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Sample records for grain wheat sourdough

  1. Utilization of African grains for sourdough bread making.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Edema, Mojisola O; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Acha and Iburu flours were singly subjected to sourdough fermentation with previously selected autochthonous starters. Sourdoughs were used (30%, wt/wt) as aroma carriers and acidifiers during short time fermentation with the addition of baker's yeast. Acha and Iburu sourdough breads were compared to wheat sourdough bread started with the same strains and to breads made with the same formula but using baker's yeast alone. During Acha and Iburu sourdough fermentations, starter lactic acid bacteria reached almost the same cell density found in wheat sourdoughs. Acidification was more intense. Iburu sourdough bread had the highest total titratable acidity, the lowest pH, and contained the highest levels of free amino acids and phytase activity. The values of in vitro protein digestibility did not differ between Acha sourdough and wheat sourdough breads, while Iburu sourdough bread showed a slightly lower value. Acha and Iburu sourdough breads showed lower specific volume and higher density with respect to wheat sourdough breads. Nevertheless, Acha and Iburu sourdough breads were preferred for hardness and resilience. As shown by sensory analysis, Acha and especially Iburu sourdough breads were appreciated for color, acid taste and flavor, and overall acceptability. This study was aimed at evaluating the technological and nutritional properties of the African cereals Acha and Iburu. Sourdough fermentation and the use of selected starters increased the nutritional and sensory qualities and the potential application for bakery industry. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  3. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    PubMed Central

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread. PMID:26019574

  4. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters.

    PubMed

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-09-03

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread.

  5. A polyphasic approach to study the dynamics of microbial population of an organic wheat sourdough during its conversion to gluten-free sourdough.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Mezaize, Sandra; Ducasse, Maren Bonnand; Chiron, Hubert; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane; Zagorec, Monique; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    To develop a method for organic gluten-free (GF) sourdough bread production, a long-term and original wheat sourdough was refreshed with GF flours. The dynamics of the sourdough microbiota during five months of back-slopping were analyzed by classical enumeration and molecular methods, including PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE), multiplex PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed that the yeast counts remained constant, although Saccharomyces cerevisiae, present in the initial wheat sourdough, was no longer detected in the GF sourdough, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased consistently. In the first phase, which was aimed at obtaining a GF sourdough from wheat sourdough, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, L. plantarum, and L. spicheri were the main LAB species detected. During the second phase, aimed at maintaining the GF sourdough, the L. plantarum and L. spicheri populations decreased whereas L. sanfranciscensis persisted and L. sakei became the predominant species. Multiplex PCRs also revealed the presence of several L. sakei strains in the GF sourdough. In a search for the origin of the LAB species, PCR-TTGE was performed on the flour samples but only L. sanfranciscensis was detected, suggesting a flour origin for this typical sourdough species. Thus, while replacement of the wheat flour by GF flour influenced the sourdough microbiota, some of the original sourdough LAB and yeast species remained in the GF sourdough.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria community dynamics and metabolite production of rye sourdough fermentations share characteristics of wheat and spelt sourdough fermentations.

    PubMed

    Weckx, Stefan; Van der Meulen, Roel; Maes, Dominique; Scheirlinck, Ilse; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    Four spontaneous rye sourdough fermentations were performed over a period of ten days with daily back-slopping. Samples taken at all refreshment steps were used for culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of the microbiota present. Furthermore, an extensive metabolite target analysis was performed through a combination of various chromatographic methods, including liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated and a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained in this study combined with data obtained previously for wheat and spelt sourdoughs. In general, the establishment of a stable microbial ecosystem occurred through a three-phase evolution, with mainly Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum dominating the rye sourdough ecosystems. PCA revealed that ornithine and mannitol were positively correlated with rye sourdoughs, contributing to bacterial competitiveness at the onset of sourdough production. Wheat and spelt sourdoughs showed a high degree of similarity, although certain compounds (e.g. indolelactic acid) appeared to be specific for spelt sourdoughs. The production of amino acid metabolites, mainly hydroxy acids (e.g. phenyllactic acid) and alcohols (e.g. 3-methyl-1-butanol), contributed to the equilibration of the redox balance and further enhanced the competitiveness of dominant species in stable sourdoughs.

  7. Microbial ecology dynamics during rye and wheat sourdough preparation.

    PubMed

    Ercolini, Danilo; Pontonio, Erica; De Filippis, Francesca; Minervini, Fabio; La Storia, Antonietta; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2013-12-01

    The bacterial ecology during rye and wheat sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Viable plate counts of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, the ratio between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, the rate of acidification, a permutation analysis based on biochemical and microbial features, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and diversity indices all together demonstrated the maturity of the sourdoughs during 5 to 7 days of propagation. Flours were mainly contaminated by metabolically active genera (Acinetobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Comamonas, Enterobacter, Erwinia, and Sphingomonas) belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria or Bacteroidetes (genus Chryseobacterium). Their relative abundances varied with the flour. Soon after 1 day of propagation, this population was almost completely inhibited except for the Enterobacteriaceae. Although members of the phylum Firmicutes were present at very low or intermediate relative abundances in the flours, they became dominant soon after 1 day of propagation. Lactic acid bacteria were almost exclusively representative of the Firmicutes by this time. Weissella spp. were already dominant in rye flour and stably persisted, though they were later flanked by the Lactobacillus sakei group. There was a succession of species during 10 days of propagation of wheat sourdoughs. The fluctuation between dominating and subdominating populations of L. sakei group, Leuconostoc spp., Weissella spp., and Lactococcus lactis was demonstrated. Other subdominant species such as Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable throughout propagation. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated throughout the sourdough propagation. Notwithstanding variations due to environmental and technology determinants, the results of this study represent a clear example of how the microbial ecology evolves during sourdough preparation.

  8. In situ production and analysis of Weissella confusa dextran in wheat sourdough.

    PubMed

    Katina, Kati; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Flander, Laura; Johansson, Liisa; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Laitila, Arja

    2009-10-01

    Several lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella have been introduced to wheat sourdough baking for in situ production of exopolysaccharides. This is considered a novel method for improving the shelf-life, volume and nutritional value of bread without additives. However, in situ production of exopolysaccharides during sourdough fermentation is challenged by simultaneous acidification due to metabolic activities of the bacteria, which may significantly diminish the positive technological impact of exopolysaccharides. In this study, the growth, activity and in situ production of dextran by Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 in wheat sourdoughs were investigated. Furthermore, the influence of dextran-enriched sourdoughs, at the addition level of 43%, on the subsequent bread quality was established. W. confusa efficiently produced dextran from the added sucrose in wheat sourdough without strong acid production. A new specific enzyme-assisted method for in situ analysis of dextran in sourdoughs was developed. With this method, we could for the first time proof significant (11-16 g/kg DW) production of polymeric dextran in sourdoughs. Concomitant formation of shorter isomaltooligosaccharides by W. confusa was also detected. The produced dextran significantly increased the viscosity of the sourdoughs. Application of dextran-enriched sourdoughs in bread baking provided mildly acidic wheat bread with improved volume (up to 10%) and crumb softness (25-40%) during 6 days of storage. Hence, W. confusa is a promising new strain for efficient in situ production of dextrans and isomaltooligosaccharides in sourdoughs without strong acidification.

  9. Effect of sourdough on quality and acceptability of wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros-Martínez, M del Refugio; Ochoa-Martínez, L Araceli; González-Herrera, Silvia M; Delgado-Licon, Efren; Bello-Pérez, L Arturo; Morales-Castro, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative on the search for functional food products, this study evaluated the use of sourdough in the preparation of wheat flour tortillas. The sourdough was elaborated with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and the wheat flour tortillas were prepared with different concentrations of mother sponge (5%, 15%, and 25%) and fermentation times (1 and 3 h) at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Quality (diameter, height, color, pH, stretchability scores, and Kramer shear cell results) of wheat tortillas was evaluated after 24 h of preparation. The mother sponge concentration and fermentation time affected some quality parameters and acceptability properties (taste, aroma, color, opacity, and rollability). In addition, the sourdough tortillas had higher stretchability values than control tortillas. Since most of the prepared sourdough tortillas had acceptability values similar to those of tortilla controls, the introduction of sourdough is a viable means to incorporate additional nutritional and nutraceutical value into wheat tortillas.

  10. Adaptation of Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 130201, a wheat sourdough isolate, to growth in wheat sourdough simulation medium at different pH values through differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Rimaux, Tom; Allemeersch, Joke; Weckx, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Sourdough is a very competitive and challenging environment for microorganisms. Usually, a stable microbiota composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts dominates this ecosystem. Although sourdough is rich in carbohydrates, thus providing an ideal environment for microorganisms to grow, its low pH presents a particular challenge. The nature of the adaptation to this low pH was investigated for Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 130201, an isolate from a laboratory wheat sourdough fermentation. Batch fermentations were carried out in wheat sourdough simulation medium, and total RNA was isolated from mid-exponential-growth-phase cultures, followed by differential gene expression analysis using a LAB functional gene microarray. At low pH values, an increased expression of genes involved in peptide and amino acid metabolism was found as well as that of genes involved in plantaricin production and lipoteichoic acid biosynthesis. The results highlight cellular mechanisms that allow L. plantarum to function at a low environmental pH.

  11. Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Hubert W; Duclos, Virgile; Coudray, Charles; Krespine, Virginie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Messager, Arnaud; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2003-06-01

    We compared the effects of different kinds of bread fermentation on mineral bioavailability. Wistar rats were fed one of the following experimental diets for 21 d: control, reconstituted whole wheat flour (white flour plus bran), yeast bread, and sourdough bread. The apparent mineral absorption and intestinal fermentation were measured in each animal. Phytate contents in yeast and sourdough bread were lower than in reconstituted whole wheat flour (-52% and -71%, respectively). Total cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids, in particular the butyrate pool, was significantly increased by the ingestion of unrefined products. Calcium homeostasis was not modified by these nutritional conditions, whereas magnesium absorption was significantly greater in rats fed the control and sourdough diets than in those consuming whole wheat flour and yeast bread. Magnesium kidney excretion was slightly stimulated by sourdough bread. Compared with the control diet, iron balance was significantly reduced by reconstituted whole wheat flour diet. Yeast bread making counteracted the deleterious effects of whole wheat on iron absorption, whereas sourdough bread making enhanced iron absorption. Further, liver and plasma iron and transferrin saturation levels were lower in rats adapted to the flour diet than in other groups. Zinc absorption was strongly depressed in the presence of unprocessed reconstituted whole wheat flour in the diet, but yeast fermentation afforded a zinc assimilation comparable to the control diet, whereas the sourdough bread led to maximal zinc absorption. Copper absorption increased significantly when rats were fed the sourdough bread, whereas unprocessed whole flour depressed copper absorption (-41% versus control diet). Mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour can be improved by bread making. Although yeast fermentation minimizes the unfavorable effects of phytic acid, sourdough bread is a better source of available minerals, especially magnesium

  12. Prolonged fermentation of whole wheat sourdough reduces phytate level and increases soluble magnesium.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H W; Krespine, V; Guy, C; Messager, A; Demigne, C; Remesy, C

    2001-05-01

    This work was designed to compare the effects of different leavens (yeast, sourdough, and a mixture of both) on phytic acid (PA) degradation and to assess the repercussions of PA breakdown on phosphorus and magnesium solubility during bread-making. Sourdough fermentation was more efficient than yeast fermentation in reducing the phytate content in whole wheat bread (-62 and -38%, respectively). Furthermore, lactic acid bacteria present in sourdough enhanced acidification, leading to increased magnesium and phosphorus solubility. To intensify phytate breakdown, bran was incubated with microorganisms (yeast or sourdough) before bread-making. Using this new method, the percentage of phytate breakdown was near 90%, whereas 40% of phytate remained in traditional French bread. In conclusion, a prolonged fermentation with sourdough still leads to improved Mg and P solubility by decreasing phytate content and through acidification.

  13. Microbiological characterisation and volatiles profile of model, ex-novo, and traditional Italian white wheat sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Ripari, Valery; Cecchi, Teresa; Berardi, Enrico

    2016-08-15

    The interplay of sourdough microbiology and generated volatile compounds that define its sensory characteristics was studied. In order to detail the flavour generating potential of microorganisms, eight single-strain dough fermentations were studied, four of them never investigated before. Moreover, for the first time, both ex-novo and traditional wheat sourdoughs were investigated and compared to chemically acidified dough. HS-SPME-GC-MS was used to sample and analyse volatile compounds, some of which have never been detected before in sourdoughs. Alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, and acids mainly characterised the volatile profiles. Different sourdough microbiota resulted in different volatile profiles. PCA indicated that samples could be clustered according to their specific microbiota. Production of aroma compounds was strain-specific, confirming previous findings. This study can contribute to the management of desirable features and differentiate specialty products, as well as selecting new, suitable, sourdoughs after microbial screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P < 0.05) cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria after the first fermentation. Constant pH of ca. 4.0 was found after two (macerated pears or water pears-doughs) to seven (control-dough) back-slopping steps. The use of additional ingredients caused lower microbial diversity, after the first fermentation and in mature sourdoughs. Regardless of the type of ingredient used, OTU belonging to the genus Lactobacillus represented more than 95% of the total Firmicutes in mature sourdoughs. Some metabolic capacities of microbial community of the mature sourdoughs were linked to the additional ingredient. Based on culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated in all the sourdoughs. However, the sourdoughs showed different strains of these two species. Other lactic acid bacterium species were associated to baker's yeast, grape must and macerated pears. The different microbial composition was correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives).

  15. Study of kefir grains application in sourdough bread regarding rope spoilage caused by Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Mantzourani, I; Plessas, S; Saxami, G; Alexopoulos, A; Galanis, A; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2014-01-15

    Sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains resulted in appearance of rope spoilage at the 15th day of bread storage, while the control samples (sourdough breads prepared with wild microflora) were spoiled approximately at the 7th day. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis confirmed the above macroscopic observation since Bacillus spp. were detected on sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains at the 15th day of bread storage. The content of organic acids that play synergistic role regarding the enhancement of bread self life was also determined. Lactic acid concentration of sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains were approximately 41-82% higher than the control samples, while acetic acid concentration was about 0.5-1-fold higher respectively. The concentration of some other organic acids studied was also found in higher levels (up to 0.06μg/g) than the control samples. These findings could probably explain the stability of breads prepared with kefir grains against rope spoilage.

  16. Kefir immobilized on corn grains as biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation and sourdough bread making.

    PubMed

    Plessas, Stavros; Alexopoulos, Athanasios; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia

    2012-12-01

    The natural mixed culture kefir was immobilized on boiled corn grains to produce an efficient biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation with direct applications in food production, such as sourdough bread making. The immobilized biocatalyst was initially evaluated for its efficiency for lactic acid production by fermentation of cheese whey at various temperatures. The immobilized cells increased the fermentation rate and enhanced lactic acid production compared to free kefir cells. Maximum lactic acid yield (68.8 g/100 g) and lactic acid productivity (12.6 g/L per day) were obtained during fermentation by immobilized cells at 37 °C. The immobilized biocatalyst was then assessed as culture for sourdough bread making. The produced sourdough breads had satisfactory specific loaf volumes and good sensory characteristics. Specifically, bread made by addition of 60% w/w sourdough containing kefir immobilized on corn was more resistant regarding mould spoilage (appearance during the 11(th) day), probably due to higher lactic acid produced (2.86 g/Kg of bread) compared to the control samples. The sourdough breads made with the immobilized biocatalyst had aroma profiles similar to that of the control samples as shown by headspace SPME GC-MS analysis. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. The biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs is reflected in both composition and metabolite formation.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

    2002-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition.

  18. The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation

    PubMed Central

    De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition. PMID:12450829

  19. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    PubMed

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed.

  20. How organic farming of wheat may affect the sourdough and the nutritional and technological features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Dousset, Xavier; Clément, Héliciane; Filannino, Pasquale; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Organic farming is gaining broad recognition as a system that complies well with sustainability, an overarching principle that should drive agriculture now and in the coming year. Different cultivars and products can harbour different abundances of specific bacterial groups, farming system may influence the composition and abundances of microbial communities found on food product. Despite the growing interest towards organic foods, we still have a limited understanding of the diversity of food-associated microbial communities and the factors that influence the composition of these communities. Consumers in developed nations are commonly exposed to differences in farming practices through their choice between organic and conventionally farmed foods. Organic farming practices can differ from conventional farming practices in a variety of ways, including the types of fertilizer and pesticides that are used. This review aiming to gather current knowledge on chemical, technological, toxicological and functional properties and microbiota composition of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional farming systems and how the use of these may affect the sourdough fermentation and breadmaking. Sourdough fermentation is the most natural and best-performing process to ensure optimal sensory and functional characteristics. It fits perfectly into the processing chain that starts with the organic farming, especially for old wheat varieties with weaker technological properties. Recently, organic and sourdough microbiota diversity was investigated and in some case a comparison between organic and conventional microbial ecosystem was also carried out. Opposites evidences arise. Once a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria species was found in conventional wheat sourdoughs, while when the diversity of Firmicutes was investigated, organic sourdoughs showed the highest complexity. When occurring, the differences between conventional and organic sourdough microbiota and

  1. Influence of temperature and backslopping time on the microbiota of a type I propagated laboratory wheat sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Gino; Rimaux, Tom; Weckx, Stefan; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-04-01

    Sourdough fermentation is a cereal fermentation that is characterized by the formation of stable yeast/lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associations. It is a unique process among food fermentations in that the LAB that mostly dominate these fermentations are heterofermentative. In the present study, four wheat sourdough fermentations were carried out under different conditions of temperature and backslopping time to determine their effect on the composition of the microbiota of the final sourdoughs. A substantial effect of temperature was observed. A fermentation with 10 backsloppings (once every 24 h) at 23°C resulted in a microbiota composed of Leuconostoc citreum as the dominant species, whereas fermentations at 30 and 37°C with backslopping every 24 h resulted in ecosystems dominated by Lactobacillus fermentum. Longer backslopping times (every 48 h at 30°C) resulted in a combination of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum. Residual maltose remained present in all fermentations, except those with longer backslopping times, and ornithine was found in almost all fermentations, indicating enhanced sourdough-typical LAB activity. The sourdough-typical species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was not found. Finally, a nonflour origin for this species was hypothesized.

  2. Influence of Temperature and Backslopping Time on the Microbiota of a Type I Propagated Laboratory Wheat Sourdough Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Vrancken, Gino; Rimaux, Tom; Weckx, Stefan; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Sourdough fermentation is a cereal fermentation that is characterized by the formation of stable yeast/lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associations. It is a unique process among food fermentations in that the LAB that mostly dominate these fermentations are heterofermentative. In the present study, four wheat sourdough fermentations were carried out under different conditions of temperature and backslopping time to determine their effect on the composition of the microbiota of the final sourdoughs. A substantial effect of temperature was observed. A fermentation with 10 backsloppings (once every 24 h) at 23°C resulted in a microbiota composed of Leuconostoc citreum as the dominant species, whereas fermentations at 30 and 37°C with backslopping every 24 h resulted in ecosystems dominated by Lactobacillus fermentum. Longer backslopping times (every 48 h at 30°C) resulted in a combination of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum. Residual maltose remained present in all fermentations, except those with longer backslopping times, and ornithine was found in almost all fermentations, indicating enhanced sourdough-typical LAB activity. The sourdough-typical species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was not found. Finally, a nonflour origin for this species was hypothesized. PMID:21335386

  3. Population dynamics and metabolite target analysis of lactic acid bacteria during laboratory fermentations of wheat and spelt sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Van der Meulen, Roel; Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van Schoor, Ann; Huys, Geert; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-08-01

    Four laboratory sourdough fermentations, initiated with wheat or spelt flour and without the addition of a starter culture, were prepared over a period of 10 days with daily back-slopping. Samples taken at all refreshment steps were used for determination of the present microbiota. Furthermore, an extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed through a combination of various chromatographic methods including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The establishment of a stable microbial ecosystem occurred through a three-phase evolution within a week, as revealed by both microbiological and metabolite analyses. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum were dominating some of the sourdough ecosystems. Although the heterofermentative L. fermentum was dominating one of the wheat sourdoughs, all other sourdoughs were dominated by a combination of obligate and facultative heterofermentative taxa. Strains of homofermentative species were not retrieved in the stable sourdough ecosystems. Concentrations of sugar and amino acid metabolites hardly changed during the last days of fermentation. Besides lactic acid, ethanol, and mannitol, the production of succinic acid, erythritol, and various amino acid metabolites, such as phenyllactic acid, hydroxyphenyllactic acid, and indolelactic acid, was shown during fermentation. Physiologically, they contributed to the equilibration of the redox balance. The biphasic approach of the present study allowed us to map some of the interactions taking place during sourdough fermentation and helped us to understand the fine-tuned metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, which allows them to dominate a food ecosystem.

  4. Biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in French wheat sourdough as determined by molecular characterization using species-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Robert, Hervé; Gabriel, Valérie; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine

    2009-09-30

    The lactic acid microflora of nine traditional wheat sourdoughs from the Midi-Pyrénées area (South western France) was previously isolated and preliminary characterized using conventional morphological and biochemical analysis. However, such phenotypic methods alone are not always reliable and have a low taxonomic resolution for identification of lactic acid bacteria species. In the present study, a total of 290 LAB isolates were identified by PCR amplification using different sets of specific primers in order to provide a thorough characterization of the lactic flora from these traditional French sourdoughs. Overall, the LAB isolates belonged to 6 genera: Lactobacillus (39%, 8 species), Pediococcus (38%, 1 species), Leuconostoc (17%, 2 species), Weissella (4%, 2 species), Lactococcus (1%, 1 species) and Enterococcus (<1%, 1 species) and 15 different species were detected: L. plantarum, L. curvatus, L. paracasei, L. sanfranciscensis, L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. sakei, L. brevis, P. pentosaceus, L. mesenteroides, L. citreum, W. cibaria, W. confusa, L. lactis and E. hirae. Facultative heterofermentative LAB represent more than 76% of the total isolates, the main species isolated herein correspond to L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus. Obligate heterofermentative lactobacilli (L. sanfranciscencis, L. brevis) represent less than 3% of the total isolates whereas Leuconostoc and Weissella species represent 21% of the total isolates and have been detected in eight of the nine samples. Detection of some LAB species was preferentially observed depending on the isolation culture medium. The number of different species within a sourdough varies from 3 to 7 and original associations of hetero- and homofermentative LAB species have been revealed. Results from this study clearly confirm the diversity encountered in the microbial community of traditional sourdough and highlight the importance of LAB cocci in the sourdough ecosystem, along with lactobacilli.

  5. A low pH does not determine the community dynamics of spontaneously developed backslopped liquid wheat sourdoughs but does influence their metabolite kinetics.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Bastos, Francisca Casanova C; Harth, Henning; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-12-19

    This study dealt with the influence of a crucial pH value of 4.0 on the microbiota of spontaneously fermented backslopped liquid wheat sourdoughs. Two spontaneously fermented wheat sourdough fermentation experiments were carried out, one without control of the pH and one with the pH kept constant at pH4.0, both during nine backslopping steps. In each case, two additional backslopping steps were carried out, with the pH kept constant at 4.0 and with free pH, respectively. Keeping the pH constant at 4.0 changed the microbial community dynamics and metabolite kinetics of the sourdough fermentations. A slower prevalence of sourdough-specific Kazachstania yeasts occurred. Nevertheless, in both experiments, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lb. plantarum/pentosus/paraplantarum, and Kazachstania exigua/bulderi/barnettii prevailed ultimately. The lactic acid and ethanol concentration profiles were affected positively by keeping the pH constant at a minimum of 4.0 as well as the l- and d-lactic acid ratio profile, a potential biological marker for sourdough stability and maturity. Also, the concentration and diversity of acetate esters and their precursors, in particular isoamyl acetate and isoamyl alcohol, were affected negatively by the pH control, indicating the role of pH stress in the sourdough aroma formation.

  6. Antifungal activity of sourdough fermented wheat germ used as an ingredient for bread making.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cassone, Angela; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of sourdough fermented (Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5) wheat germ (SFWG). Preliminarily, methanol and water/salt-soluble extracts from SFWG were assayed by agar diffusion towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the water/salt-soluble extract showed the inhibition of various fungi isolated from bakeries. The antifungal activity was attributed to a mixture of organic acids and peptides which were synthesized during fermentation. Formic (24.7mM) acid showed the highest antifungal activity. Four peptides, having similarities with well known antifungal sequences, were identified and chemically synthesized. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 2.5-15.2mg/ml. Slices of bread made by addition of 4% (wt/wt) of freeze dried SFWG were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature. Slices did not show contamination by fungi until at least 28days of storage and behaved as the calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenotypic and molecular identification and clustering of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts from wheat (species Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum) sourdoughs of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, A; Lavermicocca, P; Morea, M; Baruzzi, F; Tosti, N; Gobbetti, M

    2001-02-28

    The microflora of 25 wheat sourdoughs from the Apulia region, Southern Italy, was characterized. The sourdoughs were mainly produced from Triticum durum wheat. The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts ranged from ca. log 7.5 to log 9.3 colony forming units (cfu)/g and from log 5.5 to log 8.4 cfu/g, respectively. About 38% of the 317 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified by conventional physiological and biochemical tests. Phenotypic identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA and 16S/23S rRNA spacer region PCR. Overall, 30% of the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, 20% as Lb. alimentarius, 14% as Lb. brevis, 12% as Leuconostoc citreum, 7% as Lb. plantarum, 6% as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, 4% as Lb. fermentum and Lb. acidophilus, 2% as Weissella confusa and 1% as Lb. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii. Some of these species have not been previously isolated from sourdoughs. Since bakers yeast is widely used in sourdough production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was largely found. The phenotypical relationships within the main lactic acid bacteria identified were established by using cluster analysis. A microbial map of the 25 sourdoughs was plotted showing characteristic associations among lactic acid bacteria and differences in the lactic acid bacteria species which were mainly due to the species of wheat flour, use of bakers yeast and type of bread.

  8. Regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Anaya, M A; Llin, M L; Pilar Macías, M; Collar, C

    1994-09-01

    The efficiency of sour-dough as a possible preservative agent of microbial spoilage of bread depends on its acetic acid content. As a secondary metabolite of sugar fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid may be promoted in the presence of O2 or H+ acceptors. This paper studies the influence of O2 and high fructose content products (pure sugar, invert sugar, fructose syrup) addition on acetic acid production by hetero- (Lactobacillus brevis 25a, B-21, L-62; L. sanfrancisco L-99) and homofermentative (L. plantarum B-39) lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs [280 and 250 dough yield (DY)]. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of sour-doughs after 44 h fermentation varied with DY and strain. As expected, the addition of O2 promoted greater increases in TTA with heterofermentative lactobacilli (15-42%) than with L. plantarum (15%). Fructose addition was only effective for heterofermentative strains, but the overall effects were smaller than those observed for oxygenation. The ability of lactobacilli to produce acetic acid in sour-doughs without treatment varied from 0.16 g/100 g flour at 44 h (B-39, 280, 350 DY) to 0.47-0.65% (L-62, 280, 350 DY). The production of acetic acid was positively promoted by all treatments. Oxygenation was again the most effective way of inducing acetic acid production; increases ranged from 54% (B-21) to 269% (L-99, 350 DY). The addition of H+ acceptors had variable effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Glutathione reductase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T: contribution to oxygen tolerance and thiol exchange reactions in wheat sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Jänsch, André; Korakli, Maher; Vogel, Rudi F; Gänzle, Michael G

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T) on the thiol levels in fermented sourdoughs was determined, and the oxygen tolerance of the strain was also determined. The gshR gene coding for a putative GshR was sequenced and inactivated by single-crossover integration to yield strain L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR. The gene disruption was verified by sequencing the truncated gshR and surrounding regions on the chromosome. The gshR activity of L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR was strongly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain, demonstrating that gshR indeed encodes an active GshR enzyme. The thiol levels in wheat doughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451 increased from 9 microM to 10.5 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough during a 24-h sourdough fermentation, but in sourdoughs fermented with L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR and in chemically acidified doughs, the thiol levels decreased to 6.5 to 6.8 microM sulfhydryl/g of dough. Remarkably, the GshR-negative strains Lactobacillus pontis LTH2587 and Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 exerted effects on thiol levels in dough comparable to those of L. sanfranciscensis. In addition to the effect on thiol levels in sourdough, the loss of GshR activity in L. sanfranciscensis DSM20451(T)DeltagshR resulted in a loss of oxygen tolerance. The gshR mutant strain exhibited a strongly decreased aerobic growth rate on modified MRS medium compared to either the growth rate under anaerobic conditions or that of the wild-type strain, and aerobic growth was restored by the addition of cysteine. Moreover, the gshR mutant strain was more sensitive to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat.

  10. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions.

  12. Sourdough fermentation of wheat flour does not prevent the interaction of transglutaminase 2 with α2-gliadin or gluten.

    PubMed

    Engström, Niklas; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Scheers, Nathalie

    2015-03-25

    The enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) plays a crucial role in the initiation of celiac disease by catalyzing the deamidation of gluten peptides. In susceptible individuals, the deamidated peptides initiate an immune response leading to celiac disease. Several studies have addressed lactic fermentation plus addition of enzymes as a means to degrade gluten in order to prevent adverse response in celiacs. Processing for complete gluten degradation is often harsh and is not likely to yield products that are of comparable characteristics as their gluten-containing counterparts. We are concerned that incomplete degradation of gluten may have adverse effects because it leads to more available TG2-binding sites on gluten peptides. Therefore, we have investigated how lactic acid fermentation affects the potential binding of TG2 to gluten protein in wheat flour by means of estimating TG2-mediated transamidation in addition to measuring the available TG2-binding motif QLP, in α2-gliadin. We show that lactic fermentation of wheat flour, as slurry or as part of sourdough bread, did not decrease the TG2-mediated transamidation, in the presence of a primary amine, to an efficient level (73%-102% of unfermented flour). Nor did the lactic fermentation decrease the available TG2 binding motif QLP in α2-gliadin to a sufficient extent in sourdough bread (73%-122% of unfermented control) to be useful for celiac safe food.

  13. Sourdough Fermentation of Wheat Flour does not Prevent the Interaction of Transglutaminase 2 with α2-Gliadin or Gluten

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Niklas; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Scheers, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) plays a crucial role in the initiation of celiac disease by catalyzing the deamidation of gluten peptides. In susceptible individuals, the deamidated peptides initiate an immune response leading to celiac disease. Several studies have addressed lactic fermentation plus addition of enzymes as a means to degrade gluten in order to prevent adverse response in celiacs. Processing for complete gluten degradation is often harsh and is not likely to yield products that are of comparable characteristics as their gluten-containing counterparts. We are concerned that incomplete degradation of gluten may have adverse effects because it leads to more available TG2-binding sites on gluten peptides. Therefore, we have investigated how lactic acid fermentation affects the potential binding of TG2 to gluten protein in wheat flour by means of estimating TG2-mediated transamidation in addition to measuring the available TG2-binding motif QLP, in α2-gliadin. We show that lactic fermentation of wheat flour, as slurry or as part of sourdough bread, did not decrease the TG2-mediated transamidation, in the presence of a primary amine, to an efficient level (73%–102% of unfermented flour). Nor did the lactic fermentation decrease the available TG2 binding motif QLP in α2-gliadin to a sufficient extent in sourdough bread (73%–122% of unfermented control) to be useful for celiac safe food. PMID:25816160

  14. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  15. Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of

  16. Synthesis of 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone by selected lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation of wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Mueller, Thomas; Coda, Rossana; Reipsch, Franziska; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-11-11

    In the last decade, several studies described the promising cytotoxic activity of fermented wheat germ towards cancer cell lines and during in vivo clinical trials. Recent data suggested that the antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects of this preparation are mainly attributed to quinones. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria fermentation to release 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, which are naturally present in wheat germ as glycosylated and non-physiologically active form. Preliminarily, forty strains of lactic acid bacteria, previously isolated from wheat germ, were in vitro screened based on β-glucosidase activity. Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5 were selected based on the highest enzyme activity and on technology features. These strains were used in combination to ferment wheat germ. Raw wheat germ, without bacterial inoculum, was subjected to the same incubation and used as the control. The sourdough fermented wheat germ was characterized based on microbiological, physico-chemical and biochemical features. During incubation, the release of the non-glycosylated and physiologically active 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone was almost completed during 24 h. Compared to the control, the concentration of the above bioactive compounds increased almost 4 and 6-folds. Both raw wheat germ (control) and sourdough fermented wheat germ were ex vivo assayed for the anti-proliferative activity towards various cell lines of germ cell tumor, colon carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma. While no effect was found for the raw wheat germ, the sourdough fermented preparation markedly and variously affected the human tumor cell lines. The values of IC50 ranged from 0.105 ± 0.005 to 0.556 ± 0.071 mg/ml, with a median value of IC50 of 0.302 mg/ml. These results are comparable to those found for other well-known pharmaceutical preparations, and may

  17. Synthesis of 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone by selected lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation of wheat germ

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last decade, several studies described the promising cytotoxic activity of fermented wheat germ towards cancer cell lines and during in vivo clinical trials. Recent data suggested that the antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects of this preparation are mainly attributed to quinones. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria fermentation to release 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, which are naturally present in wheat germ as glycosylated and non-physiologically active form. Results Preliminarily, forty strains of lactic acid bacteria, previously isolated from wheat germ, were in vitro screened based on β-glucosidase activity. Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5 were selected based on the highest enzyme activity and on technology features. These strains were used in combination to ferment wheat germ. Raw wheat germ, without bacterial inoculum, was subjected to the same incubation and used as the control. The sourdough fermented wheat germ was characterized based on microbiological, physico-chemical and biochemical features. During incubation, the release of the non-glycosylated and physiologically active 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone was almost completed during 24 h. Compared to the control, the concentration of the above bioactive compounds increased almost 4 and 6-folds. Both raw wheat germ (control) and sourdough fermented wheat germ were ex vivo assayed for the anti-proliferative activity towards various cell lines of germ cell tumor, colon carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma. While no effect was found for the raw wheat germ, the sourdough fermented preparation markedly and variously affected the human tumor cell lines. The values of IC50 ranged from 0.105 ± 0.005 to 0.556 ± 0.071 mg/ml, with a median value of IC50 of 0.302 mg/ml. Conclusions These results are comparable to those found for other well

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A12, a Strain Isolated from Wheat Sourdough

    PubMed Central

    Guellerin, Maéva; Passerini, Delphine; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Robert, Hervé; Gabriel, Valérie; Loux, Valentin; Klopp, Christophe; Le Loir, Yves; Coddeville, Michèle; Daveran-Mingot, Marie-Line; Ritzenthaler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain A12, a strain isolated from sourdough. The circular chromosome and the four plasmids reveal genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism that are potentially required for the persistence of this strain in such a complex ecosystem. PMID:27634985

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A12, a Strain Isolated from Wheat Sourdough.

    PubMed

    Guellerin, Maéva; Passerini, Delphine; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Robert, Hervé; Gabriel, Valérie; Loux, Valentin; Klopp, Christophe; Le Loir, Yves; Coddeville, Michèle; Daveran-Mingot, Marie-Line; Ritzenthaler, Paul; Le Bourgeois, Pascal

    2016-09-15

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain A12, a strain isolated from sourdough. The circular chromosome and the four plasmids reveal genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism that are potentially required for the persistence of this strain in such a complex ecosystem.

  20. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions.

  1. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  2. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during Sourdough Fermentation: Identification of Novel Compounds and Long-Term Effect during Storage of Wheat Bread ▿

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties. PMID:21441340

  4. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  5. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  6. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  7. Volatile organic compounds of whole grain soft winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aroma from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an indicator of grain soundness and also an important quality attribute of grain foods. To identify the inherent VOCs of wheat grain unaffected by fungal infestation and other extrinsic factors, grains of nine soft wheat varieties were collected at...

  8. Expression of bifidobacterial phytases in Lactobacillus casei and their application in a food model of whole-grain sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Yebra, María J; Haros, Monika; Monedero, Vicente

    2016-01-04

    Phytases are enzymes capable of sequentially dephosphorylating phytic acid to products of lower chelating capacity and higher solubility, abolishing its inhibitory effect on intestinal mineral absorption. Genetic constructions were made for expressing two phytases from bifidobacteria in Lactobacillus casei under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. L. casei was able of producing, exporting and anchoring to the cell wall the phytase of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The phytase from Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis was also produced, although at low levels. L. casei expressing any of these phytases completely degraded phytic acid (2mM) to lower myo-inositol phosphates when grown in MRS medium. Owing to the general absence of phytase activity in lactobacilli and to the high phytate content of whole grains, the constructed L. casei strains were applied as starter in a bread making process using whole-grain flour. L. casei developed in sourdoughs by fermenting the existing carbohydrates giving place to an acidification. In this food model system the contribution of L. casei strains expressing phytases to phytate hydrolysis was low, and the phytate degradation was mainly produced by activation of the cereal endogenous phytase as a consequence of the drop in pH. This work shows the capacity of lactobacilli to be modified in order to produce enzymes with relevance in food technology processes. The ability of these strains in reducing the phytate content in fermented food products must be evaluated in further models.

  9. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  11. Metatranscriptome analysis for insight into whole-ecosystem gene expression during spontaneous wheat and spelt sourdough fermentations.

    PubMed

    Weckx, Stefan; Allemeersch, Joke; Van der Meulen, Roel; Vrancken, Gino; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Van Hummelen, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of industrial importance in the production of fermented foods, including sourdough-derived products. Despite their limited metabolic capacity, LAB contribute considerably to important characteristics of fermented foods, such as extended shelf-life, microbial safety, improved texture, and enhanced organoleptic properties. Triggered by the considerable amount of LAB genomic information that became available during the last decade, transcriptome and, by extension, metatranscriptome studies have become one of the most appropriate research approaches to study whole-ecosystem gene expression in more detail. In this study, microarray analyses were performed using RNA sampled during four 10-day spontaneous sourdough fermentations carried out in the laboratory with an in-house-developed LAB functional gene microarray. For data analysis, a new algorithm was developed to calculate a net expression profile for each of the represented genes, allowing use of the microarray analysis beyond the species level. In addition, metabolite target analyses were performed on the sourdough samples to relate gene expression with metabolite production. The results revealed the activation of different key metabolic pathways, the ability to use carbohydrates other than glucose (e.g., starch and maltose), and the conversion of amino acids as a contribution to redox equilibrium and flavor compound generation in LAB during sourdough fermentation.

  12. Grain hardness: a major determinant of wheat quality.

    PubMed

    Pasha, I; Anjum, F M; Morris, C F

    2010-12-01

    Wheat quality, a complex term, depends upon intentional use for unambiguous products. The foremost determinants of wheat quality are endosperm texture (grain hardness), protein content and gluten strength. Endosperm texture in wheat is the single most important and defining quality characteristic, as it facilitates wheat classification and affects milling, baking and end-use quality. Various techniques used for grain hardness measurement are classified into diverse groups according to grinding, crushing and abrasion. The most extensively used methods for texture measurement are PSI, NIR hardness, SKCS, pearling index, SDS-PAGE and PCR markers. Friabilin is a 15 kDa endosperm specific protein associated with starch granules of wheat grain and is unswervingly related to grain softness. Chemically, it is a concoction of different polypeptides, primarily puroindolines; Pin a and Pin b. Hardness (Ha) locus of chromosome 5DS makes the distinction between soft and hard classes of wheat. Some additional modifying genes are also present which contribute to the disparity within wheat classes. Numerous allelic mutations in Pin have been reported and their relation to end product quality has been established. This treatise elaborates the consequence of grain hardness in wheat eminence.

  13. Crop production management: Organic wheat and small grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Key management practices for organic wheat and small grain production are provided, including variety selection, planting date, seeding rate, drill calibration and operation, soil fertility, and management of weeds, insect pests, and diseases. ...

  14. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  15. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome.

  16. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding.

  17. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  18. Nutritional profile of whole grain soft wheat flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole grain wheat flour is used in baking products to increase fiber content and to provide vitamins from the bran layers of the kernel. We surveyed whole grain soft flour samples from North America to determine the nutritional profile using recently revised fiber quantification protocols, CODEX 20...

  19. Biomechanical properties of wheat grains: the implications on milling.

    PubMed

    Hourston, James E; Ignatz, Michael; Reith, Martin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Steinbrecher, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different 'hardness'. Using these methods, we demonstrate the importance of short tempering phases prior to milling and identify ways in which our methods can detect differences in the maximum force, energy and breaking behaviours of hard and soft grain types. We also demonstrate for the first time, endosperm weakening in wheat, through hormone stratification on single bran layers. The modern milling process is highly refined, meaning that small, cultivar specific, adjustments can result in large increases in downstream profits. We believe that methods such as these, which enable rapid testing of milling pretreatments and material properties can help to drive an innovation process that has been core to our industrial efforts since prehistory. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Biomechanical properties of wheat grains: the implications on milling

    PubMed Central

    Reith, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different ‘hardness’. Using these methods, we demonstrate the importance of short tempering phases prior to milling and identify ways in which our methods can detect differences in the maximum force, energy and breaking behaviours of hard and soft grain types. We also demonstrate for the first time, endosperm weakening in wheat, through hormone stratification on single bran layers. The modern milling process is highly refined, meaning that small, cultivar specific, adjustments can result in large increases in downstream profits. We believe that methods such as these, which enable rapid testing of milling pretreatments and material properties can help to drive an innovation process that has been core to our industrial efforts since prehistory. PMID:28100826

  1. Starch Biosynthesis in Developing Wheat Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Peter L.; Wood, John R.; Tyson, R. Huw; Bridges, Ian G.

    1988-01-01

    We have used 13C-labeled sugars and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to study the metabolic pathway of starch biosynthesis in developing wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Mardler). Our aim was to examine the extent of redistribution of 13C between carbons atoms 1 and 6 of [1-13C] or [6-13C]glucose (or fructose) incorporated into starch, and hence provide evidence for or against the involvement of triose phosphates in the metabolic pathway. Starch synthesis in the endosperm tissue was studied in two experimental systems. First, the 13C sugars were supplied to isolated endosperm tissue incubated in vitro, and second the 13C sugars were supplied in vivo to the intact plant. The 13C starch produced by the endosperm tissue of the grain was isolated and enzymically degraded to glucose using amyloglucosidase, and the distribution of 13C in all glucosyl carbons was quantified by 13C-NMR spectrometry. In all of the experiments, irrespective of the incubation time or incubation conditions, there was a similar pattern of partial (between 15 and 20%) redistribution of label between carbons 1 and 6 of glucose recovered from starch. There was no detectable increase over background 13C incidence in carbons 2 to 5. Within each experiment, the same pattern of partial redistribution of label was found in the glucosyl and fructosyl moieties of sucrose extracted from the tissue. Since it is unlikely that sucrose is present in the amyloplast, we suggest that the observed redistribution of label occurred in the cytosolic compartment of the endosperm cells and that both sucrose and starch are synthesized from a common pool of intermediates, such as hexose phosphate. We suggest that redistribution of label occurs via a cytosolic pathway cycle involving conversion of hexose phosphate to triose phosphate, interconversion of triose phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase, and resynthesis of hexose phosphate in the cytosol. A further round of triose phosphate interconversion in

  2. Proteolysis by Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria: Effects on Wheat Flour Protein Fractions and Gliadin Peptides Involved in Human Cereal Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Lavermicocca, Paola; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; Faccia, Michele; Gobbetti, Marco

    2002-01-01

    Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were preliminarily screened for proteolytic activity by using a digest of albumin and globulin polypeptides as a substrate. Based on their hydrolysis profile patterns, Lactobacillus alimentarius 15M, Lactobacillus brevis 14G, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 7A, and Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B were selected and used in sourdough fermentation. A fractionated method of protein extraction and subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis were used to estimate proteolysis in sourdoughs. Compared to a chemically acidified (pH 4.4) dough, 37 to 42 polypeptides, distributed over a wide range of pIs and molecular masses, were hydrolyzed by L. alimentarius 15M, L. brevis 14G, and L. sanfranciscensis 7A. Albumin, globulin, and gliadin fractions were hydrolyzed, while glutenins were not degraded. The concentrations of free amino acids, especially proline and glutamic and aspartic acids, also increased in sourdoughs. Compared to the chemically acidified dough, proteolysis by lactobacilli positively influenced the softening of the dough during fermentation, as determined by rheological analyses. Enzyme preparations of the selected lactobacilli which contained proteinase or peptidase enzymes showed hydrolysis of the 31-43 fragment of A-gliadin, a toxic peptide for celiac patients. A toxic peptic-tryptic (PT) digest of gliadins was used for in vitro agglutination tests on K 562 (S) subclone cells of human myelagenous leukemia origin. The lowest concentration of PT digest that agglutinated 100% of the total cells was 0.218 g/liter. Hydrolysis of the PT digest by proteolytic enzymes of L. alimentarius 15M and L. brevis 14G completely prevented agglutination of the K 562 (S) cells by the PT digest at a concentration of 0.875 g/liter. Considerable inhibitory effects by other strains and at higher concentrations of the PT digest were also found. The mixture of peptides produced by enzyme preparations of selected lactobacilli showed a decreased agglutination

  3. Proteolysis by sourdough lactic acid bacteria: effects on wheat flour protein fractions and gliadin peptides involved in human cereal intolerance.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Lavermicocca, Paola; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; Faccia, Michele; Gobbetti, Marco

    2002-02-01

    Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were preliminarily screened for proteolytic activity by using a digest of albumin and globulin polypeptides as a substrate. Based on their hydrolysis profile patterns, Lactobacillus alimentarius 15M, Lactobacillus brevis 14G, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 7A, and Lactobacillus hilgardii 51B were selected and used in sourdough fermentation. A fractionated method of protein extraction and subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis were used to estimate proteolysis in sourdoughs. Compared to a chemically acidified (pH 4.4) dough, 37 to 42 polypeptides, distributed over a wide range of pIs and molecular masses, were hydrolyzed by L. alimentarius 15M, L. brevis 14G, and L. sanfranciscensis 7A. Albumin, globulin, and gliadin fractions were hydrolyzed, while glutenins were not degraded. The concentrations of free amino acids, especially proline and glutamic and aspartic acids, also increased in sourdoughs. Compared to the chemically acidified dough, proteolysis by lactobacilli positively influenced the softening of the dough during fermentation, as determined by rheological analyses. Enzyme preparations of the selected lactobacilli which contained proteinase or peptidase enzymes showed hydrolysis of the 31-43 fragment of A-gliadin, a toxic peptide for celiac patients. A toxic peptic-tryptic (PT) digest of gliadins was used for in vitro agglutination tests on K 562 (S) subclone cells of human myelagenous leukemia origin. The lowest concentration of PT digest that agglutinated 100% of the total cells was 0.218 g/liter. Hydrolysis of the PT digest by proteolytic enzymes of L. alimentarius 15M and L. brevis 14G completely prevented agglutination of the K 562 (S) cells by the PT digest at a concentration of 0.875 g/liter. Considerable inhibitory effects by other strains and at higher concentrations of the PT digest were also found. The mixture of peptides produced by enzyme preparations of selected lactobacilli showed a decreased agglutination

  4. Characterization of lipids in wheat grain as probed by microspectrofluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Abdelbasset; Piot, Olivier; Charonov, Serguei; Meunier, Jean-Claude; Manfait, Michel

    1999-05-01

    The baking quality and storage stability of white flour are affected by its non-starch lipids content, and by the proportions of non-polar and polar lipids classes. At present, information on the lipids composition in the various parts of the wheat grain is scarce and their redistribution in the flour millstreams after milling is not well understood. Here we have implemented a novel method based on microspectrofluorometry to investigate lipids distribution in the wheat kernel. This technique has already been a proven tool to study primary fluorescence in wheat grain. For this study Nile Red was introduced as a fluorescent stain to map lipids in different compartments of a wheat transverse section. Microspectrofluorometry allows in situ characterization of lipids material in transverse cut of wheat grain. Florescence spectra were recorded and decomposed into the principal spectral components which can in turn be approximated to the real lipid materials of the wheat. Using these models, spectral fluorescence imaging was performed allowing the spatial organization of lipids in the wheat sections to be obtained.

  5. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS). Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P < 0.001) after bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values < 0.05). Among them, there were changes in essential amino acids (phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine and glutamic acid), metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (alpha-ketoglutaric, pyruvic acid and citric acid) and several organic acids. Interestingly, the levels of two compounds involved in the tryptophan metabolism (picolinic acid, ribitol) significantly changed depending on the different bread intake. Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial

  6. Accumulation, distribution, and speciation of arsenic in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Eagling, Tristan; Dunham, Sarah J; McGrath, Steve P; Shewry, Peter R

    2010-07-15

    Food can be an important source of inorganic As for human intake. Recent studies have focused on rice, while little information is available on As accumulation, distribution, and speciation in wheat, which is the second most important food grain cereal. Grain samples of 26 wheat cultivars grown in five field trials located in productive farming regions in Europe were therefore analyzed for As concentration and speciation. Grain from four trials contained low concentrations of total As (7.7 +/- 5.4 microg kg(-1)), reflecting low levels of As in the soils (1.3-11 mg kg(-1)). In contrast, at one of the trial sites the As level in the soil was greater (29 mg kg(-1)), and much higher As concentrations (69 +/- 17 microg kg(-1)) were present in the wheat grain. Milling of wheat grain into bran and white flour fraction showed the concentration of As in the bran, with a 3.8-4.7-fold higher As concentration than in the white flour. Two methods (a phosphate buffer solution and 1% HNO(3)) were used to extract As species from wholemeal, bran, and white flour of wheat, with average extraction efficiencies of 65% and 88%, respectively. Only inorganic As was found in the extracts, with no methylated As being detected. The contribution of wheat to human intake of inorganic As is small for wheat crops grown in uncontaminated soils but becomes significant for those grown in soils with elevated As. In the latter case, milling can be used to reduce the As concentration in the white flour.

  7. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    PubMed Central

    Passoth, Volkmar; Eriksson, Anna; Sandgren, Mats; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Piens, Kathleen; Schnürer, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry) stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production. PMID:19695089

  8. Storage conditions affecting increase in falling number of soft red winter wheat grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Falling number (FN) of wheat grain, a measure of preharvest sprouting, tends to increase during storage; however, grain and storage conditions that impact FN changes are poorly understood. Wheat grain samples of varying FN from several cultivars were obtained by malting, by incubating wheat stalks,...

  9. Stress-induced changes in wheat grain composition and quality.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, M

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, waterlogging, and high temperature cause a myriad of changes in the metabolism of plants, and there is a lot of overlap in these changes in plants in response to different stresses such as drought and salinity. These stress-induced metabolic changes cause impaired crop growth thereby resulting in poor yield. The metabolic changes taking place in several plant species due to a particular abiotic stress have been revealed from the whole plant to the molecular level by researchers, but most studies have focused on organs such as leaf, stem, and root. Information on such stress-induced changes in seed or grains is infrequent in the literature. From the information that is available, it is now evident that abiotic stress can induce considerable changes in the composition and quality of cereal grains including those of wheat, the premier staple food crop in the world. Thus, the present review discusses how far different types of stresses, mainly salinity, drought, high temperature, and waterlogging, can alter the wheat grain composition and quality. By fully uncovering the stress-induced changes in the nutritional values of wheat grains it would be possible to establish whether balanced supplies of essential nutrients are available to the human population from the wheat crop grown on stress-affected areas.

  10. Phenolic compounds in wheat grain cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Lia; Afonso, Desirée; Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Three hydroxybenzoic acids: p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid and syringic acid; six hydroxycinnamic acids: p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and four ferulic acid derivatives and a flavonoid (apigenin) were identified and quantified in 34 accessions corresponding to 19 cultivars of wheat applying HPLC coupled to diode array detector. Considerable differences between the wheat cultivars were observed in the phenolic contents. Some cultivars (Colorado, Del País, Barbilla, Jallado, Raspinegro Canario and Plaganudo) could be selected according to the high levels of phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid compound followed by syringic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. The proportion of ferulic acid present as dimeric forms ranged from 4.2 to 8.6% across all of the wheat cultivars analyzed. Apigenin, p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acids did not show significant correlations. Many correlations between the determined hydroxycinnamic acids were observed. The ferulic acid and all the ferulic acid derivatives showed highly significant correlations, suggesting that the concentrations of diferulic acids depend on the concentration of ferulic acid.

  11. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  12. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  13. Growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw and wheat-grain-based media: Biochemical aspects and preparation of mushroom inoculum.

    PubMed

    Sainos, E; Díaz-Godínez, G; Loera, O; Montiel-González, A M; Sánchez, C

    2006-10-01

    Mycelial growth, intracellular activity of proteases, laccases and beta-1,3-glucanases, and cytoplasmic protein were evaluated in the vegetative phase of Pleurotus ostreatus grown on wheat straw and in wheat-grain-based media in Petri dishes and in bottles. The productivity of the wheat straw and wheat-grain-based spawn in cylindrical polyethylene bags containing 5 kg of chopped straw was also determined. We observed high activity of proteases and high content of intracellular protein in cultures grown on wheat straw. This suggests that the proteases are not secreted into the medium and that the protein is an important cellular reserve. On the contrary, cultures grown on wheat straw secreted laccases into the medium, which could be induced by this substrate. P. ostreatus grown on media prepared with a combination of wheat straw and wheat grain showed a high radial growth rate in Petri dishes and a high level of mycelial growth in bottles. The productivities of wheat straw and wheat-grain-based spawn were similar. Our results show that cheaper and more productive mushroom spawn can be prepared by developing the mycelium on wheat straw and wheat-grain-based substrates.

  14. New evidence for grain specific C4 photosynthesis in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved to allow efficient CO2 capture by plants where effective carbon supply may be limiting as in hot or dry environments, explaining the high growth rates of C4 plants such as maize. Important crops such as wheat and rice are C3 plants resulting in efforts to engineer them to use the C4 pathway. Here we show the presence of a C4 photosynthetic pathway in the developing wheat grain that is absent in the leaves. Genes specific for C4 photosynthesis were identified in the wheat genome and found to be preferentially expressed in the photosynthetic pericarp tissue (cross- and tube-cell layers) of the wheat caryopsis. The chloroplasts exhibit dimorphism that corresponds to chloroplasts of mesophyll- and bundle sheath-cells in leaves of classical C4 plants. Breeding to optimize the relative contributions of C3 and C4 photosynthesis may adapt wheat to climate change, contributing to wheat food security. PMID:27530078

  15. Biofortification and localization of zinc in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, I; Kalayci, M; Kaya, Y; Torun, A A; Aydin, N; Wang, Y; Arisoy, Z; Erdem, H; Yazici, A; Gokmen, O; Ozturk, L; Horst, W J

    2010-08-25

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency associated with low dietary intake is a well-documented public health problem, resulting in serious health and socioeconomic problems. Field experiments were conducted with wheat to test the role of both soil and foliar application of ZnSO4 in Zn concentration of whole grain and grain fractions (e.g., bran, embryo and endosperm) in 3 locations. Foliar application of ZnSO4 was realized at different growth stages (e.g., stem elongation, boot, milk, dough stages) to study the effect of timing of foliar Zn application on grain Zn concentration. The rate of foliar Zn application at each growth stage was 4 kg of ZnSO4·7H2O ha(-1). Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was used to follow the localization of Zn within grain. Soil Zn application at a rate of 50 kg of ZnSO4·7H2O ha(-1) was effective in increasing grain Zn concentration in the Zn-deficient location, but not in the locations without soil Zn deficiency. In all locations, foliar application of Zn significantly increased Zn concentration in whole grain and in each grain fraction, particularly in the case of high soil N fertilization. In Zn-deficient location, grain Zn concentration increased from 11 mg kg(-1) to 22 mg kg(-1) with foliar Zn application and to 27 mg kg(-1) with a combined application of ZnSO4 to soil and foliar. In locations without soil Zn deficiency, combination of high N application with two times foliar Zn application (e.g., at the booting and milk stages) increased grain Zn concentration, on average, from 28 mg kg(-1) to 58 mg kg(-1). Both ICP-OES and LA-ICP-MS data showed that the increase in Zn concentration of whole grain and grain fractions was pronounced when Zn was sprayed at the late growth stage (e.g., milk and dough). LA-ICP-MS data also indicated that Zn was transported into endosperm through the crease phloem. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the timing of foliar Zn application is of great importance in increasing grain Zn in wheat, especially in

  16. Trafficking of storage proteins in developing grain of wheat.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Paola; Parker, Mary; Gritsch, Cristina S; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Martin, Barry; Shewry, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    The processing properties of the wheat flour are largely determined by the structures and interactions of the grain storage proteins (also called gluten proteins) which form a continuous visco-elastic network in dough. Wheat gluten proteins are classically divided into two groups, the monomeric gliadins and the polymeric glutenins, with the latter being further classified into low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) subunits. The synthesis, folding and deposition of the gluten proteins take place within the endomembrane system of the plant cell. However, determination of the precise routes of trafficking and deposition of individual gluten proteins in developing wheat grain has been limited in the past by the difficulty of developing monospecific antibodies. To overcome this limitation, a single gluten protein (a LMW subunit) was expressed in transgenic wheat with a C-terminal epitope tag, allowing the protein to be located in the cells of the developing grain using highly specific antibodies. This approach was also combined with the use of wider specificity antibodies to compare the trafficking and deposition of different gluten protein groups within the same endosperm cells. These studies are in agreement with previous suggestions that two trafficking pathways occur in wheat, with the proteins either being transported via the Golgi apparatus into the vacuole or accumulating directly within the lumen of the ER. They also suggest that the same individual protein could be trafficked by either pathway, possibly depending on the stage of development, and that segregation of gluten proteins both between and within protein bodies may occur.

  17. Trafficking of storage proteins in developing grain of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Paola; Parker, Mary; Gritsch, Cristina S.; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Martin, Barry; Shewry, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The processing properties of the wheat flour are largely determined by the structures and interactions of the grain storage proteins (also called gluten proteins) which form a continuous visco-elastic network in dough. Wheat gluten proteins are classically divided into two groups, the monomeric gliadins and the polymeric glutenins, with the latter being further classified into low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) subunits. The synthesis, folding and deposition of the gluten proteins take place within the endomembrane system of the plant cell. However, determination of the precise routes of trafficking and deposition of individual gluten proteins in developing wheat grain has been limited in the past by the difficulty of developing monospecific antibodies. To overcome this limitation, a single gluten protein (a LMW subunit) was expressed in transgenic wheat with a C-terminal epitope tag, allowing the protein to be located in the cells of the developing grain using highly specific antibodies. This approach was also combined with the use of wider specificity antibodies to compare the trafficking and deposition of different gluten protein groups within the same endosperm cells. These studies are in agreement with previous suggestions that two trafficking pathways occur in wheat, with the proteins either being transported via the Golgi apparatus into the vacuole or accumulating directly within the lumen of the ER. They also suggest that the same individual protein could be trafficked by either pathway, possibly depending on the stage of development, and that segregation of gluten proteins both between and within protein bodies may occur. PMID:19174462

  18. MicroRNA172 plays a critical role in wheat spike morphogenesis and grain threshability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat domestication from wild species involved mutations in the Q gene. The q allele (wild wheats) is associated with elongated spikes and hulled grains, whereas the mutant Q allele (domesticated wheats) confers subcompact spikes and free-threshing grains. Previous studies showed that Q encodes an ...

  19. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice; Zannini, Emanuele

    2011-08-30

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  20. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616

  1. Fourier transform infrared - attenuated total reflection for wheat grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowilska, E.; Kandler, W.; Wiwart, M.; Krska, R.

    2012-04-01

    Mid-infrared regions of the spectrum of grain of four Triticum species were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared - attenuated total reflection. Significant variations were noted in the absorbance of all studied taxa over four wavenumber ranges. The principal component analysis supported strong discrimination of the four examined species. The percentage of variation explained by the first two principal component analyses reached 95.04%, including principal components 1-72.16% and 2-22.88%. The applied method supports quick identification of the grains of various hulled species of wheat and it is a useful tool for evaluating the seeds and food products obtained from those cereal species.

  2. Pulsed light inactivation of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Aron Maftei, Nicoleta; Ramos-Villarroel, Ana Y; Nicolau, Anca I; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2014-03-15

    Pulsed light (PL) is emerging as a non-thermal technology with excellent prospects for the decontamination of foods and food contact surfaces. Its application for mould inactivation on cereal grains would allow a reduction of storage losses as well as the prevention of mycotoxin contamination at a post-harvest level. The potential of PL for the decontamination of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain was investigated in this study. Treatments of up to 40 flashes of a fluence of 0.4 J cm⁻² per pulse were applied to both sides of the grain, with an overall energy release ranging from 6.4 to 51.2 J g⁻¹. The most powerful treatment applied to wheat in this study (51.2 J g⁻¹) resulted in a mould reduction of approximately 4 log cycles on samples displaying an initial mould contamination level of 2.2 × 10⁵ CFU g⁻¹. At the same time, the seed germination percentage was only slightly affected. For PL treatments causing an inactivation of 3-4 log cycles, only 14-15% of the germination power of the wheat seeds was lost. The PL treatments attained greater microbial reductions for higher treatment times and lower initial mould loads. The absence of the UV portion of the radiation spectrum was found to significantly reduce the treatment effectiveness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Characterization of the Endoproteases Appearing during Wheat Grain Development.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, F.; Cejudo, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The pattern of endoproteolytic activities occurring during wheat (Triticum aestivum, cultivar Chinese Spring) grain development was investigated. Total endoprotease activity, assayed in solution with azocasein as a substrate, increased during the early stages of grain development to reach a maximum at 15 d postanthesis that was maintained until the grain was mature. Endoprotease activity was also assayed in gradient polyacrylamide gels co-polymerized with gelatin. The increase in endoproteolytic activity was due to the appearance of up to 18 endoproteolytic bands that were arbitrarily classified into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). The presence of serine, aspartic, metallo, and, to a lesser extent, thiol proteases in developing wheat grains was demonstrated by the use of class-specific protease inhibitors. The appearance of the different classes of endoproteases during seed development was subject to temporal control; serine proteases were more abundant at early stages and aspartic and metallo proteases were more abundant at later stages. At intermediate stages of development (15-20 d postanthesis), most of the endoproteases were localized in the aleurone, testa, and embryo. The content of acidic thiol proteases was low in the developing starchy endosperm. PMID:12226440

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Sourdough Isolate Lactobacillus zymae ACA-DC 3411

    PubMed Central

    Kazou, Maria; Alexandraki, Voula; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus zymae is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium belonging to the Lactobacillus brevis clade. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of L. zymae ACA-DC 3411, which was isolated from traditional Greek wheat sourdough. Whole-genome analysis may reveal adaptive traits of strain ACA-DC 3411 in the sourdough ecosystem. PMID:28751400

  5. Proteomic Approach to Identify Nuclear Proteins in Wheat Grain.

    PubMed

    Bancel, Emmanuelle; Bonnot, Titouan; Davanture, Marlène; Branlard, Gérard; Zivy, Michel; Martre, Pierre

    2015-10-02

    The nuclear proteome of the grain of the two cultivated wheat species Triticum aestivum (hexaploid wheat; genomes A, B, and D) and T. monococcum (diploid wheat; genome A) was analyzed in two early stages of development using shotgun-based proteomics. A procedure was optimized to purify nuclei, and an improved protein sample preparation was developed to efficiently remove nonprotein substances (starch and nucleic acids). A total of 797 proteins corresponding to 528 unique proteins were identified, 36% of which were classified in functional groups related to DNA and RNA metabolism. A large number (107 proteins) of unknown functions and hypothetical proteins were also found. Some identified proteins may be multifunctional and may present multiple localizations. On the basis of the MS/MS analysis, 368 proteins were present in the two species, and in two stages of development, some qualitative differences between species and stages of development were also found. All of these data illustrate the dynamic function of the grain nucleus in the early stages of development.

  6. [The β-amylase polymorphism of winter common wheat grains].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Akinshina, O V; Bondarenko, L S; Motorina, I P

    2012-02-01

    The polymorphism of winter common wheat with respect to β-amylase isoenzymes has been analyzed using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) buffered with a Tris-glycine system (pH 8.3). Seven β-amylase isoenzymes have been found in wheat cultivars and the breeding stock. Isoenzymes A, B, and C are the most frequent in Russian and Ukrainian cultivars (51.7 4.7, 30.7 3.8, and 11.9 2.5%, respectively). Two alleles of the β-Amy-D1 locus of the long arm of chromosome 4D have been identified. The substrate-enzyme affine effect can be used to locate the zones of activity of this enzyme by means of staining for proteins. It has been determined that β-amylase zymotypes may play a role in the aggregating capacity of the grain protein complex via the formation of S-S bonds.

  7. Ozone effects on wheat grain quality - a summary.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Malin C; Feng, Zhaozhong; Xin, Yue; Pleijel, Håkan

    2015-02-01

    We synthesized the effects of ozone on wheat quality based on 42 experiments performed in Asia, Europe and North America. Data were analysed using meta-analysis and by deriving response functions between observed effects and daytime ozone concentration. There was a strong negative effect on 1000-grain weight and weaker but significant negative effects on starch concentration and volume weight. For protein and several nutritionally important minerals (K, Mg, Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Cu) concentration was significantly increased, but yields were significantly decreased by ozone. For other minerals (Fe, S, Na) effects were not significant or results inconclusive. The concentration and yield of potentially toxic Cd were negatively affected by ozone. Some baking properties (Zeleny value, Hagberg falling number) were positively influenced by ozone. Effects were similar in different exposure systems and for spring and winter wheat. Ozone effects on quality should be considered in future assessments of food security/safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breeding Value of Primary Synthetic Wheat Genotypes for Grain Yield

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Jafar; Bonnett, David; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Akdemir, Deniz; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single seed descent was used to develop 97 populations with 50 individuals per population using first back-cross, biparental, and three-way crosses. Individuals from each cross were selected for short stature, early heading, flowering and maturity, minimal lodging, and free threshing. Yield trials were conducted under irrigated, drought, and heat-stress conditions from 2011 to 2014 in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of parents and synthetic derived lines (SDLs) were estimated using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model with markers in each trial. In each environment, there were SDLs that had higher GEBVs than their recurrent BW parent for yield. The GEBVs of BW parents for yield ranged from -0.32 in heat to 1.40 in irrigated trials. The range of the SYN parent GEBVs for yield was from -2.69 in the irrigated to 0.26 in the heat trials and were mostly negative across environments. The contribution of the SYN parents to improved grain yield of the SDLs was highest under heat stress, with an average GEBV for the top 10% of the SDLs of 0.55 while the weighted average GEBV of their corresponding recurrent BW parents was 0.26. Using the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of genomic prediction for yield was 0.42, 0.43, and 0.49 in the drought, heat and irrigated trials, respectively, while for the marker-based model these values were 0.43, 0.44, and 0.55. The SYN parents introduced novel diversity into the wheat gene pool. Higher GEBVs of progenies were due to introgression and retention of some positive alleles from SYN parents. PMID:27656893

  9. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread.

  10. Prediction of winter wheat grain protein content by ASTER image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced technology in space-borne determination of grain crude protein content (CP) by remote sensing can help optimize the strategies for buyers in aiding purchasing decisions, and help farmers to maximize the grain output by adjusting field nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs. We performed field experiments to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration (FNC). FNC at anthesis stage was significantly correlated with CP, while spectral vegetation index was significantly correlated to FNC. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), FNC and CP, a model for CP prediction was developed. NRI was able to evaluate FNC with a higher coefficient of determination of R2=0.7302. The method developed in this study could contribute towards developing optimal procedures for evaluating wheat grain quality by ASTER image at anthesis stage. The RMSE was 0.893 % for ASTER image model, and the R2 was 0.7194. It is thus feasible to forecast grain quality by NRI derived from ASTER image.

  11. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Wheat Genotypes, with Contrasting Levels of Minerals in Grains, Shows Expression Differences during Grain Filling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir P.; Jeet, Raja; Kumar, Jitendra; Shukla, Vishnu; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Tuli, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. To identify the candidate genes for mineral accumulation, it is important to examine differential transcriptome between wheat genotypes, with contrasting levels of minerals in grains. A transcriptional comparison of developing grains was carried out between two wheat genotypes- Triticum aestivum Cv. WL711 (low grain mineral), and T. aestivum L. IITR26 (high grain mineral), using Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. The study identified a total of 580 probe sets as differentially expressed (with log2 fold change of ≥2 at p≤0.01) between the two genotypes, during grain filling. Transcripts with significant differences in induction or repression between the two genotypes included genes related to metal homeostasis, metal tolerance, lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid and protein transport, vacuolar-sorting receptor, aquaporins, and stress responses. Meta-analysis revealed spatial and temporal signatures of a majority of the differentially regulated transcripts. PMID:25364903

  12. [Effects of shading on the nitrogen redistribution in wheat plant and the wheat grain quality].

    PubMed

    Mu, Hui-rong; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Ting-bo; Cao, Wei-xing

    2010-07-01

    Taking winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (shading-tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading-sensitive) as test materials, this paper studied the effects of shading at the stages from jointing to maturity on the plant N redistribution, grain yield, and grain- and dough quality of the cultivars. The treatments were non-shading, 22% shading, and 33% shading. Under shading, the grain yield and its protein content of Yangmai 158 and Yangmai 11 decreased by 4.1%-9.9% and 3.0%-8.3%, and 15.3%-25.8% and 10.4%-14.1%, respectively, compared with non-shading. With the increase of shading intensity, the grain N content was increasingly dependent on the N accumulated after anthesis. Shading decreased the redistribution of N stored pre-anthesis in the vegetative organs to the grain, but increased the redistribution efficiency of N accumulated pre-anthesis (RENP) in leaves while decreased the RENP in sheathes and stems, and in hulls and rachises. Therefore, the mean RENP in the vegetative organs was not essentially altered by shading. The grain protein content increased significantly under shading, which could be related to the "condense effect", i.e., the decrement of grain protein content was much less than that of grain yield. In addition, shading had less effects on the contents of grain albumin and globulin but increased the contents of grain gliadin and glutinin significantly, and accordingly, the grain wet gluten content, dough development time, and dough stability time increased, while the dough softening degree decreased.

  13. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  14. Ground Wheat Grain for Midlactation Cows: Challenging a Common Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhah, A.; Amiri, F.; Amanloo, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of ground wheat grain (GW) inclusion rate, grinding extent (GE), and their interaction on lactating cow performance. Eight midlactation cows in 3 × 4 m individual boxes were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design study with 4 21 d periods. GW was fed at either 10% or 20% of diet dry matter (DM), as either finer or coarser particles. DM intake increased and net energy for lactation (NEL) intake tended to increase when GW was fed at 10% instead of 20% of diet DM. Milk energy yield, milk solids content and yield, and urine pH were unaffected. Fecal pH tended to increase at 20% versus 10% GW. Total tract apparent NDF, but not DM, digestibility tended to be greater for coarsely than finely GW and tended to be greater at 10% versus 20% GW. GW at 10% versus 20% of diet DM decreased blood BHBA and increased blood concentrations of total proteins and albumin. Data provide novel evidence that both finely and coarsely ground WG can be safely fed up to 20% midlactation cows. Commercial accessibility and cost will determine feeding preference of wheat grain to dairy cows. PMID:22666094

  15. Genotypic variation in wheat grain fructan content revealed by a simplified HPLC method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fructans are regarded as prebiotics, with potentially beneficial effects on human health. This study aimed to examine genetic variation in wheat grain fructan content using an improved analytical method. The method involves extracting fructans from wheat grain followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to bre...

  16. Internal structure of carbonized wheat (Triticum spp.) grains-relationships to kernel texture and ploidy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The identification of wheat grains to the genus level is problematic in many archaeobotanical samples, yet this is key to better understanding wheat phylogeny and agricultural trajectories. This study was conducted to see if the pronounced differences in kernel texture (grain hardness) which exist a...

  17. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  18. Distribution of gluten proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Paola; Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis; He, Jibin; Shewry, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Gluten proteins are the major storage protein fraction in the mature wheat grain. They are restricted to the starchy endosperm, which forms white flour on milling, and interact during grain development to form large polymers which form a continuous proteinaceous network when flour is mixed with water to give dough. This network confers viscosity and elasticity to the dough, enabling the production of leavened products. The starchy endosperm is not a homogeneous tissue and quantitative and qualitative gradients exist for the major components: protein, starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Gradients in protein content and composition are the most evident and are of particular interest because of the major role played by the gluten proteins in determining grain processing quality. Methods Protein gradients in the starchy endosperm were investigated using antibodies for specific gluten protein types for immunolocalization in developing grains and for western blot analysis of protein extracts from flour fractions obtained by sequential abrasion (pearling) to prepare tissue layers. Key Results Differential patterns of distribution were found for the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (HMW-GS) and γ-gliadins when compared with the low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (LMW-GS), ω- and α-gliadins. The first two types of gluten protein are more abundant in the inner endosperm layers and the latter more abundant in the subaleurone. Immunolocalization also showed that segregation of gluten proteins occurs both between and within protein bodies during protein deposition and may still be retained in the mature grain. Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative gradients in gluten protein composition are established during grain development. These gradients may be due to the origin of subaleurone cells, which unlike other starchy endosperm cells derive from the re-differentiation of aleurone cells, but could also result from the action of specific

  19. Distribution of gluten proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Paola; Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis; He, Jibin; Shewry, Peter R

    2011-07-01

    Gluten proteins are the major storage protein fraction in the mature wheat grain. They are restricted to the starchy endosperm, which forms white flour on milling, and interact during grain development to form large polymers which form a continuous proteinaceous network when flour is mixed with water to give dough. This network confers viscosity and elasticity to the dough, enabling the production of leavened products. The starchy endosperm is not a homogeneous tissue and quantitative and qualitative gradients exist for the major components: protein, starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Gradients in protein content and composition are the most evident and are of particular interest because of the major role played by the gluten proteins in determining grain processing quality. Protein gradients in the starchy endosperm were investigated using antibodies for specific gluten protein types for immunolocalization in developing grains and for western blot analysis of protein extracts from flour fractions obtained by sequential abrasion (pearling) to prepare tissue layers. Differential patterns of distribution were found for the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (HMW-GS) and γ-gliadins when compared with the low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (LMW-GS), ω- and α-gliadins. The first two types of gluten protein are more abundant in the inner endosperm layers and the latter more abundant in the subaleurone. Immunolocalization also showed that segregation of gluten proteins occurs both between and within protein bodies during protein deposition and may still be retained in the mature grain. Quantitative and qualitative gradients in gluten protein composition are established during grain development. These gradients may be due to the origin of subaleurone cells, which unlike other starchy endosperm cells derive from the re-differentiation of aleurone cells, but could also result from the action of specific regulatory signals produced by the maternal tissue

  20. CO2-induced changes in mineral stoichiometry of wheat grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broberg, Malin; Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive review of experiments with elevated CO2 (eCO2) presenting data on grain mineral concentration in wheat grain was made. Data were collected both from FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) and OTC (Open-Top Chamber) experiments. Analysis was made i) by deriving response functions for the relative effect on yield and mineral concentration in relation to CO2 concentration, ii) meta-analysis to test the magnitude and significance of observed effects and iii) comparison of the CO2 effect on the accumulation of different minerals in relation to accumulation of biomass and accumulation of N. Data were obtained for the following minerals: N, Zn, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, S, Cr, Cu, Cd and Na. In addition, data for starch, the dominating carbohydrate of wheat grain, were extracted. The responses ranged from near zero effects to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration. The order of effect size was the following (from largest to smallest effect) for the different elements: Fe, Ca, S, Zn, Cd, N, Mg, Mn, P, Cu, Cr, K and Na. Particularly strong negative impacts of eCO2 were found in the essential mineral elements Fe, S, Ca, Zn and Mg. Especially Fe, Zn and Mg are nutrients for which deficiency in humans is a problem in todaýs world. The rather large differences in response of different elements indicated that the CO2-induced responses cannot be explained by a simple growth dilution model. Rather, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered in greater detail, as well as the link of different elements with the uptake of nitrogen, the quantitatively dominating mineral nutrient, to explain the observed pattern. No effect of eCO2 on starch concentration could be demonstrated. This substantiates the rejection of a simple dilution model, since one would expect starch concentrations to be elevated in order to explain reduced mineral concentrations by carbohydrate dilution. The concentrations of toxic Cd was negatively affected, in principle a

  1. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Spatial variability analysis of within-field winter wheat nitrogen and grain quality using canopy fluorescence sensor measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat grain protein content (GPC) is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inh...

  3. New isotopic evidence of lead contamination in wheat grain from atmospheric fallout.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Tongbin; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Huang, Qifei; Ma, Chuang; Gu, Runyao; Guo, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    Crops could accumulate trace metals by soil-root transfer and foliar uptake from atmospheric fallout, and an accurate assessment of pollution sources is a prerequisite for preventing heavy metal pollution in agricultural products. In this study, we examined Pb isotope rates to trace the sources of Pb in wheat grain grown in suburbs. Results showed that, even in zones with scarcely any air pollution spots, atmospheric fallout was still a considerable source of Pb accumulation in wheat. The concentration of Pb in wheat grain has poor correlation with that in farm soil. The Pb concentration in wheat grains with dust in bran coat was significantly higher than that in wheat grains, which indicates that Pb may accumulate by foliar uptake. The Pb isotope rate has obvious differences between the soil and atmospheric fallout, and scatter ratio is significantly closer between the wheat grain and atmospheric fallout. Atmospheric fallout is a more significant source of Pb concentration in wheat grains than in soil. As far as we know, this is the first study on the main sources of lead in grain crop (wheat) samples with isotope. This study aims to improve our understanding of the translocation of foliar-absorbed metals to nonexposed parts of plants.

  4. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  6. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition.

  7. Polyphasic screening, homopolysaccharide composition, and viscoelastic behavior of wheat Sourdough from a Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus curvatus exopolysaccharide-producing starter culture.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Simona; Cavella, Silvana; Torrieri, Elena; Piccolo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia

    2012-04-01

    After isolation from different doughs and sourdoughs, 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria were screened at the phenotypic level for exopolysaccharide production on media containing different carbohydrate sources. Two exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A) were selected through quantitative analysis on solid media containing sucrose and yeast extract. The PCR detection of homopolysaccharide (gtf and lev) and heteropolysaccharide (epsA, epsB, epsD and epsE, and epsEFG) genes showed different distributions within species and strains of the lactic acid bacteria studied. Moreover, in some strains both homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide genes were detected. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra suggest that Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A produced the same exopolysaccharide, which was constituted by a single repeating glucopyranosyl unit linked by an α-(1→6) glycosidic bond in a dextran-type carbohydrate. Microbial growth, acidification, and viscoelastic properties of sourdoughs obtained by exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing lactic acid bacterial strains were evaluated. Sourdough obtained after 15 h at 30°C with exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria reached higher total titratable acidity as well as elastic and dissipative modulus curves with respect to the starter not producing exopolysaccharide, but they showed similar levels of pH and microbial growth. On increasing the fermentation time, no difference in the viscoelastic properties of exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing samples was observed. This study suggests that dextran-producing Leuconostoc lactis 95A and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 can be employed to prepare sourdough, and this would be particularly useful to improve the quality of baked goods while avoiding the use of commercially available hydrocolloids as texturizing additives.

  8. Biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in spontaneously-fermented buckwheat and teff sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2011-05-01

    In this study, four different laboratory scale gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs were developed from buckwheat or teff flours. The fermentations were initiated by the spontaneous biota of the flours and developed under two technological conditions (A and B). Sourdoughs were propagated by continuous back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable biota occurring in each sourdough was assessed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Overall, a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts species, belonging mainly to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Kazachstania and Candida, were identified in the stable sourdoughs. Buckwheat and teff sourdoughs were dominated mainly by obligate or facultative heterofermentative LAB, which are commonly associated with traditional wheat or rye sourdoughs. However, the spontaneous fermentation of the GF flours resulted also in the selection of species which are not consider endemic to traditional sourdoughs, i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc holzapfelii, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus graminis and Weissella cibaria. In general, the composition of the stable biota was strongly affected by the fermentation conditions, whilst Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in all buckwheat sourdoughs. Lactobacillus pontis is described for the first time as dominant species in teff sourdough. Among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata dominated teff sourdoughs, whereas the solely Kazachstania barnetti was isolated in buckwheat sourdough developed under condition A. This study allowed the identification and isolation of LAB and yeasts species which are highly competitive during fermentation of buckwheat or teff flours. Representatives of these species can be selected as starters for the production of sourdough destined to GF bread production.

  9. Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A; Sarojini, G; Nirmala, G; Nirmalamma, N; Satyanarayana, D

    1997-01-01

    Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice preparations was studied in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Diets containing 50 g carbohydrate equivalent were given and post-prandial blood glucose estimated at different intervals. Glycemic index calculated for different experimental diets showed that GI of amaranth-wheat composite flour diet (25:75) was the least (65.6%) followed by wheat diet (65.7%), rice diet (69.2%), amaranth-wheat flour 50:50 (75.5%), and popped amaranth in milk (97.3%). Therefore 25:75 combination of amaranth and wheat, wheat and rice can be considered low GI food, 50:50 grain amaranth and wheat medium GI food and popped amaranth and milk combination high GI food.

  10. Glutathione reductase in wheat grain. 1. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    de Lamotte, F; Vianey-Liaud, N; Duviau, M P; Kobrehel, K

    2000-10-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.) endosperm of mature kernels contained a single form of glutathione reductase (GR); it appeared about the 18th day after anthesis while another isoform, present at the early stages of grain development, disappeared between the 20th and 30th days after flowering. The form that was present at grain maturity was isolated and characterized. It was composed of two monomers, each one having an apparent molecular mass of about 60 kDa. The K(m) values for NADPH and for GSSG were 3.7 and 9.1 microM, respectively, and the V(m) values for NADPH and for GSSG were 594 and 575 microkat.mg(-)(1) protein, respectively. The pH(i) of the enzyme was situated between pH 4.4 and 4.5. At a constant temperature of 25 degrees C, the optimum GR activity was found to be between pH 7.5 and 8.0. It was relatively resistant to high temperatures and was very resistant to very low temperatures.

  11. A Genetic Framework for Grain Size and Shape Variation in Wheat[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gegas, Vasilis C.; Nazari, Aida; Griffiths, Simon; Simmonds, James; Fish, Lesley; Orford, Simon; Sayers, Liz; Doonan, John H.; Snape, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Grain morphology in wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been selected and manipulated even in very early agrarian societies and remains a major breeding target. We undertook a large-scale quantitative analysis to determine the genetic basis of the phenotypic diversity in wheat grain morphology. A high-throughput method was used to capture grain size and shape variation in multiple mapping populations, elite varieties, and a broad collection of ancestral wheat species. This analysis reveals that grain size and shape are largely independent traits in both primitive wheat and in modern varieties. This phenotypic structure was retained across the mapping populations studied, suggesting that these traits are under the control of a limited number of discrete genetic components. We identified the underlying genes as quantitative trait loci that are distinct for grain size and shape and are largely shared between the different mapping populations. Moreover, our results show a significant reduction of phenotypic variation in grain shape in the modern germplasm pool compared with the ancestral wheat species, probably as a result of a relatively recent bottleneck. Therefore, this study provides the genetic underpinnings of an emerging phenotypic model where wheat domestication has transformed a long thin primitive grain to a wider and shorter modern grain. PMID:20363770

  12. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  13. Stored grain pack factors for wheat: comparison of three methods to field measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Storing grain in bulk storage units results in grain packing from overbearing pressure, which increases grain bulk density and storage-unit capacity. This study compared pack factors of hard red winter (HRW) wheat in vertical storage bins using different methods: the existing packing model (WPACKING...

  14. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in fermented feed, wheat grains and corn grains in Southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Roigé, Marcela Beatriz; Aranguren, Sandra Mariela; Riccio, María Belén; Pereyra, Silvia; Soraci, Alejandro Luis; Tapia, María Ofelia

    2009-12-31

    Wheat (as bran) and corn (as dry grain or fermented feed) are main ingredients of feedstuffs used in local cattle and pig farms in the South of the Buenos Aires Province (Argentina). Therefore, determining mycobiota and mycotoxins in wheat and corn is of prime importance for developing feed management techniques to optimise animal production and to minimize toxicity. Then, a mycological survey was carried out in the Southeastern part of the Buenos Aires Province, in order to identify the mycobiota and the main mycotoxins present in fermented feed, wheat grain and corn grain samples. Samples were cultured for fungal quantification, isolation and identification, and analysed for deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), T-2 toxin and aflatoxins (AFLA). Penicillium (74%), Aspergillus (32%) and Scopulariopsis (21%) were the prevalent genera in fermented feed. Penicillium (70%), Fusarium (47%) and Aspergillus (34%) were the most frequent fungi isolated from corn. Penicillium (42%), Fusarium (27%) and Alternaria (25%) were the most frequently recovered genera from wheat. DON was detected in 59% of the corn samples, in 45% of the wheat samples and in 38% of the silage samples. ZEA was detected in 36% of the corn samples, in 49% of the wheat samples and in 16% of the silage samples. T-2 toxin and aflatoxin B1 were each detected in 4% of the corn samples. Eighteen percent of the fermented feed samples showed T-2 contamination. Fermented feed and wheat samples were negative for AFLA.

  15. Winter wheat fertilized with biogas residue and mining waste: yielding and the quality of grain.

    PubMed

    Różyło, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Różyło, Renata; Pałys, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Environmental protection problems and efforts to increase agricultural productivity result in attempts to use various organic and mineral wastes as fertilizers. This study aimed to determine the effect of biogas residue (BR) and mining waste (MS) fertilization on wheat yield as well as the nutritional and pro-health quality of grains produced. After the application of MS and BR wheat grain yield was increased compared to unfertilized wheat. The highest grain yield and thousand-grain weight were obtained after MS+BR fertilization. Grains of wheat fertilized with BR and MS+BR contained significantly more protein and wet gluten compared to no fertilization and conventional fertilization (NPK). The studied conditions did not statistically affect starch content. BR fertilization significantly increased the total phenolic content; however, grains of wheat fertilized with NPK were characterized by the highest content of flavonoids and syringic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids. Compared to NPK, waste fertilizations positively affect the reducing power and antiradical activity of wheat. These results suggest that the wastes evaluated can be an alternative to conventional fertilization in the soil tested that without any significant deterioration and in some cases significant improvement of yield and wheat quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Mycotoxins in cereal grain. Part II. The fate of ochratoxin A after processing of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Chelkowski, J; Goliński, P; Szebiotko, K

    1981-01-01

    Ochratoxin A was to be evenly distributed in kernels of different lots of wheat and barley grain. Dry cleaning and wet cleaning did not eliminate ochratoxin from grain. After milling the level of ochratoxin in flour was similar to its concentration in bran. In pearl barley concentration of ochratoxin A stated only 10-30% of initial concentration in barley grain. Detoxification is necessary for the whole kernel, because processing did not remove ochratoxin A effectively.

  17. Genetic evidence for differential selection of grain and embryo weight during wheat evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Golan, Guy; Oksenberg, Adi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-09-01

    Wheat is one of the Neolithic founder crops domesticated ~10 500 years ago. Following the domestication episode, its evolution under domestication has resulted in various genetic modifications. Grain weight, embryo weight, and the interaction between those factors were examined among domesticated durum wheat and its direct progenitor, wild emmer wheat. Experimental data show that grain weight has increased over the course of wheat evolution without any parallel change in embryo weight, resulting in a significantly reduced (30%) embryo weight/grain weight ratio in domesticated wheat. The genetic factors associated with these modifications were further investigated using a population of recombinant inbred substitution lines that segregated for chromosome 2A. A cluster of loci affecting grain weight and shape was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2AL. Interestingly, a novel locus controlling embryo weight was mapped on chromosome 2AS, on which the wild emmer allele promotes heavier embryos and greater seedling vigour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL for embryo weight in wheat. The results suggest a differential selection of grain and embryo weight during the evolution of domesticated wheat. It is argued that conscious selection by early farmers favouring larger grains and smaller embryos appears to have resulted in a significant change in endosperm weight/embryo weight ratio in the domesticated wheat. Exposing the genetic factors associated with endosperm and embryo size improves our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of wheat under domestication and is likely to be useful for future wheat-breeding efforts.

  18. Genetic evidence for differential selection of grain and embryo weight during wheat evolution under domestication

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Guy; Oksenberg, Adi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is one of the Neolithic founder crops domesticated ~10 500 years ago. Following the domestication episode, its evolution under domestication has resulted in various genetic modifications. Grain weight, embryo weight, and the interaction between those factors were examined among domesticated durum wheat and its direct progenitor, wild emmer wheat. Experimental data show that grain weight has increased over the course of wheat evolution without any parallel change in embryo weight, resulting in a significantly reduced (30%) embryo weight/grain weight ratio in domesticated wheat. The genetic factors associated with these modifications were further investigated using a population of recombinant inbred substitution lines that segregated for chromosome 2A. A cluster of loci affecting grain weight and shape was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2AL. Interestingly, a novel locus controlling embryo weight was mapped on chromosome 2AS, on which the wild emmer allele promotes heavier embryos and greater seedling vigour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL for embryo weight in wheat. The results suggest a differential selection of grain and embryo weight during the evolution of domesticated wheat. It is argued that conscious selection by early farmers favouring larger grains and smaller embryos appears to have resulted in a significant change in endosperm weight/embryo weight ratio in the domesticated wheat. Exposing the genetic factors associated with endosperm and embryo size improves our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of wheat under domestication and is likely to be useful for future wheat-breeding efforts. PMID:26019253

  19. The Wheat Grain Contains Pectic Domains Exhibiting Specific Spatial and Development-Associated Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Bouchet, Brigitte; Alvarado, Camille; Bakan, Bénédicte; Guillon, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Cell walls are complex structures surrounding plant cells with a composition that varies among species and even within a species between organs, cell types and development stages. For years, cell walls in wheat grains were described as simple walls consisting mostly of arabinoxylans and mixed-linked beta glucans. Proteomic and transcriptomic studies identified enzyme families involved in the synthesis of many more cell wall polysaccharides in the wheat grains. Here we describe the discovery of pectic domains in wheat grain using monoclonal antibodies and enzymatic treatment to degrade the major cell wall polymers. Distinct spatial distributions were observed for rhamnogalacturonan I present in the endosperm and mostly in the aleurone layer and homogalacturonan especially found in the outer layers, and tight developmental regulations were unveiled. We also uncovered a massive deposition of homogalacturonan via large vesicular bodies in the seed coat (testa) beneath a thick cuticle during development. Our findings raise questions about the function of pectin in wheat grain. PMID:24586916

  20. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole) grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response. PMID:23482055

  1. MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH A QTL FOR GRAIN YIELD IN WHEAT UNDER DROUGHT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects wheat production in many regions of the world. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling grain yield and yield components under reduced moisture. A cross between common wheat cultivars ‘Dharwar Dry’ ...

  2. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  3. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to quantitative trait loci for grain quality traits in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTLs) define suitable growing areas and potential end-use products of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTLs for these traits including protein content (GPC), test weight (TW), single kernel characteriz...

  5. Data on heavy metal levels (Cd, Co, and Cu) in wheat grains cultured in Dashtestan County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Noroozi Karbasdehi, Vahid; Saeedi, Reza; Javad Mohammadi, Mohammad; Sobhani, Tayebeh; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2017-10-01

    Due to importance of wheat as the most popular food, in this data article, we determined the accumulation of heavy metal levels including Cd, Co, and Cu in wheat grains in Dashtestan county, Iran. The concentration levels of heavy metals in wheat grains cultured were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS).

  6. Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough.

    PubMed

    Novotni, Dubravka; Curić, Duška; Bituh, Martina; Colić Barić, Irena; Skevin, Dubravka; Cukelj, Nikolina

    2011-02-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria starters were used to prepare sourdough to make partially-baked frozen wholemeal wheat bread. The sourdough was prepared with a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum or with commercial starters containing Lactobacillus brevis combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri (LV4), Lactobacillus fermentum (PL1), or Lactobacillus fermentum with phytase (PL3). We determined the acetic and lactic acid concentrations in sourdough, bread chemical composition, total phenolics content and glycemic index (GI) in vivo. Depending on the starter, the lactic to acetic acid ratio in the sourdough was significantly different. The GI of control bread without sourdough (70) was significantly higher than that of bread containing sourdough prepared with LV4 starter (50), PL1 starter (56) or PL3 starter (56), but not from bread with L. plantarum sourdough (60). The addition of 10% sourdough with a lower molar ratio of lactic to acetic acid ( ≤ 4) and higher total phenolics content is preferable for generating bread with medium and low GI.

  7. Influence of sourdough prefermentation, of steam cooking suppression and of decreased sucrose content during wheat flakes processing on the plasma glucose and insulin responses and satiety of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lioger, Delphine; Fardet, Anthony; Foassert, Pascal; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Mardon, Julie; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Remesy, Christian

    2009-02-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTE-BC) are eaten more and more frequently by both adults and adolescents, but their nutritional quality is far from satisfactory: they often contained too much sugars and lead to a high glycemic index (GI) which generally contributes to a more rapid return of the feeling of hunger favouring nibbling in the morning. To reduce the GI and to improve the nutritional quality of standard wheat flakes (SWF) by adding a sourdough prefermentation step, suppressing steam cooking and decreasing the sucrose content (MWF, modified wheat flake). Eleven healthy male volunteers were randomly given, at three separate times, SWF, MWF, and white-wheat bread (WWB, reference food). Plasma glucose, insulin and ghrelin concentrations were measured. The feeling of hunger was evaluated using a subjective rating scale. Starch structure of SWF and MWF was characterised by scanning electron microscopy. GI of MWF (83 +/- 7) was 12% lower than that of SWF (94 +/- 9) at 90 min but the effect was not significant. Insulinaemic index of MWF was significantly lower than that of SWF at 90 min (78 +/- 6 vs 98 +/- 8). Hunger feelings were lower following MWF consumption and were positively correlated (r = 0.98; P < 0.05) with plasma ghrelin concentrations, for which there was no significant difference between SWF and MWF. Starch granules of SWF were fully gelatinised unlike those of MWF. Despite its relatively high GI, MWF could provide health benefits by improving the management of hunger feeling in the morning and by moderately improving insulin economy, which could be of interest for type 2 diabetic subjects. GI is not, therefore, the sole parameter reflecting the nutritional quality of cereal products.

  8. Study on grain quality forecasting method and indicators by using hyperspectral data in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Wang, Jihua; Liu, Liangyun; Wang, Zhijie; Tan, Changwei; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jingdi

    2005-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine the influence factors of cultivar, nitrogen application and irrigation on grain protein content, gluten content and grain hardness in three winter wheat cultivars under four levels of nitrogen and irrigation treatments. Firstly, the influence of cultivars and environment factors on grain quality were studied, the effective factors were cultivars, irrigation, fertilization, et al. Secondly, total nitrogen content around winter wheat anthesis stage was proved to be significant correlative with grain protein content, and spectral vegetation index significantly correlated to total nitrogen content around anthesis stage were the potential indicators for grain protein content. Accumulation of total nitrogen content and its transfer to grain is the physical link to produce the final grain protein, and total nitrogen content at anthesis stage was proved to be an indicator of final grain protein content. The selected normalized photochemical reflectance index (NPRI) was proved to be able to predict of grain protein content on the close correlation between the ratio of total carotenoid to chlorophyll a and total nitrogen content. The method contributes towards developing optimal procedures for predicting wheat grain quality through analysis of their canopy reflected spectrum at anthesis stage. Regression equations were established for forecasting grain protein and dry gluten content by total nitrogen content at anthesis stage, so it is feasible for forecasting grain quality by establishing correlation equations between biochemical constitutes and canopy reflected spectrum.

  9. Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elke K; Ryan, Liam A M; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough has been used since ancient times and its ability to improve the quality and increase the shelf-life of bread has been widely described. During sourdough fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a number of metabolites which have been shown to have a positive effect on the texture and staling of bread, e.g. organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and/or enzymes. EPS produced by LAB have the potential to replace more expensive hydrocolloids used as bread improvers. Organic acids affect the protein and starch fractions of flour. Additionally, the drop in pH associated with acid production causes an increase in the proteases and amylases activity of the flour, thus leading to a reduction in staling. While improving the textural qualities of bread, sourdough fermentation also results in increased mineral bioavailability and reduced phytate content. In this review we will be discussing the effect of sourdough on wheat and rye bread as well as the potential of sourdough to improve the quality of gluten-free bread.

  10. Effect of preceding crop on Fusarium species and mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianbo; Dong, Fei; Yu, Mingzheng; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

    2016-10-01

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex infects several cereals and causes the reduction of grain yield and quality. Many factors influence the extent of Fusarium infection and mycotoxin levels. Such factors include crop rotation. In the present study, we explored the effect of rice or maize as former crops on mycotoxin accumulation in wheat grains. More than 97% of samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON). DON concentrations in wheat grains from rice and maize rotation fields were 884.37 and 235.78 µg kg(-1) . Zearalenone (ZEN) was detected in 45% of samples which were mainly collected from maize-wheat rotation systems. Fusarium strains were isolated and more F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) isolates were cultured from wheat samples obtained from maize rotation fields. DON levels produced by Fusarium isolates from rice rotation fields were higher than those of samples from maize rotation fields. Rice-wheat rotation favours DON accumulation, while more ZEN contamination may occur in maize-wheat rotation models. Appropriate crop rotation may help to reduce toxin levels in wheat grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve grain yield, biomass and photosynthesis across enviroinments in modern wheat.

    PubMed

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-10-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving drought resistance in domesticated wheat. Nevertheless, wild germplasm has not been widely used in wheat breeding for abiotic stress resilience. In the current study, a near isogenic line NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a drought-related QTL from wild emmer wheat on chromosome 7A, and its recurrent parent, bread wheat cv. BarNir, were investigated under four environments across 2 years-water-limited and well-watered conditions in a rain-protected screen-house (Year 1) and two commercial open field plots under ample precipitation (Year 2). NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited an advantage over BarNir in grain yield and biomass production under most environments. Further physiological analyses suggested that enhanced photosynthetic capacity and photochemistry combined with higher flag leaf area are among the factors underlying the improved productivity of NIL-7A-B-2. These were coupled with improved sink capacity in NIL-7A-B-2, manifested by greater yield components than its parental line. This study provides further support for our previous findings that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles, using marker assisted selection, can enhance grain yield and biomass production across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of yield and drought resistance.

  12. Addition of rye chromosome 4R to wheat increases anther length and pollen grain number.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vy; Fleury, Delphine; Timmins, Andy; Laga, Hamid; Hayden, Matthew; Mather, Diane; Okada, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The research identified rye chromosome 4R arms associated with good pollinator traits, and demonstrated possible use of rye genetic resources to develop elite pollinators for hybrid wheat breeding. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a predominantly self-pollinating plant which has relatively small-sized anthers and produces a low number of pollen grains. These features limit the suitability of most wheat lines as pollinators for hybrid seed production. One strategy for improving the pollination ability of wheat is to introgress cross-pollination traits from related species. One such species is rye (Secale cereale L.), which has suitable traits such as high anther extrusion, long anthers containing large amounts of pollen and long pollen viability. Therefore, introducing these traits into wheat is of great interest in hybrid wheat breeding. Here, we investigated wheat-rye chromosome addition lines for the effects of rye chromosomes on anther and pollen development in wheat. Using a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array, we detected 984 polymorphic markers that showed expected syntenic relationships between wheat and rye. Our results revealed that the addition of rye chromosomes 1R or 2R reduced pollen fertility, while addition of rye chromosome 4R increased anther size by 16% and pollen grain number by 33%. The effect on anther length was associated with increases in both cell size and the number of endothecium cells and was attributed to the long arm of chromosome 4R. In contrast, the effect on pollen grain number was attributed to the short arm of chromosome 4R. These results indicate that rye chromosome 4R contains at least two genetic factors associated with increased anther size and pollen grain number that can favourably affect pollination traits in wheat.

  13. Development-associated microRNAs in grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) that down-regulate target genes by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Numerous plant miRNAs have been identified. Evidence is increasing for their crucial roles during plant development. In the globally important crop of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the process by which grains are formed determines yield and end-use quality. However, little is known about miRNA-mediated developmental regulation of grain production. Here, we applied high-throughput sRNA sequencing and genome-wide mining to identify miRNAs potentially involved in the developmental regulation of wheat grains. Results Four sRNA libraries were generated and sequenced from developing grains sampled at 5, 15, 25, and 30 days after pollination (DAP). Through integrative analysis, we identified 605 miRNAs (representing 540 families) and found that 86 are possibly involved in the control of grain-filling. Additionally, 268 novel miRNAs (182 families) were identified, with 18 of them also potentially related to that maturation process. Our target predictions indicated that the 104 grain filling-associated miRNAs might target a set of wheat genes involved in various biological processes, including the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, transcription, cellular transport, cell organization and biogenesis, stress responses, signal transduction, and phytohormone signaling. Together, these results demonstrate that the developmental steps by which wheat grains are filled is correlated with miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks. Conclusions We identified 605 conserved and 268 novel miRNAs from wheat grains. Of these, 104 are potentially involved in the regulation of grain-filling. Our dataset provides a useful resource for investigating miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms in cereal grains, and our results suggest that miRNAs contribute to this regulation during a crucial phase in determining grain yield and flour quality

  14. Optical-mechanical system for on-combine segregation of wheat by grain protein concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain segregation by grain protein concentration (GPC) may help growers maximize revenues in markets that offer protein premiums. Our objective was to develop an on-combine system for automatically segregating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by GPC during harvest. A multispectral optical sensor scans...

  15. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The use of sourdough fermented by antifungal LAB to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L A M; Dal Bello, F; Arendt, E K

    2008-07-31

    Addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. In this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. In both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the outgrowth of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum, or Penicillium expansum spores, however on wheat bread outgrowth of Penicillium roqueforti spores was not affected. In an attempt to reduce the amounts of chemical additives in bread, the antifungal sourdoughs were used in combination with calcium propionate (CAP) and possible synergistic effects were evaluated. Presence of 3000 ppm CAP in the bread did not affect the outgrowth of P. roqueforti, whereas outgrowth of the other fungi was retarded. A strong synergistic effect was observed when CAP and antifungal sourdoughs were combined into the bread formulation, and outgrowth of P. roqueforti was affected. The use of reduced CAP amount (1000 ppm) showed significant inhibition only when antifungal sourdough was added. Remarkably, the increase in shelf life achieved was higher than that obtained using 3000 ppm of CAP alone. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly show that the addition of antifungal sourdough has the potential to reduce the levels of chemical additives needed in the bakery industry to ensure the microbiological safety of bread.

  17. [Effects of long-term rotation on the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein on dryland of Loess Plateau, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan; Hao, Ming-De

    2013-05-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted on the dryland of Loess Plateau to study the effects of three typical rotation systems, including wheat-sainfoin rotation, wheat-pea rotation, and wheat-maize rotation, on the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein. Rotation system and the cropping years of rotated plants affected the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein in varying degrees. As compared with continuous wheat cropping, wheat-sainfoin rotation made the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein relatively stable, and the essential amino acid content, amino acid score, amino acid ratio coefficient, chemical score, and amino acid index of the protein all relatively high, being able to be adopted as a cropping system to product high quality protein wheat in Loess Plateau. Under wheat-pea rotation, the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein after 1-year pea cropping was relatively high, but the essential amino acid content of wheat grain protein after 2-year pea cropping was relatively low, and several essential amino acid scores and chemical score of the grain protein were lower than those under continuous wheat cropping. Furthermore, the essential amino acid index was 12.2% lower than that under continuous wheat cropping. Therefore, wheat-pea rotation showed a relatively low nutritional quality of wheat grain protein. Under wheat-maize rotation, the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein was also relatively stable, but the crude protein and essential amino acid contents and amino acid balance level were lower than those under continuous wheat cropping.

  18. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity t...

  19. Alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cereals and whole-grain cereal products.

    PubMed

    Kulawinek, Mariola; Jaromin, Anna; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Zarnowski, Robert

    2008-08-27

    The alkylresorcinol content and homologue composition in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products were determined in this study. Cereal grains and whole-grain cereal products were extracted with acetone, whereas bread types were extracted with hot 1-propanol. The average alkylresorcinol content in tested rye (approximately 1100 mg/kg DM) and wheat (approximately 800 mg/kg DM) grains harvested in Poland was within the range previously reported in Swedish and Finnish samples. The total alkylresorcinol content in tested cereal products available on the Polish market varied from very low levels in barley grain-based foods up to 3000 mg/kg DM in wheat bran. The total alkylresorcinol content in 14 bread samples extracted with hot 1-propanol varied from approximately 100 mg/kg DM in whole bread made with honey up to approximately 650 mg/kg DM in whole-rye bread. Calculated ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 homologues, a useful parameter previously used to distinguish between rye and wheat cereals and their derived products, was about 1.2-1.4 in rye products, about 0.2 in wheat products, and varied between 0.2 and 0.6 in cereal-derived products containing a mixture of whole rye and/or wheat. The data set obtained were subsequently compared using cluster and principal component analysis, which allowed the tested cereal products to be classified into two major groups consisting of whole-rye or whole-wheat products, respectively. On the basis of that approach, mixed cereal products containing rye and wheat bran or whole rye and wheat flour were grouped between those two well-defined clusters. Our work not only provides a detailed examination of alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products, but also demonstrates that this type of analysis accompanied by the use of proper statistical algorithms offers an objective way to evaluate the quality of whole-grain rye and/or wheat and their derived

  20. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%.

  1. High temperature during grain fill alters the morphology of protein and starch deposits in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High temperature during grain fill reduces wheat yield and alters flour quality. Starchy endosperm cell morphology was investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) grain produced under a 24/17 °C or 37/28 °C day/night regimen imposed from anthesis to maturity to identify changes in cell s...

  2. Characterization of Proteins from Grain of Different Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Žilić, Slađana; Barać, Miroljub; Pešić, Mirjana; Dodig, Dejan; Ignjatović-Micić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins), as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L.) and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) genotypes. In addition, content of tryptophan and wet gluten were analyzed. Gliadins and glutenins comprise from 58.17% to 65.27% and 56.25% to 64.48% of total proteins and as such account for both quantity and quality of the bread and durum wheat grain proteins, respectively. The ratio of gliadin/total glutenin varied from 0.49 to 1.01 and 0.57 to 1.06 among the bread and durum genotypes, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, bread wheat genotypes had a higher concentration of α + β + γ-subunits of gliadin (on average 61.54% of extractable proteins) than durum wheat (on average 55.32% of extractable proteins). However, low concentration of ω-subunit was found in both bread (0.50% to 2.53% of extractable proteins) and durum (3.65% to 6.99% of extractable proteins) wheat genotypes. On average, durum wheat contained significantly higher amounts of tryptophan and wet gluten (0.163% dry weight (d.w.) and 26.96% d.w., respectively) than bread wheat (0.147% d.w. and 24.18% d.w., respectively). PMID:22016634

  3. Computer vision-based method for classification of wheat grains using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Sabanci, Kadir; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Toktas, Abdurrahim

    2017-06-01

    A simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high-resolution camera and subjected to pre-processing. The main visual features of four dimensions, three colors and five textures are acquired using image-processing techniques (IPTs). A total of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model. The data sets of visual features are considered as input parameters of the ANN model. The ANN with four different input data subsets is modelled to classify the wheat grains into bread or durum. The ANN model is trained with 180 grains and its accuracy tested with 20 grains from a total of 200 wheat grains. Seven input parameters that are most effective on the classifying results are determined using the correlation-based CfsSubsetEval algorithm to simplify the ANN model. The results of the ANN model are compared in terms of accuracy rate. The best result is achieved with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.8 × 10(-6) by the simplified ANN model. This shows that the proposed classifier based on computer vision can be successfully exploited to automatically classify a variety of grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The effect of gamma and microwave irradiation of wheat grain on development parameters of some stored grain pests.

    PubMed

    Warchalewski, J R; Pradzynska, A; Gralik, J; Nawrot, J

    2000-12-01

    Wheat grain was treated with different doses of gamma irradiation or different times of microwaves. Gamma rays (0.05-10 kGy) caused statistically significant differences in soluble protein contents and kernel hardness. Microwave treatment (15-180 s) resulted in some statistically significant changes in moisture and soluble protein contents. Mortality, intensity of feeding, fertility of adults, progeny number and development time of larvae of the granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) on treated grain were observed. On the basis of progeny number and larval development time the coefficient of food value (CFV) was calculated. Some statistical differences were stated in studied parameters, however no one in all calculated coefficients of food values. The same treated grain was also used as a food for larvae of the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duv.) and Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella Zell.). Mortality of larvae and their development time were studied. Only gamma irradiated wheat grain at the dose 0.1 kGy used as a food for larvae of T. confusum Duv. caused statistically significant extension of development time by 7 days, when comparing to the control food. On the other hand, microwave treatment of wheat grain used as food significantly shorten the development time of larvae in both species.

  5. Proteomic analysis of middle and late stages of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Feng; Huo, Wang; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic approaches were applied in four grain developmental stages of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant line Yunong 3114. 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analyzed proteome characteristics during middle and late grain development of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its EMS mutant line Yunong 3114 with larger grain sizes. We identified 130 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 88 unique proteins, and four main expression patterns displayed a dynamic description of middle and late grain formation. Those identified protein species participated in eight biochemical processes: stress/defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/assembly/degradation, storage proteins, energy production and transportation, photosynthesis, transcription/translation, signal transduction. Comparative proteomic characterization demonstrated 12 protein spots that co-accumulated in the two wheat cultivars with different expression patterns, and six cultivar-specific protein spots including serpin, small heat shock protein, β-amylase, α-amylase inhibitor, dimeric α-amylase inhibitor precursor, and cold regulated protein. These cultivar-specific protein spots possibly resulted in differential yield-related traits of the two wheat cultivars. Our results provide valuable information for dissection of molecular and genetics basis of yield-related traits in bread wheat and the proteomic characterization in this study could also provide insights in the biology of middle and late grain development. PMID:26442048

  6. Metabolite profiling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from organic and conventional agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Langenkämper, Georg; Betsche, Thomas; Niehaus, Karsten; Barsch, Aiko

    2006-10-18

    In some European community countries up to 8% of the agricultural area is managed organically. The aim was to obtain a metabolite profile for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains grown under comparable organic and conventional conditions. These conditions cannot be found in plant material originating from different farms or from products purchased in supermarkets. Wheat grains from a long-term biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming system from the harvest 2003 from Switzerland were analyzed. The presented data show that using a high throughput GC-MS technique, it was possible to determine relative levels of a set of 52 different metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar phosphates, and nucleotides from wheat grains. Within the metabolites from all field trials, there was at the most a 50% reduction comparing highest and lowest mean values. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the metabolite status of the wheat grain from organic and mineralic farming did not differ in concentrations of 44 metabolites. This result indicates no impact or a small impact of the different farming systems. In consequence, we did not detect extreme differences in metabolite composition and quality of wheat grains.

  7. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Conclusions Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two cultivars. Differences in seed

  8. Yeast species composition differs between artisan bakery and spontaneous laboratory sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Van der Meulen, Roel; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Daniel, Heide-Marie

    2010-06-01

    Sourdough fermentations are characterized by the combined activity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. An investigation of the microbial composition of 21 artisan sourdoughs from 11 different Belgian bakeries yielded 127 yeast isolates. Also, 12 spontaneous 10-day laboratory sourdough fermentations with daily backslopping were performed with rye, wheat, and spelt flour, resulting in the isolation of 217 yeast colonies. The isolates were grouped according to PCR-fingerprints obtained with the primer M13. Representative isolates of each M13 fingerprint group were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences, and partial actin gene sequences, leading to the detection of six species. The dominant species in the bakery sourdoughs were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala), while the dominant species in the laboratory sourdough fermentations were W. anomalus and Candida glabrata. The presence of S. cerevisiae in the bakery sourdoughs might be due to contamination of the bakery environment with commercial bakers yeast, while the yeasts in the laboratory sourdoughs, which were carried out under aseptic conditions with flour as the only nonsterile component, could only have come from the flour used.

  9. Distinct expression and function of carotenoid metabolic genes and homoeologs in developing wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Fischer, Kathryn; Yu, Shu; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2016-07-12

    β-carotene, the most active provitamin A molecule produced by plants, plays important roles in human nutrition and health. β-carotene does not usually accumulate in the endosperm (i.e. flour) of mature wheat grains, which is a major food source of calories for humans. Therefore, enriching β-carotene accumulation in wheat grain endosperm will enable a sustainable dietary supplementation of provitamin A. Several metabolic genes affecting β-carotene accumulation have already been isolated from wheat, including phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYe) and carotenoid β-ring hydroxylase1/2 (HYD1/2). In this work, we cloned and biochemically characterized two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), CCD1 and CCD4, from wheat. While CCD1 homoeologs cleaved β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin into apocarotenoid products, CCD4 homoeologs were inactive towards these substrates in in vitro assays. When analyzed by real-time qPCR, PSY1, LCYe, HYD1/2 and CCD1/4 homoeologs showed distinct expression patterns in vegetative tissues and sections of developing tetraploid and hexaploid wheat grains, suggesting that carotenoid metabolic genes and homoeologs are differentially regulated at the transcriptional level in wheat. The CCD1/4 enzyme activity and the spatial-temporal gene expression data provide critical insights into the specific carotenoid metabolic gene homoeologs that control β-carotene accumulation in wheat grain endosperm, thus establishing the knowledge base for generation of wheat varieties with enhanced β-carotene in the endosperm through breeding and genome editing approaches.

  10. Bioavailability to rats of iron in six varieties of wheat grain intrinsically labeled with radioiron

    SciTech Connect

    House, W.A.; Welch, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    Bioavailability to anemic rats of iron in six varieties of wheat grain was assessed by a whole-body radioassay procedure. Intrinsically labeled kernels were harvested from plants grown in /sup 59/Fe-labeled nutrient solutions. The varieties used were selected from 18 varieties of field-grown wheat grain that were analyzed for iron, protein and phytate content. Concentrations of iron, phytate and protein in grain of field-grown varieties ranged from 34 to 55 ppm, 0.7 to 1.2% dry wt and 11.3 to 15.4% dry wt, respectively. In grain from varieties grown in nutrient solutions, iron, phytate and protein concentrations ranged from 35 to 50 ppm, 1 to 1.2% dry wt, and 13.8 to 16.8% dry wt, respectively. Depending on the variety of intrinsically labeled grain fed in test meals to anemic rats (hemoglobin averaged 5.8 g/dL), absorption of /sup 59/Fe ranged from about 62 to 74% of the dose; differences among varieties were not significant (P greater than 0.05). Rats fed /sup 59/Fe-labeled FeCl/sub 3/ absorbed about 71% of the dose, which was similar to the average amount (69% of dose) absorbed by rats fed wheat. We concluded that selection of wheat varieties for increased yield or protein content has not adversely affected the bioavailability of iron in the grain.

  11. Whole-grain rye and wheat alkylresorcinols are incorporated into human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Linko, Anna-Maria; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols (AR), a group of phenolic lipids, exist in the human diet in whole-grain rye and wheat. They are absorbed by humans and have been quantified in plasma. In this 2-week study we assessed AR incorporation into human erythrocyte membranes. Nine subjects attended the study; four avoided whole-grain products for 1 week and then included whole-grain rye and wheat bread in the diet for the second week, four included whole-grain rye and wheat products in the diet during the whole follow-up and one followed a gluten-free diet. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane AR were analysed after weeks 1 and 2. Erythrocyte membrane AR concentrations increased an average of 231 nmol/l of packed erythrocytes (P=0.036) after consumption of whole-grain rye and wheat products. Plasma AR levels increased an average of 175 nmol/l (P=0.058). When intake of whole-grain products was constant, erythrocyte membrane and plasma AR levels remained stable. Long-chain AR were incorporated into erythrocyte membranes in a higher proportion compared to shorter-chain AR. This preliminary study shows that AR are incorporated into human erythrocyte membranes in vivo.

  12. Wheat-related disorders reviewed: making a grain of sense.

    PubMed

    Marchioni Beery, Renée M; Birk, John W

    2015-06-01

    Wheat-related disorders have become a growing area of clinical and scientific interest and can be categorized broadly as: autoimmune-mediated; allergic; and non-autoimmune/non-allergic conditions. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) present on this spectrum as disorders associated with adverse gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations following exposure to gluten and/or other wheat-related constituents. NCGS/NCWS is increasingly considered in patients with unexplained symptoms after the exclusions of celiac disease and wheat allergy. As objective diagnostic data and specific biomarkers are lacking, response to a gluten-free/wheat-free diet can confirm the presence of NCGS/NCWS. An association with irritable bowel syndrome has been detected, and the effects of other food components, such as fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, may contribute. Our organization and synthesis of extant knowledge pertaining to wheat-related disorders may advance current practice and research efforts toward an improved understanding of NCGS/NCWS as an evolving clinical entity.

  13. Chilean flour and wheat grain: tracing their origin using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Ma Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; González-Pérez, Claudio; Zapata San Martín, Nelson; López-González, Fernando; Lobos Ortega, Iris; Hernández-Hierro, Jose-Miguel

    2014-02-15

    Instrumental techniques such a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are used in industry to monitor and establish product composition and quality. As occurs with other food industries, the Chilean flour industry needs simple, rapid techniques to objectively assess the origin of different products, which is often related to their quality. In this sense, NIRS has been used in combination with chemometric methods to predict the geographic origin of wheat grain and flour samples produced in different regions of Chile. Here, the spectral data obtained with NIRS were analysed using a supervised pattern recognition method, Discriminat Partial Least Squares (DPLS). The method correctly classified 76% of the wheat grain samples and between 90% and 96% of the flour samples according to their geographic origin. The results show that NIRS, together with chemometric methods, provides a rapid tool for the classification of wheat grain and flour samples according to their geographic origin.

  14. Differential Detection of Potentially Hazardous Fusarium Species in Wheat Grains by an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Eifler, Jakob; Martinelli, Eugenio; Santonico, Marco; Capuano, Rosamaria; Schild, Detlev; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Fungal infestation on wheat is an increasingly grave nutritional problem in many countries worldwide. Fusarium species are especially harmful pathogens due to their toxic metabolites. In this work we studied volatile compounds released by F. cerealis, F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. redolens using SPME-GC/MS. By using an electronic nose we were able to differentiate between infected and non-infected wheat grains in the post-harvest chain. Our electronic nose was capable of distinguishing between four wheat Fusaria species with an accuracy higher than 80%. PMID:21695232

  15. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  16. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E; Newman, John W; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch.

  17. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rebetzke, G. J.; Bonnett, D. G.; Reynolds, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned–awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38–7.93 t ha−1) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned–awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (–5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains (‘screenings’) to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced

  18. Crop water production functions for grain sorghum and winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Productivity of water-limited cropping systems can be reduced by untimely distribution of water as well as cold and heat stress. The objective was to develop relationships among weather parameters, water use, and grain productivity to produce functions forecasting grain yields of grain sorghum and w...

  19. Selection of sourdough lactobacilli with antifungal activity for use as biopreservatives in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Zannini, Emanuele; Aquilanti, Lucia; Silvestri, Gloria; Fierro, Olga; Picariello, Gianluca; Clementi, Francesca

    2012-08-08

    Two hundred and sixteen LAB cultures from sourdoughs and dough for bread and panettone production were screened for in vitro antifungal properties against three indicator cultures ascribed to Aspergillus japonicus , Eurotium repens , and Penicillium roseopurpureum , isolated from bakery environment and moldy panettone. Nineteen preselected isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration determination against the indicator cultures. Sourdoughs prepared with the two most promising strains, identified as Lactobacillus rossiae LD108 and Lactobacillus paralimentarius PB127, were characterized. The sourdough extracts were subjected to HPLC analysis coupled with a microtiter plate bioassay against A. japonicus to identify the active fractions. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the occurrence of a series of peptides corresponding to wheat α-gliadin proteolysis fragments in the active fraction from L. rossiae LD108 sourdough. The ability to prevent mold growth on bread was demonstrated for both strains, whereas L. rossiae LD108 also inhibited mold growth on panettone.

  20. Microbial cell-free extracts affect the biochemical characteristics and sensorial quality of sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Noemi; De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Quinto, Maurizio; Mentana, Annalisa; Minervini, Fabio; Cappelle, Stefan; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-12-15

    This study aimed to improve the sensorial quality of sourdough wheat bread by the addition of cell-free enzyme extracts (CFEs) from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (SF), Hafnia alvei (HF) and Debaryomyces hansenii (DH). CFEs were suitable sources of peptidases, glutamate dehydrogenase and cystathionine γ-lyase. The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) in the sourdoughs containing CFEs was higher than the control sourdough, produced without addition of CFEs. The community-level catabolic profiles showed that the highest number of carbohydrates, polymers and carboxylic acids were consumed in the SF sourdough. Breads produced with CFEs were characterized by higher specific volume than the control. The use of CFEs impacted on the profile of volatile organic compounds. Overall, positive correlations were found between some key-aroma compounds and enzyme activities/precursor FAA. The SF bread, characterized by highest level of alcohols, received the highest score for aroma and sweetness in the sensory analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  2. Evaluation of grain dimension and weight using backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs) between wild and domesticated emmer wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum) represents the primitive situation in the domestication of AABB tetraploid wheat. As one of the earliest domesticated grain species, it was a principal crop in the development and spread of Neolithic agriculture in the Old World. Grain weight and dimensi...

  3. Stability, across environments, of grain and alcohol yield, in soft wheat varieties grown for grain distilling or bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Swanston, John Stuart; Smith, Pauline L; Thomas, William Tb; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Kindred, Daniel; Brosnan, James M; Bringhurst, Thomas A; Agu, Reginald C

    2014-12-01

    Soft-milling wheat has potential use for both grain whisky distilling and bioethanol production. Varietal comparisons over wide-ranging environments would permit assessment of both grain and alcohol yield potential and also permit the stability across environments, for these parameters, to be compared. For 12 varieties, analysis of variance showed highly significant effects of variety, site, season and fertiliser application on grain and alcohol yield. There were also significant interactions between these factors and, consequently, varieties varied in stability across environments as well as in mean values for the parameters assessed. Alcohol production per hectare was affected more strongly by variation in grain yield than alcohol yield, but increasing grain protein content reduced alcohol yield and, therefore, utility for grain distilling. To maximise energy production, the best varieties for bioethanol would combine high and stable grain yield with slower reduction of alcohol yield as grain protein increases. For grain distilling, where the energy balance is less important, high alcohol yield will remain the key factor. Data derived using near infrared spectroscopy can be valuable in assessing stability of quality traits across environments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of Wheat Chromosome Translocation Lines for High Temperature Stress Tolerance at Grain Filling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Gautam Prasad; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2015-01-01

    High temperature (HT, heat) stress is detrimental to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Wild relatives of bread wheat may offer sources of HT stress tolerance genes because they grow in stressed habitats. Wheat chromosome translocation lines, produced by introgressing small segments of chromosome from wild relatives to bread wheat, were evaluated for tolerance to HT stress during the grain filling stage. Sixteen translocation lines and four wheat cultivars were grown at optimum temperature (OT) of 22/14°C (day/night). Ten days after anthesis, half of the plants were exposed to HT stress of 34/26°C for 16 d, and other half remained at OT. Results showed that HT stress decreased grain yield by 43% compared with OT. Decrease in individual grain weight (by 44%) was the main reason for yield decline at HT. High temperature stress had adverse effects on leaf chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm; and a significant decrease in Fv/Fm was associated with a decline in individual grain weight. Based on the heat response (heat susceptibility indices, HSIs) of physiological and yield traits to each other and to yield HSI, TA5594, TA5617, and TA5088 were highly tolerant and TA5637 and TA5640 were highly susceptible to HT stress. Our results suggest that change in Fv/Fm is a highly useful trait in screening genotypes for HT stress tolerance. This study showed that there is genetic variability among wheat chromosome translocation lines for HT stress tolerance at the grain filling stage and we suggest further screening of a larger set of translocation lines. PMID:25719199

  5. Related physicochemical properties to microstructure of hard and soft wheat grains with different kernel thickness and specific density.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Weizhong; Lu, Daxin; Ding, Weimin

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical properties of wheat grains with largest kernel thickness always was lowest than the other sections, examination of microstructure of wheat grains can help us understand this phenomena. Two varieties of wheat, soft white winter wheat Yangmai 11 and hard white winter wheat Zhengmai 9023, were fractionated into five sections by kernel thickness. Then the fractionated wheat grains in 2.7-3.0 mm section were separated into three fractions by kernel specific density sequentially. Microstructure of the fractured surface were evaluated at different scale level to two varieties wheat with different kernel thickness and specific density by using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Compactness and size of endosperm cell tended to decrease with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Protein matrix tended to increase with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Size of starch granules and proportion for different type starch granules also varied with different wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Those microstructure properties of the fractured surface, formation of endosperm cells, protein matrix and starch granules were close related to rheological properties and pasting properties of wheat grains.

  6. Quantification of Wheat Grain Arabinoxylans Using a Phloroglucinol Colorimetric Assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arabinoxylans (AX) play a critical role in end-use quality and nutrition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). An efficient, accurate method of AX quantification is desirable as AX plays an important role in processing, end use quality and human health. The objective of this work was to evaluate a stand...

  7. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; Dai, Yunchao; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops) and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:27518712

  8. Urinary Biomarkers of Whole Grain Wheat Intake Identified by Non-targeted and Targeted Metabolomics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingdong; Wang, Pei; Sha, Wei; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that whole grain (WG) intake plays an important role in chronic disease prevention. However, numerous human studies have failed to produce clear-cut conclusions on this topic. Here, a combination of non-targeted and targeted metabolomics approaches, together with kinetic studies, was used to investigate biomarkers of WG wheat intake and further explore the diet-disease associations. Via these integrated approaches, forty-one compounds were identified as the most discriminating endogenous metabolites after WG versus refined grain (RG) wheat bread consumption. The corresponding biological assessment of these endogenous changes suggests that, in contrast to RG consumption, WG wheat consumption may facilitate antioxidant defense systems and moderate the risk factors of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other chronic diseases. A panel of urinary markers consisting of seven alkylresorcinol metabolites and five benzoxazinoid derivatives as specific biomarkers, as well as five phenolic acid derivatives, was also established to cover multiple time points and longer time periods for correctly and objectively monitoring WG wheat intake. Through these findings, we have established a comprehensive biomarker pool to better assess WG wheat consumption, and to monitor the endogenous changes that are linked to health effects of WG wheat consumption. PMID:27805021

  9. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Texture

    PubMed Central

    Štiasna, Klára; Vyhnánek, Tomáš; Trojan, Václav; Mrkvicová, Eva; Hřivna, Luděk; Havel, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb). A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d). The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transflectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100% and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample. PMID:27904399

  10. A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development

    PubMed Central

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains. PMID:25663750

  11. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Texture.

    PubMed

    Presinszká, Mária; Štiasna, Klára; Vyhnánek, Tomáš; Trojan, Václav; Mrkvicová, Eva; Hřivna, Luděk; Havel, Ladislav

    2016-03-01

    Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb). A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d). The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transflectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100% and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  12. Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour.

    PubMed

    Zannini, Emanuele; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Santarelli, Sara; Silvestri, Gloria; Clementi, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour-water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite flour); (iii) 100% hull-less barley flour. After two months of continuous propagation, the chemical characteristics of the three sourdoughs were investigated by measuring: pH, total titratable acidity and concentrations of various microbial metabolites by HPLC (i.e. lactic, acetic, phenyllactic and butyric acids and diacetyl). The microbial traits were studied through viable counts, isolation and typing of LAB and yeasts and PCR-DGGE analyses. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable in the sourdoughs together with other lactobacilli species which were different depending on the type of flour blend used. The molecular typing of the isolates highlighted that only a few strains among those initially inoculated prevailed. The volume increases of the three types of sourdough were also investigated and a correlation was seen between an increase in the barley flour content and a reduction in the dough volume.

  13. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful post-harvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (...

  14. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  15. Increasing total and biologically active chromium in wheat grain and spinach by spraying with chromium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, F.A.; Ellis, B.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently, chromium has been shown to be necessary for glucose metabolism in man. But most plant species greatly restrict the uptake of Cr. This study was conducted to determine if both total and biologically active Cr could be increased in wheat grain or spinach by spraying the plants with either Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ or Cr-EDTA. Concentrations of Cr in wheat grain were about doubled in a greenhouse experiment by spraying with either Cr source. Biologically active Cr (estimated by extraction with ethanol or NH/sub 4/OH) was increased from about 40 to greater than 50% of total Cr when wheat was sprayed with Cr salts. Total Cr in spinach leaves was increased by as much as 10-fold by spraying, with the sulfate source being more effective than the EDTA.

  16. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  17. Degree of starchy endosperm separation from bran as a milling quality trait of wheat grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flour yield is an important quality trait of wheat, especially for flour millers because it directly affects profitability. In addition to the grain characteristics and milling conditions known to affect flour yield, easy and clean separation of starchy endosperm from bran during milling could have ...

  18. microRNA172 plays a crucial role in wheat spike morphogenesis and grain threshability

    PubMed Central

    Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Lin, Huiqiong; Chuck, George; Faris, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat domestication from wild species involved mutations in the Q gene. The q allele (wild wheats) is associated with elongated spikes and hulled grains, whereas the mutant Q allele (domesticated wheats) confers subcompact spikes and free-threshing grains. Previous studies showed that Q encodes an AP2-like transcription factor, but the causal polymorphism of the domestication traits remained unclear. Here, we show that the interaction between microRNA172 (miR172) and the Q allele is reduced by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the miRNA binding site. Inhibition of miR172 activity by a miRNA target mimic resulted in compact spikes and transition from glumes to florets in apical spikelets. By contrast, overexpression of miR172 was sufficient to induce elongated spikes and non-free-threshing grains, similar to those observed in three Q loss-of-function mutations. These lines showed transitions from florets to glumes in the basal spikelets. These localized homeotic changes were associated with opposing miR172/Q gradients along the spike. We propose that the selection of a nucleotide change at the miR172 binding site of Q contributed to subcompact spikes and free-threshing grains during wheat domestication. PMID:28455375

  19. A review of the occurrence of grain softness protein-1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain softness protein-1 (Gsp-1) is a small, 495-bp intronless gene found throughout the Triticeae tribe at the distal end of group 5 chromosomes. With the Puroindolines, it constitutes a key component of the Hardness locus. In the polyploid wheats, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum, the gene is pr...

  20. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS marker...

  1. Breeding and Characterization of Hexaploid Wheats with Nil Levels of Grain Polyphenol Oxidase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a ubiquitous enzyme in plants, responsible for many browning reactions and reduction of food product quality. In common (bread) wheat, PPO occurs in the external layers of grain, often is carried into flour via milling, and can be responsible for the discoloration of whe...

  2. Glutamine synthetase in durum wheat: Genotypic variation and relationship with grain protein content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), one of the most valuable indicators for nitrogen use in crops, both in terms of yield and final grain protein content (GPC), is a very complex trait. The identification of wheat varieties with high NUE, as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in th...

  3. A comprehensive survey of soft wheat grain quality in United States germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors, which work in combination to produce specific grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Along with these genetic and environmental factors, the adaptation of the genetics to the given growing environment...

  4. Utilizing existing sensor technology to predict spring wheat grain nitrogen concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obtaining optimum grain N concentration and yield in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be problematic without proper nitrogen (N) fertilizer management. Sensor-based technologies have been used for an accurate and precise application of fertilizers. This technology has also been used to predic...

  5. Changes in the nuclear proteome of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    PubMed Central

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Chambon, Christophe; Boudet, Julie; Branlard, Gérard; Martre, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Wheat grain end-use value is determined by complex molecular interactions that occur during grain development, including those in the cell nucleus. However, our knowledge of how the nuclear proteome changes during grain development is limited. Here, we analyzed nuclear proteins of developing wheat grains collected during the cellularization, effective grain-filling, and maturation phases of development, respectively. Nuclear proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Image analysis revealed 371 and 299 reproducible spots in gels with first dimension separation along pH 4–7 and pH 6–11 isoelectric gradients, respectively. The relative abundance of 464 (67%) protein spots changed during grain development. Abundance profiles of these proteins clustered in six groups associated with the major phases and phase transitions of grain development. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyse 387 variant and non-variant protein spots, 114 different proteins were identified that were classified into 16 functional classes. We noted that some proteins involved in the regulation of transcription, like HMG1/2-like protein and histone deacetylase HDAC2, were most abundant before the phase transition from cellularization to grain-filling, suggesting that major transcriptional changes occur during this key developmental phase. The maturation period was characterized by high relative abundance of proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002999. PMID:26579155

  6. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, Partha Sarathi

    2010-08-01

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat ( Singh and Datta, 2010). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  7. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental–modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. Methods One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source–sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Key Results Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd−1 per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the

  8. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental-modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source-sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd(-1) per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the duration of grain filling. Source-sink modelling

  9. Microbiological quality of wheat grain and flour from two mills in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni

    2010-08-01

    A baseline investigation of the microbiological quality of wheat grain and flour from two mills in Queensland, Australia, was undertaken in order to assess the capacity of these two mills to meet microbiological criteria specified by a customer for raw, non-heat-treated flour. This baseline testing was performed over the 2006 to 2007 wheat season. Three hundred fifty flour samples were monitored for yeast, mold, and Bacillus cereus, 300 for Escherichia coli, 150 for Salmonella, and 100 for aerobic plate count. Fifty grain samples were analyzed for yeast, mold, E. coli, Salmonella, and B. cereus. There was a single isolation of Salmonella Give in unscreened wheat. The yeast, mold, E. coli, and B. cereus prevalences were 56, 40, 2.0, and 4.0% for grain and 71, 17, 0.7, and <0.3% for flour, respectively. Of the positive samples, the means were 3.7, 2.7, 0.6, and 2.1 for grain, and 3.0, 2.8, and 0.8 log CFU/g for flour. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 4.2 log CFU/g with a 95th percentile count of 4.6 log CFU/g. A microbiological quality baseline of wheat grain and flour from these two Queensland mills has been determined. These data in a specific sense assist the two mills to assess their capacity to meet microbiological criteria, and in a general sense provide at least a limited snapshot of Queensland wheat and flour quality for risk assessments being carried out to evaluate the safety of plant and plant products.

  10. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, P. S.

    2010-02-01

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  11. Role of cereal type and processing in whole grain in vivo protection from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Andrea; Danesi, Francesca; Verardo, Vito; Serrazanetti, Diana Isabella; Valli, Veronica; Russo, Alessandra; Riciputi, Ylenia; Tossani, Nadia; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    The reduced risk of chronic diseases related to whole grain consumption is in part attributed to their high antioxidant content. Many studies have been performed on the in vitro antioxidant capacity of cereals, but in vivo studies are necessary. We have evaluated and compared the effect of whole grain durum wheat bread and whole grain Kamut khorasan bread on the oxidative status in rats. Two different bread-making processes were used for whole grain Kamut khorasan, sourdough and baker's yeast. After 7 weeks on the experimental diets rats were divided into two subgroups, one receiving an oxidative stress by doxorubicin injection. Our results evidenced both wheat durum and Kamut khorasan as good sources of antioxidants, and a lower oxidative state in rats fed the cereal-based diets. Furthermore, Kamut khorasan bread fed animals had a better response to stress than wheat durum fed, especially when a sourdough bread was supplied. Although further studies are needed, data herein reported suggest whole grains, particularly whole ancient grains, as a safe and convenient way of increasing antioxidant protection.

  12. Levels of compounds and metabolites in wheat ears and grains in organic and conventional agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Niehaus, Karsten; Barsch, Aiko; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-10-28

    In this work, wheat from two farming systems, organic and conventional, was analyzed. Organic agriculture is one of the fastest growing sectors in the food industry of Europe and the United States. It is an open question, whether organic or conventional agricultural management influences variables such as metabolism, nutrient supply, seed loading and metabolite composition of wheat. Our aim was to detect if organic or conventional farming systems would affect concentrations of metabolites and substances in developing ears and in corresponding matured grain. Therefore, broadband metabolite profiles together with lipids, cations, starch and protein concentrations of wheat ears in the last phase of grain development and of matured grain from organic and conventional agriculture of a rigorously controlled field trial with two organic and two conventional systems were examined. It appears that seed metabolism and supply of developing ears differ in organic and conventional agriculture. However, the differences in 62 metabolite concentrations become marginal or disappear in the matured grains, indicating an adjustment of nutrients in the matured grain from organic agriculture. This result suggests a high degree of homeostasis in the final seed set independent of the growing regime.

  13. Occurrence of mycotoxins in spelt and common wheat grain and their products.

    PubMed

    Mankevičienė, Audronė; Jablonskytė-Raščė, Danutė; Maikštėnienė, Stanislava

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming does not allow the use of conventional mineral fertilizers and crop protection products. As a result, in our experiments we chose to grow different species of cereals and to see how cereal species affect mycotoxin accumulation. This study describes the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2/HT-2 toxin in a survey of spelt and common wheat and their bran as well as flour. The analysis was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The concentrations of DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 in Triticum spelta and T. aestivum were influenced by species, cereal type and year interaction. The highest concentrations of these mycotoxins were found in spelt grain with glumes, in spelt glumes and in spring wheat. These results show significantly higher concentrations of Fusarium toxins in glumes than in dehulled grain, which indicates the possible protective effect of spelt wheat glumes. The lowest DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in spelt grain without glumes. The research shows that it is potentially risky to produce bran from grain in which mycotoxin concentrations are below limits by European Union Regulation No. 1881/2006, since the concentration of mycotoxins in bran can be several times higher than that in grain. As a result, although bran is a dietary product characterised by good digestive properties, it can become a harmful product that can cause unpredictable health damage.

  14. Deciphering the roles of specific wheat grain proteins in flour functionality, allergenic potential and the response of the grain to the growth environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins show some of the most notable changes in response to post-anthesis fertilizer or high temperatures during grain development. These proteins are also associated with the serious food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). RN...

  15. Prevalence and impact of single-strain starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria on metabolite formation in sourdough.

    PubMed

    Ravyts, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Flavour of type II sourdoughs is influenced by the ingredients, processing conditions, and starter culture composition. It is, however, not fully clear to what extent different sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contribute to flavour. Therefore, two types of flour (rye and wheat) and different LAB starter culture strains were used to prepare sourdoughs, thereby leaving the yeast microbiota uncontrolled. All LAB starter culture strains tested were shown to be prevalent and to acidify the flour/water mixture to pH values between 3.1 and 3.9 after 24h of fermentation. Multiple aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acids were produced by the sourdough-associated microbiota throughout the fermentation period. Based on the organoleptic evaluation of breads produced with these sourdoughs, five LAB strains were selected to perform prolonged wheat and rye fermentations as to their capacity to result in an acidic (Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101, Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 130201, and Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699), buttermilk-like (Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471), or fruity flavour (Lactobacillus sakei CG1). Upon prolonged fermentation, higher metabolite concentrations were produced. For instance, L. sakei CG1 produced the highest amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol, which was further converted into 3-methylbutyl acetate. The latter compound resulted in a fruity banana flavour after 48h of fermentation, probably due to yeast interference. Rye fermentations resulted in sourdoughs richer in volatiles than wheat, including 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, and ethyl acetate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health.

  17. Identification and sequence analysis of grain softness protein in selected wheat, rye and triticale.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, M A S; Bobojonov, V

    2012-08-16

    Grain softness protein (GSP) is an important protein for overcoming milling and grain defenses in the innate immunity systems of cereals. The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand GSP sequences in selected wheat, rye and triticale. Using sequences for this gene from a sequence database, we performed clustering analysis to compare the sequences obtained from 3 germplasms with other studied sequences for GSP. The maximum difference between the Hirmand GSP genotype in wheat and the database sequences was 23% in EF109396 and EF109399. Most amino acid variation between the GSP sequences involved the same amino acids. The Nikita rye GSP gene showed 64% identity with DQ269918 and AY667063. The isoelectric point in the GSP of wheat and Lasko triticale was significantly higher than that of rye GSP. In addition, parameters such as optical density, grand average of hydrophobicity, percentage of hydrophobicity and hydrophilic amino acids, and number of alpha helices and beta sheets in GSP were similar in wheat and triticale but not in wheat and rye.

  18. Phytochemicals in whole grain wheat and their health-promoting effects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-07-01

    Accumulated evidence in epidemiological studies has consistently shown that consumption of whole grains (WGs) is inversely associated with risk of major chronic diseases such as certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary fiber (DF) has been reported to be responsible for the health effects of WG consumption. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies is emerging that, in addition to DF and minerals, the unique phytochemicals in WGs may in part contribute to these health-promoting effects. WGs are rich sources of various phytochemicals. However, phytochemical contents and profiles in WG wheat are not systematically summarized yet, and the rapid rate of discovery of wheat phytochemicals necessitates an update on the current state of this field. Furthermore, the biological roles of phytochemicals in protective effects of WGs are also relatively underestimated compared to DFs. This manuscript summarized current research literature regarding phytochemicals that have been identified and characterized from wheat grains and wheat bran, and their corresponding contributions to the major health benefits of WG wheat consumption. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  20. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

  1. Development of a method for the direct fermentation of semolina by selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Antonio; Urso, Valeria; Corona, Onofrio; Francesca, Nicola; Amato, Gaetano; Settanni, Luca; Di Miceli, Giuseppe

    2016-12-19

    Three obligately heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PON100336, Leuconostoc citreum PON10079 and Weissella cibaria PON10030) were used in this study as a multi-species starter culture for sourdough production. The starter inoculum was prepared and propagated in sterile semolina extract (SSE) broth. Acidification kinetics, microbiological counts detected on specific media for sourdough LAB, polymorphic profile comparison and species-specific PCRs evidenced a stability of the liquid inoculum over time determining its suitability for direct addition to semolina. In order to validate this innovative method for the production of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) sourdoughs, 15 semolinas (from ten old and five modern genotypes cultivated in Sicily, southern Italy) were used to prepare the SSEs and to produce sourdoughs and finally breads. Chemical and microbiological analyses of the sourdoughs and the evaluation of the quality parameters (weight loss, height, crumb and crust colour, image analysis and volatile organic compound generation) of the resulting breads indicated that the direct addition of the liquid inocula propagated in SSE is a valuable method to stabilise the production of sourdoughs. The differences registered during the technological characterisation of the breads were underlined by the sensory tests and the multivariate analysis and are mainly imputable to the type of semolina.

  2. The assessment of soil availability and wheat grain status of zinc and iron in Serbia: Implications for human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Nina; Kostic, Ljiljana; Pavlovic, Jelena; Bosnic, Predrag; Stevic, Nenad; Savic, Jasna; Hristov, Nikola

    2016-05-15

    The deficiency of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a global issue causing not only considerable yield losses of food crops but also serious health problems. We have analysed Zn and Fe concentrations in the grains of two bread wheat cultivars along native gradient of micronutrient availability throughout Serbia. Although only 13% of the soil samples were Zn deficient and none was Fe deficient, the levels of these micronutrients in grain were rather low (median values of 21 mg kg(-1) for Zn and 36 mg kg(-1) for Fe), and even less adequate in white flour. Moreover, excessive P fertilization of calcareous soils in the major wheat growing areas strongly correlated with lower grain concentration of Zn. Our results imply that a latent Zn deficiency in wheat grain poses a high risk for grain quality relevant to human health in Serbia, where wheat bread is a staple food.

  3. Fungal diversity and natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in freshly harvested wheat grains from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Bemvenuti, Renata Heidtmann; Zorzete, Patrícia; de Souza Garcia, Fábio; Corrêa, Benedito

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the fungal diversity and presence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in 150 samples of freshly harvested wheat grains collected in three regions of Brazil (Sao Paulo, Parana, and Rio Grande do Sul). Analysis of the mycobiota showed a predominance of Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp. and Epicoccum sp. Microdochium nivale (23%), a fungus rarely found in Brazilian crops, was detected in Sao Paulo. Four members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex were isolated: F. graminearum s.s. (37%), Fusarium meridionale (46%), Fusarium cortaderiae (13%), and Fusarium austroamericanum (3%). Toxin analysis revealed 99% contamination with deoxynivalenol (mean 706 μg/kg). The frequency of zearalenone varied greatly across regions: wheat grains from Rio Grande do Sul (84%) and Sao Paulo (12%) had median concentrations of 70.9 and 57.9 μg/kg, respectively. ZEA was not detected in the samples from Parana. A total of six samples were above the maximum tolerated level recommended by the European Commission for ZEA in wheat grains. This study provided new insights into the natural mycobiota of Brazilian wheat, demonstrating contamination of most samples with deoxynivalenol and high frequency of zearalenone in samples from Rio Grande do Sul.

  4. Fate of deoxynivalenol in contaminated wheat grain during preparation of Egyptian 'balila'.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Wafik S M; Drusch, Stephan; Schnieder, Frank; Beyer, Marco

    2007-05-01

    Soaking and boiling whole wheat kernels in water are the key steps in the preparation of an Egyptian dish called 'balila'. The effects of washing, soaking and boiling wheat kernels in tap water or in 0.1 M Na2CO3 solution on the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of the wheat kernels were studied. Boiling contaminated wheat kernels in water reduced the DON content of the grain by 70%. The mechanism of decontamination due to boiling is probably a leaching of DON out of the grain into the boiling medium. A combined treatment of soaking in 0.1 M Na2CO3 solution (pH 11) with subsequent boiling reduced the DON content of the grain by 93%. Data suggest that apart from leaching DON out of the kernels into the boiling medium, a degradation of DON occurred in alkaline medium. Modifying the traditional process of 'balila' preparation by using Na2CO3 solution may be useful to reduce the risk of mycotoxin exposure via 'balila'.

  5. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Magda S; Mohamed, Hanan A

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fast neutrons from a (252)Cf source in the fluence range 10(5)-10(8)n/cm(2) on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2 × 10(6)n/cm(2) increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5-1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na(+) in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) decreased.

  6. Transfer of useful variability of high grain iron and zinc from Aegilops kotschyi into wheat through seed irradiation approach.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shailender Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sheikh, Imran; Malik, Sachin; Mathpal, Priyanka; Chugh, Vishal; Kumar, Sundip; Prasad, Ramasare; Dhaliwal, Harcharan Singh

    2016-01-01

    To transfer the 2S chromosomal fragment(s) of Aegilops kotschyi (2S(k)) into the bread wheat genome which could lead to the biofortification of wheat with high grain iron and zinc content. Wheat-Ae. kotschyi 2A/2S(k) substitution lines with high grain iron and zinc content were used to transfer the gene/loci for high grain Fe and Zn content into wheat using seed irradiation approach. Bread wheat plants derived from 40 krad-irradiated seeds showed the presence of univalents and multivalents during meiotic metaphase-I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of seed irradiation hybrid F2 seedlings showed several terminal and interstitial signals indicated the introgression of Ae. kotschyi chromosome segments. This proves the efficacy of seed radiation hybrid approach in gene transfer experiments. All the radiation-treated hybrid plants with high grain Fe and Zn content were analyzed with wheat group 2 chromosome-specific polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers to identify the introgression of small alien chromosome fragment(s). Radiation-induced hybrids showed more than 65% increase in grain iron and 54% increase in Zn contents with better harvest index than the elite wheat cultivar WL711 indicating effective and compensating translocations of 2S(k) fragments into wheat genome.

  7. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-05

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV < 10%), showed linearity (R(2) > 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  8. Effects of Genotype, Season, and Nitrogen Nutrition on Gene Expression and Protein Accumulation in Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Six commercial U.K. cultivars of winter wheat selected to represent different abilities to partition nitrogen into grain protein were grown in replicated field trials at five different sites over three seasons. The proportion of LMW glutenin subunits decreased and the proportion of gliadins increased during grain development and in response to N application. Differences were observed between the proportions of LMW glutenin subunits and gliadins in low- and high-protein grain, these two fractions being decreased and increased, respectively. There was little effect of grain protein content on the proportions of either the HMW glutenin subunits or large glutenin polymers, which are enriched in these subunits, with the latter increasing during development in all cultivars. The proportion of total protein present in polymers in the mature grain decreased with increasing N level. Correlations were also observed between the abundances of gliadin protein transcripts and the corresponding proteins. PMID:24786983

  9. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  10. Sourdough products for convenient use in baking.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Markus J

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentations require a specific knowledge on the effects of process parameters, raw materials and micro-organisms in order to obtain a specific, reproducible sourdough and bread quality. This knowledge is not necessarily available in bakeries. Sourdough starter cultures, either active sourdoughs (Reinzuchtsauerteig) or freeze-dried micro-organisms are used to start sourdough fermentation with the required micro-flora. As sourdough fermentation is a labour-intensive and a time-consuming process, a growing demand for convenient products arised early. First organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid) and mixtures thereof came in use. These agents were used directly without or in combination with a sourdough; however, flavour and taste of the resulting breads were unsatisfactory. Based on modified and optimized traditional sourdough processes, dried, pasty and liquid sourdoughs were developed. Companies which produce such ready-to-use products, claim for a convenient, direct production of baked goods in constant quality, in combination with all advantages of a biological sourdough fermentation, e.g. flavour and taste, fresh keeping and prolonged microbial shelf-life. Currently, a broad variety of sourdough products with different fermented cereals is available on the market. In order to obtain a stable product, it is a necessity to inactivate the sourdough micro-biota by e.g. pasteurization, drying or autosterilization.

  11. Grain-Quality attributes for cereals other than wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereals are grass species that are the primary source of food for humankind and important source of animal feed. Energy in the form of starch is their leading contribution but they are also important sources of protein, lipid, vitamins and minerals. Cereal grains are all processed to varying degrees...

  12. Cereals: Overview of uses: accent on wheat grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereals are grass species that are the primary source of food for humankind. Energy in the form of starch is their leading contribution but they are also important sources of protein, lipid, vitamins and minerals. Cereal grains are all processed to varying degrees, and made into a limitless array of...

  13. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    PubMed

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research.

  14. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  15. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed increasing concentrations of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Oba, M

    2012-07-01

    In Western Canada, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced from mixtures of corn and wheat at variable ratios, and used as a source of dietary crude protein (CP) in diets of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing dietary allocation of wheat DDGS on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, feed efficiency, plasma metabolites, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows in midlactation. Sixteen multiparous and 16 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. Dietary treatments were a control diet containing canola meal as the primary protein source (CON) and diets containing increasing concentrations of wheat DDGS in place of corn DDGS (0, 50, and 100% of dietary DDGS allocation). The treatment protein sources supplied approximately 35% of dietary CP. Yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and energy-corrected milk were greater for diets containing DDGS compared with the CON diet. Although cows fed the DDGS diets tended to have lower CP digestibility compared with those fed the CON diet, concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and milk urea nitrogen were higher, but milk protein concentration was lower for cows fed the DDGS diets. Although dry matter intake increased linearly as the dietary allocation of wheat DDGS increased, milk yield was not affected, thus decreasing feed efficiency linearly. Feeding increasing levels of wheat DDGS tended to decrease plasma glucose concentration linearly. Plasma Leu concentration decreased linearly and plasma Gln concentration increased linearly as dietary inclusion of wheat DDGS increased. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients except for CP was not affected by dietary treatments. A mixture of wheat and corn DDGS seems to have similar feeding values to both DDGS sources and it can be used as an alternative protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

  16. Modelling the response of wheat grain yield to climate change: a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qunying; Kathuria, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Production System Simulator-Wheat model was used to test the sensitivity of wheat cropping system in NSW to a range of changes in temperature, rainfall and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration based on wheat cultivars Sunvale and Janz under two extreme soil types (kandosol and sand) at six locations. Seven change levels (from 0 to 6°C at an interval of 1°C) in temperature, five change levels (from -20 to 20 % at an interval of 10 %) in rainfall and three change levels (0, 171 and 316 ppm) in atmospheric pCO2 were taken into account. It was found that there was a negative relationship between median grain yield and temperature while there were positive correlations of median grain yield with atmospheric pCO2 and rainfall across all locations and soils considered. It was also found that the rate of decrease in median grain yield was more for higher temperatures in contrast to lower temperatures, and the rate of increase in median grain yield was less for higher rainfall and pCO2 compared with the lower levels of these two variables. This study showed that environmental factors have significant effects on wheat grain yield, with soil as the most important factor, followed by site (reflecting both soil and climate), changes in atmospheric CO2, rainfall and temperature. This study also showed that rainfall was more important under sandy soil conditions than under kandosol soil conditions. These findings provided a sound basis for preliminary scoping and prioritising adaptation options.

  17. Pre-Anthesis Reserve Utilization for Protein and Carbohydrate Synthesis in Grains of Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Gebbing, Thomas; Schnyder, Hans

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the contribution of pre-anthesis reserve C to protein and carbohydrate deposition in grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using a new approach comprised of steady-state 13C/12C labeling and separation of the protein and carbohydrate fractions of mature grains. Experiments were performed with two spring wheat cultivars (Kadett and Star) grown with differential N fertilizer supply over 2 years. Pre-anthesis reserves contributed between 30% and 47% of the C in protein and 8% to 27% of the C in carbohydrates of grains. Partitioning of pre-anthesis C among the grain fractions was strongly dependent on the C/N (w/w) ratio in mobilized pre-anthesis biomass (r2 = 0.92). There appeared to be no significant exchange of pre-anthesis C between amino acids and carbohydrates during redistribution. The mean apparent efficiency of mobilized carbohydrate-C use in grain filling (MECHO, estimated as the mass of pre-anthesis C deposited in grain carbohydrates per gram of pre-anthesis C mobilized from carbohydrates in vegetative plant parts) was 0.72, whereas that of protein-C (MEP) was 0.56. However, MEP and MECHO varied among treatments. MECHO increased with increasing contributions of water-soluble carbohydrates to total pre-anthesis carbohydrate mobilization. MEP decreased with increasing residence time of protein in vegetative biomass. Possible causes for variability of MEP and MECHO are discussed. PMID:10557235

  18. Detection of stored-grain insect infestation in wheat transported in railroad hopper-cars.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mendoza, Joel; Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F; Hagstrum, David W; Throne, James E

    2004-08-01

    Levels of insect infestation, insect spatial distribution, and the relationship between the number of insect-damaged kernels (IDK) and the number of insects present in grain samples in three-hopper railcars transporting wheat from country elevators to a mill were studied. Six of eight sampled railcars were infested with more than two species of insects. The most abundant species collected were the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), with the larval stage of the two species being the most prevalent (>90%). The spatial distributions of these two species within the grain mass were typically clumped in railcar compartments containing >0.4 insect/2.75-kg sample of wheat, and these foci of high-infestation levels varied in compartments within the railcars and among the sampled railcars. There were no significant correlations between IDK and insect density for any of the different stage-specific insect populations that were collected in the grain samples. Mean numbers of immatures and IDK differed among railcars and compartments within railcars, but not among grain depths. Number of insects in the first discharge sample was not correlated with mean numbers of insects in the entire compartment. This indicates that each compartment of a railcar should be sampled to determine level of insect infestation but that sampling at different depths within a compartment is less important.

  19. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue?

    PubMed

    Moroni, Alice V; Dal Bello, Fabio; Arendt, Elke K

    2009-10-01

    The increasing demand for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is raising the need for new approaches in GF bread-making. Sourdough is the foremost fermentation used for baking purposes and it has been proven to be ideal for improving the texture, palatability, aroma, shelf life and nutritional value of wheat and rye breads. These characteristic features derive from the complex metabolic activities of the sourdough-resident lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, e.g. acidification, production of exopolysaccharides, proteolytic- amylolytic- and phytase activity, and production of antimicrobial substances. These effects have been extensively studied and well described for traditional baking, whereas little is known about the role of sourdough in GF baking. Yet, the microbiological and qualitative characterisation of local GF fermented products indicate an overlap with the microbiota of wheat/rye fermentation and suggest that the positive metabolic activities of the sourdough microbiota are still retained during fermentation of GF crops. Thus, the use of sourdough in GF baking may be the new frontier for improving the quality, safety and acceptability of GF bread.

  20. The Relationship of Red and Photographic Infrared Spectral Data to Grain Yield Variation Within a Winter Wheat Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Two band hand-held radiometer data from a winter wheat field, collected on 21 dates during the spring growing season, were correlated within field final grain yield. Significant linear relationships were found between various combinations of the red and photographic infrared radiance data collected and the grain yield. The spectral data explained approximately 64 percent of the within field grain yield variation. This variation in grain yield could not be explained using meteorological data as these were similar for all areas of the wheat field. Most importantly, data collected early in the spring were highly correlated with grain yield, a five week time window existed from stem elongation through antheses in which the spectral data were most highly correlated with grain yield, and manifestations of wheat canopy water stress were readily apparent in the spectral data.

  1. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics: a novel potential method to analyze wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Milena R; Brygo, François; Sadoudi, Abdelkrim; Delaporte, Philippe; Barron, Cécile

    2010-06-23

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been widely used to evaluate the elemental composition (e.g., minerals or metal accumulation) on vegetal tissues. The main objective of this work was to differentiate wheat outer tissues during the grain ablation using LIBS and univariate/multivariate analysis. A high resolution spectrometer and a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 5 ns) was first used in order to easily identify atomic wheat emission lines. Then a pulsed excimer laser ArF (193 nm, 15 ns) and a compact fiber optic spectrometer was used to acquire LIBS spectral data from each pulse. Univariate and multivariate analyses (MW2D, PLS-DA) were carried out to provide more in depth information from the LIBS experiment. The number of pulses needed to ablate wheat tissues was successfully predicted by the supervised pattern recognition procedure. LIBS used in conjunction with multivariate analysis could be an interesting technique for rapid structural analysis of vegetal material.

  3. Genetic dissection of grain yield in bread wheat. II. QTL-by-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, H; Williams, K; Langridge, P; Eagles, H A; Jefferies, S P

    2007-11-01

    The grain yield of wheat is influenced by genotype, environment and genotype-by-environment interaction. A mapping population consisting of 182 doubled haploid progeny derived from a cross between the southern Australian varieties 'Trident' and 'Molineux', was used to characterise the interaction of previously mapped grain yield quantitative trait locus (QTL) with specific environmental covariables. Environments (17) used for grain yield assessment were characterised for latitude, rainfall, various temperature-based variables and stripe rust infection severity. The number of days in the growing season in which the maximum temperature exceeded 30 degrees C was identified as the variable with the largest effect on site mean grain yield. However, the greatest QTL-by-environmental covariable interactions were observed with the severity of stripe rust infection. The rust resistance allele at the Lr37/Sr38/Yr17 locus had the greatest positive effect on grain yield when an environment experienced a combination of high-stripe rust infection and cool days. The grain yield QTL, QGyld.agt-4D, showed a very similar QTL-by-environment covariable interaction pattern to the Lr37/Sr38/Yr17 locus, suggesting a possible role in rust resistance or tolerance. Another putative grain yield per se QTL, QGyld.agt-1B, displayed interactions with the quantity of winter and spring rainfall, the number of days in which the maximum temperature exceeded 30 degrees C, and the number of days with a minimum temperature below 10 degrees C. However, no cross-over interaction effect was observed for this locus, and the 'Molineux' allele remained associated with higher grain yield in response to all environmental covariables. The results presented here confirm that QGyld.agt-1B may be a prime candidate for marker-assisted selection for improved grain yield and wide adaptation in wheat. The benefit of analysing the interaction of QTL and environmental covariables, such as employed here, is discussed.

  4. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  5. A Wheat CCAAT Box-Binding Transcription Factor Increases the Grain Yield of Wheat with Less Fertilizer Input1

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input. PMID:25489021

  6. A wheat CCAAT box-binding transcription factor increases the grain yield of wheat with less fertilizer input.

    PubMed

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-02-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input.

  7. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat grain proteins reveals differential effects of silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes in transgenic lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel wheat lines with altered flour compositions can be used to decipher the roles of specific gluten proteins in flour quality. Grain proteins from transgenic wheat lines in which genes encoding the omega-5 gliadins were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) were analyzed in detail by quantitative 2...

  9. The distal portion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D short arm controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its complete developmental control is not known. We developed back-cross seven (BC7) near isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that possess or lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. This deletion was de...

  10. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions.

  11. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  12. Gastrointestinal morphology and function in turkeys fed diets diluted with whole grain wheat.

    PubMed

    Zdunczyk, Z; Jankowski, J; Mikulski, D; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Sosnowska, E; Juskiewicz, J

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that moderate dilution of turkey diets with whole grain wheat (up to 22.5%) improves gastrointestinal function, thus contributing to sustained growth performance. A total of 900 male turkeys were allocated to 5 dietary treatments: basal diet (BD), BD diluted with low levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat, and BD diluted with high levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat (GH and WH, respectively). At successive stages of the experiment, diets containing 5 and 15%, 7.5 and 17.5%, 10 and 20%, 12.5 and 22.5% of wheat in different physical form were fed to turkeys aged 5 to 8, 9 to 12, 13 to 16, and 17 to 18 wk, divided into subgroups with low and high dietary levels of wheat, respectively. Dietary dilution with different levels of wheat did not reduce the BW gain of turkeys and did not deteriorate feed conversion despite a decrease in the amino acid content of diets. In comparison with BD, diet GH increased the thickness of the muscularis externa and the depth of cecal crypts (P < 0.05), increased Bacteria domain, and decreased Salmonella counts (P < 0.001), increased butyric acid concentrations, and decreased the levels of putrefactive compounds in the cecal digesta (P < 0.001). In comparison with BD, diet WH improved feed efficiency (P = 0.002) and contributed to significant (P < 0.01) changes in the parameters of gastrointestinal function, including lower pH of gizzard digesta, increased depth of jejunal crypts, lower ammonia concentrations, and lower pH of intestinal digesta, increased Bacteria and Bifidobacterium counts, decreased Salmonella counts, and higher concentrations of butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acids. In comparison with diet GH, diet WH enhanced the activity of bacterial α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase as well as α-galactosidase, reduced the activity of β-glucuronidase, and increased total fatty acid concentrations, mainly acetic acid levels, in the cecal digesta

  13. Evaluation of assembly strategies using RNA-seq data associated with grain development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zhu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Wan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data.

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics of microwave-dried wheat distillers grain with solubles.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Maria Rosario P; Tabil, Lope G; Meda, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-prepared samples of wheat distillers grain with solubles with varying condensed distillers solubles (CDS) content were dried under varying microwave power, and microwave convection settings using a domestic microwave oven to examine their effect on the chemical, structural, color, flow, compression, thermal, and frictional properties of the product, which is dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). As CDS level increased, protein and ash content increased, while fat and fiber content decreased in wheat-based DDGS. Fat content was also markedly effected by the microwave oven drying conditions. While CDS level, microwave power or microwave convection setting, and/or their interactions significantly effected a number of physical properties; results indicated that CDS level had a stronger influence compared to the other factors. DDGS samples with high CDS levels were significantly denser, finer but more differentiated in size, less flowable, and less dispersible. These also produced denser and stronger pellets.

  15. Contamination of wheat grain with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in Poland in 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are microorganisms commonly found in cereal products. Pathogens of cereals colonising kernels are responsible, among other things, for deterioration of the technological value of grain. However, the greatest threat is posed by mycotoxins produced by toxin-forming strains of these microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes in wheat grain from Poland in a 4-year cycle. In the period 2006-2009, studies were conducted on the content of fungal metabolites (ergosterol [ERG] and type A and B trichothecenes) and the content of microscopic fungi expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) in wheat grain. A total of 129 grain samples were examined. Analysed wheat samples had similar contents of both the investigated fungal metabolites and levels of microscopic fungi. Contents of microscopic fungi were low. Concentration of ERG, on average, was 2.64 mg/kg, while in colony forming units this value ranged from 10(1) CFU/g to over 10(3) CFU/g. The total concentration of type A and B trichothecenes was also low and within the 4 years of the investigation did not exceed 0.062 mg/kg. Concentration of DON did not exceed 1,250 µg/kg, established as safe in grain for human consumption, in any of the tested samples. For the results collected in the years 2006-2009 and presented in this paper, correlations were calculated between the amount of mycoflora and analysed metabolites in 3 possible combinations: 0.7096 for ERG/total toxin concentration, 0.6086 for ERG/log CFU/g, and 0.4016 for the concentration of total toxins/log CFU/g. Highly significant correlations between the content of trichothecenes and the concentration of ERG indicate that the level of this metabolite is closely related to the content of mycotoxins in grain.

  16. Comparison of cytokinin-binding proteins from wheat and oat grains.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Trcková, Marie; Fox, J. Eugene; Gaudinová, Alena

    2003-04-01

    Cytokinin-binding proteins (CBPs) isolated from mature grains of oat (Avena sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by acid precipitation, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography had similar characteristics, although they differed somewhat in apparent molecular weight of the native protein as determined by gel filtration (109 and 133 kDa, respectively) and subunit size as estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (47 and 55 kDa, respectively). Highly purified oat CBP showed very weak but distinct immunochemical cross-reactivity with anti-wheat CBP IgG, indicating different immunogenic properties of the two CBPs. Nevertheless, both CBPs exhibited very similar binding of different cytokinins and were characterized by high affinity for N6-benzyladenine (BA)-type and by low affinity for zeatin-type cytokinins to both wheat and oat CBPs and by somewhat higher binding activities of oat CBP compared to wheat CBP (Kds for BA: 4.6 x 10-7 M and 6.8 x 10-7 M, respectively). The potential role of CBPs in regulating free BA-type cytokinin levels during cereal grain development and germination is discussed.

  17. A review of the occurrence of Grain softness protein-1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Morris, Craig F; Geng, Hongwei; Beecher, Brian S; Ma, Dongyun

    2013-12-01

    Grain softness protein-1 (Gsp-1) is a small, 495-bp intronless gene found throughout the Triticeae tribe at the distal end of group 5 chromosomes. With the Puroindolines, it constitutes a key component of the Hardness locus. Gsp-1 likely plays little role in grain hardness, but has direct interest due to its utility in phylogeny and its role in arabinogalactan peptides. Further role(s) remain to be identified. In the polyploid wheats, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum, the gene is present in a homoeologous series. Since its discovery, there have been conflicting reports and data as to the number of Gsp-1 genes and the level of sequence polymorphism. Little is known about allelic variation within a species. In the simplest model, a single Gsp-1 gene is present in each wheat and Aegilops tauschii genome. The present review critically re-examines the published and some unpublished data (sequence available in the NCBI nucleotide and MIPS Wheat Genome Databases). A number of testable hypotheses are identified, and include the level of polymorphism that may represent (and define) different Gsp-1 alleles, the existence of a fourth Gsp-1 gene, and the apparent, at times, high level of naturally-occurring or artifactual gene chimeras. In summary, the present data provide firm evidence for at most, three Gsp-1 genes in wheat, although there are numerous data that suggest a more complex model.

  18. Genetic dissection of grain yield and physical grain quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-limited environments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dion; Izanloo, Ali; Reynolds, Matthew; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-07-01

    In the water-limited bread wheat production environment of southern Australia, large advances in grain yield have previously been achieved through the introduction and improved understanding of agronomic traits controlled by major genes, such as the semi-dwarf plant stature and photoperiod insensitivity. However, more recent yield increases have been achieved through incremental genetic advances, of which, breeders and researchers do not fully understand the underlying mechanism(s). A doubled haploid population was utilised, derived from a cross between RAC875, a relatively drought-tolerant breeders' line and Kukri, a locally adapted variety more intolerant of drought. Experiments were performed in 16 environments over four seasons in southern Australia, to physiologically dissect grain yield and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits. Two stage multi-environment trial analysis identified three main clusters of experiments (forming distinctive environments, ENVs), each with a distinctive growing season rainfall patterns. Kernels per square metre were positively correlated with grain yield and influenced by kernels per spikelet, a measure of fertility. QTL analysis detected nine loci for grain yield across these ENVs, individually accounting for between 3 and 18% of genetic variance within their respective ENVs, with the RAC875 allele conferring increased grain yield at seven of these loci. These loci were partially dissected by the detection of co-located QTL for other traits, namely kernels per square metre. While most loci for grain yield have previously been reported, their deployment and effect within local germplasm are now better understood. A number of novel loci can be further exploited to aid breeders' efforts in improving grain yield in the southern Australian environment.

  19. Climatic Warming Increases Winter Wheat Yield but Reduces Grain Nitrogen Concentration in East China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat. PMID:24736557

  20. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yunlu; Zheng, Chengyan; Chen, Jin; Chen, Changqing; Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  1. Differences of Starch Granule Distribution in Grains from Different Spikelet Positions in Winter Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Anling; Li, Yong; Ni, Yingli; Yang, Weibing; Yang, Dongqing; Cui, Zhengyong; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch development is a complex process and is markedly difference by changes in spikelet spatial position. The present study deals with endosperm starch granule distribution and spatial position during filling development. The study was conducted with pure starch isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Jimai20 and Shannong1391, at 7–35 days after anthesis (DAA). The results showed that grain number, spikelet weight and grain weight per spikelet in different spatial position showed parabolic changes. Upper spikelets had highest starch and amylose content followed by basal spikelets, then middle spikelets. The paper also suggested the volume percents of B-type and A-type granule in grain of middle spikelets were remarkably higher and lower than those of basal and upper spikelets, respectively. However, no significant difference occurred in the number percents of the two type granule. The ratio of amylase to amylopectin was positively correlated with the volume proportion of 22.8–42.8 µm, but was negatively related to the volume proportion of <9.9 µm. The results indicated that the formation and distribution of starch granules were affected significantly by spikelet position, and grains at upper and basal spikelet had the potential of increasing grain weight through increasing the volume of B-type granules. PMID:25514032

  2. Fungal volatiles associated with moldy grain in ventilated and non-ventilated bin-stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R N; Tuma, D; Abramson, D; Muir, W E

    1988-01-01

    The fungal odor compounds 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone were monitored in nine experimental bins in Winnipeg, Manitoba containing a hard red spring wheat during the autumn, winter and summer seasons of 1984-85. Quality changes were associated with seed-borne microflora and moisture content in both ventilated and non-ventilated bins containing wheat of 15.6 and 18.2% initial moisture content. All three odor compounds occurred in considerably greater amounts in bulk wheat in non-ventilated than in ventilated bins, particularly in those with wheat having 18.2% moisture content. The presence of these compounds usually coincided with infection of the seeds by the fungi Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus repens DeBarry, A. versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, Penicillium crustosum Thom, P. oxalicum Currie and Thom, P. aurantiogriesum Dierckx, and P. citrinum Thom. High production of all three odor compounds in damp wheat stored in non-ventilated bins was associated with heavy fungal infection of the seeds and reduction in seed germinability. High initial moisture content of the harvested grain accelerated the production of all three fungal volatiles in non-ventilated bins.

  3. Characterization of Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) Genes Involved in the Accumulation of Carotenoid Pigments in Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Lozito, Maria L.; Simeone, Rosanna; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2017-01-01

    Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) enzyme (EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final steps of carotenoid catabolism and it is a key enzyme in the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. AO isoforms are located in the cytosolic compartment of tissues in many plants, where induce the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyze the hydroxylation of some heterocycles. The goal of the present study was to characterize the AO genes involved in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in wheat grain, an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. The cDNAs corresponding to the four AO isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana and five AO isoforms from Brachypodium distachyon were used as query in 454 sequence assemblies data for Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (https://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/blast/blast.php) to obtain the partial or whole orthologous wheat AO sequences. Three wheat isoforms, designated AO1, AO2, and AO3 were located on the chromosome groups 2, 5, and 7, respectively, and mapped on two consensus wheat maps by SNP markers located within the AO gene sequences. To validate the possible relationships between AO3 genes and carotenoid accumulation in wheat, the expression levels of AO-A3 and AO-B3 gene were determined during the kernel maturation stage of two durum wheat cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo, characterized by a low and high carotenoid content, respectively. Different AO-A3 gene expression values were observed between the two cultivars indicating that the AO-A3 allele present in Ciccio was more active in carotenoid degradation. A gene marker was developed and can be used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs. PMID:28596779

  4. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L

    PubMed Central

    Mikola, Leena

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20°C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent. PMID:16664910

  6. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Mikola, L

    1986-07-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20 degrees C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent.

  7. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    PubMed

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h. PMID:26892180

  9. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h.

  10. Relevance for food sciences of quantitative spatially resolved element profile investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    PubMed

    Pongrac, Paula; Kreft, Ivan; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana; Germ, Mateja; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Jeromel, Luka; Eichert, Diane; Budic, Bojan; Pelicon, Primoz

    2013-07-06

    Bulk element concentrations of whole grain and element spatial distributions at the tissue level were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain grown in Zn-enriched soil. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used for bulk analysis, whereas micro-proton-induced X-ray emission was used to resolve the two-dimensional localization of the elements. Soil Zn application did not significantly affect the grain yield, but did significantly increase the grain Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations, and decrease the grain Na, P and Mo concentrations; bulk Mg, S, K, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations remained unchanged. These changes observed in bulk element concentrations are the reflection of tissue-specific variations within the grain, revealing that Zn application to soil can lead to considerable alterations in the element distributions within the grain, which might ultimately influence the quality of the milling fractions. Spatially resolved investigations into the partitioning of the element concentrations identified the tissues with the highest element concentrations, which is of utmost importance for accurate prediction of element losses during the grain milling and polishing processes.

  11. Relevance for food sciences of quantitative spatially resolved element profile investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain

    PubMed Central

    Pongrac, Paula; Kreft, Ivan; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana; Germ, Mateja; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka; Eichert, Diane; Budič, Bojan; Pelicon, Primož

    2013-01-01

    Bulk element concentrations of whole grain and element spatial distributions at the tissue level were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain grown in Zn-enriched soil. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used for bulk analysis, whereas micro-proton-induced X-ray emission was used to resolve the two-dimensional localization of the elements. Soil Zn application did not significantly affect the grain yield, but did significantly increase the grain Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations, and decrease the grain Na, P and Mo concentrations; bulk Mg, S, K, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations remained unchanged. These changes observed in bulk element concentrations are the reflection of tissue-specific variations within the grain, revealing that Zn application to soil can lead to considerable alterations in the element distributions within the grain, which might ultimately influence the quality of the milling fractions. Spatially resolved investigations into the partitioning of the element concentrations identified the tissues with the highest element concentrations, which is of utmost importance for accurate prediction of element losses during the grain milling and polishing processes. PMID:23676898

  12. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  13. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (–3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  14. The Nitrogen Contribution of Different Plant Parts to Wheat Grains: Exploring Genotype, Water, and Nitrogen Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Serret, M. Dolors; Araus, José L.

    2017-01-01

    The flag leaf has been traditionally considered as the main contributor to grain nitrogen. However, during the reproductive stage, other organs besides the flag leaf may supply nitrogen to developing grains. Therefore, the contribution of the ear and other organs to the nitrogen supplied to the growing grains remains unclear. It is important to develop phenotypic tools to assess the relative contribution of different plant parts to the N accumulated in the grains of wheat which may helps to develop genotypes that use N more efficiently. We studied the effect of growing conditions (different levels of water and nitrogen in the field) on the nitrogen contribution of the spike and different vegetative organs of the plant to the grains. The natural abundance of δ15N and total N content in the flag blade, peduncle, whole spike, glumes and awns were compared to the δ15N and total N in mature grains to trace the origin of nitrogen redistribution to the grains. The δ15N and total N content of the different plant parts correlated positively with the δ15N and total N content of mature grains suggesting that all organs may contribute a portion of their N content to the grains. The potential contribution of the flag blade to grain N increased (by 46%) as the growing conditions improved, whereas the potential contribution of the glumes plus awns and the peduncle increased (46 and 31%, respectively) as water and nitrogen stress increased. In general, potential contribution of the ear providing N to growing grains was similar (42%) than that of the vegetative parts of the plants (30–40%), regardless of the growing conditions. Thus, the potential ear N content could be a positive trait for plant phenotyping, especially under water and nitrogen limiting conditions. In that sense, genotypic variability existed at least between old (tall) and modern (semidwarf) cultivars, with the ear from modern genotypes exhibiting less relative contribution to the total grain N. The combined

  15. The Nitrogen Contribution of Different Plant Parts to Wheat Grains: Exploring Genotype, Water, and Nitrogen Effects.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Serret, M Dolors; Araus, José L

    2016-01-01

    The flag leaf has been traditionally considered as the main contributor to grain nitrogen. However, during the reproductive stage, other organs besides the flag leaf may supply nitrogen to developing grains. Therefore, the contribution of the ear and other organs to the nitrogen supplied to the growing grains remains unclear. It is important to develop phenotypic tools to assess the relative contribution of different plant parts to the N accumulated in the grains of wheat which may helps to develop genotypes that use N more efficiently. We studied the effect of growing conditions (different levels of water and nitrogen in the field) on the nitrogen contribution of the spike and different vegetative organs of the plant to the grains. The natural abundance of δ(15)N and total N content in the flag blade, peduncle, whole spike, glumes and awns were compared to the δ(15)N and total N in mature grains to trace the origin of nitrogen redistribution to the grains. The δ(15)N and total N content of the different plant parts correlated positively with the δ(15)N and total N content of mature grains suggesting that all organs may contribute a portion of their N content to the grains. The potential contribution of the flag blade to grain N increased (by 46%) as the growing conditions improved, whereas the potential contribution of the glumes plus awns and the peduncle increased (46 and 31%, respectively) as water and nitrogen stress increased. In general, potential contribution of the ear providing N to growing grains was similar (42%) than that of the vegetative parts of the plants (30-40%), regardless of the growing conditions. Thus, the potential ear N content could be a positive trait for plant phenotyping, especially under water and nitrogen limiting conditions. In that sense, genotypic variability existed at least between old (tall) and modern (semidwarf) cultivars, with the ear from modern genotypes exhibiting less relative contribution to the total grain N. The

  16. [Effects of water-nitrogen interaction on the contents and components of protein and starch in wheat grains].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xue-Li; Wang, Chen-Yang; Guo, Tian-Cai; Zhu, Yun-Ji; Ma, Dong-Yun; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2008-02-01

    With wheat cultivars Yumai 34 (strong-gluten wheat) and Yumai 50 (weak-gluten wheat) as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of three irrigation treatments (irrigation at jointing stage, at jointing and grain-filling stages, and at jointing, grain-filling, and pre-maturing stages), three nitrogen application rates (0, 150, and 270 kg x hm(-2)), and their combinations on the contents and components of protein and starch in wheat grains. The results showed that for strong-gluten wheat cultivar Yumai 34, applying 270 kg x hm(-2) of N increased the total content of protein and the contents of albumin, gliadin and glutelin, and enhanced the glutelin/gliadin ratio. This application rate of nitrogen also increased the total content of starch and the content of amylopectin, and decreased the amylose/amylopetin ratio. For weak-gluten wheat cultivar Yumai 50, applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of N increased the contents of albumin and gliadin, and decreased the contents of globulin and glutelin and the glutelin/gliadin ratio. The amylopectin and starch contents also increased when the N application rate was 150 kg x hm(-2). Non-N fertilization or applying 270 kg x hm(-2) of N decreased the accumulation of protein and starch, and resulted in a decrease of grain yield. Among the irrigation treatments, irrigation at jointing and grain-filling stages promoted the accumulation of protein and starch in grains and increased the grain yield, while the other two treatments were unbeneficial to the accumulation of protein and starch and decreased the grain yield. Applying 270 kg x hm(-2) and 150 kg x hm(-2) of N combined with irrigation at jointing and grain-filling stages was the ideal management regime for the high yield and good quality of strong- and weak-gluten wheat cultivars, respectively.

  17. Genome-wide association for grain morphology in synthetic hexaploid wheats using digital imaging analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grain size and shape greatly influence grain weight which ultimately enhances grain yield in wheat. Digital imaging (DI) based phenomic characterization can capture the three dimensional variation in grain size and shape than has hitherto been possible. In this study, we report the results from using digital imaging of grain size and shape to understand the relationship among different components of this trait, their contribution to enhance grain weight, and to identify genomic regions (QTLs) controlling grain morphology using genome wide association mapping with high density diversity array technology (DArT) and allele-specific markers. Results Significant positive correlations were observed between grain weight and grain size measurements such as grain length (r = 0.43), width, thickness (r = 0.64) and factor from density (FFD) (r = 0.69). A total of 231 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) were grouped into five different sub-clusters by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked DArT markers. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was observed among DArT loci > 10 cM distance and approximately 28% marker pairs were in significant LD. In total, 197 loci over 60 chromosomal regions and 79 loci over 31 chromosomal regions were associated with grain morphology by genome wide analysis using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches, respectively. They were mainly distributed on homoeologous group 2, 3, 6 and 7 chromosomes. Twenty eight marker-trait associations (MTAs) on the D genome chromosomes 2D, 3D and 6D may carry novel alleles with potential to enhance grain weight due to the use of untapped wild accessions of Aegilops tauschii. Statistical simulations showed that favorable alleles for thousand kernel weight (TKW), grain length, width and thickness have additive genetic effects. Allelic variations for known genes controlling grain size and weight, viz. TaCwi-2A, TaSus-2B, TaCKX6-3D and TaGw2-6A, were also associated

  18. Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Gallaher, Daniel D; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Marquart, Len

    2009-12-01

    This study compared the effect of whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat and refined rice-based foods on energy intake and satiety. Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast of hot cereal and a snack mix containing either barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed by an ad libitum smorgasbord lunch using a crossover design. Energy intake was measured at the lunch using plate waste. Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, amount of food consumed, and thirst were assessed using a modified Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, snack and lunch. Energy intake at lunch did not differ among products. There were no differences in the area under the time curve in modified VAS scores among products for any parameter. However, subjects reported significantly less hunger before lunch compared to their hunger before breakfast when consuming the barley, but there was no significant reduction in hunger before lunch after consumption of wheat or rice. In conclusion, intake of a whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat, or refined rice breakfast and snack did not decrease energy intake acutely, but consumption of whole grain high-fiber barley foods significantly decreased hunger whereas whole wheat and refined rice foods did not.

  19. Development and evaluation of a fluidized bed system for wheat grain disinfection.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, B; Wiesenborn, D; Dhillon, H; Wolf-Hall, C

    2010-08-01

    Durum wheat grain from the field is naturally contaminated with bacteria, yeast, and mold. The reduction in aerobic plate count (APC) and yeast and mold count (YMC) is often necessary before processing wheat. Gaseous ozone, ozonated water, and acetic acid solution are nontraditional antimicrobial agents for grains and are safe for humans and the environment. Better disinfection may be possible by applying antimicrobial agents to grain in a fluidized state. Fluidization increases the exposure of grain surfaces, resulting in uniform and quick contact of grain with antimicrobial agents. Therefore, a fluidized bed was developed with automated spraying system (to spray treatment waters), and a port for gaseous ozone injection. The pressures and velocities within the fluidized bed system were measured to characterize the system. The treatments used on fluidized grain were: distilled water (control), gaseous ozone (6 ppm), ozonated water (23 mg/L), gaseous ozone + ozonated water (6 ppm, 23 mg/L), acetic acid solution (0.5%), acetic acid + ozonated water (0.5%, 26 mg/L), and gaseous ozone + acetic acid + ozonated water (6 ppm, 0.5%, 26 mg/L). The last of these treatments was most effective with 1.7 and 3.3 log reduction in APC and YMC, respectively. This combined treatment can be used to replace the chlorinated water that industry uses during tempering of grain. Ozonated water alone resulted in a 0.3 log reduction in both APC and YMC. Gaseous ozone alone did not cause a significant reduction in APC and YMC.

  20. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    PubMed

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  1. Anthesis date mainly explained correlations between post-anthesis leaf senescence, grain yield, and grain protein concentration in a winter wheat population segregating for flowering time QTLs.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Matthieu; Jourdan, Matthieu; Allard, Vincent; Martre, Pierre; Perretant, Marie Reine; Ravel, Catherine; Heumez, Emmanuel; Orford, Simon; Snape, John; Griffiths, Simon; Gaju, Oorbessy; Foulkes, John; Le Gouis, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    The genetic variability of the duration of leaf senescence during grain filling has been shown to affect both carbon and nitrogen acquisition. In particular, maintaining green leaves during grain filling possibly leads to increased grain yield, but its associated effect on grain protein concentration has not been studied. The aim of this study was to dissect the genetic factors contributing to correlations observed at the phenotypic level between leaf senescence during grain filling, grain protein concentration, and grain yield in winter wheat. With this aim in view, an analysis of quantitative trait locus (QTL) co-locations for these traits was carried out on a doubled haploid mapping population grown in a large multienvironment trial network. Pleiotropic QTLs affecting leaf senescence and grain yield and/or grain protein concentration were identified on chromosomes 2D, 2A, and 7D. These were associated with QTLs for anthesis date, showing that the phenotypic correlations with leaf senescence were mainly explained by flowering time in this wheat population. Study of the allelic effects of these pleiotropic QTLs showed that delaying leaf senescence was associated with increased grain yield or grain protein concentration depending on the environments considered. It is proposed that this differential effect of delaying leaf senescence on grain yield and grain protein concentration might be related to the nitrogen availability during the post-anthesis period. It is concluded that the benefit of using leaf senescence as a selection criterion to improve grain protein concentration in wheat cultivars may be limited and would largely depend on the targeted environments, particularly on their nitrogen availability during the post-anthesis period.

  2. Effect of storage and insect infestation on the mineral and vitamin contents of wheat grain and flour.

    PubMed

    Keskin, S; Ozkaya, H

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how storage and Sitophilus granarius L. infestation affects mineral and vitamin (thiamin and riboflavin) contents of wheat grain and flour obtained from the wheat. Wheat samples were infested with nonsexed S. granarius at a rate of two adults per kilogram, and stored for 6 mo at 30 +/- 1 degrees C and 70 +/- 5% relative humidity. Every 30 d, samples of wheat were collected and evaluated for insect population, mineral, thiamin, and riboflavin contents. Flour milled from these wheat samples was also evaluated for mineral, thiamin, and riboflavin contents. None of the analyses performed on the uninfested wheat and flour samples showed any noticeable change during the storage period. The insect population of the infested wheat samples increased during the storage period. The ratio of the mineral contents to dry matter significantly increased in the infested wheat and flour samples during the infestation period, whereas thiamin and riboflavin contents considerably decreased. The feeding habits of S. granarius and the distribution of minerals and vitamins in the wheat grain caused the changes observed in the levels of these compounds. The effects of infestation were greatest in the latter stages, during which the insect population increased greatly.

  3. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  4. A splice acceptor site mutation in TaGW2-A1 increases thousand grain weight in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat through wider and longer grains.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, James; Scott, Peter; Brinton, Jemima; Mestre, Teresa C; Bush, Max; Del Blanco, Alicia; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Uauy, Cristobal

    2016-06-01

    Across 13 experiments the gw2 - A1 mutant allele shifts grain size distribution consistently across all grains significantly increasing grain weight (6.6 %), width (2.8 %) and length (2.1 %) in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. There is an urgent need to identify, understand and incorporate alleles that benefit yield in polyploid wheat. The rice OsGW2 gene functions as a negative regulator of grain weight and width and is homologous to the wheat TaGW2 gene. Previously it was shown that transcript levels of the A-genome homoeologue, TaGW2-A1, are negatively associated with grain width in hexaploid wheat. In this study we screened the tetraploid Kronos TILLING population to identify mutants in TaGW2-A1. We identified a G to A transition in the splice acceptor site of exon 5 which leads to mis-splicing in TaGW2-A1. We backcrossed the mutant allele into tetraploid and hexaploid wheat and generated a series of backcross derived isogenic lines which were evaluated in glasshouse and field conditions. Across 13 experiments the GW2-A1 mutant allele significantly increased thousand grain weight (6.6 %), grain width (2.8 %) and grain length (2.1 %) in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat compared to the wild type allele. In hexaploid wheat, this led to an increase in spike yield since no differences were detected for spikelet or grain number between isogenic lines. The increase in grain width and length was consistent across grains of different sizes, suggesting that the effect of the mutation is stable across the ear and within spikelets. Differences in carpel size and weight between alleles were identified as early as 5 days before anthesis, suggesting that TaGW2-A1 acts on maternal tissue before anthesis to restrict seed size. A single nucleotide polymorphism marker was developed to aid the deployment of the mutant allele into breeding programmes.

  5. Sourdough-Based Biotechnologies for the Production of Gluten-Free Foods

    PubMed Central

    Nionelli, Luana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker’s yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several effects on organoleptic, technological, nutritional, and functional features of cereal-based products. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of endogenous enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, carried out by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which positively affect the overall quality of the baked goods. In particular, the hydrolysis of native proteins of the cereal flours may improve the functional features of baked goods. The wheat flour processed with fungal proteases and selected lactic acid bacteria was demonstrated to be safe for coeliac patients. This review article focuses on the biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to potentially counteract the adverse reactions to gluten, and the risk of gluten contamination. PMID:28231160

  6. Sourdough-Based Biotechnologies for the Production of Gluten-Free Foods.

    PubMed

    Nionelli, Luana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-09-20

    Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker's yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several effects on organoleptic, technological, nutritional, and functional features of cereal-based products. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of endogenous enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, carried out by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which positively affect the overall quality of the baked goods. In particular, the hydrolysis of native proteins of the cereal flours may improve the functional features of baked goods. The wheat flour processed with fungal proteases and selected lactic acid bacteria was demonstrated to be safe for coeliac patients. This review article focuses on the biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to potentially counteract the adverse reactions to gluten, and the risk of gluten contamination.

  7. Genome-wide association analysis on pre-harvest sprouting resistance and grain color in U.S. winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat can cause substantial reduction in grain yield and end-use quality. Grain color (GC) together with other components affect PHS resistance. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been reported for PHS resistance, among which one gene responsible for PHS resis...

  8. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  9. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  10. Effect of High Temperature on Albumin and Globulin Accumulation in the Endosperm Proteome of the Developing Wheat Grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of high temperature during grain fill on the accumulation of KCl-soluble/methanol-insoluble albumins and globulins was investigated in the endosperm of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. cv. Butte 86) grain. Plants were grown under a moderate (24°C/17°C, day/night) or a high temperat...

  11. Iron and zinc concentrations in grain and flour of winter wheat as affected by foliar application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqiang; Shi, Rongli; Rezaul, Karim Md; Zhang, Fusuo; Zou, Chunqin

    2010-12-08

    Human deficiencies of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are worldwide problems. Biofortification of wheat could reduce Fe and Zn deficiencies in societies that depend on wheat consumption. This study investigated the effects of foliar application of Fe with or without Zn on the concentrations of Fe and Zn in grain and especially in flour of three wheat cultivars. On average, grain Fe concentration was increased significantly from 29.5 mg kg(-1) in the control to 37.8, 35.9, or 34.9 mg kg(-1) by application of FeSO4, ferric citrate plus ZnSO4, or ferric citrate, respectively. As expected, grain Zn concentration was increased from 29.0 mg kg(-1) in the control to 45.7 or 39.6 mg kg(-1) by application of ferric citrate plus ZnSO4 or a complex of micronutrients. Although the Fe and Zn concentrations in flour were inherently lower than in bran and shorts made by experimental mill, the concentrations in flour were simultaneously increased from 10.4 to 12.4 mg kg(-1) for Fe and from 11.8 to 17.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn by application of ferric citrate plus ZnSO4. Importantly, Fe was peripherally localized within grain fractions and strictly limited to transport to endosperm, making it more difficult to increase the quantity of Fe in flour products by foliar Fe application, but the situation with Zn is promising because Zn is more readily transported to the endosperm than Fe. The current study increases the understanding of agronomic biofortification.

  12. Effects of high NH+4 on K+ uptake, culm mechanical strength and grain filling in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingan; Sun, Mingze; Wang, Fahong; Liu, Jia; Feng, Bo; Si, Jisheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Shengdong; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that a high external NH+4 concentration depresses many processes in plant development, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. To determine whether the negative effects of high levels of NH+4 are related to competitive cation uptake, wheat was grown in a field with moderate (18 g N m−2) and high (30 g N m−2) supplies of NH+4 in the presence or absence of additional K+ (6 g K2O m−2) to examine culm mechanical strength, the main components of the vascular bundle, nitrogen (N) remobilization and the grain-filling rate. The results indicated that an excessive supply of NH+4 significantly decreased culm mechanical strength, the cellulose and lignin contents of vascular bundles, the N remobilization efficiency (NRE) and the grain-filling rate compared with a moderate level of NH+4. The additional provision of K+ considerably alleviated these negative effects of high NH+4, resulting in a 19.41–26.95% increase in culm mechanical strength during grain filling and a 34.59% increase in the NRE. An assay using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) showed that the net rate of transmembrane K+ influx decreased by 84.62%, and measurements using flame photometry demonstrated that the K+ content decreased by 36.13% in wheat plants subjected to high NH+4. This study indicates that the effects of high NH+4 on culm mechanical strength, cellulose and lignin contents, the NRE and the grain-filling rate are probably associated with inhibition of K+ uptake in wheat. PMID:25566278

  13. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R. N.; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  14. Transgenic expression of phytase in wheat endosperm increases bioavailability of iron and zinc in grains.

    PubMed

    Abid, Nabeela; Khatoon, Asia; Maqbool, Asma; Irfan, Muhammad; Bashir, Aftab; Asif, Irsa; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-02-01

    Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds. The minimum phytic acid content was observed in chapatti (Asian bread) as compared to flour and dough. The transcript profiling of phyA mRNA indicated twofold to ninefold higher expression as compared to non transgenic controls. There was no significant difference in grain nutrient composition of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. In vitro bioavailability assay for iron and zinc in dough and chapatti of transgenic lines revealed a significant increase in iron and zinc contents. The development of nutritionally enhanced cereals is a step forward to combat nutrition deficiency for iron and zinc in malnourished human population, especially women and children.

  15. Efficacy of ozone fumigation against the major grain pests in stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, E L; Opit, G P; Hardin, J; Jones, C L; Payton, M E; Beeby, R L

    2011-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted in steel bins containing 13,600 kg of hard red winter wheat, Triiticum aestivum L. One bin was treated with ozone and the second bin served as a control. Stored grain insects were placed in bins for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-d exposure periods in sampling tubes to test ozone concentrations of 0, 25, 50, and 70 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Ozone treatments on eggs and larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) were not effective, but pupae were more susceptible. Sitophilus oryzae (L.) adults were the most susceptible species with 100% mortality reached after 2 d in all ozone treatments. However, some progeny were produced at all concentrations and exposure periods. Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults had 100% mortality only after 4 d at 50 or 70 ppmv. No T. castaneum progeny were produced after 2-4 d at 70 ppmv. For Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), 100% mortality was never achieved and progeny were produced at all ozone concentrations. Laboratory experiments, testing the effectiveness of ozone in controlling psocids, were conducted in two polyvinyl chloride cylinders each containing 55 kg of hard red winter wheat. Ozone treatment at a concentration of 70 ppmv was highly effective against adult female Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and Liposcelis paeta Pearman after only 1 d of exposure. However, it was not effective against eggs of both species at all exposure periods. Ozonation has potential for the control of some stored grain insect pests on wheat.

  16. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes.

  17. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  18. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    PubMed

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A kinetic and microautoradiographic study of sup 14 C-sucrose translocation into developing wheat grains

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Wang; Fisher, D.B. )

    1991-05-01

    The kinetics of {sup 14}C-photosynthate import by developing wheat grains was followed after pulse-labeling the flag leaf with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Samples were collected from four successive points along the transport pathway to and within the grain: exuding aphid stylets on the peduncle, exuding grain pedicels, the grain crease tissues, and the liquid contents of the endosperm cavity. In addition, microautoradiographs were prepared of the grain crease tissues during movement of the {sup 14}C pulse into the grain. At all times, sucrose accounted for 93 to 97% of the total {sup 14}C present at all four sampling sites. The main features of the {sup 14}C kinetics could be accounted for by a simple compartmental model consisting of sucrose pools in series. Microautoradiographs of the crease tissues showed fairly uniform labeling of vascular parenchyma at all times, with a sharp gradient in labeling across the chalaza to the nucellus. Thus the principal resistance to post-phloem solute transport through the maternal tissues appears to be in the symplastic pathway across the chalaza.

  20. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  1. Water movement into dormant and non-dormant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains

    PubMed Central

    Rathjen, Judith R.; Strounina, Ekaterina V.; Mares, Daryl J.

    2009-01-01

    The movement of water into harvest-ripe grains of dormant and non-dormant genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated using Magnetic Resonance Micro-Imaging (MRMI). Images of virtual sections, both longitudinal and transverse, throughout the grain were collected at intervals after the start of imbibition and used to reconstruct a picture of water location within the different grain tissues and changes over time. The observations were supplemented by the weighing measurements of water content and imbibition of grains in water containing I2/KI which stains starch and lipid, thereby acting as a marker for water. In closely related genotypes, with either a dormant or a non-dormant phenotype, neither the rate of increase in water content nor the pattern of water distribution within the grain was significantly different until 18 h, when germination became apparent in the non-dormant genotype. Water entered the embryo and scutellum during the very early stages of imbibition through the micropyle and by 2 h water was clearly evident in the micropyle channel. After 12 h of imbibition, embryo structures such as the coleoptile and radicle were clearly distinguished. Although water accumulated between the inner (seed coat) and outer (pericarp) layers of the coat surrounding the grain, there was no evidence for movement of water directly across the coat and into the underlying starchy endosperm. PMID:19386615

  2. The relationship between grain hardness, dough mixing parameters and bread-making quality in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Lugowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index-PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index.

  3. Elemental mapping of biofortified wheat grains using micro X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, I.; Pataco, I. M.; Mourinho, M. P.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Pessoa, M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.; Santos, J. P.; Guerra, M.

    2016-06-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence has been used to obtain elemental maps of biofortified wheat grains. Two varieties of wheat were used in the study, Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum desf. Two treatments, with different nutrient concentration, were applied to the plants during the whole plant growth cycle. From the obtained elemental maps it was possible to extract information regarding the plant's physiological processes under the biofortification procedures. Both macro and micronutrients were mapped, providing useful insight into the posterior food processing mechanisms of this biofortified staple food. We have also shown that these kind of studies can now be performed with laboratory benchtop apparatus, rather than using synchrotron radiation, increasing the overall attractiveness of micro X-ray fluorescence in the study of highly heterogeneous biological samples.

  4. [Effects of field border length for irrigation on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of wheat].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shang-Yu; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong-Li; Shi, Yu

    2012-09-01

    In the wheat growth seasons of 2009 -2010 and 2010-2011, six border lengths of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 m were installed in a wheat field to study the effects of different border lengths for irrigation on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of wheat. The results showed that with the increasing border length from 10 to 80 m, the irrigation amount and the proportion of irrigation amount to total water consumption amount, the water content in 0-200 cm soil layers and the soil water supply capacity at anthesis stage, as well as the wheat grain yield and water use efficiency increased, while the soil water consumption amount and the water consumption amount of wheat from jointing to anthesis stages as well as the total water consumption amount decreased. At the border length of <80 m, the irrigation amount was smaller, and the water content in upper soil layers was lower, as compared with those at the border length of 80 m, which led to the wheat to absorb more water from deeper soil layers, and thus, the total water consumption increased. At the border length of 100 m, the irrigation amount, soil water consumption amount, and total water consumption amount all increased, and, due to the excessive irrigation amount and the uneven distribution of irrigation water when irrigated once, the 1000-grain mass, grain yield, and water use efficiency decreased significantly, which was not conductive to the water-saving and high-yield cultivation.

  5. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm: I. Grain, milling, and soft wheat quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat kernel texture is used in part to define U.S. wheat market class due to its importance in end-use quality and utilization. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) has lower demand and fewer culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture, which precl...

  6. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops.

    PubMed

    Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat.

  7. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    PubMed Central

    Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M.; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J.; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat. PMID:24600464

  8. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-06-17

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario.

  9. Wheat ear carbon assimilation and nitrogen remobilization contribute significantly to grain yield.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bangwei; Serret, Maria Dolores; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Bort Pie, Jordi; Araus, José Luis; Aranjuelo, Iker; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro

    2016-11-01

    The role of wheat ears as a source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in the grain filling process has barely been studied. To resolve this question, five wheat genotypes were labeled with (15) N-enriched nutrient solution. N remobilization and absorption were estimated via the nitrogen isotope composition of total organic matter and Rubisco. Gas exchange analyses showed that ear photosynthesis contributed substantially to grain filling in spite of the great loss of C due to respiration. Of the total kernel N, 64.7% was derived from the N acquired between sowing and anthesis, while the remaining 35.3% was derived from the N acquired between anthesis and maturity. In addition, 1.87 times more N was remobilized to the developing kernel from the ear than from the flag leaf. The higher yielding genotypes showed an increased N remobilization to the kernel compared to the lower yielding genotypes. In addition, the higher yielding genotypes remobilized more N from the ears to the kernel than the lower yielding genotypes, while the lower yielding genotypes remobilized more N from the flag leaf to the kernel. Therefore, the ears contribute significantly toward fulfilling C and N demands during grain filling.

  10. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones

    PubMed Central

    Saint Pierre, C.; Burgueño, J.; Crossa, J.; Fuentes Dávila, G.; Figueroa López, P.; Solís Moya, E.; Ireta Moreno, J.; Hernández Muela, V. M.; Zamora Villa, V. M.; Vikram, P.; Mathews, K.; Sansaloni, C.; Sehgal, D.; Jarquin, D.; Wenzl, P.; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines’ performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha−1 across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  11. Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir P; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Arčon, Iztok; Vavpetič, Primož; Jeromel, Luka; Pelicon, Primož; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops.

  12. Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

  13. Wheat genome specific granule-bound starch synthase I differentially influence grain starch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Geetika; Jaiswal, Sarita; Hucl, Pierre; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-12-19

    Wheat grain development is a complex process and is characterized by changes in physicochemical and structural properties of starch. The present study deals with endosperm starch physicochemical properties and structure during development in different granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) null also known as waxy (Wx) genotypes. The study was conducted with pure starch isolated from wheat grains at 3-30 days post anthesis (DPA), at 3-day intervals. Amylose concentration increased throughout grain development in non-waxy (7.2-30.5%) and partial waxy genotypes (6.0-26.8%). Completely waxy genotype showed 7.0% amylose at 3 and 6 DPA, which declined during development and reached non-detectable quantities by 30 DPA. Amylopectin structure had a higher content of short chains at 3 DPA, which decreased continuously until 12 DPA, after which there were only minor changes in amylopectin chain length distribution. Similarly, the average degree of polymerization (DP) increased from 3 DPA (12.3) to 12 DPA (15.0), and then did not differ significantly up to 30 DPA (15.0). This suggests the formation of basic amylopectin architecture in wheat by 12 DPA. Wx-B and Wx-D affected amylopectin short chains mostly of DP 6-8 at 3 and 6 DPA. Wx-A affected the same fraction of chains at 9 and 12 DPA, and Wx-D affected DP 18-25 chains from 18 to 30 DPA, suggesting differential effect of waxy isoproteins on amylopectin structure formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods.

  15. The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

    2004-03-10

    Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties.

  16. Genetic Nature of Elemental Contents in Wheat Grains and Its Genomic Prediction: Toward the Effective Use of Wheat Landraces from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Manickavelu, Alagu; Hattori, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Shuhei; Yoshimura, Kazusa; Kondou, Youichi; Onogi, Akio; Matsui, Minami; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ban, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Profiling elemental contents in wheat grains and clarifying the underlying genetic systems are important for the breeding of biofortified crops. Our objective was to evaluate the genetic potential of 269 Afghan wheat landraces for increasing elemental contents in wheat cultivars. The contents of three major (Mg, K, and P) and three minor (Mn, Fe, and Zn) elements in wheat grains were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Large variations in elemental contents were observed among landraces. Marker-based heritability estimates were low to moderate, suggesting that the elemental contents are complex quantitative traits. Genetic correlations between two locations (Japan and Afghanistan) and among the six elements were estimated using a multi-response Bayesian linear mixed model. Low-to-moderate genetic correlations were observed among major elements and among minor elements respectively, but not between major and minor elements. A single-response genome-wide association study detected only one significant marker, which was associated with Zn, suggesting it will be difficult to increase the elemental contents of wheat by conventional marker-assisted selection. Genomic predictions for major elemental contents were moderately or highly accurate, whereas those for minor elements were mostly low or moderate. Our results indicate genomic selection may be useful for the genetic improvement of elemental contents in wheat.

  17. Genetic Nature of Elemental Contents in Wheat Grains and Its Genomic Prediction: Toward the Effective Use of Wheat Landraces from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Shuhei; Yoshimura, Kazusa; Kondou, Youichi; Onogi, Akio; Matsui, Minami; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ban, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Profiling elemental contents in wheat grains and clarifying the underlying genetic systems are important for the breeding of biofortified crops. Our objective was to evaluate the genetic potential of 269 Afghan wheat landraces for increasing elemental contents in wheat cultivars. The contents of three major (Mg, K, and P) and three minor (Mn, Fe, and Zn) elements in wheat grains were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Large variations in elemental contents were observed among landraces. Marker-based heritability estimates were low to moderate, suggesting that the elemental contents are complex quantitative traits. Genetic correlations between two locations (Japan and Afghanistan) and among the six elements were estimated using a multi-response Bayesian linear mixed model. Low-to-moderate genetic correlations were observed among major elements and among minor elements respectively, but not between major and minor elements. A single-response genome-wide association study detected only one significant marker, which was associated with Zn, suggesting it will be difficult to increase the elemental contents of wheat by conventional marker-assisted selection. Genomic predictions for major elemental contents were moderately or highly accurate, whereas those for minor elements were mostly low or moderate. Our results indicate genomic selection may be useful for the genetic improvement of elemental contents in wheat. PMID:28072876

  18. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaiguo; Xu, Xinpeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000–2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R’s nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site

  19. Impact of improved information on the structure of world grain trade. [wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to be derived by the United States from improvements in global grain crop forecasting capability are discussed. The improvements in forecasting accuracy, which are a result of the use of satellite technology in conjunction with existing ground based estimating procedures are described. The degree of forecasting accuracy to be obtained from satellite technology is also examined. Specific emphasis is placed on wheat production in seven countries/regions: the United States; Canada; Argentina; Australia; Western Europe; the USSR; and all other countries in a group.

  20. Mycotoxins in durum wheat grain: hygienic-health quality of sicilian production.

    PubMed

    Gallo, G; Lo Bianco, M; Bognanni, R; Saimbene, G

    2008-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin concentrations in Sicilian durum wheat were determined through ELISA tests. The results highlighted the safety of the grain samples at harvest because deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin levels did not exceed European legal limits. With regard to aflatoxins, reliability of the ELISA test was evaluated, comparing it with HPLC analyses. The comparison of HPLC and ELISA data showed a tendency to overestimate aflatoxin concentrations with respect to chromatographic determinations. The usefulness of ELISA was confirmed as a rapid screening method; however, when contamination levels are close to legal limits, chromatographic analyses are necessary to quantify aflatoxins with greater accuracy and specificity.

  1. Suppression of glucan, water dikinase in the endosperm alters wheat grain properties, germination and coleoptile growth.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Andrew F; Newberry, Marcus; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Pritchard, Jenifer; Gubler, Frank; Howitt, Crispin A; Pogson, Barry J; Morell, Matthew K; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Starch phosphate ester content is known to alter the physicochemical properties of starch, including its susceptibility to degradation. Previous work producing wheat (Triticum aestivum) with down-regulated glucan, water dikinase, the primary gene responsible for addition of phosphate groups to starch, in a grain-specific manner found unexpected phenotypic alteration in grain and growth. Here, we report on further characterization of these lines focussing on mature grain and early growth. We find that coleoptile length has been increased in these transgenic lines independently of grain size increases. No changes in starch degradation rates during germination could be identified, or any major alteration in soluble sugar levels that may explain the coleoptile growth modification. We identify some alteration in hormones in the tissues in question. Mature grain size is examined, as is Hardness Index and starch conformation. We find no evidence that the increased growth of coleoptiles in these lines is connected to starch conformation or degradation or soluble sugar content and suggest these findings provide a novel means of increasing coleoptile growth and early seedling establishment in cereal crop species.

  2. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  3. Influence of sourdough on in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-03-01

    Gluten-free flours (buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff) were fermented using obligate heterofermentative strain Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) and facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp). Starch hydrolysis of breads with and without sourdough (controls) was analyzed in vitro using enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis (10-11 kDa). Hydrolysis indices as well as predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were calculated from reducing sugars released into the dialysate. Amounts of resistant starch (RS; % of total starch) were determined by enzymatic digestion. Upon sourdough addition, RS significantly decreased in buckwheat (Wc 1.28%, Lp 1.44%) and teff sourdough breads (Wc 0.87%, Lp 0.98%) in comparison to their controls (2.01% and 1.92%, respectively). However, no correlation was found with starch hydrolysis. Predicted GIs were reduced upon sourdough addition in wheat (ctrl 100; Wc 85; Lp 76) in comparison to control breads. This was not the case in most gluten-free breads with the exception of sorghum (ctrl 72; Lp 69) and teff sourdough breads (ctrl 74; Lp 68). In contrast, increased pGIs were found in quinoa (ctrl 95; Wc 106; Lp 103) and buckwheat sourdough breads (ctrl 80; Wc 89; Lp 86).

  4. Effects of favorable alleles for water-soluble carbohydrates at grain filling on grain weight under drought and heat stresses in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Li, Weiyu; Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs.

  5. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  6. Swedish spring wheat varieties with the rare high grain protein allele of NAM-B1 differ in leaf senescence and grain mineral content.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes.

  7. Tissue specific transcript profiling of wheat phosphate transporter genes and its association with phosphate allocation in grains

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Vishnu; Kaur, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Sipla; Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Kaur, Jaspreet; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Approaches enabling efficient phosphorus utilization in crops are of great importance. In cereal crop like wheat, utilization of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is high and mature grains are the major sink for Pi utilization and storage. Research that addresses the importance of the Pi homeostasis in developing grains is limited. In an attempt to understand the Pi homeostasis in developing wheat grains, we identified twelve new phosphate transporters (PHT), these are phyologentically well distributed along with the members reported from Arabidopsis and rice. Enhanced expression of PHT1-subfamily genes was observed in roots subjected to the Pi starvation suggesting their active role in Pi homeostasis. Differential expression patterns of all the PHT genes during grain filling stages suggested their importance in the filial tissues. Additionally, high accumulation of Pi and total P in aleurone correlates well with the expression of TaPHTs and other phosphate starvation related genes. Tissue specific transcript accumulation of TaPHT1.1, TaPHT1.2, TaPHT1.4 in aleurone; TaPHT3.1 in embryo and TaPHT4.2 in the endosperm was observed. Furthermore, their transcript abundance was affected in low phytate wheat grains. Altogether, this study helps in expanding the knowledge and prioritize the candidate wheat Pi-transporters to modulate the Pi homeostasis in cereal grains. PMID:27995999

  8. Combined meta-genomics analyses unravel candidate genes for the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Murat, Florent; Abrouk, Mickael; Pont, Caroline; Confolent, Carole; Oury, François Xavier; Ward, Jane; Boros, Danuta; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M; Bedo, Zoltan; Saulnier, Luc; Guillon, Fabienne; Balzergue, Sandrine; Shewry, Peter R; Feuillet, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs.

  9. Active sensing: An innovative tool for evaluating grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of multiple wheat genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naser, Mohammed Abdulridha

    Precision agricultural practices have significantly contributed to the improvement of crop productivity and profitability. Remote sensing based indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) have been used to obtain crop information. It is used to monitor crop development and to provide rapid and nondestructive estimates of plant biomass, nitrogen (N) content and grain yield. Remote sensing tools are helping improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) through nitrogen management and could also be useful for high NUE genotype selection. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine if active sensor based NDVI readings can differentiate wheat genotypes, (ii) to determine if NDVI readings can be used to classify wheat genotypes into grain yield productivity classes, (iii) to identify and quantify the main sources of variation in NUE across wheat genotypes, and (iv) to determine if normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) could characterize variability in NUE across wheat genotypes. This study was conducted in north eastern Colorado for two years, 2010 and 2011. The NDVI readings were taken weekly during the winter wheat growing season from March to late June, in 2010 and 2011 and NUE were calculated as partial factor productivity and as partial nitrogen balance at the end of the season. For objectives i and ii, the correlation between NDVI and grain yield was determined using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (r) and linear regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between NDVI and grain yield. The K-means clustering algorithm was used to classify mean NDVI and mean grain yield into three classes. For objectives iii and iv, the parameters related to NUE were also calculated to measure their relative importance in genotypic variation of NUE and power regression analysis between NDVI and NUE was used to characterize the relationship between NDVI and NUE. The results indicate more consistent association between grain

  10. Wheat grain quality under enhanced tropospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudorff, B.F.T.; Mulchi, C.L.; Fenny, P.

    1996-11-01

    It is expected that the progressive increase of tropospheric trace gases such as CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} will have a significant impact on agricultural production. The single and combined effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment and tropospheric O{sub 3} on grain quality characteristics in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined in field studies using 3 m in diam. open-top chambers. Wheat cultivars {open_quotes}Massey{close_quotes} (1991) and {open_quotes}Saluda{close_quotes} (1992) were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations (350 vs. 500 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1}; 12 h d{sup {minus}1}) in combination with two O{sub 3} regimes (charcoal-filtered air vs. ambient air + 40 {plus_minus} 20 nmol O{sub 3} mol{sup {minus}1}, 7 h d{sup {minus}1}; Monday to Friday) from late March until maturity in June. Grain quality characteristics investigated included: test weight, milling and baking quality, flour yield, protein content, softness equivalent, alkaline water retention capacity, and cookie diameter. In general, exposure of plants to either elevated CO{sub 2} or weekly chronic O{sub 3} episodes caused only small changes in grain quality. Milling and baking quality score were not significantly changed in response to treatments in both years. Flour yield was increased by elevated CO{sub 2} but this increase was counteracted when elevated CO{sub 2} was combined with chronic O{sub 3} exposure. Flour protein contents were increased by enhanced O{sub 3} under elevated CO{sub 2}. Although the single effect of either CO{sub 2} enrichment or chronic O{sub 3} exposure had some impact o grain quality characteristics, it was noted that the combined effect of these gases was minor. It is likely that the concomitant increase of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} in the troposphere will have no significant impact on wheat grain quality. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. [Effects of soil fertility and nitrogen application rate on nitrogen absorption and translocation, grain yield, and grain protein content of wheat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefu; Yu, Zhenwen; Li, Xiangxia; Yu, Songlie

    2003-11-01

    The results of this study showed that nitrogen application improved the nitrogen uptake by wheat, especially during its late growth stage. Although a higher nitrogen application rate could increase the amount of absorbed nitrogen, an excess of nitrogen would remain in vegetative organs at the stage after flowering, owing to the low translocation rate of nitrogen from these organs to the grain, and hence, the nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index were decreased. Compared with that on high fertility soil, the ratio of nitrogen absorbed from fertilizer to total absorbed nitrogen was higher when the wheat was grown on low fertility soil. On high fertility soil, wheat plant absorbed more nitrogen from top-dressed fertilizer than from basis fertilizer, and top-dressed fertilizer contributed more nitrogen to the grain. It was reversed on low fertility soil.

  12. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  13. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  14. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  15. Targeted modification of wheat grain protein to reduce the content of celiac causing epitopes.

    PubMed

    Osorio, C; Wen, N; Gemini, R; Zemetra, R; von Wettstein, D; Rustgi, S

    2012-08-01

    The prolamin peptides in wheat gluten and in the homologous storage proteins of barley and rye cause painful chronic erasure of microvilli of the small intestine epithelium in celiac patients. If untreated, it can lead to chronic diarrhea, abdominal distension, osteoporosis, weight-loss due to malabsorption of nutrients, and anemia. In addition to congenital cases, life-long exposure to gluten proteins in bread and pasta can also induce development of celiac sprue in adults. To date, the only effective treatment is life-long strict abstinence from the staple food grains. Complete exclusion of dietary gluten is, however, difficult due to use of wheat in many foods, incomplete labeling and social constraints. Thus, finding alternative therapies for this most common foodborne disease remained an active area of research, which has led to many suggestions in last few years. The pros and cons associated with these therapies were reviewed in the present communication. As different celiac patients are immunogenic to different members of the undigestible proline/glutamine rich peptides of ~149 gliadins and low molecular weight glutenin subunits as well as the six high molecular weight glutenin subunits, an exhaustive digestion of the immunogenic peptides in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of celiacs is required. In view of the above, we evaluated the capacity of cereal grains to synthesize and store the enzymes prolyl endopeptidase from Flavobacterium meningosepticum and the barley cysteine endoprotease B2, which in combination are capable of detoxifying immunogenic gluten peptides in a novel treatment of celiac disease.

  16. Mold-inhibitory activity of different yeast species during airtight storage of wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Adel Druvefors, Ulrika; Schnürer, Johan

    2005-02-01

    The yeast Pichia anomala J121 inhibits spoilage by Penicillium roqueforti in laboratory and pilot studies with high-moisture wheat in malfunctioning airtight storage. We tested the biocontrol ability of an additional 57 yeast species in a grain mini silo system. Most yeast species grew to CFU levels comparable to that of P. anomala J121 after 14 days of incubation (>10(6) CFU g(-1)). Of the 58 species, 38 (63 strains) had no mold-inhibitory effects (Pen. roqueforti levels >10(5) CFU g(-1)). Among these were 11 species (18 strains) that did not grow on the wheat grain. Several of the non-inhibiting yeast species have previously been reported as biocontrol agents in other postharvest environments. Weak inhibitory activity, reducing Pen. roqueforti levels to between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU g(-1), was observed with 11 species (12 strains). Candida silvicola and Pichia guillermondii reduced Pen. roqueforti to <10(4) CFU g(-1). Candida fennica, Candida pelliculosa, Candida silvicultrix, P. anomala (29 strains), Pichia burtonii, Pichia farinosa and Pichia membranifaciens strongly inhibited Pen. roqueforti (<10(3) CFU g(-1)) in the mini silos, but none had higher biocontrol activity than P. anomala strain J121. This report is the first of biocontrol activity of C. fennica and C. silvicultrix. The ability of 27 yeast species to grow to high CFU values without inhibiting mold growth suggests that nutrient competition may not be the main mode of action of P. anomala J121.

  17. Rising CO2 concentration altered wheat grain proteome and flour rheological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nimesha; Panozzo, Joe; Tausz, Michael; Norton, Robert; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Khan, Alamgir; Seneweera, Saman

    2015-03-01

    Wheat cv. H45 was grown under ambient CO2 concentration and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE; e[CO2], ∼550 μmol CO2 mol(-1)). The effect of FACE on wheat grain proteome and associated changes in the flour rheological properties was investigated. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using 2-D-DIGE followed by MALDI/TOF-MS. Total grain protein concentration was decreased by 9% at e[CO2]. Relative abundance of three high molecular weight glutenin sub units (HMW-GS) were decreased at e[CO2]. In contrast, relative abundance of serpins Z1C and 1-Cys peroxiredoxin was increased at e[CO2]. Elevated [CO2] also decreased the bread volume (by 11%) and dough strength (by 7%) while increased mixing time. However, dough extensibility and dough stability were unchanged at elevated [CO2]. These findings suggest that e[CO2] has a major impact on gluten protein concentration which is associated lower bread quality at e[CO2].

  18. Identification of Fusarium graminearum infection severity of wheat grains by digitally aided spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkai, Géza; Erostyák, János; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2013-05-01

    The Fusarium head blight caused mostly by Fusarium graminearum (F.g.) is the most important disease of wheat because it not only leads to yield loss, but the toxin contamination makes the yield harvested. First, visual assessment of the heads was made, then the ratio of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) becomes the attention, and since introduction of the toxin limits for wheat, the deoxynivalenol contamination has gained significance. However, the FDK has a greater practical significance, as the identification of Fusarium damaged kernels is the precondition of their separation.For this reason a more exact and more sensitive method was developed by using updated spectroscopy methods. The infection sensitive spectral index (ISSI) function has been developed to characterize spectral features of images of grains with different infection severities. The green and red color ranges could be best used in this analysis. It was also found that the way how different spectra from different grains or samples can be normalized and compared. This histogram analyzing method uses scanned images and it seems to be useful in describing the infection severity of heterogeneous samples better than available before.This might serve as scientific background to develop new instruments for rapid tests.

  19. Greenhouse gases emissions and energy use of wheat grain-based bioethanol fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Scacchi, C C O; González-García, S; Caserini, S; Rigamonti, L

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential energetic and environmental impacts associated with the production of wheat grain-based bioethanol in Lombardia (Italy), with a "seed-to-wheel" approach (i.e. taking into account the production and use phase). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) were estimated through the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology counting the CO(2) equivalent emissions, while the energy flow indicator was estimated using the Ecoindicator 95 methodology. The impact of the different phases involved in the production and use of bioethanol have been analysed: the agricultural production of wheat grain, its transformation into bioethanol, the production of gasoline and the use of 5 different blends (from pure gasoline to pure ethanol). The results show that ethanol fuel, used in the form of blends in gasoline, can help reduce energy use and GHGs. In particular, the use of pure ethanol was found to be the best alternative presenting the lowest GHGs (saving about 32% of CO(2)eq emissions in comparison to gasoline) and the minor energy use (63% saving). Differences between low-ethanol blends and gasoline are minimal and dependent on the specific fuel consumption of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis performed to test the robustness of results through the change of some basic assumptions (specific fuel consumption, N(2)O emissions from agricultural phase, allocation method) shows the sensitivity of GHGs saving to the adopted allocation method.

  20. Mycoflora and deoxynivalenol in whole wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Tibola, Casiane S; Scussel, Vildes M

    2014-01-01

    The fungal species Fusarium graminearum is related to deoxynivalenol (DON) formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate mycoflora and DON occurrence in 53 whole wheat grain samples collected in Southern Brazil during the 2012 crop. Wheat grains showed adequate values of water activity ranging from 0.48 to 0.72, within the required limits of moisture content, ranging from 9.1% to 13.9%. In addition, low counts of fungal colonies, ranging from 10 to 8.2 × 10(2), were found. For Fusarium genera, there was predominance of Fusarium verticillioides (34%) and F graminearum (30.2%). For Aspergillus species, 37.7% of Aspergillus flavus was determined. Regarding the Penicillium species, Penicillium digitatum (49%) was the most found species. DON was detected in 47.2% (25 out of 53) of the samples analysed, with levels ranging from 243.7 to 2281.3 µg kg(-1) (mean: 641.9 µg kg(-1)).

  1. Aleurone Cell Walls of Wheat Grain: High Spatial Resolution Investigation Using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jamme, F.; Robert, R; Bouchet, B; Saulnier, L; Dumas, P; Guillon, F

    2008-01-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling techniques were employed in order to obtain deeper insight into the biochemical nature of aleurone cell walls of wheat grain. The use of a synchrotron source, thanks to its intrinsic brightness, has provided unprecedented information at the level of a few micrometers and has allowed the discrimination of various polysaccharides in cell walls. The high spectral quality obtained in the small analyzed domain has been beneficial in estimating the relative proportions of {Beta}-glucan and arabinoxylan, through the use of principal component analysis (PCA). The highest amount of {Beta}-glucan is found in periclinal cell walls close to the starchy endosperm. The junction regions between aleurone cells are enriched in arabinoxylan. At the early stage of wheat grain development (271 degrees D), the chemical composition along the cell walls is more heterogeneous than at the mature stage. Both synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling experiments made it possible to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of the various chemical compositions of aleurone cell walls.

  2. The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Halford, Nigel G; Belton, Peter S; Tatham, Arthur S

    2002-02-28

    The wheat gluten proteins correspond to the major storage proteins that are deposited in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing grain. These form a continuous proteinaceous matrix in the cells of the mature dry grain and are brought together to form a continuous viscoelastic network when flour is mixed with water to form dough. These viscoelastic properties underpin the utilization of wheat to give bread and other processed foods. One group of gluten proteins, the HMM subunits of glutenin, is particularly important in conferring high levels of elasticity (i.e. dough strength). These proteins are present in HMM polymers that are stabilized by disulphide bonds and are considered to form the 'elastic backbone' of gluten. However, the glutamine-rich repetitive sequences that comprise the central parts of the HMM subunits also form extensive arrays of interchain hydrogen bonds that may contribute to the elastic properties via a 'loop and train' mechanism. Genetic engineering can be used to manipulate the amount and composition of the HMM subunits, leading to either increased dough strength or to more drastic changes in gluten structure and properties.

  3. A Proteomics Approach to Discover Drought Tolerance Proteins in Wheat Pollen Grain at Meiosis Stage.

    PubMed

    Fotovat, Reza; Alikhani, Mehdi; Valizadeh, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Salekdeh, Ghasem H

    2017-01-01

    Plants reproductive phase, when grain yield and consequently farmers' investment is most in jeopardy, is considered as the most sensitive stage to drought stress. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic response of wheat anther at meiosis stage in a drought tolerant, Darab, and susceptible, Shiraz, wheat genotypes. Wheat plants were exposed to drought stress at meiosis stage for four days under controlled environmental conditions. Then, anthers from both genotypes were sampled, and their proteomes were examined via quantitative proteomics analysis. Our results demonstrated that short-term stress at meiosis stage reduced plant seed-setting compared to well-watered plants. This reduction was more pronounced in the susceptible genotype, Shiraz, by 51%, compared to the drought tolerant Darab by 14.3%. Proteome analysis revealed that 60 protein spots were drought responsive, out of which 44 were identified using a mass spectrometer. We observed a dramatic up-regulation of several heat shock proteins, as well as induction of Bet v I allergen family proteins, peroxiredoxin-5, and glutathione transferase with similar abundance in both genotypes. However, the abundance of proteins such as several stress response related proteins, including glutaredoxin, proteasome subunit alpha type 5, and ribosomal proteins showed a different response to drought stress in two genotypes. The differential abundance of proteins in two genotypes may suggest mechanisms by which tolerant genotype cope with drought stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteome analysis of plant reproductive tissue response to drought stress in wheat and could broaden our insight into plant adaptation to drought stress.

  4. Variations in Protein Concentration and Nitrogen Sources in Different Positions of Grain in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangnan; Zhou, Longjing; Liu, Fulai; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Wang, Xiao; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The distribution patterns of total protein and protein components in different layers of wheat grain were investigated using the pearling technique, and the sources of different protein components and pearling fractions were identified using 15N isotope tracing methods. It was found that N absorbed from jointing to anthesis (JA) and remobilized to the grain after anthesis was the principal source of grain N, especially in the outer layer. For albumin and globulin, the amount of N absorbed during different stages all showed a decreasing trend from the surface layer to the center part. Whereas, for globulin and glutenin, the N absorbed after anthesis accounted for the main part indicating that for storage protein, the utilization of N assimilated after anthesis is greater than that of the stored N assimilated before anthesis. It is concluded that manipulation of the N application rate during different growth stages could be an effective approach to modulate the distribution of protein fractions in pearled grains for specific end-uses. PMID:27446169

  5. Dynamics of Light and Nitrogen Distribution during Grain Filling within Wheat Canopy1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bertheloot, Jessica; Martre, Pierre; Andrieu, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    In monocarpic species, during the reproductive stage the growing grains represent a strong sink for nitrogen (N) and trigger N remobilization from the vegetative organs, which decreases canopy photosynthesis and accelerates leaf senescence. The spatiotemporal distribution of N in a reproductive canopy has not been described in detail. Here, we investigated the role of the local light environment on the spatiotemporal distribution of leaf lamina N mass per unit leaf area (SLN) during grain filling of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum). In addition, in order to provide some insight into the coordination of N depletion between the different vegetative organs, N dynamics were studied for individual leaf laminae, leaf sheaths, internodes, and chaff of the top fertile culms. At the canopy scale, SLN distribution paralleled the light gradient below the flag leaf collar until almost the end of grain filling. On the contrary, the significant light gradient along the flag leaf lamina was not associated with a SLN gradient. Within the top fertile culms, the time course of total (alive + necrotic tissues) N concentration of the different laminae and sheaths displayed a similar pattern. Another common pattern was observed for internodes and chaff. During the period of no root N uptake, N depletion of individual laminae and sheaths followed a first-order kinetics independent of leaf age, genotype, or N nutrition. The results presented here show that during grain filling, N dynamics are integrated at the culm scale and strongly depend on the local light conditions determined by the canopy structure. PMID:18799664

  6. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous 
Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Vaičiulytė-Funk, Lina; Šalomskienė, Joana; Alenčikienė, Gitana; Mieželienė, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Summary Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb firmness of the final product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically differ from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread. PMID:27956866

  7. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous 
Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread.

    PubMed

    Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Vaičiulytė-Funk, Lina; Šalomskienė, Joana; Alenčikienė, Gitana; Mieželienė, Aldona

    2016-09-01

    Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb firmness of the final product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically differ from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread.

  8. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. "Butte 86") was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  9. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells are altered by high temperature during grain fill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  10. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO2 (750 μmol mol(-1)) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO2. The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  11. Investigations of spectral separability of small grains, early season wheat detection, and multicrop inventory planning. [North Dakota and Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT data from seven 5 by 6 segments having crop type information were analyzed to determine the potential for spectral separation of spring wheat from other small grains as an alternative to the primary LACIE procedure for estimating spring wheat acreage. Within segment field-center, classification accuracies for spring wheat vs. barley tended to be best in mid-July when crop color changes were in progress. When correlations were made for differences in atmospheric haze, data from several segments could be aggregated, and results that approached within segment accuracies were obtained for selected dates. LACIE field measurement spectral reflectance data provided information on both wheat development patterns and the importance of various agronomic factors on wheat reflectance, the most important being availability of soil moisture. To investigate early season detection for winter wheat, reflectance of developing wheat patterns was simulated through reflectance modeling and was analyzed along with field measured reflectance from a Kansas site. The green component development of the wheat field was analyzed as a function of data throughout the season. A selected threshold was not crossed by all fields until mid-April. These reflectance data were shown to be consistent actual LANDSAT data.

  12. [Effects of wheat-straw returning into paddy soil on dissolved organic carbon contents and rice grain yield].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jing-du; Gu, Hai-yan; Dai, Qi-gen; Ma, Ke-qiang; Jiang, Feng; He, Li

    2015-02-01

    A tank experiment using conventional rice cultivar Nanjing 44 as experimental material was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Yangzhou University to investigate the dynamics of wheat straw decomposition rate and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils, as well as its effects on the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and rice yield. The two rates of wheat straw returning were 0 and 6000 kg · hm(-2), and three N application levels were 0, 225, 300 kg · hm(-2). The results showed that, the rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils were highest during the initial 30 days after wheat straw returning, and then slowed down after, which could be promoted by a higher level of nitrogen application. The rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay soil were higher than that in sandy soil. The DOC content in soil increased gradually with wheat straw returning into paddy soil and at the twenty-fifth day, and then decreased gradually to a stable value. The DOC content at the soil depth of 15 cm was significantly increased by wheat straw returning, but not at the soil depth of 30 cm and 45 cm. It was concluded that wheat straw returning increased the DOC content in the soil depth of 0-15 cm mainly. N application decreased the DOC content and there was no difference between the two N application levels. Straw returning decreased the number of tillers in the early growth period, resulted in significantly reduced panicles per unit area, but increased spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentages, 1000-grain mass, and then enhanced grain yield.

  13. Characterization of wheat-Secale africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives carrying Secale specific genes for grain hardness.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangrong; Gao, Dan; La, Shixiao; Wang, Hongjin; Li, Jianbo; He, Weilin; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2016-05-01

    New wheat- Secale africanum chromosome 5R (a) substitution and translocation lines were developed and identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular markers, and chromosome 5R (a) specific genes responsible for grain hardness were isolated. The wild species, Secale africanum Stapf. (genome R(a)R(a)), serves as a valuable germplasm resource for increasing the diversity of cultivated rye (S. cereale L., genome RR) and providing novel genes for wheat improvement. In the current study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular markers were applied to characterize new wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives. Labeled rye genomic DNA (GISH) and the Oligo-probes pSc119.2 and pTa535 (FISH) were used to study a wheat-S. africanum amphiploid and a disomic 5R(a) (5D) substitution, and to identify a T5DL.5R(a)S translocation line and 5R(a)S and 5R(a)L isotelosome lines. Twenty-one molecular markers were mapped to chromosome 5R(a) arms which will facilitate future rapid identification of 5R(a) introgressions in wheat backgrounds. Comparative analysis of the molecular markers mapped on 5R(a) with homoeologous regions in wheat confirmed a deletion on the chromosome T5DL.5R(a)S, which suggests that the wheat-S. africanum Robertsonian translocation involving homologous group 5 may not be fully compensating. Complete coding sequences at the paralogous puroindoline-a (Pina) and grain softness protein gene (Gsp-1) loci from S. africanum were cloned and localized onto the short arm of chromosome 5R(a). The S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) substitution and translocation lines showed a reduction in the hardness index, which may be associated with the S. africanum- specific Pina and Gsp-1 gene sequences. The present study reports the production of novel wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) stripe rust resistant derivatives and new rye-specific molecular markers, which may find application in future use of wild Secale genome resources for grain quality

  14. Genetic Diversity and Genome Wide Association Study of β-Glucan Content in Tetraploid Wheat Grains

    PubMed Central

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Houston, Kelly; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Burton, Rachel A.; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (hereafter called β-glucan) is not the most representative component of wheat cell walls, it is one of the most important types of soluble fibre in terms of its proven beneficial effects on human health. In the present work we explored the genetic variability of β-glucan content in grains from a tetraploid wheat collection that had been genotyped with a 90k-iSelect array, and combined this data to carry out an association analysis. The β-glucan content, expressed as a percentage w/w of grain dry weight, ranged from 0.18% to 0.89% across the collection. Our analysis identified seven genomic regions associated with β-glucan, located on chromosomes 1A, 2A (two), 2B, 5B and 7A (two), confirming the quantitative nature of this trait. Analysis of marker trait associations (MTAs) in syntenic regions of several grass species revealed putative candidate genes that might influence β-glucan levels in the endosperm, possibly via their participation in carbon partitioning. These include the glycosyl hydrolases endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase (cellulase), β-amylase, (1,4)-β-xylan endohydrolase, xylanase inhibitor protein I, isoamylase and the glycosyl transferase starch synthase II. PMID:27045166

  15. Genetic Diversity and Genome Wide Association Study of β-Glucan Content in Tetraploid Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Houston, Kelly; Schwerdt, Julian G; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (hereafter called β-glucan) is not the most representative component of wheat cell walls, it is one of the most important types of soluble fibre in terms of its proven beneficial effects on human health. In the present work we explored the genetic variability of β-glucan content in grains from a tetraploid wheat collection that had been genotyped with a 90k-iSelect array, and combined this data to carry out an association analysis. The β-glucan content, expressed as a percentage w/w of grain dry weight, ranged from 0.18% to 0.89% across the collection. Our analysis identified seven genomic regions associated with β-glucan, located on chromosomes 1A, 2A (two), 2B, 5B and 7A (two), confirming the quantitative nature of this trait. Analysis of marker trait associations (MTAs) in syntenic regions of several grass species revealed putative candidate genes that might influence β-glucan levels in the endosperm, possibly via their participation in carbon partitioning. These include the glycosyl hydrolases endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase (cellulase), β-amylase, (1,4)-β-xylan endohydrolase, xylanase inhibitor protein I, isoamylase and the glycosyl transferase starch synthase II.

  16. Effects of different water availability at post-anthesis stage on grain nutrition and quality in strong-gluten winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chang-Xing; He, Ming-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Lin; Wang, Yue-Fu; Lin, Qi

    2009-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. However, water is the most important limiting factor for wheat production. This study was initiated to test water stress environmental effects on grain quality and nutritional value of wheat by using single different water conditions at post-anthesis stage. Further analyses were conducted to examine variations in concentrations and compositions of the bioactive compounds and nutritions in strong-gluten winter wheat subjected to different levels of water deficit during grain filling. For the experiment on the response to different soil water conditions during post-anthesis stage, effects of soil water environment on protein content and composition in the grains were significant. Soil water conditions in this study greatly affected mineral contents in the grains of winter wheat, particularly with regard to the major minerals (P, K, Ca and Mg). Water deficit during grain filling can result in a decrease in lipid contents in wheat grains, which agrees well with experimental findings elsewhere. Concomitantly, a mild water deficit during grain filling would be beneficial to the grain filling and starch compositions, significantly improved bread-making quality. Therefore, it was concluded that good management of wheat field water at post-anthesis stage was helpful to improving grain quality and nutritions relevant to processing and human nutrition.

  17. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and /sup 32/P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar.

  18. [Effects of irrigation scheme on the grain glutenin macropolymer's size distribution and the grain quality of winter wheat with strong gluten].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Dian-Yong; Dai, Xing-Long; He, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    Taking two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Gaocheng 8901 and Jimai 20) with high quality strong gluten as test materials, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the grain glutenin macropolymer (GMP)'s content and size distribution, grain quality, and grain yield under effects of different irrigation schemes. The schemes included no irrigation in whole growth period (W0), irrigation once at jointing stage (W1), irrigation two times at wintering and jointing stages (W2), respectively, and irrigation three times at wintering, jointing, and filling stages (W3), respectively, with the irrigation amount in each time being 675 m3 x hm(-2). Among the test irrigation schemes, W2 had the best effects on the dough development time, dough stability time, loaf volume, grain yield, GMP content, weighted average surface area of particle D(3,2), weighted average volume of particle D(4,3), and volume percent and surface area percent of particle size >100 microm of the two cultivars. The dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were negatively correlated with the volume percent of GMP particle size <10 microm and 10-100 microm, while positively correlated with the volume percent of GMP particle size >100 microm, D(3,2), and D(4,3). It was suggested that both water deficit and water excess had detrimental effects on the grain yield and grain quality, and irrigation level could affect the wheat grain quality through altering GMP particle size distribution.

  19. Sourdough lactobacilli and celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, Marco; Giuseppe Rizzello, Carlo; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2007-04-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common food intolerance. The only effective treatment for CD is a strict adherence to a gluten-free diet throughout the patient's lifetime. Gluten-free products are not widely available and are usually more expensive than their gluten-containing counterparts. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop safe and effective therapeutic alternatives, to develop high-quality gluten-free products and to investigate the potential of the bread making biotechnology following ancient protocols which include long-time fermentation by selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria. This review describes the most relevant results related to biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria and probiotics as starters for sourdough fermentation to investigate their potential to decrease the risk of gluten contamination in gluten-free products. As shown by studies in vitro on celiac intestinal tissue and in vivo on CD patients, the bacterial proteolytic activity is rather promising not only as currently demonstrated for eliminating traces of contaminant gluten but probably also in perspective for the manufacture of tolerated baked goods.

  20. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  1. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome and phosphoprotein characterization reveals the central metabolism changes involved in wheat grain development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chaoying; Zhou, Jianwen; Chen, Guanxing; Bian, Yanwei; Lv, Dongwen; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2014-11-27

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an economically important grain crop. Two-dimensional gel-based approaches are limited by the low identification rate of proteins and lack of accurate protein quantitation. The recently developed isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method allows sensitive and accurate protein quantification. Here, we performed the first iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome and phosphorylated proteins analyses during wheat grain development. The proteome profiles and phosphoprotein characterization of the metabolic proteins during grain development of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Yanyou 361 were studied using the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome approach, TiO2 microcolumns, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among 1,146 non-redundant proteins identified, 421 showed at least 2-fold differences in abundance, and they were identified as differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), including 256 upregulated and 165 downregulated proteins. Of the 421 DEPs, six protein expression patterns were identified, most of which were up, down, and up-down expression patterns. The 421 DEPs were classified into nine functional categories mainly involved in different metabolic processes and located in the membrane and cytoplasm. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the DEPs involved in starch biosynthesis, storage proteins, and defense/stress-related proteins significantly accumulated at the late grain development stages, while those related to protein synthesis/assembly/degradation and photosynthesis showed an opposite expression model during grain development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of 12 representative genes encoding different metabolic proteins showed certain transcriptional and translational expression differences during grain development. Phosphorylated proteins analyses demonstrated that 23 DEPs such as AGPase, sucrose synthase, Hsp90, and serpins were

  2. [Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-dong; Zhang, De-qi; Wang, Han-fang; Shao, Yun-hui; Fang, Bao-ting; Lyu, Feng-rong; Yue, Jun-qin; Ma, Fu-ju

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on winter wheat development and grain yield was evaluated in an artificial climate chamber (TPG 1260, Australia) from 2010 to 2011. Winter wheat cultivar 'Zhengmai 7698' was used in this study. Three temperature increment treatments were involved in this study, i.e., temperature increment last 40, 50 and 60 days, respectively, before the over-wintering period. Control was not treated by temperature increment. The results showed that temperature increment before the over-wintering period had no significant effect on earlier phase spike differentiation. But an apparent effect on later phase spike differentiation was observed. High temperature effect on spike differentiation disappeared when the difference of effective accumulated temperature between the temperature increment treatment and the control was lower than 25 °C. However, the foliar age at the jointing stage was enhanced more than 0.8, heading and physiological ripening were advanced 1 day each, when the effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period increased 60 °C. Higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period accelerated winter wheat growth and development, which resulted in a short spike differentiation period. Winter wheat was easy to suffer freeze damage, which lead to floret abortion and spikelet death in spring under this situation. Meanwhile, higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period also reduced, photosynthetic capacity of flag leaf, shortened the grain filling period, and led to wheat grain yield reduction.

  3. Metabolomic profiling and genomic analysis of wheat aneuploid lines to identify genes controlling biochemical pathways in mature grain.

    PubMed

    Francki, Michael G; Hayton, Sarah; Gummer, Joel P A; Rawlinson, Catherine; Trengove, Robert D

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly important tool in plant genomics to decipher the function of genes controlling biochemical pathways responsible for trait variation. Although theoretical models can integrate genes and metabolites for trait variation, biological networks require validation using appropriate experimental genetic systems. In this study, we applied an untargeted metabolite analysis to mature grain of wheat homoeologous group 3 ditelosomic lines, selected compounds that showed significant variation between wheat lines Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line, tracked the genes encoding enzymes of their biochemical pathway using the wheat genome survey sequence and determined the genetic components underlying metabolite variation. A total of 412 analytes were resolved in the wheat grain metabolome, and principal component analysis indicated significant differences in metabolite profiles between Chinese Spring and each ditelosomic lines. The grain metabolome identified 55 compounds positively matched against a mass spectral library where the majority showed significant differences between Chinese Spring and at least one ditelosomic line. Trehalose and branched-chain amino acids were selected for detailed investigation, and it was expected that if genes encoding enzymes directly related to their biochemical pathways were located on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes, then corresponding ditelosomic lines would have a significant reduction in metabolites compared with Chinese Spring. Although a proportion showed a reduction, some lines showed significant increases in metabolites, indicating that genes directly and indirectly involved in biosynthetic pathways likely regulate the metabolome. Therefore, this study demonstrated that wheat aneuploid lines are suitable experimental genetic system to validate metabolomics-genomics networks.

  4. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers.

  5. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers. PMID:27904341

  6. [Effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on nutrient balance and grain yield of late sowing wheat in rice-wheat rotation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Shi, Zu-liang; Yang, Si-jun; Gu, Ke-jun; Dai, Ting-bo; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Ren-hua

    2015-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on grain yield, nutrient accumulation, nutrient release from straw and nutrient balance in late sowing wheat. The results showed that straw returning together with appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer improved the grain yield. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased significantly as the nitrogen application rate increased. At the same nitrogen application rate (270 kg N · hm(-2)), the dry matter, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of the treatment with straw returning were higher than that without straw returning, but the nitrogen accumulation was lower. Higher-rate nitrogen application promoted straw decomposition and nutrient release, and decreased the proportion of the nutrient released from straw after jointing. The dry matter, phosphorus and potassium release from straw showed a reverse 'N' type change with the wheat growing, while nitrogen release showed a 'V' type change. The nutrient surplus increased significantly with the nitrogen application rate. At the nitrogen application rate for the highest grain yield, nitrogen and potassium were surplus significantly, and phosphorus input could keep balance. It could be concluded that as to late sowing wheat with straw returning, applying nitrogen at 257 kg · hm(-2) and reducing potassium fertilizer application could improve grain yield and reduce nutrients loss.

  7. Occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains exposed to fungicides on fusarium head blight control in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Leandro N; Pizzutti, Ionara R; Balardin, Ricardo S; Dos Santos, Ingrid D; Dias, Jonatan V; Stefanello, Marlon T; Serafini, Pablo T

    2017-01-12

    Mycotoxins occurrence in wheat grains impose risks to human and animal health. The southern Brazil has favorable weather conditions for Fusarium graminearum infections and consequently for mycotoxins accumulation on grains. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of new wheat commercial genotypes to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), to control performance of new fungicide formulations and their relationship with mycotoxins concentration in grains. The manly mycotoxin occurrence on wheat grains in southern Brazil was deoxynivalenol (DON). Two cultivars showed high DON concentration above the tolerance limits (>3000 μg kg(-1)). Many other mycotoxins monitored presented concentrations below method detection limit. Satisfactory levels of fungicide effectiveness were achieved against F. graminearum. Some fungicides promoted a satisfactory decrease on DON accumulation in grains. The best results were obtained when prothioconazole was present. SDHI (Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors) + QoI (Quinone outside inhibitors) fungicides showed benefic effects at FHB control at field, but it did not promote satisfactory reduction on DON contamination. Fungicides can be used satisfactory for FHB control and reduce DON contamination in grains in southern Brazil. The presence of prothioconazole should be recommended. Some genotypes showed high DON concentration and it was not directly related with FHB severity at field.

  8. Proteomic analysis of peripheral layers during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain development.

    PubMed

    Tasleem-Tahir, Ayesha; Nadaud, Isabelle; Girousse, Christine; Martre, Pierre; Marion, Didier; Branlard, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Grains of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (cv. Récital), were collected at 15 stages of development, from anthesis to physiological maturity, 0-700°C days (degree days after anthesis). Two hundred and seven proteins of grain peripheral layers (inner pericarp, hyaline, testa and aleurone layer) were identified by 2-DE, MALDI-TOF MS and data mining, then were classified in 16 different functional categories. Study of the protein expression over time allowed identification of five main profiles and four distinct phases of development. Composite expression curves indicated that there was a shift from metabolic processes, translation, transcription and ATP interconversion towards storage and defence processes. Protein synthesis, protein turnover, signal transduction, membrane transport and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were the mediating functions of this shift. A picture of the dynamic processes taking place in peripheral layers during grain development was obtained in this study. It should further help in the construction of proteome reference maps for the developing peripheral layers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta Silva; Saglam, Didem; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Reynolds, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain filling, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68% of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could still improve GY in a wide range of environments. However, in Iranian sites, taller genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain filling. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  10. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control.

  11. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  12. Differentiation of whole grain and refined wheat (T. aestivum) flour using a fuzzy mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometric approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fuzzy mass spectrometric (MS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to provide rapid discrimination between whole grain and refined wheat flour. Twenty one samples, including thirteen samples from three cultivars and eight from local grocery store, were studied....

  13. Genome-wide association and prediction of grain and semolina quality traits in durum wheat breeding populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain yield and semolina quality traits are essential selection criteria in durum wheat breeding. However, high cost of phenotypic screening limited the selection only on small number of lines and at later generations. This leads to relatively low selection efficiency due to the advancement of undes...

  14. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  15. Phenotypic plasticity of winter wheat heading date and grain yield across the U.S. Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenotypic plasticity describes the range of phenotypes produced by a single genotype under varying environmental conditions. We evaluated the extent of phenotypic variation and plasticity in thermal time to heading and grain yield in 299 hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes representa...

  16. Effects of Short Exposures to Spinosad-Treated Wheat or Maize on Four Stored-Grain Insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat and maize was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insects: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the psocid Lepinotus reti...

  17. Influence of Sociocultural Differences in Translating Euphemistic Expressions from English into Arabic in "A Grain of Wheat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anber, Sameerah Jabbar; Swear, Muna Abdual Hussein

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the sociocultural differences in translating Euphemistic expressions from English into Arabic. Particularly, the study took the novel "A Grain of Wheat" to show the differences of these expressions usage by two translators from different cultures. The study adapts a qualitative approach applied in Leppihalme's…

  18. Self-Organized Crystallization Patterns from Evaporating Droplets of Common Wheat Grain Leakages as a Potential Tool for Quality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; Dinelli, Giovanni; Marotti, Ilaria; Benedettelli, Stefano; Nani, Daniele; Betti, Lucietta

    2011-01-01

    We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns. PMID:22125430

  19. Self-organized crystallization patterns from evaporating droplets of common wheat grain leakages as a potential tool for quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; Dinelli, Giovanni; Marotti, Ilaria; Benedettelli, Stefano; Nani, Daniele; Betti, Lucietta

    2011-01-01

    We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns.

  20. Engineering α-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development.

    PubMed

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F; Robinson, Hannah M; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of α-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of α-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of α-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling.

  1. Overuse of Phosphorus Fertilizer Reduces the Grain and Flour Protein Contents and Zinc Bioavailability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-03-01

    To supplement human dietary nutrition, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer application on grain and flour protein contents and especially on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn). A field experiment of winter wheat with six P application rates (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 kg/ha) was conducted from 2013 to 2015. The grain yield increased with P application but was not further enhanced when P rates exceeded 50 kg/ha. As P application increased, the protein concentration in grain and standard flour and the viscosity of standard flour decreased. Phosphorus and phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours increased and then plateaued, whereas Zn concentration decreased and then plateaued as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha. Estimated Zn bioavailability in grain and flours decreased as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha and then plateaued. Estimated Zn bioavailability was greater in standard flour, bread flour, and refined flour than in grain or coarse flour. Phosphorus supply in the intensive cropping of wheat can be optimized to simultaneously obtain high grain yields, high grain and flour protein contents, and high Zn bioavailability.

  2. Engineering α-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development

    PubMed Central

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of α-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of α-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of α-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

  3. Molecular genetic analysis of grain protein content and flour whiteness degree using RILs in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xianyin; Wu, Ke; Zhao, Yan; Qian, Zhaoguo; Kong, Fanmei; Guo, Ying; Wang, Yingying; Li, Sishen

    2016-06-01

    Grain protein content (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for GPC and FWD was conducted using a set of 131 recombinant-inbred lines derived from the cross 'Chuan 35050 × Shannong 483' in six environmental conditions. A total of 22 putative QTLs (nine GPC and 13 FWD) were identified on 12 chromosomes with individual QTL explaining 4.5-34.0% phenotypic variation. Nine QTLs (40.9%) were detected in two or more environments. The colocated QTLs were on chromosomes 1B and 4B. Among the QTLs identified for GPC, QGpc.sdau-4A from the parent Shannong 483 represented some important favourable QTL alleles. QGpc.sdau-2A.1 and QFwd.sdau-2A.1 had a significant association with both GPC and FWD. The markers detected on top of QTL regions could be potential targets for marker-assisted selection.

  4. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Nilthong, Somrudee; Graybosch, R A; Baenziger, P S

    2012-12-01

    Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS markers, PPO18, PPO29 and STS01, were used to identify lines with putative alleles at the Ppo-A1 and Ppo-D1 loci conditioning low or high PPO activity. ANOVA showed significant genotypic effects on PPO activity (P < 0.0001) in all populations. The generations and generation × genotype effects were not significant in any population. A putative third (null) genotype at Ppo-A1 (no PCR fragments for PPO18) was discovered in NW07OR1066 and NW07OR1070 derived populations, and these had the lowest mean PPO activities. Results demonstrated that both Ppo-A1 and Ppo-D1 loci affect the kernel PPO activity, but the Ppo-A1 has the major effect. In three populations, contrary results were observed to those predicted from previous work with Ppo-D1 alleles, suggesting the markers for Ppo-D1 allele might give erroneous results in some genetic backgrounds or lineages. Results suggest that selection for low or null alleles only at Ppo-A1 might allow development of low PPO wheat cultivars.

  5. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  6. Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains.

    PubMed

    Fasahat, Parviz; Rahman, Sadequr; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-04-01

    Starch accumulates in plants as granules in chloroplasts of source organs such as leaves (transitory starch) or in amyloplasts of sink organs such as seeds, tubers and roots (storage starch). Starch is composed of two types of glucose polymers: the essentially linear polymer amylose and highly branched amylopectin. The amylose content of wheat and rice seeds is an important quality trait, affecting the nutritional and sensory quality of two of the world's most important crops. In this review, we focus on the relationship between amylose biosynthesis and the structure, physical behaviour and functionality of wheat and rice grains. We briefly describe the structure and composition of starch and then in more detail describe what is known about the mechanism of amylose synthesis and how the amount of amylose in starch might be controlled. This more specifically includes analysis of GBSS alleles, the relationship between waxy allelic forms and amylose, and related quantitative trait loci. Finally, different methods for increasing or lowering amylose content are evaluated.

  7. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P < 0.01) and intake of starch was less (P < 0.01) for the 25DDGS compared with the CON diet. The digestibilities of CP, NDF, ADF, and EE in the total digestive tract were greater (P < 0.05) for 25DDGS vs. CON. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.05) intakes of DM and other nutrients without altering (P=0.40) CP intake. In contrast, digestibilities of DM and other nutrients in the total digestive tract linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing wheat DDGS except for that of EE. Additionally, with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS, mean ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH <5.5 and <5.2, and greater (P=0.01) curve area under pH <5.8 and <5.5 without altering (P > 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively

  8. Occurrence of Viruses and Associated Grain Yields of Paired Symptomatic and Nonsymptomatic Tillers in Kansas Winter Wheat Fields.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Bockus, William W; Whitfield, Anna E; Hervey, Kaylee; Baker, Kara D; Ou, Zhining; Laney, Alma G; De Wolf, Erick D; Appel, Jon A

    2016-02-01

    Vector-borne virus diseases of wheat are recurrent in nature and pose significant threats to crop production worldwide. In the spring of 2011 and 2012, a state-wide sampling survey of multiple commercial field sites and university-managed Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station variety performance trial locations spanning all nine crop-reporting regions of the state was conducted to determine the occurrence of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), High plains virus, Soilborne wheat mosaic virus, and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). As a means of directly coupling tiller infection status with tiller grain yield, multiple pairs of symptomatic and nonsymptomatic plants were selected and individual tillers were tagged for virus species and grain yield determination at the variety performance trial locations. BYDV-PAV and WSMV were the two most prevalent species across the state, often co-occurring within location. Of those BYDV-PAV- or WSMV-positive tillers, 22% and 19%, respectively, were nonsymptomatic, a finding that underscores the importance of sampling criteria to more accurately assess virus occurrence in winter wheat fields. Symptomatic tillers that tested positive for BYDV-PAV produced significantly lower grain yields compared with ELISA-negative tillers in both seasons, as did WSMV-positive tillers in 2012. Nonsymptomatic tillers that tested positive for either of the two viruses in 2011 produced significantly lower grain yields than tillers from nonsymptomatic, ELISA-negative plants, an indication that these tillers were physiologically compromised in the absence of virus-associated symptoms. Overall, the virus survey and tagged paired-tiller sampling strategy revealed effects of virus infection on grain yield of individual tillers of plants grown under field conditions and may provide a complementary approach toward future estimates of the

  9. Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective.

    PubMed

    Poutanen, Kaisa; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati

    2009-10-01

    Use of sourdough is of expanding interest for improvement of flavour, structure and stability of baked goods. Cereal fermentations also show significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In addition to improving the sensory quality of whole grain, fibre-rich or gluten-free products, sourdough can also actively retard starch digestibility leading to low glycemic responses, modulate levels and bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, and improve mineral bioavailability. Cereal fermentation may produce non-digestible polysaccharides, or modify accessibility of the grain fibre complex to gut microbiota. It has also been suggested that degradation of gluten may render bread better suitable for celiac persons. The changes in cereal matrix potentially leading to improved nutritional quality are numerous. They include acid production, suggested to retard starch digestibility, and to adjust pH to a range which favours the action of certain endogenous enzymes, thus changing the bioavailability pattern of minerals and phytochemicals. This is especially beneficial in products rich in bran to deliver minerals and potentially protective compounds in the blood circulation. The action of enzymes during fermentation also causes hydrolysis and solubilisation of grain macromolecules, such as proteins and cell wall polysaccharides. This changes product texture, which may affect nutrient and non-nutrient absorption. New bioactive compounds, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides or other metabolites, may also be formed in cereal fermentations.

  10. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Cui, Fa; Wang, Jinping; Jun, Li; Ding, Anming; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Xingfeng; Feng, Deshun; Gao, Jurong; Wang, Honggang

    2012-01-01

    Grain protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered a highly heritable character that is negatively correlated with grain yield and yield-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for protein content was mapped using data on protein content and protein content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits to evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between protein content and yield, as well as yield-related traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population with 302 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese cultivar Weimai 8 and Luohan 2. Inclusive composite interval mapping using IciMapping 3.0 was employed for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additives. A strong genetic relationship was found between protein content and grain yield, and yield-related traits. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected seven additive QTL for protein content, with additive effects ranging in absolute size from 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor effects were identified in the conditional mapping. Of the three QTLs, two were identified when protein content was conditioned on yield, which had pleiotropic effects on those two traits. Conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the individual QTL level for closely correlated traits. Further, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with minor effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  11. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  12. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  13. Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Synthesize Antioxidant Peptides during Sourdough Fermentation of Cereal Flours

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Pinto, Daniela; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used for the sourdough fermentation of various cereal flours with the aim of synthesizing antioxidant peptides. The radical-scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from sourdoughs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chemically acidified doughs. The highest activity was found for whole wheat, spelt, rye, and kamut sourdoughs. Almost the same results were found for the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation. WSE were subjected to reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Thirty-seven fractions were collected and assayed in vitro. The most active fractions were resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Twenty-five peptides of 8 to 57 amino acid residues were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Almost all of the sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. All of the purified fractions showed ex vivo antioxidant activity on mouse fibroblasts artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the capacity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through the proteolysis of native cereal proteins. PMID:22156436

  14. Modeling Grain Nitrogen Accumulation and Protein Composition to Understand the Sink/Source Regulations of Nitrogen Remobilization for Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Martre, Pierre; Porter, John R.; Jamieson, Peter D.; Triboï, Eugène

    2003-01-01

    A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations and yield potentials, were grown with non-limiting N supply. Grain number per ear was reduced by removing the top part of the ear at anthesis. Reduction in grain number gave a significant increase in N content per grain for all cultivars, showing that grain N accumulation was source regulated. However, on a per ear basis, cultivars with a high grain number fully compensated their N accumulation for reduced grain number at anthesis. Cultivars with a lower grain number did not compensate completely, and grain N per ear was decreased by 16%. Second, new mechanistic hypotheses of the origins of grain N source regulation and its response to environment were tested by simulation. The hypotheses were: (a) The regulation by N sources of grain N accumulation applies only for the storage proteins (i.e. gliadin and glutenin fractions); (b) accumulation of structural and metabolic proteins (i.e. albumin-globulin and amphiphilic fractions) is sink-regulated; and (c) N partitioning between gliadins and glutenins is constant during grain development and unmodified by growing conditions. Comparison of experimental and simulation results of the accumulation of grain protein fractions under wide ranges of N fertilization, temperatures, and irrigation supported these hypotheses. PMID:14630962

  15. Analysis of grain elements and identification of best genotypes for Fe and P in Afghan wheat landraces

    PubMed Central

    Kondou, Youichi; Manickavelu, Alagu; Komatsu, Kenji; Arifi, Mujiburahman; Kawashima, Mika; Ishii, Takayoshi; Hattori, Tomohiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ban, Tomohiro; Matsui, Minami

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of developing the methodology to determine elemental composition in wheat and identify the best germplasm for further research. Orphan and genetically diverse Afghan wheat landraces were chosen and EDXRF was used to measure the content of some of the elements to establish elemental composition in grains of 266 landraces using 10 reference lines. Four elements, K, Mg, P, and Fe, were measured by standardizing sample preparation. The results of hierarchical cluster analysis using elemental composition data sets indicated that the Fe content has an opposite pattern to the other elements, especially that of K. By systematic analysis the best wheat germplasms for P content and Fe content were identified. In order to compare the sensitivity of EDXRF, the ICP method was also used and the similar results obtained confirmed the EDXRF methodology. The sampling method for measurement using EDXRF was optimized resulting in high-throughput profiling of elemental composition in wheat grains at low cost. Using this method, we have characterized the Afghan wheat landraces and isolated the best genotypes that have high-elemental content and have the potential to be used in crop improvement. PMID:28163583

  16. Mining Centuries Old In situ Conserved Turkish Wheat Landraces for Grain Yield and Stripe Rust Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Belen, Savaş; Küçüközdemir, Ümran; Mert, Zafer; Özer, Emel; Morgounov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Wheat landraces in Turkey are an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. An exhaustive 5-year (2009–2014) effort made by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP), a cooperative program between the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), led to the collection and documentation of around 2000 landrace populations from 55 provinces throughout Turkey. This study reports the genetic characterization of a subset of bread wheat landraces collected in 2010 from 11 diverse provinces using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology. The potential of this collection to identify loci determining grain yield and stripe rust resistance via genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was explored. A high genetic diversity (diversity index = 0.260) and a moderate population structure based on highly inherited spike traits was revealed in the panel. The linkage disequilibrium decayed at 10 cM across the whole genome and was slower as compared to other landrace collections. In addition to previously reported QTL, GWA analysis also identified new candidate genomic regions for stripe rust resistance, grain yield, and spike productivity components. New candidate genomic regions reflect the potential of this landrace collection to further increase genetic diversity in elite germplasm. PMID:27917192

  17. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield.

    PubMed

    Grünhage, Ludger; Pleijel, Håkan; Mills, Gina; Bender, Jürgen; Danielsson, Helena; Lehmann, Yvonne; Castell, Jean-Francois; Bethenod, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O(3) and H(2)O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photosynthetic Gas Exchange Characteristics of Wheat Flag Leaf Blades and Sheaths during Grain Filling

    PubMed Central

    Araus, José L.; Tapia, Luis

    1987-01-01

    The rate of net CO2 assimilation (A), the stomatal (gs) and residual (gr) conductances to CO2, the intercellular CO2 concentration, the CO2 compensation points at 21% O2 (Γ21) and at 2% O2 (Γ2), and the amounts of dry matter, nitrogen, and carbohydrates were determined, from anthesis through grain filling, in the flag leaf blade and sheath of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Kolibri). The nitrogen content and the rate of net CO2 assimilation declined slowly until the onset of senescence in both organs, about 3 weeks after anthesis. During senescence the reduction of A in both organs was not primarily caused by a decrease in gs; the main factor is the decrease in gr. From values of Γ21 and Γ2 it is suggested that the rate of respiration in the light contributing to the CO2 compensation point is higher in sheaths than in blades irrespective of the O2 level considered. The role of sheaths storing and later transporting assimilates to the developing grains seems to be more important for shoot yield than that of sheaths functioning as photosynthetic organs after the onset of senescence occurs. It is suggested that accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves might somehow trigger senescence in the flag leaf blade and sheath simultaneously. PMID:16665757

  19. LC-MS/MS quantification of bioactive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in rye malt sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Stromeck, Achim; Loponen, Jussi; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-11-23

    This study quantified antiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides in rye malt sourdoughs supplemented with gluten proteins and fermented with six strains of Lactobacillus spp. Bioinformatic analysis of prolamins from barley, rye, and wheat demonstrated that the ACE inhibitory peptides LQP, LLP, VPP, and IPP are frequently encrypted in their primary sequence. These tripeptides were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Tripeptide levels in sourdoughs were generally higher as compared to the chemically acidified controls. Sourdoughs fermented with different strains showed different concentrations of LQP and LLP. These differences corresponded to strain-specific differences in PepO and PepN activities. The highest levels of peptides VPP, IPP, LQP, and LLP, 0.23, 0.71, 1.09, and 0.09 mmol (kg DM)(-1), respectively, were observed in rye malt: gluten sourdoughs fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 and added protease. These concentrations were 6-7 times higher as compared to sourdough without fungal protease and exceed the IC(50) by 100-1000-fold.

  20. Different Flour Microbial Communities Drive to Sourdoughs Characterized by Diverse Bacterial Strains and Free Amino Acid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Celano, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Minervini, Fabio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate whether different microbial assemblies in flour may influence the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sourdough. To reach this purpose, members of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, and yeasts were isolated from durum wheat flour. Secondly, the isolated microorganisms (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia hermannii) were inoculated in doughs prepared with irradiated flour (gamma rays at 10 kGy), so that eight different microbial assemblies were obtained. Two non-inoculated controls were prepared, one of which (C-IF) using irradiated flour and the other (C) using non-irradiated flour. As shown by plate counts, irradiation of flour caused total inactivation of yeasts and a decrease of all the other microbial populations. However, acidification occurred also in the dough C-IF, due to metabolic activity of P. pentosaceus that had survived irradiation. After six fermentations, P. pentosaceus was the dominant lactic acid bacterium species in all the sourdoughs produced with irradiated flour (IF). Yet, IF-based sourdoughs broadly differed from each other in terms of strains of P. pentosaceus, probably due to the different microorganisms initially inoculated. Quantitative and qualitative differences of free amino acids concentration were found among the sourdoughs, possibly because of different microbial communities. In addition, as shown by culture-independent analysis (16S metagenetics), irradiation of flour lowered and modified microbial diversity of sourdough ecosystem. PMID:27877165

  1. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    PubMed

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pH<4.0 after two backslopping steps), and of Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weissella confusa and Weissella cibaria in the case of the bakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. On-farm experiments over 5 years in a grain maize/winter wheat rotation: effect of maize residue treatments on Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat.

    PubMed

    Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hecker, Andreas; Musa, Tomke; Dorn, Brigitte; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf

    2011-05-01

    Over the course of 5 years, different maize residue treatments were conducted on 14 zero tillage on-farm sites in Switzerland to evaluate their effect on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the contamination with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in winter wheat grains and wheat straw following grain maize. Two experimental series with three and five different treatments were carried out, respectively. Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) was the predominant FHB-causing species with an overall incidence of 15% infected wheat grains. A significant correlation between symptoms in the field, F. graminearum incidence and DON content in wheat grains and wheat straw was observed. The average DON content in both wheat grains and wheat straw was approximately 5,000 μg/kg and thus several times higher than the European maximum limit of 1,250 μg/kg for unprocessed small-grain cereals for human consumption. Of all grain samples, 74% were above the maximum limit. Pooled over both experimental series, the average reduction of DON in grains through treatments of the maize residue compared with a control treatment ranged between 21 and 38%. The effect of various other factors, including the year, the wheat variety, the site, the maize hybrid and the production system was evaluated as well. The year and the wheat variety were the most important FHB influencing factors. Over all treatments, the variety Levis showed a fivefold higher average DON content compared with the variety Titlis. From different categories of maize residue particles, intact pieces of 5-15 cm length were strongly correlated with F. graminearum incidence and DON content in grains. During the time course of this study, the recommendation from a preliminary version of the internet-based DON forecasting system FusaProg to apply or to omit a fungicide treatment was correct in 32 out of 42 cases. The results are currently being used to optimise the FusaProg models. This study has shown that in a grain

  3. Individual contribution of grain outer layers and their cell wall structure to the mechanical properties of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Carole; Peyron, Stéphane; Mabille, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Bouchet, Brigitte; Abecassis, Joël; Rouau, Xavier

    2003-03-26

    The mechanical properties of wheat bran and the contribution of each constitutive tissue on overall bran properties were determined on a hard wheat (cv. Baroudeur) and a soft wheat (cv. Scipion). Manual dissection allowed three different layers to be separated from wheat bran, according to radial and longitudinal grain orientations, which were identified by confocal laser scanning microscopy as outer pericarp, an intermediate strip (comprising inner pericarp, testa, and nucellar tissue), and aleurone layer, respectively. Tissue microstructure and cell wall composition were determined. Submitted to traction tests, whole bran, intermediate, and aleurone layers demonstrated elastoplastic behavior, whereas pericarp exhibited elastic behavior. By longitudinal orientation, pericarp governed 50% bran elasticity (elastic strength and rigidity), whereas, in the opposite orientation, bran elastic properties were mostly influenced by the other tissues. Regardless of test orientation, the linear force required to bran rupture corresponded to the sum of intermediate and aleurone layer strengths. According to radial orientation, the intermediate strip governed bran extensibility, but according to longitudinal orientation, all tissues contributed until bran disruption. Tissues from both wheat cultivars behaved similarly. A structural model of wheat bran layers illustrated the detachment of pericarp from intermediate layer within radial bran strips.

  4. Synthesis of Abscisic Acid-Responsive, Heat-Stable Proteins in Embryonic Axes of Dormant Wheat Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Jeffrey L.; Walker-Simmons, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Germination of embryonic axes from dormant grain is inhibited by low concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) compared with axes from nondormant grain. Incubation of dormant grain axes in 0.05 to 50 micromolar ABA caused the prolonged synthesis of a set of heat-stable proteins. Two of these proteins were identified as dehydrins. In nondormant grain axes, 100- to 1000-fold greater ABA concentrations were required to produce similar results. When embryonic axes of dormant wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain were imbibed without ABA, endogenous ABA levels increased 2.5-fold by 4 hours and then gradually declined. Heat-stable proteins were continuously synthesized for at least 18 hours. No increase in endogenous ABA was observed when nondormant grain axes were imbibed. Endogenous ABA levels in nondormant grain axes remained constant at 4 hours and then declined. The nondormant grain axes initially synthesized the heat-stable proteins, but that synthesis disappeared between 8 and 12 hours. These results showing the prolonged synthesis of ABA-responsive, heat-stable proteins by dormant grain axes, demonstrate that biochemical differences occur when axes from dormant compared with nondormant grains are imbibed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:16667520

  5. Association Analysis of Grain-setting Rates in Apical and Basal Spikelets in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Weiping; Zhang, Boqiao; Zhang, Jingjuan; Xu, Yanhao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Cheng, Kai; Zhang, Xueyong; Hao, Chenyang; Cheng, Shunhe

    2015-01-01

    The rates of grain-setting in apical and basal spikelets in wheat directly affect the kernel number per spike (KNPS). In this study, 220 wheat lines from 18 Chinese provinces and five foreign countries were used as a natural population. Phenotypic analysis showed differences in grain-setting rates between apical and basal spikelets. The broad-sense heritability of grain-setting rate in apical spikelets (18.7–21.0%) was higher than that for basal spikelets (9.4–16.4%). Significant correlations were found between KNPS and grain numbers in apical (R2 = 0.40–0.45, P < 0.01) and basal (R2 = 0.41–0.56, P < 0.01) spikelets. Seventy two of 106 SSR markers were associated with grain setting, 32 for apical spikelets, and 34 for basal spikelets. The SSR loci were located on 17 chromosomes, except 3A, 3D, 4A, and 7D, and explained 3.7–22.9% of the phenotypic variance. Four markers, Xcfa2153-1A202, Xgwm186-5A118, Xgwm156-3B319, and Xgwm537-7B210, showed the largest effects on grain numbers in apical and basal spikelets. High grain numbers in apical and basal spikelets were associated with elite alleles. Ningmai 9, Ning 0569, and Yangmai 18 with high grain-setting rates carried larger numbers of favorable alleles. Comparison of grain numbers in basal and apical spikelets of 35 Yangmai and Ningmai lines indicated that the Ningmai lines had better grain-setting rates (mean 21.4) than the Yangmai lines (16.5). PMID:26635852

  6. Mapping a region within the 1RS.1BL translocation in common wheat affecting grain yield and canopy water status.

    PubMed

    Howell, Tyson; Hale, Iago; Jankuloski, Ljupcho; Bonafede, Marcos; Gilbert, Matthew; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    This study identifies a small distal region of the 1RS chromosome from rye that has a positive impact on wheat yield. The translocation of the short arm of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome one (1RS) onto wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 1B (1RS.1BL) is used in wheat breeding programs worldwide due to its positive effect on yield, particularly under abiotic stress. Unfortunately, this translocation is associated with poor bread-making quality. To mitigate this problem, the 1RS arm was engineered by the removal and replacement of two interstitial rye segments with wheat chromatin: a distal segment to introduce the Glu-B3/Gli-B1 loci from wheat, and a proximal segment to remove the rye Sec-1 locus. We used this engineered 1RS chromosome (henceforth 1RS(WW)) to develop and evaluate two sets of 1RS/1RS(WW) near isogenic lines (NILs). Field trials showed that standard 1RS lines had significantly higher yield and better canopy water status than the 1RS(WW) NILs in both well-watered and water-stressed environments. We intercrossed the 1RS and 1RS(WW) lines and generated two additional NILs, one carrying the distal (1RS(RW)) and the other carrying the proximal (1RS(WR)) wheat segment. Lines not carrying the distal wheat region (1RS and 1RS(WR)) showed significant improvements in grain yield and canopy water status compared to NILs carrying the distal wheat segment (1RS(WW) and 1RS(RW)), indicating that the 1RS region replaced by the distal wheat segment carries the beneficial allele(s). NILs without the distal wheat segment also showed higher carbon isotope discrimination and increased stomatal conductance, suggesting that these plants had improved access to water. The 1RS(WW), 1RS(WR) and 1RS(RW) NILs have been deposited in the National Small Grains Collection.

  7. Effects of Drought Stress on Pollen Sterility, Grain Yield, Abscisic Acid and Protective Enzymes in Two Winter Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Baodi; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Haipei; Able, Jason A.; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Huan; Zhang, Mingming; Qiao, Yunzhou; Wang, Yakai; Liu, Mengyu

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress induced pollen sterility is a detrimental factor reducing grain number in wheat. Exploring the mechanisms underlying pollen fertility under drought conditions could assist breeding high-yielding wheat cultivars with stress tolerance. Here, by using two Chinese wheat cultivars subjected to different levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress, possible links between pollen fertility and stress tolerance were analyzed under different levels of drought stress at the young microspore stage. In both cultivars, higher grain number reduction was observed under condition of lower water availability. Overall, the drought tolerant cultivar (Jinmai47) exhibited less grain number reduction than the drought sensitive cultivar (Shiluan02-1) under all stress conditions. Compared with Shiluan02-1, Jinmai47 exhibited superior physiological performance in terms of leaf photosynthetic rate, ear carbohydrate accumulation, pollen sink strength, pollen development and fertility under stress. Moreover, Jinmai47 showed a lower increase in endogenous abscisic acid in ears than Shiluan02-1. Furthermore, higher levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were also found in the drought tolerant cultivar Jinmai47 under PEG stress, compared with the drought sensitive cultivar Shiluan02-1. Changes in these physiological traits could contribute to better pollen development and male fertility, ultimately leading to the maintenance of grain number under drought stress. PMID:28676806

  8. Path Analyses of Grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a Biosolids-Amended Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barbarick, Kenneth A; Ippolito, James A; McDaniel, Jacob P

    2016-07-01

    Land application of biosolids is an effective means of recycling plant nutrients and is the primary method of biosolids reuse endorsed by the USEPA. One issue concerning biosolids application is the extent of the contribution of biosolids-borne plant nutrients to the overall crop concentration and uptake or removal of these nutrients. We studied the effects of biosolids application on wheat ( L.) grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni concentrations and uptake (removal) at two dryland agroecosystem sites from 1993 to 2014. We hypothesized that biosolids would have the greatest impact on wheat grain and uptake compared with ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable nutrient levels, soil pH, or soil organic C concentrations. We used path analyses in combination with multiple linear regression to differentiate the direct, indirect, and total effects of cumulative biosolids applications, soil AB-DTPA, soil pH, and organic C. Biosolids rates, applied biennially from 1993 to 2014 at the beginning of a wheat-fallow rotation, were 0, 2.24, 4.48, 6.72, 8.96, and 11.2 Mg ha. None of the parameters had significant direct, indirect, or total effects on grain concentrations. Biosolids applications had the greatest positive direct impact compared with AB-DTPA levels, soil pH, or soil organic C on P, Zn, Fe, and Ni uptake (removal), whereas AB-DTPA had the greatest positive direct impact on Cu uptake. Soil AB-DTPA, pH, and organic C directly affected some grain concentrations and cumulative uptake, but no consistent trends were noted. This pathway approach allowed differentiation between causation and simple correlation for the effects of cumulative biosolids applications on wheat P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni cumulative uptake but did not provide these same results for grain concentrations. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Isolation and characterization of feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides from the perennial cereal grain intermediate wheat grass (Thinopyrum intermedium).

    PubMed

    Schendel, Rachel R; Becker, Andreas; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-04-30

    In comparison to the annual grain crops dominating current agricultural production, perennial grain species require fewer chemical and energy inputs and improve soil health and erosion control. The possibility for producing sustainable grain harvests from marginal land areas is motivating research initiatives to integrate perennial grains into commercial cropping and food processing systems. In this study, the feruloylated arabinoxylans from intermediate wheat grass (Thinopyrum intermedium, IWG), a promising perennial grain candidate in agronomic screening studies, were investigated. Insoluble fiber isolated from IWG whole grain flour was subjected to either mildly acidic (50 mM TFA, 100 °C, 2 h) or enzymatic (Driselase) hydrolysis. The liberated feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides were concentrated with Amberlite XAD-2, separated with gel chromatography (Sephadex LH-20, water), and purified with reversed-phase HPLC (C18, water-MeOH gradient). Thirteen feruloylated oligosaccharides were isolated (including eight structures described for the first time) and identified by LC-ESI-MS and NMR. Linkage-type analysis via methylation analysis, as well as the monosaccharide and phenolic acid profiles of the IWG insoluble fiber were also determined. IWG feruloylated arabinoxylans have a relatively simple structure with only short feruloylated side chains, a lower backbone substitution rate than annual rye and wheat varieties, and a moderate phenolic acid content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat.

    PubMed

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation.

  11. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation. PMID:27446150

  12. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  13. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  14. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of sourdough fermented date seed for improving the quality and shelf life of flat bread: study with univariate and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Pourfarzad, Amir; Zahedi, Hoda; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Zahra; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of a novel sourdough system prepared by wheat flour supplemented by combination of pulverized date seed, Lactobacillus plantarum, and/or Lactobacillus brevis as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the sourdough characteristics, quality, sensory, texture, shelf life and image properties of Barbari flat bread. The highest sourdough acidity and bread specific volume was obtained with co-culture of Lb. plantarum + Lb. brevis + S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improving sensory aspects of bread supplemented with pulverized date seed, as a dietary fiber resource. Texture analysis of bread samples during 7 days of storage indicated that the presence of pulverized date seed in sourdough was able to diminish bread staling. The interaction of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has led to increase the particle average size of bread crumb and decrease the area fraction than the LAB samples. It was observed that all treatments of sourdough Barbari breads had higher cell wall thickness than the control Barbari bread. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among sourdough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data.

  16. Bread wheat milling behavior: effects of genetic and environmental factors, and modeling using grain mechanical resistance traits.

    PubMed

    Oury, François-Xavier; Lasme, P; Michelet, C; Dubat, A; Gardet, O; Heumez, E; Rolland, B; Rousset, M; Abecassis, J; Bar L'Helgouac'h, C; Lullien-Pellerin, V

    2017-05-01

    Genetic (Pinb-D1 alleles) and environment (through vitreousness) have important effects on bread wheat milling behavior. SKCS optimal values corresponding to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains were defined to obtain the highest total flour yield. Near-isogenic lines of bread wheat that differ in hardness, due to distinct puroindoline-b alleles (the wild type, Pinb-D1a, or the mutated forms, Pinb-D1b or Pinb-D1d), were grown in different environments and under two nitrogen fertilization levels, to study genetic and environmental effects on milling behavior. Milling tests used a prototype mill, equipped with two break steps, one sizing step, and two reduction steps, and this enabled 21 individual or aggregated milling fractions to be collected. Four current grain characters, thousand grain weight, test weight, grain diameter, and protein content, were measured, and three characters known to influence grain mechanical resistance, NIRS hardness, SKCS hardness index, and grain vitreousness (a character affecting the grain mechanical behavior but generally not studied). As expected, the wild type or mutated forms of Pinb-D1 alleles led to contrasted milling behavior: soft genotypes produced high quantities of break flour and low quantities of reduction flour, whereas reverse quantities were observed for hard genotypes. This different milling behavior had only a moderate influence on total flour production. NIRS hardness and vitreousness were, respectively, the most important and the second most important grain characters to explain milling behavior. However, contrary to NIRS hardness, vitreousness was only involved in endosperm reduction and not in the separation between the starchy endosperm and the outer layers. The highest flour yields were obtained for SKCS values comprised between 30 and 50, which corresponded either to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains. Prediction equations were defined and showed a good accuracy estimating break and reduction flours portions, but

  17. Liquid sourdough fermentation: industrial application perspectives.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, P; Ciati, R; Leporati, A; Paese, M

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentation is considered to play a key role to get improved flavour, texture, nutritional and shelf-life properties of bakery products. Since few years Barilla R&D has been focusing on liquid sourdough fermentation which may deserve several advantages with respect to traditional processes. The results showed that the micro-biota of sourdough markedly influences flavour and texture of bakery products. Particular attention has been paid to lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Selected lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were tested in sourdough liquid fermentation as single strain or in association. The parameters of fermentations were optimized and standardized to set up a laboratory plant liquid fermentation. Only a few strains of lactic acid bacteria were found to be suitable for liquid fermentation alone or in association with yeasts. Fermentations were carried out at pilot plant and an industrial technology was developed. This work describes the results found for the organoleptic profile of an industrial bread started with liquid sourdough with respect to bakers' yeast bread without sourdough addition.

  18. Isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin oxidase genes related to grain number per spike phenotype in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Liu, Weihua; Yang, Xinming; Gao, Ainong; Li, Xiuquan; Wu, Xiaoyang; Li, Lihui

    2011-04-01

    Cytokinin oxidases are involved in the regulation of plant cytokinin levels, which are important in regulating plant growth and development, and may affect the yield of cereals. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin oxidase genes, TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2, from wheat. Both TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 are mapped to the 0.24-0.55 region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 3D and their coding proteins are most closely related to OsCKX2. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 belong to the clustered clade I of monocot plants. Tissue expression pattern show that both TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 genes are highly expressed in young spikes and culms of wheat. The detailed spatial expression pattern of TaCKX2.1 were further conducted by in situ hybridization and promoter-fused GUS expression in Arabidopsis experiments. A collection of 12 typical common wheat varieties exhibiting grain number per spike ranging from 31 to 139 were used for the transcription abundance detection of two TaCKX2 genes. A significantly positive correlation between expression level of two TaCKX2 genes and grain number per spike suggests that TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 on wheat chromosome 3DS may play an important role in wheat spike morphogenesis.

  19. Single-molecule real-time transcript sequencing facilitates common wheat genome annotation and grain transcriptome research.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lingli; Liu, Hongfang; Zhang, Juncheng; Yang, Shuangjuan; Kong, Guanyi; Chu, Jeffrey S C; Chen, Nansheng; Wang, Daowen

    2015-12-09

    The large and complex hexaploid genome has greatly hindered genomics studies of common wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD). Here, we investigated transcripts in common wheat developing caryopses using the emerging single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology PacBio RSII, and assessed the resultant data for improving common wheat genome annotation and grain transcriptome research. We obtained 197,709 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads, 74.6 % of which were estimated to carry complete open reading frame. A total of 91,881 high-quality FLNC reads were identified and mapped to 16,188 chromosomal loci, corresponding to 13,162 known genes and 3026 new genes not annotated previously. Although some FLNC reads could not be unambiguously mapped to the current draft genome sequence, many of them are likely useful for studying highly similar homoeologous or paralogous loci or for improving chromosomal contig assembly in further research. The 91,881 high-quality FLNC reads represented 22,768 unique transcripts, 9591 of which were newly discovered. We found 180 transcripts each spanning two or three previously annotated adjacent loci, suggesting that they should be merged to form correct gene models. Finally, our data facilitated the identification of 6030 genes differentially regulated during caryopsis development, and full-length transcripts for 72 transcribed gluten gene members that are important for the end-use quality control of common wheat. Our work demonstrated the value of PacBio transcript sequencing for improving common wheat genome annotation through uncovering the loci and full-length transcripts not discovered previously. The resource obtained may aid further structural genomics and grain transcriptome studies of common wheat.

  20. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34-22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals.

  1. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation

    PubMed Central

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34–22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals. PMID:27342224

  2. Pre-drought priming sustains grain development under post-anthesis drought stress by regulating the growth hormones in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Shao, Yuhang; Liu, Sixi; Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Jiang, Dong; Tian, Zhongwei; Dai, Tingbo

    2017-05-19

    Drought stress during grain filling is the most yield-damaging to wheat. Pre-drought priming facilitated the wheat plants to sustain grain development against the post-anthesis drought stress by modulating the levels of growth hormones. Post-anthesis drought stress substantially reduces grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to impaired grain development associated with imbalanced levels of growth hormones. To investigate whether pre-drought priming could sustain grain development in wheat by regulating favorable levels of growth hormones under post-anthesis drought conditions, the plants of a drought-sensitive (Yangmai-16) and drought-tolerant (Luhan-7) wheat cultivar were exposed to a moderate drought stress during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) for priming, and then, a subsequent severe drought stress was applied from 7 to 14 days after anthesis. The results showed that drought-stressed plants of both cultivars showed a decline in flag leaf water potential, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, grain size initiation, and grain filling as compared to well-watered plants; however, decline in these traits was less in pre-drought primed (PD) plants than in nonprimed (ND) plants. Under drought stress, the PD plants regulated higher concentrations of zeatin and zeatin riboside, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellins, and lower abscisic acid content in grains, resulting in higher endosperm cell division and expansion, grain size initiation, grain-filling rate and duration, and finally higher grain dry weights as compared to ND plants. The PD plants of both cultivars showed higher potential to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress, but more effect was displayed by drought-tolerant cultivar. From the achieved results, it was concluded that pre-drought priming facilitated the wheat plants to sustain higher grain development and yield against the most yield-damaging post-anthesis drought stress by modulating the levels of growth hormones.

  3. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  4. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  5. The pattern and control of isoprenoid quinone and tocopherol metabolism in the germinating grain of wheat (Triticum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G. S.; Laidman, D. L.

    1968-01-01

    1. The syntheses of ubiquinone-9 and plastoquinone-9 were used as parameters respectively of mitochondrial and proplastid development in the germinating wheat grain. 2. The changes in the amounts of the tocopherols were also studied and the possible biological significance of these changes is discussed. During germination, the dimethyl tocopherols of the resting grain are probably not utilized for the synthesis of α-tocopherol. 3. It was demonstrated that ubiquinone synthesis, and hence probably mitochondrial development, in the aleurone cells during germination, is independent of control by gibberellic acid from the embryo. 4. The influence of light on the syntheses of the isoprenoid quinones in the etiolated wheat shoot was investigated. In particular, illumination did not stimulate the synthesis of either α-tocopherol or α-tocopherolquinone. PMID:5667257

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible grain: a pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Reiko; Okamoto, Robert A; Maddalena, Randy L; Kado, Norman Y

    2008-06-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in a pilot study of field wheat grain as a model indicator for environmental contamination. The edible grain would serve as a portal for human exposure. Wheat grain was initially studied since it is one of the major food crops consumed internationally by many including infants and children. Wheat grain samples from five different geographical growing locations in California that span approximately 450 km were collected during the same growing season. The same variety of grain was harvested and analyzed for PAHs that ranged from 2- to 6-rings. PAHs were detected in all grain samples and were mainly 2- to 4-ring PAHs with naphthalene the most abundant among them. There were geographical differences in the levels of PAHs in the grain. The sources of the PAHs were not known in this pilot study, but the principal component analysis indicates that the major source is similar in all locations except for naphthalene. Grain naphthalene concentrations may reflect local naphthalene emissions. Diesel-fueled harvesting operations did not appear to contribute to the observed PAH concentrations in the grain. An estimate of naphthalene intake from eating grain compared to inhalation intake demonstrated the potential importance of field contamination of grain as a possible portal of human exposure. The relationship between PAH concentrations in grain and air should be quantitatively investigated to better quantitate exposure and to identify effective measures to lower the risk from PAH exposure through eating grain.

  7. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  8. (15)N allocation into wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) influenced by sowing rate and water supply at flowering under a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Götz, Klaus-Peter; Erekul, Osman; Wutzke, Klaus Dieter; Koca, Yakup Onur; Aksu, Tuğçe

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the effects of a reduced wheat sowing rate (250 vs. 500 grains m(-2)) on grain yield, uptake of (15)N into grains, and the incorporation into gluten and non-gluten proteins of wheat under field conditions in the Aegean region. A single (15)N application was applied at stem elongation, at flowering, or at both developmental stages. Each (15)N treatment included either additional water supply, or no additional water supply at flowering. Sowing rate (either 250 or 500 grains m(-2)) had no impact on grain yield. Grain yield increased with additional water supply, but at the expense of protein quality, because of a decrease in the protein content of gluten. The (15)N content of the gluten and non-gluten proteins at grain maturity was not different among cultivars. (15)N applied at both stem elongation and flowering was found in comparable amounts in grains and protein fractions, irrespective of sowing rate.

  9. The Role of Potassium in Improving Growth Indices and Increasing Amount of Grain Nutrient Elements of Wheat Cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmanyar, M. A.; Ranjbar, G. A.

    In order to consider potassium role in improvement of growth indices and increasing the amount of nutrient elements in wheat grain, a pot experiment has been undertaken in 2005. In this experiment cultivars Tajan and Nye 60 have been used in four levels of potassium (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg K2O ha-1 from source of K2SO4) in form of factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design. Results showed that application of potassium increased dry matter, 1000 grain weight, tiller number, seed and leaf potassium content, seed Zn content, plant height, seed Iron and protein content. Also, grain yield, 1000 grain weight, seed potassium and Zn content in cultivar Nye 60 were higher than in cultivar Tajan and tiller number and seed protein content in cultivar Tajan were higher than in cultivar Nye 60.

  10. Assimilates mobilization, stable canopy temperature and expression of expansin stabilizes grain weight in wheat cultivar LOK-1 under different soil moisture conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mahesh; Raina, Susheel Kumar; Govindasamy, Venkadasamy; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Choudhary, Ram Lal; Rane, Jagadish; Minhas, Paramjit Singh

    2017-12-01

    Grain yield of wheat is primarily determined by both grain number and grain weight, which often influence each other in response to environmental stimuli. Some of the genotypes are capable of maintaining high single grain weight (SGW) across the environments. Understanding mechanisms and factors associated with the superiority of such genotypes over others is necessary to enhance productivity of wheat. Experiments were conducted to elucidate the physiological basis of high SGW of LOK-1, a wheat cultivar grown in dry and hot environments in the central and peninsular zones of India. SGW of LOK-1 was least affected by removal of spikelets indicating little competition between the grains within the spike for assimilates. Reduction in SGW due to defoliation was less and the contribution of stem reserves to the grain development was high in LOK-1 relative to other cultivars. It seems that high level of expression of genes such as expansin (TaExpA6) contributes to the high SGW of LOK-1. Source was not a limiting factor for grain growth of LOK-1 in contrast to other cultivars, whereas sink appeared to be a limiting factor in recently released/identified cultivars. Differences in the amounts of water soluble stem carbohydrate reserves translocated to grain could be one of the factors contributing to higher grain weight in LOK-1. High level expression of TaExpA6, one of the genes contributing to the elongation of endosperm, seems to be crucial for grain growth in wheat.

  11. Multitrait, Random Regression, or Simple Repeatability Model in High-Throughput Phenotyping Data Improve Genomic Prediction for Wheat Grain Yield.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Poland, Jesse A; Crossa, José; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms can be used to measure traits that are genetically correlated with wheat ( L.) grain yield across time. Incorporating such secondary traits in the multivariate pedigree and genomic prediction models would be desirable to improve indirect selection for grain yield. In this study, we evaluated three statistical models, simple repeatability (SR), multitrait (MT), and random regression (RR), for the longitudinal data of secondary traits and compared the impact of the proposed models for secondary traits on their predictive abilities for grain yield. Grain yield and secondary traits, canopy temperature (CT) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were collected in five diverse environments for 557 wheat lines with available pedigree and genomic information. A two-stage analysis was applied for pedigree and genomic selection (GS). First, secondary traits were fitted by SR, MT, or RR models, separately, within each environment. Then, best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of secondary traits from the above models were used in the multivariate prediction models to compare predictive abilities for grain yield. Predictive ability was substantially improved by 70%, on average, from multivariate pedigree and genomic models when including secondary traits in both training and test populations. Additionally, (i) predictive abilities slightly varied for MT, RR, or SR models in this data set, (ii) results indicated that including BLUPs of secondary traits from the MT model was the best in severe drought, and (iii) the RR model was slightly better than SR and MT models under drought environment. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  12. Metabolite profiling on wheat grain to enable a distinction of samples from organic and conventional farming systems.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Anja; Neuweger, Heiko; Goesmann, Alexander; Thonar, Cécile; Mäder, Paul; Langenkämper, Georg; Niehaus, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Identification of biomarkers capable of distinguishing organic and conventional products would be highly welcome to improve the strength of food quality assurance. Metabolite profiling was used for biomarker search in organic and conventional wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) of 11 different old and new bread wheat cultivars grown in the DOK system comparison trial. Metabolites were extracted using methanol and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Altogether 48 metabolites and 245 non-identified metabolites (TAGs) were detected in the cultivar Runal. Principal component analysis showed a sample clustering according to farming systems and significant differences in peak areas between the farming systems for 10 Runal metabolites. Results obtained from all 11 cultivars indicated a greater influence of the cultivar than the farming system on metabolite concentrations. Nevertheless, a t-test on data of all cultivars still detected 5 metabolites and 11 TAGs with significant differences between the farming systems. Based on individual cultivars, metabolite profiling showed promising results for the categorization of organic and conventional wheat. Further investigations are necessary with wheat from more growing seasons and locations before definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the feasibility to evolve a combined set of biomarkers for organically grown wheat using metabolite profiles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    PubMed Central

    Schönhofen, André; Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaploid wheat cultivar Lassik. Four mutant combinations were generated: SBEIIa/b-AB (Reg. No. GP-997, PI 675644); SBEIIa/b-A, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-998, PI 675645); SBEIIa/b-B, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-999, PI 675646); and SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-1000, PI 675647). The SBEII mutant lines were compared with a wild-type control in a greenhouse and field experiment. The quintuple mutant line (SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D) presented significant increases in both amylose (51% greenhouse; 63% field) and resistant starch (947% greenhouse; 1057% field) relative to the control. A decrease in total starch content (7.8%) was observed in the field experiment. The quintuple mutant also differed in starch viscosity parameters. Registration of the hexaploid wheat SBEII-mutant lines by University of California, Davis can help expedite the development of common wheat cultivars with increased amylose and resistant starch content. PMID:27818720

  14. Impact of wheat-mung bean intercropping on English grain aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations and its natural enemy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hai-Cui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Zhou, Hai-Bo; Sun, Jing-Rui; Liu, Yong; Francis, Frédéric

    2012-06-01

    The effects of intercropping wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with mung bean, Vigna radiate L., on the populations of English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and its natural enemies were evaluated by field and laboratory experiments. The population densities of aphids and their natural enemies were evaluated in the intercropped field against different row ratio combinations of wheat-mung bean. Results showed that wheat-mung bean intercropping caused a drop in aphid densities, and the ratio 12 wheat: 4 mung bean brought about the largest drop (> 8%). In addition, the population densities of coccinellids (ladybirds) and parasitoids and the species diversity of all the natural enemies of aphid were higher in the intercropped field than in the field planted only with wheat. However, intercropping did not influence the community indices (evenness and index of dominance concentration) of the natural enemies. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays were carried out in the laboratory to test whether odor blends of host and nonhost plants affect the host selection of S. avenae. Bioassays indicated that both apterous and alate aphids significantly preferred host plant odor over odor blends of host and intercropped species. Hence, the olfactory-based host location of aphids in the field might be affected by intercropping. The intercropping experiment clearly showed that increased crop species diversity suppresses aphid population growth and preserves the population of natural enemies of aphids. Our results also provide support for the "resource concentration hypothesis" and the "enemies hypothesis".

  15. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat.

  16. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuhua; Cui, Zhengyong; Luo, Yongli; Zheng, Mengjing; Chen, Jin; Li, Yanxia; Yin, Yanping; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar) and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar), were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA). The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05). Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR) content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05) increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05), whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat. PMID:27203573

  17. In vitro fermentation characteristics of whole grain wheat flakes and the effect of toasting on prebiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2012-01-01

    Population studies have shown a positive correlation between diets rich in whole grains and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases, like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action, particularly the impact different fermentable components of whole grains have on the human intestinal microbiota. The modulation of microbial populations by whole grain wheat flakes and the effects of toasting on digestion and subsequent fermentation profile were evaluated. Raw, partially toasted, and toasted wheat flakes were digested using simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and then fermented using 24-hour, pH-controlled, anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human feces. Major bacterial groups and production of short-chain fatty acids were compared with those for the prebiotic oligofructose and weakly fermented cellulose. Within treatments, a significant increase (P<.05) in bifidobacteria numbers was observed upon fermentation of all test carbohydrates, with the exception of cellulose. Toasting appeared to have an effect on growth of lactobacilli as only fermentation of raw wheat flakes resulted in a significant increase in levels of this group.

  18. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular mapping of resistance gene to English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) in Triticum durum wheat line C273.

    PubMed

    Liu, X L; Yang, X F; Wang, C Y; Wang, Y J; Zhang, H; Ji, W Q

    2012-02-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), is one of the most important insect pests causing substantial yield losses in wheat production in China and other grain-growing areas in the world. The efficient utilization of wheat genes for resistance to English grain aphid (EGA) provides an efficient, economic and environmentally sound approach to reduce the yield losses. In the present study, the wheat line C273 (Triticum durum AABB, 2n = 4x = 28), is resistant to EGA in greenhouse and field tests. To identify the resistance gene, designated RA-1 temporarily, C273 was crossed with susceptible genotype Poland 305 (T. polonicum, AABB, 2n = 4x = 28). The F(1), F(2) and F(2:3) lines were tested with EGA in the field and greenhouse. The results indicated that RA-1 is a single dominant gene, closely linked to the microsatellite markers (SSR) Xwmc179, Xwmc553 and Xwmc201 on chromosome 6AL at genetic distances of 3.47, 4.73 and 7.57 cM, respectively. The three SSR markers will be valuable in marker-assisted selection for resistance to EGA as well as for cloning this gene in the future.

  20. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing.

  1. Molecular characterization of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination of wheat grains from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Wadai, A S; Al-Othman, M R; Mahmoud, M A; Abd El-Aziz, A R M

    2013-09-03

    Twelve species belonging to six fungal genera were found to be associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain samples collected from three main regions in Saudi Arabia. The most common genera (average frequency) were Aspergillus (14.3%), Fusarium (29.1%), Penicillium (9.3%), and Alternaria (8.2%). Nineteen isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxins using HPLC. Thirteen isolates produced aflatoxins ranging from 0.5 to 2.6 µg/kg. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers were used, with the aim of genetically characterizing strains of A. flavus to discriminate between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates. RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the A. flavus population, useful for genetic characterization. Clustering based on RAPD and ISSR dendograms was unrelated to geographic origin. RAPD and ISSR markers were not suitable to discriminate aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates, but ISSR primers were better compared to RAPD.

  2. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C; Pedas, Pai R; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail; Andersen, Birgit; Finnie, Christine; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2016-09-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Hepato- and nephrotoxicity in male albino rats exposed to malathion and spinosad in stored wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Nour El-Hoda A

    2015-06-01

    Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

  4. Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced wheat susceptibility to the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Amma L.; Wellham, Peter A. D.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Gange, Alan C.

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T. monococcum MDR045 and MDR049. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the attractiveness of T. aestivum var. Solstice to aphids, but there was no effect on aphid development on this variety. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique, we found that mycorrhizal colonisation increased aphid phloem feeding on T. monococcum MDR037 and MDR045, colonisation also increased growth rate and reproductive success of S. avenae on these varieties. Mycorrhizas increased vascular bundle size, demonstrating that these fungi can influence plant anatomy. We discuss if and how this could be related to an enhanced success rate in phloem feeding in two varieties. Overall, we present and discuss how mycorrhizal fungi can affect the feeding behaviour of S. avenae in wheat, inducing susceptibility in a resistant variety.

  5. Identification of Early Represented Gluten Proteins during Durum Wheat Grain Development.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Di Stasio, Luigia; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea; Corneti, Simona; Ceriotti, Aldo; Tuberosa, Roberto; Siciliano, Rosa Anna; Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco

    2017-04-19

    The time course of biosynthesis and accumulation of storage proteins in developing grains of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) pasta-quality reference cv. Svevo was investigated at the protein level for the first time. Seeds were harvested at key kernel developmental stages, namely, 3 (seed increase 3-fold in size), 5 (kernel development, water-ripe stage), 11 (kernel development, water-ripe stage), 16 (kernel full development, water-ripe stage), 21 (milk-ripe stage), and 30 (dough stage) days postanthesis (dpa). Gliadins and glutenins were fractionated according to their different solubility and individually analyzed after fractionation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of proteolytic peptides. The α- and γ-gliadin were already detected at 3 dpa. The biosynthesis of high molecular mass glutenin Bx7 was slightly delayed (11 dpa). Most of the gluten proteins accumulated rapidly between 11 and 21 dpa, with a minor further increase up to 30 dpa. The expression pattern of gluten proteins in Triticum durum at the early stages of synthesis provides reference data sets for future applications in crop breeding and growth monitoring.

  6. Distribution and speciation of iron and zinc in grain of two wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Eagling, Tristan; Neal, Andrew L; McGrath, Steve P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Shewry, Peter R; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2014-01-22

    This study aimed to determine differences among wheat cultivars in the distribution and speciation of Fe and Zn in grain milling fractions. Cultivars with higher Fe and Zn concentrations in the wholemeal flour were found to contain higher concentrations in the white flour. Soluble Fe and Zn were extracted and analyzed by size exclusion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fe speciation varied between milling fractions with a low molecular weight (LMW) complex likely to be Fe-deoxymugenic acid/nicotianamine being the predominant extractable Fe species in white flour, accounting for approximately 85% of the extractable Fe. Bran fractions had a lower amount of LMW-Fe form but more as soluble Fe-phytate and an unidentified high molecular weight peak. In the white flour fraction soluble Zn was found to be present mainly as a LMW peak likely to be Zn-nicotianamine complex. Soluble Fe-phytate was found in the white flour fraction of a high-Fe cultivar but not in a low-Fe cultivar.

  7. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Grain yield, adaptation and progress in breeding for early-maturing and heat-tolerant wheat lines in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S; Singh, R P; Mason, E R; Huerta-Espino, J; Autrique, E; Joshi, A K

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining wheat productivity under the increasing temperatures in South Asia is a challenge. We focused on developing early maturing wheat lines as an adaptive mechanism in regions suffering from terminal heat stress and those areas that require wheat adapted to shorter cycles under continual high temperature stress. We evaluated the grain yield performance of early-maturing heat-tolerant germplasm developed by CIMMYT, Mexico at diverse locations in South Asia from 2009 to 2014 and estimated the breeding progress for high-yielding and early-maturing heat-tolerant germplasm in South Asia. Each year the trial comprised of 28 new entries, one CIMMYT check (Baj) and a local check variety. Locations were classified by mega environment (ME); ME1 being the temperate irrigated locations with terminal high temperature stress, and ME5 as hot, sub-tropical, irrigated locations. Grain yield (GY), days to heading (DTH) and plant height (PH) were recorded at each location. Effect of temperature on GY was observed in both ME1 and ME5. Across years, mean minimum temperatures in ME1 and mean maximum temperatures in ME5 during grain filling had significant negative association with GY. The ME1 locations were cooler that those in ME5 in the 5 years of evaluations and had a 1-2 t/ha higher GY. A mean reduction of 20 days for DTH and 20 cm in PH was observed in ME5. Negative genetic correlations of -0.43 to -0.79 were observed between GY and DTH in South Asia during 2009-2014. Each year, we identified early-maturing germplasm with higher grain yield than the local checks. A positive trend was observed while estimating the breeding progress across five years for high-yielding early-maturing heat tolerant wheat compared to the local checks in South Asia. The results suggests the potential of the high-yielding early-maturing wheat lines developed at CIMMYT in improving wheat production and maintaining genetic gains in South Asia.

  9. Highly Sprouting-Tolerant Wheat Grain Exhibits Extreme Dormancy and Cold Imbibition-Resistant Accumulation of Abscisic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kashiwakura, Yu-ichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Nambara, Eiji; Seo, Mitsunori; Kamiya, Yuji; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Naoto

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains induces hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase, which considerably decreases wheat product quality. PHS occurs when cool and wet weather conditions before harvest break dormancy and induce grain germination. In this study, we used PHS-tolerant varieties, Gifu-komugi (Gifu) and OS38, to characterize the mechanisms of both dormancy breakage and dormancy maintenance at low temperatures. Physiologically mature Gifu grains exhibited dormancy after imbibition at 20°C, but germinated at 15°C. In contrast, OS38 grains remained dormant even at temperatures as low as 5°C. Embryo half-grains cut out from the dormant Gifu grains germinated by imbibition at 20°C, similar to conventional varieties worldwide. However, OS38 embryo half-grains were still dormant. Hormonome and pharmacological analyses suggested that ABA and gibberellin metabolism are important for temperature-dependent dormancy maintenance and breakage. Imbibition at 15°C decreased ABA levels but increased gibberellin levels in embryos of freshly harvested Gifu grains. Additionally, low temperatures induced expression of the ABA catabolism genes,TaABA8' OH1 and TaABA8' OH2, and the gibberellin biosynthesis gene,TaGA3ox2, in the embryos. However, in embryos of freshly harvested OS38 grains, ABA levels were increased while gibberellin levels were suppressed at 15°C. In these dormant embryos, low temperatures induced the TaNCED ABA biosynthesis genes, but suppressed TaABA8' OH2 and TaGA3ox2.These results show that the regulatory mechanism influencing the expression of ABA and gibberellin metabolism genes may be critical for dormancy maintenance and breakage at low temperatures. Our findings should help improve PHS-resistant wheat breeding programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application on grain amino acid composition and protein quality in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panpan; Ma, Geng; Wang, Chenyang; Lu, Hongfang; Li, Shasha; Xie, Yingxin; Ma, Dongyun; Zhu, Yunji; Guo, Tiancai

    2017-01-01

    Water management and nitrogen application are critical factors in wheat grain yield and protein quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen application on the grain yield, protein content and amino acid composition of winter wheat. Field experiments were conducted in a split-plot design with three replications in high-yielding land on the North China Plain in 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Three irrigation treatments were examined in main plots: no irrigation, irrigation at jointing, and irrigation at jointing plus anthesis, while subplots were assigned to nitrogen treatment at four different rates: 0, 180, 240, 300 kg N ha-1, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation at jointing and at jointing plus anthesis improved grain yield by an average of 12.79 and 18.65% across three cropping seasons, respectively, compared with no irrigation. However, different irrigation treatments had no significant effect on grain protein content in any cropping season. Compared with no N treatment, 180, 240, and 300 kg N ha-1 N application significantly increased grain yield, by 58.66, 61.26 and 63.42% respectively, averaged over three cropping seasons. Grain protein and the total, essential and non-essential amino acid content significantly increased with increasing nitrogen application. Irrigation significantly improved the essential amino acid index (EAAI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) compared with no irrigation; however, N application decreased them by an average of 7.68 and 11.18% across three cropping seasons, respectively. EAAI and PDCAAS were positively correlated, however, they were highly negatively correlated with yield and grain protein content.

  11. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application on grain amino acid composition and protein quality in winter wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Geng; Wang, Chenyang; Lu, Hongfang; Li, Shasha; Xie, Yingxin; Ma, Dongyun; Zhu, Yunji; Guo, Tiancai

    2017-01-01

    Water management and nitrogen application are critical factors in wheat grain yield and protein quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen application on the grain yield, protein content and amino acid composition of winter wheat. Field experiments were conducted in a split-plot design with three replications in high-yielding land on the North China Plain in 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Three irrigation treatments were examined in main plots: no irrigation, irrigation at jointing, and irrigation at jointing plus anthesis, while subplots were assigned to nitrogen treatment at four different rates: 0, 180, 240, 300 kg N ha-1, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation at jointing and at jointing plus anthesis improved grain yield by an average of 12.79 and 18.65% across three cropping seasons, respectively, compared with no irrigation. However, different irrigation treatments had no significant effect on grain protein content in any cropping season. Compared with no N treatment, 180, 240, and 300 kg N ha-1 N application significantly increased grain yield, by 58.66, 61.26 and 63.42% respectively, averaged over three cropping seasons. Grain protein and the total, essential and non-essential amino acid content significantly increased with increasing nitrogen application. Irrigation significantly improved the essential amino acid index (EAAI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) compared with no irrigation; however, N application decreased them by an average of 7.68 and 11.18% across three cropping seasons, respectively. EAAI and PDCAAS were positively correlated, however, they were highly negatively correlated with yield and grain protein content. PMID:28594830

  12. Comparative Phosphoproteomic Analysis under High-Nitrogen Fertilizer Reveals Central Phosphoproteins Promoting Wheat Grain Starch and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shoumin; Deng, Xiong; Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Gengrui; Lv, Dongwen; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Dong; Yan, Yueming

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient important for plant growth and development. It also strongly influences starch and protein synthesis, closely related to grain yield and quality. We performed the first comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of developing wheat grains in response to high-N fertilizer. Physiological and biochemical analyses showed that application of high-N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in leaf length and area, chlorophyll content, the activity of key enzymes in leaves such as nitrate reductase (NR), and in grains such as sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SuSy), and ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase). This enhanced enzyme activity led to significant improvements in starch content, grain yield, and ultimately, bread making quality. Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of developing grains under the application of high-N fertilizer performed 15 and 25 days post-anthesis identified 2470 phosphosites among 1372 phosphoproteins, of which 411 unique proteins displayed significant changes in phosphorylation level (>2-fold or <0.5-fold). These phosphoproteins are involved mainly in signaling transduction, starch synthesis, energy metabolism. Pro-Q diamond staining and Western blotting confirmed our phosphoproteomic results. We propose a putative pathway to elucidate the important roles of the central phosphoproteins regulating grain starch and protein synthesis. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of protein phosphorylation modifications involved in grain development, yield and quality formation. PMID:28194157

  13. Effect of wheat and corn variety on fiber digestion in beef steers fed high-grain diets.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Philippeau, C; Michalet-Doreau, B

    1999-08-01

    Six Salers steers, fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, were used in a double 3x3 Latin square design to assess the depressive effect of the nature of wheat, flint corn, and dent corn on fiber digestion in animals fed high-concentrate diets, and to determine the mechanisms involved in these negative digestive effects. Diets were balanced to be equal in starch content (47.7+/-2.3%). The three cereals were characterized by ruminal starch digestibilities of 86.6, 60.8, and 34.8% for the wheat, dent corn, and flint corn, respectively. Ruminal digestion of NDF was lower with wheat- than with corn-based diets (49.4 vs. 55.2%; P<.001), and with dent corn than with flint corn (53 vs. 57.3%; P<.01). Degradability of hay in nylon bags was not affected by the grain source in the diet (P>.1). The mean retention time of forage particles in the rumen was similar between wheat and corn diets (P>.1), but it was lower for steers fed dent corn than for those fed flint corn (P<.05). Most fibrolytic activities of the solid-associated microorganisms were lower (P<.05) in animals fed wheat than in those fed corn. Differences in fibrolytic activities of the solid-associated microorganisms between the two corn genotypes were not statistically significant (P>.1), but activities of all fibrolytic enzymes were lower (P<.05) with the dent than with the flint corn diet. Protozoal number in ruminal fluid was lower in animals receiving wheat than in those fed corn (177 vs. 789x10(3)/mL; P<.001) and was related to the high ruminal acidity (P<.01) of the wheat diet. Large modifications in the rumen microbial ecosystem between the two corn genotypes were not visible in protozoal numbers or pH. Total-tract digestion of NDF was the same for wheat and for corn diets, averaging 55% for the three diets. A postruminal compensation of NDF digestion (14% of the total tract NDF digestion) seemed to occur with the wheat diet. The lack of any postruminal NDF digestion (0%) with the two corn diets may

  14. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat

    PubMed Central

    Barunawati, Nunun; Giehl, Ricardo F. Hettwer; Bauer, Bernhard; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in green leaves, while 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approximately one third of the total Fe, Zn, or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production. PMID:23967006

  15. The Genetic Control of Grain Protein Content under Variable Nitrogen Supply in an Australian Wheat Mapping Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation has been observed in both protein concentration in wheat grain and total protein content (protein yield). Here we describe the genetic analysis of variation for grain protein in response to nitrogen (N) supply and locate significant genomic regions controlling grain protein components in a spring wheat population. In total, six N use efficiency (NUE) field trials were carried out for the target traits in a sub-population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian varieties, RAC875 and Kukri, in Southern and Western Australia from 2011 to 2013. Twenty-four putative Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for protein-related traits were identified at high and low N supply and ten QTL were identified for the response to N for the traits studied. These loci accounted for a significant proportion of the overall effect of N supply. Several of the regions were co-localised with grain yield QTL and are promising targets for further investigation and selection in breeding programs. PMID:27438012

  16. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Kenny; Pauk, János; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Sass, László

    2016-01-01

    We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI) and performance (PI) indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves is correlated with

  17. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  18. Watery Saliva Secreted by the Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae Stimulates Aphid Resistance in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Fan, Jia; Francis, Frédéric; Chen, Julian

    2017-09-27

    Infestation with Sitobion avenae induces localized defense responses in wheat; in this study, the role of S. avenae watery saliva in resistance induction was examined by infiltrating aphid saliva into wheat leaves. After feeding S. avenae on an artificial diet for 48 h, we first collected watery saliva from them and then separated the salivary proteins using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Gene expression studies showed that infiltration of S. avenae watery saliva in wheat leaves induced a strong salicylic acid-responsive defense but moderate jasmonic acid-dependent defense. Feeding on wheat leaves infiltrated with aphid saliva, compared with untreated leaves, significantly decreased the number of nymphs produced per day and the intrinsic rate of increase of the population of S. avenae. In a choice test against untreated wheat, saliva-infiltrated wheat had repellent effects on aphids. Additionally, electrical penetration graph results showed that the feeding behavior of S. avenae on saliva-treated wheat was negatively affected compared with that on untreated wheat. These findings provided direct evidence that salivary components of S. avenae are involved in the induction of wheat resistance against aphids and further demonstrated the important roles of watery saliva in aphid-plant interactions.

  19. Fiber Variation in Whole-Grain Soft Wheat Flour within the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consumption of three or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. Yet, in 2009, whole grains as a percent of total grains consumed in the American diet...

  20. Detection of lesser grain borer larvae in internally infested kernels of brown rice and wheat using an electrically conductive roller mill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modifications were made to a small laboratory mill to enable the detection of rice kernels infested by immature, hidden stored-grain insects. The mill, which was originally designed for wheat, monitors the electrical conductance through the grain and detects kernels that are infested with live inse...

  1. The impact of vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity, and earliness per se on grain protein content of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity and host resistance to stem rust in durum wheat accessions from the USDA National Small Grains Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) located in Aberdeen, ID, maintains collections representing the global diversity of small grains and their wild relatives. To evaluate the utility of the NSGC durum wheat accessions, we assessed genetic diversity and LD patterns in a durum core s...

  3. [Effects of tillage pattern on the flag leaf senescence and grain yield of winter wheat under dry farming].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Wu, Jin-Zhi; Li, You-Jun; Yao, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Can-Jun; Cai, Dian-Xiong; Jin, Ke

    2009-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage patterns, i.e., deep plowing once, no-tillage, subsoiling, and conventional tillage, on the flag leaf senescence and grain yield of winter wheat, as well as the soil moisture and nutrient status under dry farming. No-tillage and subsoiling increased the SOD and POD activities and the chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, decreased the MDA and O2(-.) contents, and postponed the senescence of flag leaf. Under non-tillage and subsoiling, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer at anthesis and grain-filling stages was decreased by 4.13% and 6.23% and by 5.50% and 9.27%, respectively, and the contents of alkali-hydrolysable N, available P, and available K in this soil layer also increased significantly, compared with those under conventional tillage. Deep plowing once decreased the moisture content and increased the nutrients contents in 0-40 cm soil layer, but the decrement and increment were not significant. The post-anthesis biomass, post-anthesis dry matter translocation rate, and grain yield under no-tillage and subsoiling were 4.34% and 4.76%, 15.56% and 13.51%, and 10.22% and 9.26% higher than those under conventional tillage, respectively. It could be concluded that no-tillage and subsoiling provided better soil conditions for the post-anthesis growth of winter wheat, under which, the flag leaf senescence postponed, post-anthesis dry matter accumulation and translocation accelerated, and grain yield increased significantly, being the feasible tillage practices in dry farming winter wheat areas.

  4. Effect of Rht alleles on wheat grain yield and quality under high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis.

    PubMed

    Alghabari, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Hussain, Saddam; Aishia, Ghulam; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of gibberellin semi-sensitive reduced height (Rht) alleles on wheat grain yield and quality under high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis stages. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of winter wheat (Rht (tall), Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-8c, Rht-D1c, Rht-12) having background of Mercia and Maris Widgeon cultivars were compared under variable temperatures (day/night: 20/12, 27/19, 30/22, 33/25, 36/28, and 39/31 °C) and irrigation regimes. Pots were transferred to controlled thermal conditions (Saxcil growth chamber) during booting and anthesis stages and were maintained at field capacity (FC) or had water withheld. High temperature (>30 °C) and drought stress for seven consecutive days during booting and anthesis stages reduced the grain yield, while increased nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentrations. A 50 % reduction in grain yield was fitted to have occurred at 37.4 °C for well-watered plants and at 31.4 °C for drought-stressed plants. The N and S concentrations were higher for severe dwarfs, whereas no significant differences were observed between tall and semi-dwarfs in Mercia. In the taller background (Maris Widgeon), N and S concentrations were significantly higher compared with that in Mercia. In Mercia, the severe dwarf Rht-D1c had higher Hagberg falling number (HFN) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) sedimentation volume. In both backgrounds, semi-dwarfs and severe dwarfs had higher HFN. Moreover, the SDS sedimentation volumes in Maris Widgeon were also higher than that in Mercia. Greater adaptability and improved grain quality traits suggested that severe dwarf Rht alleles are better able to enhance tolerance to high temperature and drought stress in wheat.

  5. Detection of Powdery Mildew in Two Winter Wheat Plant Densities and Prediction of Grain Yield Using Canopy Hyperspectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xueren; Luo, Yong; Zhou, Yilin; Fan, Jieru; Xu, Xiangming; West, Jonathan S.; Duan, Xiayu; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of plant density and powdery mildew infection of winter wheat and to predict grain yield, hyperspectral canopy reflectance of winter wheat was measured for two plant densities at Feekes growth stage (GS) 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 in the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons. Reflectance in near infrared (NIR) regions was significantly correlated with disease index at GS 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 at two plant densities in both seasons. For the two plant densities, the area of the red edge peak (Σdr680–760 nm), difference vegetation index (DVI), and triangular vegetation index (TVI) were significantly correlated negatively with disease index at three GSs in two seasons. Compared with other parameters Σdr680–760 nm was the most sensitive parameter for detecting powdery mildew. Linear regression models relating mildew severity to Σdr680–760 nm were constructed at three GSs in two seasons for the two plant densities, demonstrating no significant difference in the slope estimates between the two plant densities at three GSs. Σdr680–760 nm was correlated with grain yield at three GSs in two seasons. The accuracies of partial least square regression (PLSR) models were consistently higher than those of models based on Σdr680760 nm for disease index and grain yield. PLSR can, therefore, provide more accurate estimation of disease index of wheat powdery mildew and grain yield using canopy reflectance. PMID:25815468

  6. Defining genetic and chemical diversity in wheat grain by 1H‐NMR spectroscopy of polar metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Corol, Delia I.; Jones, Huw D.; Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.

    2017-01-01

    Scope The application of high‐throughput 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H‐NMR) of unpurified extracts to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. Methods and results Milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2O:CD3OD containing 0.05% d4–trimethylsilylpropionate. 1H‐NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300°K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions. The individual 1H‐NMR peaks or levels of known metabolites were then compared by Principal Component Analysis using SIMCA‐P software. Conclusions High‐throughput 1H‐NMR is an excellent tool to compare the extent of genetic diversity within and between wheat species, and to quantify specific components (including glycine betaine, choline, and asparagine) in individual genotypes. It can also be used to monitor changes in composition related to environmental factors and to support comparisons of the substantial equivalence of transgenic lines. PMID:28087883

  7. Nematicides increase grain yields in spring wheat cultivars and suppress plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kimpinski, J; Martin, R A; Sturz, A V

    2005-12-01

    Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P < 0.001) by an average of 0.56 (25.1%) and 1.17 (52.5%) tonnes/ha in comparison to untreated check plots when aldicarb at 2.24 kg or fosthiazate at 13.5 a.i./ha, respectively, were broadcast and incorporated into the soil to suppress nematodes. The planned F test using orthogonal coefficients indicated that the mean response of grain yields to nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P < 0.001). Root lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) in wheat roots and in root zone soil at harvest were reduced by the nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.

  8. Defining genetic and chemical diversity in wheat grain by 1H-NMR spectroscopy of polar metabolites.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Corol, Delia I; Jones, Huw D; Beale, Michael H; Ward, Jane L

    2017-07-01

    The application of high-throughput 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) of unpurified extracts to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. Milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2 O:CD3 OD containing 0.05% d4 -trimethylsilylpropionate. 1H-NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300°K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions. The individual 1H-NMR peaks or levels of known metabolites were then compared by Principal Component Analysis using SIMCA-P software. High-throughput 1H-NMR is an excellent tool to compare the extent of genetic diversity within and between wheat species, and to quantify specific components (including glycine betaine, choline, and asparagine) in individual genotypes. It can also be used to monitor changes in composition related to environmental factors and to support comparisons of the substantial equivalence of transgenic lines. © 2017 Rothamsted Research. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Variation analysis on the grain yield and main agronomic traits of spring wheat in rainfed regions of China].

    PubMed

    Chang, Lei; Chai, Shou-xi; Yang, De-long; Lu, Qing-lin

    2010-11-01

    Based on the grain yield data of spring wheat from the 2002-2005 regional trials with 13 cultivars (lines) on the rainfed farmlands at 18 locations of China, and by using variance analysis and GGE (genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction) biplot, this paper studied the effects of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction (GEI) on the yield variation of spring wheat and the yield stability of different cultivars (lines). Comparing with genotype and GEI, the environment had much more contribution on the yield variation, accounting for 87.5%-92.0% of the total. In the GEI items, genotype x location had the greatest effect, whereas genotype x year had the smallest one. The average yield of modern spring wheat genotypes across years and locations in China was 2550 kg x hm(-2). Among the three yield components, thousand kernel weight (TKW) had the least variation under environmental change. The main environment factors affecting the yield variation were annual accumulated temperature ( > or =10 degrees C), precipitation in growth season, mean air temperature, altitude, annual precipitation, and frost-free period. The grain yield had significant positive correlations with spike number per unit area (SPU) (r = 0.675**), TKW (r = 0.456**), and kernels per spike (KPS) (r = 0.581**), and the SPU, KPS and TKW also had positive correlations (r = 0.244-0.480**) with each other, implying that these three yield components might be increased or improved synchronously.

  10. Changes in the starch-protein interface depending on common wheat grain hardness revealed using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chichti, Emna; George, Matthieu; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Lullien-Pellerin, Valérie

    2015-10-01

    The atomic force microscope tip was used to progressively abrade the surface of non-cut starch granules embedded in the endosperm protein matrix in grain sections from wheat near-isogenic lines differing in the puroindoline b gene and thus, hardness. In the hard near-isogenic wheat lines, starch granules exhibited two distinct profiles corresponding either to abrasion in the surrounding protein layer or the starch granule. An additional profile, only identified in soft lines, revealed a marked stop in the abrasion at the protein-starch transition similar to a lipid interface playing a lubricant role. It was related to the presence of both wild-type puroindolines, already suggested to act at the starch-protein interface through their association with polar lipids. This study revealed, for the first time, in situ differences in the nano-mechanical properties at the starch-protein interface in the endosperm of wheat grains depending on the puroindoline allelic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. Results We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence. Conclusions We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization. PMID:22136458

  12. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conse