro-scale phenomena. These findings all support a different solar origin of these two kinds of slow wind, a topic long debated in the past years for the typical slow wind. It has been found that the Alfvénic slow wind does not originate from active regions or the cusp of the helmet streamers as the typical slow wind rather from the boundary between streamers and coronal holes. This would determine the similarities with the fast solar wind suggesting a major role played by the super-radial expansion responsible for the lower velocity. We also discuss relevant implications of these new findings for the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, and for turbulence measurements close to the Sun.

  20. A Threonine Stabilizes the NiC and NiR Catalytic Intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L.; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. PMID:25666617

  1. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production.

  2. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-27

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona.

  3. Relaxase DNA Binding and Cleavage Are Two Distinguishable Steps in Conjugative DNA Processing That Involve Different Sequence Elements of the nic Site*

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, María; González-Pérez, Blanca; Cabezas, Matilde; Moncalian, Gabriel; Rivas, Germán; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, catalyzes a series of concerted DNA cleavage and strand transfer reactions on a specific site (nic) of its origin of transfer (oriT). nic contains the cleavage site and an adjacent inverted repeat (IR2). Mutation analysis in the nic region indicated that recognition of the IR2 proximal arm and the nucleotides located between IR2 and the cleavage site were essential for supercoiled DNA processing, as judged either by in vitro nic cleavage or by mobilization of a plasmid containing oriT. Formation of the IR2 cruciform and recognition of the distal IR2 arm and loop were not necessary for these reactions to take place. On the other hand, IR2 was not involved in TrwC single-stranded DNA processing in vitro. For single-stranded DNA nic cleavage, TrwC recognized a sequence embracing six nucleotides upstream of the cleavage site and two nucleotides downstream. This suggests that TrwC DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing and that different sequence elements are recognized by TrwC in each step. IR2-proximal arm recognition was crucial for the initial supercoiled DNA binding. Subsequent recognition of the adjacent single-stranded DNA binding site was required to position the cleavage site in the active center of the protein so that the nic cleavage reaction could take place. PMID:20061574

  4. Relaxase DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing that involve different sequence elements of the nic site.

    PubMed

    Lucas, María; González-Pérez, Blanca; Cabezas, Matilde; Moncalian, Gabriel; Rivas, Germán; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-03-19

    TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, catalyzes a series of concerted DNA cleavage and strand transfer reactions on a specific site (nic) of its origin of transfer (oriT). nic contains the cleavage site and an adjacent inverted repeat (IR(2)). Mutation analysis in the nic region indicated that recognition of the IR(2) proximal arm and the nucleotides located between IR(2) and the cleavage site were essential for supercoiled DNA processing, as judged either by in vitro nic cleavage or by mobilization of a plasmid containing oriT. Formation of the IR(2) cruciform and recognition of the distal IR(2) arm and loop were not necessary for these reactions to take place. On the other hand, IR(2) was not involved in TrwC single-stranded DNA processing in vitro. For single-stranded DNA nic cleavage, TrwC recognized a sequence embracing six nucleotides upstream of the cleavage site and two nucleotides downstream. This suggests that TrwC DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing and that different sequence elements are recognized by TrwC in each step. IR(2)-proximal arm recognition was crucial for the initial supercoiled DNA binding. Subsequent recognition of the adjacent single-stranded DNA binding site was required to position the cleavage site in the active center of the protein so that the nic cleavage reaction could take place.

  5. Disruption of sheet-like structures in Alfvénic turbulence by magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a mechanism whereby the intense, sheet-like structures naturally formed by dynamically aligning Alfvénic turbulence are destroyed by magnetic reconnection at a scale \\hat{λ }_D, larger than the dissipation scale predicted by models of intermittent, dynamically aligning turbulence. The reconnection process proceeds in several stages: first, a linear tearing mode with N magnetic islands grows and saturates, and then the X-points between these islands collapse into secondary current sheets, which then reconnect until the original structure is destroyed. This effectively imposes an upper limit on the anisotropy of the structures within the perpendicular plane, which means that at scale \\hat{λ }_D the turbulent dynamics change: at scales larger than \\hat{λ }_D, the turbulence exhibits scale-dependent dynamic alignment and a spectral index approximately equal to -3/2, while at scales smaller than \\hat{λ }_D, the turbulent structures undergo a succession of disruptions due to reconnection, limiting dynamic alignment, steepening the effective spectral index and changing the final dissipation scale. The scaling of \\hat{λ }_D with the Lundquist (magnetic Reynolds) number S_{L_\\perp } depends on the order of the statistics being considered, and on the specific model of intermittency; the transition between the two regimes in the energy spectrum is predicted at approximately \\hat{λ }_D˜ S_{L_\\perp }^{-0.6}. The spectral index below \\hat{λ }_D is bounded between -5/3 and -2.3. The final dissipation scale is at \\hat{λ }_{η ,∞}˜ S_{L_\\perp }^{-3/4}, the same as the Kolmogorov scale arising in theories of turbulence that do not involve scale-dependent dynamic alignment.

  6. Plasma Depletion in a Low-Alfvénic-Mach-Number Magnetosheath: Observations at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, D. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Zurbuchen, T.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Baker, D. N.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    A plasma depletion layer (PDL) forms in a planet's magnetosheath as a result of magnetic flux that is piled-up and draped around a magnetosphere. These layers are typically composed of plasmas with low values of β, the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure, which can affect reconnection rates at the magnetopause. In contrast to the average behavior at Earth, the low average upstream Alfvénic Mach number (MA ~3-5) in the solar wind at Mercury often results in large-scale plasma depletion in the magnetosheath between the subsolar magnetopause and the bow shock. Measurements from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer and Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft during ~40 orbits about Mercury are used to characterize the PDL just exterior to the planet's dayside magnetopause. Some amount of flux pile-up is observed to occur downstream of both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel bow-shock geometries for all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Substantial variability in the observed depletion can occur during times with low shear at the magnetopause, implying that PDL formation can be suppressed for strongly northward IMF. The consistently low value of plasma β at Mercury's magnetopause associated with the low average upstream MA is believed to be the cause for the high average reconnection rate at Mercury, reported to be nearly 3 times that observed at Earth. We find a characteristic plasma depletion length, i.e., the size of depletion region required to reduce the plasma β by a factor of 1/e, of ~300 km for Mercury. This value scales among planetary bodies with the average stand-off distance of the magnetopause.

  7. Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.

  8. In situ synthesized one-dimensional porous Ni@C nanorods as catalysts for hydrogen storage properties of MgH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Cuihua; Liu, Guang; Li, Li; Wang, Ying; Chen, Chengcheng; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-02-01

    We have demonstrated an extremely facile procedure for the preparation of 1D porous Ni@C nanostructures by pyrolysis of Ni-based coordination polymer nanorods. The highly aligned Ni-based polymer nanorods were prepared using nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a chelating agent by a one-step solvothermal approach. The obtained precursors are demonstrated to have a well-designed 1D nanostructure and a 3D interconnected mesoporous texture. After thermal treatment, 1D porous Ni@C nanorods were obtained, which basically preserved the morphology of the precursors. In addition, the carbon in the porous Ni@C nanorods is in both crystalline and amorphous states. The as-prepared Ni@C sample displays nanorod-like morphology with about 3 μm length and about 200 nm diameter. With a large surface area of 161.4 m2 g-1, this novel material had a good catalytic effect on de/hydrogenation of MgH2. The desorption peak temperature of MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites can be lowered more than 57 °C than the pure as-milled MgH2. The MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composite could desorb 6.4 wt% H2 within 10 min at 300 °C, in contrast, only 2.3 wt% H2 was desorbed even after 100 min for pure MgH2. In addition, an activation energy of 108 kJ mol-1 for the as-milled MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites has been obtained, which exhibit an enhanced kinetics.We have demonstrated an extremely facile procedure for the preparation of 1D porous Ni@C nanostructures by pyrolysis of Ni-based coordination polymer nanorods. The highly aligned Ni-based polymer nanorods were prepared using nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a chelating agent by a one-step solvothermal approach. The obtained precursors are demonstrated to have a well-designed 1D nanostructure and a 3D interconnected mesoporous texture. After thermal treatment, 1D porous Ni@C nanorods were obtained, which basically preserved the morphology of the precursors. In addition, the carbon in the porous Ni@C nanorods is in both crystalline and amorphous states. The as-prepared Ni@C

  9. In situ synthesized one-dimensional porous Ni@C nanorods as catalysts for hydrogen storage properties of MgH2.

    PubMed

    An, Cuihua; Liu, Guang; Li, Li; Wang, Ying; Chen, Chengcheng; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-03-21

    We have demonstrated an extremely facile procedure for the preparation of 1D porous Ni@C nanostructures by pyrolysis of Ni-based coordination polymer nanorods. The highly aligned Ni-based polymer nanorods were prepared using nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a chelating agent by a one-step solvothermal approach. The obtained precursors are demonstrated to have a well-designed 1D nanostructure and a 3D interconnected mesoporous texture. After thermal treatment, 1D porous Ni@C nanorods were obtained, which basically preserved the morphology of the precursors. In addition, the carbon in the porous Ni@C nanorods is in both crystalline and amorphous states. The as-prepared Ni@C sample displays nanorod-like morphology with about 3 μm length and about 200 nm diameter. With a large surface area of 161.4 m(2) g(-1), this novel material had a good catalytic effect on de/hydrogenation of MgH2. The desorption peak temperature of MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites can be lowered more than 57 °C than the pure as-milled MgH2. The MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composite could desorb 6.4 wt% H2 within 10 min at 300 °C, in contrast, only 2.3 wt% H2 was desorbed even after 100 min for pure MgH2. In addition, an activation energy of 108 kJ mol(-1) for the as-milled MgH2-5 wt% Ni@C composites has been obtained, which exhibit an enhanced kinetics.

  10. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  11. Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in Sangre de Grado extracted from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Vaisberg, A J; Milla, M; Planas, M C; Cordova, J L; de Agusti, E R; Ferreyra, R; Mustiga, M C; Carlin, L; Hammond, G B

    1989-04-01

    Sangre de Grado extract used by Peruvian natives as a cicatrizant agent, was collected from trees of the species Croton lechleri growing in the Peruvian jungle. The Sangre de Grado was found to contain one alkaloid identified as taspine and which was shown to be the active cicatrizant principle by an in vivo test in mice. This alkaloid exhibited a dose-related cicatrizant effect and an ED50 of 0.375 mg/kg. Experiments with taspine hydrochloride in order to study its mechanism of action in cell culture systems showed that the alkaloid was non-toxic to human foreskin fibroblasts at concentrations below 150 ng/ml and that it had no effect on cell proliferation. On the other hand, taspine hydrochloride was found to increase the migration of human foreskin fibroblasts. This effect on the migration of fibroblasts is probably the mechanism by which Sangre de Grado and taspine hydrochloride accelerate the wound healing process. Using the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis system, we have been able to show that neither Sangre de Grado nor taspine hydrochloride had carcinogenic or tumour promoter activity after 17 months of treatment.

  12. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  13. Estimated Time to Complete Direct Nursing Interventions Using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) at Eight Hospitals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin

    2016-12-14

    Without data on the average time for performing nursing interventions, it is not possible to identify the cost-effective nursing practices, nurse staffing levels, and skill mix that are associated with improved patient outcomes, nor can reimbursement rates be accurately determined. The purpose of this study was to estimate the time needed to perform direct nursing interventions in Korea using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) system, and then compare the findings with time estimates made by U.S. nurses. Data were collected from 721 registered nurses working in eight hospitals in South Korea. Each nurse was asked to choose the 30 most frequently used direct nursing interventions from a list of 433 from the Korean version of the NIC and to estimate the time needed to perform their selections. The U.S. data from the second edition of NIC were used for comparative purposes. Among the 92 nursing interventions studied, the majority were in the physiological domain, with 46 (50%) in Physiological: Basic and 25 (27%) in Physiological: Complex. In Korea, the intervention reported as taking the shortest time was Tube Care: Umbilical Line, while the intervention reported as taking the longest time was Bowel Irrigation. Comparisons of the time to perform interventions in the two countries indicated that only 38 (41.3%) interventions are performed in 15 min or less in both countries. Of the remainder, six interventions showed considerable variation in time to perform between the two countries. Findings from the study will provide fundamental data for calculating the cost of nursing interventions, which is critical for the establishment of reimbursement rates for interventions provided. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  14. The Development of a Sea Ice Edge Validation Proxy in the Antarctic with the Use of Nic Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, P. M.; Helfrich, S.; Geiger, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea ice edge location data is an integral component of both climate models and forecast projections, as well as ice charting analysis for safe navigation. The National Ice Center (NIC) generates various products pertaining to sea ice conditions that aid in navigation, which includes records for ice edge location, sea ice concentration, thickness, and extent (http://www.natice.noaa.gov/products/). The NIC Antarctic archive dating from 1972 is relevant because it is the only continuous dataset available by any ice charting operational facility and could be used to provide a large-scale in situ dataset for remote-sensing validations of sea ice. However, some fundamental science questions develop as to what are the climatological value of these products. The NIC daily and weekly sea ice charts differ in how each represents the Antarctic sea ice edge. The daily charts are created to depict the warning zones along the sea ice edge, whereas the weekly charts consist of more detail and include information on sea ice concentration and sea ice types. Though the daily charts have a higher temporal resolution, the weekly charts contain a higher spatial resolution. To quantify this difference both charts were compared with the use of statistical analysis of area measurements and position data to identify their consistency to detect the Antarctic sea ice edge. Years 2004 - present were used to confirm which chart should be used as in situ data for large-scale monitoring in Antarctica and climatology purposes. Overall ice extent in the weekly charts differed approximately 1 x 106 km2 than that of the daily charts. The largest variation occurred during the melt season at approximately 2 x 106 km2, whereas there was less change at approximately between 0.5 x 106 km2 - 1 x 106 km2 throughout the rest of the year. A running standard deviation was performed to show the consistency of the Daily and Weekly products.

  15. A preliminary crystallographic study of recombinant NicX, an Fe2+-dependent 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, José Ignacio; Acebrón, Iván; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo; Mancheño, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    NicX from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an Fe2+-dependent dioxygenase that is involved in the aerobic degradation of nicotinic acid. The enzyme converts 2,5-­dihydroxypyridine to N-formylmaleamic acid when overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of NicX by analytical gel-filtration chromatography revealed that it behaves as an oligomeric assembly in solution, with an apparent molecular weight that is consistent with a hexameric species. NicX was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å at the ESRF. The crystals most probably belong to the orthorhombic space group C222 or C2221. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.4 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to 50% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of three protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of the crystal data together with chromatographic results supports NicX being a hexameric assembly composed of two cyclic trimers. Currently, crystallization of recombinant selenomethionine-containing NicX is in progress. PMID:20445257

  16. Venus' night side atmospheric dynamics using near infrared observations from VEx/VIRTIS and TNG/NICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota Machado, Pedro; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Gonçalves, Ruben; Widemann, Thomas; Oliveira, Joana

    2016-10-01

    We present night side Venus' winds based on coordinated observations carried out with Venus Express' VIRTIS instrument and the Near Infrared Camera (NICS) of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). With NICS camera, we acquired images of the continuum K filter at 2.28 μm, which allows to monitor motions at the Venus' lower cloud level, close to 48 km altitude. We will present final results of cloud tracked winds from ground-based TNG observations and from coordinated space-based VEx/VIRTIS observations.The Venus' lower cloud deck is centred at 48 km of altitude, where fundamental dynamical exchanges that help maintain superrotation are thought to occur. The lower Venusian atmosphere is a strong source of thermal radiation, with the gaseous CO2 component allowing radiation to escape in windows at 1.74 and 2.28 μm. At these wavelengths radiation originates below 35 km and unit opacity is reached at the lower cloud level, close to 48 km. Therefore, it is possible to observe the horizontal cloud structure, with thicker clouds seen silhouetted against the bright thermal background from the low atmosphere. By continuous monitoring of the horizontal cloud structure at 2.28 μm (NICS Kcont filter), it is possible to determine wind fields using the technique of cloud tracking. We acquired a series of short exposures of the Venus disk. Cloud displacements in the night side of Venus were computed taking advantage of a phase correlation semi-automated technique. The Venus apparent diameter at observational dates was greater than 32" allowing a high spatial precision. The 0.13" pixel scale of the NICS narrow field camera allowed to resolve ~3-pixel displacements. The absolute spatial resolution on the disk was ~100 km/px at disk center, and the (0.8-1") seeing-limited resolution was ~400 km/px. By co-adding the best images and cross-correlating regions of clouds the effective resolution was significantly better than the seeing-limited resolution. In order to correct for

  17. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Understanding the Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Soldera, Jonathan; Balbinot, Silvana Sartori; Balbinot, Raul Angelo; Cavalcanti, Andreza Gautério

    2016-01-01

    Each year, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than half a million people worldwide and it is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh most common cancer in women. This article reviews the Barcelona-Clínic Liver Cancer protocol for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of this disease, and four cases are presented for the discussion of the therapeutic approach. Understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease is essential, especially if we keep in mind the quintessential basics of prevention and early detection. PMID:27812296

  18. Bidirectional energy cascades and the origin of kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Che, H; Goldstein, M L; Viñas, A F

    2014-02-14

    The observed steep kinetic scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quiet time suggest them as a possible source of free energy to drive kinetic turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how the free energy released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.

  19. Early versus late parenteral nutrition in ICU patients: cost analysis of the EPaNIC trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The EPaNIC randomized controlled multicentre trial showed that postponing initiation of parenteral nutrition (PN) in ICU-patients to beyond the first week (Late-PN) enhanced recovery, as compared with Early-PN. This was mediated by fewer infections, accelerated recovery from organ failure and reduced duration of hospitalization. Now, the trial's preplanned cost analysis (N = 4640) from the Belgian healthcare payers' perspective is reported. Methods Cost data were retrieved from individual patient invoices. Undiscounted total healthcare costs were calculated for the index hospital stay. A cost tree based on acquisition of new infections and on prolonged length-of-stay was constructed. Contribution of 8 cost categories to total hospitalization costs was analyzed. The origin of drug costs was clarified in detail through the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. The potential impact of Early-PN on total hospitalization costs in other healthcare systems was explored in a sensitivity analysis. Results ICU-patients developing new infection (24.4%) were responsible for 42.7% of total costs, while ICU-patients staying beyond one week (24.3%) accounted for 43.3% of total costs. Pharmacy-related costs represented 30% of total hospitalization costs and were increased by Early-PN (+608.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.01). Notably, costs for ATC-J (anti-infective agents) (+227.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.02) and ATC-B (comprising PN) (+220.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.006) drugs were increased by Early-PN. Sensitivity analysis revealed a mean total cost increase of 1,210.00 EUR/patient (p = 0.02) by Early-PN, when incorporating the full PN costs. Conclusions The increased costs by Early-PN were mainly pharmacy-related and explained by higher expenditures for PN and anti-infective agents. The use of Early-PN in critically ill patients can thus not be recommended for both clinical (no benefit) and cost-related reasons. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00512122

  20. Identification and comparison of interventions performed by Korean school nurses and U.S. school nurses using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC).

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were selected as the basis of a questionnaire designed to quantify key aspects of school nursing practice. The data were collected from 131 school nurses working in Korea. The results indicated that Korean school nurses focused on classifications from the Physiological Basic domain. Comparisons to previously reported U.S. data reflect that U.S. school nurses focus primarily on the Behavioral domain. The data reflect important differences between the practice characteristics of Korean and U.S. school nurses. Further, the data support the utility of NICs in quantifying the practice characteristics of school nurses in Korea.

  1. [The meaning of standardized language NANDA-NIC-NOC intensive care nurses in Madrid: a phenomenological approach].

    PubMed

    Cachón Pérez, J M; Alvarez-López, C; Palacios-Ceña, D

    2012-01-01

    Nursing standardized language is a tool that makes it possible to integrate a theoretical framework of problem identification, interventions and outcomes in care. Its use in the difference care settings is varied. In the case of intensive care units, it is necessary to study the implications that integration of this language would have in nursing area. To describe the meaning of standardized NANDA-NIC-NOC language for the nurses working in Intensive Care Units in Madrid. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. ICU in Madrid of nurses with one year or more experience at the time of the study who were working in the ICU. Purposive and Snowball sampling technique. Unstructured interviews, personal documents (letters, diaries). Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim for later analysis. Giorgi proposal. Identifying meaning units, groups of common senses and themes. Three themes made up the meaning of standardized language in intensive care nursing. "Living integrating 2 sides of the same coin", "living a conceptual imposition", and "living a development opportunity and professional autonomy". There is a gap in the theory of language and its clinical application. Nurses report feeling imposition of a specific conceptual language. This creates the construction of a hierarchy between nurses based on the use of NANDA-NIC-NOC. Even so, the standardized language is experienced as a professional development opportunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  2. NaNet: a configurable NIC bridging the gap between HPC and real-time HEP GPU computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardo, A.; Ameli, F.; Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simeone, F.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2015-04-01

    NaNet is a FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) design with GPUDirect and Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) capabilities featuring a configurable and extensible set of network channels. The design currently supports both standard—Gbe (1000BASE-T) and 10GbE (10Base-R)—and custom—34 Gbps APElink and 2.5 Gbps deterministic latency KM3link—channels, but its modularity allows for straightforward inclusion of other link technologies. The GPUDirect feature combined with a transport layer offload module and a data stream processing stage makes NaNet a low-latency NIC suitable for real-time GPU processing. In this paper we describe the NaNet architecture and its performances, exhibiting two of its use cases: the GPU-based low-level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 experiment at CERN and the on-/off-shore data transport system for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope.

  3. Sub-Alfvénic reduced full-f Kinetic MHD equations to study flute like instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, W.; Hassam, A.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    We develop a set of reduced sub-Alfvénic fluid as well as kinetic MHD equations which are suitable for studying flute like instabilities in MHD ordering. The full-f kinetic equations are obtained by reducing Kulsrud's complete set of kinetic MHD system and includes trapped ion dynamics in a toroidal geometry. The nonlinear equations show the presence of Mercier modes, electromagnetic effects, GAMs and Rosenbluth-Hinton zero frequency zonal flows. Linear stability based on our equations shall be compared to the well known Kruskal-Oberman Kinetic MHD stability criteria. In the supersonic limit, for large q, our system can be shown to be equivalent to CGL double adiabatic theory. In the marginal stability limit, we shall discuss trapped particle stabilization of interchange modes. Comparison will also be made to the sub-Alfvénic reduced MHD fluid equations in a large aspect ratio tokamak. We shall show that the trapped particle effects in kinetic theory can be treated as a boundary layer of width the square root of the inverse aspect ratio in phase space. Work supported by DOE.

  4. Long-Term Stability Evaluation of a Sn-Doped Ni-C Eutectic Cell Suitable for Radiation Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, R. N.; Machin, G.

    2017-07-01

    Metal carbon eutectic cells (high-temperature fixed points, HTFPs) (Machin in AIP Conf Proc 1552:305, 2013) are being considered for use as reliable high-temperature references for non-contact thermometry above the copper point (1084.62°C). Recent studies have demonstrated the concept of using doped metal carbon eutectic cells as artefacts suitable for temperature scale comparisons (Teixeira et al. in AIP Conf Proc 1552:363, 2013; Teixeira et al. in Int J Thermophys 35:467-474, 2014; Machin et al. in Int J Thermophys 36:327-335, 2015). When using such artefacts, the participating institutes do not know the realization temperature of the doped HTFP cell, because it has been modified by the addition of a selected dopant at a definite concentration. The use of such fixed points can critically evaluate the real measurement capability of the institutes in any comparison. The pyrometry laboratory of Inmetro developed a set of doped Ni-C eutectic cells in 2012 and 2013. This paper describes the long-term stability of a Sn-doped Ni-C cell constructed in 2012, which accumulated more than 220 h above 1300°C amounting to more than 50 cycles of melts and freezes. The cell remained stable, well within the measurement uncertainty, throughout the evaluation period demonstrating the utility of such cells for scale comparison purposes.

  5. Three-Dimensional Hybrid-Kinetic Simulations of Alfvénic Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzamasskiy, Lev; Kunz, Matthew; Chandran, Ben; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that the solar wind is turbulent, exhibiting a power spectrum extending over several decades in scale and with most of the energy at large scales is in form of Alfvénic fluctuations. The solar wind is also weakly collisional, with a wide variety of non-Maxwellian features observed in the particle distribution functions. In this talk, we present the first hybrid-kinetic three-dimensional simulations of driven Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind. We confirm power-law indices obtained in previous analytical and numerical (e.g., gyrokinetic) studies, and carefully explore the location of and physics occurring at the ion Larmor scale. In the low-beta regime, we find evidence of stochastic heating, which arises when ions interact with strong fluctuations at wavelengths comparable to the ion Larmor scale. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of spacecraft measurements of the turbulence by testing the Taylor hypothesis with synthetic spacecraft measurements of our simulation data. This work was supported by Grant NNX16AK09G from NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program.

  6. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  7. Impact of Transgenic Brassica napus Harboring the Antifungal Synthetic Chitinase (NiC) Gene on Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity and Enzyme Activities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad S; Sadat, Syed U; Jan, Asad; Munir, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus harboring the synthetic chitinase (NiC) gene exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal resistance. As the rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in element cycling and nutrient transformation, therefore, biosafety assessment of NiC containing transgenic plants on soil ecosystem is a regulatory requirement. The current study is designed to evaluate the impact of NiC gene on the rhizosphere enzyme activities and microbial community structure. The transgenic lines with the synthetic chitinase gene (NiC) showed resistance to Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing fungal pathogen. The rhizosphere enzyme analysis showed no significant difference in the activities of fivesoil enzymes: alkalyine phosphomonoestarase, arylsulphatase, β-glucosidase, urease and sucrase between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines of B. napus varieties, Durr-e-NIFA (DN) and Abasyne-95 (AB-95). However, varietal differences were observed based on the analysis of molecular variance. Some individual enzymes were significantly different in the transgenic lines from those of non-transgenic but the results were not reproducible in the second trail and thus were considered as environmental effect. Genotypic diversity of soil microbes through 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region amplification was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the transgene. No significant diversity (4% for bacteria and 12% for fungal) between soil microbes of NiC B. napus and the non-transgenic lines was found. However, significant varietal differences were observed between DN and AB-95 with 79% for bacterial and 54% for fungal diversity. We conclude that the NiC B. napus lines may not affect the microbial enzyme activities and community structure of the rhizosphere soil. Varietal differences might be responsible for minor changes in the tested parameters.

  8. Impact of Transgenic Brassica napus Harboring the Antifungal Synthetic Chitinase (NiC) Gene on Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity and Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad S.; Sadat, Syed U.; Jan, Asad; Munir, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus harboring the synthetic chitinase (NiC) gene exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal resistance. As the rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in element cycling and nutrient transformation, therefore, biosafety assessment of NiC containing transgenic plants on soil ecosystem is a regulatory requirement. The current study is designed to evaluate the impact of NiC gene on the rhizosphere enzyme activities and microbial community structure. The transgenic lines with the synthetic chitinase gene (NiC) showed resistance to Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing fungal pathogen. The rhizosphere enzyme analysis showed no significant difference in the activities of fivesoil enzymes: alkalyine phosphomonoestarase, arylsulphatase, β-glucosidase, urease and sucrase between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines of B. napus varieties, Durr-e-NIFA (DN) and Abasyne-95 (AB-95). However, varietal differences were observed based on the analysis of molecular variance. Some individual enzymes were significantly different in the transgenic lines from those of non-transgenic but the results were not reproducible in the second trail and thus were considered as environmental effect. Genotypic diversity of soil microbes through 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer region amplification was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the transgene. No significant diversity (4% for bacteria and 12% for fungal) between soil microbes of NiC B. napus and the non-transgenic lines was found. However, significant varietal differences were observed between DN and AB-95 with 79% for bacterial and 54% for fungal diversity. We conclude that the NiC B. napus lines may not affect the microbial enzyme activities and community structure of the rhizosphere soil. Varietal differences might be responsible for minor changes in the tested parameters. PMID:28791039

  9. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Manuel; Okuhama, Nataly N; Clark, Melinda; Angeles, Fausto M; Lao, Juan; Bustamante, Sergio; Miller, Mark J S

    2002-05-01

    Sangre de grado is an ethnomedicinal red tree sap obtained from Croton spp. that is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, cancer and to promote wound healing. To evaluate the potential role of sangre de grado (SdG) in cancer we examined its effects on human cancer cells, AGS (stomach), HT29 and T84 (colon). Viability of cells treated with SdG (10-200 microg/ml) decreased (P<0.01) in a dose dependent manner measured over a 24-h period. Cell proliferation at 48 h decreased (P<0.01) in all cells treated with SdG (>100 microg/ml). When cells in suspension were treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) cell adherence was severely compromised (>85%). Cells treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) underwent apoptosis as detected by nucleus condensation and DNA fragmentation determined by ELISA, and flow cytometry. Morphological changes as assessed by acridine orange. These effects were similar to that observed with Taxol (30 microM). A significant alteration of microtubular architecture was equally observed in both stomach and colon cancer cells exposed to SdG (100 microg/ml). The induction of apoptosis and microtubule damage in AGS, HT29 and T84 cells suggest that sangre de grado should be evaluated further as a potential source of anti-cancer agents.

  10. [Implementation of the nursing process in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis using the standardized terminologies NANDA, NIC and NOC].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rosimeire da Silva; França, Fabiana Cláudia de Vasconcelos

    2007-01-01

    This case study aimed at describing the implementation the implementation of the Nursing Process to a patient with hepatic cirrhosis, and report the difficulties found on the implementation of the assistance. The conceptual model of Horfa was used, NANDA--Nursing Diagnosis, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) were also applied in care composition. The present study was developed in a public hospital of Distrito Federal, in September 2005, at the Emergency Unit. Among the identified nursing diagnosis was included: acute confusion, constipation and knowledge deficit. Among the pointed difficulties, it was detached: the disinterest of the nursing team and of the pacient, knowledge deficit and unpreparedness of the professionals, lack of human and material resources to deliver the care.

  11. NaNet: a flexible and configurable low-latency NIC for real-time trigger systems based on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Cicero, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pantaleo, F.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2014-02-01

    NaNet is an FPGA-based PCIe X8 Gen2 NIC supporting 1/10 GbE links and the custom 34 Gbps APElink channel. The design has GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and features a network stack protocol offloading module, making it suitable for building low-latency, real-time GPU-based computing systems. We provide a detailed description of the NaNet hardware modular architecture. Benchmarks for latency and bandwidth for GbE and APElink channels are presented, followed by a performance analysis on the case study of the GPU-based low level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 CERN experiment, using either the NaNet GbE and APElink channels. Finally, we give an outline of project future activities.

  12. NaNet: a low-latency NIC enabling GPU-based, real-time low level trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Fantechi, Riccardo; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pantaleo, Felice; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2014-06-01

    We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCIe Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus, provided that the two devices share the same upstream root complex. Synthetic benchmarks for latency and bandwidth are presented. We describe how NaNet can be employed in the prototype of the GPU-based RICH low-level trigger processor of the NA62 CERN experiment, to implement the data link between the TEL62 readout boards and the low level trigger processor. Results for the throughput and latency of the integrated system are presented and discussed.

  13. Understanding the NMR properties and conformational behavior of indole vs. azaindole group in protoberberines: NICS and NCS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Shivaji S.; Toušek, Jaromír; Maier, Lukáš; Pipíška, Matej; Sklenář, Vladimír; Marek, Radek

    2012-11-01

    We report here the preparation and the structural investigation into a series of 8-(indol-1-yl)-7,8-dihydroprotoberberine derivatives derived from berberine, palmatine, and coptisine. Structures of these new compounds were characterized mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopy and the conformational behavior was investigated by using methods of density-functional theory (DFT). PBE0/6-311+G** calculated NMR chemical shifts for selected derivatives correlate excellently with the experimental NMR data and support the structural conclusions drawn from the NMR experiments. An interesting role of the nitrogen atom in position N7' of the indole moiety in 8-(7-azaindol-1-yl)-7,8-dihydroprotoberberines as compared to other 8-indolyl derivatives is investigated in detail. The experimentally observed trends in NMR chemical shifts are rationalized by DFT calculations and analysis based on the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs).

  14. Theoretical investigation of the ground and low-lying excited states of nickel carbide, NiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Mavridis, Aristides

    2007-05-01

    The electronic structure and bonding of 19 states of the diatomic nickel carbide (NiC) has been studied by multireference methods. Potential energy curves have been constructed for all states, whereas for the three lowest states of symmetries XΣ+1, aΠ3, and AΠ1 well separated from the rest of the states, special attention was paid through the use of very large basis sets and the calculation of core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic effects. The recommended binding energies for these states are 91, 67, and 54kcal /mol with respect to the ground state atoms. Our results in general can be considered in fair agreement with the limited experimental findings.

  15. Theoretical investigation of the ground and low-lying excited states of nickel carbide, NiC.

    PubMed

    Tzeli, Demeter; Mavridis, Aristides

    2007-05-21

    The electronic structure and bonding of 19 states of the diatomic nickel carbide (NiC) has been studied by multireference methods. Potential energy curves have been constructed for all states, whereas for the three lowest states of symmetries X (1)Sigma(+), a (3)Pi, and A (1)Pi well separated from the rest of the states, special attention was paid through the use of very large basis sets and the calculation of core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic effects. The recommended binding energies for these states are 91, 67, and 54 kcal/mol with respect to the ground state atoms. Our results in general can be considered in fair agreement with the limited experimental findings.

  16. VEx/VIRTIS and TNG/NICS cloud tracked winds at Venus' lower cloud level using nightside observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Pedro; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Gonçalves, Rúben

    2016-04-01

    We present results based on observations carried out with the Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (NICS) of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), in La Palma, on July 2012. We observed for periods of 2.5 hours starting just before dawn, for three consecutive nights. We acquired a set of images of the night side of Venus with the continuum K filter at 2.28 microns, which allows to monitor motions at the lower cloud level of the atmosphere of Venus, close to 48 km altitude. Our objective has been to measure the horizontal wind field in order to characterize the latitudinal zonal wind profile, to study variability, to help constrain the effect of large scale planetary waves in the maintenance of superrotation, and to map the cloud distribution. We will present first results of cloud tracked winds from ground-based TNG observations and winds retrieved from coordinated space-based VEx/VIRTIS observations. The cloud deck extends in altitude from 45 to 70 km, and can be divided into three main regions, centered at 48, 54 and 60 km. The lowest of these is the lower cloud, where fundamental dynamical exchanges that help maintain superrotation are thought to occur. The lower venusian atmosphere is a strong source of thermal radiation, with the gaseaous CO2 component allowing radiation to escape in windows at 1.74 and 2.28 μm. At these wavelengths radiation originates below 35 km, and unit opacity is reached at the lower cloud level, close to 48 km. Therefore, in these windows it is possible to observe the horizontal cloud structure, with thicker clouds seen silhouetted against the bright thermal background from the low atmosphere. Our objective is to provide direct absolute wind measurements and a map of cloud distribution at the lower cloud level in the Venus troposphere, in order to complement Venus Express (VEX) and other ground-based observations of the cloud layer wind regime. By continuous monitoring of the horizontal cloud structure at 2.28 μm (NICS Kcont filter

  17. MobC of conjugative RA3 plasmid from IncU group autoregulates the expression of bicistronic mobC-nic operon and stimulates conjugative transfer.

    PubMed

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Kulińska, Anna; Jagura-Burdzy, Grażyna

    2014-09-04

    The IncU conjugative transfer module represents highly efficient promiscuous system widespread among conjugative plasmids of different incompatibility groups. Despite its frequent occurrence the mechanisms of relaxosome formation/action are far from understood. Here we analyzed the putative transfer auxiliary protein MobC of the conjugative plasmid RA3 from the IncU incompatibility group. MobC is a protein of 176 amino acids encoded in the bicistronic operon mobC-nic adjacent to oriT. MobC is homologous to prokaryotic transcription factors of the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) superfamily. Conserved LxxugxNlNQiaxxLn motif clusters MobC with the clade of conjugative transfer auxilliary proteins of MobP relaxases. MobC forms dimers in solution and autoregulates the expression of mobCp by binding to an imperfect palindromic sequence (OM) located between putative -35 and -10 motifs of the promoter. Medium-copy number test plasmid containing the oriT-mobCp region is mobilized with a high frequency by the RA3 conjugative system. The mutations introduced into OM that abolished MobC binding in vitro decreased 2-3 fold the frequency of mobilization of the test plasmids. The deletion of OM within the RA3 conjugative module had no effect on transfer if the mobC-nic operon was expressed from the heterologous promoter. If only nic was expressed from the heterologous promoter (no mobC) the conjugative transfer frequency of such plasmid was 1000-fold lower. The MobC is an auxiliary transfer protein of dual function. It autoregulates the expression of mobC-nic operon while its presence significantly stimulates transfer efficiency.

  18. Nic1 inactivation enables stable isotope labeling with 13C615N4-arginine in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Carpy, Alejandro; Patel, Avinash; Tay, Ye Dee; Hagan, Iain M; Macek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids (SILAC) is a commonly used method in quantitative proteomics. Because of compatibility with trypsin digestion, arginine and lysine are the most widely used amino acids for SILAC labeling. We observed that Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cannot be labeled with a specific form of arginine, (13)C(6) (15)N(4)-arginine (Arg-10), which limits the exploitation of SILAC technology in this model organism. We hypothesized that in the fission yeast the guanidinium group of (13)C(6) (15)N(4)-arginine is catabolized by arginase and urease activity to (15)N1-labeled ammonia that is used as a precursor for general amino acid biosynthesis. We show that disruption of Ni(2+)-dependent urease activity, through deletion of the sole Ni(2+) transporter Nic1, blocks this recycling in ammonium-supplemented EMMG medium to enable (13)C(6) (15)N(4)-arginine labeling for SILAC strategies in S. pombe. Finally, we employed Arg-10 in a triple-SILAC experiment to perform quantitative comparison of G1 + S, M, and G2 cell cycle phases in S. pombe. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.; Bell, P. E.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W.; Kalantar, H.; Kauffman, R.; Moody, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Shelton, R. T.; Yeamans, C. B.; Batha, S. H.; Grim, G. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Merrill, F. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Y.; Regan, S. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rindernecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-01-05

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign NIF had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole US ICF community. A plan for a limited of NIF Diagnostics was documented by the Joint Central Diagnostic Team in the NIF Conceptual Design Report in 1994. These diagnostics and many more were installed diagnostics by two decades later. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova’s in 1999. NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s and the NIF diagnostic suite incorporates some scientific innovation compared to Nova and OMEGA namely one much higher speed x-ray imager. Directions for future NIF diagnostics are discussed.

  20. THE NONLINEAR AND NONLOCAL LINK BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC ALFVÉNIC AND MICROSCOPIC ELECTROSTATIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Vecchio, A.; Donato, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.; Briand, C.; Bougeret, J.

    2014-06-10

    The local heating of the solar-wind gas during its expansion represents one of the most intriguing problems in space plasma physics and is at present the subject of a relevant scientific effort. The possible mechanisms that could account for local heat production in the interplanetary medium are most likely related to the turbulent character of the solar-wind plasma. Nowadays, many observational and numerical analyses are devoted to the identification of fluctuation channels along which energy is carried from large to short wavelengths during the development of the turbulent cascade; these fluctuation channels establish the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this Letter, by means of a quantitative comparison between in situ measurements in the solar wind from the STEREO spacecraft and numerical results from kinetic simulations, we identify an electrostatic channel of fluctuations that develops along the turbulent cascade in a direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field. This channel appears to be efficient in transferring the energy from large Alfvénic to short electrostatic acoustic-like scales up to a range of wavelengths where it can finally be turned into heat, even when the electron to proton temperature ratio is of the order of unity.

  1. SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Carter, Dave; Daniels, Alroy; Evans, Geoff; Fourie, Piet; Gilbank, David; Hendricks, Malcolm; Koorts, Willie; Lategan, Deon; Loubser, Egan; Mouries, Sharon; O'Connor, James E.; O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; Potter, Stephen; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Stoffels, John; Swanevelder, Pieter; Titus, Keegan; van Gend, Carel; Visser, Martin; Worters, Hannah L.

    2016-08-01

    SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) is the extensively upgraded Cassegrain Spectrograph on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch (1.9-m) telescope. The inverse-Cassegrain collimator mirrors and woefully inefficient Maksutov-Cassegrain camera optics have been replaced, along with the CCD and SDSU controller. All moving mechanisms are now governed by a programmable logic controller, allowing remote configuration of the instrument via an intuitive new graphical user interface. The new collimator produces a larger beam to match the optically faster Folded-Schmidt camera design and nine surface-relief diffraction gratings offer various wavelength ranges and resolutions across the optical domain. The new camera optics (a fused silica Schmidt plate, a slotted fold flat and a spherically figured primary mirror, both Zerodur, and a fused silica field-flattener lens forming the cryostat window) reduce the camera's central obscuration to increase the instrument throughput. The physically larger and more sensitive CCD extends the available wavelength range; weak arc lines are now detectable down to 325 nm and the red end extends beyond one micron. A rear-of-slit viewing camera has streamlined the observing process by enabling accurate target placement on the slit and facilitating telescope focus optimisation. An interactive quick-look data reduction tool further enhances the user-friendliness of SpUpNI

  2. Geometry of low-frequency solar wind magnetic turbulence: Evidence for radially aligned Alfénic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Joachim; Bieber, John W.

    1999-05-01

    We employ ``omnitape'' magnetic field data to determine the geometry of low-frequency (5- to 12-hour timescales) magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind. We consider three axisymmetric geometries, slab, two-dimensional (2-D), and isotropic, as well as binary combinations of them. Both the radial direction and the mean magnetic field direction are considered as candidate symmetry axes. We apply simultaneously three different tests for distinguishing these geometries. Our analysis decisively favors a binary geometry composed of 2-D turbulence symmetric with respect to the mean field direction and slab turbulence symmetric with respect to the radial direction. The presence of a slab component with radial symmetry provides observational support for a long-standing theoretical prediction of radially aligned Alfvénic fluctuations at 1 AU. We also find a variation of turbulence properties with solar wind speed, such that magnetic fluctuations in slow wind are more energetic and possess a greater proportion of slab modes than those in fast wind, and the ratio of longitudinal to transverse power in the 2-D component increases with wind speed.

  3. Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves, and acceleration of ions in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M.

    2013-05-15

    Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas are investigated. Dispersive effect caused by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can balance the nonlinear steepening of waves leading to the formation of a soliton. A Sagdeev-potential formalism is employed to derive an energy-balance like equation. The range of allowed values of the soliton speed, M (Mach number), plasma β (ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the pressure in the confining magnetic field), and electron inertia, wherein solitary waves may exist, are determined. Depth of the potential increases with increasing the Mach number and plasma β, however decreases with the increasing electron inertia. The height of soliton increases with increasing in Mach number and decreases with plasma β. And with increasing electron inertial length, the width of soliton increases. The electron-ion collisional dissipation results a dissipative inertial compressional Alfvén wave, which can produce a shock like structure and can efficiently accelerate ions to the order of the local Alfvén velocity. The shock height increases with the increasing collision frequency, but shock height decreases with increasing plasma β.

  4. On-sky tests of an A/R coated silicon grism on board NICS at TNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, F.; Foglietti, V.; Lorenzetti, D.; Cianci, E.; Ghinassi, F.; Harutyunyan, A.; Antoniucci, S.; Riverol, C.; Riverol, L.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our project for the design and construction and on-sky test of silicon grisms. The fabrication of such devices is a complex and critical process involving litho-masking, anisotropic etching and direct bonding techniques. After the successful fabrication of the silicon grating, we have optimized the bonding of the grating onto the hypotenuse of a silicon prism to get the final prototype. After some critical phases during the experimentation a silicon grism with 363 grooves/mm and a blaze angle of 14 degrees has been eventually fabricated. The application of an A/R coating on both the surfaces has been the last step: this procedure is critical because of the groove geometry of the diffraction grating, whose performace might be compromised by the coating. Then, the grism was inserted in the filter wheel of the Near Infrared camera NICS, at the focal plane of the National Galileo Telescope (TNG), the 3.5 m Italian facility in the Canary Islands (E). The result of the on-sky tests are given in detail.

  5. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    PubMed

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  6. [Evaluation of satisfaction with telemedicine devices and with the results of the care received among chronic patients. The ValCrònic program].

    PubMed

    Mira-Solves, José J; Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Sánchez-Molla, Manuel; Sánchez García, Julio Jesús

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate patient satisfaction with the ValCrònic program, telemedicine devices, and the results of the care received after a 2-year follow-up. Observational, descriptive study based on telephone surveys. The autonomous community of Valencia (Spain). Participants consisted of 410 patients with one or more of the following diseases: hypertension, heart failure, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A total of 585 patients were included, of whom 104 left the program (18 due to death) and 71 refused to participate. We designed and validated a specific scale. Floor and ceiling effects were considered. Internal consistency was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. Responses were obtained from 322 patients (response rate, 78.5%). Of these, 118 (36.6%) were women. In 48 patients (14.9%), the person responding was a caregiver. Cronbach's alpha was 0.7. For 278 patients (86.3%), the ValCrònic program helped them to understand their disease better, 270 (83.9%) reported that it helped them use their medication more safely, and 283 (87.9%) reported they had better knowledge of their disease. For 288 (89.4%), the devices were easy to manage at home. Only 12 patients (3.7%) found that the devices involved a heavy workload that was difficult to incorporate into their daily lives. The ValCrònic program promotes self-care among patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Near-infrared colors of asteroid 2012 DA14 at its closest approach to Earth: Observations with the Nishiharima Infrared Camera (NIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Jun; Urakawa, Seitaro; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Arai, Akira; Honda, Satoshi; Takagi, Yuhei; Itoh, Yoichi; Zenno, Takahiro; Ishiguro, Masateru

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of our JHKs photometry of asteroid 2012 DA14 at its closest approach to Earth on 2013 February 15. Possible spectral changes associated with resurfacing by planetary encounters are of great interest. The Earth flyby of 2012 DA14 provided a rare opportunity to investigate this effect. Our observations were conducted using the Nishiharima Infrared Camera (NIC) attached to the 2.0 m Nayuta telescope at the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory. Despite the extraordinarily fast sky motion of up to near 50″ s-1, the telescope successfully tracked the asteroid. The NIC achievement of three-band simultaneous observations allowed us to reliably deduce the colors of this fast-moving object. The derived near-infrared relative reflectances are flat, which is consistent with the classification of the asteroid as L-type. The J - H and H - Ks colors at 0.5-1 hr after the closest approach are compared with those observed by de León (2013, A&A, 555, L2) at ˜ 10 hr after the closest time. We did not detect color changes significantly exceeding the photometric errors, which are ˜ 0.1 mag. This project has demonstrated the potential of the NIC as a three-band simultaneous imager, especially for observations of rapidly time-variable phenomena.

  8. Antarctic summer sea ice concentration and extent: comparison of ODEN 2006 ship observations, satellite passive microwave and NIC sea ice charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsoy-Cicek, B.; Xie, H.; Ackley, S. F.; Ye, K.

    2008-07-01

    Antarctic sea ice cover has shown a slight increase in overall observed ice extent as derived from satellite mapping from 1979 to 2008, contrary to the decline observed in the Arctic regions. Spatial and temporal variations of the Antarctic sea ice however remain a significant problem to monitor and understand, primarily due to the vastness and remoteness of the region. While satellite remote sensing has provided and has great future potential to monitor the variations and changes of sea ice, uncertainties remain unresolved. In this study, the National Ice Center (NIC) ice edge and the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System) ice extent are examined, while the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea Ice Process and Climate) ship observations from the Oden expedition in December 2006 are used as ground truth to verify the two products during Antarctic summer. While there is a general linear trend between ASPeCt and AMSR-E ice concentration estimates, there is poor correlation (R2=0.41) and AMSR-E tends to underestimate the low ice concentrations. We also found that the NIC sea ice edge agrees well with ship observations, while the AMSR-E shows the ice edge further south, consistent with its poorer detection of low ice concentrations. The northward extent of the ice edge at the time of observation (NIC) had mean values varying from 38 km to 102 km greater on different days for the area as compared with the AMSR-E sea ice extent. For the circumpolar area as a whole in the December period examined, AMSR-E therefore underestimates the area inside the ice edge at this time by up to 14% or, 1.5 million km2 less area, compared to the NIC ice charts. These differences alone can account for more than half of the purported sea ice loss between the pre 1960s and the satellite era suggested earlier from comparative analysis of whale catch data with satellite derived data. Preliminary comparison of satellite scatterometer data suggests better resolution of low

  9. Antarctic summer sea ice concentration and extent: comparison of ODEN 2006 ship observations, satellite passive microwave and NIC sea ice charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsoy-Cicek, B.; Xie, H.; Ackley, S. F.; Ye, K.

    2009-02-01

    Antarctic sea ice cover has shown a slight increase (<1%/decade) in overall observed ice extent as derived from satellite mapping from 1979 to 2008, contrary to the decline observed in the Arctic regions. Spatial and temporal variations of the Antarctic sea ice however remain a significant problem to monitor and understand, primarily due to the vastness and remoteness of the region. While satellite remote sensing has provided and has great future potential to monitor the variations and changes of sea ice, uncertainties remain unresolved. In this study, the National Ice Center (NIC) ice edge and the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System) ice extent are examined, while the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea Ice Process and Climate) ship observations from the Oden expedition in December 2006 are used as ground truth to verify the two products during Antarctic summer. While there is a general linear trend between ASPeCt and AMSR-E ice concentration estimates, there is poor correlation (R2=0.41) and AMSR-E tends to underestimate the low ice concentrations. We also found that the NIC sea ice edge agrees well with ship observations, while the AMSR-E shows the ice edge further south, consistent with its poorer detection of low ice concentrations. The northward extent of the ice edge at the time of observation (NIC) had mean values varying from 38 km to 102 km greater on different days for the area as compared with the AMSR-E sea ice extent. For the circumpolar area as a whole in the December period examined, AMSR-E therefore may underestimate the area inside the ice edge at this time by up to 14% or, 1.5 million km2 less area, compared to the NIC ice charts. Preliminary comparison of satellite scatterometer data however, suggests better resolution of low concentrations than passive microwave, and therefore better agreement with ship observations and NIC charts of the area inside the ice edge during Antarctic summer. A reanalysis data set for Antarctic

  10. Pedagogia artistica: la conceptualizacion y la creatividad en estudiantes de ciencias de sexto grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Colon, Edwin A.

    Se realizo un estudio fenomenologico sobre la conceptualizacion, la creatividad y el valor del dibujo en propiciar un contexto creativo para el aprendizaje de ciencias de sexto grado. La conceptualizacion se interpreto como un proceso que ocurre en las relaciones que los estudiantes establecen entre los temas de estudio y las ideas principales, las experiencias previas, las creencias personales, el tiempo y el valor de la conservacion ambiental. La esencia de la creatividad se definio en funcion de la imaginacion, las destrezas, la intencion, la libertad de pensamiento y expresion y el contexto. El dibujo propicio un ambiente creativo de aprendizaje en las ciencias al facilitar el uso del pensamiento cientifico profundo, el inquirir artistico y la expresion libre.

  11. Hydraulic zonation of the lagoons of Marano and Grado, Italy. A modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg; Bajo, Marco; Bellafiore, Debora; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Mattassi, Giorgio; Scroccaro, Isabella

    2010-05-01

    The hydraulic regime-based zonation scheme of the Lagoons of Marano and Grado (Italy) has been derived by means of numerical models. A finite element modelling system has been used to describe the water circulation taking in account different forces such as tide, wind and rivers. The model has been validated by comparing the simulation results against measured water levels, salinity and water temperature data collected in several stations inside the lagoons. The analysis of water circulation, salinity and spatial distribution of passive tracers released at the inlets, led to a physically-based division of the lagoons system into six subbasins. The derived classification scheme is of crucial value for understanding the renewal capacity and pollutants distribution patterns in the lagoon.

  12. An analytical model of sub-Alfvénic moon-plasma interactions with application to the hemisphere coupling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sven

    2015-09-01

    We develop a new analytical model of the Alfvén wing that is generated by the interaction between a planetary moon's ionosphere and its magnetospheric environment. While preceding analytical approaches assumed the obstacle's height-integrated ionospheric conductivities to be spatially constant, the model presented here can take into account a continuous conductance profile that follows a power law. The electric potential in the interaction region, determining the electromagnetic fields of the Alfvén wing, can then be calculated from an Euler-type differential equation. In this way, the model allows to include a realistic representation of the "suspension bridge"-like conductance profile expected for the moon's ionosphere. The major drawback of this approach is its restriction to interaction scenarios where the ionospheric Pedersen conductance is large compared to the Hall conductance, and thus, the Alfvénic perturbations are approximately symmetric between the planet-facing and the planet-averted hemispheres of the moon. The model is applied to the hemisphere coupling effect observed at Enceladus, i.e., to the surface currents and the associated magnetic discontinuities that arise from a north-south asymmetry of the obstacle to the plasma flow. We show that the occurrence of this effect is very robust against changes in the conductance profile of Enceladus' plume, and we derive upper limits for the strength of the magnetic field jumps generated by the hemisphere coupling effect. During all 11 reported detections of the hemisphere coupling currents at Enceladus, the observed magnetic field jumps were clearly weaker than the proposed limits. Our findings are also relevant for future in situ studies of putative plumes at the Jovian moon Europa.

  13. Linear benchmarks between the hybrid codes HYMAGYC and HMGC to study energetic particle driven Alfvénic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogaccia, G.; Vlad, G.; Briguglio, S.

    2016-11-01

    Resonant interaction between energetic particles (EPs), produced by fusion reactions and/or additional heating systems, and shear Alfvén modes can destabilize global Alfvénic modes enhancing the EP transport. In order to investigate the EP transport in present and next generation fusion devices, numerical simulations are recognized as a very important tool. Among the various numerical models, the hybrid MHD gyrokinetic one has shown to be a valid compromise between a sufficiently accurate wave-particle interaction description and affordable computational resource requirements. This paper presents a linear benchmark between the hybrid codes HYMAGYC and HMGC. The HYMAGYC code solves the full, linear MHD equations in general curvilinear geometry for the bulk plasma and describes the EP population by the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation. On the other side, HMGC solves the nonlinear, reduced O≤ft(ε 03\\right) , pressureless MHD equations ({ε0} being the inverse aspect ratio) for the bulk plasma and the drift kinetic Vlasov equation for the EPs. The results of the HYMAGYC and HMGC codes have been compared both in the MHD limit and in a wide range of the EP parameter space for two test cases (one of which being the so-called TAE n  =  6 ITPA Energetic Particle Group test case), both characterized by {ε0}\\ll 1 . In the first test case (test case A), good qualitative agreement is found w.r.t. real frequencies, growth rates and spatial structures of the most unstable modes, with some quantitative differences for the growth rates. For the so-called ITPA test case (test case B), at the nominal energetic particle density value, the disagreement between the two codes is, on the contrary, also qualitative, as a different mode is found as the most unstable one.

  14. The "Alfvénic surge" at substorm onset/expansion and the formation of "Inverted Vs": Cluster and IMAGE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Frey, H. U.; Fillingim, M. O.; Goldstein, M. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-05-01

    From multipoint, in situ observations and imaging, we reveal the injection-powered, Alfvénic nature of auroral acceleration during onset and expansion of a substorm. It is shown how Alfvénic variations over time dissipate to form large-scale, inverted-V structures characteristic of quasistatic aurora. This characterization is made possible through the fortuitous occurrence of a substorm onset and expansion phase on field lines traversed by Cluster in the high-altitude acceleration region. Substorm onset was preceded by the occurrence of multiple poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs) and subsequent development/progression of a streamer toward the growth phase arc indicating that this is of the PBI-/streamer-triggered class of substorms. Onset on Cluster is marked by the injection of hot, dense magnetospheric plasma in a region tied to one of the preexisting PBI current systems. This was accompanied by a surge of Alfvénic activity and enhanced inverted-V acceleration, as the PBI current system intensified and striated to dispersive scale Alfvén waves. The growth of Alfvén wave activity was significant (up to a factor of 300 increase in magnetic field power spectral density at frequencies 20 mHz ≲f≲ few hertz) and coincided with moderate growth (factor 3-5) in the background PBI current. This sequence is indicative of a cascade process whereby small-scale/dispersive Alfvén waves are generated from large-scale Alfvén waves or current destabilization. It also demonstrates that the initial PBIs and their subsequent evolution are an intrinsic part of the global auroral substorm response to injection and accompanying wave energy input from the magnetotail. Alfvénic activity persisted poleward of the PBI currents composing a broad Alfvén wave-dominated region extending to the polar cap edge. These waves have transverse scales ranging from a few tens of kilometers to below the ion gyroradius and are associated with large electric fields (up to 200 mV/m) and

  15. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation

  16. The diverse roles of the Nup93/Nic96 complex proteins - structural scaffolds of the nuclear pore complex with additional cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Benjamin; Antonin, Wolfram

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear pore complexes mediate the transport between the cell nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. These 125 MDa structures are among the largest assemblies found in eukaryotes, built from proteins organized in distinct subcomplexes that act as building blocks during nuclear pore complex biogenesis. In this review, we focus on one of these subcomplexes, the Nup93 complex in metazoa and its yeast counterpart, the Nic96 complex. We discuss its essential function in nuclear pore complex assembly as a linker between the nuclear membrane and the central part of the pore and its various roles in nuclear transport processes and beyond.

  17. Hydromorphic to subaqueous soils transitions in the central Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori Antisari, Livia; De Nobili, Maria; Ferronato, Chiara; Natale, Marco; Pellegrini, Elisa; Vianello, Gilmo

    2016-05-01

    The Grado lagoon is among the largest in the Mediterranean sea and is characterized by salt marshes, where tides influenced the development of a complex micromorphology coupled to a micromosaic of vegetation covers. This study represents the first contribution to the understanding of the main processes governing formation, development and spatial transitions between hydromorphic and subaqueous soils in an Adriatic lagoon ecosystem. Physicochemical characteristics and development of soils were investigated in three salt marshes differing for their proximity to the open sea, textural composition and age of formation. Soils of back barrier salt marshes had A/C profiles and were mostly characterized by a sandy coarse texture that allows rapid drainage and subsurface oxygen exchanges. Soil sequences from the inner salt marsh to its submerged border slope or to a brackish waterhole do not simply represent a hydrosequence, but also reflect erosion/sorting/accumulation processes. The soils in the central part of the lagoon have finer texture and in displayed transition or cambic horizons. Silty clay loam textures and low positions allowed the development of more severe anoxic conditions and accumulation of sulphides. The tide oscillation strongly contributed to formation of redoximorphic features, intensity of anaerobic conditions but also colonization by different plant communities. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify physicochemical properties which discriminate the different soils according to geo-morphological position and prevailing plants. It confirmed that differentiation of plant communities occurred according to distinct morphological and physicochemical soil properties, but also acted as a primary affecting factor of pedogenesis.

  18. The upstream-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations with power law spectra in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart

    2015-05-01

    Based on theories, the beam instability induced by shock-accelerated ions can generate upstream-propagating Alfvén waves (UPAWs) with a power spectral bump near 0.03 Hz, while the nonlinear wave-wave interaction favors an inverse cascade to create a power law spectrum. Here we present the first observational evidence for the upstream-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations (UPAFs) with power law spectra. We utilize a new criterion to identify the upstream-propagating Alfvénic intervals: the propagation direction is opposite to that of solar wind strahl electron outflow. Besides 35 UPAWs, we find 47 UPAFs with power law spectra, and ˜47% of these UPAFs are associated with energetic ion events (>30 keV). These UPAWs and UPAFs are mostly observed in the slow solar wind. However, their occurrence rate and power behave differently in dependence on the radial distance from the Earth. These results provide new clues on understanding the dynamic equilibrium between the nonlinear inverse cascade and the linear ion beam instability.

  19. Alfvénic fluctuations with power-law spectra propagating sunward within the region from L1 to the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, L.; Tu, C.; He, J.; Marsch, E.

    2015-12-01

    According to several theories, the beam instability induced by shock-accelerated ions can generate upstream-propagating Alfvén waves (UPAWs) with a bump near 0.03 Hz in the power spectrum, while the nonlinear wave-wave interaction favors an inverse cascade to create a power-law spectrum. Here we present the first observational evidence for the upstream-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations (UPAFs) with power-law spectra by using measurements from the WIND spacecraft in year 1995. We utilize a new criterion to identify the upstream-propagating Alfvénic intervals: the propagation direction is opposite to that of solar wind strahl electron outflow. Besides 35 UPAWs, we find 47 UPAFs with power-law spectra, and ~47% of these UPAFs are associated with energetic ion events (>30 keV). These UPAWs and UPAFs are mostly observed in the slow solar wind. However, their occurrence rate and power behave differently in dependence on the radial distance from the Earth. The spectral indices of UPAFs are between -3 and -2. These power-law spectra cannot be explained by the linear ion-beam instability. The results provide new clues on understanding the dynamic equilibrium between the non-linear inverse cascade and the linear ion-beam instability.

  20. Core-localized Alfvénic modes driven by energetic ions in HL-2A NBI plasmas with weak magnetic shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Yu, L. M.; Ding, X. T.; Xie, H. S.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Yu, D. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Shi, P. W.; Li, Y. G.; Feng, B. B.; Jiang, M.; Zhong, W. L.; Cao, J. Y.; Song, X. M.; Xu, M.; Xu, Y. H.; Yan, L. W.; Liu, Yi; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; HL-2A Team

    2016-03-01

    Recent experimental results that are associated with the core-localized (i.e. normalized radius ρ =r/a<0.5 ) Alfvénic modes in HL-2A neutral beam injection (NBI) plasmas with weak magnetic shears are reported. In the different plasma parameter regions, the energetic ions produced by the NBI drive multiple Alfvénic instabilities, such as the toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE), beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode, reversed shear Alfvén eigenmode (RSAE) and fishbone and energetic particle mode (EPM). Here, we focus on the high-frequency RSAE (HFRSAE) and resonant kinetic ballooning mode (rKBM). A group of downward-sweeping frequency coherent modes (HFRSAEs) with 100  <  f  <  500 kHz and n  =  3-7 are often observed with an increase in the edge safety factor, q a . Their measured frequency is more than that of the TAEs, and {{f}\\text{min}}˜ {{f}\\text{TAE}} . The analysis suggests that these modes localize inside the high-order Alfvén eigenmode (AE) gap of the Alfvénic continuum, and their eigenfrequency and eigenfunction depend on the {{q}\\text{min}} and q-profile. When the core plasma density is more than {{n}e0}>3.0× {{10}19} m-3 and the impurity or supersonic molecular beam enters the bulk plasma, the profiles of the plasma density/pressure peak, and the magnetic shear is weak or negative. In this case, a group of multi-harmonic coherent modes (rKBMs) with 30  <  f  <  150 kHz and n  =  2-9 are observed through multiple diagnostic techniques, and {{f}\\ast pi}/2<{{f}\\text{MHD}}={{f}\\text{lab}}-n{{f}vφ}<{{f}\\ast pi} , where {{f}\\ast pi}={ω\\ast pi}/2π is the diamagnetic drift frequency of the thermal ion. It is found that the HFRSAEs can transit into the rKBMs when the density profile suddenly peaks. Neutron monitoring outside the vacuum chamber demonstrates that the HFRSAE and rKBM both degrade the confinement of the energetic ions. The rKBM instabilities also affect the bulk plasma performance.

  1. Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron

  2. Spectroscopic Measurements of Collision-less Coupling Between Laser-Produced, Super-Alfvénic Debris Plasmas and Magnetized, Ambient Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton; Everson, E.; Schaeffer, D.; Constantin, C.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Clark, S.; Niemann, C.

    2013-06-01

    Emission spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to assess collision-less momentum and energy coupling between super-Alfvénic debris plasmas and magnetized, ambient plasmas of astrophysical relevance. In a recent campaign on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) utilizing the Phoenix laboratory Raptor laser (130 J, 25 ns FWHM), laser-ablated carbon debris plasmas were generated within magnetized, ambient helium plasmas (nelec ≈ 3×1012 cm-3, Telec ≈ 5.5 eV, B0 = 200 G), and prominent spectral lines of carbon and helium ions were studied in high resolution (˜ 0.01 nm). Time-resolved Doppler shift and width measurements of a C V ion spectral line reveal significant deceleration as the ions stream through the background plasma, which may indirectly indicate momentum coupling. Spectral lines of He II ions are observed to intensify by orders of magnitude and broaden, indicating energy transfer from the debris plasma to the background plasma.

  3. Large magnetic heat transport in a Haldane chain material Ni(C3H10N2)2NO2ClO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Chen, L. M.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Zhao, X.

    2013-05-01

    We report a study on the heat transport of an S = 1 Haldane chain compound Ni(C3H10N2)2NO2ClO4 at low temperatures and in magnetic fields. The zero-field thermal conductivities show a remarkable anisotropy for the heat current along the spin-chain direction (κb) and the vertical direction (κc), implying a magnetic contribution to the heat transport along the spin-chain direction. The magnetic-field-induced change of the spin spectrum has obviously opposite impacts on κb and κc. In particular, κb(H) and κc(H) curves show peak-like increases and dip-like decreases, respectively, at ˜9 T, which is the critical field that minimizes the spin gap. These results indicate a large magnetic thermal transport in this material.

  4. The Transport of Low-frequency Turbulence in Astrophysical Flows. II. Solutions for the Super-Alfvénic Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Hunana, P.; Dosch, A.; Marino, R.; Hu, Q.

    2015-05-01

    Zank et al. developed a turbulence transport model for low-frequency incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in inhomogeneous flows in terms of the energy corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes, the residual energy, the correlation lengths corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes, and the correlation length of the residual energy. We apply the Zank et al. model to the super-Alfvénic solar wind i.e., |{\\boldsymbol{U}} |\\gg |{{{\\boldsymbol{V}} }A}| and solve the coupled equations for two cases, the first being the heliosphere from 0.29 to 5 AU with and without the Alfvén velocity, and the second being the “entire” heliosphere from 0.29 to 100 AU in the absence of the Alfvén velocity. The model shows that (1) shear driving is responsible for the in situ generation of backward propagating modes, (2) the inclusion of the background magnetic field modifies the transport of turbulence in the inner heliosphere, (3) the correlation lengths of forward and backward propagating modes are almost equal beyond ∼30 AU, and (4) the fluctuating magnetic and kinetic energies in MHD turbulence are in approximate equipartition beyond ∼30 AU. A comparison of the model results with observations for the two cases shows that the model reproduces the observations quite well from 0.29 to 5 AU. The outer heliosphere (\\gt 1 AU) observations are well described by the model. The temporal and latitudinal dependence of the observations makes a detailed comparison difficult but the overall trends are well captured by the models. We conclude that the results are a reasonable validation of the Zank et al. model for the super-Alfvénic solar wind.

  5. Benthic flux measurements of Hg species in a northern Adriatic lagoon environment (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Horvat, Milena; Žižek, Suzana; Fajon, Vesna

    2012-11-01

    As part of the "MIRACLE" project, the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-water interface was studied in the field in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea). Seasonal investigations were conducted at selected experimental sites, where Manila Clams (Tapes philippinarum) were previously seeded. Measurements were performed seasonally during three campaigns, using two benthic chambers, one transparent and one dark, to evaluate the effect of light on Hg cycling. Total dissolved Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) species were considered. Diurnal benthic fluxes were found to significantly exceed the diffusive fluxes at all stations. The assessment of the annual recycling of Hg species from sediments to the water column showed that up to 99% of MeHg is recycled annually to the water column, while Hg recycling ranges from 30 to 60%. MeHg poses the higher risk for potential bioaccumulation in clams, but it is partially mitigated by Hg reduction, which seems to be an important process leading to evasion losses of Hg from these environments. Estimated benthic fluxes suggest that Hg recycling at the sediment-water interface is more active in the Grado sector. Hence, based on the estimated release of MeHg from sediments, it is suggested that the western sector seems to be more suitable for clam farming and the extension of rearing activities.

  6. Effect of abiotic and biotic factors on the abundance of waterbirds in Grado-Marano Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Alfredo; Hubina, Tatsiana; Sponza, Stefano; Sisto, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the influence of several biotic and abiotic factors on the abundance of waterbirds in the Grado-Marano Lagoon. The Grado-Marano Lagoon is situated in the Northeast of the Adriatic Sea with an extension of approximately 160 km2. ASTER satellite images were utilized to classify different types of morphologies and habitat, including sea grass meadows. Four abiotic factors (total nitrogen, total phosphorous, alkalinity and sediment texture) and three biotic factors (benthic community, sea grass meadows and waterbird guild abundance) were integrated into a GIS. A regular UTM grid of square cells (Operational Geographic Units, OGUs), 1km x 1km, was superimposed on the entire lagoon. Using the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) technique it was possible to delineate ecological units (clusters of OGUs) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the factors considered. Subsequently, Correspondence Analysis (CA) was used to examine the relationship between waterbird guild abundance and ecological units.

  7. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Faleri, Claudia; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato

    2013-08-01

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5mgl(-1) HgCl2 and incubated at 30°C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a flat-field spectrometer with a wideband Ni/C multilayer grating in the 1–3.5 keV range

    SciTech Connect

    Imazono, Takashi

    2016-07-27

    To develop a flat-field spectrometer with coverage of the 1–3.5 keV range, a wideband Ni/C multilayer grating was invented. The multilayer consists of two kinds of layer structures. One is a conventional periodic multilayer of thickness D{sub 1} = 5.6 nm, Ni thickness ratio to the multilayer period γ{sub 1} = 0.5 and the number of layers N{sub 1} = 79. Both the first and last layers are Ni. The other is a C/Ni bilayer of D{sub 2} = 8.4 nm, γ{sub 2} = 0.53 and N{sub 2} = 2. The first layer is C and then Ni. The aperiodic multilayer from the topmost C/Ni bilayer was coated on a laminar-type grating having an effective grating constant of 1/2400 mm, groove depth of 2.8 nm, and duty ratio (land width/groove period) of 0.5. In a preliminary experiment, the diffraction efficiency was in excess of 0.8% in the energy range of 2.1-3.3 keV and the maximum of 5.4% at 3.1 keV at a constant angle of incidence of 88.54°, which is considerably higher than that of an Au-coated grating before deposition of the multilayer.

  9. Magnetization of ultrathin [Fe1-cNic]n alloy nanojunctions between Fe or Co leads using an Ising EFT-MFT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moujaes, Elie A.; Aguiar, L. V.; Ghantous, M. Abou

    2017-02-01

    The Fe and Ni sublattice magnetizations of ultrathin iron-nickel alloy nanonjunctions [Fe1-cNic] between Fe and Co leads are inspected. For c ≤ 0.4 , the alloy has a bcc structure and becomes fcc otherwise. A combined EFT and MFT treatment is used to obtain the sublattice magnetizations of Fe and Ni in the individual layers as a function of temperature and concentration. This is achieved by calculating single site spin correlations within EFT and making use of reliable experimental data such as lattice parameters a, stiffness spin constants D, and Curie temperatures Tc leading to reasonable values of the exchange parameters J. According to our model, the alloys forming the bcc nanojunctions we examine (c = 0.0841 , 0.204 , 0.268) are ferrimagnetic with the absence of a compensation temperature while those for the fcc structures (c = 0.5 , 0.81) are ferromagnetic. These EFT results feed the MFT calculations for the nanojunction from the interface inwards. The effect of adding several alloy layers to both bcc and fcc types is also considered. The sublattice magnetizations are necessary elements for certain spin dynamic computations, such as ballistic magnon transport across embedded nanojunctions in magnonics.

  10. Ni/C and Rh/C multilayers for soft X-ray optics - Influence of the deposition conditions on the nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, P.; Houdy, Ph.; Ouahabi, M.; Barchewitz, R.; Troussel, P.; Joud, J. C.; Senillou, C.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon alternated with metallic elements such as Ni, Co, Cr, Rh, Fe, W, or Ti offers the best potentialities in terms of soft X-ray reflection in the range 44 - 100 A. Deposition of this type of device requires a very accurate control of nanometric film deposition with a high regularity and sharp interfaces. We have made a precise investigation of the influence of the deposition conditions on the nanostructure of these systems using ultrahigh vacuum rf-sputtering technique. Conventional plasma conditions such as pressure and power levels have been investigated and also more unusual conditions such as target resistivity or sample temperature. It appears that the optimization process always results in a reduction of the amount of energy applied to the surface during growth. Medium argon pressure, low power levels, low target autobias and deposition at low temperature give the best structural quality and the best performance at the carbon K-alpha line. Metallic layer crystallization and the parasitic etching process are limited especially for the most sensitive Ni/C and Rh/C systems. The second part of the study is devoted to the comparison of Ni, Rh, Co, Fe, Cr, Ti, and W alternated with carbon. Thermal stability of the different systems is evaluated and related to the nanostructural behavior. When carbide formation is thermodynamically favorable, parasitics effects due to the crystallization are limited and the thermal stability is improved.

  11. [A correlation study of perceived importance of nursing interventions with performance frequency in psychiatric nursing units using the 3th NIC].

    PubMed

    Choi, Ja-Yun; Kim, Hye-Suk; Park, Mi-Sun

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived importance of nursing interventions of psychiatric nurses according to domains, classes and interventions using the 3th NIC. In this study, a 435 of 486 nursing interventions were selected from 75% consent reached by experts. Data were collected from 9 hospitals and 141 nurses(return rates : 94.0%) in Seoul, Kyonggi, Chungnam, Gwang-ju and Chonnam region from January, 2002 to February, 2002 using 4 point Likert scale. Total perceived importance score was 2.905+/-0.463 and total correlation score with performance frequency was r=0.295. The most important perceived domain and class was found to be 'safety' (3.217+/-0.465) and 'community health promotion' (3.285+/-0.866). The most correlated domain and class with performance frequency appeared to be 'behavioral' (r=0.431, p=0.000) and 'communication enhancement' (r=0.439, p=0.000). The most important perceived nursing intervention was found to be 'active listening' (3.652+/-0.549). In conclusion, nurses in clinical settings were found to perform less than perceive its importance. Therefore, further researches are needed to identify factors related to impede and develop strategies to improve the performance of nursing interventions.

  12. An investigation of curvature effects on the nitrogen and boron chemical shielding tensors as well as NICS characterization of BN nanotubes with Stone-Wales defects: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafouri, Reza; Anafcheh, Maryam

    2013-03-01

    A DFT study has been performed to investigate electronic and magnetic properties of armchair (4, 4), (5, 5), and (6, 6) BNNTs with Stone-Wales defects based on 11B and 15N NMR parameters and NICS indices. The smallest 15N chemical shielding arising from B1-N1 bond appears as an individual peak at around 97.0-99.4 ppm for "Parallel" orientation of the defect site (P-SW) and at around 87.0-88.8 ppm for "Diagonal" orientation of the defect site (D-SW), respectively, quite well separated from the rest of the spectrum. These results indicate that 15N NMR patterns might be able to detect the presence of SW defects found in BNNTs. The smallest 11B chemical shielding appears around 68.6-69.3 (P-SW) or 71.6-72.1 ppm (D-SW) arising from the boron surrounded by three different rings. Moreover, CS tensors are shown to be quite sensitive to the curvature at the corresponding site. Finally, NICS at ring centers and along principal axis are calculated to evaluate electron motilities on the surfaces and inside BNNTs. NICS values inside BNNTs with Stone-Wales defect is similar to the parent where the compensation between diatropic and paratropic ring currents leads to the uniformity of magnetic field, but slightly increases only in the zone of defect site.

  13. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Faleri, Claudia; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  14. Assessment of nicotine uptake from cigarette smoke: comparison of a colorimetric test strip (NicCheck I™) and gas chromatography/mass selective detector.

    PubMed

    Thomas Karnes, H; James, J R; March, C; Leyden, D E; Koller, K

    2001-01-01

    Colorimetric test strip assays are a convenient and inexpensive means for the determination of cotinine in human urine because they can be performed in a nonlaboratory environment using a trained technician. Four hundred human urine samples were separated into four categories: (1) heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes smoked per day), (2) light smokers (<20 cigarettes smoked per day), (3) non-smokers, and (4) vegetarian non-smokers. Samples were evaluated by a gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD) method as a reference and using NicCheck I™ (DynaGen, Inc.). Colour intensity can range from 0 (no colour) to 14 (deep pink). Qualitative values were assigned as negative (0), low (1-6) and high (7-14). Comparison of the test strip and GC/MSD results showed: (1) 43 (10.75%) false negatives using the criterion of a GC/MSD cotinine level above 200 ng ml(-1) and test strip reading of 0, (2) 31 (7.75%) false positives using the criterion of a GC/MSD cotinine level below 1 ng ml(-1) and a test strip reading of 1 or greater, and (3) no correlation between the test strip and GC/MSD results (r = 0.597, p < 0.05). The fact that the colorimetric reaction is sensitive to many nicotine metabolites and/or heterocyclic amine structures whereas the GC/MSD method measures nicotine and cotinine selectively might explain the false positive results. False negative results were likely to be due to a lack of sensitivity of the test strip.

  15. The operational weather radar of Fossalon di Grado (Gorizia, Italy): accuracy of reflectivity and differential reflectivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, R.; Gorgucci, E.; Scarchilli, G.; Dietrich, S.

    The error structure of radar measurements should be accurately known in order to provide reliable estimates for a number of quantitative meteorological applications, from rainfall rate estimation to cloud microphysics. The aim of this paper is to give a detailed characterization of ZH and ZDR measurements obtained by the weather radar of Fossalon di Grado (Gorizia, Italy). Vertical-looking observations are used to determine the system bias on differential reflectivity and to estimate the measurement error on both ZH and ZDR in the rain medium. It is estimated that no bias is affecting ZDR and the accuracy of ZH and ZDR is 0.8 and 0.1dB, respectively. A similar evaluation is done in the rain medium at larger ranges with the antenna pointing at low elevation angles. The long time stability of the absolute reflectivity calibration is also established by radar-rain gage inter-comparison over almost 200 hours of precipitation data collected during nearly two years.

  16. The anisotropic effect of functional groups in 1H NMR spectra is the molecular response property of spatial nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS)--conformational equilibria of exo/endo tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Erich; Lämmermann, Anica; Kühn, Heiner

    2011-02-21

    The inversion of the flexible five-membered ring in tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (TH-DCPD) derivatives remains fast on the NMR timescale even at 103 K. Since the intramolecular exchange process could not be sufficiently slowed for spectroscopic evaluation, the conformational equilibrium is thus inaccessible by dynamic NMR. Fortunately, the spatial magnetic properties of the aryl and carbonyl groups attached to the DCPD skeleton can be employed in order to evaluate the conformational state of the system. In this context, the anisotropic effects of the functional groups in the (1)H NMR spectra prove to be the molecular response property of spatial nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS).

  17. Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

    2012-11-01

    The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 μg g-1) to west (0.7 μg g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 μm), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably

  18. THE MASS STRUCTURE OF THE GALAXY CLUSTER Cl0024+1654 FROM A FULL LENSING ANALYSIS OF JOINT SUBARU AND ACS/NIC3 OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Molnar, Sandor M.; Medezinski, Elinor; Broadhurst, Tom; Zitrin, Adi

    2010-05-10

    We derive an accurate mass distribution of the rich galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 (z = 0.395) based on deep Subaru BR{sub c} z' imaging and our recent comprehensive strong-lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys/NIC3 observations. We obtain the weak-lensing distortion and magnification of undiluted samples of red and blue background galaxies by carefully combining all color and positional information. Unlike previous work, the weak and strong lensing are in excellent agreement where the data overlap. The joint mass profile continuously steepens out to the virial radius with only a minor contribution {approx}10% in the mass from known subcluster at a projected distance of {approx_equal}700 kpc h {sup -1}. The cluster light profile closely resembles the mass profile, and our model-independent M/L{sub R} profile shows an overall flat behavior with a mean of (M/L{sub R} ) {approx_equal} 230h(M/L{sub R} ){sub sun}, but exhibits a mild declining trend with increasing radius at cluster outskirts, r {approx_gt} 0.6r{sub vir}. The projected mass distribution for the entire cluster is well fitted with a single Navarro-Frenk-White model with a virial mass, M{sub vir} = (1.2 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup 15} M{sub sun} h {sup -1}, and a concentration, c{sub vir} = 9.2{sup +1.4}{sub -1.2}. This model fit is fully consistent with the depletion of the red background counts, providing independent confirmation. Careful examination and interpretation of X-ray and dynamical data, based on recent high-resolution cluster collision simulations, strongly suggest that this cluster system is in a post collision state, which we show is consistent with our well-defined mass profile for a major merger occurring along the line of sight, viewed approximately 2-3 Gyr after impact when the gravitational potential has had time to relax in the center, before the gas has recovered and before the outskirts are fully virialized. Finally, our full lensing analysis provides a model

  19. The Mass Structure of the Galaxy Cluster Cl0024+1654 from a Full Lensing Analysis of Joint Subaru and ACS/NIC3 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Medezinski, Elinor; Broadhurst, Tom; Zitrin, Adi; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Molnar, Sandor M.

    2010-05-01

    We derive an accurate mass distribution of the rich galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 (z = 0.395) based on deep Subaru BR c z' imaging and our recent comprehensive strong-lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys/NIC3 observations. We obtain the weak-lensing distortion and magnification of undiluted samples of red and blue background galaxies by carefully combining all color and positional information. Unlike previous work, the weak and strong lensing are in excellent agreement where the data overlap. The joint mass profile continuously steepens out to the virial radius with only a minor contribution ~10% in the mass from known subcluster at a projected distance of sime700 kpc h -1. The cluster light profile closely resembles the mass profile, and our model-independent M/LR profile shows an overall flat behavior with a mean of langM/LR rang ~= 230h(M/LR )sun, but exhibits a mild declining trend with increasing radius at cluster outskirts, r >~ 0.6r vir. The projected mass distribution for the entire cluster is well fitted with a single Navarro-Frenk-White model with a virial mass, M vir = (1.2 ± 0.2) × 1015 M sun h -1, and a concentration, c vir = 9.2+1.4 -1.2. This model fit is fully consistent with the depletion of the red background counts, providing independent confirmation. Careful examination and interpretation of X-ray and dynamical data, based on recent high-resolution cluster collision simulations, strongly suggest that this cluster system is in a post collision state, which we show is consistent with our well-defined mass profile for a major merger occurring along the line of sight, viewed approximately 2-3 Gyr after impact when the gravitational potential has had time to relax in the center, before the gas has recovered and before the outskirts are fully virialized. Finally, our full lensing analysis provides a model-independent constraint of M 2D(

  20. Benthic fluxes of oxygen, carbon and nutrients in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vittor, C.; Faganeli, J.; Emili, A.; Covelli, S.; Predonzani, S.; Acquavita, A.

    2012-11-01

    Benthic metabolism and carbon and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water interface were studied seasonally in the Marano (sites MB and MC) and Grado Lagoon (sites ART and BAR), northern Adriatic Italy, using porewater vertical profiles and daily fluxes of O2, DIC, DOC, NO3-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO44- measured in situ deployed transparent and dark benthic chambers. Diffusive and benthic fluxes of solutes were evaluated on a seasonal basis. Sites MC and ART were characterized by higher Corg. contents due to input of riverine organic matter and mariculture, respectively. The Corg., Ntot., Ptot., Porg. and Sibiog. contents decreased along the sediment cores while porewater concentrations of DIC, DOC, NO3-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO44- increased along the sediment cores at all study sites due to the degradation of labile sedimentary matter. Higher concentrations of all porewater solutes and higher diffusive fluxes were observed in warmer periods. Benthic fluxes of O2, DIC, NO3-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO44- showed intensive seasonal variations. Based on O2 and DIC metabolism, the lagoon sediments were highly heterotrophic except at BAR being in trophic balance or weakly heterotrophic. NO3- and SiO44- exhibited influxes due to intense microphytobenthic assimilation, mostly by diatoms, and denitrification while extremely low PO43- fluxes suggest P as a limiting factor. The great difference observed between the diffusive and the in situ benthic fluxes suggests the importance of bioturbation and that the pertinent processes occur at the sediment-water interface. Tentative annual budgets of carbon and nutrients in surface sediments of studied sites indicate that their cycling, compared to burial flux, is more intensive at the sediment-water interface. These basic benthic biogeochemical processes can be important to better understand the trace metal cycling, especially Hg mobilization and sequestration, in the lagoon environment.

  1. Historical flux of mercury associated with mining and industrial sources in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Emili, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    The "MIRACLE" Project was established in order to assess the feasibility of clam farming and high levels of sediment mercury (Hg) contamination coexisting in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy. This lagoon has been subjected to Hg input from both industrial waste (chlor-alkali plant) and long-term mining activity (Idrija mine, NW Slovenia). One of the subtasks of the "MIRACLE" Project was to determine the historical evolution of Hg accumulation in the lagoon's bottom sediments. Thirteen 1-m deep sediment cores were collected from the subtidal and intertidal zones, plus one in a saltmarsh, all of which were then analyzed for total Hg content and several physicochemical parameters. Sedimentation rate assessments were performed by measuring short-lived radionuclides (excess 210Pb and 137Cs). For most of the analyzed cores, natural background levels of Hg were observed at depths of 50-100 cm. In the eastern area, Hg contamination was found to be at its maximum level at the core top (up to 12 μg g-1) as a consequence of the long-term mining activity. The vertical distribution of Hg was related to the influence of the single-point contamination sources, whereas the grain-size variability or organic matter content seemed not to affect it. In the western area, Hg content at the surface was found not to exceed 7 μg g-1 and contamination was recorded only in the first 20-30 cm. Geochronological measurements showed that the depositional flux of Hg was influenced by anthropogenic inputs after 1800, when mining activity was more intense. After 1950, Hg in the surface sediment, most remarkable in the central-western sector, seemed to also be affected by the discharge of the Aussa River, which delivers Hg from the chlor-alkali plant. In 1996, Hg mining at Idrija ceased, however the core profiles did not show any subsequent decreasing trend in terms of Hg flux, which implies the system retaining some "memory" of contamination. Thus, in the short term, a decrease in Hg inputs

  2. Human impact and the historical transformation of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontolan, Giorgio; Pillon, Simone; Bezzi, Annelore; Villalta, Renato; Lipizer, Marco; Triches, Antonella; D'Aietti, Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Historical transformations of the saltmarshes in the six sub-basins of the Marano and Grado Lagoon were analyzed using aerial photographs (1954, 1990, 2006), and the support of historical maps and topographic surveys. Analysis of the 2006 set of aerial photographs enabled the definition of the present extent and distribution of the saltmarshes inside the lagoon (760 ha), with a total reduction in saltmarsh area of 16% (144 ha) compared to 1954. Direct human actions played a significant role in the budget, since total loss due to land reclamation and dredging during this period amounted to 126 ha. After excluding the total loss due to direct human interventions, different erosional and depositional marsh types were recognized and associated with different forcing factors, based on morphological and geographical evidence. Over the 52-year period marshes were lost due to: (a) drowning - the combined effects of eustatism, regional subsidence and autocompaction (102 ha); (b) edge-retreat by wind wave attack (34 ha); (c) erosion by vessel-generated waves (37 ha); and (d) coastal dynamics and inlet migration (5.7 ha). Conversely, marshes gained in area due to: (a) fluvial input (63 ha); (b) tidal input (27 ha); (c) paralagoonal deposition (45 ha); (d) the re-opening of abandoned fish farms (18 ha); and (e) the dumping of dredged material (8 ha). Our analysis demonstrates that local and short-term forcing factors can obliterate or compensate the long-term ones, especially the relative sea-level rise. A test of the integrated sediment budget carried out on one third of the total lagoon, through a bathymetric comparison between datasets from 1964 to 2009, pointed out that conservation or slight expansion of the marshes inside these basins were linked to an overall positive sediment budget of 61,000 m3/y. Nevertheless, significant morphological changes occurred in the submerged basin, which is affected by sustained deposition along the inner margins due to sediment supplies

  3. Blood sugar beat - diabetes from the inside out Nic Lee Blood sugar beat - diabetes from the inside out ( http://nickynockynoo.com ) 183pp £9.99 (PDF £2.99) 978 1 4452 5671 9 97814452 56719 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2011-01-19

    Author Nic Lee says his experience of type 1 diabetes inspired him to become a nurse. His book is an intense, emotional narrative with insights into his experience of coming to terms with the condition. It is recommended reading for patients as well as clinicians.

  4. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Nursing Care Plan Applied Using NANDA, NOC, and NIC Linkages to Elderly Women with Incontinence Living in a Nursing Home: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Gencbas, Dercan; Bebis, Hatice; Cicek, Hatice

    2017-05-30

    Evaluate the efficiency of the nursing care plan, applied with the use of NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC (NNN) linkages, for elderly women with incontinence who live in nursing homes. A randomized controlled experimental design was applied. NNN linkages were prepared and applied for 12 weeks in an experimental group. NOC scales were evaluated again for two groups. A 0.5 NOC point change targeted in all elderly in the experimental group were provided between pretest-posttest scores. The experimental group had higher life quality and lower incontinence severity/symptoms than the control group. It is important that NNN linkages effective for solving the problems are used in different groups and with larger samples to create further evidence linking NNN. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  5. Nup93, a Vertebrate Homologue of Yeast Nic96p, Forms a Complex with a Novel 205-kDa Protein and Is Required for Correct Nuclear Pore Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Grandi, Paola; Dang, Tam; Pané, Nelly; Shevchenko, Andrej; Mann, Matthias; Forbes, Douglass; Hurt, Ed

    1997-01-01

    Yeast and vertebrate nuclear pores display significant morphological similarity by electron microscopy, but sequence similarity between the respective proteins has been more difficult to observe. Herein we have identified a vertebrate nucleoporin, Nup93, in both human and Xenopus that has proved to be an evolutionarily related homologue of the yeast nucleoporin Nic96p. Polyclonal antiserum to human Nup93 detects corresponding proteins in human, rat, and Xenopus cells. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy localize vertebrate Nup93 at the nuclear basket and at or near the nuclear entry to the gated channel of the pore. Immunoprecipitation from both mammalian and Xenopus cell extracts indicates that a small fraction of Nup93 physically interacts with the nucleoporin p62, just as yeast Nic96p interacts with the yeast p62 homologue. However, a large fraction of vertebrate Nup93 is extracted from pores and is also present in Xenopus egg extracts in complex with a newly discovered 205-kDa protein. Mass spectrometric sequencing of the human 205-kDa protein reveals that this protein is encoded by an open reading frame, KIAAO225, present in the human database. The putative human nucleoporin of 205 kDa has related sequence homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To analyze the role of the Nup93 complex in the pore, nuclei were assembled that lack the Nup93 complex after immunodepletion of a Xenopus nuclear reconstitution extract. The Nup93-complex–depleted nuclei are clearly defective for correct nuclear pore assembly. From these experiments, we conclude that the vertebrate and yeast pore have significant homology in their functionally important cores and that, with the identification of Nup93 and the 205-kDa protein, we have extended the knowledge of the nearest-neighbor interactions of this core in both yeast and vertebrates. PMID:9348540

  6. Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.

    PubMed

    Williams, J E

    2001-12-01

    Viral diseases, including emerging and chronic viruses, are an increasing worldwide health concern. As a consequence, the discovery of new antiviral agents from plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. A number of native Amazonian medicines of plant origin are known to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, although only a few have been studied for their antiviral properties and immunomodulating effects. Those most studied include: Sangre de Grado (drago) (Croton lechleri) in the Euphorbiaceae family and Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa) in the Rubiaceae family. This article reviews the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, state of current research, clinical use, and potential antiviral and immunomodulating activity of these and other plants from the Peruvian Amazon.

  7. Modeling Study of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Italy) to Support the Regional Water Protection Plan) TO SUPPORT THE REGIONAL WATER PROTECTION PLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scroccaro, Isabella; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) contemplates the classification of water bodies and establishes the quality objectives of water bodies to achieve a good status within 2015. Further, the Italian law which takes in the WFD with Decree n. 152/2006, allows to identify some water bodies as heavily modified (HMWB). The Regional Administration, involved in the setting up of the Water Protection Plan, according with the above mentioned decree and directive, has to establish specific programs to maintain or conform water quality to the requested quality objectives, also for heavily modified water bodies that have to reach the ecological potential. In the north-eastern part of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, the Marano and Grado Lagoon is the most complex transitional ecosystem in which four water bodies have been temporarily classified as heavily modified. They are identified as FM1, FM2, FM3 and FM4. In particular, FM2 - "Paludo della Carogna" and FM3 - "Barbana" water bodies seem to be characterized by some confinement since they are delimited by a bridge, called "Ponte Belvedere". The preliminary evaluation of the quality status of FM2 and FM3 water bodies is conditioned by the value of one of the quality criteria: the macrophytes. In fact, macrophytes are represented by very few species in these two water bodies. In a preliminary way the overall judgement of FM2 and FM3 water bodies has been indicated by the experts as scarse. This means that a specific programme of measures has to be proposed to improve the quality status of these water bodies in order to reach the ecological potential. In this context modeling may be used as a scientific and technical tool to support the evaluation on FM2 and FM3 water bodies and the effectiveness of specific measures for the achievement of the quality objectives. Numerical simulations of the Marano and Grado lagoon were performed for hydrodynamic circulation, temperature and salinity behavior with the

  8. Crystal structure of a compact three-dimensional metal-organic framework based on Cs(+) and (4,5-di-cyano-1,2-phenyl-ene)bis-(phospho-nic acid).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ricardo F; Venkatramaiah, Nutalapati; Tomé, João P C; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2016-12-01

    A new metal-organic framework compound, poly[[μ7-dihydrogen (4,5-di-cyano-1,2-phenyl-ene)diphospho-nato]-(oxonium)caesium], [Cs(C8H4N2O6P2)(H3O)] n (I), based on Cs(+) and the organic linker 4,5-di-cyano-1,2-phenyl-ene)bis-(phospho-nic acid, (H4cpp), containing two distinct coordinating functional groups, has been prepared by a simple diffusion method and its crystal structure is reported. The coordination polymeric structure is based on a CsO8N2 complex unit comprising a monodentate hydro-nium cation, seven O-atom donors from two phospho-nium groups of the (H2cpp)(2-) ligand, and two N-atom donors from bridging cyano groups. The high level of connectivity from both the metal cation and the organic linker allow the formation of a compact and dense three-dimensional network without any crystallization solvent. Topologically (I) is a seven-connected uninodal network with an overall Schäfli symbol of {4(17).6(4)}. Metal cations form an undulating inorganic layer, which is linked by strong and highly directional O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions. These metallic layers are, in turn, connected by the organic ligands along the [010] direction to form the overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  9. Crystal structure of a compact three-dimensional metal–organic framework based on Cs+ and (4,5-di­cyano-1,2-phenyl­ene)bis­(phospho­nic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ricardo F.; Venkatramaiah, Nutalapati; Tomé, João P. C.; Almeida Paz, Filipe A.

    2016-01-01

    A new metal–organic framework compound, poly[[μ7-dihydrogen (4,5-di­cyano-1,2-phenyl­ene)diphospho­nato]­(oxonium)caesium], [Cs(C8H4N2O6P2)(H3O)]n (I), based on Cs+ and the organic linker 4,5-di­cyano-1,2-phenyl­ene)bis­(phospho­nic acid, (H4cpp), containing two distinct coordinating functional groups, has been prepared by a simple diffusion method and its crystal structure is reported. The coordination polymeric structure is based on a CsO8N2 complex unit comprising a monodentate hydro­nium cation, seven O-atom donors from two phospho­nium groups of the (H2cpp)2− ligand, and two N-atom donors from bridging cyano groups. The high level of connectivity from both the metal cation and the organic linker allow the formation of a compact and dense three-dimensional network without any crystallization solvent. Topologically (I) is a seven-connected uninodal network with an overall Schäfli symbol of {417.64}. Metal cations form an undulating inorganic layer, which is linked by strong and highly directional O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. These metallic layers are, in turn, connected by the organic ligands along the [010] direction to form the overall three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:27980833

  10. The effects of resuspension on the fate of Hg in contaminated sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy): Short-term simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Predonzani, Sergio; Koron, Neža; Carrasco, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy) represent one of the world's most major repositories of mercury (Hg). Its presence is a direct consequence of the historical mining activity in nearby Idrjia (Slovenia), as well as significant discharges from a chlor-alkali plant into the Aussa-Corno river system, which connects to the lagoon. Previous studies have shown that sediment acts as secondary source of Hg species to the overlying water column in natural conditions. However, evidence for the effects of resuspension on the dynamics of Hg species is still lacking. The work reported in this paper formed part of the multidisciplinary "MIRACLE" project, aimed at identifying areas at low risk of Hg bioaccumulation in commercial Manila Clams, an important part of the local economy in this region. The effect of resuspension on the cycling of inorganic mercury (IHg), reactive mercury (RHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) between the sediment and water column was investigated in a mesocosm study. Two experiments were conducted in October 2009 and September 2010 based on material collected from sites heavily impacted by Hg and periodically subjected to dredging activities. Designed to mimic the resuspension of particles, both experiments revealed that the release of Hg species from the solid to the dissolved phase became negligible quickly after the event. MeHg values did not change according to total mercury (THg), suggesting that the enhancement of methylation processes may occur. The findings reported in this paper may be useful for the local management of dredging and fishing activities, although mass balance calculations showed that the total flux of Hg species are trivial compared to lagoon-wide processes.

  11. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained

  12. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V

    2011-10-10

    Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental

  13. Bis(phenyl-phospho-nic) anhydride.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Hua, Guoxiong; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2009-10-03

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(12)H(12)O(5)P(2), contains four independent mol-ecules, generating two dimers via pairs of inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming R(2) (2)(8) rings. The two aryl rings of each mol-ecule form dihedral angles of 108.6 (1), 103.2 (1), 12.5 (2) and 8.1 (2)° in the four mol-ecules.

  14. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  15. Reaction mechanism and structure-reactivity relationships in the stereospecific 1,4-polymerization of butadiene catalyzed by neutral dimeric allylnickel(II) halides [Ni(C3H5)X]2 (X- = Cl-, Br-, I-): a comprehensive density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Tobisch, S; Taube, R

    2001-09-03

    For the first time, a comprehensive and consistent picture of the catalytic cycle of 1,4-polymerization of butadiene with neutral dimeric allylnickel(II) halides [Ni(C3H5)X]2 (X = Cl- (I), Br- (II), and I- (III)) as single-site catalysts has been derived by means of quantum chemical calculations that employ a gradient-corrected density-functional method. All crucial reaction steps of the entire catalytic course have been scrutinized, taking into account butadiene pi complex formation, symmetrical and asymmetrical splitting of dimeric pi complexes, cis-butadiene insertion, and anti-syn isomerization. The present investigation examines, in terms of located structures, energies and activation barriers, the participation of postulated intermediates, in particular it aimed to clarify whether monomeric or dimeric species are the catalytically active species. Prior qualitative mechanistic assumptions are substituted by the presented theoretically well-founded and detailed analysis of both the thermodynamic and the kinetic aspects, that substantially improve the insight into the reaction course and enlarge them with novel mechanistic proposals. From a mechanistic point of view, all three catalysts exhibit common characteristics. First, chain propagation occurs by cis-butadiene insertion into the pi-butenylnickel(II) bond with nearly identical intrinsic free-energy activation barriers. Second, the reactivity of syn-butenyl forms is distinctly higher than that of anti forms. Third, the chain-propagation step is rate-determining in the entire polymerization process, and the pre-established anti-syn equilibrium can always be regarded as attained. Accordingly, neutral dimeric allylnickel(II) halides catalyze the formation of a stereo-regular trans-1,4-polymer under kinetic control following the k1t channel with butenyl(halide)(butadiene)NiII complexes being the catalytically active species. Production of a stereoregular cis-1,4-polymer with allylnickel chloride can only be

  16. [Adenocarcinoma of the cardia: results of resection with nic interposition].

    PubMed

    Picchio, M; Tedesco, M; Stipa, F; Ferri, M; Matrone, A M; Arca, R

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of cancer of the cardia is increasing. Surgical treatment, in a small percentage of patients in early stage, consists in esophagectomy and total gastrectomy, followed by colon interposition. The operation can be performed through the thorax or by an abdominal and cervical approach. From 1982 to 1989 twenty-five patients were operated on. Between 1980 and 1982 the cancer was resected opening the thorax in 9 patients (group A), while from 1983 to 1989 the esophagus was removed through diaphragmatic hiatus in 16 patients (group B). All cases were analyzed as for histology, staging and resection margin. Average clinical follow-up was 22 +/- 32.7 months (range 1-102). Morbidity was 77.7% in group A and 68% in group B. Mortality dropped to 14% in the last 7 patients. Mean survival time was 23 +/- 34 months in group A and 11.2 +/- 13.7 months in group B (p = N.S.). Follow-up controls showed that all patients, in whom the esophagus was replaced with colon, were able to feed adequately.

  17. The Barcelona Hospital Clínic therapeutic apheresis database.

    PubMed

    Cid, Joan; Carbassé, Gloria; Cid-Caballero, Marc; López-Púa, Yolanda; Alba, Cristina; Perea, Dolores; Lozano, Miguel

    2017-09-22

    A therapeutic apheresis (TA) database helps to increase knowledge about indications and type of apheresis procedures that are performed in clinical practice. The objective of the present report was to describe the type and number of TA procedures that were performed at our institution in a 10-year period, from 2007 to 2016. The TA electronic database was created by transferring patient data from electronic medical records and consultation forms into a Microsoft Access database developed exclusively for this purpose. Since 2007, prospective data from every TA procedure were entered in the database. A total of 5940 TA procedures were performed: 3762 (63.3%) plasma exchange (PE) procedures, 1096 (18.5%) hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) collections, and 1082 (18.2%) TA procedures other than PEs and HPC collections. The overall trend for the time-period was progressive increase in total number of TA procedures performed each year (from 483 TA procedures in 2007 to 822 in 2016). The tracking trend of each procedure during the 10-year period was different: the number of PE and other type of TA procedures increased 22% and 2818%, respectively, and the number of HPC collections decreased 28%. The TA database helped us to increase our knowledge about various indications and type of TA procedures that were performed in our current practice. We also believe that this database could serve as a model that other institutions can use to track service metrics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. NIC atomic operation unit with caching and bandwidth mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A network interface controller atomic operation unit and a network interface control method comprising, in an atomic operation unit of a network interface controller, using a write-through cache and employing a rate-limiting functional unit.

  19. 10th Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC X)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the most important international meeting in the field of nuclear astrophysics. It brings together nuclear experimentalists, nuclear theorists, astronomers, theoretical astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others interested in the scientific questions at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions concern, for example, the origin of the elements in the cosmos and the nuclear reactions that occur in the big bang, in stars, and in stellar explosions. Past meetings have been held in Geneva - Switzerland 2006, Vancouver - Canada (2004), Fuji-Yoshida - Japan (2002), Aarhus - Denmark (2000), Volos - Greece (1998), Notre Dame - USA (1996), Gran Sasso - Italy (1994), Karlsruhe - Germany (1992), Baden bei Wien - Austria (1990).

  20. Nonlinear alfvénic fast particle transport and losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, M.; Lauber, Ph; García-Muñoz, M.; Brüdgam, M.; Günter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities like Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes or core-localized modes such as Beta Induced Alfvén Eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfvén Eigenmodes driven by fast particles can lead to significant redistribution and losses in fusion devices. This is observed in many ASDEX Upgrade discharges. The present work aims to understand the underlying resonance mechanisms, especially in the presence of multiple modes with different frequencies. Resonant mode coupling mechanisms are investigated using the drift kinetic HAGIS code [Pinches 1998]. Simulations were performed for different plasma equilibria, in particular for different q profiles, employing the availability of improved experimental data. A study was carried out, investigating double-resonant mode coupling with respect to various overlapping scenarios. It was found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to enhance growth rates as well as mode amplitudes significantly. Small radial mode distances, however can also lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linear dominant mode. With the extended version of HAGIS, losses were simulated and directly compared with experimental loss measurements. The losses' phase space distribution as well as their ejection signal is consistent with experimental data. Furthermore, it allowed to characterize them as prompt, resonant or stochastic. It was found that especially in multiple mode scenarios (with different mode frequencies), abundant incoherent losses occur in the lower energy range, due to a broad phase-space stochastization. The incoherent higher energetic losses are "prompt", i.e. their initial energy is too large for confined orbits.

  1. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.

    2012-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  2. Earth's magnetosphere and outer radiation belt under sub-Alfvénic solar wind.

    PubMed

    Lugaz, Noé; Farrugia, Charles J; Huang, Chia-Lin; Winslow, Reka M; Spence, Harlan E; Schwadron, Nathan A

    2016-10-03

    The interaction between Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind results in the formation of a collisionless bow shock 60,000-100,000 km upstream of our planet, as long as the solar wind fast magnetosonic Mach (hereafter Mach) number exceeds unity. Here, we present one of those extremely rare instances, when the solar wind Mach number reached steady values <1 for several hours on 17 January 2013. Simultaneous measurements by more than ten spacecraft in the near-Earth environment reveal the evanescence of the bow shock, the sunward motion of the magnetopause and the extremely rapid and intense loss of electrons in the outer radiation belt. This study allows us to directly observe the state of the inner magnetosphere, including the radiation belts during a type of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling which is unusual for planets in our solar system but may be common for close-in extrasolar planets.

  3. Soft x-ray images of the Laser Entrance Hole of NIC Hohlraums (paper, HTPD2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M B; Meezan, N B

    2012-04-30

    Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility convert laser energy into a thermal x-radiation drive, which implodes the capsule, thus compressing the fuel. The x-radiation drive is measured with a low resolution, time-resolved x-ray spectrometer that views the hohlraum's laser entrance hole (LEH) at 37{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. This measurement has no spatial resolution. To convert this to the drive inside the hohlraum, the area and fraction of the measured x-radiation which comes from the region inside the hohlraum must be known. The size of the LEH is measured with the time integrated Static X-ray Imager (SXI) which view the LEH at 18{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. A soft x-ray image has been added to the SXI to measure the fraction of x-radiation inside the LEH's Clear Aperture in order to correct the measured radiation. A multilayer mirror plus filter selects an x-ray band centered at 870 eV, near the x-ray energy peak of a 300 eV blackbody. Results from this channel and corrections to the x-radiation drive are discussed.

  4. Properties of balanced and imbalanced relativistic alfvénic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2014-09-01

    When the magnetic field is so strong that the magnetic energy density is much larger than that of matter, magnetic perturbations propagate along the magnetic field lines, and the speed of propagation approaches the speed of light. As in the non-relativistic case, counter-traveling waves in this relativistic limit can interact and generate turbulence. In the present paper, we discuss the properties of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence generated by such interactions. First, we discuss the scaling relations for driven, balanced, relativistic MHD turbulence, in which the amplitudes of counter-traveling wave packets are similar. Second, we discuss the scaling relations of imbalanced relativistic MHD turbulence, in which the amplitudes of counter-traveling wave packets are different. Numerical simulations show that the scaling relations of relativistic MHD turbulence for both cases are very similar to those for their non-relativistic counterparts.

  5. Nursing Clinical Documentation System Structured on NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Peres, Heloisa Helena C; de Almeida Lopes M da Cruz, Diná; Tellez, Michelle; de Cassia Gengo e Silva, Rita; dos S Diogo, Regina Celia; Ortiz, Diley Cardoso F; Ortiz, Dóris R

    2015-01-01

    Information is a key feature that health professionals need to exercise their profession with efficiency and quality. This study aims to present the experience of the usage of an electronic system for clinical documentation in nursing in a university hospital. It is a methodological research of technology production. The system was developed in four phases: Conception, Elaboration, Construction, and Transition, and was named Electronic Documentation System of the University of São Paulo Nursing Process (PROCEnf-USP™). The knowledge base of PROCEnf-USP™ was organized in hierarchy of domains and classes, according to NNN linkages.

  6. Methyl-phospho-nic acid, CH3PO(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Hans; Reichelt, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, CH5O3P, contains two independent mol-ecules with nearly identical bond lengths and angles. In the crystal, each of the mol-ecules acts as acceptor (P=O) and donor (P-OH) of four hydrogen bonds to three adjacent mol-ecules, resulting in the formation of two different bilayers (one for each mol-ecule) stacked perpendicular to the a axis in the crystal.

  7. The use of Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in identifying the workload of nursing: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Carla Weidle Marques; Bonfim, Daiana; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Laus, Ana Maria

    2014-10-01

    To synthesize evidence related to the use of the Nursing Interventions Classification in order to identify nursing workload. An integrative literature review was conducted in June 2013. The search strategy yielded a total of 111 references, 18 of which were retrieved, read, and evaluated for relevance. A set of 10 articles met the selection criteria. A review of papers regarding the Nursing Interventions Classification and workload revealed the following themes: the identification of nursing interventions in areas of expertise and estimated times for their completion, the distribution of interventions in direct and indirect care, and the prevalence of the type of care in a given healthcare setting. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  8. [Planning With Nanda, Noc, Nic Taxonomies In Neurologic Rehabilitation. A clinical study].

    PubMed

    Iori, Alessandra; Foracchia, Marco; Gradellini, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Nursing classifications identify a specific professional responsibility, increase nursing visibility, according with nursing evolution of these last years. To evaluate care planning with NANDA taxonomy in neurologic rehabilitation context. Care plan managing with NANDA taxonomy, regarding diagnosis of constipation and impaired skin integrity, using a computerized tool for systematically observation, organized in check list. Registered data with taxonomy planning are higher in quantitative and qualitative terms. For most of patients (87%) one diagnosis has been opened, both diagnosis for 60% of them. Nursing care plan with NANDA taxonomy can be considered a valid methodology of care for neurologic patient, this since it requests a deep and complete registration of first assessment a systematically registration of each monitoring, it increases visibility of nursing job, and it underlines specific autonomy and responsibility in prevention and management of problems.

  9. A multi-port 10GbE PCIe NIC featuring UDP offload and GPUDirect capabilities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pastorelli, Elena; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2015-12-01

    NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU devices. A dedicated module (Multi-Stream) can optionally process input UDP streams before data is delivered through PCIe DMA to their destination devices, re-organizing data from different streams guaranteeing computational optimization. NaNet-10 is going to be integrated in the NA62 CERN experiment in order to assess the suitability of GPGPU systems as real-time triggers; results and lessons learned while performing this activity will be reported herein.

  10. Alfvénic oscillations of the electron distribution function: Linear theory and experimental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J. W. R. Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S.

    2015-12-10

    Wave propagation can be an accurate method for determining material properties. High frequency whistler mode waves (0.7 < ω/|Ω{sub ce}| < 1) in an overdense plasma (ω{sub pe} > |Ω{sub ce}|) are damped primarily by Doppler-shifted electron cyclotron resonance. A kinetic description of whistler mode propagation parallel to the background magnetic field shows that damping is proportional to the parallel electron distribution function. This property enables an experimental determination of the parallel electron distribution function using a measurement of whistler mode wave absorption. The whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic uses this technique on UCLA’s Large Plasma Device (LaPD) to measure the distribution of high energy electrons (5 − 10v{sub te}) with 0.1% precision. The accuracy is limited by systematic effects that need to be considered carefully. Ongoing research uses this diagnostic to investigate the effect of inertial Alfvén waves on the electron distribution function. Results presented here verify experimentally the linear effects of inertial Alfvén waves on the reduced electron distribution function, a necessary step before nonlinear physics can be tested. Ongoing experiments with the whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic are making progress toward the first direct detection of electrons nonlinearly accelerated by inertial Alfvén waves, a process believed to play an important role in auroral generation.

  11. Distinguishing Between Quasi-static and Alfvénic Auroral Acceleration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, R. L.; Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Models for the acceleration of auroral particles fall into two general classes. Quasi-static processes, such as double layers or magnetic mirror supported potential drops, produce a nearly monoenergetic beam of precipitating electrons and upward flowing ion beams. Time-dependent acceleration processes, often associated with kinetic Alfvén waves, can produce a broader range of energies and often have a strongly field-aligned pitch angle distribution. Both processes are associated with strong perpendicular electric fields as well as the parallel electric fields that are largely responsible for the particle acceleration. These electric fields and the related magnetic perturbations can be characterized by the ratio of the electric field to a perpendicular magnetic perturbation, which is related to the Pedersen conductivity in the static case and the Alfvén velocity in the time-dependent case. However, these considerations can be complicated by the interaction between upward and downward propagating waves. The relevant time and space scales of these processes will be assessed and the consequences for observation by orbiting spacecraft and ground-based instrumentation will be determined. These features will be illustrated by numerical simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling with emphasis on what a virtual spacecraft passing through the simulation would be expected to observe.

  12. Post-Shot Simulations of NIC Experiments with Comparison to X-ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, David; Jones, Oggie; Suter, Larry; Moore, Alastair; Schneider, Marilyn

    2012-10-01

    National Ignition Campaign experiments at NIF are ongoing and post-shot simulations play an important role in understanding the physical processes occurring in the quest for demonstrating fusion burn. In particular, it is important to understand the x-ray environment inside the hohlraum targets, which is studied using various x-ray diagnostics. The Dante instrument measures the time dependent x-ray emission escaping out of the hohlraum laser entrance holes (LEHs) and the SXI instrument provides a time-integrated image of both soft and hard x-rays. We compare calculated total x-ray emission with Dante data as well as the relative high energy Mband emission that contributes to capsule preheat. We correct our calculated x-ray emission to account for differences between simulation and data on LEH closure using SXI data. We provide results for both ``standard candle'' simulation with no added multipliers and for simulations with time-dependent multipliers that are used to obtain agreement with shock timing and implosion velocity data. The physics justification for the use of multipliers is to account for potential missing energy or incorrect ablation modeling. The relative importance of these two effects can be studied through comparison of post-shot simulations with x-ray measurements.

  13. 14th International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, Shigeru; Kajino, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Shunji; Isobe, TadaAki; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Shima, Tatsushi; Takeda, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the foremost bi-annual conference of nuclear physicists, astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others to survey the recent achievements in Nuclear Astrophysics. As an interdisciplinary meeting it promotes mutual understanding and collaboration over fields fundamental to solve a range of open questions, from the origin of the elements to stellar evolution.

  14. NBI-driven Alfvénic modes at ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, Ph.; Classen, I. G. J.; Curran, D.; Igochine, V.; Geiger, B.; da Graça, S.; García-Muñoz, M.; Maraschek, M.; McCarthy, P.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2012-09-01

    A large variety of electromagnetic modes excited by NBI-generated energetic ions are observed in the early phase of many discharges at ASDEX Upgrade. In addition to the well-known reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAE) and the toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), a set of modes around 70 kHz is observed as recently described in [7]. The modes were identified to be beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAE) connected with the appearance of the q = 2 and the q = 1.5 surface during the current ramp-up phase. In the view of ITER, these BAEs may occur in scenarios with q ≈ 2 (scenario 4) and therefore add significantly to the transport of energetic ions due to RSAEs and TAEs. Experimentally, the combination of ECE, soft-x-ray and magnetic measurements allows for a very reliable mode position and mode structure determination. The measurements are compared with linear gyrokinetic calculations employing the LIGKA code that uses a fully kinetic model to describe fast-particle-driven modes in general tokamak geometry.

  15. Materials Data on NiC2(SN)2 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Alfv?nic Instabilities and Fast Ion Transport in the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zeeland, M; Heidbrink, W; Nazikian, R; Austin, M; Berk, H; Gorelenkov, N; Holcomb, C; Kramer, G; Lohr, J; Luo, Y; Makowski, M; McKee, G; Petty, C; Prater, R; Solomon, W; White, R

    2008-10-14

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including Toroidicity and Ellipticity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are typically studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. During this same time period Fast-Ion D{sub {alpha}} (FIDA) spectroscopy shows that the central fast ion profile is flattened, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. To simulate the observed neutral beam ion redistribution, NOVA calculations of the 3D eigenmode structures are matched with experimental measurements and used in combination with the ORBIT guiding center following code. For fixed frequency eigenmodes, it is found that ORBIT calculations cannot explain the observed beam ion transport with experimentally measured mode amplitudes. Possible explanations are considered including recent simulation results incorporating eigenmodes with time dependent frequencies.

  17. Structure of Plasma Heating in Gyrokinetic Alfvénic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Alejandro Bañón; Teaca, Bogdan; Told, Daniel; Groselj, Daniel; Crandall, Paul; Jenko, Frank

    2016-12-01

    We analyze plasma heating in weakly collisional kinetic Alfvén wave turbulence using high resolution gyrokinetic simulations spanning the range of scales between the ion and the electron gyroradii. Real space structures that have a higher than average heating rate are shown not to be confined to current sheets. This novel result is at odds with previous studies, which use the electromagnetic work in the local electron fluid frame, i.e., J .(E +ve×B ) , as a proxy for turbulent dissipation to argue that heating follows the intermittent spatial structure of the electric current. Furthermore, we show that electrons are dominated by parallel heating while the ions prefer the perpendicular heating route. We comment on the implications of the results presented here.

  18. Materials Data on Ti3Al2NiC (SG:227) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Anisotropy of imbalanced Alfvénic turbulence in fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    Wicks, R T; Horbury, T S; Chen, C H K; Schekochihin, A A

    2011-01-28

    We present the first measurement of the scale-dependent power anisotropy of Elsasser variables in imbalanced fast solar wind turbulence. The dominant Elsasser mode is isotropic at lower spacecraft frequencies but becomes increasingly anisotropic at higher frequencies. The subdominant mode is anisotropic throughout. There are two distinct subranges exhibiting different scalings within what is normally considered the inertial range. The low Alfvén ratio and the different scaling of the Elsasser modes suggests an interpretation of the observed discrepancy between the velocity and magnetic field scalings, the total energy is dominated by the latter. These results do not appear to be fully explained by any of the current theories of incompressible imbalanced MHD turbulence.

  20. Laboratory and computer simulations of super-Alfvénic shocks in a weakly ionized medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourenas, D.; Vierne, J.; Simonet, F.; Krauz, V. I.; Nikulin, S.; Mialton, V. V.; Karakin, M. A.

    2003-03-01

    High Mach number shocks have been studied experimentally at the Kurchatov Institute in 2000 with the PF3 Plasma Focus [N. V. Filippov et al., Phys. Lett. A 211, 168 (1996)]. The main goal of these especially designed laboratory experiments was to provide data against which to test current numerical models, in order to better understand the interaction of a high-velocity plasma jet with a partially ionized gas in a strong transversal magnetic field. Observed magnetic field compression, plasma density profile evolution, and shock slowing down, are well reproduced by a two-dimensional hybrid code HAWAI2D [B. Lembege and F. Simonet, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3967 (2001)] with Monte Carlo collisions. Some of the code initial conditions are directly obtained from the numerous diagnostics installed in the experimental chamber. Others are derived from jet velocity and background density measurements, making use of a simplified model of jet propagation from the pinch. Ion-neutral collisions play a central role in the shock dynamics, as demonstrated in the simulations.

  1. 27 CFR 478.150 - Alternative to NICS in certain geographical locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the number of law enforcement officers of the State in which the transfer is to occur to the number of square miles of land area of the State does not exceed 0.0025; (2) The business premises of the licensee... pertaining to the ratio of law enforcement officers to the number of square miles of land area of a State and...

  2. 27 CFR 478.150 - Alternative to NICS in certain geographical locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the number of law enforcement officers of the State in which the transfer is to occur to the number of square miles of land area of the State does not exceed 0.0025; (2) The business premises of the licensee... pertaining to the ratio of law enforcement officers to the number of square miles of land area of a State and...

  3. Some unexplored features of the nonlinear compressive magnetoacoustic Alfvénic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranjes, J.; Pandey, B. P.

    2013-09-01

    The theory of nonlinear magnetoacoustic wave in the past has strictly been focused on purely compressive features of the mode. We show that a complete set of nonlinear equations necessarily includes both compressional and shear components of the magnetic field. These two turn out to be described by exactly the same nonlinear equations, which make the use of such a complete full set of equations far less complicated than expected. Present results should considerably enrich the theory of these waves by opening up new frontiers of investigation and providing some completely new types of nonlinear solutions.

  4. Earth's magnetosphere and outer radiation belt under sub-Alfvénic solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, Noé; Farrugia, Charles J.; Huang, Chia-Lin; Winslow, Reka M.; Spence, Harlan E.; Schwadron, Nathan A.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind results in the formation of a collisionless bow shock 60,000-100,000 km upstream of our planet, as long as the solar wind fast magnetosonic Mach (hereafter Mach) number exceeds unity. Here, we present one of those extremely rare instances, when the solar wind Mach number reached steady values <1 for several hours on 17 January 2013. Simultaneous measurements by more than ten spacecraft in the near-Earth environment reveal the evanescence of the bow shock, the sunward motion of the magnetopause and the extremely rapid and intense loss of electrons in the outer radiation belt. This study allows us to directly observe the state of the inner magnetosphere, including the radiation belts during a type of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling which is unusual for planets in our solar system but may be common for close-in extrasolar planets.

  5. Magnetism and charge density waves in R NiC2 (R =Ce,Pr,Nd )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolincio, Kamil K.; Roman, Marta; Winiarski, Michał J.; Strychalska-Nowak, Judyta; Klimczuk, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    We have compared the magnetic, transport, galvanomagnetic, and specific-heat properties of CeNiC2, PrNiC2, and NdNiC2 to study the interplay between charge density waves (CDW) and magnetism in these compounds. The negative magnetoresistance in NdNiC2 is discussed in terms of the partial destruction of charge density waves and an irreversible phase transition stabilized by the field-induced ferromagnetic transformation is reported. For PrNiC2 we demonstrate that the magnetic field initially weakens the CDW state, due to the Zeeman splitting of conduction bands. However, the Fermi surface nesting is enhanced at a temperature related to the magnetic anomaly.

  6. 77 FR 40911 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Technical Assistance Site Management in NIC's Evidence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... system planning activities. These change strategies are critical to meeting their system's harm reduction... of safer communities. It puts forward the belief that risk and harm reduction are fundamental goals... policies, practices, and services designed to achieve specific risk and harm reduction outcomes; and...

  7. SPECTRAL BREAKS OF ALFVÉNIC TURBULENCE IN A COLLISIONLESS PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Xia, Qian; Zhdankin, Vladimir; Chen, Christopher H. K.

    2015-06-20

    Recent observations reveal that magnetic turbulence in the nearly colisionless solar wind plasma extends to scales smaller than the plasma microscales, such as ion gyroradius and ion inertial length. Measured breaks in the spectra of magnetic and density fluctuations at high frequencies are thought to be related to the transition from large-scale hydromagnetic to small-scale kinetic turbulence. The scales of such transitions and the responsible physical mechanisms are not well understood however. In the present work we emphasize the crucial role of the plasma parameters in the transition to kinetic turbulence, such as the ion and electron plasma beta, the electron to ion temperature ratio, the degree of obliquity of turbulent fluctuations. We then propose an explanation for the spectral breaks reported in recent observations.

  8. Proton heating via nonresonant scattering off intrinsic Alfvénic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Wu, C S; Yoon, P H

    2007-08-17

    A novel yet unsophisticated theory is proposed to show that low-beta protons can be efficiently heated by enhanced Alfvén waves. The present research is motivated by a plasma physics issue relevant to the explanation of hot stellar coronas observed with x-ray telescopes. The efficient heating is attributed to nonresonant wave-particle scattering that tends to randomize proton motion in directions transverse to the ambient magnetic field.

  9. Mitigation of Alfvénic activity by 3D magnetic perturbations on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Bortolon, A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Spong, D. A.; Crocker, N. A.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Kubota, S.; Park, J.-K.; Podestà, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; the NSTX Team

    2016-08-01

    Observations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) can reduce the amplitude of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) and global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE) in response to pulsed n  =  3 non-resonant fields. From full-orbit following Monte Carlo simulations with the one- and two-fluid resistive MHD plasma response to the magnetic perturbation included, it was found that in response to MP pulses the fast-ion losses increased and the fast-ion drive for the GAEs was reduced. The MP did not affect the fast-ion drive for the TAEs significantly but the Alfvén continuum at the plasma edge was found to be altered due to the toroidal symmetry breaking which leads to coupling of different toroidal harmonics. The TAE gap was reduced at the edge creating enhanced continuum damping of the global TAEs, which is consistent with the observations. The results suggest that optimized non-axisymmetric MP might be exploited to control and mitigate Alfvén instabilities by tailoring the fast-ion distribution function and/or continuum structure.

  10. Suppression of Alfvénic modes with off-axis NBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, Eric; Bell, R.; Diallo, A.; Leblanc, B.; Podesta, M.; Levinton, F.; Yuh, H.; Liu, D.

    2016-10-01

    GAE are seen on NSTX-U in the frequency range from 1 to 3 MHz with injection of the more perpendicular, NSTX neutral beam sources. A new result is that injection of any of the new, more tangential, neutral beam sources with tangency radii larger than the magnetic axis suppress this GAE activity. Simulations of beam deposition and slowing down with the TRANSP code indicate that these new sources deposit fast ions with 0.9

  11. The Interaction of Coronal Mass Ejections with Alfvénic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Ward, IV; Van Der Holst, Bart

    2017-09-01

    We provide a first attempt to understand the interaction between Alfvén wave turbulence, kinetic instabilities and temperature anisotropies in the environment of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) near the Sun. The impact of a fast CME on the solar corona causes turbulent energy, thermal energy and dissipative heating to increase by orders of magnitude, and produces conditions suitable for a host of kinetic instabilities. We study these CME-induced effects with the recently developed Alfvén Wave Solar Model, with which we are able to self-consistently simulate the turbulent energy transport and dissipation as well as isotropic electron heating and anisotropic proton heating. Furthermore, the model also offers the capability to address the effects of fire hose, mirror mode, and cyclotron kinetic instabilities on proton energy partitioning all in a global-scale numerical simulation. We find amplified turbulent energy in the CME sheath, along with strong wave reflection at the shock combine to cause wave dissipation rates to increase by more than a factor of 100. In contrast, wave energy is greatly diminished by adiabatic expansion in the flux rope. Finally, we find proton temperature anisotropies are limited by kinetic instabilities to a level consistent with solar wind observations.

  12. Progress Towards a Laboratory Test of Alfvénic Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Dorfman, S.

    2016-10-01

    Alfvén waves are thought to be a key mechanism for accelerating auroral electrons. Due to inherent limitations of single point measurements, in situ data has been unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between Alfvén waves and accelerated electrons. Electron acceleration occurs in the inner magnetosphere where the Alfvén speed is greater than the electron thermal speed. In these conditions, Alfvén waves can have an electric field aligned with the background magnetic field B0 if the scale of wave structure across B0 is comparable to the electron skin depth. In the Large Plasma Device (LaPD), Alfvén waves are launched in conditions relevant to the inner magnetosphere. The reduced parallel electron distribution function is measured using a whistler-mode wave absorption diagnostic. The linear electron response has been measured as oscillations of the electron distribution function at the Alfvén wave frequency. These measurements agree with linear theory. Current efforts focus on measuring the nonlinear acceleration of electrons that is relevant to auroral generation. We report on recent progress including experiments with a new higher-power Alfvén wave antenna with the goal of measuring nonlinear electron acceleration. This work was supported by the NSF GRFP and by Grants from NSF, DOE, and NASA. Experiments were performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by DOE and NSF.

  13. Materials Data on NiC (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Earth's magnetosphere and outer radiation belt under sub-Alfvénic solar wind

    PubMed Central

    Lugaz, Noé; Farrugia, Charles J.; Huang, Chia-Lin; Winslow, Reka M.; Spence, Harlan E.; Schwadron, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind results in the formation of a collisionless bow shock 60,000–100,000 km upstream of our planet, as long as the solar wind fast magnetosonic Mach (hereafter Mach) number exceeds unity. Here, we present one of those extremely rare instances, when the solar wind Mach number reached steady values <1 for several hours on 17 January 2013. Simultaneous measurements by more than ten spacecraft in the near-Earth environment reveal the evanescence of the bow shock, the sunward motion of the magnetopause and the extremely rapid and intense loss of electrons in the outer radiation belt. This study allows us to directly observe the state of the inner magnetosphere, including the radiation belts during a type of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling which is unusual for planets in our solar system but may be common for close-in extrasolar planets. PMID:27694887

  15. 78 FR 23872 - HIPAA Privacy Rule and the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... social security number; date of birth; driver's license number, state identification number or foreign... identifiable health information, or any non-public corporate or trade association information, such as trade... incompetence to stand trial or a finding of not guilty by reason of lack of mental responsibility pursuant...

  16. 10-100 Gbps Offload NIC for WAN, NLR, and Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awrach, James; Maccabe, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    An extremely fast offload engine system has been developed that operates at 60 Gigabits per second (Gbps), and has scalability to 100 Gbps full-duplex (f-d). This system is based on unique coding and architecture derived from splintered UDP (User Datagram Protocol) offload technology, resulting in unique FPGA (field programmable gate array) intellectual property core and firmware. This innovation improves the networking speed of supercomputer clusters by providing an ultra-fast network protocol processing offload from a CPU (central processing unit) by inserting an offload engine into a host backplane and network connections. This runs on protocol firmware.

  17. Superconductivity in the Th-doped Y NiC 2 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syu, K. J.; Sung, H. H.; Lee, W. H.

    2007-03-01

    We have observed superconductivity in the two-phase samples with nominal compositions (Y 1- xTh x)NiC 2 ( x=0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5). As determined by magnetic, electrical and heat capacity measurements, the superconductivity phase transition temperature Tc increases with Th concentration to x=0.5 (T=8.3 K). Powder X-ray diffraction data provide the evidence for bulk superconductivity in an orthorhombic CeNiC 2-type majority fraction of the sample volume while the minor impurity phase ThC 2 has no effect on the superconductivity. The variation of room temperature lattice parameters, a, b, c and v of these substitutional intermetallic samples indicates the systematic substitution of Y 3+ ions by Th 4+ ions irrespective of the existence of the 2nd impurity phase.

  18. [The electronic use of the NANDA-, NOC- and NIC- classifications and implications for nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Bernhart-Just, Alexandra; Hillewerth, Kathrin; Holzer-Pruss, Christina; Paprotny, Monika; Zimmermann Heinrich, Heidi

    2009-12-01

    The data model developed on behalf of the Nursing Service Commission of the Canton of Zurich (Pflegedienstkommission des Kantons Zürich) is based on the NANDA nursing diagnoses, the Nursing Outcome Classification, and the Nursing Intervention Classification (NNN Classifications). It also includes integrated functions for cost-centered accounting, service recording, and the Swiss Nursing Minimum Data Set. The data model uses the NNN classifications to map a possible form of the nursing process in the electronic patient health record, where the nurse can choose nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions relevant to the patient situation. The nurses' choice is guided both by the different classifications and their linkages, and the use of specific text components pre-defined for each classification and accessible through the respective linkages. This article describes the developed data model and illustrates its clinical application in a specific patient's situation. Preparatory work required for the implementation of NNN classifications in practical nursing such as content filtering and the creation of linkages between the NNN classifications are described. Against the background of documentation of the nursing process based on the DAPEP(1) data model, possible changes and requirements are deduced. The article provides a contribution to the discussion of a change in documentation of the nursing process by implementing nursing classifications in electronic patient records.

  19. Collaborative quality improvement for neonatal intensive care. NIC/Q Project Investigators of the Vermont Oxford Network.

    PubMed

    Horbar, J D; Rogowski, J; Plsek, P E; Delmore, P; Edwards, W H; Hocker, J; Kantak, A D; Lewallen, P; Lewis, W; Lewit, E; McCarroll, C J; Mujsce, D; Payne, N R; Shiono, P; Soll, R F; Leahy, K; Carpenter, J H

    2001-01-01

    To make measurable improvements in the quality and cost of neonatal intensive care using a multidisciplinary collaborative quality improvement model. Interventional study. Patient demographic and clinical information for infants with birth weight 501 to 1500 g was collected using the Vermont Oxford Network Database for January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1997. Ten self-selected neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) received the intervention. They formed 2 subgroups (6 NICUs working on infection, 4 NICUs working on chronic lung disease). Sixty-six other NICUs served as a contemporaneous comparison group. Infants with birth weight 501 to 1500 g born at or admitted within 28 days of birth between 1994 and 1997 to the 6 study NICUs in the infection group (n = 3063) and the 66 comparison NICUs (n = 21 509); infants with birth weight 501 to 1000 g at the 4 study NICUs in the chronic lung disease group (n = 738). NICUs formed multidisciplinary teams that worked together under the direction of a trained facilitator over a 3-year period beginning in January 1995. They received instruction in quality improvement, reviewed performance data, identified common improvement goals, and implemented "potentially better practices" developed through analysis of the processes of care, literature review, and site visits. The rates of infection after the third day of life with coagulase-negative staphylococcal or other bacterial pathogens for infants with birth weight 501 to 1500 g, and the rates of oxygen supplementation or death at 36 weeks' adjusted gestational age for infants with birth weight 501 to 1000 g. Between 1994 and 1996, the rate of infection with coagulase-negative staphylococcus decreased from 22.0% to 16.6% at the 6 project NICUs in the infection group; the rate of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks' adjusted gestational age decreased from 43.5% to 31.5% at the 4 NICUs in the chronic lung disease group. There was heterogeneity in the effects among the NICUs in both project groups. The changes observed at the project NICUs for these outcomes were significantly larger than those observed at the 66 comparison NICUs over the 4-year period from 1994 to 1997. We conclude that multidisciplinary collaborative quality improvement has the potential to improve the outcomes of neonatal intensive care.

  20. MALDI-TOFMS analysis of coordination and organometallic complexes: a nic(h)e area to work in.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Mark F

    2011-07-01

    A mini-review of the characterisation of metal-containing compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) is presented. Organometallic and coordination compounds have many varied applications, most notably in industrial catalytic processes and also in the electronics and healthcare sectors. In general, the compounds discussed, be they small or large molecules, have a high percentage metal content, rather than simply containing 'a metal atom'. A brief history of the field is given, but the main scope over the last 5 years is covered in some detail. How MALDI-TOFMS compliments electrospray for metal-containing compounds is highlighted. Perspectives on recent advances, such as solvent-free and air/moisture-sensitive sample preparation, and potential future challenges and developments, such as nanomaterials and metallodrug/metallometabolite imaging, are given. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of Externally Applied Perturbation Fields on Alfvénic MHD Activity in the NSTX Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolon, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Observations from NSTX demonstrate that externally applied magnetic perturbations (MP) can alter the dynamic of beam driven Alfvén modes. Bursting Global Alfvén Eigenmodes (GAE, n = 7-9, 400-700 kHz) respond to pulses of static n = 3 fields (δB/B ~ 0.01 at the plasma edge) reducing mode amplitude, bursting period and frequency sweep by a factor of 2-3 [Bortolon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 265008 (2013)]. Similar MP attenuate the amplitude of continuous Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE, n = 2-3, 50-90 kHz). Calculations of the perturbed beam-ion distribution function, considering MP from ideal or resistive plasma response, confirm an enhanced fast-ion transport consistent with a reduced drive for the GAE. At the same time, MP can also affect the Alfvén stability by altering the structure of Alfvén continua through modification of the kinetic profiles or introducing toroidal coupling as result of the broken axisymmetry. Computations of the n = 2 Alfvén continuum for NSTX equilibria with n = 3 MP show strong modification of the TAE continuum near the plasma edge, where coupling between n = 2 and n = 5 continuum modes reduces the gap, providing an additional damping for TAE modes extending in this region. DOE Contracts No. DE-FG02-06ER54867, DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Implementation of Improvements in an Electronic Documentation Nursing Process System Structured on NANDA-I, NOC and NIC (NNN) Classification.

    PubMed

    Peres, Heloísa; Cruz, Diná; Tellez, Michelle; de Cássia Gengo E Silva, Rita; Ortiz, Diley; Diogo, Regina; Ortiz, Dóris R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the experience of a teaching hospital with the implementation of improvements to an electronic documentation system of the nursing process (PROCEnf-USP®). The improvements were based on functional performance and technical quality of the system. It was adopted Scrum method for version control PROCEnf-USP® by enabling agility, flexibility and possibility of integration between development and users. The PROCEnf-USP® has been used since 2009 and has professional and academic environments. The current version lets you generate reports and supports decisions about diagnoses, outcomes and interventions. It is provided the use of indicators to monitor results and registration at the point of care. The establishment of important.

  3. Nonlinear simulations of Alfvénic instabilities driven by energetic particles in a reversed shear tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Briguglio, Sergio; Chen, Liu; Fogaccia, Giuliana; Vlad, Gregorio; Zonca, Fulvio

    2013-10-01

    The extended version of nonlinear hybrid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-Gyrokinetic code HMGC (XHMGC) is used to investigate the reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAE)/energetic particle modes (EPM) driven by an anisotropic Maxwellian energetic particles with reversed shear q profiles. In the region near the minimum-q surface, EPM are shown to exist inside the kinetic low-frequency shear Alfvén continuum gap. Fast non-adiabatic down-ward chirping frequency is found for given equilibrium profiles, which is understood as consequence of nonlinear wave particle dynamics. In our current case, the mode structure is dominated by two neighbor poloidal components, while wave energetic particle interaction is dominated by the sidebands of the dominant transit resonance. S. Briguglio et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 3711 (1995).

  4. Toroidal Alfvénic Eigenmodes Driven by Energetic Particles with Maxwell and Slowing-down Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yawei; Zhu, Ping; Zou, Zhihui; Kim, Charlson C.; Hu, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhengxiong

    2016-10-01

    The energetic-particle (EP) driven toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) in a circular-shaped large aspect ratio tokamak are studied using the hybrid kinetic-MHD model in the NIMROD code, where the EPs are advanced using the δf particle-in-cell (PIC) method and their kinetic effects are coupled to the bulk plasma through moment closures. Two initial distributions of EPs, Maxwell and slowing-down, are considered. The influence of EP parameters, including density, temperature and density gradient, on the frequency and the growth rate of TAEs are obtained and benchmarked with theory and gyrokinetic simulations for the Maxwell distribution with good agreement. When the density and temperature of EPs are above certain thresholds, the transition from TAE to energetic particle modes (EPM) occurs and the mode structure also changes. Comparisons between Maxwell and slowing-down distributions in terms of EP-driven TAEs and EPMs will also be presented and discussed. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grant Nos. 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, and the Natural Science Foundation of China Grant No. 11205194.

  5. Simulations of stellar winds and planetary bodies: Ionosphere-rich obstacles in a super-Alfvénic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernisse, Y.; Riousset, J. A.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-03-01

    We classify the interactions of planetary obstacles with an upstream stellar wind. The investigation of each type of interaction is made using a three dimensional simulation code based on the hybrid modeling of the interplanetary plasma (the AIKEF code). The aim is to fill up the parameter space of magnetospheric interactions. In this work, we focus on highly resistive obstacles, non-magnetized but possessing an ionosphere. We examine different ionospheric types by focusing on one parameter: the ionospheric production. Two types of ionospheric ions are used: H+ and O+, to show the influence of ionospheric ion mass on the interaction region configuration. The interaction types are classified using an equivalent conductivity of the ionosphere. The resulting induced magnetospheric interactions are described using the currents flowing throughout the interaction region. The essence of the interaction region structure is summarized into three-dimensional diagrams of the current distribution. The results show three main stages of development. The first is a lunar-type interaction with raising asymmetries. The second is depicted by the presence of a growing induced magnetopause and an interaction region which asymmetry depends on the mass of the ionospheric ions. The last stage is a fully developed induced magnetosphere, or Venus-like interaction, with a symmetric magnetosphere.

  6. NANDA Diagnoses, NIC Interventions, and NOC Outcomes Used in an Electronic Health Record with Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunney, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This is a report of a secondary analysis of data from a published quasi-experimental feasibility study of the effects of implementing diagnoses from North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, interventions from the Nursing Interventions Classification, and outcomes from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (referred to as NNN) on…

  7. A stringent limit on the amplitude of Alfvénic perturbations in high-beta low-collisionality plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Jonathan; Quataert, Eliot; Schekochihin, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    It is shown that low-collisionality plasmas cannot support linearly polarized shear-Alfvén fluctuations above a critical amplitude δB⊥ /B0 β - 1 / 2 , where β is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure. Above this cutoff, a developing fluctuation will generate a pressure anisotropy that is sufficient to destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, interrupting the fluctuation before any oscillation. The magnetic field lines rapidly relax into a sequence of angular zig-zag structures. Such a restrictive bound on shear-Alfvén-wave amplitudes has far-reaching implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high- β conditions prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas, as well as for the solar wind at 1 AU where β > 1 .

  8. A Stringent Limit on the Amplitude of Alfvénic Perturbations in High-beta Low-collisionality Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    It is shown that low-collisionality plasmas cannot support linearly polarized shear-Alfvén fluctuations above a critical amplitude δ {B}\\perp /{B}0∼ {β }-1/2, where β is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure. Above this cutoff, a developing fluctuation will generate a pressure anisotropy that is sufficient to destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, interrupting the fluctuation before any oscillation. The magnetic field lines rapidly relax into a sequence of angular zig-zag structures. Such a restrictive bound on shear-Alfvén-wave amplitudes has far-reaching implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high-β conditions prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas, as well as for the solar wind at ∼1 au where β ≳ 1.

  9. NANDA Diagnoses, NIC Interventions, and NOC Outcomes Used in an Electronic Health Record with Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunney, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This is a report of a secondary analysis of data from a published quasi-experimental feasibility study of the effects of implementing diagnoses from North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, interventions from the Nursing Interventions Classification, and outcomes from the Nursing Outcomes Classification (referred to as NNN) on…

  10. Induced core formation time in subcritical magnetic clouds by large-scale trans-Alfvénic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Kudoh, Takahiro; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

    2014-10-20

    We clarify the mechanism of accelerated core formation by large-scale nonlinear flows in subcritical magnetic clouds by finding a semi-analytical formula for the core formation time and describing the physical processes that lead to them. Recent numerical simulations show that nonlinear flows induce rapid ambipolar diffusion that leads to localized supercritical regions that can collapse. Here, we employ non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including ambipolar diffusion for gravitationally stratified sheets threaded by vertical magnetic fields. One of the horizontal dimensions is eliminated, resulting in a simpler two-dimensional simulation that can clarify the basic process of accelerated core formation. A parameter study of simulations shows that the core formation time is inversely proportional to the square of the flow speed when the flow speed is greater than the Alfvén speed. We find a semi-analytical formula that explains this numerical result. The formula also predicts that the core formation time is about three times shorter than that with no turbulence, when the turbulent speed is comparable to the Alfvén speed.

  11. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  12. Ninos del Arco Iris: Primar Grado = Children of the Rainbow: First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, NY.

    This manual for first grade teachers provides suggestions and teaching materials that reflect the multicultural composition of New York City's (New York) public schools. It is organized into two sections: the first is in English, and the second is in Spanish. The English section contains the following six sections: (1) "Planning for the First…

  13. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  14. Segundo Paso. Grados 1ro - 3ro (Second Step. Grades 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    This document is the Spanish language supplement to "Second Step, Grades 1-3," a violence-prevention curriculum designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in young children and to increase their social competence. The supplement cannot be used by itself, as only a portion of the entire curriculum has been translated into…

  15. Segundo Paso. Grados 4to - 5to (Second Step. Grades 4-5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    This document is the Spanish language supplement to "Second Step, Grades 4-5," a violence-prevention curriculum designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in young children and to increase their social competence. The supplement, which cannot be used alone, translates portions of the curriculum, such as stories and discussions,…

  16. Prueba de Ciencia Primer Grado (Science Test for the First Grade). [In Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey.

    This document consists of three parts: (1) a manual for administering the science test to first graders (in Spanish), (2) a copy of the test itself (pictorial), and (3) a list of expected competencies in science for the first three grades (in English). The test consists of 25, four-choice items. For each item, the administrator reads a statement…

  17. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    analemático, conduzida por um monitor. Uma proporção significativa de estudantes desconhecia inicialmente a maioria dos fenômenos tratados. A intervenção realizada colaborou para uma parte dos alunos assimilar novos conceitos, propiciando o contato com novos fenômenos e, em menor grau, a elaboração de explicações a respeito destes, indicando um potencial educativo dessa ação. Porém, a contribuição para o entendimento de algumas das ideias exploradas foi pequena, apontando para a necessidade de se fazer observações, estudos e discussões complementares. El movimiento aparente del Sol en la esfera celeste y el comportamiento de las sombras de los objetos a lo largo del tiempo son fenómenos observables en la vida cotidiana. Sin embargo, los estudiantes a menudo no tienen una adecuada comprensión de dichos problemas, e incluso pueden mostrar conceptos erróneos acerca de ellos. Por lo tanto, se realizó una investigación a fin de conocer las nociones de los estudiantes acerca de estas cuestiones y evaluar la contribución a su comprensión proporcionada por una actividad realizada con un reloj de Sol interactivo, en un entorno informal de aprendizaje. Se investigaron las ideas de 43 estudiantes del séptimo grado del ciclo primario mediante la aplicación de un test con preguntas abiertas antes y después de una actividad con un reloj de Sol analemático, dirigida por un monitor. Una proporción significativa de los estudiantes inicialmente desconocía la mayoría de los fenómenos tratados. La intervención realizada contribuyó para que los estudiantes asimilasen nuevos conceptos, proporcionando el contacto con nuevos fenómenos y, en menor medida, desarrollasen explicaciones acerca de estos, lo que indica un potencial educativo de esta acción. Sin embargo, la contribución a la comprensión de algunas de las ideas exploradas fue pequeña, lo que apunta a la necesidad de hacer observaciones, estudios y debates adicionales.

  18. Prevenir y Combatir El Acoso en La Escuela: Guia de Recursoso para Educadores de los Grados "K" al Grado "12" (Preventing and Countering School-Based Harassment: A Resource Guide for K-12 Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steineger, Melissa

    This guide focuses on the issue of school-based harassment. It is intended to help educators prevent or curtail all forms of harassment by highlighting school-based harassment issues, by describing remedies and prevention strategies, and by providing additional resources. It details some of the problems school-based harassment engenders, and it…

  19. Aprender haciendo; Manual del Maestro (1 and 6 Grados) (Learning as You Go Along: Teacher's Handbook) (First to Sixth Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secretaria de Educacion Publica (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of six teachers manuals from the first to the sixth grade as used in the Mexican school system. They include suggestions for exercises from folding, cutting out, pasting, coloring and similar operations designed for the first grade up to simple electrical and electronic…

  20. International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, 15th, Grado, Italy, June 16-20, 1986, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Vinicio; Cercignani, Carlo

    Various papers on rarefied gas dynamics are presented. The general topics addressed include: kinetic theory, mathematical aspects of kinetic theory, analysis of rarefied gas flows, polyatomic gases, Monte Carlo simulation and numerical analysis, vehicle aerodynamics and external flows, gas-surface phenomena, and beams.

  1. Aprender haciendo; Manual del Maestro (1 and 6 Grados) (Learning as You Go Along: Teacher's Handbook) (First to Sixth Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secretaria de Educacion Publica (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of six teachers manuals from the first to the sixth grade as used in the Mexican school system. They include suggestions for exercises from folding, cutting out, pasting, coloring and similar operations designed for the first grade up to simple electrical and electronic…

  2. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02215d

  3. Cyclo-hexyl-methyl-ammonium N,N'-dicyclo-hexyl-N,N'-dimethyl-N''-(2,2,2-trifluoro-acet-yl)phospho-nic triamide).

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Sabbaghi, Fahimeh

    2008-12-10

    In the salt, C(7)H(16)N(+)·C(16)H(28)F(3)N(3)O(2)P(-), the P atom shows tetra-hedral coordination. Two ion pairs are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds across a center of inversion. The phosphoryl and carbonyl groups are staggered [O-P-N-C = 64.8 (3)°].

  4. Hybrid simulation of shock formation for super-Alfvénic expansion of laser ablated debris through an ambient, magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. E.; Winske, D.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C.

    2013-08-01

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulations of perpendicular collisionless shocks are modeled after potential laboratory conditions that are attainable in the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles Basic Plasma Science Facility. The kJ class 1053 nm Nd:Glass Raptor laser will be used to ablate carbon targets in the LAPD with on-target energies of 100-500 J. The ablated debris ions will expand into ambient, partially ionized hydrogen or helium. A parameter study is performed via hybrid simulation to determine possible conditions that could lead to shock formation in future LAPD experiments. Simulation results are presented along with a comparison to an analytical coupling parameter.

  5. Advanced Nursing Process quality: Comparing the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) with the NANDA-International (NANDA-I) and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC).

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Dantas Cavalcanti, Ana Carla; Ramos Goulart Caldas, Maria Cristina; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu; Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; da Silva, Marcos Barragan; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2017-02-01

    To assess the quality of the advanced nursing process in nursing documentation in two hospitals. Various standardised terminologies are employed by nurses worldwide, whether for teaching, research or patient care. These systems can improve the quality of nursing records, enable care continuity, consistency in written communication and enhance safety for patients and providers alike. Cross-sectional study. A total of 138 records from two facilities (69 records from each facility) were analysed, one using the NANDA-International and Nursing Interventions Classification terminology (Centre 1) and one the International Classification for Nursing Practice (Centre 2), by means of the Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes instrument. Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes scores range from 0-58 points. Nursing records were dated 2012-2013 for Centre 1 and 2010-2011 for Centre 2. Centre 1 had a Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes score of 35·46 (±6·45), whereas Centre 2 had a Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes score of 31·72 (±4·62) (p < 0·001). Centre 2 had higher scores in the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Process' dimension, whereas in the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Product', 'Nursing Interventions' and 'Nursing Outcomes' dimensions, Centre 1 exhibited superior performance; acceptable reliability values were obtained for both centres, except for the 'Nursing Interventions' domain in Centre 1 and the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Process' and 'Nursing Diagnoses as Product' domains in Centre 2. The quality of nursing documentation was superior at Centre 1, although both facilities demonstrated moderate scores considering the maximum potential score of 58 points. Reliability analyses showed satisfactory results for both standardised terminologies. Nursing leaders should use a validated instrument to investigate the quality of nursing records after implementation of standardised terminologies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of Indirect Nursing Interventions Performed by Korean and U.S. Nurses Using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin

    2016-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify frequency and time spent performing indirect nursing interventions by Korean nurses, and to compare the time spent on indirect nursing interventions with estimates of time spent by U.S. nurses. Data were collected from 721 registered nurses working in eight hospitals in Korea. U.S. data were obtained from the fifth edition of the Nursing Interventions Classification published in 2008. Korean nurses took more time with 4 interventions, and U.S. nurses took more time with 13. In general, Korean nurses spent less time performing indirect interventions than did U.S. nurses. Information from this study will help nurse administrators in their decision-making processes regarding managing units and staffing. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  7. N,N',N'',N'''-Tetrakis(2-methylphenyl)-oxybis(phospho-nic diamide): a redetermination at 150 K with Mo Kα radiation.

    PubMed

    Pourayoubi, Mehrdad; Padělková, Zdeňka; Rostami Chaijan, Mahnaz; Růžička, Aleš

    2011-01-22

    The structure of the title compound, C(28)H(32)N(4)O(3)P(2), has been redetermined at 150 K, with much improved precision. The structure and mol-ecular packing of the title compound was previously determined using Cu Kα radiation, with an R value of 0.0933 [Cameron et al. (1978 ▶). Z. Naturforsch. Teil B, 33, 728-730]. The c-axis length in this structure [13.8401 (8) Å] is almost half that reported in the original study. In the title compound, two (C(6)H(4)(2-CH(3))NH)(2)P(O) units are bridged via an O atom [P-O-P = 133.31 (11)°]. The P atoms adopt a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination geometry. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via N-H⋯OP hydrogen bonds into extended chains parallel to the c axis. An intra-molecular N-H⋯O=P hydrogen bond is also found in the mol-ecule.

  8. [THE EFFECTS OF CHRO- NIC ADMINISTRATION OF MODERATE DOSE OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE INTERLEUKIN-1β ON RAT INVESTIGATIVE BEHAVIOR AND SPATIAL MEMORY].

    PubMed

    Kalemenev, S V; Sizov, V V; Ischenko, A M; Zubareva, O E

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to discover the effects of chronic intraperitoneal administration of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on rat investigative behavior and spatial memory. Rats were injected with a moderate pyrogenic dose of IL-1β (0.5 mkg/kg) daily during 14 days (7 days before tests and 7 testing days). The behavior was examined in 23.5 hours after the previous injection of cytokine. The test battery included: "The open field" (within 3 consecutive days), "The exploration of novel objects", and "The Morris water maze". The animals treated with IL-1β differed from the control animals in an essential decrease of locomotor activity, slight increase of anxiety and suppression of exploratory behavior. The impairment of spatial memory was not revealed.

  9. The role of Alfvénic turbulence in the acceleration of the fast solar wind: "linkage" science with Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolla, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luciano; Zhukov, Andrei; Verdini, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    One of the key points of the Solar Orbiter mission will be the joint observations by remote sensing and in situ instruments: the remote sensing instruments will observe the sources of the solar wind that will later be measured in situ at the spacecraft (or at Solar Probe Plus). This is an opportunity to elucidate the role of MHD waves and turbulence in the acceleration of the fast solar wind. Using spectro-imagers (SPICE) or EUV imagers (EUI), various observables of the plasma can be measured remotely in coronal holes: electron temperature and density, element abundances, Doppler velocities and especially ion temperatures, non-thermal velocity and amplitude of MHD waves in solar features, the latter three being different manifestations of the MHD wave spectrum and its effects. We present some preliminary results on correlations of such remote sensing observables with in-situ measurement at 1 AU, as one may expect on the base of currently available observations (Hinode/EIS, SDO/AIA, and Wind).

  10. Hybrid simulation of shock formation for super-Alfvénic expansion of laser ablated debris through an ambient, magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S. E.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.

    2013-08-15

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulations of perpendicular collisionless shocks are modeled after potential laboratory conditions that are attainable in the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles Basic Plasma Science Facility. The kJ class 1053 nm Nd:Glass Raptor laser will be used to ablate carbon targets in the LAPD with on-target energies of 100-500 J. The ablated debris ions will expand into ambient, partially ionized hydrogen or helium. A parameter study is performed via hybrid simulation to determine possible conditions that could lead to shock formation in future LAPD experiments. Simulation results are presented along with a comparison to an analytical coupling parameter.

  11. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  12. National project seeking to improve pain management in the emergency department setting: findings from the NHMRC-NICS National Pain Management Initiative.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Steven; Knott, Jonathan; Bennetts, Scott; Jazayeri, Mitra; Huckson, Sue

    2013-04-01

    The National Pain Management Initiative was established by the National Institute of Clinical Studies to improve analgesic practice across Australian EDs. A barrier analysis provided information to better implement changes in analgesic practice. A working party was established and developed a multifaceted intervention strategy and clinical indicators. An online data collection system was developed and sites collected data at three monthly intervals for 18 months. A stepped-wedge design was chosen to manage the number of hospitals involved. Clinical indicators included documentation of pain score, time to analgesia, appropriate use of parenteral narcotics and effectiveness of analgesia for severe pain. A total of 16,627 patient datasets were entered from 45 metropolitan and regional hospitals. There was an increase from 41% to 64% in documented pain score (difference in proportions 23%, 95% confidence interval: 20-26) and median time to analgesia fell from 61 min (interquartile range: 23-122) to 41 min (interquartile range: 15-95). Appropriate parenteral narcotic use was over 90% for all time points combined. For all patients with severe pain there was no significant change in the proportion with a documented reduction of pain within 1 h of presentation. Significant improvements in documentation of pain score and time to analgesia were demonstrated through a national project of targeted improvement. Parenteral narcotic use has a high level of adherence to recommended practice. An improvement in the effectiveness of analgesia in severe pain has not been clearly demonstrated in this study. © 2012 NHMRC. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. Note on one-fluid modeling of low-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations in a solar wind plasma with multi-ion components

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.; Umeda, T.; Suzuki, T. K.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-15

    A simple point of view that non-zero Alfvén ratio (residual energy) appears as a consequence of one-fluid modeling of uni-directional Alfvén waves in a solar wind plasma is presented. Since relative speeds among ions are incorporated into the one-fluid model as a pressure anisotropy, the Alfvén ratio can be finite due to the decrease in the phase velocity. It is shown that a proton beam component typically found in the solar wind plasma can contribute to generating non-zero Alfvén ratio observed in the solar wind plasma. Local equilibrium velocity distribution functions of each ion component are also discussed by using maximum entropy principle.

  14. Genetic and ElectroNic medIcal records to predict oUtcomeS in Heart Failure patients (GENIUS-HF) - design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Gioli-Pereira, Luciana; Bernardez-Pereira, Sabrina; Goulart Marcondes-Braga, Fabiana; Rocha Spina, Joceli Mabel; Muniz Miranda da Silva, Rafael; Evangelista Ferreira, Noely; Bacal, Fernando; Fernandes, Fábio; Mansur, Alfredo José; Krieger, José Eduardo; Costa Pereira, Alexandre

    2014-03-04

    Studies adopting electronic medical records and genomic information are becoming widespread. Through this new modality in research, it is possible to study how genetic variants influence susceptibility towards chronic conditions and can improve patient care.Our aim is to develop a biobank with 2,000 heart failure patients treated in a tertiary cardiology hospital containing electronic medical records data and biologic samples for performing genome-wide association studies for validation and development of medical decision routines aimed at helping the clinical management of patients. Patients between 18 and 80 years old with heart failure diagnosis of different etiologies and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 50% in the past 2 years will be eligible for enrollment on the cohort. After consent, patients will be submitted to clinical baseline, echocardiography, cardiograph impedance and biochemical evaluation. Study data will be collected and managed using Research Electronic Data Capture tools. The follow up will take place every 6 months to assess cardiovascular outcomes (all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for worsening heart failure and current medication use). Initial analytical strategy will focus on the establishment of the accuracy of electronic medical records extraction protocols for main predictor factors of morbidity and mortality in heart failure. Building a biobank with biologic samples and clinical data of 2,000 heart failure patients we will perform genome-wide association studies. By this way, we pretend to study how genetic variants influence susceptibility towards chronic conditions. Besides, it will be created a working group focused on the development and implementation of algorithms for validation and application of medical routines using the electronic medical records of the Heart Institute (InCor - HCFMUSP). Current Controlled Trials NTC02043431.

  15. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals an Organometallic Ni-C Bond in the CO-Treated Form of Acetyl-CoA Synthase.

    PubMed

    Can, Mehmet; Giles, Logan J; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Sarangi, Ritimukta

    2017-03-07

    Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) is a key enzyme in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO2 fixation, which has long been proposed to operate by a novel mechanism involving a series of protein-bound organometallic (Ni-CO, methyl-Ni, and acetyl-Ni) intermediates. Here we report the first direct structural evidence of the proposed metal-carbon bond. We describe the preparation of the highly active metal-replete enzyme and near-quantitative generation of the kinetically competent carbonylated intermediate. This advance has allowed a combination of Ni and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure experiments along with density functional theory calculations. The data reveal that CO binds to the proximal Ni of the six-metal metallocenter at the active site and undergoes dramatic structural and electronic perturbation in forming this organometallic Ni-CO intermediate. This direct identification of a Ni-carbon bond in the catalytically competent CO-bound form of the A cluster of ACS provides definitive experimental structural evidence supporting the proposed organometallic mechanism of anaerobic acetyl-CoA synthesis.

  16. Jet-cooled laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of NiC: Observation of low-lying Ω = 0+ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Sheo; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Nakhate, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectra of 58Ni12C molecules, produced in a free-jet apparatus, have been studied. A new low-lying Ω = 0+ state has been observed at Te = 5178 (6) cm-1. Based on previous ab initio calculations this state is plausibly assigned as 0+ spin-orbit component of the first excited 3 Π state. The term energies of vibrational levels up to v = 10 for X1Σ+ ground and v = 3 for Ω = 0+ states have been determined. The harmonic and anharmonic wavenumbers respectively equal to 833 (4) and 6.7 (13) cm-1 for Ω = 0+ state have been measured.

  17. Sexually diergic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to single-dose nicotine, continuous nicotine infusion, and nicotine withdrawal by mecamylamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Natalie E.; Andrekanic, Julie D.; Karwoski, Tracy E.; Czambel, R. Kenneth; Rubin, Robert T.; Rhodes, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to single-dose nicotine (NIC) are sexually diergic: Female rats have higher adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) responses than do males. In the present study we determined HPA responses in male and female rats following single doses of NIC, a single-dose of NIC immediately following continuous NIC for two weeks, and NIC withdrawal by single-dose mecamylamine (MEC) following continuous NIC infusion for two weeks. Blood sampling occurred before and after MEC and NIC administrations for determination of ACTH and CORT. In accordance with our previous findings, female ACTH and CORT responses to single-dose NIC were greater than male responses. This sex difference remained after single-dose NIC followed continuous NIC infusion, but HPA responses in both sexes were significantly lower in magnitude and duration than in the single-dose NIC alone groups. Sex differences also were observed following NIC withdrawal by MEC: The HPA responses to pretreatment with MEC were significantly higher in magnitude and duration in the continuous NIC groups than in the single-dose NIC groups. These results demonstrate that HPA responses to NIC are reduced and transient following continuous NIC infusion but are enhanced and sustained following NIC withdrawal by MEC after continuous NIC, suggesting that NIC habituation and withdrawal influence the stress responses in a diergic manner. These findings highlight the importance of sex differences in the effect of NIC on HPA axis activity and stress responsiveness, which may have implications for directing NIC-addiction treatment specifically towards men and women. PMID:21396990

  18. 76 FR 35013 - Notice of Inventory Completion; U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... other site listed in the previous NIC. Therefore, the total number of individuals in the previous NIC will be changed from 11 to 16. Paragraph Number 4 in the NIC is Corrected by Substituting the Following... a Notice of Inventory Completion (NIC) previously published in the Federal Register (74 FR 24874...

  19. 28 CFR 25.6 - Accessing records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Brady Act. FFLs are strictly prohibited from initiating a NICS background check for any other purpose. The process of accessing the NICS for the purpose of conducting a NICS background check is initiated...) Search the relevant databases (i.e., NICS Index, NCIC, III) for any matching records; and (iv)...

  20. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  1. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 1-3. Teacher's Guide I (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 1-3. Teacher's Guide I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the first part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  2. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 4-6. Teacher's Guide II (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Levels 4-6. Teacher's Guide II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the second part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  3. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5b: Medida Lineal, Perimetro y Area (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5b: Linear Measure, Perimeter and Area).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include measurement, perimeter, and area. (MK)

  4. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6b: Resta de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6b: Subtraction of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  5. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5a: Geometria - Conjuntos de Puntos (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5a: Geometry - Sets of Points).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in the booklet include points, lines, planes, space, angles, and intersection and union of sets. (MK)

  6. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4a: Multiplicacion de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4a: Multiplication of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, and multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  7. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4b: Division de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4b: Division of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include reciprocals, complex fractions, and division of fractions. (MK)

  8. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  9. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5a: Geometria - Conjuntos de Puntos (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5a: Geometry - Sets of Points).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in the booklet include points, lines, planes, space, angles, and intersection and union of sets. (MK)

  10. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4b: Division de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4b: Division of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include reciprocals, complex fractions, and division of fractions. (MK)

  11. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6b: Resta de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6b: Subtraction of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  12. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 4-6. Teacher's Guide II (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Levels 4-6. Teacher's Guide II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the second part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  13. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5b: Medida Lineal, Perimetro y Area (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5b: Linear Measure, Perimeter and Area).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include measurement, perimeter, and area. (MK)

  14. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4a: Multiplicacion de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4a: Multiplication of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, and multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  15. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 1-3. Teacher's Guide I (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 1-3. Teacher's Guide I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the first part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  16. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  17. Las normas de desempeno matematico desde el preescolar hasta el segundo grado (Mathematics Standards for Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Kathy

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recently published "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics." For the first time, these new standards include pre-kindergarten standards, while outlining the mathematics that children should learn as they progress through school. The standards present a broad view of what…

  18. [Dietary supplements as a treatment for cervical cancer: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Arellano Ortiz, Ana Lidia; Jiménez Vega, Florinda; Salcedo Vargas, Mauricio

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: En el cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu) y neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales (NIC) se requiere de una cuidadosa selección de terapias convencionales y complementarias, la inclusión de suplementos dietéticos dentro de ellas marcaría la pauta dentro de los tratamientos. Sin embargo, no se tiene algún reporte de qué tipo de suplementos pudieran ser utilizados para brindar una mejor respuesta ante la enfermedad por estas pacientes. Objetivo: En la presente revisión se analizan los ensayos clínicos de los últimos 20 años que evaluaron suplementos dietéticos en esta población, con el objetivo de dar a conocer cuáles de ellos son viables para ser administrados. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda de ensayos clínicos que utilizaron algún suplemento dietario en mujeres con CaCu y algún grado de NIC analizando en ellos el modo de utilización del suplemento; el tratamiento convencional; si existe una deficiencia del nutriente ó compuesto a evaluar; las características de la población, del ensayo clínico y del suplemento; así como la dosis y los efectos esperados. Resultados: Veinte fueron en total el número de estudios analizados. Los artículos fueron clasificados según la naturaleza del suplemento: Retinoides, vitamina E, probióticos, indoles, multivitamínico, ácido fólico y selenio. Conclusión: Para el tratamiento de CaCu y NIC resultaron efectivos algunos de los suplementos encontrados en esta revisión, sin embargo su efecto dependerá de diferentes factores propios de la enfermedad. Debido a esto, es necesario el manejo correcto de los suplementos dietéticos para poder ser utilizados eficientemente como tratamiento complementario en esta población.

  19. Nicotine effects and the endogenous opioid system.

    PubMed

    Kishioka, Shiroh; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Saika, Fumihiro

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine (NIC) is an exogenous ligand of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and it influences various functions in the central nervous system. Systemic administration of NIC elicits the release of endogenous opioids (endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins) in the supraspinal cord. Additionally, systemic NIC administration induces the release of methionine-enkephalin in the spinal dorsal horn. NIC has acute neurophysiological actions, including antinociceptive effects, and the ability to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The endogenous opioid system participates in NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation. Moreover, NIC-induced antinociception is mediated by α4β2 and α7 nAChRs, while NIC-induced HPA axis activation is mediated by α4β2, not α7, suggesting that the effects of NIC on the endogenous opioid system are mediated by α7, not α4β2. NIC has substantial physical dependence liability. The opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone (NLX) elicits NIC withdrawal after repeated NIC administration, and NLX-induced NIC withdrawal is inhibited by concomitant administration of an opioid-receptor antagonist. NLX-induced NIC withdrawal is also inhibited by concomitant administration of an α7 antagonist, but not an α4β2 antagonist. Taken together, these findings suggest that NIC-induced antinociception and the development of physical dependence are mediated by the endogenous opioid system, via the α7 nAChR.

  20. Co-Administration of Ethanol and Nicotine: The Enduring Alterations in the Rewarding Properties of Nicotine and Glutamate Activity within the Mesocorticolimbic System of Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Waeiss, R. Aaron; Knight, Christopher P.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Truitt, William A.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The co-abuse of ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (NIC) increases the likelihood that an individual will relapse to drug-use while attempting to maintain abstinence. There is limited research examining the consequences of long-term EtOH and NIC co-abuse. Objectives The current experiments determined the enduring effects of chronic EtOH, NIC, or EtOH + NIC intake on the reinforcing properties of NIC and glutamate (GLU) activity within the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system. Methods Alcohol-preferring (P) rats self-administered EtOH, Sacc + NIC or EtOH + NIC combined for 10 weeks. The reinforcing properties of 0.1–3.0 uM NIC within the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) were assessed following a 2–3 week drug-free period using intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedures. The effects of EtOH, Sacc, Sacc + NIC or EtOH + NIC intake on extracellular levels and clearance of glutamate (GLU) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were also determined. Results Binge intake of EtOH (96–100 mg%) and NIC (21–27 mg/ml) were attained. All groups of P rats self-infused 3.0 uM NIC directly into the AcbSh; whereas only animals in the EtOH + NIC co-abuse group self-infused the 0.3 and 1.0 uM NIC concentrations. Additionally, self-administration of EtOH + NIC, but not EtOH, Sacc or Sacc + NIC, resulted in enduring increases in basal extracellular GLU levels in the mPFC. Conclusions Overall, the co-abuse of EtOH + NIC produced enduring neuronal alterations within the MCL which enhanced the rewarding properties of NIC in the AcbSh and elevated extracellular GLU levels within the mPFC. PMID:26306917

  1. Co-administration of ethanol and nicotine: the enduring alterations in the rewarding properties of nicotine and glutamate activity within the mesocorticolimbic system of female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Waeiss, R Aaron; Knight, Christopher P; Toalston, Jamie E; Truitt, William A; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-12-01

    The co-abuse of ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (NIC) increases the likelihood that an individual will relapse to drug use while attempting to maintain abstinence. There is limited research examining the consequences of long-term EtOH and NIC co-abuse. The current experiments determined the enduring effects of chronic EtOH, NIC, or EtOH + NIC intake on the reinforcing properties of NIC and glutamate (GLU) activity within the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats self-administered EtOH, Sacc + NIC, or EtOH + NIC combined for 10 weeks. The reinforcing properties of 0.1-3.0 μM NIC within the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) were assessed following a 2-3-week drug-free period using intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedures. The effects of EtOH, Sacc, Sacc + NIC, or EtOH + NIC intake on extracellular levels and clearance of glutamate (GLU) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were also determined. Binge intake of EtOH (96-100 mg%) and NIC (21-27 mg/mL) were attained. All groups of P rats self-infused 3.0 μM NIC directly into the AcbSh, whereas only animals in the EtOH + NIC co-abuse group self-infused the 0.3 and 1.0 μM NIC concentrations. Additionally, self-administration of EtOH + NIC, but not EtOH, Sacc or Sacc + NIC, resulted in enduring increases in basal extracellular GLU levels in the mPFC. Overall, the co-abuse of EtOH + NIC produced enduring neuronal alterations within the MCL which enhanced the rewarding properties of NIC in the AcbSh and elevated extracellular GLU levels within the mPFC.

  2. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared with 213 (39%) in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 1.04; p = 0.11]. The mean number of tooth surfaces affected by caries was 7.2 in the intervention group, compared with 9.6 in the control group (p = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups (p = 0.81). However, 164 out of the total of 400 (41%) children who converted to caries active reported toothache, compared with 62 out of 696 (9%) caries-free children (OR 7.1 95% CI 5.1 to 9.9; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children (p = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had ARs of a minor nature. The average direct dental care cost was £155.74 for the intervention group and £48.21 for the control group over 3 years (p < 0.05). The mean cost per carious surface avoided over the 3 years was estimated at £251.00. The usual limitations of a trial such as generalisability and understanding the underlying reasons for the outcomes apply. There is no mean willingness-to-pay threshold available to enable assessment of value for money. A statistically significant effect could not be demonstrated for the primary outcome. Once caries develop, pain is likely. There was a statistically significant difference in dmfs in caries-active children in favour of the intervention. Although adequately powered, the effect size of the intervention was small and of questionable clinical and economic benefit. Future work should assess the caries prevention effects of interventions to reduce sugar consumption at the population and individual levels. Interventions designed to arrest the disease once it is established need to be developed and tested in practice. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN36180119 and EudraCT 2009-010725-39. This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 71. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  3. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. OBJECTIVE To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. DESIGN The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. SETTING The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. PARTICIPANTS The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. INTERVENTIONS The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. RESULTS A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared with 213 (39%) in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 1.04; p = 0.11]. The mean number of tooth surfaces affected by caries was 7.2 in the intervention group, compared with 9.6 in the control group (p = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups (p = 0.81). However, 164 out of the total of 400 (41%) children who converted to caries active reported toothache, compared with 62 out of 696 (9%) caries-free children (OR 7.1 95% CI 5.1 to 9.9; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children (p = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had ARs of a minor nature. The average direct dental care cost was £155.74 for the intervention group and £48.21 for the control group over 3 years (p < 0.05). The mean cost per carious surface avoided over the 3 years was estimated at £251.00. LIMITATIONS The usual limitations of a trial such as generalisability and understanding the underlying reasons for the outcomes apply. There is no mean willingness-to-pay threshold available to enable assessment of value for money. CONCLUSIONS A statistically significant effect could not be demonstrated for the primary outcome. Once caries develop, pain is likely. There was a statistically significant difference in dmfs in caries-active children in favour of the intervention. Although adequately powered, the effect size of the intervention was small and of questionable clinical and economic benefit. FUTURE WORK Future work should assess the caries prevention effects of interventions to reduce sugar consumption at the population and individual levels. Interventions designed to arrest the disease once it is established need to be developed and tested in practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN36180119 and EudraCT 2009-010725-39. FUNDING This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 71. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:27685609

  4. The NSINIC on-line system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lev, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The NSI NIC on-line system is described in the form of view graphs. The following subject areas are covered: NSI history; the ADFTO's other on-line services; the current system; and the next generation of NSI NIC.

  5. Alternative splicing of basic chitinase gene PR3b in the low-nicotine mutants of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Burley 21

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haoran; Wang, Feng; Wang, Wenjing; Yin, Guoying; Zhang, Dingyu; Ding, Yongqiang; Timko, Michael P.; Zhang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Two unlinked semi-dominant loci, A (NIC1) and B (NIC2), control nicotine and related alkaloid biosynthesis in Burley tobaccos. Mutations in either or both loci (nic1 and nic2) lead to low nicotine phenotypes with altered environmental stress responses. Here we show that the transcripts derived from the pathogenesis-related (PR) protein gene PR3b are alternatively spliced to a greater extent in the nic1 and nic2 mutants of Burley 21 tobacco and the nic1nic2 double mutant. The alternative splicing results in a deletion of 65 nucleotides and introduces a premature stop codon into the coding region of PR3b that leads to a significant reduction of PR3b specific chitinase activity. Assays of PR3b splicing in F2 individuals derived from crosses between nic1 and nic2 mutants and wild-type plants showed that the splicing phenotype is controlled by the NIC1 and NIC2 loci, even though NIC1 and NIC2 are unlinked loci. Moreover, the transcriptional analyses showed that the splicing patterns of PR3b in the low-nicotine mutants were differentially regulated by jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET). These data suggest that the NIC1 and NIC2 loci display differential roles in regulating the alternative splicing of PR3b in Burley 21. The findings in this study have provided valuable information for extending our understanding of the broader effects of the low-nicotine mutants of Burley 21 and the mechanism by which JA and ET signalling pathways post-transcriptionally regulate the activity of PR3b protein. PMID:27664270

  6. Influence of environmental enrichment on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to single-dose nicotine, continuous nicotine by osmotic mini-pumps, and nicotine withdrawal by mecamylamine in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Skwara, Amanda J.; Karwoski, Tracy E.; Czambel, R. Kenneth; Rubin, Robert T.; Rhodes, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effects of environmental enrichment (EE; Kong Toys® and Nestlets®) on sexually diergic HPA axis responses to single-dose nicotine (NIC), single-dose NIC following continuous NIC administration for two weeks, and NIC withdrawal by single-dose mecamylamine (MEC) in male and female rats. Blood sampling occurred before and after MEC and NIC administrations for the determination of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT). Supporting and extending our previous findings, EE appeared to produce anxiolytic effects by reducing hormone responses: Male and female rats housed with EE had lower baseline ACTH and significantly lower HPA axis responses to the mild stress of saline (SAL) injection than did those housed without EE. The sexually diergic responses to single dose NIC, continuous NIC, and MEC-induced NIC withdrawal were reduced by EE in many male and female groups. ACTH responses to continuous NIC and MEC-induced NIC withdrawal were blunted to a greater extent in female EE groups than in male EE groups, suggesting that females are more sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of EE. Because EE lowered stress-responsive hormones of the HPA axis in most groups, EE may be a useful intervention for stress reduction in animal models of NIC addiction. As well, the effectiveness of EE in animal studies of NIC withdrawal may enlighten human studies addressing coping styles and tobacco cessation in men and women. PMID:22705101

  7. 77 FR 19738 - Notice of Availability of Calendar Year 2013 Competitive Grant Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... April 9, 2012. Applicants must file a Notice of Intent to Compete (NIC) to participate in the competitive grants process. Applicants must file the NIC by May 11, 2012, 5 p.m. E.D.T. Other key application... officials. The RFP, containing the NIC and grant application, guidelines, proposal content requirements...

  8. Niclosamide-conjugated polypeptide nanoparticles inhibit Wnt signaling and colon cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Ren, Xiu-Rong; Mook, Robert A; Wang, Jiangbo; Spasojevic, Ivan; Premont, Richard T; Li, Xinghai; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Chen, Wei

    2017-08-31

    Abnormal Wnt activity is a major mechanism responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Previously, we reported that the anthelmintic drug Niclosamide (NIC) inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and suppresses colon cancer cell growth. Although the pharmacokinetic properties of NIC are appropriate for use as an anthelmintic agent, its low solubility, low bioavailability and low systemic exposure limit its usefulness in treating systemic diseases. To overcome these limitations, we conjugated NIC to recombinant chimeric polypeptides (CPs), and the CP-NIC conjugate spontaneously self-assembled into sub-100 nm near-monodisperse nanoparticles. CP-NIC nanoparticles delivered intravenously act as a pro-drug of NIC to dramatically increase exposure of NIC compared to dosing with free NIC. CP-NIC improved anti-tumor activity compared to NIC in a xenograft model of human colon cancer. Because NIC has multiple biological activities, CP-NIC could be used for treatment of multiple diseases, including cancer, bacterial and viral infection, type II diabetes, NASH and NAFLD.

  9. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech);…

  10. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech);…

  11. Characterization of nicardipine hydrochloride-induced cell injury in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Masanori; Kawai, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Toyoda, Hiromu

    2015-02-01

    Nicardipine hydrochloride (NIC), a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocking agent, has been widely used for the treatment of hypertension. Especially, nicardipine hydrochloride injection is used as first-line therapy for emergency treatment of abnormally high blood pressure. Although NIC has an attractive pharmacological profile, one of the dose-limiting factors of NIC is severe peripheral vascular injury after intravenous injection. The goal of this study was to better understand and thereby reduce NIC-mediated vascular injury. Here, we investigated the mechanism of NIC-induced vascular injury using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). NIC decreased cell viability and increased percent of dead cells in a dose-dependent manner (10-30 μg/mL). Although cell membrane injury was not significant over 9 hr exposure, significant changes of cell morphology and increases in vacuoles in HMVECs were observed within 30 min of NIC exposure (30 μg/mL). Autophagosome labeling with monodansylcadaverine revealed increased autophagosomes in the NIC-treated cells, whereas caspase 3/7 activity was not increased in the NIC-treated cells (30 μg/mL). Additionally, NIC-induced reduction of cell viability was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagosome formation. These findings suggest that NIC causes severe peripheral venous irritation via induction of autophagic cell death and that inhibition of autophagy could contribute to the reduction of NIC-induced vascular injury.

  12. Influence of environmental enrichment on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to single-dose nicotine, continuous nicotine by osmotic mini-pumps, and nicotine withdrawal by mecamylamine in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Skwara, Amanda J; Karwoski, Tracy E; Czambel, R Kenneth; Rubin, Robert T; Rhodes, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, we determined the effects of environmental enrichment (EE; Kong Toys and Nestlets) on sexually diergic HPA axis responses to single-dose nicotine (NIC), single-dose NIC following continuous NIC administration for two weeks, and NIC withdrawal by single-dose mecamylamine (MEC) in male and female rats. Blood sampling occurred before and after MEC and NIC administrations for the determination of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT). Supporting and extending our previous findings, EE appeared to produce anxiolytic effects by reducing hormone responses: Male and female rats housed with EE had lower baseline ACTH and significantly lower HPA axis responses to the mild stress of saline (SAL) injection than did those housed without EE. The sexually diergic responses to single dose NIC, continuous NIC, and MEC-induced NIC withdrawal were reduced by EE in many male and female groups. ACTH responses to continuous NIC and MEC-induced NIC withdrawal were blunted to a greater extent in female EE groups than in male EE groups, suggesting that females are more sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of EE. Because EE lowered stress-responsive hormones of the HPA axis in most groups, EE may be a useful intervention for stress reduction in animal models of NIC addiction. As well, the effectiveness of EE in animal studies of NIC withdrawal may enlighten human studies addressing coping styles and tobacco cessation in men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of nicotine on sign-tracking and goal-tracking in a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm in rats.

    PubMed

    Palmatier, Matthew I; Marks, Kimberley R; Jones, Scott A; Freeman, Kyle S; Wissman, Kevin M; Sheppard, A Brianna

    2013-03-01

    Nicotine (NIC) potently increases operant responding for non-NIC reinforcers, and this effect may depend on drug-mediated increases in incentive motivation. According to this hypothesis, NIC should also potently increase approach to Pavlovian-conditioned stimuli associated with rewards. The present studies explored the effects of NIC on Pavlovian-conditioned approach responses. To do so, liquid dippers were used to deliver an unconditioned stimulus (US; 0.1 ml sucrose) after presentation of a conditioned stimulus (CS; 30 s illumination of a stimulus light)-both the CS and US were presented in receptacles equipped to monitor head entries. In experiment 1, the CS and US were presented in the same receptacle, but NIC pretreatment (0.4 mg/kg base) did not increase conditioned approach responses. Delivery of the sucrose US was then shifted to receptacle in a different location. All rats learned to approach the new US location (goal-tracking) at similar rates. Approach to the CS receptacle (sign-tracking) declined for saline-pretreated rats, but NIC pretreatment increased sign-tracking. In experiment 2, NIC pretreatment increased sign-tracking when the CS and US were spatially separated during acquisition. In experiment 3, NIC pretreatments were replaced with saline, but the effect of NIC persisted for an additional 24 test sessions. The findings suggest that NIC increases incentive motivation and that this effect is long-lasting, persisting beyond the pharmacological effects of NIC.

  14. [Effects of nicorandil on spontaneous beating and action potentials of cultured myocardial cells of neonatal rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Wang, W X

    1995-09-01

    To study the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nicorandil (Nic). The myocardial cells of neonatal rats were cultured and effects of Nic on spontaneous beating and action potential of cultured myocardial cells were observed. Nic 32 mumol L-1 and 160 mumol L-1 decreased the spontaneous beating rates of cultured myocardial cells of neonatal rats. Nic 64 mumol L-1 prevented the beating rats induced by CaCl2 1 mmol L-1 and isoproterenol 2 mumol L-1. Nic 32 and 160 mumol L-1 reduced the amplitude, maximal rate of rise, and shortened APD50 and APD90 repolarization. Nic prolonged the spontaneous sinus cycle length. The antiarrhythmic mechanism of Nic is related to its direct effects on the myocardial cells.

  15. Documented Nursing Interventions in Inpatient Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Frauenfelder, Fritz; van Achterberg, Theo; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2016-09-06

    This study explored how well the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) covers adult inpatient psychiatric care. By systematic analyses and a mapping approach, documented nursing interventions were assessed on concurrencies with the NIC. From 2,153 intervention descriptions in nursing notes, 1,924 were recognizable as NIC interventions, and 229 did not match the NIC. 89.4% of all identified descriptions of interventions were recognizable as NIC interventions on the level of definition. This study demonstrates that the NIC describes adult inpatient psychiatric care to a large extent. Nevertheless, further development of the classification is important. The study results provide a basis for further developing the NIC and to reinforce its use in inpatient psychiatric settings. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  16. Mechanistic studies on the effects of nicotinamide on megakaryocytic polyploidization and the roles of NAD+ levels and SIRT inhibition.

    PubMed

    Giammona, Lisa M; Panuganti, Swapna; Kemper, Jan M; Apostolidis, Pani A; Lindsey, Stephan; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T; Miller, William M

    2009-11-01

    Megakaryocytic cells (Mks) undergo endomitosis and become polyploid. Mk ploidy correlates with platelet production. We previously showed that nicotinamide (NIC) greatly increases Mk ploidy in cultures of human mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) cells. This study aims to examine the generality of NIC effects, NIC's impact on Mk ultrastructure, and potential mechanisms for the increased ploidy. We used electron microscopy to examine Mk ultrastructure and flow cytometry to evaluate NIC effects on Mk differentiation and ploidy in mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) cell cultures under diverse megakaryopoietic conditions. Mk ploidy and NAD(H) content were evaluated for NIC and other NAD(+) precursors. We tested additional inhibitors of the sirtuin (or SIRT) 1 and SIRT2 histone/protein deacetylases and, after treatment with NIC, evaluated changes in the acetylation of SIRT1/2 targets. NIC increased ploidy under diverse culture conditions and did not alter Mk ultrastructure; 6.25 mM NIC increased NAD(+) levels fivefold. Quinolinic acid increased NAD(+) similar to that for 1 mM NIC, but yielded a much smaller ploidy increase. Similar increases in Mk ploidy were obtained using NIC or the SIRT1/2 inhibitor cambinol, while the SIRT2 inhibitor AGK2 moderately increased ploidy. SIRT1/2 inhibition in cells treated with NIC was evidenced by increased acetylation of nucleosomes and p53. Greater p53 acetylation with NIC was associated with increased binding of p53 to its consensus DNA binding sequence. NIC greatly increases Mk ploidy under a wide range of conditions without altering Mk morphology. Inhibition of SIRT1 and/or SIRT2 is primarily responsible for NIC effects on Mk maturation.

  17. Mi Quinto Libro de Maquinas Simples: El Plano Inclinado. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Fifth Book of Simple Machines: The Inclined Plane. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the fifth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains the principles and some of the uses of inclined planes, as they appear in simple machines, by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book…

  18. The Role That Socioaffective Practices Play in Third Graders' Autonomous Learning (El papel de las prácticas socioafectivas en el aprendizaje autónomo de estudiantes de tercer grado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdomo Toro, Jhonatan; Rico González, Ángela Milena; Huepa Salcedo, Nury Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe and analyze how autonomous learning emerges in third graders' socioaffective practices as reconstructed in written narratives. Results were obtained by analyzing and reflecting on classroom observation, interviews and written narratives done by the students which let us appreciate different behaviors and reactions the…

  19. Using Songs to Encourage Sixth Graders to Develop English Speaking Skills (Uso de canciones para motivar a los estudiantes de grado sexto a desarrollar habilidades orales en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte Romero, Mónica Duarte; Tinjacá Bernal, Luz Mery; Carrero Olivares, Marilú

    2012-01-01

    This article contains the procedures and findings of an investigation carried out by a team of teachers with the purpose of motivating students to speak English. We observed students' lack confidence to talk and that they had little motivation toward learning English. Thus, we used songs as a main resource in conjunction with different kind of…

  20. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 4-6 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, cuatro-sexto grados. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    This supplementary math curriculum guide for use with Spanish-speaking, fouth through sixth grade students in Chicago public schools employs a contrastive analysis approach. Lessons are presented for objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those used in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for…

  1. Mi Cuarto Libro de Maquinas Simples: Otras Modificaciones de la Rueda. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Fourth Book of Simple Machines: Other Modifications of the Wheel. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the fourth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains further refinements of the wheel which is introduced in volume three. The fourth volume explains principles behind gears and the relationship between velocity and force by…

  2. Mi Tercer Libro de Maquinas Simples: La Rueda y la Polea. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Third Book of Simple Machines: The Wheel and the Pulley. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the third book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume explains principles governing wheels and pulleys by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate the scientific principles. Friction…

  3. La Desercion Escolar en los Niveles de Sexto y Noveno Grado: Una Comparacion Entre Zonas Rurales y Urbanas. Boletin 219 (The Educational Desertion in the 6th and 9th Grades: A Comparison Between Rural and Urban Zones. Bulletin 219).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria I. Hernandez; And Others

    In 1962 and again in 1965, a group of sixth and ninth grade students in selected schools in four Puerto Rican communities were interviewed to investigate the factors influencing students' decision to withdraw from school before completing twelfth grade and to identify some characteristics of dropouts. Of 616 students interviewed in 1962, 20.9% of…

  4. Mi Primer Libro de Maquinas Simples: Trabajo y Fuerza. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My First Book of Simple Machines: Work and Force. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the first book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume defines force and work by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate scientific principles. Answers to the questions are provided;…

  5. Mi Segundo Libro de Maquinas Simples: Las Palancas. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Second Book of Simple Machines: Levers. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the second book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. By suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate the scientific principles, this book explains the workings of three types of levers. Resistance…

  6. La Desercion Escolar en los Niveles de Sexto y Noveno Grado: Una Comparacion Entre Zonas Rurales y Urbanas. Boletin 219 (The Educational Desertion in the 6th and 9th Grades: A Comparison Between Rural and Urban Zones. Bulletin 219).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria I. Hernandez; And Others

    In 1962 and again in 1965, a group of sixth and ninth grade students in selected schools in four Puerto Rican communities were interviewed to investigate the factors influencing students' decision to withdraw from school before completing twelfth grade and to identify some characteristics of dropouts. Of 616 students interviewed in 1962, 20.9% of…

  7. Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 2), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 2, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Leslie; And Others

    This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through 10. Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions. (RH)

  8. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 2-3 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, segundo y tercer grados. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    A contrastive analysis approach is used in this supplementary math curriculum guide for Spanish-speaking second and third grade students in Chicago public schools. Lessons are presented for those objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those used in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for which…

  9. Matematicas Para La Escuela Primaria, Grado 4 (Parte 1), Comentario. Traduccion Preliminar de la Edicion en Ingles Revisada. (Mathematics for the Elementary School, Grade 4, Part 1, Teacher's Commentary. Preliminary Translation of the Revised English Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Leslie; And Others

    This is Part 1 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 1 includes the commentary for chapters 1 through 5. Topics covered include congruence, numbers and number bases, subtraction of numbers, division of numbers, and elementary geometry. References to the student text are cited. (RH)

  10. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 7-8 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, septimo y octavo grados. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    This supplementary math curriculum guide for use with Spanish-speaking students in Chicago public schools' seventh and eighth grade classes employs a contrastive analysis approach. Lessons are presented for objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for…

  11. Angioscopic assessment of arterial repair following biodegradable polymer-coated biolimus A9-eluting stent implantation. - Comparison with durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent-.

    PubMed

    Awata, Masaki; Uematsu, Masaaki; Sera, Fusako; Ishihara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Fujita, Masashi; Onishi, Toshinari; Iida, Osamu; Ishida, Yoshio; Nanto, Shinsuke; Nagata, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) are expected to show better arterial repair than older DES. We angioscopically compared the biodegradable polymer-coated biolimus A9-eluting stent (BES) and durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) to explore differences in arterial repair. Angioscopy was performed 9 ± 1 months after 15 BES and 16 SES were implanted initially in the native coronary artery. Heterogeneity of neointimal coverage (NIC) as well as the dominant NIC grade was examined. NIC was defined as: grade 0 = fully visible struts; grade 1 = struts bulging into the lumen, but covered; grade 2 = embedded, but translucent struts; grade 3 = invisible struts. Heterogeneity was judged when the NIC grade varied ≥ 1. In-stent late loss (0.06 ± 0.23 vs. 0.07 ± 0.18 mm, P = 0.80), and dominant NIC grade (1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7, P = 0.45) were similar for BES and SES. Within the stents, NIC was more heterogeneous in SES than in BES (P = 0.035). 80% of BES showed homogeneous NIC, while 56% of SES had heterogeneous NIC. BES showed limited late loss similar to that for SES. Nonetheless, the NIC with BES was more homogeneous than that with SES. Biodegradable polymer-coated BES may have an advantage in homogeneous NIC.

  12. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against nicardipine hydrochloride-induced autophagic cell death of human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Toyoda, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Nicardipine hydrochloride (NIC) injection has been widely used for emergency treatment of abnormally high blood pressure. However, NIC injection often causes severe peripheral vascular injury. The purpose of the present study was to reduce the NIC-induced cell injury in human vascular endothelial cells by use of clinical agents. The mechanism of NIC-induced cell injury was evaluated by time-lapse microscopic imaging, autophagosome staining with monodansylcadaverine, immunostaining of light chain 3 isoform B (LC-3B) and assessment of cell viability after exposure to NIC with or without an inhibitor of autophagosome formation (3-methyladenine, 3-MA). Results from autophagosome labeling and immunostaining of LC-3B revealed an increase of autophagosomes and LC-3B in NIC-treated cells. NIC-mediated reduction of cell viability was inhibited by 3-methyladenine. Moreover, we found that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced NIC-induced cell injury in human vascular endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NIC causes severe peripheral venous irritation via induction of autophagic cell death and that inhibition of autophagy with NAC could contribute to the reduction of NIC-induced vascular injury.

  13. Critical Role of Peripheral Actions of Intravenous Nicotine in Mediating Its Central Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Magalie; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its direct action on central neurons, nicotine (NIC) activates multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptors localized on afferent terminals of sensory nerves at the sites of its administration. Although the activation of these receptors is important in mediating the primary sensory and cardiovascular effects of NIC, their role in triggering and maintaining the neural effects of NIC remains unclear. Using high-speed electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings in freely moving rats, we showed that NIC at low intravenous (i.v.) doses (10–30 μg/kg) induced rapid, strong, and prolonged EEG desynchronization both in the cortex and ventral tegmental area (with decreases in α and robust increases in β and γ frequencies) and neck EMG activation that began during the injection (∼5 s). EEG and EMG effects of NIC were drastically reduced by pre-treatment with hexamethonium, a peripherally acting NIC antagonist, and the immediate EEG effects of NIC were strongly inhibited during urethane anesthesia. Although NIC pyrrolidine methiodide, a quaternary NIC analog that cannot enter the brain, also induced rapid EEG desynchronization, its effects were much shorter and weaker than those of NIC. Therefore, NIC by acting on peripheral nicotinic receptors provides a major contribution to its rapid, excitatory effects following i.v. administration. Since this action creates a sensory signal that rapidly reaches the brain via neural pathways and precedes the slower and more prolonged direct actions of NIC on brain cells, it could have a major role in associative learning and changes in the behavioral and physiological effects of NIC following its repeated use. PMID:21654739

  14. Gender differences in outcome after neonatal intensive care: speech and language skills are less influenced in boys than in girls at 6.5 years.

    PubMed

    Jennische, M; Sedin, G

    2003-01-01

    To study language development at age 6.5 y in 230 children who had required neonatal intensive care (NIC) and 71 full-term neonatally healthy control children, all born in 1986-1989, with a focus on comparison between genders. Eight aspects of spontaneous speech, 3 fine motor functions, 10 linguistic areas, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and digit recall (ITPA) were assessed. Achievements for gender and gestational age groups were analysed (group I, 23-31 wk; subgroup IA, 23-27 wk; IB, 28-31 wk; group II, 32-36 wk; group III, >36 wk), with children with congenital malformations as a separate group. As a group, at 6.5 y NIC girls had more developed spontaneous speech than NIC boys, and performed better than NIC boys in some linguistic areas. NIC girls of group I had lower results than control girls in spontaneous speech aspects such as speech motor function, interaction and motivation, and in many areas of linguistic skills. In contrast, NIC boys of group I had higher results than control boys in auditory memory, and only regarding information and speech motor function in spontaneous speech were their results lower. Analysis of results of matched pairs of group I NIC girls versus control girls and group I NIC boys versus control boys revealed even more marked differences between NIC girls and their matched controls than between NIC boys and their matched controls. Language development in extremely or very preterm NIC boys seems to be less influenced than that in NIC girls by the need for and administration of NIC. The neonatal factors associated with low scores in girls are different from those in boys.

  15. Nicotine Enhances Footshock- and Lithium Chloride-Conditioned Place Avoidance in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Buffalari, Deanne M; Mollica, Julianna K; Smith, Tracy T; Schassburger, Rachel L; Rinaman, Linda; Thiels, Edda; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2016-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that nicotine (NIC) can enhance the reinforcing effects of non-NIC stimuli through a nonassociative mechanism. To date, it is unclear whether NIC reinforcement enhancement serves to increase behaviors motivated by rewarding stimuli only, or whether NIC potentiates behavior motivated by all stimuli, regardless of valence. The current study used a place conditioning procedure to examine whether acute NIC injection modulates avoidance of an environment previously associated with an aversive stimulus. Separate groups of rats underwent place conditioning using either lithium chloride (125mg/kg/ml, i.p.) or footshock (0.75 mA) as the aversive stimulus. Other rats served as nonconditioned controls. The magnitude of place avoidance was assessed after acute NIC (0.1 or 0.4mg/kg/ml, s.c.) or saline. Rats avoided chambers previously paired with either lithium chloride or footshock, and conditioned place avoidance was significantly enhanced by NIC pre-treatment. These results demonstrate that the ability of NIC to enhance motivated behavior extends to behaviors elicited by aversive stimuli, evidence that NIC affects behavior motivated by a broader range of stimuli than previously appreciated. The current study examined whether the reinforcement enhancement properties of NIC apply to aversive stimuli by testing NIC enhancement of conditioned place avoidance in rats. The results demonstrate that NIC enhances the motivational impact of these distinct aversive stimuli, providing novel evidence that NIC affects behavior motivated by a broader range of stimuli than has previously been demonstrated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. PP-8 ESOPHAGEAL HIGH RESOLUTION MANOMETRY IN NEUROLOGICALLLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Turco, R; Ummarino, D; Miele, E; Terrone, G; Del Giudice, E; Staiano, A

    2015-10-01

    Mechanism underlying the occurrence of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in neurologically impaired children (NIC) is poorly understood. We sought to characterize, by Esophageal High Resolution Manometry (EHRM), alterations of esophageal motility associated with GERD in NIC and to compare with a group with a suspicion of GERD and normal psychomotor development (NDP). EHRM and multichannel intraluminal impedance/pH-metry (MII/pH) were conducted in 7 NIC and 9 patients with suspicion of GERD and NPD. Esophagogastric junction relaxation (EGJr), the presence/pressure troughs of the oesophageal segments, the distal contractile integral adjusted for esophageal length (DCIa) and the pressurization frontal velocity (PFV) were analyzed by EHRM. Three out of 7 NIC (42.8%) and 4 out of 9 patients with NPD (44.4%) resulted positive to MII/pH (p = 1). No statistical differences were observed for EGJr and PFV between NIC and NPD patients. DCIa was significantly lower in NIC subjects respect to NPD patients (p < 0.01). Comparing NIC with GERD and patients with GERD and NPD we found that third segment was absent in 2/3 (66,6 %) of NIC respect to NPD patients (p < 0.05) and that the third pressure trough was significantly lower in NIC respect to NPD patients (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences with respect to the first and second pressure trough between NIC and NDP patients. NIC have esophageal motor dysfunction that can be detected by EHRM. Some esophageal manometric alterations could be predictive of GERD in NIC and could explain a different pathogenesis of GERD in NIC and in patients with NPD.

  17. Influence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Tween 80 on Carbamazepine–Nicotinamide Cocrystal Solubility and Dissolution Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR. PMID:24300560

  18. Influence of sodium lauryl sulfate and tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-10-11

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ-NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR.

  19. Neuroleptic-induced catatonia: clinical presentation, response to benzodiazepines, and relationship to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph W Y

    2010-02-01

    Neuroleptic-induced catatonia (NIC), manifested in an extrapyramidal-catatonic syndrome, has been sporadically reported in the literature. Confusion surrounds its relationship to neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and extrapyramidal reactions to neuroleptics. This study examined (a) its clinical presentation and response to benzodiazepines, (b) the hypothesis that NIC and NMS are on the same spectrum with a continuum of symptom progression, and (c) its possible relationship to extrapyramidal reactions. Of 127 episodes of acute catatonia prospectively identified, 18 were diagnosed with NIC. All catatonia episodes received benzodiazepines. The NIC episodes were analyzed noting their clinical presentations, laboratory findings, and responses to treatments. Their responses to benzodiazepines were compared, with retrospective rating on a 7-point scale, to that for catatonia episodes associated with mania and schizophrenia. The progression of symptoms in each NIC episode was reviewed. The NIC episodes presented predominantly in the stuporous form associated with parkinsonism. Delirium, autonomic abnormality, and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase were all common. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome was diagnosed in 3 episodes (17%). The 3 catatonia groups did not differ significantly in their benzodiazepines responses: 78% (14/18) of NIC, 75% (12/16) of manic catatonia, and 67% (34/51) of schizophrenic catatonia episodes showed full responses. A spectrum of presentation across episodes was noted with simple NIC without delirium, autonomic disturbances, or fever at one end and NMS or malignant NIC at the other end. Symptoms in individual episodes showed a similar continuum progression. No extrapyramidal reactions immediately preceded the NIC episodes. Findings of this study support the hypothesis that NIC and NMS are disorders on the same spectrum and reveal no indication that extrapyramidal reactions progress to NIC.

  20. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance. © 2016 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  1. Using the nursing interventions classification as a potential measure of nurse workload.

    PubMed

    de Cordova, Pamela B; Lucero, Robert J; Hyun, Sookyung; Quinlan, Patricia; Price, Kwanza; Stone, Patricia W

    2010-01-01

    Standardized terminologies, such as the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) taxonomy, may be used in multiple ways to represent nursing constructs. This study is the first known to explore the NIC as a framework for the development of a nursing workload measure. While the NIC may not represent the complexity of nurses' work, the classification system may represent uniformly the work of nurses in health information systems to yield reliable data for a nursing workload measure.

  2. The Sensory Impact of Nicotine on Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons of the Nicotine Reward - Addiction Neurocircuitry

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jed E; Dehkordi, Ozra; Manaye, Kebreten F; Millis, Richard M; Cianaki, Salman Ameri; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of smoking is a key component of nicotine addiction known to result, in part, from stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at peripheral sensory nerve endings. Such stimulation of nAChRs is followed by activation of neurons at multiple sites in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathways. However, the neurochemical profiles of CNS cells that mediate the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine remain unknown. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by nicotine (NIC, 40 μg/kg, IP) and by a peripherally-acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 30 μg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to determine whether noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons of the nicotine reward-addiction circuitry were primary targets of NIC and NIC-PM. Double-labelling of NIC and/or NIC-PM activated c-Fos immunoreactive cells with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed no apparent c-Fos expression by the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). With the exception of sparse numbers of TH immunoreactive D11 cells, dopamine-containing neurons in other areas of the reward-addiction circuitry, namely periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe, were also devoid of c-Fos immunoreactivity. Noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus (LC), known to innervate VTA, were activated by both NIC and NIC-PM. These results demonstrate that noradrenergic neurons of LC are among the first structures that are stimulated by single acute IP injection of NIC and NIC-PM. Dopaminergic neurons of VTA and other CNS sites, did not respond to acute IP administration of NIC or NIC-PM by induction of c-Fos. PMID:27347434

  3. The Sensory Impact of Nicotine on Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons of the Nicotine Reward - Addiction Neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Dehkordi, Ozra; Manaye, Kebreten F; Millis, Richard M; Cianaki, Salman Ameri; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2016-04-01

    The sensory experience of smoking is a key component of nicotine addiction known to result, in part, from stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at peripheral sensory nerve endings. Such stimulation of nAChRs is followed by activation of neurons at multiple sites in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathways. However, the neurochemical profiles of CNS cells that mediate the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine remain unknown. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by nicotine (NIC, 40 μg/kg, IP) and by a peripherally-acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 30 μg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to determine whether noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons of the nicotine reward-addiction circuitry were primary targets of NIC and NIC-PM. Double-labelling of NIC and/or NIC-PM activated c-Fos immunoreactive cells with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed no apparent c-Fos expression by the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). With the exception of sparse numbers of TH immunoreactive D11 cells, dopamine-containing neurons in other areas of the reward-addiction circuitry, namely periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe, were also devoid of c-Fos immunoreactivity. Noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus (LC), known to innervate VTA, were activated by both NIC and NIC-PM. These results demonstrate that noradrenergic neurons of LC are among the first structures that are stimulated by single acute IP injection of NIC and NIC-PM. Dopaminergic neurons of VTA and other CNS sites, did not respond to acute IP administration of NIC or NIC-PM by induction of c-Fos.

  4. Nitrate inhibits soybean nodulation by regulating expression of CLE genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Young Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, Cheol Ho

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen compounds such as nitrate act as a potential inhibitor for legume nodulation. In this study, we isolated a new CLE gene, GmNIC2, from nitrate-treated roots, which shares high sequence homology with nitrate-induced CLE gene GmNIC1. Similar to GmNIC1, the expression level of GmNIC2 was not significantly altered in roots by rhizobial inoculation and was much higher in young nodules than in roots. In addition, overexpression of GmNIC2 led to similar nodulation inhibition of transgenic hairy roots to that of GmNIC1, which occurred in GmNARK-dependent manner and at the local level. By analyzing GmNARK loss-of-function mutant, SS2-2, it was found that expression levels of GmNIC1 and GmNIC2 in the SS2-2 roots were lower than in the wild type (WT) roots in response to nitrate. In contrast to GmNIC1 and GmNIC2, expressions of GmRIC1 and GmRIC2 genes that are related to the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) were strongly suppressed both of the soybeans during all periods of nitrate treatment and even were not induced by additional inoculation with rhizobia. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that GmNIC2, as an active homologous gene located in chromosome 13, acts locally to suppress nodulation, like GmNIC1, and nitrate inhibition of nodulation is led by fine-tuned regulation of both nitrate-induced CLEs and rhizobia-induced CLEs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Comparison of the whiplash injury criteria.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C; Sha, Daohang

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash injury criteria are based upon the hypothesis that neck injuries are caused by excessive loads, displacements, or head/T1 relative acceleration and velocity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the whiplash injury criteria (IV-NIC, NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC) during simulated rear impacts of a new Human Model of the Neck (HUMON) with and without an active head restraint (AHR). HUMON consisted of a neck specimen mounted to the torso of BioRID II and carrying an anthropometric head stabilized with muscle force replication. HUMON was seated and secured in a Kia Sedona seat with AHR on a sled. Rear impacts (7.1 and 11.1g) were simulated with the AHR in five different positions followed by an impact with no HR. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) were determined in the peak NIC and NDC due to the AHR, as compared to no HR, and in the peak IV-NIC relative to physiologic limits. Linear regression analyses identified correlation between IV-NIC and NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC (R(2) > or = 0.35 and P < 0.001). The AHR caused significant decreases in peak NIC and NDC as compared to no HR. The IV-NIC identified significantly increased motion above the physiologic limit at the middle and lower cervical spine with and without the AHR. Correlation was observed between IV-NIC and NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC. Extrapolation using the present correlations and the IV-NIC injury thresholds suggests neck injuries may occur at peak NIC of 14.4m(2)/s(2), Nkm of 0.33, or Nij of 0.09. Nonphysiologic spinal rotation at one or more spinal levels may occur even if head/T1 motions are small.

  6. Ranolazine enhances nicardipine-induced relaxation of alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction on isolated rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Malavaki, Christina; Hatziefthimiou, Apostolia; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Karatzaferi, Christina; Aidonidis, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    Ranolazine (RAN) and nicardipine (NIC) have been studied for their vasorelaxing effects but the combination of these agents against adrenergic vasoconstriction has not been tested. The present study aimed at investigating the vasorelaxing effect by the combination of the two agents on alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction on isolated rabbit aorta. Aortic rings were mounted for isometric tension recording in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. Concentration-response curves of RAN (10(-9) to 10(-4) M), NIC (10(-1) to 10(-5) M), and RAN + NIC (3 x 10(-6) M) were obtained in a cumulative manner using phenylephrine (PE, 2 x 10(-6) M) as constrictor agent. The effective concentration (EC)50 values for RAN and NIC were 6.5 x 10(-6) M and 1.4 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The treatment of PE-precontracted aortic rings with either RAN or NIC up to 65 min revealed that both agents displayed a biphasic pattern of initial rising and late sustained phases of relaxation. At 35 min of incubation, RAN and NIC induced relaxation by 23 +/- 3% and 14 +/- 4%, respectively (N = 7, P=NS, RAN vs. NIC); their combination resulted in a 34 +/- 4% relaxation (N=7; P < 0.01, RAN + NIC vs. NIC). At 65 min the effect of NIC prevailed and tended to be closer to the values of the combination treatment (P < 0.01, RAN + NIC vs. RAN). The results indicate that RAN at therapeutic concentrations exerts a significant additive vasorelaxing effect when combined with NIC in rabbit aorta.

  7. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An investigation of indomethacin-nicotinamide cocrystal formation induced by thermal stress in the solid or liquid state.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Gang-Chun; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2014-08-01

    The impact of thermal stress on indomethacin (IMC)-nicotinamide (NIC) cocrystal formation with or without neat cogrinding was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, and simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy in the solid or liquid state. Different evaporation methods for preparing IMC-NIC cocrystals were also compared. The results indicated that even after cogrinding for 40 min, the FTIR spectra for all IMC-NIC ground mixtures were superimposable on the FTIR spectra of IMC and NIC components, suggesting there was no cocrystal formation between IMC and NIC after cogrinding. However, these IMC-NIC ground mixtures appear to easily undergo cocrystal formation after the application of DSC determination. Under thermal stress induced by DSC, the amount of cocrystal formation increased with increasing cogrinding time. Moreover, simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy was a useful one-step technique to induce and clarify the thermal-induced stepwise mechanism of IMC-NIC cocrystal formation from the ground mixture in real time. Different solvent evaporation rates induced by thermal stress significantly influenced IMC-NIC cocrystal formation in the liquid state. In particular, microwave heating may promote IMC-NIC cocrystal formation in a short time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Long-term effects of nicotinamide-induced inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase activity in rat pancreatic islets exposed to interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Salari-Lak, N; Sandler, S

    1995-05-01

    Nicotinamide (NIC) is presently extensively studied as a potential agent that might prevent the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to examine the consequence of exposing isolated rat pancreatic islets to various concentrations of NIC (0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10, and 25 mM) over a prolonged period (6 days) in tissue culture and also to assess the efficacy of NIC to counteract interleukin-1 beta (IL-1; 25 U/ml)-induced beta-cell dysfunction. Except for a 30-40% increase at 5.0 mM NIC, the insulin content of islets was not affected by NIC. Also, the islet DNA content remained essentially unchanged. The insulin accumulation in the culture medium declined at 5-25 mM NIC between days 4-6. The insulin release in response to 16.7 mM glucose on day 6 was enhanced after culture with the addition of 0.5 mM NIC, but 25 mM NIC caused a strong inhibition of insulin secretion. However, neither the (pro)insulin nor the total protein biosynthesis rate of the islets was affected by NIC. A significant inhibition of the islet poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity by 40-80% was observed at 5-25 mM NIC. IL-1 was then tested together with 1.0 and 10 mM NIC. The islet DNA content was markedly reduced in all groups treated with IL-1, as was the medium insulin accumulation. Moreover, NIC failed to prevent IL-1 induced impairment of islet insulin release on day 6. The cytokine induced a very pronounced and sustained increase in the medium nitrite accumulation, and NIC could not influence this elevation. Thus, these data show that prolonged exposure to elevated NIC levels impaired the function of rat beta-cells, and NIC failed to counteract IL-1 actions. Whether these events are mimicked in the ongoing clinical trials with NIC remain to be established.

  10. Hydrogen bonding interactions in nicotinamide Ionic Liquids: A comparative spectroscopic and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Madhulata

    2017-03-01

    Being biodegradable in nature nicotinamide based Ionic Liquids (ILs) are gaining much attention now a day. Nicotinamide iodide (i.e 1-methyl-3ethoxy carbonyl pyridinium iodide (mNicI)) and 1-methyl-3ethoxy carbonyl pyridinium trifilimide (mNicNTf2) new ILs has been synthesized and has been characterized using different spectroscopic techniques like NMR, UV visible and infrared spectroscopy. Theoretical studies have been performed on several nicotinamide ILs. Geometry and spectral features were further characterized by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation. NBO charge distribution and electrostatic potential diagram presents in depth knowledge about interactions between cation and anion. A comparative theoretical study between mNicI and its other analogues i. e 1-methyl-3 ethoxy carbonyl pyridinium chloride and bromide i. e mNicCl and mNicBr has also been performed. Csbnd H⋯X hydrogen bonding along with C⋯X interaction has been reported for the first time for the nicotinamide based ILs. C2sbnd H stretching frequency shifts to higher wavenumber with change to a lesser electronegative anion. mNicCl and mNicBr are expected to be solid in nature with the evidence from the red shift in stretching frequency as compared to mNicI. TD-DFT calculation of mNicI proved that pale yellow color of liquid is due to inherent transition from anion to cation.

  11. Cell subpopulations of nicotine-sensitive subfornical organ neurons in rat.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kentaro; Miyahara, Nobutaka; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2008-09-05

    The subfornical organ (SFO), which is related to drinking and cardiovascular regulation, is activated by central application of nicotine (NIC) and angiotensin II (ANG). However, NIC-induced drinking is much smaller than ANG-induced one although approximately 60% of SFO neurons are affected by both NIC and ANG. Therefore, some specific subpopulations of SFO neurons for NIC or ANG may be related to such different drinking responses. To clarify subpopulations of NIC-sensitive neurons, electrophysiological properties of SFO neurons with the application of NIC was investigated at whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Based on our developed electrophysiological criteria of the recovery kinetics of tetraethylammonium-resistant transient outward K(+) currents, two sub-types (F- and S-type neurons) were distinguished. Twenty-nine dissociated SFO neurons were examined to determine whether they showed NIC-induced inward currents. Most F-type neurons (n=19/21) showed NIC sensitivity, but most S-type neurons (n=7/8) did not. Our previous study had demonstrated that half of the F-type and all of the S-type units showed ANG sensitivity. These suggests that almost all of the NIC-sensitive SFO neurons were electrophysiologically classified as the F-type, but not S-type, and this differs in part from angiotensin sensitivity. The different subpopulations for chemical sensitivities in the SFO may be related to different drinking responses.

  12. Autonomic Recovery: HyperCheck: A Hardware-Assisted Integrity Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    written to the internal FIFO of the NIC, and add 64KB more data to the end to flush the internal FIFO of the NIC. Therefore, the attacker cannot use...becomes 8KB, the overhead increases dramatically and it remains high. The reason is that the internal NIC transfer FIFO is 16KB. Therefore, when the...packet size becomes 8KB or larger, the NIC cannot hold two packets in the FIFO at the same time and this introduces delay. HyperCheck: A Hardware

  13. Characterization of active metamaterials based on negative impedance converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, K. Z.; Fan, Y. F.; Hao, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Negative impedance converters (NICs) are used to create impedance loads that can effectively cancel the inductive properties of magnetic dipoles, resulting in active metamaterials with increased bandwidth and reduced loss for μ-near-zero (MNZ) and negative-Re(μ) (MNG) media. We demonstrate techniques for analyzing the stability and characterizing the magnetic properties of effective media loaded with NICs. Specifically, we apply the Nyquist criterion to validate the stability of sample active metamaterials. It is shown that the practical NIC-loaded metamaterial may maintain stability and reduce dispersion, albeit with reduced performance as compared to the ideal NIC load.

  14. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol, nicotine or sucrose intake by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and its association with GLT-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Youssef; Toalston, Jamie E.; Rao, P.S.S.; Bell, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We have shown that administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, reduced EtOH intake and increased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in mesocorticolimbic regions of male and female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce nicotine (NIC) and/or EtOH intake by adult female P rats. P rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (a) 5% sucrose (SUC) and 10% SUC [SUC], (b) 5% SUC + 0.07 mg/ml NIC and 10% SUC + 0.14 mg/ml NIC [NIC-SUC], 15% EtOH and 30% EtOH [EtOH] and (d) 15% EtOH + 0.07 mg/ml NIC and 30% EtOH + 0.14 mg/ml NIC [NIC-EtOH]. After achieving stable intakes (4 weeks), the rats were administered 7 concurrent, daily i.p. injections of either saline or 100 mg/kg CEF. The effects of CEF on intake were significant but differed across the reinforcers; such that ml/kg/day SUC was reduced by ~30%, mg/kg/day NIC was reduced by ~70% in the NIC-SUC group and ~40% in the EtOH-NIC group, whereas g/kg/day EtOH was reduced by ~40% in both the EtOH and EtOH-NIC group. The effects of CEF on GLT-1 expression were also studied. We found that CEF significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the NIC and NIC-EtOH rats as compared to NIC- and NIC-EtOH saline-treated rats. These findings provide further support for GLT-1-associated mechanisms in EtOH and/or NIC abuse. The present results along with previous reports of CEF’s efficacy in reducing cocaine self-administration in rats suggest that modulation of GLT-1 expression and/or activity is an important pharmacological target for treating polysubstance abuse and dependence. PMID:27060486

  15. National Ice Center Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the work done by Dr. Kim Partington were to manage NASA's polar research program, including its strategic direction, research funding and interagency and international collaborations. The objectives of the UCAR Visiting Scientist Program at the National Ice Center (NIC) are to: (1) Manage a visiting scientist program for the NIC Science Center in support of the mission of the NIC; (2) Provide a pool of researchers who will share expertise with the NIC and the science community; (3) Facilitate communications between the research and operational communities for the purpose of identifying work ready for validation and transition to an operational environment; and (4) Act as a focus for interagency cooperation. The NIC mission is to provide worldwide operational sea ice analyses and forecasts for the armed forces of the US and allied nations, the Departments of Commerce and Transportation, and other US Government and international agencies, and the civil sector. The NIC produces these analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes, and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions to support customers with global, regional, and tactical scale interests. The NIC regularly deploys Naval Ice Center NAVICECEN Ice Reconnaissance personnel to the Arctic and Antarctica in order to perform aerial ice observation and analysis in support of NIC customers. NIC ice data are a key part of the US contribution to international global climate and ocean observing systems.

  16. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol, nicotine or sucrose intake by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and its association with GLT-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Toalston, Jamie E; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L

    2016-06-21

    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We have shown that administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, reduced EtOH intake and increased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in mesocorticolimbic regions of male and female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce nicotine (NIC) and/or EtOH intake by adult female P rats. P rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (a) 5% sucrose (SUC) or 10% SUC [SUC], (b) 5% SUC+0.07mg/ml NIC and 10% SUC+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-SUC], 15% EtOH and 30% EtOH [EtOH] and (d) 15% EtOH+0.07mg/ml NIC and 30% EtOH+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-EtOH]. After achieving stable intakes (4weeks), the rats were administered 7 consecutive, daily i.p. injections of either saline or 200mg/kg CEF. The effects of CEF on intake were significant but differed across the reinforcers; such that ml/kg/day SUC was reduced by ∼30%, mg/kg/day NIC was reduced by ∼70% in the NIC-SUC group and ∼40% in the EtOH-NIC group, whereas g/kg/day EtOH was reduced by ∼40% in both the EtOH and EtOH-NIC group. The effects of CEF on GLT-1 expression were also studied. We found that CEF significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the NIC and NIC-EtOH rats as compared to NIC and NIC-EtOH saline-treated rats. These findings provide further support for GLT-1-associated mechanisms in EtOH and/or NIC abuse. The present results along with previous reports of CEF's efficacy in reducing cocaine self-administration in rats suggest that modulation of GLT-1 expression and/or activity is an important pharmacological target for treating polysubstance abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neointimal calcification after stenting and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Yoshiaki; Honye, Junko; Ota, Hideaki; Miyake, Taiji; Kamikawa, Shigeshi; Kondo, Hiroki; Okubo, Munenori; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Ueno, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    The timing and incidence of neointimal calcification after stenting (NIC) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the characteristics of NIC. The presence of NIC in patients who underwent intravascular ultrasound between June 30, 2009 and June 30, 2012 was analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups based on the follow-up period: < 365 days or ≥ 365 days. A total of 181 images were analyzed. Those with NIC had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate [51 (6-60) versus 61 (52-72) mL/minute/1.73 m²; P < 0.01] and longer time after stenting [3198 (1710-3684) versus 211 (180-516) days; P < 0.01] compared to those without NIC. NIC during short-term follow-up was observed only in patients who were on hemodialysis. On the other hand, NIC in the long-term follow-up was observed only in patients with bare metal stents. The development of NIC was related to renal function and time after stenting. NIC in the short-term and the long-term follow-up was observed only in patients who were on hemodialysis and who were implanted with a bare metal stent, respectively.

  18. Possible involvement of endogenous opioid system located downstream of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mice with physical dependence on nicotine.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Keiko; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Saika, Fumihiro; Wakida, Naoki; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Maeda, Takehiko; Ozaki, Masanobu; Kishioka, Shiroh

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that nicotine (NIC)-induced analgesia was elicited in part by activation of the endogenous opioid system. Moreover, it is well known that NIC has physical-dependence liability, but its mechanism is unclear. Therefore, we examined whether physical dependence on NIC was mediated by activation of the endogenous opioid system in ICR mice. We evaluated increased serum corticosterone (SCS) as an indicator of NIC withdrawal, as it is a quantitative indicator of naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist, NLX)-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice. In this study, NLX precipitated an SCS increase in mice receiving repeated NIC, by a dose-dependent mechanism, and correlated with the dose and number of days of repeated NIC administration. When an opioid receptor antagonist (naltrexone) was concomitantly administered with repeated NIC, the NLX-precipitated SCS increase was not elicited. Concomitant administration of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist (methyllycaconitine) with repeated NIC, but not the α4β2 nAChR antagonist (dihydro-β-erythroidine), did not elicit an SCS increase by NLX. Thus, a physical dependence on NIC was in part mediated by the activation of the endogenous opioid system, located downstream of α7 nAChR.

  19. Effects of nicotine on olfactogustatory incentives: preference, palatability, and operant choice tests.

    PubMed

    Palmatier, Matthew I; Lantz, Jaden E; O'Brien, Laura C; Metz, Sarah P

    2013-09-01

    The use of additives in tobacco may capitalize on the incentive motivational properties of tastes and scents such as mint (menthol), vanilla, and strawberry. These incentives are intended to increase tobacco experimentation, but their salience may also be enhanced by the incentive amplifying effects of nicotine (NIC). The goal of the present studies was to investigate the potential interaction between the incentive amplifying effects of NIC and gustatory incentives. One of two discriminable tastes (grape or cherry Kool-Aid®; 0.05% wt/vol; unsweetened) was paired with sucrose (20% wt/vol; conditioned stimulus [CS+]) in deionized water, whereas the other taste (CS-) was presented in deionized water. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of NIC pretreatment on preference for the CS+ versus CS- in 2-bottle choice tests. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of NIC on palatability of the CS+ and CS- using orofacial taste reactions. Experiment 3 investigated the effects of NIC on reinforcement by the CS+ and CS- using a concurrent choice operant task. NIC pretreatment robustly increased operant responding for the CS+ but did not alter responding for the CS- in the operant choice task (Experiment 3). However, NIC pretreatment did not alter intake or palatability of the CS+ or CS- (Experiments 1 and 2). NIC increases the reinforcing effects of gustatory incentive stimuli, even though these stimuli were not paired with NIC administration. The findings suggest that adding taste incentives to tobacco products may increase the attractiveness of these products to consumers and the probability of repeated use.

  20. Short- and long-term effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on body adiposity, lipid profile, and thyroid function of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Santos-Silva, A P; Fagundes, A T S; Rios, A S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Nogueira Neto, J F; Passos, M C F; Lisboa, P C

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies show a higher prevalence of obesity in children from smoking mothers and smoking may affect human thyroid function. To evaluate the mechanism of smoking as an imprinting factor for these dysfunctions, we evaluated the programming effects of maternal nicotine (NIC) exposure during lactation. Two days after birth, osmotic minipumps were implanted in lactating rats, divided into: NIC (6 mg/kg per day s.c.) for 14 days; Control - saline. All the significant data were P<0.05 or less. Body weight was increased from 165 days old onwards in NIC offspring. Both during exposure (at 15 days old) and in adulthood (180 days old), NIC group showed higher total fat (27 and 33%). In addition, NIC offspring presented increased visceral fat and total body protein. Lipid profile was not changed in adulthood. Leptinemia was higher at 15 and 180 days old (36 and 113%), with no changes in food intake. Concerning the thyroid status, the 15-days-old NIC offspring showed lower serum-free tri-iodothyronine (FT(3)) and thyroxine (FT(4)) with higher TSH. The 180-days-old NIC offspring exhibited lower TSH, FT(3), and FT(4)). In both periods, liver type 1 deiodinase was lower (26 and 55%). We evidenced that NIC imprints a neonatal thyroid dysfunction and programs for a higher adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and secondary hypothyroidism in adulthood. Our study identifies lactation as a critical period to NIC programming for obesity, with hypothyroidism being a possible contributing factor.

  1. A Calibration of NICMOS Camera 2 for Low Count Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Barbary, K.; Dawson, K. S.; Deustua, S.; Faccioli, L.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gladders, M. D.; de Jong, R. S.; Koekemoer, A.; Krechmer, E.; Lidman, C.; Meyers, J.; Nordin, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D. J.; Spadafora, A.; Suzuki, N.

    2015-05-01

    NICMOS 2 observations are crucial for constraining distances to most of the existing sample of z\\gt 1 SNe Ia. Unlike conventional calibration programs, these observations involve long exposure times and low count rates. Reciprocity failure is known to exist in HgCdTe devices and a correction for this effect has already been implemented for high and medium count rates. However, observations at faint count rates rely on extrapolations. Here instead, we provide a new zero-point calibration directly applicable to faint sources. This is obtained via inter-calibration of NIC2 F110W/F160W with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the low count-rate regime using z∼ 1 elliptical galaxies as tertiary calibrators. These objects have relatively simple near-IR spectral energy distributions, uniform colors, and their extended nature gives a superior signal-to-noise ratio at the same count rate than would stars. The use of extended objects also allows greater tolerances on point-spread function profiles. We find space telescope magnitude zero points (after the installation of the NICMOS cooling system, NCS) of 25.296\\+/- 0.022 for F110W and 25.803\\+/- 0.023 for F160W, both in agreement with the calibration extrapolated from count rates ≳1000 times larger (25.262 and 25.799). Before the installation of the NCS, we find 24.843\\+/- 0.025 for F110W and 25.498\\+/- 0.021 for F160W, also in agreement with the high-count-rate calibration (24.815 and 25.470). We also check the standard bandpasses of WFC3 and NICMOS 2 using a range of stars and galaxies at different colors and find mild tension for WFC3, limiting the accuracy of the zero points. To avoid human bias, our cross-calibration was “blinded” in that the fitted zero-point differences were hidden until the analysis was finalized. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, under programs

  2. Fluctuations in central and peripheral temperatures induced by intravenous nicotine: central and peripheral contributions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jeremy; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine (NIC) is a highly addictive substance that interacts with different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. While the direct action of NIC on central neurons appears to be essential for its reinforcing properties, the role of peripheral actions of this drug remains a matter of controversy. In this study, we examined changes in locomotor activity and temperature fluctuations in the brain (nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area), temporal muscle, and skin induced by intravenous (iv) NIC at low human-relevant doses (10 and 30 μg/kg) in freely moving rats. These effects were compared to those induced by social interaction, an arousing procedure that induces behavioral activation and temperature responses via pure neural mechanism procedure, and iv injections of a peripherally acting NIC analogue, NIC pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM) used at equimolar doses. We found that NIC at 30 μg/kg induces a modest locomotor activation, rapid and strong decrease in skin temperature, and weak increases in brain and muscle temperature. While these effects were qualitatively similar to those induced by social interaction, they were much weaker and showed a tendency to increase with repeated drug administrations. In contrast, NIC-PM did not affect locomotion and induced much weaker than NIC increases in brain and muscle temperatures and decreases in skin temperature; these effects showed a tendency to be weaker with repeated drug administrations. Our data indicate that NIC's actions in the brain are essential to induce locomotor activation and brain and body hyperthermic responses. However, rapid peripheral action of NIC on sensory afferents could be an important factor in triggering its central effects, contributing to neural and physiological activation following repeated drug use. PMID:21295014

  3. Toxicity of aerosols of nicotine and pyruvic acid (separate and combined) in Sprague-Dawley rats in a 28-day OECD 412 inhalation study and assessment of systems toxicology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Blaine; Esposito, Marco; Verbeeck, Jan; Boué, Stéphanie; Iskandar, Anita; Vuillaume, Gregory; Leroy, Patrice; Krishnan, Subash; Kogel, Ulrike; Utan, Aneli; Schlage, Walter K; Bera, Monali; Veljkovic, Emilija; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of nebulized nicotine (Nic) and nicotine/pyruvic acid mixtures (Nic/Pyr) was characterized in a 28-day Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 412 inhalation study with additional transcriptomic and lipidomic analyses. Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed, 6 h/day, 5 days/week to filtered air, saline, nicotine (50 µg/l), sodium pyruvate (NaPyr, 33.9 µg/l) or equimolar Nic/Pyr mixtures (18, 25 and 50 µg nicotine/l). Saline and NaPyr caused no health effects, but rats exposed to nicotine-containing aerosols had decreased body weight gains and concentration-dependent increases in liver weight. Blood neutrophil counts were increased and lymphocyte counts decreased in rats exposed to nicotine; activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase were increased, and levels of cholesterol and glucose decreased. The only histopathologic finding in non-respiratory tract organs was increased liver vacuolation and glycogen content. Respiratory tract findings upon nicotine exposure (but also some phosphate-buffered saline aerosol effects) were observed only in the larynx and were limited to adaptive changes. Gene expression changes in the lung and liver were very weak. Nic and Nic/Pyr caused few significant changes (including Cyp1a1 gene upregulation). Changes were predominantly related to energy metabolism and fatty acid metabolism but did not indicate an obvious toxicity-related response. Nicotine exposure lowered plasma lipids, including cholesteryl ester (CE) and free cholesterol and, in the liver, phospholipids and sphingolipids. Nic, NaPyr and Nic/Pyr decreased hepatic triacylglycerol and CE. In the lung, Nic and Nic/Pyr increased CE levels. These data suggest that only minor biologic effects related to inhalation of Nic or Nic/Pyr aerosols were observed in this 28-day study.

  4. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  5. Combined active and passive immunization against nicotine: minimizing monoclonal antibody requirements using a target antibody concentration strategy.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Katherine E; Harris, Andrew C; LeSage, Mark G; Keyler, Dan E; Burroughs, Danielle; Earley, Cathy; Pentel, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Nicotine vaccines have shown preliminary evidence of efficacy for enhancing smoking cessation rates, but the serum nicotine-specific antibody (NicAb) concentrations produced are highly variable and many subjects do not develop effective levels. As an alternative to vaccination, passive immunization with nicotine-specific monoclonal antibodies could produce more uniform serum NicAb concentrations, but its use is limited by their high cost and shorter elimination half-life. This study investigated supplementing vaccination with monoclonal antibodies in a targeted fashion to increase vaccine efficacy while minimizing the required monoclonal antibody dose. Rats were vaccinated and then given individualized supplemental doses of the nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody Nic311 to achieve a target total serum NicAb concentration known to be effective for blocking locomotor sensitization (LMS) to nicotine. Rats received vaccine, Nic311, both, or neither, followed by 0.3 mg/kg nicotine s.c. for 10 days to produce LMS. Combination immunotherapy completely blocked the development of LMS, while monotherapy with vaccine or Nic311 alone was only minimally effective. Lower brain nicotine levels were associated with reduced locomotor activity averaged over days 7-10. Despite its greater efficacy, combination immunotherapy did not reduce the variability in the resulting total serum NicAb concentrations. Variability in total serum NicAb concentrations was contributed to by both vaccine-generated antibody and by Nic311. These data show that combination immunotherapy, using a Nic311 dose that is by itself only minimally effective, can substantially enhance nicotine vaccine efficacy. However, variability in serum NicAb levels with combination immunotherapy may make translation of this approach challenging.

  6. Iodine Concentration in Spectral CT: Assessment of Prognostic Determinants in Patients With Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pan; Ren, Xiu-Chun; Gao, Jian-Bo; Chen, Kui-Sheng; Xu, Xiao

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to use virtual monochromatic spectral CT to investigate the usefulness of iodine concentration (IC) and its correlation with clinicopathologically determined prognostic factors in gastric adenocarcinoma. From June 2012 to March 2015, 34 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma underwent arterial and portal venous phase spectral CT. The ICs in the arterial and portal venous phases were calculated and then normalized with the aorta as normalized IC (NIC). The surgical specimen was evaluated with CD34 staining to determine microvessel density (MVD). The correlation between imaging results and clinicopathologic findings was investigated for histologic grading, lymph node metastasis, serosal involvement, distant metastasis, pathologic TNM stage, and MVD. The mean arterial phase NIC value of tumors was 0.12 ± 0.03, portal venous phase NIC value was 0.39 ± 0.06, and MVD was 26.94 ± 7.87 vessels per high-power field (×400). Both arterial phase and portal venous phase NIC values were significantly higher in poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas (p = 0.005) than in moderately differentiated tumors (p = 0.013). There was no significant correlation between NIC and serosal involvement or distant metastasis. There was significant correlation between the NIC and MVD in gastric adenocarcinoma (arterial phase NIC, p = 0.013; portal venous phase NIC, p = 0.001). However, neither the arterial nor the portal venous phase NIC of gastric adenocarcinoma had a significant relation to lymphatic metastasis or pathologic TNM stage. There was a significant difference between the high and low MVD groups with respect to portal venous phase NIC (p = 0.045). NIC can serve as a useful predictor of angiogenesis and degree of differentiation of moderately and poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas.

  7. The role of conditioning history and reinforcer strength in the reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine in rats.

    PubMed

    Palmatier, Matthew I; O'Brien, Laura C; Hall, Melanie J

    2012-02-01

    Nicotine (NIC) administration can increase behaviors that result in delivery of non-drug reinforcers (e.g., salient sensory stimuli). However, little is known about the circumstances under which NIC increases these behaviors. The present studies sought to extend the reinforcement enhancing effects of NIC to sucrose rewards for which intensity could be systematically manipulated. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to respond for sucrose (30% w/v) on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and were pretreated with NIC (0.4 mg/kg free-base) or physiological saline (SAL). The intensity of the sucrose reward was manipulated over subsequent testing sessions (0-60% w/v). Similar procedures were used in Experiment 2; however, each subject received only one sucrose concentration (0-20%) to control for conditioning history. In Experiment 3, a fixed ratio 3 (FR3) schedule of reinforcement was used to investigate putative activating effects of NIC. Experiment 4 investigated whether NIC pretreatment would reduce sucrose intake in limited-access drinks. In Experiment 1, NIC increased the motivation to obtain all sucrose concentrations, including water. However, when conditioning history was controlled (Experiment 2) the reinforcement enhancing effects of NIC were systematically related to the strength of the reinforcer. In Experiment 3, NIC neither increased nor decreased responding for sucrose. In Experiment 4, NIC reduced sucrose intake, but only at concentrations that resulted in peak drink volumes (5-20%). The results suggest that the reinforcement enhancing effects of NIC depend on conditioning history and do not appear to be the result of simple behavioral activation.

  8. Mixtures of Complete and pif1- and pif2-Deficient Genotypes Are Required for Increased Potency of an Insect Nucleopolyhedrovirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor; Simón, Oihane; Muñoz, Delia; Cerutti, Martine; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal potency of a nucleopolyhedrovirus population (SfNIC) that infects Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera) is greater than the potency of any of the component genotypes alone. Occlusion bodies (OBs) produced in mixed infections comprising the complete genotype and a deletion genotype are as pathogenic as the natural population of genotypes from the field. To test whether this increased potency was due to the deletion or to some other characteristic of the deletion variant genome, we used the SfNIC-B genome to construct a recombinant virus (SfNIC-BΔ16K) with the same 16.4-kb deletion as that observed in SfNIC-C and another recombinant (SfNIC-BΔpifs) with a deletion encompassing two adjacent genes (pif1 and pif2) that are essential for transmission per os. Mixtures comprising SfNIC-B and SfNIC-BΔ16K in OB ratios that varied between 10:90 and 90:10 were injected into insects, and the progeny OBs were fed to larvae in an insecticidal potency assay. A densitometric analysis of PCR products indicated that SfNIC-B was generally more abundant than expected in mixtures based on the proportions of OBs used to produce the inocula. Mixtures derived from OB ratios of 10, 25, or 50% of SfNIC-BΔ16K and the corresponding SfNIC-B proportions showed a significant increase in potency compared to SfNIC-B alone. The results of potency assays with mixtures comprising various proportions of SfNIC-B plus SfNIC-BΔpifs were almost identical to the results observed with SfNIC-BΔ16K, indicating that deletion of the pif gene region was responsible for the increased potency observed in mixtures of SfNIC-B and each deletion recombinant virus. Subsequently, mixtures produced from OB ratios involving 10 or 90% of SfNIC-BΔ16K with the corresponding proportions of SfNIC-B were subjected to four rounds of per os transmission in larvae. The composition of each experimental mixture rapidly converged to a common equilibrium with a genotypic composition of ∼85% SfNIC-B plus ∼15% SfNIC

  9. Report on Junior College Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Janet

    This report summarizes enrollment, costs, and funding information for North Idaho College (NIC) and the College of Southern Idaho (CSI) for 1972 and 1977, explores new options for the future, and presents academic and vocational division funding information and capital construction data. Academic student enrollment at NIC increased 35% between…

  10. A hierarchical cascade activated by non-canonical Notch signaling and the mTOR-Rictor complex regulates neglect-induced death in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Perumalsamy, L R; Nagala, M; Banerjee, P; Sarin, A

    2009-06-01

    The regulation of cellular metabolism and survival by trophic factors is not completely understood. Here, we describe a signaling cascade activated by the developmental regulator Notch, which inhibits apoptosis triggered by neglect in mammalian cells. In this pathway, the Notch intracellular domain (NIC), which is released after interaction with ligand, converges on the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the substrate-defining protein rapamycin independent companion of mTOR (Rictor), culminating in the activation of the kinase Akt/PKB. Biochemical and molecular approaches using site-directed mutants identified AktS473 as a key downstream target in the antiapoptotic pathway activated by NIC. Despite the demonstrated requirement for Notch processing and its predominant nuclear localization, NIC function was independent of CBF1/RBP-J, an essential DNA-binding component required for canonical signaling. In experiments that placed spatial constraints on NIC, enforced nuclear retention abrogated antiapoptotic activity and a membrane-anchored form of NIC-blocked apoptosis through mTOR, Rictor and Akt-dependent signaling. We show that the NIC-mTORC2-Akt cascade blocks the apoptotic response triggered by removal of medium or serum deprivation. Consistently, membrane-tethered NIC, and AktS473 inhibited apoptosis triggered by cytokine deprivation in activated T cells. Thus, this study identifies a non-canonical signaling cascade wherein NIC integrates with multiple pathways to regulate cell survival.

  11. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of... information in the NICS Audit Log. The NICS Audit Log will be used to analyze system performance, assist...

  12. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of... information in the NICS Audit Log. The NICS Audit Log will be used to analyze system performance, assist...

  13. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of... information in the NICS Audit Log. The NICS Audit Log will be used to analyze system performance, assist...

  14. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of... information in the NICS Audit Log. The NICS Audit Log will be used to analyze system performance, assist...

  15. 28 CFR 25.9 - Retention and destruction of records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the system. 25.9 Section 25.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.9 Retention and destruction of... information in the NICS Audit Log. The NICS Audit Log will be used to analyze system performance, assist...

  16. 75 FR 11561 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Training for Executive Excellence: Leadership Style and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... observation process for the non-traditional classroom; A blended executive book review process; A framework... spaced and reference the project by the ``NIC Opportunity Number'' and Title in this announcement. The... in blue ink. Authority: Public Law 93-415. Funds Available: NIC is seeking the applicant's best ideas...

  17. 75 FR 61774 - Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE National Institute of Corrections Advisory Board Meeting Time and Date: 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Monday... Considered: Welcome New Advisory Board Members; NIC Orientation; Briefing on NIC Reports; Agency Reports...

  18. North Idaho College Long-Range Plan and Statement of Institutional Mission and Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargol, Owen F.

    Based upon a planning project initiated at North Idaho College (NIC) in 1981 and approved by the Board of Trustees in 1982, this long-range plan states the mission of NIC and specifies goals and objectives to be attained in the next 3 years. First, introductory sections consider the qualities of a good long-range plan, address the responsibilities…

  19. Problematic Curriculum Development: Normative Inquiry in Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.

    1988-01-01

    Normative inquiry in curriculum (NIC) is concerned with a substantive, integrative approach to values so that the curriculum possesses integrity, consistency, and congruity. This article explores definitions and characteristics of NIC, analyzes the role of curricular influences and realities, provides suggestions for getting started, and answers…

  20. Planning Study for North Idaho College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Raymond J.

    This three-part, long-range planning study was undertaken to assist North Idaho College (NIC) to more effectively meet the educational needs and interests of youth and adults residing in the five county Panhandle Area of Northern Idaho. Part I discusses NIC and its community; presents the results of a study of the educational plans and attitudes…

  1. 78 FR 35321 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-IBM Instructional Guide and Assessment Tool Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... vandalism, violence, rule violations, and disrespectful behavior toward staff and other inmates. The NIC... the anticipated results? Specific Requirements: Documents or other media that are produced under this... media, the awardee must consult with NIC's Writer/Editor concerning the acceptable formats...

  2. 77 FR 24242 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Criminal Background Check System (NICS), under the reporting requirements of the Brady Handgun Violence... office) to the OSC; q. Disclose information to the news media and the public when (1) The matter under... requirements of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, as amended by the NICS Improvement Amendments Act...

  3. 78 FR 2438 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested: The National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Background Check System (NICS) Point-of-Contact (POC) State Final Determination Electronic Submission ACTION... National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Point-of-Contact (POC) State Final Determination... will be asked or required to respond, as well as a brief abstract: Primary: Full Point-of-Contact (POC...

  4. DDN Directory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approve: for public release; distribution is unlimited. .. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered in...advertising, commercial mail distribution lists, or for any other unauthorized purpose is strictly prohibited. NIC INFORMATION Services and documents...NEWSLETTERS - A newsletter distributed online by the NIC on behalf of DCA to Host Administrators, Host Technical Liaison and other interested people

  5. 76 FR 50265 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Management of Technical Assistance for Selected Sites in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Assistance for Selected Sites in NIC's ``Evidence-Based Decision Making in Local Criminal Justice Systems... of larger NIC project, ``Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM) in Local Criminal Justice Systems... that leads to making individual case decisions in local systems; and (2) engage these systems as policy...

  6. Assessment of a Model for the Evaluation of Professional Non-Instruction Staff in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavaty, Erica A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help improve the evaluation system for school counselors and school psychologists, or non-instructional, certified staff (NICS). A mixed methodology approach was used to describe the existing evaluation system used to evaluate NICS; to develop a new system of evaluation based on recent research; and to determine…

  7. Report on Junior College Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Janet

    This report summarizes enrollment, costs, and funding information for North Idaho College (NIC) and the College of Southern Idaho (CSI) for 1972 and 1977, explores new options for the future, and presents academic and vocational division funding information and capital construction data. Academic student enrollment at NIC increased 35% between…

  8. Problematic Curriculum Development: Normative Inquiry in Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.

    1988-01-01

    Normative inquiry in curriculum (NIC) is concerned with a substantive, integrative approach to values so that the curriculum possesses integrity, consistency, and congruity. This article explores definitions and characteristics of NIC, analyzes the role of curricular influences and realities, provides suggestions for getting started, and answers…

  9. Assessment of a Model for the Evaluation of Professional Non-Instruction Staff in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavaty, Erica A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help improve the evaluation system for school counselors and school psychologists, or non-instructional, certified staff (NICS). A mixed methodology approach was used to describe the existing evaluation system used to evaluate NICS; to develop a new system of evaluation based on recent research; and to determine…

  10. Planning Study for North Idaho College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Raymond J.

    This three-part, long-range planning study was undertaken to assist North Idaho College (NIC) to more effectively meet the educational needs and interests of youth and adults residing in the five county Panhandle Area of Northern Idaho. Part I discusses NIC and its community; presents the results of a study of the educational plans and attitudes…

  11. North Idaho College Long-Range Plan and Statement of Institutional Mission and Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargol, Owen F.

    Based upon a planning project initiated at North Idaho College (NIC) in 1981 and approved by the Board of Trustees in 1982, this long-range plan states the mission of NIC and specifies goals and objectives to be attained in the next 3 years. First, introductory sections consider the qualities of a good long-range plan, address the responsibilities…

  12. 78 FR 5757 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... unforeseen processing conflicts within the system. The proposed amendments are for the following purposes: to... agencies to the FBI-maintained NICS Index to permit background checks for the purpose of disposing of firearms in the possession of those agencies; and to permit NICS to retain in a separate database its...

  13. 28 CFR 25.6 - Accessing records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Search the relevant databases (i.e., NICS Index, NCIC, III) for any matching records; and (iv) Provide..., it will search the relevant databases (i.e., NICS Index, NCIC, III) for any matching record(s) and... the relevant databases and will include the NTN. The following types of responses may be provided...

  14. 77 FR 74876 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Existing Collection, Comments Requested; Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...) Enrollment/National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) E-Check Enrollment Form, Federal Firearms... notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Section will...

  15. The lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 1 modulates the localization and function of the Notch1 receptor in regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Marcel, Nimi; Perumalsamy, Lakshmi R; Shukla, Sanjay K; Sarin, Apurva

    2017-04-04

    The ability to tune cellular functions in response to nutrient availability has important consequences for immune homeostasis. The activity of the receptor Notch in regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress the functions of effector T cells, is indispensable for Treg cell survival under conditions of diminished nutrient supply. Anti-apoptotic signaling induced by the Notch1 intracellular domain (NIC) originates from the cytoplasm and is spatially decoupled from the nuclear, largely transcriptional functions of NIC. We showed that Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), which is an NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent lysine deacetylase that inhibits NIC-dependent gene transcription, stabilized NIC proximal to the plasma membrane to promote the survival and function of activated Treg cells. Sirt1 was required for NIC-dependent protection from apoptosis in cell lines but not for the activity of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. In addition, a variant NIC protein in which four lysines were mutated to arginines (NIC4KR) retained anti-apoptotic activity, but was not regulated by Sirt1, and reconstituted the functions of nonnuclear NIC in Notch1-deficient Treg cells. Loss of Sirt1 compromised Treg cell survival, resulting in antigen-induced T cell proliferation and inflammation in two mouse models. Thus, the Sirt1-Notch interaction may constitute an important checkpoint that tunes noncanonical Notch1 signaling. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Development of an Oral Operant Nicotine/Ethanol Co-Use Model in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Katner, Simon N.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Toalston, Jamie E.; Scott, Briana J.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse is frequently associated with nicotine use. The current experiments were conducted to establish an oral operant ethanol + nicotine (EtOH + Nic) co-use model, and to characterize some aspects of EtOH + Nic co-use. Methods: Rats were allowed to choose between EtOH alone or EtOH + Nic solutions. Additionally, P rats were allowed to concurrently self-administer 3 distinct EtOH solutions (10, 20, and 30%) with varying amounts of nicotine (0.07, 0.14, or 0.21 mg/ml) under operant conditions. P rats were also allowed to concurrently self-administer 2 distinct amounts of nicotine (0.07 and 0.14 mg/ml) added to saccharin (0.025%) solutions. Results During acquisition, P rats responded for the EtOH + Nic solutions at the same level as for EtOH alone, and responding for EtOH + Nic solutions was present throughout all drinking conditions. P rats also readily maintained stable self-administration behaviors for Nic + Sacc solutions. The results demonstrated that P rats readily acquired and maintained stable self-administration behaviors for EtOH + 0.07 and EtOH + 0.14 mg/ml Nic solutions. Self-administration of EtOH+ 0.21 mg/ml Nic was established in only 50% of the subjects. P rats readily expressed seeking behaviors for the EtOH + Nic solutions, and reacquired EtOH + Nic self-administration during relapse testing. In addition, tailblood samples indicated that EtOH + Nic co-use resulted in pharmacologically relevant levels of both EtOH and Nic in the blood. Discussion Overall, the results indicate that P rats readily consume EtOH + Nic solutions concurrently in the presence of EtOH alone, express drug-seeking behaviors, and will concurrently consume physiologically relevant levels of both drugs. These results support the idea that this oral operant EtOH + Nic co-use model would be suitable for studying the development of co-abuse and the consequences of long-term chronic co-abuse. PMID:22486609

  17. [Development of physical dependence on nicotine and endogenous opioid system--participation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor].

    PubMed

    Kishioka, Shiroh; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Saika, Fumihiro; Yamamoto, Chizuko

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine (NIC) regulates various cellular functions acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). And nAChR consists of ligand-gated cation channels with pentameric structure and composed of α and β subunits. In the central nervous system, α 4 β 2 and α 7 nAChRs are the most abundantly expressed as nAChR subtypes. There are several lines of evidence indicating that systemic administration of NIC elicits the release of endogenous opioids, such as, endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins, in the brain. NIC exerts numerous acute effects, for example, antinociceptive effects and the activating effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In these effects, NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation, was inhibited by opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (NLX), and was also suppressed in morphine tolerated mice, indicating the participation of the endogenous opioid system in NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation. Moreover, NIC-induced antinociception was antagonized by both α 4 β 2 and α 7 nAChR antagonists, while NIC-induced HPA axis activation was antagonized by α 4 β 2 nAChR antagonist, but not by α 7 nAChR antagonist. These results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may not be located on the downstream of α 4 β 2 nAChR. On the other hand, NIC has substantial physical dependence liability. NLX elicits NIC withdrawal after repeated NIC administration evaluated by corticosterone increase as a withdrawal sign, and NLX-precipitated NIC withdrawal is inhibited by concomitant administration of other opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, indicating the participation of endogenous opioid system in the development of physical dependence on NIC. NLX-precipitated NIC withdrawal was also inhibited by concomitant administration of an α 7 nAChR antagonist, but not an α 4 β 2 nAChR antagonist. Taken together, these findings suggest that the endogenous opioid system may be located on the downstream of α 7

  18. Genetic determinants of a nickel-specific transport system are part of the plasmid-encoded hydrogenase gene cluster in Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    PubMed Central

    Eberz, G; Eitinger, T; Friedrich, B

    1989-01-01

    Nickel-deficient (Nic-) mutants of Alcaligenes eutrophus requiring high levels of nickel ions for autotrophic growth with hydrogen were characterized. The Nic- mutants carried defined deletions in the hydrogenase gene cluster of the indigenous pHG megaplasmid. Nickel deficiency correlated with a low level of the nickel-containing hydrogenase activity, a slow rate of nickel transport, and reduced activity of urease. The Nic+ phenotype was restored by a cloned DNA sequence (hoxN) of a megaplasmid pHG1 DNA library of A. eutrophus H16. hoxN is part of the hydrogenase gene cluster. The nickel requirement of Nic- mutants was enhanced by increasing the concentration of magnesium. This suggests that the Nic- mutants are impaired in the nickel-specific transport system and thus depend on the second transport activity which normally mediates the uptake of magnesium. PMID:2646280

  19. Interaction Behavior Between Niclosamide and Pepsin Determined by Spectroscopic and Docking Methods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liuqi; Ma, Xiaoli; Yan, Jin; Xu, Kailin; Wang, Qing; Li, Hui

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between niclosamide (NIC) and pepsin was investigated using multispectroscopic and molecular docking methods. Binding constant, number of binding sites, and thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures were measured. Results of fluorescence quenching and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy showed that changes occurred in the microenvironment of tryptophan residues and the molecular conformation of pepsin. Molecular interaction distance and energy-transfer efficiency between pepsin and NIC were determined based on Förster nonradiative energy-transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the binding of NIC inhibited pepsin activity in vitro. All these results indicated that NIC bound to pepsin mainly through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds at a single binding site. In conclusion, this study provided substantial molecular-level evidence that NIC could induce changes in pepsin structure and conformation.

  20. The investigation of the solvent effect on coordination of nicotinato ligand with cobalt(II) complex containing tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayin, Koray; Karakaş, Duran

    2014-11-01

    The electronic structure of [Co(ntb)(nic)]+ complex ion are optimized by using density functional theory (DFT) method with mix basis set. Where (ntb) represents tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine ligand and (nic) is the anion of nicotinic acids. Six different fields, vacuum, chloroform, butanonitrile, methanol, water and formamide solvents are used in these calculations. The calculated structural parameters indicate that (nic) ligand coordinates to cobalt(II) containing (ntb) ligand with one oxygen atom in butanonitrile, methanol, water and formamide solvents but coordinates with two oxygen atoms in vacuum. These results are supported with IR, UV and 1H NMR spectra. According to the calculated results, the geometry of [Co(ntb)(nic)]+ complex ion is distorted octahedral in vacuum while the geometry is distorted square pyramidal in the all other solvents. Distorted octahedral [Co(ntb)(nic)]+ complex ion have not been synthesized as experimentally and it is predicted with computational chemistry methods.

  1. Cognitive and Behavioral Impairments Evoked by Low-Level Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Components: Comparison with Nicotine Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brandon J.; Cauley, Marty; Burke, Dennis A.; Kiany, Abtin; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Active maternal smoking has adverse effects on neurobehavioral development of the offspring, with nicotine (Nic) providing much of the underlying causative mechanism. To determine whether the lower exposures caused by second-hand smoke are deleterious, we administered tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week, corresponding to all 3 trimesters of fetal brain development. Dosing was adjusted to produce maternal plasma Nic concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers. We then compared TSE effects to those of an equivalent dose of Nic alone, and to a 10-fold higher Nic dose. Gestational exposure to TSE and Nic significantly disrupted cognitive and behavioral function in behavioral tests given during adolescence and adulthood (postnatal weeks 4–40), producing hyperactivity, working memory deficits, and impairments in emotional processing, even at the low exposure levels corresponding to second-hand smoke. Although TSE effects were highly correlated with those of Nic, the effects of TSE were much larger than could be attributed to just the Nic in the mixture. Indeed, TSE effects more closely resembled those of the 10-fold higher Nic levels, but still exceeded their magnitude. In combination with our earlier findings, this study thus completes the chain of causation to prove that second-hand smoke exposure causes neurodevelopmental deficits, originating in disruption of neurodifferentiation, leading to miswiring of neuronal circuits, and as shown here, culminating in behavioral dysfunction. As low level exposure to Nic alone produced neurobehavioral teratology, ‘harm reduction’ Nic products do not abolish the potential for neurodevelopmental damage. PMID:26919958

  2. Effects of adolescent methamphetamine and nicotine exposure on behavioral performance and MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens of adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Buck, Jordan M; Morris, Alysse S; Weber, Sydney J; Raber, Jacob; Siegel, Jessica A

    2017-04-14

    The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure in the developing and adult brain can lead to behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits in adults. Previous increases in the rates of adolescent MA use necessitate that we understand the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA exposure during adolescence on the adolescent brain. Adolescents using MA exhibit high rates of nicotine (NIC) use, but the effects of concurrent MA and NIC in the adolescent brain have not been examined, and it is unknown if NIC mediates any of the effects of MA in the adolescent. In this study, the long-term effects of a neurotoxic dose of MA with or without NIC exposure during early adolescence (postnatal day 30-31) were examined later in adolescence (postnatal day 41-50) in male C57BL/6J mice. Effects on behavioral performance in the open field, Porsolt forced swim test, and conditioned place preference test, and cognitive performance in the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze were assessed. Additionally, the effects of MA and/or NIC on levels of microtubule associated-2 (MAP-2) protein in the nucleus accumbens and plasma corticosterone were examined. MA and NIC exposure during early adolescence separately decreased anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, which was not seen following co-administration of MA/NIC. There was no significant effect of early adolescent MA and/or NIC exposure on the intensity of MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens or on plasma corticosterone levels. These results show that early adolescent MA and NIC exposure separately decrease anxiety-like behavior in the open field, and that concurrent MA and NIC exposure does not induce the same behavioral change as either drug alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive and Behavioral Impairments Evoked by Low-Level Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Components: Comparison with Nicotine Alone.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brandon J; Cauley, Marty; Burke, Dennis A; Kiany, Abtin; Slotkin, Theodore A; Levin, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    Active maternal smoking has adverse effects on neurobehavioral development of the offspring, with nicotine (Nic) providing much of the underlying causative mechanism. To determine whether the lower exposures caused by second-hand smoke are deleterious, we administered tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week, corresponding to all 3 trimesters of fetal brain development. Dosing was adjusted to produce maternal plasma Nic concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers. We then compared TSE effects to those of an equivalent dose of Nic alone, and to a 10-fold higher Nic dose. Gestational exposure to TSE and Nic significantly disrupted cognitive and behavioral function in behavioral tests given during adolescence and adulthood (postnatal weeks 4-40), producing hyperactivity, working memory deficits, and impairments in emotional processing, even at the low exposure levels corresponding to second-hand smoke. Although TSE effects were highly correlated with those of Nic, the effects of TSE were much larger than could be attributed to just the Nic in the mixture. Indeed, TSE effects more closely resembled those of the 10-fold higher Nic levels, but still exceeded their magnitude. In combination with our earlier findings, this study thus completes the chain of causation to prove that second-hand smoke exposure causes neurodevelopmental deficits, originating in disruption of neurodifferentiation, leading to miswiring of neuronal circuits, and as shown here, culminating in behavioral dysfunction. As low level exposure to Nic alone produced neurobehavioral teratology, 'harm reduction' Nic products do not abolish the potential for neurodevelopmental damage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  5. Full-gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol augments nicotine self-administration by altering ventral tegmental dopaminergic function due to NMDA receptors in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Roguski, Emily E; Sharp, Burt M; Chen, Hao; Matta, Shannon G

    2014-03-01

    In adult rats, we have shown full-gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol (Nic + EtOH) augmented nicotine self-administration (SA) (increased nicotine intake) compared to pair-fed (PF) offspring. Therefore, we hypothesized that full-gestational exposure to Nic + EtOH disrupts control of dopaminergic (DA) circuitry by ventral tegmental area (VTA) NMDA receptors, augmenting nicotine SA and DA release in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of adolescents. Both NAcc DA and VTA glutamate release were hyper-responsive to intra-VTA NMDA in Nic + EtOH offspring versus PF (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Similarly, DA release was more responsive to i.v. nicotine in Nic + EtOH offspring (p = 0.02). Local DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid sodium salt (AP5) (NMDA receptor antagonist) infusion into the VTA inhibited nicotine-stimulated DA release in Nic + EtOH and PF offspring. Nicotine SA was augmented in adolescent Nic + EtOH versus PF offspring (p = 0.000001). Daily VTA microinjections of AP5 reduced nicotine SA by Nic + EtOH offspring, without affecting PF (p = 0.000032). Indeed, nicotine SA in Nic + EtOH offspring receiving AP5 was not different from PF offspring. Both VTA mRNA transcripts and NMDA receptor subunit proteins were not altered in Nic + EtOH offspring. In summary, adolescent offspring exposed to gestational Nic + EtOH show markedly increased vulnerability to become dependent on nicotine. This reflects the enhanced function of a subpopulation of VTA NMDA receptors that confer greater nicotine-induced DA release in NAcc. We hypothesized that concurrent gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol would disrupt the control of VTA dopaminergic circuitry by NMDA receptors. Resulting in the augmented nicotine self-administration (SA) in adolescent offspring.

  6. Naked-eye inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application may improve the predictive value of negative cytologic screening.

    PubMed

    Frisch, L E; Milner, F H; Ferris, D G

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of naked-eye inspection of the cervix (NIC) after acetic acid application as an adjunct to Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for cervical cancer screening. Study subjects were women attending a medical college student health clinic either for cervical cytologic screening (67%) or because of a recent atypical cytologic screening result (33%). All study participants received cytologic screening, cervicography, and NIC. Of the 95 patients, 71 (75%) had abnormal findings on NIC. Fifty-one patients underwent colposcopy with biopsy, including 48 of the 71 with an abnormal finding on NIC. The results of 40 of the biopsies were abnormal: 36 showed human papillomavirus or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 3 showed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 1 showed invasive cervical cancer. Sixty-five percent (26) of the abnormal biopsy findings occurred in women with normal cytologic test results. NIC and cervicography both were effective in identifying patients with abnormalities, but the combination of NIC followed by cervicography referred fewer women for colposcopy than did a positive result on NIC alone (52% vs 75%). The combination of a negative Pap smear and a negative NIC result had a 91% predictive value for the absence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. This was a significant improvement over cytologic screening alone. In this study, the combination of cytologic screening (Pap smear) and NIC increased the screening yield as compared with a Pap smear alone but with some loss of positive predictive value. NIC significantly improved the predictive value of negative cytologic screening results.

  7. Identification and quantification of nicotine biomarkers in human oral fluid from individuals receiving low-dose transdermal nicotine: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eleanor I; Norris, Hye-Ryun K; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T; Moore, Christine M; Vincent, Michael J; Agrawal, Alpana; Wilkins, Diana G

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to identify and quantify potential nicotine (NIC) biomarkers in post-exposure oral fluid samples collected from 10 NIC-abstinent human participants administered 7 mg transdermal NIC using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Oral fluid samples were collected prior to NIC patch application and at 0.5 and 0.75 h after patch removal using the Quantisal() oral fluid collection device. The validated LC-MS-MS analyte panel included nicotine-Nbeta-D-glucuronide, cotinine-N-oxide, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, norcotinine, trans-nicotine-1'-N-oxide, cotinine (COT), nornicotine, NIC, anatabine, anabasine, and cotinine-N-beta-D-glucuronide. Analytes and corresponding deuterated internal standards were extracted by solid-phase extraction. NIC and COT concentrations were quantifiable in oral fluid samples collected from 6 of the 10 participants 0.5 h after patch removal and in oral fluid samples collected from 7 of the 10 participants 0.75 h after patch removal. Based on the mean NIC and COT concentrations in oral fluid and plasma for the participants with both quantifiable NIC and COT at the 0.5 and 0.75 h collection times, the oral fluid-plasma ratio was 6.4 for NIC and 3.3 for COT. An ELISA procedure was also validated and successfully applied as a screening tool for these oral fluid samples in conjunction with LC-MS-MS confirmation. An ELISA cut-off concentration of 5.0 ng/mL provided excellent sensitivity for discrimination of COT-positive post-exposure oral fluid samples collected after low-level transdermal NIC exposure and oral fluid samples collected prior to patch application.

  8. Nicotine-induced molecular alterations are modulated by GABAB receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andres P; Pedrón, Valeria T; Aon, Amira J; Höcht, Christian; Acosta, Gabriela B; Bettler, Bernhard; Balerio, Graciela N

    2017-04-17

    It has been demonstrated that GABAB receptors modulate nicotine (NIC) reward effect; nevertheless, the mechanism implicated is not well known. In this regard, we evaluated the involvement of GABAB receptors on the behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations associated with the rewarding effects induced by NIC in mice, from a pharmacological and genetic approach. NIC-induced rewarding properties (0.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously, sc) were evaluated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. CPP has three phases: preconditioning, conditioning and postconditioning. GABAB receptor antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg; intraperitoneally, ip) or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (3 mg/kg; ip) was injected before NIC during the conditioning phase. GABAB1 knockout (GABAB1 KO) mice received NIC during the conditioning phase. Vehicle and wild-type controls were employed. Neurochemical (dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites), biochemical (nicotinic receptor α4β2, α4β2nAChRs) and molecular (c-Fos) alterations induced by NIC were analyzed after the postconditioning phase by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), receptor-ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in nucleus accumbens (Acb), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). NIC induced rewarding effects in the CPP paradigm and increased dopamine levels in Acb and PFC, α4β2nAChRs density in VTA and c-Fos expression in Acb shell (AcbSh), VTA and PFC. We showed that behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations induced by NIC were prevented by baclofen. However, in 2-hydroxysaclofen pretreated and GABAB1 KO mice, these alterations were potentiated, suggesting that GABAB receptor activity is necessary to control alterations induced by NIC-induced rewarding effects. Therefore, the present findings provided important contributions to the mechanisms implicated in NIC-induced rewarding effects. © 2017 Society for the

  9. Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Ken; Takahari, Youko; Higashijima, Naoko; Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Ishizuka, Nobuhiko; Endo, Koichi; Fukuyama, Naoto; Hirano, Katsuya; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-03-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) is widely used to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, its beneficial effect is hampered by complications of thrombosis. Several studies imply that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation. The present study investigated the protective effect of nicorandil (NIC), an anti-angina agent, on SRL-associated thrombosis. In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), SRL stimulated ROS production, which was prevented by co-treatment with NIC. The preventive effect of NIC on ROS was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate but not by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. NIC also inhibited SRL-induced up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox) mRNA. Co-treatment with NIC and SRL significantly up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2. NIC treatment significantly improved SRL-induced decrease in viability of HCAECs. The functional relevance of the preventive effects of NIC on SRL-induced ROS production and impairment of endothelial viability was investigated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Pretreatment with NIC inhibited the SRL-induced acceleration of FeCl3-initiated thrombus formation and ROS production in the testicular arteries of mice. In conclusion, NIC prevented SRL-induced thrombus formation, presumably due to the reduction of ROS and to endothelial protection. The therapeutic efficacy of NIC could represent an additional option in the prevention of SRL-related thrombosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-lasting rebound cue effects following single doses of nicotine and amphetamine: implications for understanding tolerance.

    PubMed

    Barrett, R J; Caul, W F; Stadler, J R; Smith, R L

    2001-10-01

    Previous drug-discrimination studies have, with the exception of nicotine (NIC), demonstrated tolerance to the cue effects of a broad range of drugs of abuse. Barrett et al. have shown that tolerance to a drug's cue properties reflects drug-induced rebound shifts in the discrimination baseline and not a weakened or less salient cue. The objective of the present study was to use a discrimination task sensitive to bidirectional cue changes to characterize the interoceptive cues associated with both the primary and rebound cues produced by nicotine in an attempt to understand why a recent study by Shoaib et al. failed to observe tolerance to the nicotine cue. Since dopamine (DA) has been implicated in mediating the NIC cue, rats were trained to discriminate between 0.25 mg/kg amphetamine (AMPH), an indirect DA agonist, and 0.033 mg/kg haloperidol (HAL), a DA antagonist at the D2 receptor site. Training doses were chosen so that rats responded about equally on both levers when tested on saline (SAL) following acquisition. This procedure provided a behavioral baseline to assess NIC-related changes along a presumed continuum of DA-mediated cues. Following acquisition of the discrimination: (i) NIC substitution tests were conducted, (ii) rats were tested for lever choice at intervals from 2 h to 48 h following treatment with single doses of 0.25 mg/kg and 0.50 mg/kg NIC, and (iii) rats were challenged with test doses of NIC during a period of NIC rebound. (i) NIC substituted for AMPH in a dose- dependent manner. (ii) At short intervals after treatment with 0.25 mg/kg and 0.50 mg/kg NIC, rats responded primarily on the AMPH lever followed by a shift to predominant responding on the HAL lever 16-24 h post-treatment, before returning to predrug levels. (iii) No evidence was observed for acute tolerance to NIC. The robust and long-lasting rebound cues associated with training level doses of NIC suggest that maximal tolerance would likely develop to the NIC cue during the

  11. Differential regulation of nicotinic receptor-mediated neurotransmitter release following chronic (-)-nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Iris; Anderson, David J; Surowy, Carol S; Puttfarcken, Pamela S

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter release from slices of rat striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus following chronic (-)-nicotine (Nic) administration (tartrate salt, 2 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days). Binding studies were also conducted to measure changes in receptor density. Relative to saline-treated animals, the number of nAChRs measured by [(3)H]-cytisine (CYT) binding was significantly increased in all brain regions examined by 15% to 25% following chronic Nic administration. Using a relatively high throughput method to measure neurotransmitter release, we found that Nic, CYT, and (+/-)-epibatidine (EB) evoked similar concentration-dependent striatal [(3)H]-dopamine (DA) and hippocampal [(3)H]-norepinephrine (NE) release from both saline (rank order of potency for [(3)H]-DA: EB>CYT>Nic; pEC(50) values, EB (9 +/- 0.1), CYT (8 +/- 0.13), Nic (7.3 +/- 0.19); rank order potency for [(3)H]-NE: EB>Nic=CYT; pEC(50) values, EB (8 +/- 0.18), Nic (5.5 +/- 0.09), CYT (5.12 +/- 0.1)) -and Nic-treated animals (pEC(50) values [(3)H]-DA, EB (9.5 +/- 0.15), Nic (8 +/- 0.16, CYT (6.6 +/- 0.52); [(3)H]-NE, EB (8.4 +/- 0.23), Nic (5.19 +/- 0.1), CYT (5.18 +/- 0.29)). Although no change in potency was detected between the two treatment groups, the agonist efficacies in both tissues were significantly reduced by approximately 17-54% following chronic Nic administration. In contrast to striatum, treatment with Nic did not affect the maximal [(3)H]-DA response (efficacy) in the frontal cortex. However, as observed in the striatum, no change in agonist potency was observed in the frontal cortex following chronic Nic administration (pEC(50) values, saline; EB (9.2 +/- 0.2), >CYT (6.95 +/- 0.75) = Nic (6.9 +/- 0.16); Nic-treated, EB (9 +/- 0.42)>CYT (6.88 +/- 0.27) = Nic (7.1 +/- 0.17)). Chronic Nic treatment did not significantly affect KCl-evoked [(3)H]-NE release from hippocampus or [(3)H]-DA release from frontal cortex or striatum. Since

  12. Comparison of Clevidipine and Nicardipine for Acute Blood Pressure Reduction in Patients With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Allison, Teresa A; Bowman, Stephanie; Gulbis, Brian; Hartman, Heather; Schepcoff, Sara; Lee, Kiwon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether clevidipine (CLEV) achieved faster blood pressure control compared to nicardipine (NIC) in patients presenting with either an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study conducted in patients with AIS or ICH admitted to the emergency department of a Comprehensive Stroke Center from November 2011 to June 2013 who received CLEV or NIC continuous infusion for acute blood pressure management. The study included 210 patients: 70 in the CLEV group and 140 in the NIC group. There was no difference in mean time (standard deviation [SD]) from initiation of the infusion to goal systolic blood pressure (SBP), CLEV: 50 (83) minutes versus NIC: 74 (103) minutes, P = .101. Comparison of the 2 agents within diagnosis showed no difference. Hypotension developed in 5 (7.1%) CLEV patients versus 14 (10%) NIC patients ( P = .003). There was no difference in the percentage change at 2 hours; CLEV: -20% (16%) versus NIC: -16% (16%), P = .058. Mean (SD) time to alteplase administration from admission was 56 (22) minutes in the CLEV group versus 59 (25) minutes in the NIC group ( P = .684). There was no difference in the mean time from initiation of the infusion to the SBP goal between agents or in the secondary outcomes. Due to the lack of differences observed, each agent should be considered based on the patient care needs of the institution.

  13. A high security double lock and key mechanism in HUH relaxases controls oriT-processing for plasmid conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, José Daniel; González-Pérez, Blanca; Moncalián, Gabriel; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Relaxases act as DNA selection sieves in conjugative plasmid transfer. Most plasmid relaxases belong to the HUH endonuclease family. TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, is the prototype of the HUH relaxase family, which also includes TraI of plasmid F. In this article we demonstrate that TrwC processes its target nic-site by means of a highly secure double lock and key mechanism. It is controlled both by TrwC–DNA intermolecular interactions and by intramolecular DNA interactions between several nic nucleotides. The sequence specificity map of the interaction between TrwC and DNA was determined by systematic mutagenesis using degenerate oligonucleotide libraries. The specificity map reveals the minimal nic sequence requirements for R388-based conjugation. Some nic-site sequence variants were still able to form the U-turn shape at the nic-site necessary for TrwC processing, as observed by X-ray crystallography. Moreover, purified TrwC relaxase effectively cleaved ssDNA as well as dsDNA substrates containing these mutant sequences. Since TrwC is able to catalyze DNA integration in a nic-site-containing DNA molecule, characterization of nic-site functionally active sequence variants should improve the search quality of potential target sequences for relaxase-mediated integration in any target genome. PMID:25123661

  14. A high security double lock and key mechanism in HUH relaxases controls oriT-processing for plasmid conjugation.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, José Daniel; González-Pérez, Blanca; Moncalián, Gabriel; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Relaxases act as DNA selection sieves in conjugative plasmid transfer. Most plasmid relaxases belong to the HUH endonuclease family. TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, is the prototype of the HUH relaxase family, which also includes TraI of plasmid F. In this article we demonstrate that TrwC processes its target nic-site by means of a highly secure double lock and key mechanism. It is controlled both by TrwC-DNA intermolecular interactions and by intramolecular DNA interactions between several nic nucleotides. The sequence specificity map of the interaction between TrwC and DNA was determined by systematic mutagenesis using degenerate oligonucleotide libraries. The specificity map reveals the minimal nic sequence requirements for R388-based conjugation. Some nic-site sequence variants were still able to form the U-turn shape at the nic-site necessary for TrwC processing, as observed by X-ray crystallography. Moreover, purified TrwC relaxase effectively cleaved ssDNA as well as dsDNA substrates containing these mutant sequences. Since TrwC is able to catalyze DNA integration in a nic-site-containing DNA molecule, characterization of nic-site functionally active sequence variants should improve the search quality of potential target sequences for relaxase-mediated integration in any target genome. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Effects of nicotine administration in a mouse model of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, α-tropomyosin D175N

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Robert D.; Chowdhury, Shamim A. K.; Alves, Marco S. L.; Dias, Fernando A. L.; Ribeiro, Cibele T. D.; Fogaca, Rosalvo T. H.; Wieczorek, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nicotine (NIC) on normal hearts are fairly well established, yet its effects on hearts displaying familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have not been tested. We studied both the acute and chronic effects of NIC on a transgenic (TG) mouse model of FHC caused by a mutation in α-tropomyosin (Tm; i.e., α-Tm D175N TG, or Tm175). For acute effects, intravenously injected NIC increased heart rate, left ventricular (LV) pressure, and the maximal rate of LV pressure increase (+dP/dt) in non-TG (NTG) and Tm175 mice; however, Tm175 showed a significantly smaller increase in the maximal rate of LV pressure decrease (−dP/dt) compared with NTGs. Western blots revealed phosphorylation of phospholamban Ser16 and Thr17 residue increased in NTG mice following NIC injection but not in Tm175 mice. In contrast, phosphorylation of troponin I at serine residues 23 and 24 increased equally in both NTG and Tm175. Thus the attenuated increase in relaxation in Tm175 mice following acute NIC appears to result primarily from attenuated phospholamban phosphorylation. Chronic NIC administration (equivalent to smoking 2 packs of cigarettes/day for 4 mo) also increased +dP/dt in NTG and Tm175 mice compared with chronic saline. However, chronic NIC had little effect on heart rate, LV pressure, −dP/dt, LV wall and chamber dimensions, or collagen content for either group of mice. PMID:21743000

  16. Mechanisms of Nicotinic Modulation of Glutamatergic Neuroplasticity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lugon, Marcelo Di Marcello Valladão; Batsikadze, Giorgi; Fresnoza, Shane; Grundey, Jessica; Kuo, Min-Fang; Paulus, Walter; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-10-22

    The impact of nicotine (NIC) on plasticity is thought to be primarily determined via calcium channel properties of nicotinic receptor subtypes, and glutamatergic plasticity is likewise calcium-dependent. Therefore glutamatergic plasticity is likely modulated by the impact of nicotinic receptor-dependent neuronal calcium influx. We tested this hypothesis for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced long-term potentiation-like plasticity, which is abolished by NIC in nonsmokers. To reduce calcium influx under NIC, we blocked N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We applied anodal tDCS combined with 15 mg NIC patches and the NMDA-receptor antagonist dextromethorphan (DMO) in 3 different doses (50, 100, and 150 mg) or placebo medication. Corticospinal excitability was monitored by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potential amplitudes after plasticity induction. NIC abolished anodal tDCS-induced motor cortex excitability enhancement, which was restituted under medium dosage of DMO. Low-dosage DMO did not affect the impact of NIC on tDCS-induced plasticity and high-dosage DMO abolished plasticity. For DMO alone, the low dosage had no effect, but medium and high dosages abolished tDCS-induced plasticity. These results enhance our knowledge about the proposed calcium-dependent impact of NIC on plasticity in humans and might be relevant for the development of novel nicotinic treatments for cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Nicotinamide is a potent inducer of endocrine differentiation in cultured human fetal pancreatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Otonkoski, T; Beattie, G M; Mally, M I; Ricordi, C; Hayek, A

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) on human fetal and adult endocrine pancreatic cells were studied in tissue culture. Treatment of the fetal cells with 10 mM NIC resulted in a twofold increase in DNA content and a threefold increase in insulin content. This was associated with the development of beta cell outgrowths from undifferentiated epithelial cell clusters and an increase in the expression of the insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin genes. DNA synthesis was stimulated only in the undifferentiated cells. Half-maximal doses for the insulinotropic and mitogenic effects of NIC were 5-10 and 1-2 mM, respectively. Islet-like cell clusters cultured with NIC responded to glucose stimulation with a biphasic increase in insulin release (fourfold peak), whereas control cells were unresponsive to glucose. Both control and NIC-treated cells developed into functional islet tissue after transplantation into athymic nude mice. As compared with adult islets, the insulinotropic action of NIC could only be demonstrated in the fetal cells. Our results indicate that NIC induces differentiation and maturation of human fetal pancreatic islet cells. This model should be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms involved in beta cell development. Images PMID:8104197

  18. Clustered Transcription Factor Genes Regulate Nicotine Biosynthesis in Tobacco[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tsubasa; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) synthesizes nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in the root, and their synthesis increases upon herbivory on the leaf via a jasmonate-mediated signaling cascade. Regulatory NIC loci that positively regulate nicotine biosynthesis have been genetically identified, and their mutant alleles have been used to breed low-nicotine tobacco varieties. Here, we report that the NIC2 locus, originally called locus B, comprises clustered transcription factor genes of an ethylene response factor (ERF) subfamily; in the nic2 mutant, at least seven ERF genes are deleted altogether. Overexpression, suppression, and dominant repression experiments using transgenic tobacco roots showed both functional redundancy and divergence among the NIC2-locus ERF genes. These transcription factors recognized a GCC-box element in the promoter of a nicotine pathway gene and specifically activated all known structural genes in the pathway. The NIC2-locus ERF genes are expressed in the root and upregulated by jasmonate with kinetics that are distinct among the members. Thus, gene duplication events generated a cluster of highly homologous transcription factor genes with transcriptional and functional diversity. The NIC2-locus ERFs are close homologs of ORCA3, a jasmonate-responsive transcriptional activator of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus, indicating that the NIC2/ORCA3 ERF subfamily was recruited independently to regulate jasmonate-inducible secondary metabolism in distinct plant lineages. PMID:20959558

  19. The effects of nicotine on the metabolic and hormonal responses during acute cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Christopher C; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Blegen, Mark; Potkanowicz, Edward S; Kamimori, Gary H; Marcinkiewicz, Jennifer L; Otterstetter, Ronald; Kalinski, Michael; Glickman, Ellen L

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effects of nicotine on the metabolic and hormonal responses during acute cold exposure. Participants in this study included 6 men and 5 women between the ages of 19 and 25 years. Each subject performed 2 cold-air trials (CATs) consisting of a 30-minute baseline (BASE) period and a 120-minute exposure to 10 degree C air. One CAT was performed after a nicotine (NIC) dosing using a 21-mg transdermal patch, whereas the other CAT was performed after a placebo (PL) treatment. Blood samples for metabolic and hormonal measurements were obtained at the end of BASE and immediately after the cold exposure. When examining the sexes separately, there was no difference in norepinephrine between PL and NIC (P = .066). There was also no difference in epinephrine between PL and NIC in either sex (P = .634). From BASE to 120 minutes of the CAT, there was a significant decrease in cortisol (P = .036), but this response was similar between the 2 treatments (P = .077). Glucose and glycerol concentrations were not different between the PL and NIC treatments. At BASE, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration was lower during PL compared with NIC (P = .021); however, at 120 minutes of the CAT, NEFA was greater during PL compared with NIC (P = .035). During 120 minutes of cold exposure, NIC resulted in alterations in the responses in NEFA, whereas the other blood measurements were not significantly different between the 2 groups.

  20. Ameliorative effects of Achillea millefolium inflorescences alcoholic extract on nicotine-induced reproductive toxicity in male rat: Apoptotic and biochemical evidences.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh Khosh, Ameneh; Hasanzadeh, Shapour; Shalizar Jalali, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine (NIC) adversely influences male reproductive system. Achillea millefolium (Achm) as a medicinal plant is highly regarded for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was conducted to assess whether Achm inflorescences alcoholic extract could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity in NIC-exposed male rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into six groups. Two groups received NIC at doses of 0.20 and 0.40 mg kg(-1) per day in 0.50 mL sterile distilled water for 48 days intraperitoneally, respectively. The further two groups received NIC at doses of 0.20 and 0.40 mg kg(-1) per day in 0.50 mL sterile distilled water for intraperitoneally along with Achm extract at a dose of 1.20 g kg(-1) per day in 1 mL sterile distilled water orally for 48 days, respectively. A vehicle treated control group and an Achm-only treated group were also included. The NIC-exposed groups showed significant reductions in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone as well as testicular antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa along with testicular malondialdehyde and total nitrite levels were significantly higher in NIC-treated rats. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal levels by Achm co-administration. These findings indicated that Achm may partially be protective against NIC-induced testicular toxicity.

  1. Effects of Nicotine on Olfactogustatory Incentives: Preference, Palatability, and Operant Choice Tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The use of additives in tobacco may capitalize on the incentive motivational properties of tastes and scents such as mint (menthol), vanilla, and strawberry. These incentives are intended to increase tobacco experimentation, but their salience may also be enhanced by the incentive amplifying effects of nicotine (NIC). The goal of the present studies was to investigate the potential interaction between the incentive amplifying effects of NIC and gustatory incentives. Methods: One of two discriminable tastes (grape or cherry Kool-Aid®; 0.05% wt/vol; unsweetened) was paired with sucrose (20% wt/vol; conditioned stimulus [CS+]) in deionized water, whereas the other taste (CS−) was presented in deionized water. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of NIC pretreatment on preference for the CS+ versus CS− in 2-bottle choice tests. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of NIC on palatability of the CS+ and CS− using orofacial taste reactions. Experiment 3 investigated the effects of NIC on reinforcement by the CS+ and CS− using a concurrent choice operant task. Results: NIC pretreatment robustly increased operant responding for the CS+ but did not alter responding for the CS− in the operant choice task (Experiment 3). However, NIC pretreatment did not alter intake or palatability of the CS+ or CS− (Experiments 1 and 2). Conclusions: NIC increases the reinforcing effects of gustatory incentive stimuli, even though these stimuli were not paired with NIC administration. The findings suggest that adding taste incentives to tobacco products may increase the attractiveness of these products to consumers and the probability of repeated use. PMID:23430737

  2. Topiramate for smoking cessation: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oncken, Cheryl; Arias, Albert J; Feinn, Richard; Litt, Mark; Covault, Jonathan; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Kranzler, Henry R

    2014-03-01

    Topiramate (TOP) blocks glutamate receptors and facilitates GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmission, effects that may facilitate smoking cessation. We compared the effects of behavioral counseling combined with (a) TOP, (b) TOP/nicotine patch (TOP/NIC), or (c) placebo (PLC) for smoking cessation. We conducted a 10-week randomized trial in which subjects and research personnel were blinded to TOP versus PLC but not to the TOP/NIC patch condition. In groups receiving TOP, the medication dosage was titrated gradually up to 200 mg/day. The smoking quit date (QD) was scheduled after 2 weeks of medication treatment. NIC (21 mg) was started on the QD in subjects randomized to the TOP/NIC condition. The main outcome measure was the end-of-treatment, 4-week continuous abstinence rate (CAR; biochemically confirmed). Fifty-seven subjects were randomized to treatment. The 4-week CAR was 1 of 19 (5%) in the PLC group, 5 of 19 (26%) in the TOP group, and 7 of 19 (37%) in the TOP/NIC group (p = .056). Pairwise comparisons showed a difference between TOP/NIC and PLC (p = .042) and a nonsignificant difference between TOP and PLC (p = .18). The PLC group gained 0.37 lb/week, the TOP group lost 0.41 lb/week, and the TOP/NIC group lost 0.07 lb/week (p = .004). Pairwise comparisons showed a difference between TOP and PLC (p < .001) and between TOP/NIC and PLC groups (p = .035). Paresthesia was more frequent in subjects on TOP than PLC (p = .011). TOP, alone or in combination with the NIC, resulted in a numerically higher quit rate than PLC and decreased weight. A larger, PLC-controlled trial is needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Prenatal Nicotine and Maternal Deprivation Stress De-Regulate the Development of CA1, CA3, and Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Hippocampus of Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC), postnatal maternal deprivation (MD) or the combination of the two (NIC+MD) to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD alone or NIC+MD was repressed until after weaning. In CA1 but not CA3 of postnatal day 14 (P14) pups, MD increased pyramidal neurons, however, in dentate gyrus (DG), decreased granule neurons. NIC had no effect on neuron number in CA1, CA3 or DG. Unexpectedly, NIC plus MD combined caused a synergistic increase in the number of CA1 or CA3 neurons. Neuron density in CA regions was unaffected by treatment, but in the DG, granule neurons had a looser packing density after NIC, MD or NIC+MD exposure. When septotemporal axes were analyzed, the synergism of stress and drug exposure in CA1 and CA3 was associated with rostral, whereas MD effects were predominantly associated with caudal neurons. TUNEL labeling suggests no active apoptosis at P14, and doublecortin positive neurons and mossy fibers were diminished in NIC+MD relative to controls. The laterality of the effect of nicotine and/or maternal deprivation in right versus left hippocampus was also analyzed and found to be insiginificant. We report for the first time that early life stressors such as postnatal MD and prenatal NIC exposure, when combined, may exhibit synergistic consequences for CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron development, and a potential antagonistic influence on developing DG neurons. These results suggest that early stressors may modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, or maturation of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner during critical periods of neurodevelopment. PMID:23785432

  4. Dimensionality of ICA in resting-state fMRI investigated by feature optimized classification of independent components with SVM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanlu; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Different machine learning algorithms have recently been used for assisting automated classification of independent component analysis (ICA) results from resting-state fMRI data. The success of this approach relies on identification of artifact components and meaningful functional networks. A limiting factor of ICA is the uncertainty of the number of independent components (NIC). We aim to develop a framework based on support vector machines (SVM) and optimized feature-selection for automated classification of independent components (ICs) and use the framework to investigate the effects of input NIC on the ICA results. Seven different resting-state fMRI datasets were studied. 18 features were devised by mimicking the empirical criteria for manual evaluation. The five most significant (p < 0.01) features were identified by general linear modeling and used to generate a classification model for the framework. This feature-optimized classification of ICs with SVM (FOCIS) framework was used to classify both group and single subject ICA results. The classification results obtained using FOCIS and previously published FSL-FIX were compared against manually evaluated results. On average the false negative rate in identifying artifact contaminated ICs for FOCIS and FSL-FIX were 98.27 and 92.34%, respectively. The number of artifact and functional network components increased almost linearly with the input NIC. Through tracking, we demonstrate that incrementing NIC affects most ICs when NIC < 33, whereas only a few limited ICs are affected by direct splitting when NIC is incremented beyond NIC > 40. For a given IC, its changes with increasing NIC are individually specific irrespective whether the component is a potential resting-state functional network or an artifact component. Using FOCIS, we investigated experimentally the ICA dimensionality of resting-state fMRI datasets and found that the input NIC can critically affect the ICA results of resting-state fMRI data. PMID

  5. Effects of nanoparticles with hydrotropic nicotinamide on tacrolimus: permeability through psoriatic skin and antipsoriatic and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tao; Pan, Wenhui; Long, Yueming; Yu, Kaiyue; Liu, Sibo; Ruan, Wenyi; Pan, Jingtong; Qin, Mengyao; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid system based on nanoparticles (NPs) self-assembled by the conjugations of hyaluronic acid with cholesterol (HA-Chol NPs) combined with nicotinamide (NIC) for tacrolimus (FK506), ie, FK506 NPs-NIC, has been confirmed to exhibit a significant synergistic effect on FK506 permeation through and into intact skin; thus, it may be a promising approach for FK506 to effectively treat skin diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate its potential for the treatment of psoriasis. In vitro permeation through the psoriatic skin was carried out, and the results revealed that the combination of NPs with NIC exhibited a significant synergistic effect on FK506 deposition within the psoriatic skin (3.40±0.67 μg/cm(2)) and penetration through the psoriatic skin (30.86±9.66 μg/cm(2)). The antipsoriatic activity of FK506 NPs-NIC was evaluated through the treatment for imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis. The psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score demonstrated that FK506 HA-Chol NPs-NIC exerted the effect on ameliorating the skin lesions comparable to clobetasol propionate (a positive drug for psoriasis) and superior to commercial FK506 ointment (Protopic(®)), and the histological study showed that it presented a synergistic effect on antipsoriasis after FK506 incorporation into NPs combined with NIC hydrotropic system, which might ultimately increase the therapeutic effect and minimize the systemic side effects by reducing the overall dose of FK506. RAW 264.7 cell uptake presented the enhancement of drugs delivered into cells by HA-Chol NPs-NIC. The antiproliferative activity on HaCaT cells identified that FK506 HA-Chol NPs-NIC exhibited significant inhibiting effects on HaCaT proliferation. The results support that the combination of HA-Chol NPs with NIC is a promising approach for FK506 for the treatment of psoriasis.

  6. Dimensionality of ICA in resting-state fMRI investigated by feature optimized classification of independent components with SVM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlu; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Different machine learning algorithms have recently been used for assisting automated classification of independent component analysis (ICA) results from resting-state fMRI data. The success of this approach relies on identification of artifact components and meaningful functional networks. A limiting factor of ICA is the uncertainty of the number of independent components (NIC). We aim to develop a framework based on support vector machines (SVM) and optimized feature-selection for automated classification of independent components (ICs) and use the framework to investigate the effects of input NIC on the ICA results. Seven different resting-state fMRI datasets were studied. 18 features were devised by mimicking the empirical criteria for manual evaluation. The five most significant (p < 0.01) features were identified by general linear modeling and used to generate a classification model for the framework. This feature-optimized classification of ICs with SVM (FOCIS) framework was used to classify both group and single subject ICA results. The classification results obtained using FOCIS and previously published FSL-FIX were compared against manually evaluated results. On average the false negative rate in identifying artifact contaminated ICs for FOCIS and FSL-FIX were 98.27 and 92.34%, respectively. The number of artifact and functional network components increased almost linearly with the input NIC. Through tracking, we demonstrate that incrementing NIC affects most ICs when NIC < 33, whereas only a few limited ICs are affected by direct splitting when NIC is incremented beyond NIC > 40. For a given IC, its changes with increasing NIC are individually specific irrespective whether the component is a potential resting-state functional network or an artifact component. Using FOCIS, we investigated experimentally the ICA dimensionality of resting-state fMRI datasets and found that the input NIC can critically affect the ICA results of resting-state fMRI data.

  7. Impact of prenatal nicotine on the structure of midbrain dopamine regions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Omelchenko, Natalia; Roy, Priya; Balcita-Pedicino, Judith Joyce; Poloyac, Samuel; Sesack, Susan R

    2016-05-01

    In utero exposure of rats to nicotine (NIC) provides a useful animal model for studying the impact of smoking during pregnancy on human offspring. Certain sequelae of prenatal NIC exposure suggest an impact on the development of the midbrain dopamine (DA) system, which receives a robust cholinergic innervation from the mesopontine tegmentum. We therefore investigated whether prenatal NIC induced structural changes in cells and synapses within the midbrain that persisted into adulthood. Osmotic minipumps delivering either sodium bitartrate (vehicle; VEH) or NIC bitartrate at 2 mg/kg/day were implanted into nine timed-pregnant dams at E4. At birth, rat pups were culled to litters of six males each, and the litters were cross-fostered. Plasma levels of NIC and cotinine from killed pups provided evidence of NIC exposure in utero. Pups separated from dams at weaning showed a trend toward reduced locomotor activity at this time point but not when tested again in adulthood. Adult rats were killed for anatomical studies. Estimates of brain size and volume did not vary with NIC treatment. Midbrain sections stained for Nissl or by immunoperoxidase for tyrosine hydroxylase and analyzed using unbiased stereology revealed no changes in volume or cell number in the substantia nigra compacta or ventral tegmental area as a result of NIC exposure. Within the ventral tegmental area, electron microscopic physical disector analysis showed no significant differences in the number of axon terminals or the number of asymmetric (putative excitatory) or symmetric (putative inhibitory) synapses. Although too infrequent to estimate by unbiased stereology, no obvious difference in the proportion of cholinergic axons was noted in NIC- versus VEH-treated animals. These data suggest that activation of nicotinic receptors during prenatal development induces no significant modifications in the structure of cells in the ventral midbrain when assessed in adulthood.

  8. Influence of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in the jaws of systemically nicotine-modified rats: A histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi; de Moraes, Ricardo Oliveira; Gusman, David Jonathan Rodrigues; Faleiros, Paula Lazilha; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Bosco, Alvaro Francisco

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the bone healing process of autogenous bone block grafts installed in nicotine systemically modified rats. Seventy-two rats (Wistar) were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=18). SS-BG: saline application+bone graft. SS-BG/LLLT: saline application+bone graft+LLLT. NIC-BG: nicotine application+bone graft. NIC-BG/LLLT: nicotine application+bone graft+LLLT. After 30days of application of solutions, all animals received autogenous bone block graft in the jaw, with the donation from the parietal bone's calvarial area. Treatment with LLLT was in bed-graft interface, after accommodation of the graft. The animals in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 28days after graft surgery. The histologic analyses of NIC-BG group depicted a delay of osteogenic activity in the recipient bed-graft interface and the irradiation of tissue with LLLT provided better bone healing. The histometric analysis revealed that SS-BG/LLLT and NIC-BG/LLLT groups showed increased bone formation compared to BG-SS and NIC-BG groups, after 14days (SS-BG 24.94%±13.06% versus SS-BG/LLLT 27.53%±19.07% and NIC-BG 14.27%±2.22% versus NIC-BG/LLLT 24.37%±11.93%) and 28days (SS-BG 50.31%±2.69% versus SS-BG/LLLT 58 19%±12.32% and NIC-BG 36.89%±8.40% versus NIC-BG/LLLT 45.81%±6.03%). Nicotine harms bone formation in the bed-graft interface and LLLT action can mitigate this. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-nicotine vaccines: Comparison of adjuvanted CRM197 and Qb-VLP conjugate formulations for immunogenicity and function in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, Michael J; Thorn, Jennifer; Gervais, David P; Stead, David R; Zhang, Ningli; Benoit, Michelle; Cartier, Janna; Kim, In-Jeong; Bhattacharya, Keshab; Finneman, Jari I; Merson, James R; Davis, Heather L

    2015-12-01

    Anti-nicotine vaccines comprise nicotine-like haptens conjugated to a carrier protein plus adjuvant(s). Unfortunately, those tested clinically have failed to improve overall long term quit rates. We had shown in mice that carrier, hapten, linker, hapten load (number of haptens per carrier molecule), aggregation and adducts, as well as adjuvants influence the function of antibodies (Ab) induced. Herein, we tested an optimized antigen, NIC7-CRM, comprised of 5-aminoethoxy-nicotine (NIC7) conjugated to genetically detoxified diphtheria toxin (CRM197), with hapten load of ~16, no aggregation (~100% monomer) and minimal adducts. NIC7-CRM was tested in non-human primates (NHP) and compared to NIC-VLP, which has the same hapten and carrier as the clinical-stage CYT002-NicQb but a slightly different linker and lower hapten load. With alum as sole adjuvant, NIC7-CRM was superior to NIC-VLP for Ab titer, avidity and ex vivo function (83% and 27% nicotine binding at 40ng/mL respectively), but equivalent for in vivo function after intravenous [IV] nicotine challenge (brain levels reduced ~10%). CpG adjuvant added to NIC7-CRM/alum further enhanced the Ab responses and both ex vivo function (100% bound) and in vivo function (~80% reduction in brain). Thus, both optimal antigen design and CpG adjuvant were required to achieve a highly functional vaccine. The compelling NHP data with NIC7-CRM with alum/CpG supported human testing, currently underway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Oxygen free-radical scavengers and immune destruction of murine islets in allograft rejection and multiple low-dose streptozocin-induced insulitis.

    PubMed

    Mendola, J; Wright, J R; Lacy, P E

    1989-03-01

    We examined the effects of desferrioxamine (DFX), a potent inhibitor of the formation of oxygen-derived hydroxyl radicals, and nicotinamide (NIC), a poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase inhibitor and a weak free-radical scavenger, on two models of immune destruction of murine islets [i.e., allograft rejection and multiple low-dose streptozocin (STZ)-induced insulitis]. Freshly isolated or low-temperature-cultured BALB/cJ islets were transplanted beneath the kidney capsules of C57BL/6J recipients. The recipients were treated with NIC alone (500 mg.kg-1.day-1), DFX alone (4.2 mg/day x 14 days), or NIC + DFX. Only recipients treated with NIC + DFX, receiving cultured islets, showed a mean graft survival time significantly longer than control mice receiving freshly isolated or cultured islets. Control CD-1 mice treated with multiple low doses of STZ developed insulitis and diabetes. Treatment with NIC alone, DFX alone, or NIC + DFX decreased the severity of hyperglycemia relative to the controls. Treatment with DFX alone was more effective than NIC alone or NIC + DFX. Only the group treated with DFX alone had a lower incidence of diabetes (mean plasma glucose level greater than 200 mg/dl) than the controls after 4 wk. Histologically, islets from control mice showed severe insulitis, islet destruction, and absence of stainable insulin, whereas islets from DFX-treated mice showed only mild peri-insulitis and a relative preservation of beta-cell granulation. Our study showed that NIC and DFX partially protect islets from immune destruction in allograft rejection and in low-dose STZ-induced insulitis. Apparently, hydroxyl radicals play important roles in both of these models.

  11. Alteration in plasma and striatal levels of d-serine after d-serine administration with or without nicergoline: An in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Onozato, Mayu; Nakazawa, Hiromi; Ishimaru, Katsuyuki; Nagashima, Chihiro; Fukumoto, Minori; Hakariya, Hitomi; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Ichiba, Hideaki; Fukushima, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    d-Serine (d-Ser), a co-agonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), is effective for treating schizophrenia. The present study investigated changes in plasma and striatal d-Ser levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after intraperitoneal d-Ser administration alone or together with nicergoline (Nic), a commercial cerebral ameliorating drug, using in vivo microdialysis (MD) to explore the function of Nic. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Nic (0, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg) followed by d-Ser (5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 50.0 mg/kg for PBS or 20.0 mg/kg for Nic) was administered intraperitoneally to male SD rats, and the profiles of d-Ser levels in plasma and striatal MD samples were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The area under the curve (AUC) for the MD and plasma samples was also calculated and statistically compared among groups. AUC values of d-Ser increased in a d-Ser dose-dependent manner in plasma samples, while a proportional increase in the AUC values of striatal MD samples was only observed in d-Ser doses up to 20 mg/kg. The Nic co-administered group showed a significant increase in the AUC of plasma d-Ser in a Nic dose-dependent manner, but the AUC in striatal d-Ser significantly decreased with increasing Nic doses suggesting that Nic may prevent excess d-Ser from penetrating the central nervous system (CNS). Nic may prevent an excessive distribution of exogenous d-Ser, such as that from a dietary origin, into the CNS by suppressing excitatory neurotransmission through NMDAR.

  12. Genetic Structure of a Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population: High Prevalence of Deletion Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2004-01-01

    A Nicaraguan field isolate (SfNIC) of Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus was purified by plaque assay on Sf9 cells. Nine distinct genotypes, A to I, were identified by their restriction endonuclease profiles. Variant SfNIC-B was selected as the standard because its restriction profile corresponded to that of the wild-type isolate. Physical maps were generated for each of the variants. The differences between variants and the SfNIC-B standard were confined to the region between map units 9 and 32.5. This region included PstI-G, PstI-F, PstI-L, PstI-K and EcoRI-L fragments. Eight genotypes presented a deletion in their genome compared with SfNIC-B. Occlusion body-derived virions of SfNIC-C, -D and -G accounted for 41% of plaque-purified clones. These variants were not infectious per os but retained infectivity by injection into S. frugiperda larvae. Median 50% lethal concentration values for the other cloned genotypes were significantly higher than that of the wild type. The variants also differed in their speed of kill. Noninfectious variants SfNIC-C and -D lacked the pif and pif-2 genes. Infectivity was restored to these variants by plasmid rescue with a plasmid comprising both pif and pif-2. Transcription of an SfNIC-G gene was detected by reverse transcription-PCR in insects, but no fatal disease developed. Transcription was not detected in SfNIC-C or -D-inoculated larvae. We conclude that the SfNIC population presents high levels of genetic diversity, localized to a 17-kb region containing pif and pif-2, and that interactions among complete and deleted genotypic variants will likely influence the capacity of this virus to control insect pests. PMID:15345446

  13. Independent, Rapid and Targeted Loss of Highly Repetitive DNA in Natural and Synthetic Allopolyploids of Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Renny-Byfield, Simon; Kovařík, Ales; Chester, Michael; Nichols, Richard A.; Macas, Jiri; Novák, Petr; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Allopolyploidy (interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy) has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of angiosperms and can result in genomic, epigenetic and transcriptomic perturbations. We examine the immediate effects of allopolyploidy on repetitive DNA by comparing the genomes of synthetic and natural Nicotiana tabacum with diploid progenitors N. tomentosiformis (paternal progenitor) and N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor). Using next generation sequencing, a recently developed graph-based repeat identification pipeline, Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) we characterise two highly repetitive DNA sequences (NicCL3 and NicCL7/30). Analysis of two independent high-throughput DNA sequencing datasets indicates NicCL3 forms 1.6–1.9% of the genome in N. tomentosiformis, sequences that occur in multiple, discontinuous tandem arrays scattered over several chromosomes. Abundance estimates, based on sequencing depth, indicate NicCL3 is almost absent in N. sylvestris and has been dramatically reduced in copy number in the allopolyploid N. tabacum. Surprisingly elimination of NicCL3 is repeated in some synthetic lines of N. tabacum in their forth generation. The retroelement NicCL7/30, which occurs interspersed with NicCL3, is also under-represented but to a much lesser degree, revealing targeted elimination of the latter. Analysis of paired-end sequencing data indicates the tandem component of NicCL3 has been preferentially removed in natural N. tabacum, increasing the proportion of the dispersed component. This occurs across multiple blocks of discontinuous repeats and based on the distribution of nucleotide similarity among NicCL3 units, was concurrent with rounds of sequence homogenisation. PMID:22606317

  14. Independent, rapid and targeted loss of highly repetitive DNA in natural and synthetic allopolyploids of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Renny-Byfield, Simon; Kovařík, Ales; Chester, Michael; Nichols, Richard A; Macas, Jiri; Novák, Petr; Leitch, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Allopolyploidy (interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy) has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of angiosperms and can result in genomic, epigenetic and transcriptomic perturbations. We examine the immediate effects of allopolyploidy on repetitive DNA by comparing the genomes of synthetic and natural Nicotiana tabacum with diploid progenitors N. tomentosiformis (paternal progenitor) and N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor). Using next generation sequencing, a recently developed graph-based repeat identification pipeline, Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) we characterise two highly repetitive DNA sequences (NicCL3 and NicCL7/30). Analysis of two independent high-throughput DNA sequencing datasets indicates NicCL3 forms 1.6-1.9% of the genome in N. tomentosiformis, sequences that occur in multiple, discontinuous tandem arrays scattered over several chromosomes. Abundance estimates, based on sequencing depth, indicate NicCL3 is almost absent in N. sylvestris and has been dramatically reduced in copy number in the allopolyploid N. tabacum. Surprisingly elimination of NicCL3 is repeated in some synthetic lines of N. tabacum in their forth generation. The retroelement NicCL7/30, which occurs interspersed with NicCL3, is also under-represented but to a much lesser degree, revealing targeted elimination of the latter. Analysis of paired-end sequencing data indicates the tandem component of NicCL3 has been preferentially removed in natural N. tabacum, increasing the proportion of the dispersed component. This occurs across multiple blocks of discontinuous repeats and based on the distribution of nucleotide similarity among NicCL3 units, was concurrent with rounds of sequence homogenisation.

  15. Nicotine effects on thermoregulatory responses of men and women during acute cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Christopher C; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Blegen, Mark; Potkanowicz, Edward S; Glickman, Ellen L

    2004-07-01

    Due to the impact of nicotine (NIC) on the physiological processes involved in temperature regulation during cold exposure, it is conceivable that NIC may affect the body's thermoregulatory abilities during a cold stress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NIC on thermoregulatory responses during acute cold exposure. There were six men and six women between the ages of 18 and 25 yr who participated in this study. All subjects were active, apparently healthy smokers. Each subject performed two cold air trials consisting of a 30-min baseline period (BASE) and a 120-min exposure to 10 degrees C air. One cold air trial was performed following a NIC dosing using a 21-mg transdermal patch while the other trial was performed after a placebo (PL) treatment. During the cold air trials, there were no differences in rectal temperature (Tre) or mean skin temperature (Tsk) between the PL and NIC treatments in either sex (p > 0.05). However, in men, heat production (M) was 12% lower (p < or = 0.05) and tissue insulation was 17% higher (p < or = 0.05) during the NIC treatment compared with the PL treatment, while these responses in women were unaffected. In both men and women, finger skin vascular conductance (SVCfin), expressed as a percentage of the BASE value, was higher during the NIC treatment compared with the PL treatment during the cold air trials (p < or = 0.05). Lastly, throughout the cold air trials, there was no difference in thermal sensation between the PL and NIC treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, although NIC administration resulted in sex-specific alterations in M and tissue insulation during cold exposure, the response in Tre was unaffected.

  16. Orchiectomy modifies the antidepressant-like response of nicotine in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Limón-Morales, O; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-González, M; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Vázquez-Palacios, G

    2010-11-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that nicotine (NIC) exhibits antidepressant-like effects. In addition, it has been suggested that sexual hormones participate in the antidepressant actions of antidepressives. The present study was designed to analyze the effect of orchiectomy and the supplementation of testosterone propionate (TP) or 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on the antidepressant properties of NIC using the forced swimming test (FST), as well as to determine possible changes in the FST during different time periods after orchiectomy. In order to evaluate the influences of orchiectomy on the effects of NIC, the study first evaluated the effects of different time periods on orchiectomized rats (15, 21, 30, 45 and 60 days) that were subjected to the FST. Then, different doses of NIC (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg/kg, sc) were administered for 14 days to both intact and orchiectomized rats (after 21 day) which were then also subjected to the FST. Finally, the influence of the TP or E(2) supplementation on the antidepressant-like effect of NIC on orchiectomized rats (after 21 days) was also analyzed. Results reveal that orchiectomy significantly increased immobility behavior and decreased swimming and climbing up to 60 days after castration. In contrast, NIC decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming in intact rats; whereas orchiectomy suppressed this antidepressant effect of NIC. Only with E(2) supplementation was it possible to restore the sensitivity of the castrated rats to NIC. These results suggest that E(2) was able to facilitate the antidepressant response of NIC in orchiectomized rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: an autoradiographic study of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Antonelli, Marta C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2013-07-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) was able to prevent the behavioral expression of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying this effect, we conducted this study, with the aims of analyzing α4β2 nicotinic receptor density during NIC withdrawal and, in case we found any changes, of determining whether they could be prevented by pretreatment with BAC. Swiss Webster albino mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and brain autoradiography with [(3)H]epibatidine was carried out at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of α4β2 nicotinic receptor labeling during NIC withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), medial habenular nucleus (HbM), thalamic nuclei, dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus (fr), ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus and superior colliculus. BAC pretreatment prevented the increased α4β2 nicotinic receptor binding sites in the AcbSh, MHb, thalamic nuclei, DLG nucleus and fr. The present results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in α4β2 nicotinic receptor labeling, evidenced in specific brain areas in NIC withdrawn animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine and ethanol interact during adolescence: effects on the central cholinergic systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson; Lima, Carla S; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2008-09-26

    Co-occurrence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption during adolescence is frequent and well documented. However, little is known about the basic neurobiology of the combined exposure in the adolescent brain. Since nicotine is a cholinergic agonist and it has been shown that ethanol interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the current work focused on cholinergic systems. From the 30th to the 45th postnatal day (PN), C57BL/6 male and female mice were exposed to nicotine free base (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH). Four groups were analyzed: 1) concomitant NIC (50 microg/ml in 2% saccharin to drink) and ETOH (25%, 2 g/kg i.p. injected every other day) exposure; 2) NIC exposure; 3) ETOH exposure; 4) vehicle. We assessed nAChR binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and [3H]hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding in the cerebral cortex and midbrain of mice on PN45. In the cortex, ETOH had no effect on nAChRs. In contrast, NIC produced nAChR upregulation while NIC+ETOH elicited a more pronounced effect. In the midbrain, neither ETOH nor NIC had effects on nAChRs. NIC+ETOH, however, elicited a robust nAChR upregulation. Regarding ChAT activity, treatment effects differed between males and females in the cortex. Male NIC mice presented an increase in ChAT. However, ETOH reversed this effect. In contrast, female NIC mice presented decreased ChAT activity. In the midbrain, ETOH increased ChAT. HC-3 binding was not affected. These results indicate that the central cholinergic system is a site at which nicotine and ethanol interact. This interaction might underlie the association between tobacco and alcohol consumption during adolescence.

  19. Ameliorative effects of Achillea millefolium inflorescences alcoholic extract against nicotine-induced reproductive failure in rat.

    PubMed

    Salahipour, M Hallaj; Hasanzadeh, Sh; Malekinejad, H

    2017-09-05

    Nicotine (Nic) is a major risk factor in the development of functional disorders of male reproductive system. Achillea millefolium; is highly regarded for medicinal activities, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was carried out to evaluate whether Achillea millefolium (Achm) inflorescences alcoholic extract could serve as a protective agent in male reproductive male failures during Nic exposure in a rat model. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were categorized into the five groups. Tests 1 and 3 groups were received Nic at dose levels of 0.2 and 0.4mg/kg BW/day, respectively by IP injection. Tests 2 and 4 groups were received Nic at the same doses along with Achm at dose level of 120mg/kg BW/day. The study period took forty-eight days for all experimental groups. Nic groups showed significant decreases in tubule differentiation index (TDI), sperm count, motility, stereological parameters and an increase in dead and abnormal sperms. Moreover, the reduction in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, along with increased serum concentration of LDH were observed in the Nic groups. Total nitrite and malondealdehyde levels increased and total thiol molecules (TTM) levels decreased in testicular tissue in the Nic groups. Notably, Achm co-administration caused a contemporary recovery in above-mentioned parameters. Nic exerts major toxicity in testicular tissue and causes damages in several ways including, oxidative stress, whilst Achm imposes protective effect against Nic-induced reproductive failure, which may attribute to its antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast and delayed locomotor response to acute high-dose nicotine administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Jandová, K; Marešová, D; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the immediate and delayed locomotor response to high-dose nicotine (NIC) administration in rats. The vertical and horizontal activity of behavior in adult male rats exposed to 1 mg/kg NIC or saline (SAL) were tested in a Laboras apparatus for one hour after drug application. Animals were then returned to their cages and housed for another seven days. After this period all animals were placed in Laboras again and their behavioral pattern was retested for another period of one hour (delayed response). Horizontal activity: immediately after nicotine administration animal were less mobile (first 2-minutes interval), when compared with controls. The immobilization effect of nicotine disappeared within 4 minutes and during whole first 10-minutes interval time spent by locomotion did not differ from controls. Locomotion activity of animals treated with nicotine increased robustly in following 10 minutes and remained significantly higher in 2nd, 3rd and 5th 10-minutes interval. Vertical activity: Rearing frequency was significantly lowered by NIC administration in first two minutes of the experiment and the same was found when the duration of rearing was analyzed. Lower rearing intensity of NIC treated animals disappeared in 4 minutes and was finally higher during whole test session as compared with controls. When duration of rearing was analyzed it was significantly longer in NIC treated animals. In majority of observed behavioral aspects there were no differences between NIC treated rats and controls seven days after NIC or SAL treatment. Our results reflect effect of NIC and we conclude that NIC significantly influences behavior of experimental animals.

  1. Combination of hydrotropic nicotinamide with nanoparticles for enhancing tacrolimus percutaneous delivery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenhui; Qin, Mengyao; Zhang, Guoguang; Long, Yueming; Ruan, Wenyi; Pan, Jingtong; Wu, Zushuai; Wan, Tao; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    Tacrolimus (FK506), an effective immunosuppressant for treating inflammatory skin diseases, hardly penetrates into and through the skin owing to its high hydrophobicity and molecular weight. The aim of this study was to develop a hybrid system based on nicotinamide (NIC) and nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating FK506, such as FK506-NPs-NIC, for facilitating percutaneous delivery, which exploited virtues of both NIC and NPs to obtain the synergetic effect. Solubility and percutaneous permeation studies were carried out. The results showed that NIC could increase the solubility and permeability of FK506 and that 20% (w/v) NIC presented higher FK506 permeability and was thus chosen as the hydrotropic solution to solubilize FK506 and prepare FK506-NPs-NIC. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was chemically conjugated with cholesterol (Chol) to obtain amphiphilic conjugate of HA-Chol, which self-assembled NPs in 20% NIC solution containing FK506. The particle size, zeta potential, and morphology of NPs were characterized. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro percutaneous permeation of NPs were evaluated in the presence and absence of NIC. The results demonstrated that hydrotropic solubilizing FK506 was readily encapsulated into NPs with a higher encapsulation efficiency of 79.2%±4.2%, and the combination of NPs with NIC exhibited a significantly synergistic effect on FK506 deposition within the skin (2.39±0.53 μg/cm(2)) and penetration through the skin (13.38±2.26 μg/cm(2)). The effect of the combination of NPs with NIC on drug permeation was further visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope through in vivo permeation studies, and the results confirmed that NPs-NIC synergistically enhanced the permeation of the drug into the skin. The cellular uptake performed in HaCaT cells presented a promoting effect of NPs on cellular uptake. These overall results demonstrated that HA-Chol-NPs-NIC can synergistically improve the percutaneous delivery of FK506, and it is a novel

  2. Combination of hydrotropic nicotinamide with nanoparticles for enhancing tacrolimus percutaneous delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wenhui; Qin, Mengyao; Zhang, Guoguang; Long, Yueming; Ruan, Wenyi; Pan, Jingtong; Wu, Zushuai; Wan, Tao; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506), an effective immunosuppressant for treating inflammatory skin diseases, hardly penetrates into and through the skin owing to its high hydrophobicity and molecular weight. The aim of this study was to develop a hybrid system based on nicotinamide (NIC) and nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating FK506, such as FK506–NPs–NIC, for facilitating percutaneous delivery, which exploited virtues of both NIC and NPs to obtain the synergetic effect. Solubility and percutaneous permeation studies were carried out. The results showed that NIC could increase the solubility and permeability of FK506 and that 20% (w/v) NIC presented higher FK506 permeability and was thus chosen as the hydrotropic solution to solubilize FK506 and prepare FK506–NPs–NIC. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was chemically conjugated with cholesterol (Chol) to obtain amphiphilic conjugate of HA–Chol, which self-assembled NPs in 20% NIC solution containing FK506. The particle size, zeta potential, and morphology of NPs were characterized. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro percutaneous permeation of NPs were evaluated in the presence and absence of NIC. The results demonstrated that hydrotropic solubilizing FK506 was readily encapsulated into NPs with a higher encapsulation efficiency of 79.2%±4.2%, and the combination of NPs with NIC exhibited a significantly synergistic effect on FK506 deposition within the skin (2.39±0.53 μg/cm2) and penetration through the skin (13.38±2.26 μg/cm2). The effect of the combination of NPs with NIC on drug permeation was further visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope through in vivo permeation studies, and the results confirmed that NPs–NIC synergistically enhanced the permeation of the drug into the skin. The cellular uptake performed in HaCaT cells presented a promoting effect of NPs on cellular uptake. These overall results demonstrated that HA–Chol–NPs–NIC can synergistically improve the percutaneous delivery of FK506, and it is

  3. Identification and Triage of Compromised Virtual Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    servers in the alpha.aco domain is provisioned with 40GB HD space, 4GB of Random Access Memory (RAM) and one Network Interface Card (NIC). This...exceeds the Microsoft recommended values of 32GB HD and 512 MB RAM, and was intended to improve performance in the virtualized environment. All of the...provisioned with 20GB HD space, 2GB of RAM and one NIC. All of the NICs for these workstations reside on the ALPHA VLAN as defined in the vSphere software

  4. Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue.

    PubMed

    Müller-Ehmsen, J; Brixius, K; Hoischen, S; Schwinger, R H

    1996-12-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the inotropic and vasodilatory properties of the K-ATP channel opener nicorandil (NIC) in isolated human cardiac tissue. For comparison, the Ca+2 channel blockers diltiazem (DIL) and nifedipine (NIF) have been studied. Concentration-dependent effects of NIC, DIL and NIF on the force of contraction (FOC) and the vascular tone have been studied on left ventricular papillary muscle strips (dilated cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association Class IV, n = 20; nonfailing, donor hearts, n = 4), on right auricular trabeculae (nonfailing, n = 5) and on precontracted (prostaglandin F2 alpha: 0.3, 0.5 or 1 mumol/l) isolated human coronary artery rings (cardiac transplantation, n = 15). NIC, DIL and NIF concentration-dependently reduced the FOC of the papillary muscle preparations. However, the IC25 for the negative inotropic effect was significantly higher for NIC compared to DIL and NIF. The maximal negative inotropic effects of NIC, DIL and NIF (100 mumol/l) were -48.2 +/- 4.1, -92.9 +/- 0.9 and -93.4 +/- 1.4% of the basal FOC. The negative inotropic actions of NIC were similar in the human failing and the nonfailing ventricular and in the right atrial myocardium. Whereas pretreatment with methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, had no effect on the negative inotropic action of NIC, it was almost abolished by glibenclamide, a selective antagonist of the ATP-dependent K channels. NIC, DIL and NIF relaxed the coronary artery rings with 97.1 +/- 0.5, 90.7 +/- 0.9 and 96.4 +/- 0.7% of maximal relaxation (papaverine, 100 mumol/l). The rank order of vasodilatory potency was NIF > NIC > DIL. In conclusion, NIC is as effective as DIL and NIF in relaxing human coronary artery rings. However, NIC showed significantly lower negative inotropic effects when compared with the Ca+2 channel antagonists. The negative inotropic action of NIC is probably due to an interaction with the ATP-dependent K channels. In addition, activation of

  5. The Simultaneous Conversion of Ni-PR3 and B-H to Ni-H and B-PR3 Linkages by Thermal Rearrangement of d8-Closo-Bis(triarylphosphine)Nickelacarboranes. Crystal and Molecular Structure of (Closo-3-mu-CO-8-PPh3-3,1,2-NiC2B9H10)2; a Dimeric Nickelacarborane Complex Containing a Metal-Metal Bond.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-29

    to Ni-H and B-PR 3 Linkages by Thermal Rearrangement of d 8_Closo-Bis(triarylphosphine)Nickelacarboranes. Crystal and Molecular Structure of [ loso -3...ml) of the appropriate (CH3 ) 3 NH+ [nido-7,9-(or 2,9)-C2B9H121- carborane salts (0.39 gm, 2.00 mmol) resulted in the evolution of hydrogen gas. The...nonhydrogen atoms, with anomalous dispersion terms applied to the scattering of nickel and phosphorus, resulted in convergence at R = 0.057, Rw - 0.061

  6. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  7. Una guia para los padres sobre lo mas importante: el logro academico plan de educacion de Maryland desde preescolar hasta el 12 grado, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Spanish-language guide for parents outlines the goals and…

  8. Improving Eleventh Graders' Reading Comprehension through Text Coding and Double Entry Organizer Reading Strategies (Mejoramiento de la comprensión lectora de estudiantes de grado once mediante las estrategias de lectura de codificación de texto y organizador de doble entrada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahecha, Rocío; Urrego, Stella; Lozano, Erika

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report on an innovation project developed with a group of eleventh graders at a public school in Bogotá. Its aim was to encourage students to improve reading comprehension of texts in English. It was conducted taking into account students' needs, interests and level of English. To do it, we implemented two reading strategies:…

  9. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  10. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  11. Exploring Knowledge of English Speaking Strategies in 8th and 12th Graders (Exploración del conocimiento de las estrategias de expresión oral en inglés en estudiantes de los grados octavo y doceavo)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a research study that analyses eighth and twelfth graders' knowledge of speaking strategies to communicate in English. The Oral Communication Strategy Inventory, developed by Nakatani in 2006, was applied to 108 students belonging to the public, semi-public and private educational sectors in Chile. The findings show that 8th…

  12. Promoting Tenth Graders' Reading Comprehension of Academic Texts in the English Class (Promoción de la comprensión de lectura de textos académicos de estudiantes de grado décimo en la clase de inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga Carrillo, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project conducted in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia, with tenth grade students. We decided to develop it because of the students' needs as well as the em phasis of the PEI (Proyecto Educativo Institucional = School Institutional Project), which is based on the requisite of improving reading…

  13. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 5th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 5to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  14. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 8th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Octavo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  15. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 7th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Septimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  16. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  17. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 3rd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 3er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  18. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 10th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Decimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  19. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 4th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 4to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  20. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 6th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 6to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…