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Sample records for grain wheat sourdough

  1. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  2. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    PubMed Central

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread. PMID:26019574

  3. A polyphasic approach to study the dynamics of microbial population of an organic wheat sourdough during its conversion to gluten-free sourdough.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Mezaize, Sandra; Ducasse, Maren Bonnand; Chiron, Hubert; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane; Zagorec, Monique; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    To develop a method for organic gluten-free (GF) sourdough bread production, a long-term and original wheat sourdough was refreshed with GF flours. The dynamics of the sourdough microbiota during five months of back-slopping were analyzed by classical enumeration and molecular methods, including PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE), multiplex PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed that the yeast counts remained constant, although Saccharomyces cerevisiae, present in the initial wheat sourdough, was no longer detected in the GF sourdough, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased consistently. In the first phase, which was aimed at obtaining a GF sourdough from wheat sourdough, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, L. plantarum, and L. spicheri were the main LAB species detected. During the second phase, aimed at maintaining the GF sourdough, the L. plantarum and L. spicheri populations decreased whereas L. sanfranciscensis persisted and L. sakei became the predominant species. Multiplex PCRs also revealed the presence of several L. sakei strains in the GF sourdough. In a search for the origin of the LAB species, PCR-TTGE was performed on the flour samples but only L. sanfranciscensis was detected, suggesting a flour origin for this typical sourdough species. Thus, while replacement of the wheat flour by GF flour influenced the sourdough microbiota, some of the original sourdough LAB and yeast species remained in the GF sourdough.

  4. A polyphasic approach to study the dynamics of microbial population of an organic wheat sourdough during its conversion to gluten-free sourdough.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Mezaize, Sandra; Ducasse, Maren Bonnand; Chiron, Hubert; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane; Zagorec, Monique; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    To develop a method for organic gluten-free (GF) sourdough bread production, a long-term and original wheat sourdough was refreshed with GF flours. The dynamics of the sourdough microbiota during five months of back-slopping were analyzed by classical enumeration and molecular methods, including PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE), multiplex PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed that the yeast counts remained constant, although Saccharomyces cerevisiae, present in the initial wheat sourdough, was no longer detected in the GF sourdough, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased consistently. In the first phase, which was aimed at obtaining a GF sourdough from wheat sourdough, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, L. plantarum, and L. spicheri were the main LAB species detected. During the second phase, aimed at maintaining the GF sourdough, the L. plantarum and L. spicheri populations decreased whereas L. sanfranciscensis persisted and L. sakei became the predominant species. Multiplex PCRs also revealed the presence of several L. sakei strains in the GF sourdough. In a search for the origin of the LAB species, PCR-TTGE was performed on the flour samples but only L. sanfranciscensis was detected, suggesting a flour origin for this typical sourdough species. Thus, while replacement of the wheat flour by GF flour influenced the sourdough microbiota, some of the original sourdough LAB and yeast species remained in the GF sourdough. PMID:25296441

  5. Lactic acid bacteria community dynamics and metabolite production of rye sourdough fermentations share characteristics of wheat and spelt sourdough fermentations.

    PubMed

    Weckx, Stefan; Van der Meulen, Roel; Maes, Dominique; Scheirlinck, Ilse; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    Four spontaneous rye sourdough fermentations were performed over a period of ten days with daily back-slopping. Samples taken at all refreshment steps were used for culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of the microbiota present. Furthermore, an extensive metabolite target analysis was performed through a combination of various chromatographic methods, including liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated and a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained in this study combined with data obtained previously for wheat and spelt sourdoughs. In general, the establishment of a stable microbial ecosystem occurred through a three-phase evolution, with mainly Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum dominating the rye sourdough ecosystems. PCA revealed that ornithine and mannitol were positively correlated with rye sourdoughs, contributing to bacterial competitiveness at the onset of sourdough production. Wheat and spelt sourdoughs showed a high degree of similarity, although certain compounds (e.g. indolelactic acid) appeared to be specific for spelt sourdoughs. The production of amino acid metabolites, mainly hydroxy acids (e.g. phenyllactic acid) and alcohols (e.g. 3-methyl-1-butanol), contributed to the equilibration of the redox balance and further enhanced the competitiveness of dominant species in stable sourdoughs.

  6. Microbial Ecology Dynamics during Rye and Wheat Sourdough Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Ercolini, Danilo; Pontonio, Erica; De Filippis, Francesca; Minervini, Fabio; La Storia, Antonietta; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial ecology during rye and wheat sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Viable plate counts of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, the ratio between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, the rate of acidification, a permutation analysis based on biochemical and microbial features, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and diversity indices all together demonstrated the maturity of the sourdoughs during 5 to 7 days of propagation. Flours were mainly contaminated by metabolically active genera (Acinetobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Comamonas, Enterobacter, Erwinia, and Sphingomonas) belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria or Bacteroidetes (genus Chryseobacterium). Their relative abundances varied with the flour. Soon after 1 day of propagation, this population was almost completely inhibited except for the Enterobacteriaceae. Although members of the phylum Firmicutes were present at very low or intermediate relative abundances in the flours, they became dominant soon after 1 day of propagation. Lactic acid bacteria were almost exclusively representative of the Firmicutes by this time. Weissella spp. were already dominant in rye flour and stably persisted, though they were later flanked by the Lactobacillus sakei group. There was a succession of species during 10 days of propagation of wheat sourdoughs. The fluctuation between dominating and subdominating populations of L. sakei group, Leuconostoc spp., Weissella spp., and Lactococcus lactis was demonstrated. Other subdominant species such as Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable throughout propagation. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated throughout the sourdough propagation. Notwithstanding variations due to environmental and technology determinants, the results of this study represent a clear example of how the microbial ecology evolves during sourdough preparation. PMID:24096427

  7. In situ production and analysis of Weissella confusa dextran in wheat sourdough.

    PubMed

    Katina, Kati; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Flander, Laura; Johansson, Liisa; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Laitila, Arja

    2009-10-01

    Several lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella have been introduced to wheat sourdough baking for in situ production of exopolysaccharides. This is considered a novel method for improving the shelf-life, volume and nutritional value of bread without additives. However, in situ production of exopolysaccharides during sourdough fermentation is challenged by simultaneous acidification due to metabolic activities of the bacteria, which may significantly diminish the positive technological impact of exopolysaccharides. In this study, the growth, activity and in situ production of dextran by Weissella confusa VTT E-90392 in wheat sourdoughs were investigated. Furthermore, the influence of dextran-enriched sourdoughs, at the addition level of 43%, on the subsequent bread quality was established. W. confusa efficiently produced dextran from the added sucrose in wheat sourdough without strong acid production. A new specific enzyme-assisted method for in situ analysis of dextran in sourdoughs was developed. With this method, we could for the first time proof significant (11-16 g/kg DW) production of polymeric dextran in sourdoughs. Concomitant formation of shorter isomaltooligosaccharides by W. confusa was also detected. The produced dextran significantly increased the viscosity of the sourdoughs. Application of dextran-enriched sourdoughs in bread baking provided mildly acidic wheat bread with improved volume (up to 10%) and crumb softness (25-40%) during 6 days of storage. Hence, W. confusa is a promising new strain for efficient in situ production of dextrans and isomaltooligosaccharides in sourdoughs without strong acidification.

  8. Effect of sourdough on quality and acceptability of wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros-Martínez, M del Refugio; Ochoa-Martínez, L Araceli; González-Herrera, Silvia M; Delgado-Licon, Efren; Bello-Pérez, L Arturo; Morales-Castro, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative on the search for functional food products, this study evaluated the use of sourdough in the preparation of wheat flour tortillas. The sourdough was elaborated with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and the wheat flour tortillas were prepared with different concentrations of mother sponge (5%, 15%, and 25%) and fermentation times (1 and 3 h) at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Quality (diameter, height, color, pH, stretchability scores, and Kramer shear cell results) of wheat tortillas was evaluated after 24 h of preparation. The mother sponge concentration and fermentation time affected some quality parameters and acceptability properties (taste, aroma, color, opacity, and rollability). In addition, the sourdough tortillas had higher stretchability values than control tortillas. Since most of the prepared sourdough tortillas had acceptability values similar to those of tortilla controls, the introduction of sourdough is a viable means to incorporate additional nutritional and nutraceutical value into wheat tortillas.

  9. Robustness of Lactobacillus plantarum starters during daily propagation of wheat flour sourdough type I.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pinto, Daniela; Siragusa, Sonya; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the robustness of selected sourdough strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Seven strains were singly used as sourdough type I starters under daily back-slopping propagation (ten days) using wheat flour. Cell numbers of presumptive lactic acid bacteria varied slightly (median values of 9.13-9.46 log cfu g(-1)) between and within started sourdoughs, as well as the acidifying activity (median values of 1.24-1.33). After three days also the control sourdough (unstarted) had the same values. As shown by RAPD-PCR analysis, five (DB200, 3DM, G10C3, 12H1 and LP20) out of seven strains maintained elevated cell numbers (ca. 9 log cfu g(-1)) throughout ten days. The other two strains progressively decreased to less than 5 log cfu g(-1). As identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and recA genes, L. plantarum (11 isolates), pediococci (7), Lactobacillus casei (3) and Lactobacillus rossiae (2) dominated the flour microbiota. Monitoring of lactic acid bacteria during sourdough propagation was carried out by culture dependent approach and using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Except for the sourdough started with L. plantarum LP20, in all other sourdoughs at least one autochthonous strain of L. plantarum emerged. All emerging strains of L. plantarum showed different RAPD-PCR profiles. L. rossiae and Pediococcus pentosaceus were only found in the control and sourdough started with strain 12H1. The characterization of the catabolic profiles of sourdoughs (Biolog System) showed that sourdoughs containing persistent starters behaved similarly and their profiles were clearly differentiated from the others. One persistent strain (DB200) of L. plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LS44, previously shown to be persistent (Siragusa et al., 2009), were used as the mixed starter to produce a wheat flour sourdough. Both strains cohabited and dominated during ten days of propagation.

  10. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria: exploration of non-wheat cereal-based fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cagno, Raffaella Di; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Cereal-based foods represent a very important source of biological as well as of cultural diversity, as testified by the wide range of derived fermented products. A trend that is increasingly attracting bakery industries as well as consumers is the use of non-conventional flours for the production of novel products, characterised by peculiar flavour and better nutritional value. Lactic acid bacteria microbiota of several non-wheat cereals and pseudo-cereals has been recently deeply investigated with the aim of studying the biodiversity and finding starter cultures for sourdough fermentation. Currently, the use of ancient or ethnic grains is mainly limited to traditional typical foods and the bread making process is not well standardised with consequent negative effects on the final properties. The challenge in fermenting such grains is represented by the necessity to combine good technology and sensory properties with nutritional/health benefits. The choice of the starter cultures has a critical impact on the final quality of cereal-based products, and strains that dominate and outcompete contaminants should be applied for specific sourdough fermentations. In this sense, screening and characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota is very useful in the improvement of a peculiar flour, from both a nutritional and technological point of view.

  11. Structural and rheological characterisation of heteropolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria in wheat and sorghum sourdough.

    PubMed

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke K; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Hydrocolloids improve the volume, texture, and shelf life of bread. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation can replace hydrocolloids. It was the aim of this study to determine whether heteropolysaccharides (HePS) synthesized intracellularly from sugar nucleotides by glycosyltransferases are produced in wheat and gluten-free sorghum sourdough at effective levels. The HePS-producing strains Lactobacillus casei FUA3185, L. casei FUA3186, and Lactobacillus buchneri FUA3154 were used; Weissella cibaria 10M producing no EPS in the absence of sucrose served as control strain. Cell suspensions of L. buchneri in MRS showed the highest viscosity at low shear rate. Glycosyltransferase genes responsible of HePS formation in LAB were expressed in sorghum and wheat sourdough. However, only HePS produced by L. buchneri influenced the rheological properties of sorghum sourdoughs but not of wheat sourdoughs. Sorghum sourdough fermented with L. buchneri exhibited a low |G*| compared to the control, indicating a decrease in resistance to deformation. An increase in tan δ indicated decreased elasticity. The use of LAB producing HePS expands the diversity of EPS and increases the variety of cultures for use in baking.

  12. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P < 0.05) cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria after the first fermentation. Constant pH of ca. 4.0 was found after two (macerated pears or water pears-doughs) to seven (control-dough) back-slopping steps. The use of additional ingredients caused lower microbial diversity, after the first fermentation and in mature sourdoughs. Regardless of the type of ingredient used, OTU belonging to the genus Lactobacillus represented more than 95% of the total Firmicutes in mature sourdoughs. Some metabolic capacities of microbial community of the mature sourdoughs were linked to the additional ingredient. Based on culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated in all the sourdoughs. However, the sourdoughs showed different strains of these two species. Other lactic acid bacterium species were associated to baker's yeast, grape must and macerated pears. The different microbial composition was correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives). PMID:27554152

  13. Use of sourdough lactobacilli and oat fibre to decrease the glycaemic index of white wheat bread.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Rizzello, Carlo G; Alfonsi, Giuditta; Arnault, Philip; Cappelle, Stefan; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-12-01

    This work was aimed at decreasing the glycaemic index (GI) of white wheat bread. Breads made with wheat flour (WF) or wholemeal flour (WMF) and fermented with baker's yeast had similar values of resistant starch (RS; 1.4-1.7 %, starch basis). Sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum P1 and Lactobacillus brevis P2 favoured the highest formation of RS (approximately 5 %) when fermented with WF and WMF. The mixture (1:1) of WF and WMF (WF/WMF) was selected. The effect of dietary fibres, chemical or sourdough acidification on the hydrolysis index (HI) of WF/WMF bread was determined. Among fibres, only the addition of oat fibre (5 %) decreased the HI to 90.84 %. Lactic acid determined the lowest HI, and the effect was related to the decrease of pH. For the same decrease of pH, breads fermented with L. plantarum P1 and L. brevis P2 (sourdough WF/WMF) showed values of HI lower than chemical acidification. The glucose response and GI of WF bread or sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre was determined by using fifteen healthy volunteers. Anhydrous glucose was used as reference. The area under the glucose response curve and the value of GI (72 %) of WF bread were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre (GI = 53.7 %). The decrease of GI of the sourdough WF/WMF bread may be due to both fibre content and decreased pH. Compared to WMF bread, sourdough WF/WMF bread, enriched with oat fibre, had higher specific volume, better cell crumb structure and more appreciated acidulous smell, taste and aroma.

  14. Genome Sequence of Weissella confusa LBAE C39-2, Isolated from a Wheat Sourdough

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Myriam; Laguerre, Sandrine; Vuillemin, Marlène; Robert, Hervé; Loux, Valentin; Klopp, Christophe; Morel, Sandrine; Gabriel, Bruno; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Gabriel, Valérie; Moulis, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Weissella confusa is a rod-shaped heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium from the family of Leuconostocaceae. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the strain W. confusa LBAE C39-2 isolated from a traditional French wheat sourdough. PMID:22374947

  15. Study of kefir grains application in sourdough bread regarding rope spoilage caused by Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Mantzourani, I; Plessas, S; Saxami, G; Alexopoulos, A; Galanis, A; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2014-01-15

    Sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains resulted in appearance of rope spoilage at the 15th day of bread storage, while the control samples (sourdough breads prepared with wild microflora) were spoiled approximately at the 7th day. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis confirmed the above macroscopic observation since Bacillus spp. were detected on sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains at the 15th day of bread storage. The content of organic acids that play synergistic role regarding the enhancement of bread self life was also determined. Lactic acid concentration of sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains were approximately 41-82% higher than the control samples, while acetic acid concentration was about 0.5-1-fold higher respectively. The concentration of some other organic acids studied was also found in higher levels (up to 0.06μg/g) than the control samples. These findings could probably explain the stability of breads prepared with kefir grains against rope spoilage.

  16. Kefir immobilized on corn grains as biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation and sourdough bread making.

    PubMed

    Plessas, Stavros; Alexopoulos, Athanasios; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia

    2012-12-01

    The natural mixed culture kefir was immobilized on boiled corn grains to produce an efficient biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation with direct applications in food production, such as sourdough bread making. The immobilized biocatalyst was initially evaluated for its efficiency for lactic acid production by fermentation of cheese whey at various temperatures. The immobilized cells increased the fermentation rate and enhanced lactic acid production compared to free kefir cells. Maximum lactic acid yield (68.8 g/100 g) and lactic acid productivity (12.6 g/L per day) were obtained during fermentation by immobilized cells at 37 °C. The immobilized biocatalyst was then assessed as culture for sourdough bread making. The produced sourdough breads had satisfactory specific loaf volumes and good sensory characteristics. Specifically, bread made by addition of 60% w/w sourdough containing kefir immobilized on corn was more resistant regarding mould spoilage (appearance during the 11(th) day), probably due to higher lactic acid produced (2.86 g/Kg of bread) compared to the control samples. The sourdough breads made with the immobilized biocatalyst had aroma profiles similar to that of the control samples as shown by headspace SPME GC-MS analysis.

  17. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    PubMed

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed. PMID:27332783

  18. Sourdough bread made from wheat and nontoxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in celiac sprue patients.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Auricchio, Salvatore; Greco, Luigi; Clarke, Charmaine; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Landolfo, Francesca; Parrilli, Giampaolo; Minervini, Fabio; Arendt, Elke; Gobbetti, Marco

    2004-02-01

    This work was aimed at producing a sourdough bread that is tolerated by celiac sprue (CS) patients. Selected sourdough lactobacilli had specialized peptidases capable of hydrolyzing Pro-rich peptides, including the 33-mer peptide, the most potent inducer of gut-derived human T-cell lines in CS patients. This epitope, the most important in CS, was hydrolyzed completely after treatment with cells and their cytoplasmic extracts (CE). A sourdough made from a mixture of wheat (30%) and nontoxic oat, millet, and buckwheat flours was started with lactobacilli. After 24 h of fermentation, wheat gliadins and low-molecular-mass, alcohol-soluble polypeptides were hydrolyzed almost totally. Proteins were extracted from sourdough and used to produce a peptic-tryptic digest for in vitro agglutination tests on K 562(S) subclone cells of human origin. The minimal agglutinating activity was ca. 250 times higher than that of doughs chemically acidified or started with baker's yeast. Two types of bread, containing ca. 2 g of gluten, were produced with baker's yeast or lactobacilli and CE and used for an in vivo double-blind acute challenge of CS patients. Thirteen of the 17 patients showed a marked alteration of intestinal permeability after ingestion of baker's yeast bread. When fed the sourdough bread, the same 13 patients had values for excreted rhamnose and lactulose that did not differ significantly from the baseline values. The other 4 of the 17 CS patients did not respond to gluten after ingesting the baker's yeast or sourdough bread. These results showed that a bread biotechnology that uses selected lactobacilli, nontoxic flours, and a long fermentation time is a novel tool for decreasing the level of gluten intolerance in humans.

  19. Population dynamics and metabolite target analysis of lactic acid bacteria during laboratory fermentations of wheat and spelt sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Van der Meulen, Roel; Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van Schoor, Ann; Huys, Geert; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-08-01

    Four laboratory sourdough fermentations, initiated with wheat or spelt flour and without the addition of a starter culture, were prepared over a period of 10 days with daily back-slopping. Samples taken at all refreshment steps were used for determination of the present microbiota. Furthermore, an extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed through a combination of various chromatographic methods including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The establishment of a stable microbial ecosystem occurred through a three-phase evolution within a week, as revealed by both microbiological and metabolite analyses. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum were dominating some of the sourdough ecosystems. Although the heterofermentative L. fermentum was dominating one of the wheat sourdoughs, all other sourdoughs were dominated by a combination of obligate and facultative heterofermentative taxa. Strains of homofermentative species were not retrieved in the stable sourdough ecosystems. Concentrations of sugar and amino acid metabolites hardly changed during the last days of fermentation. Besides lactic acid, ethanol, and mannitol, the production of succinic acid, erythritol, and various amino acid metabolites, such as phenyllactic acid, hydroxyphenyllactic acid, and indolelactic acid, was shown during fermentation. Physiologically, they contributed to the equilibration of the redox balance. The biphasic approach of the present study allowed us to map some of the interactions taking place during sourdough fermentation and helped us to understand the fine-tuned metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, which allows them to dominate a food ecosystem.

  20. Influence of Temperature and Backslopping Time on the Microbiota of a Type I Propagated Laboratory Wheat Sourdough Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Vrancken, Gino; Rimaux, Tom; Weckx, Stefan; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Sourdough fermentation is a cereal fermentation that is characterized by the formation of stable yeast/lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associations. It is a unique process among food fermentations in that the LAB that mostly dominate these fermentations are heterofermentative. In the present study, four wheat sourdough fermentations were carried out under different conditions of temperature and backslopping time to determine their effect on the composition of the microbiota of the final sourdoughs. A substantial effect of temperature was observed. A fermentation with 10 backsloppings (once every 24 h) at 23°C resulted in a microbiota composed of Leuconostoc citreum as the dominant species, whereas fermentations at 30 and 37°C with backslopping every 24 h resulted in ecosystems dominated by Lactobacillus fermentum. Longer backslopping times (every 48 h at 30°C) resulted in a combination of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum. Residual maltose remained present in all fermentations, except those with longer backslopping times, and ornithine was found in almost all fermentations, indicating enhanced sourdough-typical LAB activity. The sourdough-typical species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was not found. Finally, a nonflour origin for this species was hypothesized. PMID:21335386

  1. The acute impact of ingestion of sourdough and whole-grain breads on blood glucose, insulin, and incretins in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mofidi, Anita; Ferraro, Zachary M; Stewart, Katherine A; Tulk, Hilary M F; Robinson, Lindsay E; Duncan, Alison M; Graham, Terry E

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g) in part 1 (n = 12) and bread mass (107 g) in part 2 (n = 11), and blood glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined for 3 h. In part 1, glucose response for sprouted-grain was lower than 11-grain, sourdough, and white breads. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough and white was lower than 11-grain and sprouted-grain breads. GLP-1 response to sourdough was lower than all breads. In part 2, glucose and insulin AUC for sourdough was greater than 11-grain, sprouted-grain, and 12-grain breads. Sprouted-grain bread improved glycemia by lowering glucose response and increasing GLP-1 response. In overweight and obese men, the glycemic response to sprouted grain bread was reduced in both parts 1 and 2 while the other whole-grain test breads did not improve metabolic responses in the acute postprandial state.

  2. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

  3. Antifungal activities of three different Lactobacillus species and their production of antifungal carboxylic acids in wheat sourdough.

    PubMed

    Axel, Claudia; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Peyer, Lorenzo C; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the antifungal performance of three different Lactobacillus species.Experiments were conducted in vitro and in situ to extend the shelf life of wheat bread. Standard sourdough analyses were performed characterising acidity and carbohydrate levels. Overall, the strains showed good inhibition in vitro against the indicator mould Fusarium culmorum TMW4.2043. Sourdough bread fermented with Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 performed best in the in situ shelf life experiment. An average shelf life extension of six more mould-free days was reached when compared to the non-acidified control bread. A range of antifungal-active acids like 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid and 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid in quantities between 0.1 and 360 mg/kg were present in the freeze-dried sourdoughs. Their concentration differed greatly amongst the species.However, a higher concentration of these compounds could not completely justify the growth inhibition of environmental moulds. In particular, although Lb. reuteri R29 produced the highest total concentration of these active compounds in the sourdough, its addition to bread did not result in a longest shelf life. Nevertheless, when the artificial compounds were spiked into a chemically acidified dough, it succeeded in a longer shelf life (+25 %) than achieved only by acidifying the dough. This provides evidence of their contribution to the antifungal activity and their synergy in concentration levels far below their single minimal inhibition concentrations under acidic conditions.

  4. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions.

  5. Evaluation of Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi as a starter culture for whole wheat sourdough.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyejung; Kim, Yeo-Won; Hwang, Inyoung; Kim, Jeongho; Yoon, Sun

    2012-10-15

    Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi were evaluated as starter cultures in the making of whole wheat sourdough bread. After 24h of fermentation at 25 °C, both lactobacilli grew to the final cell numbers of ca. 10(9)cfu/g dough, and both doughs had similar pHs and total titratable acidities. In addition, the fermentation quotient of the dough with Lc. citreum HO12 was slightly lower than that of the dough with W. koreensis HO20 (1.6 versus 2.8). Sourdoughs and bread with 50% sourdough produced with the starter cultures exhibited consistent ability to retard the growth of bread spoilage fungi (Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger) and rope-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis). Sourdough breads underwent a significant reduction in bread firming during storage. It seems that both lactobacilli have the potential to improve the shelf-life of wheat bread. The results indicate that the selected lactobacilli have unique fermentation characteristics and produce sourdough breads with overall satisfactory quality.

  6. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    PubMed

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions. PMID:25583343

  7. Evaluation of Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi as a starter culture for whole wheat sourdough.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyejung; Kim, Yeo-Won; Hwang, Inyoung; Kim, Jeongho; Yoon, Sun

    2012-10-15

    Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi were evaluated as starter cultures in the making of whole wheat sourdough bread. After 24h of fermentation at 25 °C, both lactobacilli grew to the final cell numbers of ca. 10(9)cfu/g dough, and both doughs had similar pHs and total titratable acidities. In addition, the fermentation quotient of the dough with Lc. citreum HO12 was slightly lower than that of the dough with W. koreensis HO20 (1.6 versus 2.8). Sourdoughs and bread with 50% sourdough produced with the starter cultures exhibited consistent ability to retard the growth of bread spoilage fungi (Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger) and rope-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis). Sourdough breads underwent a significant reduction in bread firming during storage. It seems that both lactobacilli have the potential to improve the shelf-life of wheat bread. The results indicate that the selected lactobacilli have unique fermentation characteristics and produce sourdough breads with overall satisfactory quality. PMID:23442676

  8. Genome Sequences of Three Leuconostoc citreum Strains, LBAE C10, LBAE C11, and LBAE E16, Isolated from Wheat Sourdoughs

    PubMed Central

    Laguerre, Sandrine; Amari, Myriam; Vuillemin, Marlène; Robert, Hervé; Loux, Valentin; Klopp, Christophe; Morel, Sandrine; Gabriel, Bruno; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Gabriel, Valérie; Moulis, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc citreum is a key microorganism in fermented foods of plant origin. Here we report the draft genome sequence for three strains of Leuconostoc citreum, LBAE C10, LBAE C11, and LBAE E16, which have been isolated from traditional French wheat sourdoughs. PMID:22374948

  9. Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of

  10. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  11. Quantification of phenyllactic acid in wheat sourdough using high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Liam Anthony Matthew; Dal Bello, Fabio; Czerny, Michael; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2009-02-11

    In this study, high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) was successfully used to quantify the level of phenyllactic acid produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains during sourdough fermentation. Investigation of samples collected during fermentation revealed that the production of phenyllactic acid occurs throughout the growth of L. plantarum in sourdough, but the highest production rate was observed during the logarithmic growth phase. The highest amount, that is, 33.47 mg of phenyllactic acid/kg of dough, was measured in sourdough fermented by the antifungal strain L. plantarum FST 1.7. Sourdoughs fermented by different L. plantarum strains contained different amounts of phenyllactic acid, thus indicating that the production is strain-dependent. Phenylacetic acid was also detected during sourdough analysis, thus showing that the HRGC-MS protocol developed is suitable for the detection not only of phenyllactic acid, but also of a broader range of phenolic acids that are highly relevant, but present in very low amounts in sourdough.

  12. Sourdough fermentation of wheat flour does not prevent the interaction of transglutaminase 2 with α2-gliadin or gluten.

    PubMed

    Engström, Niklas; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Scheers, Nathalie

    2015-03-25

    The enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) plays a crucial role in the initiation of celiac disease by catalyzing the deamidation of gluten peptides. In susceptible individuals, the deamidated peptides initiate an immune response leading to celiac disease. Several studies have addressed lactic fermentation plus addition of enzymes as a means to degrade gluten in order to prevent adverse response in celiacs. Processing for complete gluten degradation is often harsh and is not likely to yield products that are of comparable characteristics as their gluten-containing counterparts. We are concerned that incomplete degradation of gluten may have adverse effects because it leads to more available TG2-binding sites on gluten peptides. Therefore, we have investigated how lactic acid fermentation affects the potential binding of TG2 to gluten protein in wheat flour by means of estimating TG2-mediated transamidation in addition to measuring the available TG2-binding motif QLP, in α2-gliadin. We show that lactic fermentation of wheat flour, as slurry or as part of sourdough bread, did not decrease the TG2-mediated transamidation, in the presence of a primary amine, to an efficient level (73%-102% of unfermented flour). Nor did the lactic fermentation decrease the available TG2 binding motif QLP in α2-gliadin to a sufficient extent in sourdough bread (73%-122% of unfermented control) to be useful for celiac safe food.

  13. Sourdough Fermentation of Wheat Flour does not Prevent the Interaction of Transglutaminase 2 with α2-Gliadin or Gluten

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Niklas; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Scheers, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) plays a crucial role in the initiation of celiac disease by catalyzing the deamidation of gluten peptides. In susceptible individuals, the deamidated peptides initiate an immune response leading to celiac disease. Several studies have addressed lactic fermentation plus addition of enzymes as a means to degrade gluten in order to prevent adverse response in celiacs. Processing for complete gluten degradation is often harsh and is not likely to yield products that are of comparable characteristics as their gluten-containing counterparts. We are concerned that incomplete degradation of gluten may have adverse effects because it leads to more available TG2-binding sites on gluten peptides. Therefore, we have investigated how lactic acid fermentation affects the potential binding of TG2 to gluten protein in wheat flour by means of estimating TG2-mediated transamidation in addition to measuring the available TG2-binding motif QLP, in α2-gliadin. We show that lactic fermentation of wheat flour, as slurry or as part of sourdough bread, did not decrease the TG2-mediated transamidation, in the presence of a primary amine, to an efficient level (73%–102% of unfermented flour). Nor did the lactic fermentation decrease the available TG2 binding motif QLP in α2-gliadin to a sufficient extent in sourdough bread (73%–122% of unfermented control) to be useful for celiac safe food. PMID:25816160

  14. Moderate decrease of pH by sourdough fermentation is sufficient to reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour through endogenous phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Leenhardt, Fanny; Levrat-Verny, Marie-Anne; Chanliaud, Elisabeth; Rémésy, Christian

    2005-01-12

    Whole wheat bread is an important source of minerals but also contains considerable amounts of phytic acid, which is known to impair their absorption. An in vitro trial was performed to assess the effect of a moderate drop of the dough pH (around 5.5) by way of sourdough fermentation or by exogenous organic acid addition on phytate hydrolysis. It was shown that a slight acidification of the dough (pH 5.5) with either sourdough or lactic acid addition allowed a significant phytate breakdown (70% of the initial flour content compared to 40% without any leavening agent or acidification). This result highlights the predominance of wheat phytase activity over sourdough microflora phytase activity during moderate sourdough fermentation and shows that a slight drop of the pH (pH value around 5.5) is sufficient to reduce significantly the phytate content of a wholemeal flour. Mg "bioaccessibility"of whole wheat dough was improved by direct solubilization of the cation and by phytate hydrolysis.

  15. Synthesis of 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone by selected lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation of wheat germ

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last decade, several studies described the promising cytotoxic activity of fermented wheat germ towards cancer cell lines and during in vivo clinical trials. Recent data suggested that the antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects of this preparation are mainly attributed to quinones. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria fermentation to release 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, which are naturally present in wheat germ as glycosylated and non-physiologically active form. Results Preliminarily, forty strains of lactic acid bacteria, previously isolated from wheat germ, were in vitro screened based on β-glucosidase activity. Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5 were selected based on the highest enzyme activity and on technology features. These strains were used in combination to ferment wheat germ. Raw wheat germ, without bacterial inoculum, was subjected to the same incubation and used as the control. The sourdough fermented wheat germ was characterized based on microbiological, physico-chemical and biochemical features. During incubation, the release of the non-glycosylated and physiologically active 2-methoxy benzoquinone, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone was almost completed during 24 h. Compared to the control, the concentration of the above bioactive compounds increased almost 4 and 6-folds. Both raw wheat germ (control) and sourdough fermented wheat germ were ex vivo assayed for the anti-proliferative activity towards various cell lines of germ cell tumor, colon carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma. While no effect was found for the raw wheat germ, the sourdough fermented preparation markedly and variously affected the human tumor cell lines. The values of IC50 ranged from 0.105 ± 0.005 to 0.556 ± 0.071 mg/ml, with a median value of IC50 of 0.302 mg/ml. Conclusions These results are comparable to those found for other well

  16. Laboratory milling method for whole grain soft wheat flour evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain wheat products are a growing portion of the foods marked in North America, yet few standard methods exist to evaluate whole grain wheat flour. This study evaluated two flour milling systems to produce whole grain soft wheat flour for a standard soft wheat product, a wire-cut cookie. A...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A12, a Strain Isolated from Wheat Sourdough.

    PubMed

    Guellerin, Maéva; Passerini, Delphine; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Robert, Hervé; Gabriel, Valérie; Loux, Valentin; Klopp, Christophe; Le Loir, Yves; Coddeville, Michèle; Daveran-Mingot, Marie-Line; Ritzenthaler, Paul; Le Bourgeois, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain A12, a strain isolated from sourdough. The circular chromosome and the four plasmids reveal genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism that are potentially required for the persistence of this strain in such a complex ecosystem. PMID:27634985

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A12, a Strain Isolated from Wheat Sourdough

    PubMed Central

    Guellerin, Maéva; Passerini, Delphine; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Robert, Hervé; Gabriel, Valérie; Loux, Valentin; Klopp, Christophe; Le Loir, Yves; Coddeville, Michèle; Daveran-Mingot, Marie-Line; Ritzenthaler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain A12, a strain isolated from sourdough. The circular chromosome and the four plasmids reveal genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism that are potentially required for the persistence of this strain in such a complex ecosystem. PMID:27634985

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A12, a Strain Isolated from Wheat Sourdough.

    PubMed

    Guellerin, Maéva; Passerini, Delphine; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Robert, Hervé; Gabriel, Valérie; Loux, Valentin; Klopp, Christophe; Le Loir, Yves; Coddeville, Michèle; Daveran-Mingot, Marie-Line; Ritzenthaler, Paul; Le Bourgeois, Pascal

    2016-09-15

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain A12, a strain isolated from sourdough. The circular chromosome and the four plasmids reveal genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism that are potentially required for the persistence of this strain in such a complex ecosystem.

  20. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions.

  1. Making bread with sourdough improves iron bioavailability from reconstituted fortified wheat flour in mice.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Asmaa; Faid, Mohamed; Belahsen, Rekia

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a diet prepared with traditional sourdough (TS) on iron status. Levels of blood hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrite (Ht), serum ferritin and serum iron as well as excreted iron were determined in three groups of mice fed with: TS bread (TS group), baking yeast bread (BY group) or bread with no starters (control group), respectively. The results show that the levels of Hb, Ht, ferritin and iron were significantly higher in the TS compared to the BY and control groups. Also a significant decrease in the excreted iron levels was observed in the mice fed with TS compared to the others dietary groups. In conclusion, the study results indicate an improvement of iron status indicators in mice when they were fed sourdough bread as compared to baking yeast bread and bread with no starters.

  2. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  3. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  4. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  5. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  6. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  7. Evolution of sourdough microbiota in spontaneous sourdoughs started with different plant materials.

    PubMed

    Ripari, Valery; Gänzle, Michael G; Berardi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of sourdough in bakeries may include the use of inocula, e.g. fruits, flowers or rumen cuts to accelerate the process of selection of suitable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of these inocula on the microbial evolution in sourdoughs. First, the microbiota of nineteen traditional sourdoughs that were initially started with diverse inocula was identified. Second, de novo sourdoughs were started with plant materials and the evolution of sourdough microbiota was investigated by culture, and by high-resolution melting curve quantitative PCR (HRM-qPCR). This study developed a new protocol for HRM-qPCR analysis of yeast microbiota in sourdough, and indicates this independent culture method suitable for characterization of yeasts. Microbiota of traditional sourdoughs were largely independent from the use of inoculum, however, Acetobacter spp. were identified only in sourdoughs started with apple flowers or apple pulp. In de novo sourdoughs started with plant materials, microbiota rapidly stabilized, and were characterized by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus graminis, or Lactobacillus rossiae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as dominant species. Competition experiments revealed that the ecological fitness of L. plantarum, L. graminis, and L. rossiae in wheat or rye malt sourdoughs was lower when compared to L. sanfranciscensis, demonstrating that their presence in de novo sourdoughs reflects dispersal limitation. In conclusion, establishment of microbiota in de novo sourdoughs is dispersal limited. This study provides scientific support for the artisanal practice to inoculate de novo sourdoughs with flowers, berries, or related plant material. PMID:27240218

  8. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  9. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-11-01

    An investigation on the odor-active compounds of wholemeal (WWF) and white wheat flour (WF 550) by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by quantitative studies using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) revealed a significant number of odor-active compounds, such as (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and vanillin, with high odor activities in both wheat flours. The amounts and, consequently, the aroma potencies of vanillin, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were much higher in the WWF than in the WF 550 samples. Fermentation of suspensions of both flours with lactic acid bacteria did not generate new odorants; however, many compounds, such as acetic acid or 3-methylbutanal, were increased, whereas aldehydes (formed from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids) were decreased. Comparing the odorant concentrations present before and after fermentation gave evidence that the main influence of the microorganisms on sourdough aroma is to either enhance or decrease specific volatiles already present in the flour. A comparison with literature data indicated that most of these odorants are also important for the bread crumb aroma present after baking of the dough.

  10. The effect of consumption of selenium enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread on the body's selenium status.

    PubMed

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A; Ambroziak, Wojciech; Langford, Nicola J; Baxter, Malcolm J; Colyer, Alison; Lewis, D John

    2007-09-01

    The potential of selenium-enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread as a route for supplementing dietary selenium intakes is reported. In addition to their normal diets, 24 female volunteers (24 to 25 years old) were fed either selenium-enriched bread or non-enriched bread each day (68.02 and 0.84 microg selenium day(-1) respectively) for 4 weeks. The chemical form of the selenium in the bread had been characterised using HPLC-ICP-MS, which showed that 42% of the extractable selenium was present as selenomethionine. Plasma selenium levels and plasma platelet glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity were measured in the volunteers' blood over a 6-week period. A statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) was observed in the mean percentage change data, calculated from the plasma selenium level measurements for the enriched and control group, over the duration of the study. A comparable difference was not observed for the platelet GPx1 activity (p = 0.756), over the same period. Two weeks after cessation of the feeding stage, i.e., at t = 6 weeks, the mean percentage change value for the selenium plasma levels in the enriched group was still significantly elevated, suggesting that the absorbed selenium had been incorporated into the body's selenium reserves, and was then being slowly released back into the volunteers' blood.

  11. Expression of bifidobacterial phytases in Lactobacillus casei and their application in a food model of whole-grain sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Yebra, María J; Haros, Monika; Monedero, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Phytases are enzymes capable of sequentially dephosphorylating phytic acid to products of lower chelating capacity and higher solubility, abolishing its inhibitory effect on intestinal mineral absorption. Genetic constructions were made for expressing two phytases from bifidobacteria in Lactobacillus casei under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. L. casei was able of producing, exporting and anchoring to the cell wall the phytase of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The phytase from Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis was also produced, although at low levels. L. casei expressing any of these phytases completely degraded phytic acid (2mM) to lower myo-inositol phosphates when grown in MRS medium. Owing to the general absence of phytase activity in lactobacilli and to the high phytate content of whole grains, the constructed L. casei strains were applied as starter in a bread making process using whole-grain flour. L. casei developed in sourdoughs by fermenting the existing carbohydrates giving place to an acidification. In this food model system the contribution of L. casei strains expressing phytases to phytate hydrolysis was low, and the phytate degradation was mainly produced by activation of the cereal endogenous phytase as a consequence of the drop in pH. This work shows the capacity of lactobacilli to be modified in order to produce enzymes with relevance in food technology processes. The ability of these strains in reducing the phytate content in fermented food products must be evaluated in further models.

  12. Expression of bifidobacterial phytases in Lactobacillus casei and their application in a food model of whole-grain sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Yebra, María J; Haros, Monika; Monedero, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Phytases are enzymes capable of sequentially dephosphorylating phytic acid to products of lower chelating capacity and higher solubility, abolishing its inhibitory effect on intestinal mineral absorption. Genetic constructions were made for expressing two phytases from bifidobacteria in Lactobacillus casei under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. L. casei was able of producing, exporting and anchoring to the cell wall the phytase of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The phytase from Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis was also produced, although at low levels. L. casei expressing any of these phytases completely degraded phytic acid (2mM) to lower myo-inositol phosphates when grown in MRS medium. Owing to the general absence of phytase activity in lactobacilli and to the high phytate content of whole grains, the constructed L. casei strains were applied as starter in a bread making process using whole-grain flour. L. casei developed in sourdoughs by fermenting the existing carbohydrates giving place to an acidification. In this food model system the contribution of L. casei strains expressing phytases to phytate hydrolysis was low, and the phytate degradation was mainly produced by activation of the cereal endogenous phytase as a consequence of the drop in pH. This work shows the capacity of lactobacilli to be modified in order to produce enzymes with relevance in food technology processes. The ability of these strains in reducing the phytate content in fermented food products must be evaluated in further models. PMID:26384212

  13. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes.

  14. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. PMID:27505458

  15. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  16. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  17. Metatranscriptome analysis for insight into whole-ecosystem gene expression during spontaneous wheat and spelt sourdough fermentations.

    PubMed

    Weckx, Stefan; Allemeersch, Joke; Van der Meulen, Roel; Vrancken, Gino; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Van Hummelen, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of industrial importance in the production of fermented foods, including sourdough-derived products. Despite their limited metabolic capacity, LAB contribute considerably to important characteristics of fermented foods, such as extended shelf-life, microbial safety, improved texture, and enhanced organoleptic properties. Triggered by the considerable amount of LAB genomic information that became available during the last decade, transcriptome and, by extension, metatranscriptome studies have become one of the most appropriate research approaches to study whole-ecosystem gene expression in more detail. In this study, microarray analyses were performed using RNA sampled during four 10-day spontaneous sourdough fermentations carried out in the laboratory with an in-house-developed LAB functional gene microarray. For data analysis, a new algorithm was developed to calculate a net expression profile for each of the represented genes, allowing use of the microarray analysis beyond the species level. In addition, metabolite target analyses were performed on the sourdough samples to relate gene expression with metabolite production. The results revealed the activation of different key metabolic pathways, the ability to use carbohydrates other than glucose (e.g., starch and maltose), and the conversion of amino acids as a contribution to redox equilibrium and flavor compound generation in LAB during sourdough fermentation.

  18. Crop production management: Organic wheat and small grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key management practices for organic wheat and small grain production are provided, including variety selection, planting date, seeding rate, drill calibration and operation, soil fertility, and management of weeds, insect pests, and diseases. ...

  19. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  20. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

  1. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome.

  2. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding.

  3. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16−49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. PMID:26246614

  4. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  5. Evaluation of wheat-grain quality attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a leading source of food for humankind. Nearly all wheat is processed to varying degrees, and made into a limitless array of foods. As such, “quality” is a subjective assessment of suitability for a given process, food or use. Quality variation derives from compositional and physical attrib...

  6. Characterization of lipids in wheat grain as probed by microspectrofluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Abdelbasset; Piot, Olivier; Charonov, Serguei; Meunier, Jean-Claude; Manfait, Michel

    1999-05-01

    The baking quality and storage stability of white flour are affected by its non-starch lipids content, and by the proportions of non-polar and polar lipids classes. At present, information on the lipids composition in the various parts of the wheat grain is scarce and their redistribution in the flour millstreams after milling is not well understood. Here we have implemented a novel method based on microspectrofluorometry to investigate lipids distribution in the wheat kernel. This technique has already been a proven tool to study primary fluorescence in wheat grain. For this study Nile Red was introduced as a fluorescent stain to map lipids in different compartments of a wheat transverse section. Microspectrofluorometry allows in situ characterization of lipids material in transverse cut of wheat grain. Florescence spectra were recorded and decomposed into the principal spectral components which can in turn be approximated to the real lipid materials of the wheat. Using these models, spectral fluorescence imaging was performed allowing the spatial organization of lipids in the wheat sections to be obtained.

  7. Accumulation, distribution, and speciation of arsenic in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Eagling, Tristan; Dunham, Sarah J; McGrath, Steve P; Shewry, Peter R

    2010-07-15

    Food can be an important source of inorganic As for human intake. Recent studies have focused on rice, while little information is available on As accumulation, distribution, and speciation in wheat, which is the second most important food grain cereal. Grain samples of 26 wheat cultivars grown in five field trials located in productive farming regions in Europe were therefore analyzed for As concentration and speciation. Grain from four trials contained low concentrations of total As (7.7 +/- 5.4 microg kg(-1)), reflecting low levels of As in the soils (1.3-11 mg kg(-1)). In contrast, at one of the trial sites the As level in the soil was greater (29 mg kg(-1)), and much higher As concentrations (69 +/- 17 microg kg(-1)) were present in the wheat grain. Milling of wheat grain into bran and white flour fraction showed the concentration of As in the bran, with a 3.8-4.7-fold higher As concentration than in the white flour. Two methods (a phosphate buffer solution and 1% HNO(3)) were used to extract As species from wholemeal, bran, and white flour of wheat, with average extraction efficiencies of 65% and 88%, respectively. Only inorganic As was found in the extracts, with no methylated As being detected. The contribution of wheat to human intake of inorganic As is small for wheat crops grown in uncontaminated soils but becomes significant for those grown in soils with elevated As. In the latter case, milling can be used to reduce the As concentration in the white flour. PMID:20578703

  8. Safety of Oxygreen, an ozone treatment on wheat grains. Part 2. Is there a substantial equivalence between Oxygreen-treated wheat grains and untreated wheat grains?

    PubMed

    Dubois, M; Coste, C; Despres, A-G; Efstathiou, T; Nio, C; Dumont, E; Parent-Massin, D

    2006-01-01

    The Oxygreen process is a new process based on wheat grain treatment by ozone (produced in situ), in a closed sequential batch reactor. The Oxygreen process offers a close, homogeneous, and controlled contact between the gas and the grain. It is proposed for use for wheat grain decontamination (insects, fungi, bacteria, mycotoxins, pesticides). It takes place in classical milling diagram, and occurs after grain cleaning and before milling. The aim of the study reported here was to determine if Oxygreen treatment could induce in the grain the formation of processing-related compounds, and if these compounds are specific or could be recognized as classical modifications already used in the cereal industry (milling, baking). Studies were performed in order to evaluate any effect of Oxygreen treatment on vitamins, ferulic acid, phytates, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. It was concluded that there was no detectable substantial difference between ozone-treated grains and the untreated ones, although some quantitative differences can occur. The more detectable differences concern concentration of free sugars, and inhibition of some oxidative enzymes. These quantitative differences are very slight compared to the modifications that occur in dough, after addition of oxidative products directly in flour, or during kneading and dough fermentation.

  9. Endosperm and Amyloplast Proteomes of Wheat Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in proteomics and genomics have improved our understanding of the gluten proteins, a complex and functionally important protein group. Proteomic approaches also have been used to identify other proteins that may play roles in wheat flour functionality, to assign genes for gluten proteins to...

  10. Storage conditions affecting increase in falling number of soft red winter wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Falling number (FN) of wheat grain, a measure of preharvest sprouting, tends to increase during storage; however, grain and storage conditions that impact FN changes are poorly understood. Wheat grain samples of varying FN from several cultivars were obtained by malting, by incubating wheat stalks,...

  11. Stress-induced changes in wheat grain composition and quality.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, M

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, waterlogging, and high temperature cause a myriad of changes in the metabolism of plants, and there is a lot of overlap in these changes in plants in response to different stresses such as drought and salinity. These stress-induced metabolic changes cause impaired crop growth thereby resulting in poor yield. The metabolic changes taking place in several plant species due to a particular abiotic stress have been revealed from the whole plant to the molecular level by researchers, but most studies have focused on organs such as leaf, stem, and root. Information on such stress-induced changes in seed or grains is infrequent in the literature. From the information that is available, it is now evident that abiotic stress can induce considerable changes in the composition and quality of cereal grains including those of wheat, the premier staple food crop in the world. Thus, the present review discusses how far different types of stresses, mainly salinity, drought, high temperature, and waterlogging, can alter the wheat grain composition and quality. By fully uncovering the stress-induced changes in the nutritional values of wheat grains it would be possible to establish whether balanced supplies of essential nutrients are available to the human population from the wheat crop grown on stress-affected areas.

  12. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  13. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  14. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  15. Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Daryl J; Mrva, Kolumbina

    2014-12-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of α-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High α-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of α-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects.

  16. Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Daryl J; Mrva, Kolumbina

    2014-12-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of α-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High α-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of α-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects. PMID:25257145

  17. Quantitative high-resolution melting PCR analysis for monitoring of fermentation microbiota in sourdough.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    Current methods of monitoring the microbial ecology of food fermentation system are generally labor intensive and/or time consuming. This study developed two methods based on high-resolution melting curves (HRM) to monitor sourdough microbiota during fermentation and to investigate the effect of cereal substrate on microbial ecology. A strain cocktail of Lactobacillus fermentum FUA3165, Lactobacillus plantarum FUA3309, Lactobacillus paracasei FUA3166 and Lactobacillus reuteri FUA3168 was used to ferment red (Town and PAN8609) and white (commercial and Segaolane) sorghum sourdough, and wheat sourdough. The microbial composition of sourdoughs was determined by plate count and HRM-qPCR to differentiate at the species level. The resistance of each species to sorghum phenolic extract was measured. There was no difference in microbial composition among the four sorghum sourdoughs, with L. fermentum FUA3165 in all sourdoughs. The competiveness of the strains in sorghum sourdoughs corresponded to their resistance to sorghum phenolic extract. In a second experiment, five L. reuteri strains, the human-lineage strains FUA3400 and 3401 isolated from wheat sourdough, the rodent-lineage strain FUA5448 isolated from rye sourdough and the sorghum isolates FUA3168 and 3324, were used to ferment wheat, rye and sorghum sourdoughs. The microbial composition of sourdoughs was determined by plate counts and HRM-qPCR to different L. reuteri strains representing different host-adapted lineages. No difference among different substrates was observed; indicating cereal type had no selective effect on sourdough microbial ecology. In conclusion, HRM-qPCR assays were established as rapid and highly specific tool for monitoring of sourdough microbiota. The ability to distinguish highly similar microbes in samples containing only few genotypes makes HRM-qPCR suitable for quality control in other food fermentation systems. The presence of phenolic compounds in sorghum sourdough favored organisms

  18. Quantitative high-resolution melting PCR analysis for monitoring of fermentation microbiota in sourdough.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    Current methods of monitoring the microbial ecology of food fermentation system are generally labor intensive and/or time consuming. This study developed two methods based on high-resolution melting curves (HRM) to monitor sourdough microbiota during fermentation and to investigate the effect of cereal substrate on microbial ecology. A strain cocktail of Lactobacillus fermentum FUA3165, Lactobacillus plantarum FUA3309, Lactobacillus paracasei FUA3166 and Lactobacillus reuteri FUA3168 was used to ferment red (Town and PAN8609) and white (commercial and Segaolane) sorghum sourdough, and wheat sourdough. The microbial composition of sourdoughs was determined by plate count and HRM-qPCR to differentiate at the species level. The resistance of each species to sorghum phenolic extract was measured. There was no difference in microbial composition among the four sorghum sourdoughs, with L. fermentum FUA3165 in all sourdoughs. The competiveness of the strains in sorghum sourdoughs corresponded to their resistance to sorghum phenolic extract. In a second experiment, five L. reuteri strains, the human-lineage strains FUA3400 and 3401 isolated from wheat sourdough, the rodent-lineage strain FUA5448 isolated from rye sourdough and the sorghum isolates FUA3168 and 3324, were used to ferment wheat, rye and sorghum sourdoughs. The microbial composition of sourdoughs was determined by plate counts and HRM-qPCR to different L. reuteri strains representing different host-adapted lineages. No difference among different substrates was observed; indicating cereal type had no selective effect on sourdough microbial ecology. In conclusion, HRM-qPCR assays were established as rapid and highly specific tool for monitoring of sourdough microbiota. The ability to distinguish highly similar microbes in samples containing only few genotypes makes HRM-qPCR suitable for quality control in other food fermentation systems. The presence of phenolic compounds in sorghum sourdough favored organisms

  19. New evidence for grain specific C4 photosynthesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved to allow efficient CO2 capture by plants where effective carbon supply may be limiting as in hot or dry environments, explaining the high growth rates of C4 plants such as maize. Important crops such as wheat and rice are C3 plants resulting in efforts to engineer them to use the C4 pathway. Here we show the presence of a C4 photosynthetic pathway in the developing wheat grain that is absent in the leaves. Genes specific for C4 photosynthesis were identified in the wheat genome and found to be preferentially expressed in the photosynthetic pericarp tissue (cross- and tube-cell layers) of the wheat caryopsis. The chloroplasts exhibit dimorphism that corresponds to chloroplasts of mesophyll- and bundle sheath-cells in leaves of classical C4 plants. Breeding to optimize the relative contributions of C3 and C4 photosynthesis may adapt wheat to climate change, contributing to wheat food security. PMID:27530078

  20. New evidence for grain specific C4 photosynthesis in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved to allow efficient CO2 capture by plants where effective carbon supply may be limiting as in hot or dry environments, explaining the high growth rates of C4 plants such as maize. Important crops such as wheat and rice are C3 plants resulting in efforts to engineer them to use the C4 pathway. Here we show the presence of a C4 photosynthetic pathway in the developing wheat grain that is absent in the leaves. Genes specific for C4 photosynthesis were identified in the wheat genome and found to be preferentially expressed in the photosynthetic pericarp tissue (cross- and tube-cell layers) of the wheat caryopsis. The chloroplasts exhibit dimorphism that corresponds to chloroplasts of mesophyll- and bundle sheath-cells in leaves of classical C4 plants. Breeding to optimize the relative contributions of C3 and C4 photosynthesis may adapt wheat to climate change, contributing to wheat food security. PMID:27530078

  1. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  2. Cadmium in wheat grain: its nature and fate after ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.; Nulty, E.; LeFevre, M.

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium intake in humans derives primarily from vegetable foods, yet the extent to which the chemical form and dose of cadmium in such foods influences the fate and toxicity of this metal is poorly understood. We have compared the fate in mice of trace levels-approximating that in agriculturally produced grain-and high levels of cadmium supplied as wheat grain with that of cadmium supplied as CdCl/sub 2/. The amounts and forms of the metal in kidney and liver, target organs in cadmium accumulation, were compared. Results indicate that, in mice, cadmium orally administered as grain and that as CdCl/sub 2/ have a similar fate in terms of organ distribution and the nature of the Cd-forms in kidney and liver. A low dose of either form resulted in higher kidney versus liver cadmium. Preliminary characterization studies indicate that cadmium in wheat grain occurs primarily as an 11,000-dalton, aqueous-soluble complex, which is not inducible by cadmium. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice; Zannini, Emanuele

    2011-08-30

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  4. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616

  5. Ozone effects on wheat grain quality - a summary.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Malin C; Feng, Zhaozhong; Xin, Yue; Pleijel, Håkan

    2015-02-01

    We synthesized the effects of ozone on wheat quality based on 42 experiments performed in Asia, Europe and North America. Data were analysed using meta-analysis and by deriving response functions between observed effects and daytime ozone concentration. There was a strong negative effect on 1000-grain weight and weaker but significant negative effects on starch concentration and volume weight. For protein and several nutritionally important minerals (K, Mg, Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Cu) concentration was significantly increased, but yields were significantly decreased by ozone. For other minerals (Fe, S, Na) effects were not significant or results inconclusive. The concentration and yield of potentially toxic Cd were negatively affected by ozone. Some baking properties (Zeleny value, Hagberg falling number) were positively influenced by ozone. Effects were similar in different exposure systems and for spring and winter wheat. Ozone effects on quality should be considered in future assessments of food security/safety.

  6. Ozone effects on wheat grain quality - a summary.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Malin C; Feng, Zhaozhong; Xin, Yue; Pleijel, Håkan

    2015-02-01

    We synthesized the effects of ozone on wheat quality based on 42 experiments performed in Asia, Europe and North America. Data were analysed using meta-analysis and by deriving response functions between observed effects and daytime ozone concentration. There was a strong negative effect on 1000-grain weight and weaker but significant negative effects on starch concentration and volume weight. For protein and several nutritionally important minerals (K, Mg, Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Cu) concentration was significantly increased, but yields were significantly decreased by ozone. For other minerals (Fe, S, Na) effects were not significant or results inconclusive. The concentration and yield of potentially toxic Cd were negatively affected by ozone. Some baking properties (Zeleny value, Hagberg falling number) were positively influenced by ozone. Effects were similar in different exposure systems and for spring and winter wheat. Ozone effects on quality should be considered in future assessments of food security/safety. PMID:25577485

  7. Endophytic bacteria from wheat grain as biocontrol agents of Fusarium graminearum and deoxynivalenol production in wheat.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Tiscornia, S; Bettucci, L

    2015-08-01

    In Uruguay, Fusarium graminearum is the most common species that infects wheat and is responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) and contamination of grain with deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this work was to select bacterial endophytes isolated from wheat grain to evaluate their antagonistic ability against F. graminearum and DON production in vitro and under field conditions. Four strains identified as Bacillus megaterium (BM1) and Bacillus subtilis (BS43, BSM0 y BSM2) significantly reduced fungal growth and spore germination of F. graminearum. This antagonist activity remained unchanged after the bacterial cultures were heat treated. Under field conditions, treatments with antagonist BM1 was the most effective, reducing the FHB incidence and severity by 93 and 54 %, respectively, and the production of DON by 89.3 %.

  8. Breeding Value of Primary Synthetic Wheat Genotypes for Grain Yield

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Jafar; Bonnett, David; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Akdemir, Deniz; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single seed descent was used to develop 97 populations with 50 individuals per population using first back-cross, biparental, and three-way crosses. Individuals from each cross were selected for short stature, early heading, flowering and maturity, minimal lodging, and free threshing. Yield trials were conducted under irrigated, drought, and heat-stress conditions from 2011 to 2014 in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of parents and synthetic derived lines (SDLs) were estimated using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model with markers in each trial. In each environment, there were SDLs that had higher GEBVs than their recurrent BW parent for yield. The GEBVs of BW parents for yield ranged from -0.32 in heat to 1.40 in irrigated trials. The range of the SYN parent GEBVs for yield was from -2.69 in the irrigated to 0.26 in the heat trials and were mostly negative across environments. The contribution of the SYN parents to improved grain yield of the SDLs was highest under heat stress, with an average GEBV for the top 10% of the SDLs of 0.55 while the weighted average GEBV of their corresponding recurrent BW parents was 0.26. Using the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of genomic prediction for yield was 0.42, 0.43, and 0.49 in the drought, heat and irrigated trials, respectively, while for the marker-based model these values were 0.43, 0.44, and 0.55. The SYN parents introduced novel diversity into the wheat gene pool. Higher GEBVs of progenies were due to introgression and retention of some positive alleles from SYN parents. PMID:27656893

  9. Effect of polyamines on the grain filling of wheat under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liang, Haiyan; Lv, Xiaokang; Liu, Didi; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-03-01

    Drought inhibits wheat grain filling. Polyamines (PAs) are closely associated with plant resistance due to drought and grain filling of cereals. However, little is known about the effect of PAs on the grain filling of wheat under drought stress. This study investigated whether and how PAs are involved in regulating wheat grain filling under drought stress. Two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance were used, and endogenous PA levels were measured during grain filling under different water treatments. Additionally, external PAs were used, and the variation of hormone levels in grains was measured during grain filling under drought stress. The results indicated that spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) relieve the inhibition caused by drought stress, and putrescine (Put) has the opposite effect. The higher activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and Spd synthase in grains promotes the synthetic route from Put to Spd and Spm and notably increases the free Spd and Spm concentrations in grains, which promotes grain filling and drought resistance in wheat. The effect of PA on the grain filling of wheat under drought stress was closely related to the endogenous ethylene (ETH), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA). Spd and Spm significantly increased the Z + ZR and ABA concentrations and decreased the ETH evolution rate in grains, which promoted wheat grain filling under drought. Put significantly increased the ETH evolution rate, which led to excessive ABA accumulation in grains, subsequently aggravating the inhibition of drought on wheat grain filling. This means that the interaction of hormones, rather than the action of a single hormone, was involved in the regulation of wheat grain filling under drought. PMID:26812255

  10. Prediction of winter wheat grain protein content by ASTER image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced technology in space-borne determination of grain crude protein content (CP) by remote sensing can help optimize the strategies for buyers in aiding purchasing decisions, and help farmers to maximize the grain output by adjusting field nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs. We performed field experiments to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration (FNC). FNC at anthesis stage was significantly correlated with CP, while spectral vegetation index was significantly correlated to FNC. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), FNC and CP, a model for CP prediction was developed. NRI was able to evaluate FNC with a higher coefficient of determination of R2=0.7302. The method developed in this study could contribute towards developing optimal procedures for evaluating wheat grain quality by ASTER image at anthesis stage. The RMSE was 0.893 % for ASTER image model, and the R2 was 0.7194. It is thus feasible to forecast grain quality by NRI derived from ASTER image.

  11. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    PubMed

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05) reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the

  12. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality

    PubMed Central

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0–450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05) reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the

  13. Propionic acid production by cofermentation of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans in sourdough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chonggang; Brandt, Markus J; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate was formed in sourdough with medium ash content, but only 9 and 28 mM propionate were formed in sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour or whole wheat flour, respectively. Acetate levels were comparable in all three sourdoughs and ranged from 160 to 175 mM. Sourdough fermented with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans was used in breadmaking and its effect on fungal spoilage was compared to traditional sourdough or propionate addition to straight doughs. Bread slices were inoculated with Aspergillus clavatus, Cladosporium spp., Mortierella spp. or Penicillium roquefortii. The use of 20% experimental sourdough inhibited growth of three of the four moulds for more than 12 days. The use of 10% experimental sourdough deferred growth of two moulds by one day. Bread from traditional sourdough with added acetate had less effect in inhibiting mould growth. In conclusion, cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans represents a process to increase antifungal capacities of bread.

  14. Ground Wheat Grain for Midlactation Cows: Challenging a Common Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhah, A.; Amiri, F.; Amanloo, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of ground wheat grain (GW) inclusion rate, grinding extent (GE), and their interaction on lactating cow performance. Eight midlactation cows in 3 × 4 m individual boxes were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design study with 4 21 d periods. GW was fed at either 10% or 20% of diet dry matter (DM), as either finer or coarser particles. DM intake increased and net energy for lactation (NEL) intake tended to increase when GW was fed at 10% instead of 20% of diet DM. Milk energy yield, milk solids content and yield, and urine pH were unaffected. Fecal pH tended to increase at 20% versus 10% GW. Total tract apparent NDF, but not DM, digestibility tended to be greater for coarsely than finely GW and tended to be greater at 10% versus 20% GW. GW at 10% versus 20% of diet DM decreased blood BHBA and increased blood concentrations of total proteins and albumin. Data provide novel evidence that both finely and coarsely ground WG can be safely fed up to 20% midlactation cows. Commercial accessibility and cost will determine feeding preference of wheat grain to dairy cows. PMID:22666094

  15. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread.

  16. CO2-induced changes in mineral stoichiometry of wheat grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broberg, Malin; Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive review of experiments with elevated CO2 (eCO2) presenting data on grain mineral concentration in wheat grain was made. Data were collected both from FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) and OTC (Open-Top Chamber) experiments. Analysis was made i) by deriving response functions for the relative effect on yield and mineral concentration in relation to CO2 concentration, ii) meta-analysis to test the magnitude and significance of observed effects and iii) comparison of the CO2 effect on the accumulation of different minerals in relation to accumulation of biomass and accumulation of N. Data were obtained for the following minerals: N, Zn, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, S, Cr, Cu, Cd and Na. In addition, data for starch, the dominating carbohydrate of wheat grain, were extracted. The responses ranged from near zero effects to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration. The order of effect size was the following (from largest to smallest effect) for the different elements: Fe, Ca, S, Zn, Cd, N, Mg, Mn, P, Cu, Cr, K and Na. Particularly strong negative impacts of eCO2 were found in the essential mineral elements Fe, S, Ca, Zn and Mg. Especially Fe, Zn and Mg are nutrients for which deficiency in humans is a problem in todaýs world. The rather large differences in response of different elements indicated that the CO2-induced responses cannot be explained by a simple growth dilution model. Rather, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered in greater detail, as well as the link of different elements with the uptake of nitrogen, the quantitatively dominating mineral nutrient, to explain the observed pattern. No effect of eCO2 on starch concentration could be demonstrated. This substantiates the rejection of a simple dilution model, since one would expect starch concentrations to be elevated in order to explain reduced mineral concentrations by carbohydrate dilution. The concentrations of toxic Cd was negatively affected, in principle a

  17. Internal structure of carbonized wheat (Triticum spp.) grains-relationships to kernel texture and ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of wheat grains to the genus level is problematic in many archaeobotanical samples, yet this is key to better understanding wheat phylogeny and agricultural trajectories. This study was conducted to see if the pronounced differences in kernel texture (grain hardness) which exist a...

  18. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  19. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  20. Genetic Dissection of Grain Size and Grain Number Trade-Offs in CIMMYT Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F.; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability. PMID:25775191

  1. New isotopic evidence of lead contamination in wheat grain from atmospheric fallout.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Tongbin; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Huang, Qifei; Ma, Chuang; Gu, Runyao; Guo, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    Crops could accumulate trace metals by soil-root transfer and foliar uptake from atmospheric fallout, and an accurate assessment of pollution sources is a prerequisite for preventing heavy metal pollution in agricultural products. In this study, we examined Pb isotope rates to trace the sources of Pb in wheat grain grown in suburbs. Results showed that, even in zones with scarcely any air pollution spots, atmospheric fallout was still a considerable source of Pb accumulation in wheat. The concentration of Pb in wheat grain has poor correlation with that in farm soil. The Pb concentration in wheat grains with dust in bran coat was significantly higher than that in wheat grains, which indicates that Pb may accumulate by foliar uptake. The Pb isotope rate has obvious differences between the soil and atmospheric fallout, and scatter ratio is significantly closer between the wheat grain and atmospheric fallout. Atmospheric fallout is a more significant source of Pb concentration in wheat grains than in soil. As far as we know, this is the first study on the main sources of lead in grain crop (wheat) samples with isotope. This study aims to improve our understanding of the translocation of foliar-absorbed metals to nonexposed parts of plants.

  2. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies.

  3. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds.

  4. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

  5. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition.

  6. Polyphasic Screening, Homopolysaccharide Composition, and Viscoelastic Behavior of Wheat Sourdough from a Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus curvatus Exopolysaccharide-Producing Starter Culture

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Simona; Cavella, Silvana; Torrieri, Elena; Piccolo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Ventorino, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    After isolation from different doughs and sourdoughs, 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria were screened at the phenotypic level for exopolysaccharide production on media containing different carbohydrate sources. Two exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A) were selected through quantitative analysis on solid media containing sucrose and yeast extract. The PCR detection of homopolysaccharide (gtf and lev) and heteropolysaccharide (epsA, epsB, epsD and epsE, and epsEFG) genes showed different distributions within species and strains of the lactic acid bacteria studied. Moreover, in some strains both homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide genes were detected. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra suggest that Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A produced the same exopolysaccharide, which was constituted by a single repeating glucopyranosyl unit linked by an α-(1→6) glycosidic bond in a dextran-type carbohydrate. Microbial growth, acidification, and viscoelastic properties of sourdoughs obtained by exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing lactic acid bacterial strains were evaluated. Sourdough obtained after 15 h at 30°C with exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria reached higher total titratable acidity as well as elastic and dissipative modulus curves with respect to the starter not producing exopolysaccharide, but they showed similar levels of pH and microbial growth. On increasing the fermentation time, no difference in the viscoelastic properties of exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing samples was observed. This study suggests that dextran-producing Leuconostoc lactis 95A and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 can be employed to prepare sourdough, and this would be particularly useful to improve the quality of baked goods while avoiding the use of commercially available hydrocolloids as texturizing additives. PMID:22307283

  7. Biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in spontaneously-fermented buckwheat and teff sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2011-05-01

    In this study, four different laboratory scale gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs were developed from buckwheat or teff flours. The fermentations were initiated by the spontaneous biota of the flours and developed under two technological conditions (A and B). Sourdoughs were propagated by continuous back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable biota occurring in each sourdough was assessed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Overall, a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts species, belonging mainly to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Kazachstania and Candida, were identified in the stable sourdoughs. Buckwheat and teff sourdoughs were dominated mainly by obligate or facultative heterofermentative LAB, which are commonly associated with traditional wheat or rye sourdoughs. However, the spontaneous fermentation of the GF flours resulted also in the selection of species which are not consider endemic to traditional sourdoughs, i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc holzapfelii, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus graminis and Weissella cibaria. In general, the composition of the stable biota was strongly affected by the fermentation conditions, whilst Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in all buckwheat sourdoughs. Lactobacillus pontis is described for the first time as dominant species in teff sourdough. Among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata dominated teff sourdoughs, whereas the solely Kazachstania barnetti was isolated in buckwheat sourdough developed under condition A. This study allowed the identification and isolation of LAB and yeasts species which are highly competitive during fermentation of buckwheat or teff flours. Representatives of these species can be selected as starters for the production of sourdough destined to GF bread production.

  8. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  9. Stored grain pack factors for wheat: comparison of three methods to field measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing grain in bulk storage units results in grain packing from overbearing pressure, which increases grain bulk density and storage-unit capacity. This study compared pack factors of hard red winter (HRW) wheat in vertical storage bins using different methods: the existing packing model (WPACKING...

  10. Effect of grain colour gene (R) on grain dormancy and sensitivity of the embryo to abscisic acid (ABA) in wheat.

    PubMed

    Himi, Eiko; Mares, Daryl J; Yanagisawa, Akira; Noda, Kazuhiko

    2002-07-01

    The level of grain dormancy and sensitivity to ABA of the embryo, a key factor in grain dormancy, were examined in developing grains of a white-grained wheat line, Novosibirskaya 67 (NS-67), and its red-grained near-isogenic lines (ANK-1A to -1D); a red-grained line, AUS 1490, and its white-grained mutant line (EMS-AUS). ANK lines showed higher levels of grain dormancy than NS-67 at harvest maturity. AUS 1490 grain also showed higher dormancy than EMS-AUS grain. These results suggest that the R gene for grain colour can enhance grain dormancy. However, the dormancy effect conferred by the R gene was not large, suggesting that it plays a minor role in the development of grain dormancy. Water extracts of AUS 1490 and EMS-AUS bran contained germination inhibitors equivalent to 1-10 microM ABA, although there was no difference in the amount of inhibitors between AUS 1490 and EMS-AUS. Thus, the grain colour gene of AUS 1490 did not appear to enhance the level of grain dormancy by accumulating germination inhibitors in its bran. Sensitivity to ABA of embryos was higher in grains collected around harvest-maturity for ANK lines and AUS 1490, compared with NS-67 and EMS-AUS. The R gene might enhance grain dormancy by increasing the sensitivity of embryos to ABA.

  11. Activities of key enzymes in sucrose-to-starch conversion in wheat grains subjected to water deficit during grain filling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Xu, Guowei; Zhu, Qingsen

    2004-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum) could accelerate grain-filling rate through regulating the key enzymes involved in Suc-to-starch pathway in the grains. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were field grown. Well-watered and water-deficit (WD) treatments were imposed from 9 DPA until maturity. The WD promoted the reallocation of prefixed 14C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and increased grain-filling rate or starch accumulation rate (SAR) in the grains. Activities of Suc synthase (SuSase), soluble starch synthase (SSS), and starch branching enzyme (SBE) in the grains were substantially enhanced by WD and positively correlated with the SAR. ADP Glc pyrophosphorylase activity was also enhanced in WD grains initially and correlated with SAR with a smaller coefficient. Activities of granule-bound starch synthase and soluble and insoluble acid invertase in the grains were less affected by WD. Abscisic acid (ABA) content in the grains was remarkably enhanced by WD and very significantly correlated with activities of SuSase, SSS, and SBE. Application of ABA on well-watered plants showed similar results as those by WD. Spraying with fluridone, an ABA synthesis inhibitor, had the opposite effect. The results suggest that increased grain-filling rate is mainly attributed to the enhanced sink activity by regulating key enzymes involved in Suc-to-starch conversion, especially SuSase, SSS, and SBE, in wheat grains when subjected to a mild water deficit during grain filling, and ABA plays a vital role in the regulation of this process.

  12. Genetic evidence for differential selection of grain and embryo weight during wheat evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Golan, Guy; Oksenberg, Adi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-09-01

    Wheat is one of the Neolithic founder crops domesticated ~10 500 years ago. Following the domestication episode, its evolution under domestication has resulted in various genetic modifications. Grain weight, embryo weight, and the interaction between those factors were examined among domesticated durum wheat and its direct progenitor, wild emmer wheat. Experimental data show that grain weight has increased over the course of wheat evolution without any parallel change in embryo weight, resulting in a significantly reduced (30%) embryo weight/grain weight ratio in domesticated wheat. The genetic factors associated with these modifications were further investigated using a population of recombinant inbred substitution lines that segregated for chromosome 2A. A cluster of loci affecting grain weight and shape was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2AL. Interestingly, a novel locus controlling embryo weight was mapped on chromosome 2AS, on which the wild emmer allele promotes heavier embryos and greater seedling vigour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL for embryo weight in wheat. The results suggest a differential selection of grain and embryo weight during the evolution of domesticated wheat. It is argued that conscious selection by early farmers favouring larger grains and smaller embryos appears to have resulted in a significant change in endosperm weight/embryo weight ratio in the domesticated wheat. Exposing the genetic factors associated with endosperm and embryo size improves our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of wheat under domestication and is likely to be useful for future wheat-breeding efforts.

  13. The Wheat Grain Contains Pectic Domains Exhibiting Specific Spatial and Development-Associated Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Bouchet, Brigitte; Alvarado, Camille; Bakan, Bénédicte; Guillon, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Cell walls are complex structures surrounding plant cells with a composition that varies among species and even within a species between organs, cell types and development stages. For years, cell walls in wheat grains were described as simple walls consisting mostly of arabinoxylans and mixed-linked beta glucans. Proteomic and transcriptomic studies identified enzyme families involved in the synthesis of many more cell wall polysaccharides in the wheat grains. Here we describe the discovery of pectic domains in wheat grain using monoclonal antibodies and enzymatic treatment to degrade the major cell wall polymers. Distinct spatial distributions were observed for rhamnogalacturonan I present in the endosperm and mostly in the aleurone layer and homogalacturonan especially found in the outer layers, and tight developmental regulations were unveiled. We also uncovered a massive deposition of homogalacturonan via large vesicular bodies in the seed coat (testa) beneath a thick cuticle during development. Our findings raise questions about the function of pectin in wheat grain. PMID:24586916

  14. Genetic diversity among wheat accessions from the USDA National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessions of Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum from the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) are a resource for wheat scientists worldwide. The genetic diversity of the wheat core subset, representing approximately 10% of the collection’s 42138 T. aestivum accessions, was examined using...

  15. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  16. Wheat grain consumption and selection by inbred and outbred strains of mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its commensal relationship, agricultural cereal seeds, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), represent a primary food for the house mouse (Mus musculus L.). C57BL/6J mice exert strong selection and consumption preferences among different varieties of wheat grains. The present study examined...

  17. The dynamics of protein body formation in developing wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Moore, Katie L; Tosi, Paola; Palmer, Richard; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Grovenor, Chris R M; Shewry, Peter R

    2016-09-01

    Wheat is a major source of protein in the diets of humans and livestock but we know little about the mechanisms that determine the patterns of protein synthesis in the developing endosperm. We have used a combination of enrichment with (15) N glutamine and NanoSIMS imaging to establish that the substrate required for protein synthesis is transported radially from its point of entrance in the endosperm cavity across the starchy endosperm tissues, before becoming concentrated in the cells immediately below the aleurone layer. This transport occurs continuously during grain development but may be slower in the later stages. Although older starchy endosperm cells tend to contain larger protein deposits formed by the fusion of small protein bodies, small highly enriched protein bodies may also be present in the same cells. This shows a continuous process of protein body initiation, in both older and younger starchy endosperm cells and in all regions of the tissue. Immunolabeling with specific antibodies shows that the patterns of enrichment are not related to the contents of gluten proteins in the protein bodies. In addition to providing new information on the dynamics of protein deposition, the study demonstrates the wider utility of NanoSIMS and isotope labelling for studying complex developmental processes in plant tissues. PMID:26898533

  18. Study on grain quality forecasting method and indicators by using hyperspectral data in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Wang, Jihua; Liu, Liangyun; Wang, Zhijie; Tan, Changwei; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jingdi

    2005-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine the influence factors of cultivar, nitrogen application and irrigation on grain protein content, gluten content and grain hardness in three winter wheat cultivars under four levels of nitrogen and irrigation treatments. Firstly, the influence of cultivars and environment factors on grain quality were studied, the effective factors were cultivars, irrigation, fertilization, et al. Secondly, total nitrogen content around winter wheat anthesis stage was proved to be significant correlative with grain protein content, and spectral vegetation index significantly correlated to total nitrogen content around anthesis stage were the potential indicators for grain protein content. Accumulation of total nitrogen content and its transfer to grain is the physical link to produce the final grain protein, and total nitrogen content at anthesis stage was proved to be an indicator of final grain protein content. The selected normalized photochemical reflectance index (NPRI) was proved to be able to predict of grain protein content on the close correlation between the ratio of total carotenoid to chlorophyll a and total nitrogen content. The method contributes towards developing optimal procedures for predicting wheat grain quality through analysis of their canopy reflected spectrum at anthesis stage. Regression equations were established for forecasting grain protein and dry gluten content by total nitrogen content at anthesis stage, so it is feasible for forecasting grain quality by establishing correlation equations between biochemical constitutes and canopy reflected spectrum.

  19. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve grain yield, biomass and photosynthesis across enviroinments in modern wheat.

    PubMed

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-10-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving drought resistance in domesticated wheat. Nevertheless, wild germplasm has not been widely used in wheat breeding for abiotic stress resilience. In the current study, a near isogenic line NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a drought-related QTL from wild emmer wheat on chromosome 7A, and its recurrent parent, bread wheat cv. BarNir, were investigated under four environments across 2 years-water-limited and well-watered conditions in a rain-protected screen-house (Year 1) and two commercial open field plots under ample precipitation (Year 2). NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited an advantage over BarNir in grain yield and biomass production under most environments. Further physiological analyses suggested that enhanced photosynthetic capacity and photochemistry combined with higher flag leaf area are among the factors underlying the improved productivity of NIL-7A-B-2. These were coupled with improved sink capacity in NIL-7A-B-2, manifested by greater yield components than its parental line. This study provides further support for our previous findings that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles, using marker assisted selection, can enhance grain yield and biomass production across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of yield and drought resistance. PMID:27593460

  20. Glycemic index and phenolics of partially-baked frozen bread with sourdough.

    PubMed

    Novotni, Dubravka; Curić, Duška; Bituh, Martina; Colić Barić, Irena; Skevin, Dubravka; Cukelj, Nikolina

    2011-02-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria starters were used to prepare sourdough to make partially-baked frozen wholemeal wheat bread. The sourdough was prepared with a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum or with commercial starters containing Lactobacillus brevis combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri (LV4), Lactobacillus fermentum (PL1), or Lactobacillus fermentum with phytase (PL3). We determined the acetic and lactic acid concentrations in sourdough, bread chemical composition, total phenolics content and glycemic index (GI) in vivo. Depending on the starter, the lactic to acetic acid ratio in the sourdough was significantly different. The GI of control bread without sourdough (70) was significantly higher than that of bread containing sourdough prepared with LV4 starter (50), PL1 starter (56) or PL3 starter (56), but not from bread with L. plantarum sourdough (60). The addition of 10% sourdough with a lower molar ratio of lactic to acetic acid ( ≤ 4) and higher total phenolics content is preferable for generating bread with medium and low GI.

  1. How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients.

  2. How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough fermentation is one of the oldest food biotechnologies, which has been studied and recently rediscovered for its effect on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked goods. Acidification, proteolysis and activation of a number of enzymes as well as the synthesis of microbial metabolites cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, which affect the dough and baked good matrix, and influence the nutritional/functional quality. Currently, the literature is particularly rich of results, which show how the sourdough fermentation may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. In the form of pre-treating raw materials, fermentation through sourdough may stabilize or to increase the functional value of bran fractions and wheat germ. Sourdough fermentation may decrease the glycaemic response of baked goods, improve the properties and bioavailability of dietary fibre complex and phytochemicals, and may increase the uptake of minerals. Microbial metabolism during sourdough fermentation may also produce new nutritionally active compounds, such as peptides and amino acid derivatives (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid) with various functionalities, and potentially prebiotic exo-polysaccharides. The wheat flour digested via fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactobacilli has been demonstrated to be probably safe for celiac patients. PMID:24230470

  3. Optical-mechanical system for on-combine segregation of wheat by grain protein concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain segregation by grain protein concentration (GPC) may help growers maximize revenues in markets that offer protein premiums. Our objective was to develop an on-combine system for automatically segregating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by GPC during harvest. A multispectral optical sensor scans...

  4. Overexpression of a NAC transcription factor delays leaf senescence and increases grain nitrogen concentration in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Derkx, A P; Liu, D-C; Buchner, P; Hawkesford, M J

    2015-07-01

    Increasing the duration of leaf photosynthesis during grain filling using slow-senescing functional stay-green phenotypes is a possible route for increasing grain yields in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, delayed senescence may negatively affect nutrient remobilisation and hence reduce grain protein concentrations and grain quality. A novel NAC1-type transcription factor (hereafter TaNAC-S) was identified in wheat, with gene expression located primarily in leaf/sheath tissues, which decreased during post-anthesis leaf senescence. Expression of TaNAC-S in the second leaf correlated with delayed senescence in two doubled-haploid lines of an Avalon × Cadenza population (lines 112 and 181), which were distinct for leaf senescence. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaNAC-S resulted in delayed leaf senescence (stay-green phenotype). Grain yield, aboveground biomass, harvest index and total grain N content were unaffected, but NAC over-expressing lines had higher grain N concentrations at similar grain yields compared to non-transgenic controls. These results indicate that TaNAC-S is a negative regulator of leaf senescence, and that delayed leaf senescence may lead not only to increased grain yields but also to increased grain protein concentrations.

  5. [Effects of long-term rotation on the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein on dryland of Loess Plateau, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan; Hao, Ming-De

    2013-05-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted on the dryland of Loess Plateau to study the effects of three typical rotation systems, including wheat-sainfoin rotation, wheat-pea rotation, and wheat-maize rotation, on the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein. Rotation system and the cropping years of rotated plants affected the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein in varying degrees. As compared with continuous wheat cropping, wheat-sainfoin rotation made the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein relatively stable, and the essential amino acid content, amino acid score, amino acid ratio coefficient, chemical score, and amino acid index of the protein all relatively high, being able to be adopted as a cropping system to product high quality protein wheat in Loess Plateau. Under wheat-pea rotation, the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein after 1-year pea cropping was relatively high, but the essential amino acid content of wheat grain protein after 2-year pea cropping was relatively low, and several essential amino acid scores and chemical score of the grain protein were lower than those under continuous wheat cropping. Furthermore, the essential amino acid index was 12.2% lower than that under continuous wheat cropping. Therefore, wheat-pea rotation showed a relatively low nutritional quality of wheat grain protein. Under wheat-maize rotation, the nutritional quality of wheat grain protein was also relatively stable, but the crude protein and essential amino acid contents and amino acid balance level were lower than those under continuous wheat cropping.

  6. Alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cereals and whole-grain cereal products.

    PubMed

    Kulawinek, Mariola; Jaromin, Anna; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Zarnowski, Robert

    2008-08-27

    The alkylresorcinol content and homologue composition in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products were determined in this study. Cereal grains and whole-grain cereal products were extracted with acetone, whereas bread types were extracted with hot 1-propanol. The average alkylresorcinol content in tested rye (approximately 1100 mg/kg DM) and wheat (approximately 800 mg/kg DM) grains harvested in Poland was within the range previously reported in Swedish and Finnish samples. The total alkylresorcinol content in tested cereal products available on the Polish market varied from very low levels in barley grain-based foods up to 3000 mg/kg DM in wheat bran. The total alkylresorcinol content in 14 bread samples extracted with hot 1-propanol varied from approximately 100 mg/kg DM in whole bread made with honey up to approximately 650 mg/kg DM in whole-rye bread. Calculated ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 homologues, a useful parameter previously used to distinguish between rye and wheat cereals and their derived products, was about 1.2-1.4 in rye products, about 0.2 in wheat products, and varied between 0.2 and 0.6 in cereal-derived products containing a mixture of whole rye and/or wheat. The data set obtained were subsequently compared using cluster and principal component analysis, which allowed the tested cereal products to be classified into two major groups consisting of whole-rye or whole-wheat products, respectively. On the basis of that approach, mixed cereal products containing rye and wheat bran or whole rye and wheat flour were grouped between those two well-defined clusters. Our work not only provides a detailed examination of alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products, but also demonstrates that this type of analysis accompanied by the use of proper statistical algorithms offers an objective way to evaluate the quality of whole-grain rye and/or wheat and their derived

  7. Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elke K; Ryan, Liam A M; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough has been used since ancient times and its ability to improve the quality and increase the shelf-life of bread has been widely described. During sourdough fermentation, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a number of metabolites which have been shown to have a positive effect on the texture and staling of bread, e.g. organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and/or enzymes. EPS produced by LAB have the potential to replace more expensive hydrocolloids used as bread improvers. Organic acids affect the protein and starch fractions of flour. Additionally, the drop in pH associated with acid production causes an increase in the proteases and amylases activity of the flour, thus leading to a reduction in staling. While improving the textural qualities of bread, sourdough fermentation also results in increased mineral bioavailability and reduced phytate content. In this review we will be discussing the effect of sourdough on wheat and rye bread as well as the potential of sourdough to improve the quality of gluten-free bread.

  8. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%. PMID:27455607

  9. High temperature during grain fill alters the morphology of protein and starch deposits in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill reduces wheat yield and alters flour quality. Starchy endosperm cell morphology was investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) grain produced under a 24/17 °C or 37/28 °C day/night regimen imposed from anthesis to maturity to identify changes in cell s...

  10. The use of sourdough fermented by antifungal LAB to reduce the amount of calcium propionate in bread.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L A M; Dal Bello, F; Arendt, E K

    2008-07-31

    Addition of sourdough is a common practice in the bakery industry to improve, among other quality parameters, the shelf life of bread. In this study, sourdough fermented by antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated for the ability to inhibit growth of common bread spoilage fungi. In both in vitro and sourdough wheat bread system, the antifungal sourdoughs significantly affected the outgrowth of Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum, or Penicillium expansum spores, however on wheat bread outgrowth of Penicillium roqueforti spores was not affected. In an attempt to reduce the amounts of chemical additives in bread, the antifungal sourdoughs were used in combination with calcium propionate (CAP) and possible synergistic effects were evaluated. Presence of 3000 ppm CAP in the bread did not affect the outgrowth of P. roqueforti, whereas outgrowth of the other fungi was retarded. A strong synergistic effect was observed when CAP and antifungal sourdoughs were combined into the bread formulation, and outgrowth of P. roqueforti was affected. The use of reduced CAP amount (1000 ppm) showed significant inhibition only when antifungal sourdough was added. Remarkably, the increase in shelf life achieved was higher than that obtained using 3000 ppm of CAP alone. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly show that the addition of antifungal sourdough has the potential to reduce the levels of chemical additives needed in the bakery industry to ensure the microbiological safety of bread.

  11. Effect of Lineage-Specific Metabolic Traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on Sourdough Microbial Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoxi B.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations. PMID:25015888

  12. Wheat-related disorders reviewed: making a grain of sense.

    PubMed

    Marchioni Beery, Renée M; Birk, John W

    2015-06-01

    Wheat-related disorders have become a growing area of clinical and scientific interest and can be categorized broadly as: autoimmune-mediated; allergic; and non-autoimmune/non-allergic conditions. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) present on this spectrum as disorders associated with adverse gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations following exposure to gluten and/or other wheat-related constituents. NCGS/NCWS is increasingly considered in patients with unexplained symptoms after the exclusions of celiac disease and wheat allergy. As objective diagnostic data and specific biomarkers are lacking, response to a gluten-free/wheat-free diet can confirm the presence of NCGS/NCWS. An association with irritable bowel syndrome has been detected, and the effects of other food components, such as fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, may contribute. Our organization and synthesis of extant knowledge pertaining to wheat-related disorders may advance current practice and research efforts toward an improved understanding of NCGS/NCWS as an evolving clinical entity.

  13. Change in wall composition of transfer and aleurone cells during wheat grain development.

    PubMed

    Robert, P; Jamme, F; Barron, C; Bouchet, B; Saulnier, L; Dumas, P; Guillon, F

    2011-02-01

    In addition to the starchy endosperm, a specialized tissue accumulating storage material, the endosperm of wheat grain, comprises the aleurone layer and the transfer cells next to the crease. The transfer cells, located at the ventral region of the grain, are involved in nutrient transfer from the maternal tissues to the developing endosperm. Immunolabeling techniques, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron infrared micro-spectroscopy were used to study the chemistry of the transfer cell walls during wheat grain development. The kinetic depositions of the main cell wall polysaccharides of wheat grain endosperm, arabinoxylan, and (1-3)(1-4)-β-glucan in transfer cell walls were different from kinetics previously observed in the aleurone cell walls. While (1-3)(1-4)-β-glucan appeared first in the aleurone cell walls at 90°D, arabinoxylan predominated in the transfer cell walls from 90 to 445°D. Both aleurone and transfer cell walls were enriched in (1-3)(1-4)-β-glucan at the mature stage of wheat grain development. Arabinoxylan was more substituted in the transfer cell walls than in the aleurone walls. However, arabinoxylan was more feruloylated in the aleurone than in the transfer cell walls, whatever the stage of grain development. In the transfer cells, the ferulic acid was less abundant in the outer periclinal walls while para-coumarate was absent. Possible implications of such differences are discussed.

  14. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V

    2007-05-01

    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P < or = 0.05), but both were greater than 14% protein, indicating excellent grain quality for yeast-leavened bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P < or = 0.05). Visual observation confirmed these findings as conventional flour produced larger bread loaf volume. Fourteen sensory attributes were generated by the descriptive analysis panel. No differences were observed for flavor, aroma, or color attributes (P > 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P < or = 0.05) with smaller air cells in the appearance of the crumb (P < or = 0.05) than conventional bread.

  15. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    PubMed

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains.

  16. Differential Detection of Potentially Hazardous Fusarium Species in Wheat Grains by an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Eifler, Jakob; Martinelli, Eugenio; Santonico, Marco; Capuano, Rosamaria; Schild, Detlev; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Fungal infestation on wheat is an increasingly grave nutritional problem in many countries worldwide. Fusarium species are especially harmful pathogens due to their toxic metabolites. In this work we studied volatile compounds released by F. cerealis, F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. redolens using SPME-GC/MS. By using an electronic nose we were able to differentiate between infected and non-infected wheat grains in the post-harvest chain. Our electronic nose was capable of distinguishing between four wheat Fusaria species with an accuracy higher than 80%. PMID:21695232

  17. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  18. Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.

  19. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rebetzke, G. J.; Bonnett, D. G.; Reynolds, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned–awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38–7.93 t ha−1) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned–awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (–5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains (‘screenings’) to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced

  20. Crop water production functions for grain sorghum and winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of water-limited cropping systems can be reduced by untimely distribution of water as well as cold and heat stress. The objective was to develop relationships among weather parameters, water use, and grain productivity to produce functions forecasting grain yields of grain sorghum and w...

  1. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain color and hardness on the consumption preference of a mouse model system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  2. Evaluation of Wheat Chromosome Translocation Lines for High Temperature Stress Tolerance at Grain Filling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Gautam Prasad; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2015-01-01

    High temperature (HT, heat) stress is detrimental to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Wild relatives of bread wheat may offer sources of HT stress tolerance genes because they grow in stressed habitats. Wheat chromosome translocation lines, produced by introgressing small segments of chromosome from wild relatives to bread wheat, were evaluated for tolerance to HT stress during the grain filling stage. Sixteen translocation lines and four wheat cultivars were grown at optimum temperature (OT) of 22/14°C (day/night). Ten days after anthesis, half of the plants were exposed to HT stress of 34/26°C for 16 d, and other half remained at OT. Results showed that HT stress decreased grain yield by 43% compared with OT. Decrease in individual grain weight (by 44%) was the main reason for yield decline at HT. High temperature stress had adverse effects on leaf chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm; and a significant decrease in Fv/Fm was associated with a decline in individual grain weight. Based on the heat response (heat susceptibility indices, HSIs) of physiological and yield traits to each other and to yield HSI, TA5594, TA5617, and TA5088 were highly tolerant and TA5637 and TA5640 were highly susceptible to HT stress. Our results suggest that change in Fv/Fm is a highly useful trait in screening genotypes for HT stress tolerance. This study showed that there is genetic variability among wheat chromosome translocation lines for HT stress tolerance at the grain filling stage and we suggest further screening of a larger set of translocation lines. PMID:25719199

  3. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Rob; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2008-07-23

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant fractions of wheat grain. It was found that the aleurone content of these fractions was highly correlated with the antioxidant capacity of the fractions (r = 0.96, p < 0.0001). Ferulic acid appeared to be the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity in fractions with higher antioxidant capacity. The contribution of protein was rather limited. It was concluded that the antioxidant potency of wheat grain fractions is predominantly determined by aleurone content, which can be attributed to the presence of relatively large amounts of phenolic compounds, primarily ferulic acid.

  4. Quantification of Wheat Grain Arabinoxylans Using a Phloroglucinol Colorimetric Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans (AX) play a critical role in end-use quality and nutrition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). An efficient, accurate method of AX quantification is desirable as AX plays an important role in processing, end use quality and human health. The objective of this work was to evaluate a stand...

  5. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; Dai, Yunchao; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops) and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:27518712

  6. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; Dai, Yunchao; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops) and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:27518712

  7. A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development

    PubMed Central

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains. PMID:25663750

  8. Selection of sourdough lactobacilli with antifungal activity for use as biopreservatives in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Zannini, Emanuele; Aquilanti, Lucia; Silvestri, Gloria; Fierro, Olga; Picariello, Gianluca; Clementi, Francesca

    2012-08-01

    Two hundred and sixteen LAB cultures from sourdoughs and dough for bread and panettone production were screened for in vitro antifungal properties against three indicator cultures ascribed to Aspergillus japonicus , Eurotium repens , and Penicillium roseopurpureum , isolated from bakery environment and moldy panettone. Nineteen preselected isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration determination against the indicator cultures. Sourdoughs prepared with the two most promising strains, identified as Lactobacillus rossiae LD108 and Lactobacillus paralimentarius PB127, were characterized. The sourdough extracts were subjected to HPLC analysis coupled with a microtiter plate bioassay against A. japonicus to identify the active fractions. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the occurrence of a series of peptides corresponding to wheat α-gliadin proteolysis fragments in the active fraction from L. rossiae LD108 sourdough. The ability to prevent mold growth on bread was demonstrated for both strains, whereas L. rossiae LD108 also inhibited mold growth on panettone.

  9. Selecting soft wheat genotypes for whole grain cookies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved nutrition and reduction in obesity for North American populations require increasing the dietary use of whole grain cereal products. In most snack foods, whole grain products are difficult to manufacture because the presence of bran increases the water absorption and decreases the baking q...

  10. Managing grain protein content by remote sensing in winter wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Wang, Jihua; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Chunjiang; Liu, Liangyun

    2007-10-01

    Advanced site-specific determination of grain protein content by remote sensing can provide opportunities to optimize the strategies for purchasing and pricing grain, and to maximize the grain output by adjusting field inputs. Field experiments were performed to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration. Foliar nitrogen concentration at the anthesis stage is suggested to be significantly correlated with grain protein content, while spectral vegetation index is significantly correlated to foliar nitrogen concentration around the anthesis stage. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), foliar nitrogen concentration, and grain protein content, a statistical evaluation model of grain protein content was developed. NRI proved to be able to evaluate foliar nitrogen concentration with a coefficient of determination of R2= 0.7302 in year 2002. The relationship between measured and remote sensing derived foliar nitrogen concentration had a coefficient of determination of R2=0.7279 in year 2003. The results mentioned above indicate that the inversion of foliar nitrogen concentration and the evaluation of grain protein content by NRI are surprisingly good.

  11. Economic changes imposed by mycotoxins in food grains: case study of deoxynivalenol in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2002-01-01

    The Fusarium epidemic of 1996 in Ontario winter wheat resulted in direct losses of well over $100 million Canadian dollars (CDN). More importantly, wheat marketing in Ontario has changed. The market focus remains primarily food grade. Thus, the awareness of deoxynivalenol (DON) entering the food chain has influenced marketing and trade. New market tolerances for DON have been set. The Chicago Board of Trade will only accept up to 5 ppm (DON), while a new tolerance of 0.5 ppm DON has been set in the breakfast cereal markets. Advance contracts are avoided and there is a new reluctance to service export customers, all because of the liability associated with DON. Furthermore, there are no markets for process by-products which contain concentrated levels of DON. Before 1996, DON problems were handled largely by blending grain across the province. A reluctance to blend DON contaminated wheat and site specific sourcing of grain is growing.

  12. Increasing total and biologically active chromium in wheat grain and spinach by spraying with chromium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, F.A.; Ellis, B.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently, chromium has been shown to be necessary for glucose metabolism in man. But most plant species greatly restrict the uptake of Cr. This study was conducted to determine if both total and biologically active Cr could be increased in wheat grain or spinach by spraying the plants with either Cr/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ or Cr-EDTA. Concentrations of Cr in wheat grain were about doubled in a greenhouse experiment by spraying with either Cr source. Biologically active Cr (estimated by extraction with ethanol or NH/sub 4/OH) was increased from about 40 to greater than 50% of total Cr when wheat was sprayed with Cr salts. Total Cr in spinach leaves was increased by as much as 10-fold by spraying, with the sulfate source being more effective than the EDTA.

  13. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  14. Degree of starchy endosperm separation from bran as a milling quality trait of wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour yield is an important quality trait of wheat, especially for flour millers because it directly affects profitability. In addition to the grain characteristics and milling conditions known to affect flour yield, easy and clean separation of starchy endosperm from bran during milling could have ...

  15. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS marker...

  16. Fortifying Chapathis, an Asian Whole Wheat Unleavened Bread, using Corn Distillers Dried Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chapathi, an unleavened whole wheat flat bread, is widely consumed in Southern Asia. To improve the nutritional qualities of this product, we have investigated fortifying chapathi with different levels of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Food grade DDGS is an alternative sour...

  17. Glutamine synthetase in durum wheat: Genotypic variation and relationship with grain protein content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), one of the most valuable indicators for nitrogen use in crops, both in terms of yield and final grain protein content (GPC), is a very complex trait. The identification of wheat varieties with high NUE, as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in th...

  18. A review of the occurrence of grain softness protein-1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain softness protein-1 (Gsp-1) is a small, 495-bp intronless gene found throughout the Triticeae tribe at the distal end of group 5 chromosomes. With the Puroindolines, it constitutes a key component of the Hardness locus. In the polyploid wheats, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum, the gene is pr...

  19. Changes in the nuclear proteome of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    PubMed Central

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Chambon, Christophe; Boudet, Julie; Branlard, Gérard; Martre, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Wheat grain end-use value is determined by complex molecular interactions that occur during grain development, including those in the cell nucleus. However, our knowledge of how the nuclear proteome changes during grain development is limited. Here, we analyzed nuclear proteins of developing wheat grains collected during the cellularization, effective grain-filling, and maturation phases of development, respectively. Nuclear proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Image analysis revealed 371 and 299 reproducible spots in gels with first dimension separation along pH 4–7 and pH 6–11 isoelectric gradients, respectively. The relative abundance of 464 (67%) protein spots changed during grain development. Abundance profiles of these proteins clustered in six groups associated with the major phases and phase transitions of grain development. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyse 387 variant and non-variant protein spots, 114 different proteins were identified that were classified into 16 functional classes. We noted that some proteins involved in the regulation of transcription, like HMG1/2-like protein and histone deacetylase HDAC2, were most abundant before the phase transition from cellularization to grain-filling, suggesting that major transcriptional changes occur during this key developmental phase. The maturation period was characterized by high relative abundance of proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002999. PMID:26579155

  20. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, Partha Sarathi

    2010-08-01

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat ( Singh and Datta, 2010). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  1. Deciphering the roles of specific wheat grain proteins in flour functionality, allergenic potential and the response of the grain to the growth environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins show some of the most notable changes in response to post-anthesis fertilizer or high temperatures during grain development. These proteins are also associated with the serious food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). RN...

  2. Levels of compounds and metabolites in wheat ears and grains in organic and conventional agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Niehaus, Karsten; Barsch, Aiko; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-10-28

    In this work, wheat from two farming systems, organic and conventional, was analyzed. Organic agriculture is one of the fastest growing sectors in the food industry of Europe and the United States. It is an open question, whether organic or conventional agricultural management influences variables such as metabolism, nutrient supply, seed loading and metabolite composition of wheat. Our aim was to detect if organic or conventional farming systems would affect concentrations of metabolites and substances in developing ears and in corresponding matured grain. Therefore, broadband metabolite profiles together with lipids, cations, starch and protein concentrations of wheat ears in the last phase of grain development and of matured grain from organic and conventional agriculture of a rigorously controlled field trial with two organic and two conventional systems were examined. It appears that seed metabolism and supply of developing ears differ in organic and conventional agriculture. However, the differences in 62 metabolite concentrations become marginal or disappear in the matured grains, indicating an adjustment of nutrients in the matured grain from organic agriculture. This result suggests a high degree of homeostasis in the final seed set independent of the growing regime.

  3. Occurrence of mycotoxins in spelt and common wheat grain and their products.

    PubMed

    Mankevičienė, Audronė; Jablonskytė-Raščė, Danutė; Maikštėnienė, Stanislava

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming does not allow the use of conventional mineral fertilizers and crop protection products. As a result, in our experiments we chose to grow different species of cereals and to see how cereal species affect mycotoxin accumulation. This study describes the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2/HT-2 toxin in a survey of spelt and common wheat and their bran as well as flour. The analysis was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The concentrations of DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 in Triticum spelta and T. aestivum were influenced by species, cereal type and year interaction. The highest concentrations of these mycotoxins were found in spelt grain with glumes, in spelt glumes and in spring wheat. These results show significantly higher concentrations of Fusarium toxins in glumes than in dehulled grain, which indicates the possible protective effect of spelt wheat glumes. The lowest DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in spelt grain without glumes. The research shows that it is potentially risky to produce bran from grain in which mycotoxin concentrations are below limits by European Union Regulation No. 1881/2006, since the concentration of mycotoxins in bran can be several times higher than that in grain. As a result, although bran is a dietary product characterised by good digestive properties, it can become a harmful product that can cause unpredictable health damage.

  4. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health.

  5. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. PMID:25732000

  6. Fungal diversity and natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in freshly harvested wheat grains from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Bemvenuti, Renata Heidtmann; Zorzete, Patrícia; de Souza Garcia, Fábio; Corrêa, Benedito

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the fungal diversity and presence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in 150 samples of freshly harvested wheat grains collected in three regions of Brazil (Sao Paulo, Parana, and Rio Grande do Sul). Analysis of the mycobiota showed a predominance of Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp. and Epicoccum sp. Microdochium nivale (23%), a fungus rarely found in Brazilian crops, was detected in Sao Paulo. Four members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex were isolated: F. graminearum s.s. (37%), Fusarium meridionale (46%), Fusarium cortaderiae (13%), and Fusarium austroamericanum (3%). Toxin analysis revealed 99% contamination with deoxynivalenol (mean 706 μg/kg). The frequency of zearalenone varied greatly across regions: wheat grains from Rio Grande do Sul (84%) and Sao Paulo (12%) had median concentrations of 70.9 and 57.9 μg/kg, respectively. ZEA was not detected in the samples from Parana. A total of six samples were above the maximum tolerated level recommended by the European Commission for ZEA in wheat grains. This study provided new insights into the natural mycobiota of Brazilian wheat, demonstrating contamination of most samples with deoxynivalenol and high frequency of zearalenone in samples from Rio Grande do Sul.

  7. Wheat grain consumption and selection by inbred and outbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    O C, Lottes; A M, Kiszonas; E P, Fuerst; C F, Morris

    2016-10-15

    Food selection and avoidance are driven primarily by orosensory cues. Previous studies with C57BL/6J mice indicated marked differences in selection and consumption of individual grains of different wheat varieties when presented in binary mixtures. The present study examined the patterns of mouse grain selection across four strains of laboratory mice: two inbred, BALB/c and C57BL/6J, and two outbred, Swiss-Webster and CD1. Four pairs of wheat varieties that were known to vary a priori for consumption preference or seed coat ('bran') color were tested. Two variety pairs were near-isogenic (>98% similar) with contrasting red and white seed coat coloration/pigmentation. All four mice strains exhibited similar preferences between wheat variety pairs, whereas consumption was not highly related to mouse body weight. This result indicates a more generalized phenomenon regarding how mice select and then consume individual wheat grains. The study supported the continued use of C57BL/6J as an effective strain model system to study food perception. PMID:27436794

  8. The assessment of soil availability and wheat grain status of zinc and iron in Serbia: Implications for human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Nina; Kostic, Ljiljana; Pavlovic, Jelena; Bosnic, Predrag; Stevic, Nenad; Savic, Jasna; Hristov, Nikola

    2016-05-15

    The deficiency of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a global issue causing not only considerable yield losses of food crops but also serious health problems. We have analysed Zn and Fe concentrations in the grains of two bread wheat cultivars along native gradient of micronutrient availability throughout Serbia. Although only 13% of the soil samples were Zn deficient and none was Fe deficient, the levels of these micronutrients in grain were rather low (median values of 21 mg kg(-1) for Zn and 36 mg kg(-1) for Fe), and even less adequate in white flour. Moreover, excessive P fertilization of calcareous soils in the major wheat growing areas strongly correlated with lower grain concentration of Zn. Our results imply that a latent Zn deficiency in wheat grain poses a high risk for grain quality relevant to human health in Serbia, where wheat bread is a staple food. PMID:26925726

  9. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Magda S; Mohamed, Hanan A

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fast neutrons from a (252)Cf source in the fluence range 10(5)-10(8)n/cm(2) on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2 × 10(6)n/cm(2) increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5-1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na(+) in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) decreased. PMID:24509363

  10. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Magda S; Mohamed, Hanan A

    2014-04-01

    The effects of fast neutrons from a (252)Cf source in the fluence range 10(5)-10(8)n/cm(2) on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2 × 10(6)n/cm(2) increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5-1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na(+) in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) decreased.

  11. Ochratoxin A and citrinin loads in stored wheat grains: impact of grain dust and possible prediction using ergosterol measurement.

    PubMed

    Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L

    2006-02-01

    Crop storage should be carried out under hygienic conditions to ensure safe products, but sometimes grain dust which has settled from previous storage may be left over and incorporated to the following stored grains. This paper describes the results obtained using a lab model developed in order to assess the impact of grain dust incorporation for its direct contribution as a contaminant but also as an inoculum in stored wheat. Settled grain dust (4 samples) released from Belgian grain storages were collected and analysed by HPLC for ergosterol, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) content. For OTA and for ergosterol, there was a high degree of variability in concentrations found in the dust samples (from 17.3-318 ng g(-1) and from 39-823 microg g(-1), respectively) whilst for CIT, the range was less significant (from 137-344 ng g(-1)). Incorporation of grain dust into wheat storage contributed to an increase in the concentrations of mycotoxins in the stored grain. Dust acts as a contaminant and as an inoculum. According to these two ways, patterns of mycotoxin generation vary with the nature of the mycotoxin, the mycotoxigenic potential of dust and the water activity of the wheat. OTA and CIT showed a very versatile image when considering the amounts of toxins produced under the selected experimental conditions. The development of a robust tool to forecast the mycotoxigenicity of dust was based on the determination of ergosterol content as a general marker of fungal biomass. Present results suggest that this predictive tool would only be valid for predicting the contamination level of CIT and OTA at reasonable moisture content (14-20%). The potential risk of having highly contaminated batches from stock to stock may thus occur and this paper discusses possible pathways leading to OTA and CIT contamination either under wet or dry storage conditions. We therefore, recommend taking precautionary measures not only by controlling and maintaining moisture at a

  12. Role of cereal type and processing in whole grain in vivo protection from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Andrea; Danesi, Francesca; Verardo, Vito; Serrazanetti, Diana Isabella; Valli, Veronica; Russo, Alessandra; Riciputi, Ylenia; Tossani, Nadia; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    The reduced risk of chronic diseases related to whole grain consumption is in part attributed to their high antioxidant content. Many studies have been performed on the in vitro antioxidant capacity of cereals, but in vivo studies are necessary. We have evaluated and compared the effect of whole grain durum wheat bread and whole grain Kamut khorasan bread on the oxidative status in rats. Two different bread-making processes were used for whole grain Kamut khorasan, sourdough and baker's yeast. After 7 weeks on the experimental diets rats were divided into two subgroups, one receiving an oxidative stress by doxorubicin injection. Our results evidenced both wheat durum and Kamut khorasan as good sources of antioxidants, and a lower oxidative state in rats fed the cereal-based diets. Furthermore, Kamut khorasan bread fed animals had a better response to stress than wheat durum fed, especially when a sourdough bread was supplied. Although further studies are needed, data herein reported suggest whole grains, particularly whole ancient grains, as a safe and convenient way of increasing antioxidant protection.

  13. Evaluation of exopolysaccharide producing Weissella cibaria MG1 strain for the production of sourdough from various flours.

    PubMed

    Wolter, A; Hager, A-S; Zannini, E; Galle, S; Gänzle, M G; Waters, D M; Arendt, E K

    2014-02-01

    This study determined exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Weissella cibaria MG1 in sourdoughs prepared from gluten-free flours (buckwheat, oat, quinoa and teff), as well as wheat flour. Sourdoughs (SD) were fermented without sucrose, or by replacing 10% flour with sucrose to support EPS production. The amount of EPS depended on the substrate: high amounts of EPS corresponding to low amounts of oligosaccharides were found in buckwheat (4.2 g EPS/kg SD) and quinoa sourdoughs (3.2 g EPS/kg SD); in contrast, no EPS but panose-series oligosaccharides (PSO) were detected in wheat sourdoughs. Organic acid production, carbohydrates and rheological changes during fermentation were compared to the EPS negative control without added sucrose. Corresponding to the higher mineral content of the flours, sourdoughs from quinoa, teff and buckwheat had higher buffering capacity than wheat. Fermentable carbohydrates in buckwheat, teff and quinoa flours promoted W. cibaria growth; indicating why W. cibaria failed to grow in oat sourdoughs. Endogenous proteolytic activity was highest in quinoa flour; α-amylase activity was highest in wheat and teff flours. Protein degradation during fermentation was most extensive in quinoa and teff SD reducing protein peaks 18-29, 30-41 and 43-55 kDa extensively. Rheological analyses revealed decreased dough strength (AF) after fermentation, especially in sucrose-supplemented buckwheat sourdoughs correlating with amounts of EPS. High EPS production correlated with high protein, fermentable sugars (glucose, maltose, fructose), and mineral contents in quinoa flour. In conclusion, W. cibaria MG1 is a suitable starter culture for sourdough fermentation of buckwheat, quinoa and teff flour.

  14. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV < 10%), showed linearity (R(2) > 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  15. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV < 10%), showed linearity (R(2) > 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy. PMID:25873154

  16. Grain-Quality attributes for cereals other than wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereals are grass species that are the primary source of food for humankind and important source of animal feed. Energy in the form of starch is their leading contribution but they are also important sources of protein, lipid, vitamins and minerals. Cereal grains are all processed to varying degrees...

  17. Cereals: Overview of uses: accent on wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereals are grass species that are the primary source of food for humankind. Energy in the form of starch is their leading contribution but they are also important sources of protein, lipid, vitamins and minerals. Cereal grains are all processed to varying degrees, and made into a limitless array of...

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy characterization of wheat grains from plants of different water stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Łabanowska, Maria; Filek, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Bednarska, Elżbieta; Dłubacz, Aleksandra; Hartikainen, Helina

    2012-09-01

    Grains of five genotypes of wheat (four Polish and one Finnish), differing in their tolerance to drought stress were chosen for this investigation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed observation of transition metal ions (Mn, Fe, Cu) and different types of stable radicals, including semiquinone centers, present in seed coats, as well as several types of carbohydrate radicals found mainly in the inner parts of grains. The content of paramagnetic metal centers was higher in sensitive genotypes (Radunia, Raweta) than in tolerant ones (Parabola, Nawra), whereas the Finnish genotype (Manu) exhibited intermediate amounts. Similarly, the concentrations of both types of radicals, carbohydrates and semiquinone were significantly higher in the grains originating from more sensitive wheat genotypes. The nature of carbohydrate radicals and their concentrations were confronted with the kinds and amounts of sugars found by the biochemical analyses and microscopy observations. It is suggested that some long lived radicals (semiquinone and starch radicals) occurring in grains could be indicators of stress resistance of wheat plants.

  19. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  20. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    PubMed

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research.

  1. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    PubMed

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research. PMID:26134253

  2. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain.

    PubMed

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: "Primadur", an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and "T1303", an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in "Primadur", with a general decrease in "T1303". Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  3. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat.

  4. The Relationship of Red and Photographic Infrared Spectral Data to Grain Yield Variation Within a Winter Wheat Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Two band hand-held radiometer data from a winter wheat field, collected on 21 dates during the spring growing season, were correlated within field final grain yield. Significant linear relationships were found between various combinations of the red and photographic infrared radiance data collected and the grain yield. The spectral data explained approximately 64 percent of the within field grain yield variation. This variation in grain yield could not be explained using meteorological data as these were similar for all areas of the wheat field. Most importantly, data collected early in the spring were highly correlated with grain yield, a five week time window existed from stem elongation through antheses in which the spectral data were most highly correlated with grain yield, and manifestations of wheat canopy water stress were readily apparent in the spectral data.

  5. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

  6. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  7. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  8. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  9. A Wheat CCAAT Box-Binding Transcription Factor Increases the Grain Yield of Wheat with Less Fertilizer Input1

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input. PMID:25489021

  10. A wheat CCAAT box-binding transcription factor increases the grain yield of wheat with less fertilizer input.

    PubMed

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-02-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input.

  11. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  12. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions.

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat grain proteins reveals differential effects of silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes in transgenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel wheat lines with altered flour compositions can be used to decipher the roles of specific gluten proteins in flour quality. Grain proteins from transgenic wheat lines in which genes encoding the omega-5 gliadins were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) were analyzed in detail by quantitative 2...

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics of microwave-dried wheat distillers grain with solubles.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Maria Rosario P; Tabil, Lope G; Meda, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-prepared samples of wheat distillers grain with solubles with varying condensed distillers solubles (CDS) content were dried under varying microwave power, and microwave convection settings using a domestic microwave oven to examine their effect on the chemical, structural, color, flow, compression, thermal, and frictional properties of the product, which is dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). As CDS level increased, protein and ash content increased, while fat and fiber content decreased in wheat-based DDGS. Fat content was also markedly effected by the microwave oven drying conditions. While CDS level, microwave power or microwave convection setting, and/or their interactions significantly effected a number of physical properties; results indicated that CDS level had a stronger influence compared to the other factors. DDGS samples with high CDS levels were significantly denser, finer but more differentiated in size, less flowable, and less dispersible. These also produced denser and stronger pellets.

  15. Evaluation of assembly strategies using RNA-seq data associated with grain development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zhu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Wan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data.

  16. Contamination of wheat grain with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in Poland in 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are microorganisms commonly found in cereal products. Pathogens of cereals colonising kernels are responsible, among other things, for deterioration of the technological value of grain. However, the greatest threat is posed by mycotoxins produced by toxin-forming strains of these microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes in wheat grain from Poland in a 4-year cycle. In the period 2006-2009, studies were conducted on the content of fungal metabolites (ergosterol [ERG] and type A and B trichothecenes) and the content of microscopic fungi expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) in wheat grain. A total of 129 grain samples were examined. Analysed wheat samples had similar contents of both the investigated fungal metabolites and levels of microscopic fungi. Contents of microscopic fungi were low. Concentration of ERG, on average, was 2.64 mg/kg, while in colony forming units this value ranged from 10(1) CFU/g to over 10(3) CFU/g. The total concentration of type A and B trichothecenes was also low and within the 4 years of the investigation did not exceed 0.062 mg/kg. Concentration of DON did not exceed 1,250 µg/kg, established as safe in grain for human consumption, in any of the tested samples. For the results collected in the years 2006-2009 and presented in this paper, correlations were calculated between the amount of mycoflora and analysed metabolites in 3 possible combinations: 0.7096 for ERG/total toxin concentration, 0.6086 for ERG/log CFU/g, and 0.4016 for the concentration of total toxins/log CFU/g. Highly significant correlations between the content of trichothecenes and the concentration of ERG indicate that the level of this metabolite is closely related to the content of mycotoxins in grain.

  17. Genetic dissection of grain yield and physical grain quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-limited environments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dion; Izanloo, Ali; Reynolds, Matthew; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-07-01

    In the water-limited bread wheat production environment of southern Australia, large advances in grain yield have previously been achieved through the introduction and improved understanding of agronomic traits controlled by major genes, such as the semi-dwarf plant stature and photoperiod insensitivity. However, more recent yield increases have been achieved through incremental genetic advances, of which, breeders and researchers do not fully understand the underlying mechanism(s). A doubled haploid population was utilised, derived from a cross between RAC875, a relatively drought-tolerant breeders' line and Kukri, a locally adapted variety more intolerant of drought. Experiments were performed in 16 environments over four seasons in southern Australia, to physiologically dissect grain yield and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits. Two stage multi-environment trial analysis identified three main clusters of experiments (forming distinctive environments, ENVs), each with a distinctive growing season rainfall patterns. Kernels per square metre were positively correlated with grain yield and influenced by kernels per spikelet, a measure of fertility. QTL analysis detected nine loci for grain yield across these ENVs, individually accounting for between 3 and 18% of genetic variance within their respective ENVs, with the RAC875 allele conferring increased grain yield at seven of these loci. These loci were partially dissected by the detection of co-located QTL for other traits, namely kernels per square metre. While most loci for grain yield have previously been reported, their deployment and effect within local germplasm are now better understood. A number of novel loci can be further exploited to aid breeders' efforts in improving grain yield in the southern Australian environment.

  18. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yunlu; Zheng, Chengyan; Chen, Jin; Chen, Changqing; Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  19. Climatic Warming Increases Winter Wheat Yield but Reduces Grain Nitrogen Concentration in East China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat. PMID:24736557

  20. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Mikola, L

    1986-07-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20 degrees C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent.

  1. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L

    PubMed Central

    Mikola, Leena

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20°C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent. PMID:16664910

  2. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h. PMID:26892180

  3. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h.

  4. Relevance for food sciences of quantitative spatially resolved element profile investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    PubMed

    Pongrac, Paula; Kreft, Ivan; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana; Germ, Mateja; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Jeromel, Luka; Eichert, Diane; Budic, Bojan; Pelicon, Primoz

    2013-07-01

    Bulk element concentrations of whole grain and element spatial distributions at the tissue level were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain grown in Zn-enriched soil. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used for bulk analysis, whereas micro-proton-induced X-ray emission was used to resolve the two-dimensional localization of the elements. Soil Zn application did not significantly affect the grain yield, but did significantly increase the grain Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations, and decrease the grain Na, P and Mo concentrations; bulk Mg, S, K, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentrations remained unchanged. These changes observed in bulk element concentrations are the reflection of tissue-specific variations within the grain, revealing that Zn application to soil can lead to considerable alterations in the element distributions within the grain, which might ultimately influence the quality of the milling fractions. Spatially resolved investigations into the partitioning of the element concentrations identified the tissues with the highest element concentrations, which is of utmost importance for accurate prediction of element losses during the grain milling and polishing processes.

  5. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue?

    PubMed

    Moroni, Alice V; Dal Bello, Fabio; Arendt, Elke K

    2009-10-01

    The increasing demand for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is raising the need for new approaches in GF bread-making. Sourdough is the foremost fermentation used for baking purposes and it has been proven to be ideal for improving the texture, palatability, aroma, shelf life and nutritional value of wheat and rye breads. These characteristic features derive from the complex metabolic activities of the sourdough-resident lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, e.g. acidification, production of exopolysaccharides, proteolytic- amylolytic- and phytase activity, and production of antimicrobial substances. These effects have been extensively studied and well described for traditional baking, whereas little is known about the role of sourdough in GF baking. Yet, the microbiological and qualitative characterisation of local GF fermented products indicate an overlap with the microbiota of wheat/rye fermentation and suggest that the positive metabolic activities of the sourdough microbiota are still retained during fermentation of GF crops. Thus, the use of sourdough in GF baking may be the new frontier for improving the quality, safety and acceptability of GF bread.

  6. Genome-wide association for grain morphology in synthetic hexaploid wheats using digital imaging analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grain size and shape greatly influence grain weight which ultimately enhances grain yield in wheat. Digital imaging (DI) based phenomic characterization can capture the three dimensional variation in grain size and shape than has hitherto been possible. In this study, we report the results from using digital imaging of grain size and shape to understand the relationship among different components of this trait, their contribution to enhance grain weight, and to identify genomic regions (QTLs) controlling grain morphology using genome wide association mapping with high density diversity array technology (DArT) and allele-specific markers. Results Significant positive correlations were observed between grain weight and grain size measurements such as grain length (r = 0.43), width, thickness (r = 0.64) and factor from density (FFD) (r = 0.69). A total of 231 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) were grouped into five different sub-clusters by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked DArT markers. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was observed among DArT loci > 10 cM distance and approximately 28% marker pairs were in significant LD. In total, 197 loci over 60 chromosomal regions and 79 loci over 31 chromosomal regions were associated with grain morphology by genome wide analysis using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches, respectively. They were mainly distributed on homoeologous group 2, 3, 6 and 7 chromosomes. Twenty eight marker-trait associations (MTAs) on the D genome chromosomes 2D, 3D and 6D may carry novel alleles with potential to enhance grain weight due to the use of untapped wild accessions of Aegilops tauschii. Statistical simulations showed that favorable alleles for thousand kernel weight (TKW), grain length, width and thickness have additive genetic effects. Allelic variations for known genes controlling grain size and weight, viz. TaCwi-2A, TaSus-2B, TaCKX6-3D and TaGw2-6A, were also associated

  7. [Effects of rotational tillage during summer fallow on wheat field soil water regime and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xian-qing; Wang, Wei; Han, Qing-fang; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Yan, Bo; Li, Yong-ping; Su, Qin

    2011-10-01

    In 2007-2010, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different rotational tillage practices during summer follow on the soil water regime and grain yield in a winter wheat field in Southern Ningxia arid area. Three treatments were installed, i.e., T1 (no-tillage in first year, subsoiling in second year, and no-tillage in third year), T2 (subsoiling in first year, notillage in second year, and subsoiling in third year), and CT (conventional tillage in the 3 years). Through the three years of the tillage practices, the soil water storage efficiency in treatments T1 and T2 was increased averagely by 15.2% and 26.5%, respectively, as compared to CT. In treatments T1 and T2, the potential rainfall use rate was higher, being 37.8% and 38.5%, respectively, and the rainfall use efficiency was increased averagely by 9.9% and 10.7%, respectively, as compared to CT. Rotational tillage during summer fallow could decrease the soil ineffective evaporation significantly, and save the soil water effectively in wheat growth season. At early growth stage, the water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in treatments T1 and T2 was increased averagely by 6.8% and 9. 4%, as compared to CT; at jointing, heading, and filling stages, the water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in treatments T1 and T2 had a significant increase, giving greater contribution to the wheat yield than the control. Different rotational tillage practices increased the water consumption by wheat, but in the meantime, increased the grain yield and water use efficiency. In treatments T1 and T2, the water consumption by wheat through the three years was increased averagely by 5.2% and 6.1%, whereas the grain yield and the water use efficiency were increased averagely by 9.9% and 10.6%, and by 4.5% and 4.3%, respectively, as compared to CT. Correlation analysis showed that in Southern Ningxia arid area, the soil water storage at sowing, jointing, heading, and filling stages, especially at heading stage, could

  8. alpha-Amylase and programmed cell death in aleurone of ripening wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Mrva, Kolumbina; Wallwork, Meredith; Mares, Daryl J

    2006-01-01

    Late maturity alpha-amylase (LMA) in wheat is a genetic defect that may result in the accumulation of unacceptable levels of high pI alpha-amylase in grain in the absence of germination or weather damage. During germination, gibberellin produced in the embryo triggers expression of alpha-Amy genes, the synthesis of alpha-amylase and, subsequently, cell death in the aleurone. LMA also involves the aleurone and whilst LMA appears to be independent of the embryo there is nevertheless some evidence that gibberellin is involved. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether the increase in alpha-amylase activity in LMA-prone genotypes, like alpha-amylase synthesis by aleurone cells in germinating or GA-challenged grains, is followed by aleurone cell death. Programmed cell death was seen in aleurone layers from developing, ripe and germinated grains using confocal microscopy and fluorescent probes specific for dead or living cells. Small pockets of dying cells were observed distributed at random throughout the aleurone of ripening LMA-affected grains and by harvest-ripeness these cells were clearly dead. The first appearance of dying cells, 35 d post-anthesis, coincided with the later part of the 'window of sensitivity' in grain development in LMA-prone wheat cultivars. No dead or dying cells were present in ripening or fully ripe grains of control cultivars. In germinating grains, dying cells were observed in the aleurone adjacent to the scutellum and, as germination progressed, the number of dead cells increased and the affected area extended further towards the distal end of the grain. Aside from the obvious differences in spatial distribution, dying cells in 20-24 h germinated grains were similar to dying cells in developing LMA-affected grains, consistent with previous measurements of alpha-amylase activity. The increase in high pI alpha-amylase activity in developing grains of LMA-prone cultivars, like alpha-amylase synthesis in germinating grains, is

  9. Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Gallaher, Daniel D; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Marquart, Len

    2009-12-01

    This study compared the effect of whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat and refined rice-based foods on energy intake and satiety. Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast of hot cereal and a snack mix containing either barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed by an ad libitum smorgasbord lunch using a crossover design. Energy intake was measured at the lunch using plate waste. Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, amount of food consumed, and thirst were assessed using a modified Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, snack and lunch. Energy intake at lunch did not differ among products. There were no differences in the area under the time curve in modified VAS scores among products for any parameter. However, subjects reported significantly less hunger before lunch compared to their hunger before breakfast when consuming the barley, but there was no significant reduction in hunger before lunch after consumption of wheat or rice. In conclusion, intake of a whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat, or refined rice breakfast and snack did not decrease energy intake acutely, but consumption of whole grain high-fiber barley foods significantly decreased hunger whereas whole wheat and refined rice foods did not.

  10. Development and molecular characterization of wheat--Aegilops kotschyi addition and substitution lines with high grain protein, iron, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Nidhi; Neelam, Kumari; Tiwari, Vijay K; Randhawa, Gursharn S; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S

    2011-11-01

    Over two billion people, depending largely on staple foods, suffer from deficiencies in protein and some micronutrients such as iron and zinc. Among various approaches to overcome protein and micronutrient deficiencies, biofortification through a combination of conventional and molecular breeding methods is the most feasible, cheapest, and sustainable approach. An interspecific cross was made between the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' and Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. accession 396, which has a threefold higher grain iron and zinc concentrations and about 33% higher protein concentration than wheat cultivars. Recurrent backcrossing and selection for the micronutrient content was performed at each generation. Thirteen derivatives with high grain iron and zinc concentrations and contents, ash and ash micronutrients, and protein were analyzed for alien introgression. Morphological markers, high molecular weight glutenin subunit profiles, anchored wheat microsatellite markers, and GISH showed that addition and substitution of homoeologous groups 1, 2, and 7 chromosomes of Ae. kotschyi possess gene(s) for high grain micronutrients. The addition of 1U/1S had high molecular weight glutenin subunits with higher molecular weight than those of wheat, and the addition of 2S in most of the derivatives also enhanced grain protein content by over 20%. Low grain protein content in a derivative with a 2S-wheat translocation, waxy leaves, and absence of the gdm148 marker strongly suggests that the gene for higher grain protein content on chromosome 2S is orthologous to the grain protein QTL on the short arm of group 2 chromosomes.

  11. Effect of wheat distillers' grains with solubles and a feed flavour on performance and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs fed wheat and canola meal based diets.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip A

    2012-04-01

    Forty-eight crossbred pigs were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a 6 x 2 (treatment x sex) factorial arrangement. Diets were based on wheat and canola meal and were formulated to contain 0%, 4.9%, 9.7%, 14.6% or 19.4% wheat distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the growing period and 0%, 4.0%, 8.1%, 12.1% and 16.1% wheat DDGS during the finishing period. The addition of wheat DDGS was made at the expense of both wheat and canola meal. A feed flavour was added to the diet in which wheat DDGS supplied 100% of the supplementary protein. Over the entire experimental period (21.5-112.2 kg), increasing the level of wheat DDGS resulted in a linear decrease in weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Feed intake was linearly reduced by inclusion of wheat DDGS during the growing period (21.5-57.4 kg) but not the finishing period (57.4-112.2 kg). Increasing the level of wheat DDGS in the diet resulted in a linear decline in carcass value index and lean yield while loin fat linearly increased. The addition of a flavour to the diet in which DDGS supplied 100% of the supplementary protein had no effect on performance or carcass traits.

  12. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  13. Fructan extracts from wheat stem and barley grain stimulate large bowel fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jenkins, Colin L D; Bushell, Rhys; Morell, Matthew K; Bird, Anthony R

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of inulin-type fructans for bowel health are well established, but less so for other fructan sources. In vitro data suggest that fructans extracted from cereals are readily fermented and produce favorable short-chain fatty acid profiles; however, whether this occurs in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that in rats, fructans extracted from wheat stem and barley grain would have similar effects on fermentation as oligofructose (OF). Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 dietary treatments that contained either 2% or 5% fructan, provided by a barley grain fructan extract (BGFE), a wheat stem fructan extract, or OF or no added fructan (control). The duration of the feeding study was 14 days. Rats fed diets containing 5% fructan had higher cecal digesta weights; larger acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acid pools; and lower pHs in comparison with the control group. In addition, only the 5% OF and 5% BGFE groups increased cecal butyrate pools, and 5% BGFE was the only group in which colonic digesta pH was lower than that of the control. Diets containing 2% fructan did not affect any of these fermentation end points. Whereas bifidobacteria numbers in cecal digesta of 2% and 5% OF were higher than that in the control group, they were not different from those in rats fed diets containing BGFE and wheat stem fructan extract. Barley grain and wheat stem fructans produced similar large bowel fermentation patterns to OF when fed to rats at 5% of the diet. PMID:22935343

  14. A contribution to reduce sampling variability in the evaluation of deoxynivalenol contamination of organic wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Hallier, Arnaud; Celette, Florian; Coutarel, Julie; David, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium head blight caused by different varieties of Fusarium species is one of the major serious worldwide diseases found in wheat production. It is therefore important to be able to quantify the deoxynivalenol concentration in wheat. Unfortunately, in mycotoxin quantification, due to the uneven distribution of mycotoxins within the initial lot, it is difficult, or even impossible, to obtain a truly representative analytical sample. In previous work we showed that the sampling step most responsible for variability was grain sampling. In this paper, it is more particularly the step scaling down from a laboratory sample of some kilograms to an analytical sample of a few grams that is investigated. The naturally contaminated wheat lot was obtained from an organic field located in the southeast of France (Rhône-Alpes) from the year 2008-2009 cropping season. The deoxynivalenol level was found to be 50.6 ± 2.3 ng g⁻¹. Deoxynivalenol was extracted with a acetonitrile-water mix and quantified by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Three different grain sampling techniques were tested to obtain analytical samples: a technique based on manually homogenisation and division, a second technique based on the use of a rotating shaker and a third on the use of compressed air. Both the rotating shaker and the compressed air techniques enabled a homogeneous laboratory sample to be obtained, from which representative analytical samples could be taken. Moreover, the techniques did away with many repetitions and grinding. This study, therefore, contributes to sampling variability reduction in the evaluation of deoxynivalenol contamination of organic wheat grain, and then, at a reasonable cost.

  15. Anthesis date mainly explained correlations between post-anthesis leaf senescence, grain yield, and grain protein concentration in a winter wheat population segregating for flowering time QTLs.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Matthieu; Jourdan, Matthieu; Allard, Vincent; Martre, Pierre; Perretant, Marie Reine; Ravel, Catherine; Heumez, Emmanuel; Orford, Simon; Snape, John; Griffiths, Simon; Gaju, Oorbessy; Foulkes, John; Le Gouis, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    The genetic variability of the duration of leaf senescence during grain filling has been shown to affect both carbon and nitrogen acquisition. In particular, maintaining green leaves during grain filling possibly leads to increased grain yield, but its associated effect on grain protein concentration has not been studied. The aim of this study was to dissect the genetic factors contributing to correlations observed at the phenotypic level between leaf senescence during grain filling, grain protein concentration, and grain yield in winter wheat. With this aim in view, an analysis of quantitative trait locus (QTL) co-locations for these traits was carried out on a doubled haploid mapping population grown in a large multienvironment trial network. Pleiotropic QTLs affecting leaf senescence and grain yield and/or grain protein concentration were identified on chromosomes 2D, 2A, and 7D. These were associated with QTLs for anthesis date, showing that the phenotypic correlations with leaf senescence were mainly explained by flowering time in this wheat population. Study of the allelic effects of these pleiotropic QTLs showed that delaying leaf senescence was associated with increased grain yield or grain protein concentration depending on the environments considered. It is proposed that this differential effect of delaying leaf senescence on grain yield and grain protein concentration might be related to the nitrogen availability during the post-anthesis period. It is concluded that the benefit of using leaf senescence as a selection criterion to improve grain protein concentration in wheat cultivars may be limited and would largely depend on the targeted environments, particularly on their nitrogen availability during the post-anthesis period.

  16. Differential Expression of Durum Wheat Gluten Proteome under Water Stress during Grain Filling.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Palermo, Carmen; De Santis, Michele Andrea; Mentana, Annalisa; Pompa, Marianna; Giuzio, Luigia; Masci, Stefania; Centonze, Diego; Flagella, Zina

    2015-07-29

    Environmental stress during grain filling may affect wheat protein composition, thus influencing its final quality. A proteomic approach was used to evaluate changes in storage protein composition under water stress of two Italian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo. The high-molecular-weight glutenin region increased progressively in both cultivars and under two water regimens. The L48-35 region, corresponding to low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits, increased slightly during grain development and decreased under water stress in both cultivars. In particular, an s-type LMW related to superior technological quality was down-expressed in the early-mid period in Svevo and in the mid-late period in Ciccio. Finally, the L<35 region, corresponding to gliadin-like proteins, decreased slightly during grain development and increased under stress in both cultivars. Several α-gliadins, associated with immunological potential, increased their expression under water stress, especially in Svevo in the early-mid stage of grain filling.

  17. Differential Expression of Durum Wheat Gluten Proteome under Water Stress during Grain Filling.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Palermo, Carmen; De Santis, Michele Andrea; Mentana, Annalisa; Pompa, Marianna; Giuzio, Luigia; Masci, Stefania; Centonze, Diego; Flagella, Zina

    2015-07-29

    Environmental stress during grain filling may affect wheat protein composition, thus influencing its final quality. A proteomic approach was used to evaluate changes in storage protein composition under water stress of two Italian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo. The high-molecular-weight glutenin region increased progressively in both cultivars and under two water regimens. The L48-35 region, corresponding to low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits, increased slightly during grain development and decreased under water stress in both cultivars. In particular, an s-type LMW related to superior technological quality was down-expressed in the early-mid period in Svevo and in the mid-late period in Ciccio. Finally, the L<35 region, corresponding to gliadin-like proteins, decreased slightly during grain development and increased under stress in both cultivars. Several α-gliadins, associated with immunological potential, increased their expression under water stress, especially in Svevo in the early-mid stage of grain filling. PMID:26138860

  18. Effect of storage and insect infestation on the mineral and vitamin contents of wheat grain and flour.

    PubMed

    Keskin, S; Ozkaya, H

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how storage and Sitophilus granarius L. infestation affects mineral and vitamin (thiamin and riboflavin) contents of wheat grain and flour obtained from the wheat. Wheat samples were infested with nonsexed S. granarius at a rate of two adults per kilogram, and stored for 6 mo at 30 +/- 1 degrees C and 70 +/- 5% relative humidity. Every 30 d, samples of wheat were collected and evaluated for insect population, mineral, thiamin, and riboflavin contents. Flour milled from these wheat samples was also evaluated for mineral, thiamin, and riboflavin contents. None of the analyses performed on the uninfested wheat and flour samples showed any noticeable change during the storage period. The insect population of the infested wheat samples increased during the storage period. The ratio of the mineral contents to dry matter significantly increased in the infested wheat and flour samples during the infestation period, whereas thiamin and riboflavin contents considerably decreased. The feeding habits of S. granarius and the distribution of minerals and vitamins in the wheat grain caused the changes observed in the levels of these compounds. The effects of infestation were greatest in the latter stages, during which the insect population increased greatly.

  19. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  20. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn.

  1. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. PMID:26453720

  2. [Effects of different irrigation modes on winter wheat grain yield and water- and nitrogen use efficiency].

    PubMed

    Men, Hong-wen; Zhang, Qiu; Dai, Xing-long; Cao, Qian; Wang, Cheng-yu; Zhou, Xiao-hu; He, Ming-rong

    2011-10-01

    Taking the widely planted winter wheat cultivar Tainong 18 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes on the winter wheat grain yield and water- and nitrogen use efficiency in drier year (2009-2010) in Tai' an City of Shandong Province, China. Five treatments were installed, i. e., irrigation before sowing (CK), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stage (W1), irrigation before sowing and at jointing stages and at over-wintering stage with alternative irrigation at milking stage (W2), irrigation before sowing and at jointing and flowering stages (optimized traditional irrigation mode, W3), and irrigation before sowing and at over-wintering, jointing, and milking stages (traditional irrigation mode, W4). The irrigation amount was 600 m3 hm(-2) one time. Under the condition of 119.7 mm precipitation in the winter wheat growth season, no significant difference was observed in the grain yield between treatments W2 and W4, but the water use efficiency was significantly higher in W2 than in W4. Comparing with treatment W3, treatments W2 and W4 had obviously higher grain yield, but the water use efficiency had no significant difference. The partial factor productivity from N fertilization was the highest in W2 and W4, and the NO3(-)-N accumulation amount in 0-100 cm soil layer at harvest was significantly higher in W2 than in W3 and W4, suggesting that W2 could reduce NO3(-)-N leaching loss. Under the conditions of our experiment, irrigation before sowing and jointing stages and at over-wintering stage with alternative irrigation at milking stage was the optimal irrigation mode in considering both the grain yield and the water- and nitrogen use efficiency.

  3. Effects of high NH(+) 4 on K(+) uptake, culm mechanical strength and grain filling in wheat.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingan; Sun, Mingze; Wang, Fahong; Liu, Jia; Feng, Bo; Si, Jisheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Shengdong; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that a high external NH(+) 4 concentration depresses many processes in plant development, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. To determine whether the negative effects of high levels of NH(+) 4 are related to competitive cation uptake, wheat was grown in a field with moderate (18 g N m(-2)) and high (30 g N m(-2)) supplies of NH(+) 4 in the presence or absence of additional K(+) (6 g K2O m(-2)) to examine culm mechanical strength, the main components of the vascular bundle, nitrogen (N) remobilization and the grain-filling rate. The results indicated that an excessive supply of NH(+) 4 significantly decreased culm mechanical strength, the cellulose and lignin contents of vascular bundles, the N remobilization efficiency (NRE) and the grain-filling rate compared with a moderate level of NH(+) 4. The additional provision of K(+) considerably alleviated these negative effects of high NH(+) 4, resulting in a 19.41-26.95% increase in culm mechanical strength during grain filling and a 34.59% increase in the NRE. An assay using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) showed that the net rate of transmembrane K(+) influx decreased by 84.62%, and measurements using flame photometry demonstrated that the K(+) content decreased by 36.13% in wheat plants subjected to high NH(+) 4. This study indicates that the effects of high NH(+) 4 on culm mechanical strength, cellulose and lignin contents, the NRE and the grain-filling rate are probably associated with inhibition of K(+) uptake in wheat. PMID:25566278

  4. Effects of high NH+4 on K+ uptake, culm mechanical strength and grain filling in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingan; Sun, Mingze; Wang, Fahong; Liu, Jia; Feng, Bo; Si, Jisheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Shengdong; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that a high external NH+4 concentration depresses many processes in plant development, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. To determine whether the negative effects of high levels of NH+4 are related to competitive cation uptake, wheat was grown in a field with moderate (18 g N m−2) and high (30 g N m−2) supplies of NH+4 in the presence or absence of additional K+ (6 g K2O m−2) to examine culm mechanical strength, the main components of the vascular bundle, nitrogen (N) remobilization and the grain-filling rate. The results indicated that an excessive supply of NH+4 significantly decreased culm mechanical strength, the cellulose and lignin contents of vascular bundles, the N remobilization efficiency (NRE) and the grain-filling rate compared with a moderate level of NH+4. The additional provision of K+ considerably alleviated these negative effects of high NH+4, resulting in a 19.41–26.95% increase in culm mechanical strength during grain filling and a 34.59% increase in the NRE. An assay using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) showed that the net rate of transmembrane K+ influx decreased by 84.62%, and measurements using flame photometry demonstrated that the K+ content decreased by 36.13% in wheat plants subjected to high NH+4. This study indicates that the effects of high NH+4 on culm mechanical strength, cellulose and lignin contents, the NRE and the grain-filling rate are probably associated with inhibition of K+ uptake in wheat. PMID:25566278

  5. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R N; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-12-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F.verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15-155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12-86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13-64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg).

  6. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  7. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  8. Genome-wide Association Analysis on Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance and Grain Color in U.S. Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat can cause substantial reduction in grain yield and end-use quality. Grain color (GC) together with other components affect PHS resistance. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been reported for PHS resistance, among which one gene responsible for PHS resis...

  9. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes.

  10. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  11. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  12. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    PubMed

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality.

  13. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  14. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  15. Elemental mapping of biofortified wheat grains using micro X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, I.; Pataco, I. M.; Mourinho, M. P.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Pessoa, M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.; Santos, J. P.; Guerra, M.

    2016-06-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence has been used to obtain elemental maps of biofortified wheat grains. Two varieties of wheat were used in the study, Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum desf. Two treatments, with different nutrient concentration, were applied to the plants during the whole plant growth cycle. From the obtained elemental maps it was possible to extract information regarding the plant's physiological processes under the biofortification procedures. Both macro and micronutrients were mapped, providing useful insight into the posterior food processing mechanisms of this biofortified staple food. We have also shown that these kind of studies can now be performed with laboratory benchtop apparatus, rather than using synchrotron radiation, increasing the overall attractiveness of micro X-ray fluorescence in the study of highly heterogeneous biological samples.

  16. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain.

    PubMed

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren; Quinn, Paul; Mosselmans, J Fred; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-06-01

    We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells and in modified aleurone cells in the transfer region of the grain: iron is coordinated octahedrally by six oxygen atoms and fewer than two phosphorous atoms. Zinc is coordinated tetrahedrally by four oxygen atoms and approximately 1.5 phosphorus atoms in an asymmetric coordination shell. We also present evidence of modified complexation of both metals in transgenic grain overexpressing wheat ferritin. For zinc, there is a consistent doubling of the number of complexing phosphorus atoms. Although there is some EXAFS evidence for iron phytate in ferritin-expressing grain, there is also evidence of a structure lacking phosphorus. This change may lead to an excess of phosphorus within the storage regions of grain, and in turn to the demonstrated increased association of phosphorus with zinc in ferritin-expressing grains. Derivative X-ray absorption spectra also suggest that mineral complexation in the transfer region of ferritin-expressing grains is quite different from that in wild-type grain. This may explain why the raised levels of minerals transported to the developing grain accumulate within the crease region of the transgenic grain.

  17. Importance of pre-anthesis anther sink strength for maintenance of grain number during reproductive stage water stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xuemei; Shiran, Behrouz; Wan, Jianlin; Lewis, David C; Jenkins, Colin L D; Condon, Anthony G; Richards, Richard A; Dolferus, Rudy

    2010-06-01

    Reproductive stage water stress leads to spikelet sterility in wheat. Whereas drought stress at anthesis affects mainly grain size, stress at the young microspore stage of pollen development is characterized by abortion of pollen development and reduction in grain number. We identified genetic variability for drought tolerance at the reproductive stage. Drought-tolerant wheat germplasm is able to maintain carbohydrate accumulation in the reproductive organs throughout the stress treatment. Starch depletion in the ovary of drought-sensitive wheat is reversible upon re-watering and cross-pollination experiments indicate that the ovary is more resilient than the anther. The effect on anthers and pollen fertility is irreversible, suggesting that pollen sterility is the main cause of grain loss during drought conditions in wheat. The difference in storage carbohydrate accumulation in drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant wheat is correlated with differences in sugar profiles, cell wall invertase gene expression and expression of fructan biosynthesis genes in anther and ovary (sucrose : sucrose 1-fructosyl-transferase, 1-SST; sucrose : fructan 6-fructosyl-transferase, 6-SFT). Our results indicate that the ability to control and maintain sink strength and carbohydrate supply to anthers may be the key to maintaining pollen fertility and grain number in wheat and this mechanism may also provide protection against other abiotic stresses.

  18. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  19. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    PubMed

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-06-17

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario.

  20. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones

    PubMed Central

    Saint Pierre, C.; Burgueño, J.; Crossa, J.; Fuentes Dávila, G.; Figueroa López, P.; Solís Moya, E.; Ireta Moreno, J.; Hernández Muela, V. M.; Zamora Villa, V. M.; Vikram, P.; Mathews, K.; Sansaloni, C.; Sehgal, D.; Jarquin, D.; Wenzl, P.; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines’ performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha−1 across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  1. Pattern of iron distribution in maternal and filial tissues in wheat grains with contrasting levels of iron

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Iron insufficiency is a worldwide problem in human diets. In cereals like wheat, the bran layer of the grains is an important source of iron. However, the dietary availability of iron in wheat flour is limited due to the loss of the iron-rich bran during milling and processing and the presence of anti-nutrients like phytic acid that keep iron strongly chelated in the grain. The present study investigated the localization of iron and phosphorus in grain tissues of wheat genotypes with contrasting grain iron content using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was employed to determine the proportion of divalent and trivalent forms of Fe in the grains. It revealed the abundance of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur in the local chemical environment of Fe in grains, as Fe-O-P-R and Fe-O-S-R coordination. Contrasting differences were noticed in tissue-specific relative localization of Fe, P, and S among the different genotypes, suggesting a possible effect of localization pattern on iron bioavailability. The current study reports the shift in iron distribution from maternal to filial tissues of grains during the evolution of wheat from its wild relatives to the present-day cultivated varieties, and thus suggests the value of detailed physical localization studies in varietal improvement programmes for food crops. PMID:23918965

  2. Contributions of Root WSC during Grain Filling in Wheat under Drought

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Dell, Bernard; Ma, Wujun; Vergauwen, Rudy; Zhang, Xinmin; Oteri, Tina; Foreman, Andrew; Laird, Damian; Van den Ende, Wim

    2016-01-01

    As the first organ in plants to sense water-deficit in the soil, roots have important roles for improving crop adaption to water limited environments. Stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are a major carbon source for grain filling under drought conditions. The contributions of root WSC during grain filling under drought has not been revealed. Wheat parental lines of Westonia, Kauz and their derived four double haploid (DH) lines, namely, DH 125, DH 139, DH 307, and DH 338 were used in a field drought experiment with four replications. Through measurements of the root and stem WSC components, and the associated enzyme activities during grain filling, we identified that the levels of root WSC and fructan were one third of the levels in stems. In particular, root glucose and 6-kestose levels were one third of the stem, while the root fructose and bifurcose level were almost half of the stem and sucrose level was two third of the stem. The accumulation and the degradation patterns of root fructan levels were similar to that in the stem, especially under drought. Correlations between root fructan levels and grain assimilation were highly significant, indicating that under terminal drought, root WSC represents a redistributed carbon source for grain filling rather than deep rooting. The significantly higher root sucrose levels under drought suggest that sucrose may act as a signal under drought stress. As compared with stem fructose levels, the earlier increased root fructose levels in DH 307, DH 139, and DH 338 provided agile response to drought stress. Our root results further confirmed that β-(2–6) linkages predominate in wheat with patterns of 6-kestose being closely correlated with overall fructan patterns. Further research will focus on the roles of 6-FEH during fructan remobilization in stems. PMID:27446134

  3. Contributions of Root WSC during Grain Filling in Wheat under Drought.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Dell, Bernard; Ma, Wujun; Vergauwen, Rudy; Zhang, Xinmin; Oteri, Tina; Foreman, Andrew; Laird, Damian; Van den Ende, Wim

    2016-01-01

    As the first organ in plants to sense water-deficit in the soil, roots have important roles for improving crop adaption to water limited environments. Stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are a major carbon source for grain filling under drought conditions. The contributions of root WSC during grain filling under drought has not been revealed. Wheat parental lines of Westonia, Kauz and their derived four double haploid (DH) lines, namely, DH 125, DH 139, DH 307, and DH 338 were used in a field drought experiment with four replications. Through measurements of the root and stem WSC components, and the associated enzyme activities during grain filling, we identified that the levels of root WSC and fructan were one third of the levels in stems. In particular, root glucose and 6-kestose levels were one third of the stem, while the root fructose and bifurcose level were almost half of the stem and sucrose level was two third of the stem. The accumulation and the degradation patterns of root fructan levels were similar to that in the stem, especially under drought. Correlations between root fructan levels and grain assimilation were highly significant, indicating that under terminal drought, root WSC represents a redistributed carbon source for grain filling rather than deep rooting. The significantly higher root sucrose levels under drought suggest that sucrose may act as a signal under drought stress. As compared with stem fructose levels, the earlier increased root fructose levels in DH 307, DH 139, and DH 338 provided agile response to drought stress. Our root results further confirmed that β-(2-6) linkages predominate in wheat with patterns of 6-kestose being closely correlated with overall fructan patterns. Further research will focus on the roles of 6-FEH during fructan remobilization in stems. PMID:27446134

  4. Contributions of Root WSC during Grain Filling in Wheat under Drought.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Dell, Bernard; Ma, Wujun; Vergauwen, Rudy; Zhang, Xinmin; Oteri, Tina; Foreman, Andrew; Laird, Damian; Van den Ende, Wim

    2016-01-01

    As the first organ in plants to sense water-deficit in the soil, roots have important roles for improving crop adaption to water limited environments. Stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are a major carbon source for grain filling under drought conditions. The contributions of root WSC during grain filling under drought has not been revealed. Wheat parental lines of Westonia, Kauz and their derived four double haploid (DH) lines, namely, DH 125, DH 139, DH 307, and DH 338 were used in a field drought experiment with four replications. Through measurements of the root and stem WSC components, and the associated enzyme activities during grain filling, we identified that the levels of root WSC and fructan were one third of the levels in stems. In particular, root glucose and 6-kestose levels were one third of the stem, while the root fructose and bifurcose level were almost half of the stem and sucrose level was two third of the stem. The accumulation and the degradation patterns of root fructan levels were similar to that in the stem, especially under drought. Correlations between root fructan levels and grain assimilation were highly significant, indicating that under terminal drought, root WSC represents a redistributed carbon source for grain filling rather than deep rooting. The significantly higher root sucrose levels under drought suggest that sucrose may act as a signal under drought stress. As compared with stem fructose levels, the earlier increased root fructose levels in DH 307, DH 139, and DH 338 provided agile response to drought stress. Our root results further confirmed that β-(2-6) linkages predominate in wheat with patterns of 6-kestose being closely correlated with overall fructan patterns. Further research will focus on the roles of 6-FEH during fructan remobilization in stems.

  5. [Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration enhancement and nitrogen application rate on wheat grain yield and quality].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hao; Shi, Zu-liang; Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Wei-xing; Dai, Ting-bo

    2011-04-01

    FACE platform was applied to study the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat grain yield and quality under two nitrogen (N) application rates. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and applying N increased the grain yield, spike number, grain number per spike, and biomass significantly, but elevated CO2 concentration had no significant effects on harvest index (HI). Under elevated CO2 concentration, there was a significant decrease in the protein, gliadin, gluteinin, and glutein contents of the grain and the sedimentation value of the flour, and a significant increase in the starch and its components contents of the grain; under N application, an inverse was observed. The dough stability time and the dough viscosity characteristics, such as peak viscosity, final viscosity, and setback value, increased significantly under elevated CO2 concentration and high N application rate. The interaction of atmospheric CO2 concentration and N application rate had significantly positive effects on wheat grain yield and biomass, but less effect on grain quality. Therefore, with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the future, maintaining a higher N application level would benefit wheat grain yield and paste characteristics, and mitigate the decline of grain quality.

  6. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China.

    PubMed

    Chuan, Limin; He, Ping; Zhao, Tongke; Zheng, Huaiguo; Xu, Xinpeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000-2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R's nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site and

  7. The determination of tocopherols and isoprenoid quinones in the grain and seedlings of wheat (Triticum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G. S.; Laidman, D. L.

    1968-01-01

    1. A comparison is made of several procedures for the extraction of tocopherols and isoprenoid quinones from plant tissues. 2. Gradient-elution column chromatography on acid-washed alumina efficiently separates the isoprenoid quinones and tocopherols into groups that can then be assayed spectrophotometrically or, with the tocopherols, separated into their individual components and determined by gas–liquid chromatography. 3. This improved analytical procedure was used to study the distribution of the tocopherols and of ubiquinone in the ungerminated wheat grain. PMID:5667256

  8. Impact of improved information on the structure of world grain trade. [wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to be derived by the United States from improvements in global grain crop forecasting capability are discussed. The improvements in forecasting accuracy, which are a result of the use of satellite technology in conjunction with existing ground based estimating procedures are described. The degree of forecasting accuracy to be obtained from satellite technology is also examined. Specific emphasis is placed on wheat production in seven countries/regions: the United States; Canada; Argentina; Australia; Western Europe; the USSR; and all other countries in a group.

  9. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaiguo; Xu, Xinpeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000–2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R’s nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site

  10. The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

    2004-03-10

    Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties.

  11. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  12. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions. PMID:25964711

  13. Combined meta-genomics analyses unravel candidate genes for the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Murat, Florent; Abrouk, Mickael; Pont, Caroline; Confolent, Carole; Oury, François Xavier; Ward, Jane; Boros, Danuta; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M; Bedo, Zoltan; Saulnier, Luc; Guillon, Fabienne; Balzergue, Sandrine; Shewry, Peter R; Feuillet, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs.

  14. Wheat grain quality under enhanced tropospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudorff, B.F.T.; Mulchi, C.L.; Fenny, P.

    1996-11-01

    It is expected that the progressive increase of tropospheric trace gases such as CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} will have a significant impact on agricultural production. The single and combined effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment and tropospheric O{sub 3} on grain quality characteristics in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined in field studies using 3 m in diam. open-top chambers. Wheat cultivars {open_quotes}Massey{close_quotes} (1991) and {open_quotes}Saluda{close_quotes} (1992) were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations (350 vs. 500 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1}; 12 h d{sup {minus}1}) in combination with two O{sub 3} regimes (charcoal-filtered air vs. ambient air + 40 {plus_minus} 20 nmol O{sub 3} mol{sup {minus}1}, 7 h d{sup {minus}1}; Monday to Friday) from late March until maturity in June. Grain quality characteristics investigated included: test weight, milling and baking quality, flour yield, protein content, softness equivalent, alkaline water retention capacity, and cookie diameter. In general, exposure of plants to either elevated CO{sub 2} or weekly chronic O{sub 3} episodes caused only small changes in grain quality. Milling and baking quality score were not significantly changed in response to treatments in both years. Flour yield was increased by elevated CO{sub 2} but this increase was counteracted when elevated CO{sub 2} was combined with chronic O{sub 3} exposure. Flour protein contents were increased by enhanced O{sub 3} under elevated CO{sub 2}. Although the single effect of either CO{sub 2} enrichment or chronic O{sub 3} exposure had some impact o grain quality characteristics, it was noted that the combined effect of these gases was minor. It is likely that the concomitant increase of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} in the troposphere will have no significant impact on wheat grain quality. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Temporal dynamics in wheat grain zinc distribution: is sink limitation the key?

    PubMed Central

    Stomph, T. J.; Choi, E. Y.; Stangoulis, J. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Enhancing the zinc (Zn) concentration in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain is a breeding objective in order to improve human Zn nutrition. At enhanced plant Zn uptake, grain Zn levels do not increase proportionally and within the grain the endosperm Zn levels remain below grain Zn levels. This study analysed the temporal dynamics of Zn concentrations in grain tissues during grain filling to find major bottlenecks. Methods Plants of two cultivars were grown at 1 and 5 mg Zn kg−1 soil. Individual panicles were harvested 7, 14, 24 or 34 d after their flowering or at maturity and seeds were dissected into constituting tissues, which were analysed for Zn and other minerals. Key Results The Zn concentration of the crease was found to increase five- to nine-fold between 7 and 34 d after anthesis, while that of the endosperm decreased by 7 and 45 % when grown at 1 or 5 mg Zn kg−1, respectively. The Zn turnover rate (d−1) in the crease tissues was either independent of the Zn application level or higher at the lower Zn application level, and the Zn concentration increased in the crease tissues with time during grain filling while the turnover rate gradually decreased. Conclusions There is significant within-seed control over Zn entering the seed endosperm. While the seed crease Zn concentration can be raised to very high levels by increasing external Zn supply, the endosperm Zn concentrations will not increase correspondingly. The limited transfer of Zn beyond the crease requires more research to provide further insight into the rate-determining processes and their location along the pathway from crease to the deeper endosperm PMID:21385780

  16. Active sensing: An innovative tool for evaluating grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of multiple wheat genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naser, Mohammed Abdulridha

    Precision agricultural practices have significantly contributed to the improvement of crop productivity and profitability. Remote sensing based indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) have been used to obtain crop information. It is used to monitor crop development and to provide rapid and nondestructive estimates of plant biomass, nitrogen (N) content and grain yield. Remote sensing tools are helping improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) through nitrogen management and could also be useful for high NUE genotype selection. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine if active sensor based NDVI readings can differentiate wheat genotypes, (ii) to determine if NDVI readings can be used to classify wheat genotypes into grain yield productivity classes, (iii) to identify and quantify the main sources of variation in NUE across wheat genotypes, and (iv) to determine if normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) could characterize variability in NUE across wheat genotypes. This study was conducted in north eastern Colorado for two years, 2010 and 2011. The NDVI readings were taken weekly during the winter wheat growing season from March to late June, in 2010 and 2011 and NUE were calculated as partial factor productivity and as partial nitrogen balance at the end of the season. For objectives i and ii, the correlation between NDVI and grain yield was determined using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (r) and linear regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between NDVI and grain yield. The K-means clustering algorithm was used to classify mean NDVI and mean grain yield into three classes. For objectives iii and iv, the parameters related to NUE were also calculated to measure their relative importance in genotypic variation of NUE and power regression analysis between NDVI and NUE was used to characterize the relationship between NDVI and NUE. The results indicate more consistent association between grain

  17. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM proteins regulate the translocation of iron, zinc, and nitrogen compounds from vegetative tissues to grain.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Uauy, Cristobal; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The NAM-B1 gene is a NAC transcription factor that affects grain nutrient concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum). An RNAi line with reduced expression of NAM genes has lower grain protein, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. To determine whether decreased remobilization, lower plant uptake, or decreased partitioning to grain are responsible for this phenotype, mineral dynamics were quantified in wheat tissues throughout grain development. Control and RNAi wheat were grown in potting mix and hydroponics. Mineral (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, and Zn) and nitrogen (N) contents of organs were determined at regular intervals to quantify the net remobilization from vegetative tissues and the accumulation of nutrients in grain. Total nutrient accumulation was similar between lines, but grain Fe, Zn, and N were at lower concentrations in the NAM knockdown line. In potting mix, net remobilization of N, Fe, and Zn from vegetative tissues was impaired in the RNAi line. In hydroponics with ample nutrients, net remobilization was not observed, but grain Fe and Zn contents and concentrations remained lower in the RNAi line. When Fe or Zn was withheld post-anthesis, both lines demonstrated remobilization. These results suggest that a major effect of the NAM genes is an increased efflux of nutrients from the vegetative tissues and a higher partitioning of nutrients to grain. PMID:19858116

  18. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  19. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  20. A wheat ABC transporter contributes to both grain formation and mycotoxin tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stephanie; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemoughasoundharam; Perochon, Alexandre; Khan, Mojibur R.; Scofield, Steven R.; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) acts as a disease virulence factor for Fusarium fungi, and tolerance of DON enhances wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Two variants of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family C transporter gene were cloned from DON-treated wheat mRNA, namely TaABCC3.1 and TaABCC3.2. These represent two of three putative genes identified on chromosomes 3A, 3B, and 3D of the wheat genome sequence. Variant TaABCC3.1 represents the DON-responsive transcript previously associated with DON resistance in wheat. PCR-based mapping and in silico sequence analyses located TaABCC3.1 to the short arm of wheat chromosome 3B (not within the FHB resistance quantitative trait locus Fhb1). In silico analyses of microarray data indicated that TaABCC3 genes are expressed in reproductive tissue and roots, and in response to the DON producer Fusarium graminearum. Gene expression studies showed that TaABCC3.1 is activated as part of the early host response to DON and in response to the FHB defence hormone jasmonic acid. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) confirmed that TaABCC3 genes contributed to DON tolerance. VIGS was performed using two independent viral construct applications: one specifically targeted TaABCC3.1 for silencing, while the other targeted this gene and the chromosome 3A homeologue. In both instances, VIGS resulted in more toxin-induced discoloration of spikelets, compared with the DON effects in non-silenced spikelets at 14 d after toxin treatment (≥2.2-fold increase, P<0.05). Silencing by both VIGS constructs enhanced head ripening, and especially so in DON-treated heads. VIGS of TaABCC3 genes also reduced the grain number by more than 28% (P<0.05), both with and without DON treatment, and the effects were greater for the construct that targeted the two homeologues. Hence, DON-responsive TaABCC3 genes warrant further study to determine their potential as disease resistance breeding targets and their function in grain formation

  1. Enhancement of wheat grain antioxidant activity by solid state fermentation with Grifola spp.

    PubMed

    Postemsky, Pablo; Curvetto, Néstor

    2014-05-01

    Grifola frondosa, Grifola gargal, and Grifola sordulenta are edible and medicinal mushrooms with antioxidant properties. To obtain wheat flour (Wf ) with a higher antioxidant activity than the one exhibited by regular Wf, solid state fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains with mycelia of those Grifola spp. was used to obtain biotransformed wheat grain (BWG) flour. The methanolic extract of control Wf and BWG flour of G. gargal, G. sordulenta, and G. frondosa (GfWG, GgWG, and GsWG, respectively) were studied for their radical scavenging (RS) activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl (DPPH) and their Fe(III) reducing power (RP). The values for RS-EC50 decreased in BWG flour, therefore presenting a higher antioxidant activity: GgWG (0.56 mg/mL), GfWG (0.81 mg/mL), and GsWG (5.80 mg/mL) in comparison to Wf (57.60 mg/mL). The antioxidant content for this RS activity in terms of ascorbic acid content (RS-EQAA) was highest in GfWG, followed by GgWG and GsWG (71.73, 14.46, and 3.02 mg/g, respectively) and lowest in Wf (0.25 mg/g). The RP-EC50 values in GgWG, GfWG, and GsWG were low (0.55, 0.64, and 4.20 mg/mL, respectively) with respect to Wf (55.00 mg/mL). Compared with Wf (0.56 mg/g), the RP capacity in terms of ascorbic acid content (RP-EQAA) was very high in GfWG (193.67 mg/g) followed by GgWG and GsWG (31.42 and 8.74 mg/g, respectively). The high content in gallic acid equivalents was consistent with RS-EQ(AA) and RP-EQ(AA) contents. TLC revealed that antioxidant activity in BWG could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Thus, a valuable food alternative can easily be obtained with wheat grains, that is, by markedly increasing their antioxidant value through SSF with Grifola spp.

  2. Trace element concentration in wheat grain: results from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments and national monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Holger; Mattsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in wheat grain sampled between 1967 and 2003 from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments were analyzed using ICP-MS. The long-term effect of inorganic and organic fertilization on trace metal concentrations was investigated including the impact of atmospheric deposition and myccorhiza, whereas other factors such as soil conditions, crop cultivar, etc. are not discussed in this paper. Mean values derived from 10 experimental sites were reported. Significantly declining Pb and Cd concentrations in wheat grain could be explained by lower atmospheric deposition. Mean Se contents in all samples were 0.031 mg kg(-1) grain dry weight. No samples had sufficiently high Se concentrations for human (0.05 mg Se kg(-1)) or animal demand (0.1 mg Se kg(-1)). Concentrations of Co in wheat grain were extremely low, 0.002-0.005 mg Co kg(-1) grain dry weight, and far below the minimum levels required by animals, which applied to all fertilizer treatments. A doubling of Mo concentrations in grain since 1975 resulted in Cu/Mo ratios often below one, which may cause molybdenosis in ruminants. The increase in Mo concentrations in crops correlated with the decline in sulfur deposition. Concentrations of Cu and Fe declined in NPK-fertilized wheat as compared to unfertilized or manure-treated wheat. Very low concentrations of Se and Co and low concentrations of Fe and Cu require attention to counteract risks for deficiencies. The main characteristic of the study is that there are few significant changes over time between different fertilizer treatments, but throughout there are low concentrations of most trace elements in all treatments. In general, good agreement between concentrations in wheat from the long-term fertility experiments and the national monitoring program indicate that values are representative. PMID:19263225

  3. Aleurone Cell Walls of Wheat Grain: High Spatial Resolution Investigation Using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jamme, F.; Robert, R; Bouchet, B; Saulnier, L; Dumas, P; Guillon, F

    2008-01-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling techniques were employed in order to obtain deeper insight into the biochemical nature of aleurone cell walls of wheat grain. The use of a synchrotron source, thanks to its intrinsic brightness, has provided unprecedented information at the level of a few micrometers and has allowed the discrimination of various polysaccharides in cell walls. The high spectral quality obtained in the small analyzed domain has been beneficial in estimating the relative proportions of {Beta}-glucan and arabinoxylan, through the use of principal component analysis (PCA). The highest amount of {Beta}-glucan is found in periclinal cell walls close to the starchy endosperm. The junction regions between aleurone cells are enriched in arabinoxylan. At the early stage of wheat grain development (271 degrees D), the chemical composition along the cell walls is more heterogeneous than at the mature stage. Both synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling experiments made it possible to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of the various chemical compositions of aleurone cell walls.

  4. Fate of ochratoxin A in the processing of whole wheat grains during milling and bread production.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, K A; Banks, J; MacDonald, S J

    2003-12-01

    Batches of whole wheat contaminated with ochratoxin A were produced by inoculation with Penicillium verrucosum under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The fate of ochratoxin was followed through initial cleaning, abrasive scouring of the outer grain coat, milling into wholemeal wheat or into 10 milled fractions. Bread was baked from both wholemeal flour and straight-run white flour. Concentrations of ochratoxin A in the cleanings, scourings, and the bran and offal fractions were increased, but reduced in the white flour. Scouring removed up to 44% of the ochratoxin A present, but only a small further loss occurred in the bread-making process. An overall reduction of about 75% could be achieved in white bread using a combination of cleaning scouring and removal of the bran and offal fractions. Maximum overall reduction in producing wholemeal bread was about 40%. The reduction in ochratoxin A that can be achieved must be considered in relation to economic constraints concerning the disposal of wasted grain. Appropriate strategies for the use or disposal of potentially highly contaminated cleanings, scourings, bran or offal must be established.

  5. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Derbalah, Aly S.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides. PMID:22606054

  6. Spatial patterns of gluten protein and polymer distribution in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    He, Jibin; Penson, Simon; Powers, Stephen J; Hawes, Chris; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola

    2013-07-01

    The starchy endosperm is the major storage tissue in the mature wheat grain and exhibits quantitative and qualitative gradients in composition, with the outermost cell layers being rich in protein, mainly gliadins, and the inner cells being low in protein but enriched in high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin. We have used sequential pearling to produce flour fractions enriched in particular cell layers to determine the protein gradients in four different cultivars grown at two nitrogen levels. The results show that the steepness of the protein gradient is determined by both genetic and nutritional factors, with three high-protein breadmaking cultivars being more responsive to the N treatment than a low-protein cultivar suitable for livestock feed. Nitrogen also affected the relative abundances of the three main classes of wheat prolamins: the sulfur-poor ω-gliadins showed the greatest response to nitrogen and increased evenly across the grain; the HMW subunits also increased in response to nitrogen but proportionally more in the outer layers of the starchy endosperm than near the core, while the sulfur-rich prolamins showed the opposite trend.

  7. The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Halford, Nigel G; Belton, Peter S; Tatham, Arthur S

    2002-02-28

    The wheat gluten proteins correspond to the major storage proteins that are deposited in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing grain. These form a continuous proteinaceous matrix in the cells of the mature dry grain and are brought together to form a continuous viscoelastic network when flour is mixed with water to form dough. These viscoelastic properties underpin the utilization of wheat to give bread and other processed foods. One group of gluten proteins, the HMM subunits of glutenin, is particularly important in conferring high levels of elasticity (i.e. dough strength). These proteins are present in HMM polymers that are stabilized by disulphide bonds and are considered to form the 'elastic backbone' of gluten. However, the glutamine-rich repetitive sequences that comprise the central parts of the HMM subunits also form extensive arrays of interchain hydrogen bonds that may contribute to the elastic properties via a 'loop and train' mechanism. Genetic engineering can be used to manipulate the amount and composition of the HMM subunits, leading to either increased dough strength or to more drastic changes in gluten structure and properties.

  8. Identification of Fusarium graminearum infection severity of wheat grains by digitally aided spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkai, Géza; Erostyák, János; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2013-05-01

    The Fusarium head blight caused mostly by Fusarium graminearum (F.g.) is the most important disease of wheat because it not only leads to yield loss, but the toxin contamination makes the yield harvested. First, visual assessment of the heads was made, then the ratio of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) becomes the attention, and since introduction of the toxin limits for wheat, the deoxynivalenol contamination has gained significance. However, the FDK has a greater practical significance, as the identification of Fusarium damaged kernels is the precondition of their separation.For this reason a more exact and more sensitive method was developed by using updated spectroscopy methods. The infection sensitive spectral index (ISSI) function has been developed to characterize spectral features of images of grains with different infection severities. The green and red color ranges could be best used in this analysis. It was also found that the way how different spectra from different grains or samples can be normalized and compared. This histogram analyzing method uses scanned images and it seems to be useful in describing the infection severity of heterogeneous samples better than available before.This might serve as scientific background to develop new instruments for rapid tests.

  9. Rising CO2 concentration altered wheat grain proteome and flour rheological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nimesha; Panozzo, Joe; Tausz, Michael; Norton, Robert; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Khan, Alamgir; Seneweera, Saman

    2015-03-01

    Wheat cv. H45 was grown under ambient CO2 concentration and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE; e[CO2], ∼550 μmol CO2 mol(-1)). The effect of FACE on wheat grain proteome and associated changes in the flour rheological properties was investigated. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using 2-D-DIGE followed by MALDI/TOF-MS. Total grain protein concentration was decreased by 9% at e[CO2]. Relative abundance of three high molecular weight glutenin sub units (HMW-GS) were decreased at e[CO2]. In contrast, relative abundance of serpins Z1C and 1-Cys peroxiredoxin was increased at e[CO2]. Elevated [CO2] also decreased the bread volume (by 11%) and dough strength (by 7%) while increased mixing time. However, dough extensibility and dough stability were unchanged at elevated [CO2]. These findings suggest that e[CO2] has a major impact on gluten protein concentration which is associated lower bread quality at e[CO2].

  10. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods.

  11. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. PMID:26919812

  12. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  13. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  14. Variations in Protein Concentration and Nitrogen Sources in Different Positions of Grain in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangnan; Zhou, Longjing; Liu, Fulai; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Wang, Xiao; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The distribution patterns of total protein and protein components in different layers of wheat grain were investigated using the pearling technique, and the sources of different protein components and pearling fractions were identified using 15N isotope tracing methods. It was found that N absorbed from jointing to anthesis (JA) and remobilized to the grain after anthesis was the principal source of grain N, especially in the outer layer. For albumin and globulin, the amount of N absorbed during different stages all showed a decreasing trend from the surface layer to the center part. Whereas, for globulin and glutenin, the N absorbed after anthesis accounted for the main part indicating that for storage protein, the utilization of N assimilated after anthesis is greater than that of the stored N assimilated before anthesis. It is concluded that manipulation of the N application rate during different growth stages could be an effective approach to modulate the distribution of protein fractions in pearled grains for specific end-uses. PMID:27446169

  15. Dynamics of Light and Nitrogen Distribution during Grain Filling within Wheat Canopy1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bertheloot, Jessica; Martre, Pierre; Andrieu, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    In monocarpic species, during the reproductive stage the growing grains represent a strong sink for nitrogen (N) and trigger N remobilization from the vegetative organs, which decreases canopy photosynthesis and accelerates leaf senescence. The spatiotemporal distribution of N in a reproductive canopy has not been described in detail. Here, we investigated the role of the local light environment on the spatiotemporal distribution of leaf lamina N mass per unit leaf area (SLN) during grain filling of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum). In addition, in order to provide some insight into the coordination of N depletion between the different vegetative organs, N dynamics were studied for individual leaf laminae, leaf sheaths, internodes, and chaff of the top fertile culms. At the canopy scale, SLN distribution paralleled the light gradient below the flag leaf collar until almost the end of grain filling. On the contrary, the significant light gradient along the flag leaf lamina was not associated with a SLN gradient. Within the top fertile culms, the time course of total (alive + necrotic tissues) N concentration of the different laminae and sheaths displayed a similar pattern. Another common pattern was observed for internodes and chaff. During the period of no root N uptake, N depletion of individual laminae and sheaths followed a first-order kinetics independent of leaf age, genotype, or N nutrition. The results presented here show that during grain filling, N dynamics are integrated at the culm scale and strongly depend on the local light conditions determined by the canopy structure. PMID:18799664

  16. Improving wheat grain yield under water stress by stem hydrocarbon reserve utilization.

    PubMed

    Gholami, A; Asadollahi, A Poor

    2008-11-01

    Current assimilation and remobilization of dry matter during grain filling in wheat subjected to different levels of water deficit during phenological growth stage. The experiment was conducted as split plot. Time of water stress and levels considered as main and sub plots, respectively. water stress treatments exposed at jointing, anthesis and seed filling stage and levels of water stress include, Full Irrigation (FI), Low Water Stress (LWS), Moderate Water Stress (MWS) and High Water Stress (HWS). Grain yield and dry matter accumulation and remobilization were negatively affected by water stress. The lowest grain yield was obtained from HWS and when water stress occurred at anthesis. Dry matter accumulation at LWS was 4.87%, at MWS was 14.86% and at HWS was 26.55% lower than FI, respectively. Spike density and the number of kernel per spike were affected similarly and decreased with water deficit increased. The decrease in the number of spikes per unit area due to LWS, MWS and HWS was 13, 23 and 30% compared to FI, respectively. As the water stress was imposed at jointing stage, the lowest number of spikes per unit area and when imposed at anthesis, the lowest number of kernel per spike was obtained. With increase in water stress intensity, the contribution of mobilized DM (DMRC) to grain yield increased. The highest DMRC value obtained from HWS with 25.37%.

  17. Influence of sourdough on in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-03-01

    Gluten-free flours (buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff) were fermented using obligate heterofermentative strain Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) and facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp). Starch hydrolysis of breads with and without sourdough (controls) was analyzed in vitro using enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis (10-11 kDa). Hydrolysis indices as well as predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were calculated from reducing sugars released into the dialysate. Amounts of resistant starch (RS; % of total starch) were determined by enzymatic digestion. Upon sourdough addition, RS significantly decreased in buckwheat (Wc 1.28%, Lp 1.44%) and teff sourdough breads (Wc 0.87%, Lp 0.98%) in comparison to their controls (2.01% and 1.92%, respectively). However, no correlation was found with starch hydrolysis. Predicted GIs were reduced upon sourdough addition in wheat (ctrl 100; Wc 85; Lp 76) in comparison to control breads. This was not the case in most gluten-free breads with the exception of sorghum (ctrl 72; Lp 69) and teff sourdough breads (ctrl 74; Lp 68). In contrast, increased pGIs were found in quinoa (ctrl 95; Wc 106; Lp 103) and buckwheat sourdough breads (ctrl 80; Wc 89; Lp 86).

  18. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. "Butte 86") was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  19. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells are altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  20. Investigations of spectral separability of small grains, early season wheat detection, and multicrop inventory planning. [North Dakota and Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT data from seven 5 by 6 segments having crop type information were analyzed to determine the potential for spectral separation of spring wheat from other small grains as an alternative to the primary LACIE procedure for estimating spring wheat acreage. Within segment field-center, classification accuracies for spring wheat vs. barley tended to be best in mid-July when crop color changes were in progress. When correlations were made for differences in atmospheric haze, data from several segments could be aggregated, and results that approached within segment accuracies were obtained for selected dates. LACIE field measurement spectral reflectance data provided information on both wheat development patterns and the importance of various agronomic factors on wheat reflectance, the most important being availability of soil moisture. To investigate early season detection for winter wheat, reflectance of developing wheat patterns was simulated through reflectance modeling and was analyzed along with field measured reflectance from a Kansas site. The green component development of the wheat field was analyzed as a function of data throughout the season. A selected threshold was not crossed by all fields until mid-April. These reflectance data were shown to be consistent actual LANDSAT data.

  1. [Effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng-juan; He, Ming-rong; Li, Fei; Xu, Liang-liang; Huang, Chuan-hua; Qu, Mu

    2008-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat, two cultivars Jimai 20 and Gaocheng 8901 were subjected to a series of irrigation frequencies under rainfall proof conditions, with their grain yield and grain quality (farinograph parameters and loaf volume) and protein composition evaluated. The results indicated that with increasing irrigation frequency, the grain yield of the two cultivars, their wheat flour dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were noted to be increased first but decreased then. The grain yield and quality of Gaocheng 8901 were the highest when irrigated once after anthesis, while those of Jimai 20 were the best when irrigated twice after anthesis, respectively. The contents of monomeric protein, soluble glutenin, insoluble glutenin, total glutenin, flour protein, and wet gluten in the grains displayed the similar trends. Stepwise regression analysis showed that under the test post-anthesis irrigation frequencies, the key factor affecting dough stability time was insoluble glutenin content, and loaf volume was significantly correlated with total glutenin content. It was suggested that to maintain the quality stability of high grade strong gluten winter wheat, irrigation management should take the improvement of grain protein composition, and glutenin in particular, as the target.

  2. Genetic Diversity and Genome Wide Association Study of β-Glucan Content in Tetraploid Wheat Grains

    PubMed Central

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Houston, Kelly; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Burton, Rachel A.; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (hereafter called β-glucan) is not the most representative component of wheat cell walls, it is one of the most important types of soluble fibre in terms of its proven beneficial effects on human health. In the present work we explored the genetic variability of β-glucan content in grains from a tetraploid wheat collection that had been genotyped with a 90k-iSelect array, and combined this data to carry out an association analysis. The β-glucan content, expressed as a percentage w/w of grain dry weight, ranged from 0.18% to 0.89% across the collection. Our analysis identified seven genomic regions associated with β-glucan, located on chromosomes 1A, 2A (two), 2B, 5B and 7A (two), confirming the quantitative nature of this trait. Analysis of marker trait associations (MTAs) in syntenic regions of several grass species revealed putative candidate genes that might influence β-glucan levels in the endosperm, possibly via their participation in carbon partitioning. These include the glycosyl hydrolases endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase (cellulase), β-amylase, (1,4)-β-xylan endohydrolase, xylanase inhibitor protein I, isoamylase and the glycosyl transferase starch synthase II. PMID:27045166

  3. Genetic Diversity and Genome Wide Association Study of β-Glucan Content in Tetraploid Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Houston, Kelly; Schwerdt, Julian G; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (hereafter called β-glucan) is not the most representative component of wheat cell walls, it is one of the most important types of soluble fibre in terms of its proven beneficial effects on human health. In the present work we explored the genetic variability of β-glucan content in grains from a tetraploid wheat collection that had been genotyped with a 90k-iSelect array, and combined this data to carry out an association analysis. The β-glucan content, expressed as a percentage w/w of grain dry weight, ranged from 0.18% to 0.89% across the collection. Our analysis identified seven genomic regions associated with β-glucan, located on chromosomes 1A, 2A (two), 2B, 5B and 7A (two), confirming the quantitative nature of this trait. Analysis of marker trait associations (MTAs) in syntenic regions of several grass species revealed putative candidate genes that might influence β-glucan levels in the endosperm, possibly via their participation in carbon partitioning. These include the glycosyl hydrolases endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase (cellulase), β-amylase, (1,4)-β-xylan endohydrolase, xylanase inhibitor protein I, isoamylase and the glycosyl transferase starch synthase II. PMID:27045166

  4. [Effects of irrigation scheme on the grain glutenin macropolymer's size distribution and the grain quality of winter wheat with strong gluten].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Dian-Yong; Dai, Xing-Long; He, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    Taking two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Gaocheng 8901 and Jimai 20) with high quality strong gluten as test materials, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the grain glutenin macropolymer (GMP)'s content and size distribution, grain quality, and grain yield under effects of different irrigation schemes. The schemes included no irrigation in whole growth period (W0), irrigation once at jointing stage (W1), irrigation two times at wintering and jointing stages (W2), respectively, and irrigation three times at wintering, jointing, and filling stages (W3), respectively, with the irrigation amount in each time being 675 m3 x hm(-2). Among the test irrigation schemes, W2 had the best effects on the dough development time, dough stability time, loaf volume, grain yield, GMP content, weighted average surface area of particle D(3,2), weighted average volume of particle D(4,3), and volume percent and surface area percent of particle size >100 microm of the two cultivars. The dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were negatively correlated with the volume percent of GMP particle size <10 microm and 10-100 microm, while positively correlated with the volume percent of GMP particle size >100 microm, D(3,2), and D(4,3). It was suggested that both water deficit and water excess had detrimental effects on the grain yield and grain quality, and irrigation level could affect the wheat grain quality through altering GMP particle size distribution.

  5. Effects of different water availability at post-anthesis stage on grain nutrition and quality in strong-gluten winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chang-Xing; He, Ming-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Lin; Wang, Yue-Fu; Lin, Qi

    2009-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. However, water is the most important limiting factor for wheat production. This study was initiated to test water stress environmental effects on grain quality and nutritional value of wheat by using single different water conditions at post-anthesis stage. Further analyses were conducted to examine variations in concentrations and compositions of the bioactive compounds and nutritions in strong-gluten winter wheat subjected to different levels of water deficit during grain filling. For the experiment on the response to different soil water conditions during post-anthesis stage, effects of soil water environment on protein content and composition in the grains were significant. Soil water conditions in this study greatly affected mineral contents in the grains of winter wheat, particularly with regard to the major minerals (P, K, Ca and Mg). Water deficit during grain filling can result in a decrease in lipid contents in wheat grains, which agrees well with experimental findings elsewhere. Concomitantly, a mild water deficit during grain filling would be beneficial to the grain filling and starch compositions, significantly improved bread-making quality. Therefore, it was concluded that good management of wheat field water at post-anthesis stage was helpful to improving grain quality and nutritions relevant to processing and human nutrition.

  6. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  7. [Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-dong; Zhang, De-qi; Wang, Han-fang; Shao, Yun-hui; Fang, Bao-ting; Lyu, Feng-rong; Yue, Jun-qin; Ma, Fu-ju

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on winter wheat development and grain yield was evaluated in an artificial climate chamber (TPG 1260, Australia) from 2010 to 2011. Winter wheat cultivar 'Zhengmai 7698' was used in this study. Three temperature increment treatments were involved in this study, i.e., temperature increment last 40, 50 and 60 days, respectively, before the over-wintering period. Control was not treated by temperature increment. The results showed that temperature increment before the over-wintering period had no significant effect on earlier phase spike differentiation. But an apparent effect on later phase spike differentiation was observed. High temperature effect on spike differentiation disappeared when the difference of effective accumulated temperature between the temperature increment treatment and the control was lower than 25 °C. However, the foliar age at the jointing stage was enhanced more than 0.8, heading and physiological ripening were advanced 1 day each, when the effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period increased 60 °C. Higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period accelerated winter wheat growth and development, which resulted in a short spike differentiation period. Winter wheat was easy to suffer freeze damage, which lead to floret abortion and spikelet death in spring under this situation. Meanwhile, higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period also reduced, photosynthetic capacity of flag leaf, shortened the grain filling period, and led to wheat grain yield reduction.

  8. [Effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on nutrient balance and grain yield of late sowing wheat in rice-wheat rotation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Shi, Zu-liang; Yang, Si-jun; Gu, Ke-jun; Dai, Ting-bo; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Ren-hua

    2015-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on grain yield, nutrient accumulation, nutrient release from straw and nutrient balance in late sowing wheat. The results showed that straw returning together with appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer improved the grain yield. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased significantly as the nitrogen application rate increased. At the same nitrogen application rate (270 kg N · hm(-2)), the dry matter, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of the treatment with straw returning were higher than that without straw returning, but the nitrogen accumulation was lower. Higher-rate nitrogen application promoted straw decomposition and nutrient release, and decreased the proportion of the nutrient released from straw after jointing. The dry matter, phosphorus and potassium release from straw showed a reverse 'N' type change with the wheat growing, while nitrogen release showed a 'V' type change. The nutrient surplus increased significantly with the nitrogen application rate. At the nitrogen application rate for the highest grain yield, nitrogen and potassium were surplus significantly, and phosphorus input could keep balance. It could be concluded that as to late sowing wheat with straw returning, applying nitrogen at 257 kg · hm(-2) and reducing potassium fertilizer application could improve grain yield and reduce nutrients loss. PMID:26785553

  9. [Effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on nutrient balance and grain yield of late sowing wheat in rice-wheat rotation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Shi, Zu-liang; Yang, Si-jun; Gu, Ke-jun; Dai, Ting-bo; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Ren-hua

    2015-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on grain yield, nutrient accumulation, nutrient release from straw and nutrient balance in late sowing wheat. The results showed that straw returning together with appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer improved the grain yield. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased significantly as the nitrogen application rate increased. At the same nitrogen application rate (270 kg N · hm(-2)), the dry matter, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of the treatment with straw returning were higher than that without straw returning, but the nitrogen accumulation was lower. Higher-rate nitrogen application promoted straw decomposition and nutrient release, and decreased the proportion of the nutrient released from straw after jointing. The dry matter, phosphorus and potassium release from straw showed a reverse 'N' type change with the wheat growing, while nitrogen release showed a 'V' type change. The nutrient surplus increased significantly with the nitrogen application rate. At the nitrogen application rate for the highest grain yield, nitrogen and potassium were surplus significantly, and phosphorus input could keep balance. It could be concluded that as to late sowing wheat with straw returning, applying nitrogen at 257 kg · hm(-2) and reducing potassium fertilizer application could improve grain yield and reduce nutrients loss.

  10. Introgression of Agropyron cristatum 6P chromosome segment into common wheat for enhanced thousand-grain weight and spike length.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jinpeng; Liu, Weihua; Han, Haiming; Lu, Yuqing; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the genetic constitutions of wheat-Agropyron cristatum 6P chromosomal translocation and determined the effects of 6P intercalary chromosome segment on thousand-grain weight and spike length in wheat. Crop wild relatives provide rich genetic resources for wheat improvement. Introduction of alien genes from Agropyron cristatum into common wheat can broaden its genetic diversity. In this study, radiation-induced wheat-A. cristatum translocation line Pubing3035 derived from the offspring of wheat-A. cristatum 6P chromosomes addition line was identified and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular markers. GISH analysis revealed that Pubing3035 was a Ti1AS-6PL-1AS·1AL intercalary translocation. The breakpoint was pinpointed to locate near the centromeric region on the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A based on a constructed F2 linkage map and it was flanked by markers SSR12 and SSR263. The genotypic data, combined with the phenotypes, indicated that A. cristatum 6P chromosomal segment played an important role in regulating the thousand-grain weight and spike length. On average, the thousand-grain weight and spike length in translocation individuals were approximately 2.5 g higher and 0.7 cm longer than those in non-translocation individuals in F2 and BC1F1 populations. The clusters of quantitative trait loci for thousand-grain weight, spike length, and spikelet density contributed by 6P chromosome segment were mapped between A. cristatum unique marker Agc7155 and wheat marker SSR263, which, respectively, explained phenotypic variance of 24.96, 12.38 and 17.20 % with an LOD of 10.63, 4.89 and 5.59. Overall, the translocation Pubing3035 had a positive effect on the yield of wheat, which laid the foundation for the localization of A. cristatum excellent genes and made itself a promising and valuable germplasm for wheat improvement. PMID:26093609

  11. Proteomic analysis of peripheral layers during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain development.

    PubMed

    Tasleem-Tahir, Ayesha; Nadaud, Isabelle; Girousse, Christine; Martre, Pierre; Marion, Didier; Branlard, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Grains of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (cv. Récital), were collected at 15 stages of development, from anthesis to physiological maturity, 0-700°C days (degree days after anthesis). Two hundred and seven proteins of grain peripheral layers (inner pericarp, hyaline, testa and aleurone layer) were identified by 2-DE, MALDI-TOF MS and data mining, then were classified in 16 different functional categories. Study of the protein expression over time allowed identification of five main profiles and four distinct phases of development. Composite expression curves indicated that there was a shift from metabolic processes, translation, transcription and ATP interconversion towards storage and defence processes. Protein synthesis, protein turnover, signal transduction, membrane transport and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were the mediating functions of this shift. A picture of the dynamic processes taking place in peripheral layers during grain development was obtained in this study. It should further help in the construction of proteome reference maps for the developing peripheral layers.

  12. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  13. Differentiation of whole grain and refined wheat (T. aestivum) flour using a fuzzy mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometric approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fuzzy mass spectrometric (MS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to provide rapid discrimination between whole grain and refined wheat flour. Twenty one samples, including thirteen samples from three cultivars and eight from local grocery store, were studied....

  14. Phenotypic plasticity of winter wheat heading date and grain yield across the U.S. Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic plasticity describes the range of phenotypes produced by a single genotype under varying environmental conditions. We evaluated the extent of phenotypic variation and plasticity in thermal time to heading and grain yield in 299 hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes representa...

  15. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption.

  16. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:23015203

  17. Engineering α-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development

    PubMed Central

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of α-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of α-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of α-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

  18. Quality and nutritional properties of pasta products enriched with immature wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Erba, Daniela; Marti, Alessandra; Cecchini, Cristina; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, nutritional and sensory properties of pasta enriched with 30% immature wheat grain (IWG), a natural source of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), are evaluated. Colour and cooking quality, nutritional value and glycaemic index (GI) of pasta were assessed in comparison with commercially enriched inulin and 100% wholewheat pastas. IWG integration induced deep changes in colour, without negatively affecting the cooking quality of pasta, and promoted nutritional quality by increasing the fibre content; IWG pasta presented a remarkable leaching of FOS in cooking water, thus providing only 1 g of FOS per serving. IWG pastas showed a GI of 67 (dried) and 79 (fresh), not significantly different from commercial pasta products. IWG can be considered an interesting ingredient to obtain functional products 'naturally enriched' in FOS and fibre. Results about FOS leaching suggest that, in dealing with functional effects, the actual prebiotic content should be carefully considered on food 'as eaten'. PMID:23373796

  19. Evaluation of value-added components of dried distiller's grain with solubles from triticale and wheat.

    PubMed

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Scott, Angela C; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2011-07-01

    This study focused on the detection of value-added co-products in dried distiller's grain plus soluble (DDGS), a possibility that could open new avenues for further processing and marketing of DDGS and improving economic sustainability of ethanol industry. Varieties of triticale, wheat and two benchmarks, CPS wheat and Pioneer Hi-Bred corn, were fermented using two very high gravity (VHG) fermentation approaches: jet-cooking and raw starch processing (STARGEN fermentation). DDGS from STARGEN fermentation could be promising sources of value-added co-products. Pronghorn triticale DDGS (STARGEN fermentation) had the highest concentration of sterols (3.7 mg/g), phenolic compounds (13.61 mg GAE/g), and β-glucan (2.07%). CDC Ptarmigan DDGS (STARGEN fermentation) had the highest concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols (107.0 μg/g), 1.93% of β-glucan, and 53.0mg/g of fatty acids. AC Reed DDGS (STARGEN method) showed 1.97% of β-glucan. This study shows that proper choice of fermentation approach and feedstock for ethanol production could improve commercial quality of DDGS. PMID:21531546

  20. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application.

    PubMed

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  1. Evaluation of value-added components of dried distiller's grain with solubles from triticale and wheat.

    PubMed

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Scott, Angela C; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2011-07-01

    This study focused on the detection of value-added co-products in dried distiller's grain plus soluble (DDGS), a possibility that could open new avenues for further processing and marketing of DDGS and improving economic sustainability of ethanol industry. Varieties of triticale, wheat and two benchmarks, CPS wheat and Pioneer Hi-Bred corn, were fermented using two very high gravity (VHG) fermentation approaches: jet-cooking and raw starch processing (STARGEN fermentation). DDGS from STARGEN fermentation could be promising sources of value-added co-products. Pronghorn triticale DDGS (STARGEN fermentation) had the highest concentration of sterols (3.7 mg/g), phenolic compounds (13.61 mg GAE/g), and β-glucan (2.07%). CDC Ptarmigan DDGS (STARGEN fermentation) had the highest concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols (107.0 μg/g), 1.93% of β-glucan, and 53.0mg/g of fatty acids. AC Reed DDGS (STARGEN method) showed 1.97% of β-glucan. This study shows that proper choice of fermentation approach and feedstock for ethanol production could improve commercial quality of DDGS.

  2. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  3. Mechanisms regulating grain contamination with trichothecenes translocated from the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum) infected with Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Winter, Mark; Koopmann, Birger; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Kropf, Ute; Schlüter, Klaus; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Factors limiting trichothecene contamination of mature wheat grains after Fusarium infection are of major interest in crop production. In addition to ear infection, systemic translocation of deoxynivalenol (DON) may contribute to mycotoxin levels in grains after stem base infection with toxigenic Fusarium spp. However, the exact and potential mechanisms regulating DON translocation into wheat grains from the plant base are still unknown. We analyzed two wheat cultivars differing in susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), which were infected at the stem base with Fusarium culmorum in climate chamber experiments. Fungal DNA was found only in the infected stem base tissue, whereas DON and its derivative, DON-3-glucoside (D3G), were detected in upper plant parts. Although infected stem bases contained more than 10,000 μg kg⁻¹ dry weight (DW) of DON and mean levels of DON after translocation in the ear and husks reached 1,900 μg kg⁻¹ DW, no DON or D3G was detectable in mature grains. D3G quantification revealed that DON detoxification took mainly place in the stem basis, where ≤ 50% of DON was metabolized into D3G. Enhanced expression of a gene putatively encoding a uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase (GenBank accession number FG985273) was observed in the stem base after infection with F. culmorum. Resistance to F. culmorum stem base infection, DON glycosylation in the stem base, and mycotoxin translocation were unrelated to cultivar resistance to FHB. Histological studies demonstrated that the vascular transport of DON labeled with fluorescein as a tracer from the peduncle to the grain was interrupted by a barrier zone at the interface between grain and rachilla, formerly described as "xylem discontinuity". This is the first study to demonstrate the effective control of influx of systemically translocated fungal mycotoxins into grains at the rachilla-seed interface by the xylem discontinuity tissue in wheat ears.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, W.; Ogbonnaya, F. C.; Jighly, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.; Sohail, Q.; Rajaram, S.; Baum, M.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011–2012) at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT) markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W) ranged from 13.6–16.1% and 217.6–375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B), wPt4680 (4A), wPt3509 (5A), wPt8183 (6B), and wPt0298 (2D) were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA’s International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations. PMID:26496075

  5. Occurrence of Viruses and Associated Grain Yields of Paired Symptomatic and Nonsymptomatic Tillers in Kansas Winter Wheat Fields.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Bockus, William W; Whitfield, Anna E; Hervey, Kaylee; Baker, Kara D; Ou, Zhining; Laney, Alma G; De Wolf, Erick D; Appel, Jon A

    2016-02-01

    Vector-borne virus diseases of wheat are recurrent in nature and pose significant threats to crop production worldwide. In the spring of 2011 and 2012, a state-wide sampling survey of multiple commercial field sites and university-managed Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station variety performance trial locations spanning all nine crop-reporting regions of the state was conducted to determine the occurrence of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), High plains virus, Soilborne wheat mosaic virus, and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). As a means of directly coupling tiller infection status with tiller grain yield, multiple pairs of symptomatic and nonsymptomatic plants were selected and individual tillers were tagged for virus species and grain yield determination at the variety performance trial locations. BYDV-PAV and WSMV were the two most prevalent species across the state, often co-occurring within location. Of those BYDV-PAV- or WSMV-positive tillers, 22% and 19%, respectively, were nonsymptomatic, a finding that underscores the importance of sampling criteria to more accurately assess virus occurrence in winter wheat fields. Symptomatic tillers that tested positive for BYDV-PAV produced significantly lower grain yields compared with ELISA-negative tillers in both seasons, as did WSMV-positive tillers in 2012. Nonsymptomatic tillers that tested positive for either of the two viruses in 2011 produced significantly lower grain yields than tillers from nonsymptomatic, ELISA-negative plants, an indication that these tillers were physiologically compromised in the absence of virus-associated symptoms. Overall, the virus survey and tagged paired-tiller sampling strategy revealed effects of virus infection on grain yield of individual tillers of plants grown under field conditions and may provide a complementary approach toward future estimates of the

  6. Occurrence of Viruses and Associated Grain Yields of Paired Symptomatic and Nonsymptomatic Tillers in Kansas Winter Wheat Fields.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Bockus, William W; Whitfield, Anna E; Hervey, Kaylee; Baker, Kara D; Ou, Zhining; Laney, Alma G; De Wolf, Erick D; Appel, Jon A

    2016-02-01

    Vector-borne virus diseases of wheat are recurrent in nature and pose significant threats to crop production worldwide. In the spring of 2011 and 2012, a state-wide sampling survey of multiple commercial field sites and university-managed Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station variety performance trial locations spanning all nine crop-reporting regions of the state was conducted to determine the occurrence of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), High plains virus, Soilborne wheat mosaic virus, and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). As a means of directly coupling tiller infection status with tiller grain yield, multiple pairs of symptomatic and nonsymptomatic plants were selected and individual tillers were tagged for virus species and grain yield determination at the variety performance trial locations. BYDV-PAV and WSMV were the two most prevalent species across the state, often co-occurring within location. Of those BYDV-PAV- or WSMV-positive tillers, 22% and 19%, respectively, were nonsymptomatic, a finding that underscores the importance of sampling criteria to more accurately assess virus occurrence in winter wheat fields. Symptomatic tillers that tested positive for BYDV-PAV produced significantly lower grain yields compared with ELISA-negative tillers in both seasons, as did WSMV-positive tillers in 2012. Nonsymptomatic tillers that tested positive for either of the two viruses in 2011 produced significantly lower grain yields than tillers from nonsymptomatic, ELISA-negative plants, an indication that these tillers were physiologically compromised in the absence of virus-associated symptoms. Overall, the virus survey and tagged paired-tiller sampling strategy revealed effects of virus infection on grain yield of individual tillers of plants grown under field conditions and may provide a complementary approach toward future estimates of the

  7. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  8. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  9. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  10. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  11. Degradation of bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Bortolotto, Tiago; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide insecticides are used on wheat grains in storage units but their efficiency is hindered by persistent residues in the grains. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone (O3) gas treatment on the degradation of residual bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides commonly used in storage wheat grains, as well as to evaluate degradation of their by-products. The residues of bifenthrin decreased after 180 min of exposure in a concentration of 60 μmol/mol (a 37.5 ± 7.4% reduction) with 20% moisture content and 0.9 water activity. On the other hand, under the same experimental conditions, the pirimiphos-methyl residues significantly decreased in the wheat grains (71.1 ± 8.6%) after 30 min of exposure. After O3 gas treatment, three by-products of pirimiphos-methyl (m/z=306.1) containing different molecular mass to charge ratios (m/z=278.1, 301.1 and 319.2) were identified by LC-MS. O3 is a strong oxidizer that has shown the potential to reduce pesticide residues in stored grain in order to ensure food quality and safety.

  12. Modeling grain nitrogen accumulation and protein composition to understand the sink/source regulations of nitrogen remobilization for wheat.

    PubMed

    Martre, Pierre; Porter, John R; Jamieson, Peter D; Triboï, Eugène

    2003-12-01

    A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations and yield potentials, were grown with non-limiting N supply. Grain number per ear was reduced by removing the top part of the ear at anthesis. Reduction in grain number gave a significant increase in N content per grain for all cultivars, showing that grain N accumulation was source regulated. However, on a per ear basis, cultivars with a high grain number fully compensated their N accumulation for reduced grain number at anthesis. Cultivars with a lower grain number did not compensate completely, and grain N per ear was decreased by 16%. Second, new mechanistic hypotheses of the origins of grain N source regulation and its response to environment were tested by simulation. The hypotheses were: (a). The regulation by N sources of grain N accumulation applies only for the storage proteins (i.e. gliadin and glutenin fractions); (b). accumulation of structural and metabolic proteins (i.e. albumin-globulin and amphiphilic fractions) is sink-regulated; and (c). N partitioning between gliadins and glutenins is constant during grain development and unmodified by growing conditions. Comparison of experimental and simulation results of the accumulation of grain protein fractions under wide ranges of N fertilization, temperatures, and irrigation supported these hypotheses.

  13. Wheat in bins and discharge spouts, and grain residues on floors of empty bins in concrete grain elevators as habitats for stored-grain beetles and their natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Reed, Carl R; Hagstrum, D W; Flinn, P W; Allen, R F

    2003-06-01

    Wheat stored in upright concrete bins at seven grain elevators in central Kansas was sampled intermittently for insects over a 2.5-yr period by collecting samples from the upper half of the grain mass, from the discharge spout at the base of the bins, and from residue remaining in empty bins before the 2000 wheat harvest. Samples were taken from the grain mass with a power vacuum sampler (PV) and from the discharge spouts (DS) by dropping grain onto the reclaim belt beneath the bins. The density and species distribution in the residue samples were compared with those found in the DS samples and samples from the grain mass (PV). Cryptolestes spp. dominated the insect populations in all types of samples, constituting >40% of all insects in the PV samples in three of five time periods and >60% of all insects in DS samples in four of the five time periods. Cryptolestes spp. was an early colonizer, being found in the grain mass shortly after new grain was added. Rhyzopertha dominica appeared to be slower to colonize grain and grain residue, but sometimes developed large populations (i.e., 2.4 +/- 0.7 adults/kg between July and December 2000). Sitophilus spp. weevils often were present in grain masses, were often abundant in grain in the discharge spouts (i.e., 11.1 +/- 2.9 adults/kg between July and December 2000), and were abundant in grain residue in empty bins in May/June 2000 (5.3 +/- 0.7 adults/kg). Differences in density and species distribution of insects in grain in the upper part of the grain mass and those in the discharge spouts indicated that the populations were not closely related. Grain in discharge spouts usually was densely infested, and parasitic wasps, natural enemies of several of the beetles, were found when the density of the pest insects was greater than approximately 10/kg. The population of natural enemies appeared to increase when the density of pest insects increased after a lag of about one month, and decreased when the population of pest

  14. Individual contribution of grain outer layers and their cell wall structure to the mechanical properties of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Carole; Peyron, Stéphane; Mabille, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Bouchet, Brigitte; Abecassis, Joël; Rouau, Xavier

    2003-03-26

    The mechanical properties of wheat bran and the contribution of each constitutive tissue on overall bran properties were determined on a hard wheat (cv. Baroudeur) and a soft wheat (cv. Scipion). Manual dissection allowed three different layers to be separated from wheat bran, according to radial and longitudinal grain orientations, which were identified by confocal laser scanning microscopy as outer pericarp, an intermediate strip (comprising inner pericarp, testa, and nucellar tissue), and aleurone layer, respectively. Tissue microstructure and cell wall composition were determined. Submitted to traction tests, whole bran, intermediate, and aleurone layers demonstrated elastoplastic behavior, whereas pericarp exhibited elastic behavior. By longitudinal orientation, pericarp governed 50% bran elasticity (elastic strength and rigidity), whereas, in the opposite orientation, bran elastic properties were mostly influenced by the other tissues. Regardless of test orientation, the linear force required to bran rupture corresponded to the sum of intermediate and aleurone layer strengths. According to radial orientation, the intermediate strip governed bran extensibility, but according to longitudinal orientation, all tissues contributed until bran disruption. Tissues from both wheat cultivars behaved similarly. A structural model of wheat bran layers illustrated the detachment of pericarp from intermediate layer within radial bran strips.

  15. Plasma Alkylresorcinols, Biomarkers of Whole-Grain Wheat and Rye Intake, and Incidence of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations. Methods The association between alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and colorectal cancer incidence were investigated using prediagnostic plasma samples from colorectal cancer case patients and matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We included 1372 incident colorectal cancer case patients and 1372 individual matched control subjects and calculated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for overall and anatomical subsites of colorectal cancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Regional differences (Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, Central Europe) were also explored. Results High plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer; the adjusted incidence rate ratio of distal colon cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of plasma total alkylresorcinols was 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.83). An inverse association between plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations and colon cancer was found for Scandinavian participants (IRR per doubling = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98). However, plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations were not associated with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Plasma alkylresorcinols concentrations were associated with colon and distal colon cancer only in Central Europe and Scandinavia (ie, areas where alkylresorcinol levels were higher). Conclusions High concentrations of plasma alkylresorcinols were associated with a lower incidence of distal colon cancer but not with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, and rectal cancer. PMID:24317181

  16. Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective.

    PubMed

    Poutanen, Kaisa; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati

    2009-10-01

    Use of sourdough is of expanding interest for improvement of flavour, structure and stability of baked goods. Cereal fermentations also show significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In addition to improving the sensory quality of whole grain, fibre-rich or gluten-free products, sourdough can also actively retard starch digestibility leading to low glycemic responses, modulate levels and bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, and improve mineral bioavailability. Cereal fermentation may produce non-digestible polysaccharides, or modify accessibility of the grain fibre complex to gut microbiota. It has also been suggested that degradation of gluten may render bread better suitable for celiac persons. The changes in cereal matrix potentially leading to improved nutritional quality are numerous. They include acid production, suggested to retard starch digestibility, and to adjust pH to a range which favours the action of certain endogenous enzymes, thus changing the bioavailability pattern of minerals and phytochemicals. This is especially beneficial in products rich in bran to deliver minerals and potentially protective compounds in the blood circulation. The action of enzymes during fermentation also causes hydrolysis and solubilisation of grain macromolecules, such as proteins and cell wall polysaccharides. This changes product texture, which may affect nutrient and non-nutrient absorption. New bioactive compounds, such as prebiotic oligosaccharides or other metabolites, may also be formed in cereal fermentations.

  17. Qualitative characterization of benzoxazinoid derivatives in whole grain rye and wheat by LC-MS metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Hanhineva, Kati; Rogachev, Ilana; Aura, Anna-Marja; Aharoni, Asaph; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2011-02-01

    Benzoxazinoids are metabolites occurring in a restricted group of plant species including crops such as rye, wheat, and maize. Focus on the analysis of benzoxazinoid metabolites has typically been due to their importance to plant biochemistry and physiology as highly bioactive molecules that plants use as alleochemicals to defend themselves against predators and infections. However, the potential dietary contribution of these compounds has not been addressed. This study conducted a detailed qualitative characterization of benzoxazinoid metabolites present in the whole grain rye and processed fractions of rye bran, and their presence was also detected in whole grain wheat samples. Several novel benzoxazinoid metabolites of the hydroxamic acids (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, DIBOA; 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, DIMBOA), lactams (2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, HBOA), and benzoxazolinones (1,3-benzoxazol-2-one, BOA) were identified, including double-hexose derivatives of DIBOA, DIMBOA, and HBOA. This paper presents an important addition to the information on the phytochemical composition of rye and wheat grains, which deserves attention in the discussion of the potential health-promoting effects of these grains.

  18. Path Analyses of Grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a Biosolids-Amended Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barbarick, Kenneth A; Ippolito, James A; McDaniel, Jacob P

    2016-07-01

    Land application of biosolids is an effective means of recycling plant nutrients and is the primary method of biosolids reuse endorsed by the USEPA. One issue concerning biosolids application is the extent of the contribution of biosolids-borne plant nutrients to the overall crop concentration and uptake or removal of these nutrients. We studied the effects of biosolids application on wheat ( L.) grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni concentrations and uptake (removal) at two dryland agroecosystem sites from 1993 to 2014. We hypothesized that biosolids would have the greatest impact on wheat grain and uptake compared with ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable nutrient levels, soil pH, or soil organic C concentrations. We used path analyses in combination with multiple linear regression to differentiate the direct, indirect, and total effects of cumulative biosolids applications, soil AB-DTPA, soil pH, and organic C. Biosolids rates, applied biennially from 1993 to 2014 at the beginning of a wheat-fallow rotation, were 0, 2.24, 4.48, 6.72, 8.96, and 11.2 Mg ha. None of the parameters had significant direct, indirect, or total effects on grain concentrations. Biosolids applications had the greatest positive direct impact compared with AB-DTPA levels, soil pH, or soil organic C on P, Zn, Fe, and Ni uptake (removal), whereas AB-DTPA had the greatest positive direct impact on Cu uptake. Soil AB-DTPA, pH, and organic C directly affected some grain concentrations and cumulative uptake, but no consistent trends were noted. This pathway approach allowed differentiation between causation and simple correlation for the effects of cumulative biosolids applications on wheat P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni cumulative uptake but did not provide these same results for grain concentrations. PMID:27380090

  19. Isolation and characterization of feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides from the perennial cereal grain intermediate wheat grass (Thinopyrum intermedium).

    PubMed

    Schendel, Rachel R; Becker, Andreas; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-04-30

    In comparison to the annual grain crops dominating current agricultural production, perennial grain species require fewer chemical and energy inputs and improve soil health and erosion control. The possibility for producing sustainable grain harvests from marginal land areas is motivating research initiatives to integrate perennial grains into commercial cropping and food processing systems. In this study, the feruloylated arabinoxylans from intermediate wheat grass (Thinopyrum intermedium, IWG), a promising perennial grain candidate in agronomic screening studies, were investigated. Insoluble fiber isolated from IWG whole grain flour was subjected to either mildly acidic (50 mM TFA, 100 °C, 2 h) or enzymatic (Driselase) hydrolysis. The liberated feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides were concentrated with Amberlite XAD-2, separated with gel chromatography (Sephadex LH-20, water), and purified with reversed-phase HPLC (C18, water-MeOH gradient). Thirteen feruloylated oligosaccharides were isolated (including eight structures described for the first time) and identified by LC-ESI-MS and NMR. Linkage-type analysis via methylation analysis, as well as the monosaccharide and phenolic acid profiles of the IWG insoluble fiber were also determined. IWG feruloylated arabinoxylans have a relatively simple structure with only short feruloylated side chains, a lower backbone substitution rate than annual rye and wheat varieties, and a moderate phenolic acid content. PMID:25699975

  20. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fang; Wu, Jirong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation. PMID:25751146

  1. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  2. Effects of dietary wheat middlings, corn dried distillers grains with solubles, and net energy formulation on nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    De Jong, J A; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D

    2014-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine effects of dietary wheat middlings (midds), corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and NE formulation on nursery pig performance and caloric efficiency. In Exp. 1, 180 nursery pigs (11.86 ± 0.02 kg BW and 39 d of age) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d, with 6 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Diets were corn-soybean meal based and included 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% wheat midds. Increasing wheat midds decreased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI. Caloric efficiency improved (linear; P < 0.05) on both an ME (NRC, 1998) and NE (Sauvant et al., 2004) basis as dietary wheat midds increased. In Exp. 2, 210 pigs (6.85 ± 0.01 kg BW and 26 d of age) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 35 d, with 7 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Diets were corn-soybean meal based and contained 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% wheat midds. Increasing wheat midds did not affect overall ADG or ADFI but decreased (quadratic; P < 0.013) G:F at 20%. Caloric efficiency for both ME and NE improved (quadratic; P < 0.05) as dietary wheat midds increased. In Exp. 3, 180 pigs (12.18 ± 0.4 kg BW and 39 d of age) were fed 1 of 6 experimental diets arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of DDGS (0 or 20%) and wheat midds (0, 10, or 20%) for 21 d, with 6 pigs per pen and 5 replications per treatment. No DDGS × wheat midds interactions were observed, and DDGS did not influence ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but increasing dietary wheat midds decreased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, and final BW. In Exp. 4, 210 pigs (6.87 kg BW and 26 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments, with 7 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Wheat middlings (0, 10, or 20%) were added to the first 3 diets without balancing for energy. In diets 4 and 5, soybean oil was added (1.4 and 2.8%) to 10 and 20% wheat midds diets to balance to the same NE as the positive control (0% wheat midds). Overall, no wheat midds × fat interactions occurred. Regardless of

  3. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  4. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat.

    PubMed

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation.

  5. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat.

    PubMed

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation. PMID:27446150

  6. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation. PMID:27446150

  7. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    PubMed

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pH<4.0 after two backslopping steps), and of Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weissella confusa and Weissella cibaria in the case of the bakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. PMID:27088869

  8. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  9. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  10. Fast wheat variety classification by capillary gel electrophoresis-on-a-chip after single-step one-grain high molecular weight glutenin extraction.

    PubMed

    Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Lehner, Angela; Peterseil, Verena; Sövegjarto, Friedrich; Hochegger, Rupert; Allmaier, Günter

    2011-06-01

    Wheat variety identification based on one-step single-grain wheat extraction and fast capillary gel electrophoresis-on-a-chip (CGE-on-a-chip) analyses was evaluated for 15 different wheat varieties grown in Austria. The results of the capillary-based separation system were compared to the internationally accepted method from the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants which is based on time-consuming sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Comparable protein patterns were observed making the CGE-on-a-chip system a promising tool for high-throughput analysis in food control. For the development of a robust method protein extraction, shelf life of wheat extracts and the instrument's variability were evaluated. It turned out that a one-step single-grain wheat extraction allowed the sample to be stored at 4 °C for up to 4 weeks without losing any valuable protein information. Furthermore, the technical variation of the whole method is very low making the biological variation of the selected wheat grains the only uncertain factor. Additionally, two unsupervised statistical methods (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used for variety identification. Identification was successful for a reduced data set of 14 samples from five different wheat varieties making the combination of CGE-on-a-chip analysis of one-step single-grain extraction in combination with automatic data evaluation a promising tool for fast wheat differentiation (within a day).

  11. The pattern and control of isoprenoid quinone and tocopherol metabolism in the germinating grain of wheat (Triticum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Hall, G S; Laidman, D L

    1968-07-01

    1. The syntheses of ubiquinone-9 and plastoquinone-9 were used as parameters respectively of mitochondrial and proplastid development in the germinating wheat grain. 2. The changes in the amounts of the tocopherols were also studied and the possible biological significance of these changes is discussed. During germination, the dimethyl tocopherols of the resting grain are probably not utilized for the synthesis of alpha-tocopherol. 3. It was demonstrated that ubiquinone synthesis, and hence probably mitochondrial development, in the aleurone cells during germination, is independent of control by gibberellic acid from the embryo. 4. The influence of light on the syntheses of the isoprenoid quinones in the etiolated wheat shoot was investigated. In particular, illumination did not stimulate the synthesis of either alpha-tocopherol or alpha-tocopherolquinone.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of yellow pigment content and evaluation of carotenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography in durum wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Verena; Kranl, Katja; Hollmann, Jürgen; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Böhm, Volker; Bitsch, Roland

    2002-11-01

    The so-called "yellow pigment" content of durum wheat has been used for a long time as an indicator of the color quality of durum wheat and pasta products. For decades the chemical nature of these pigments has been assigned to carotenoids, mainly to the xanthophyll lutein and its fatty acid esters. The chemical composition of the yellow pigments of eight German durum wheat cultivars was studied. Grains were milled on a laboratory mill. Pigment extraction of millstream fractions was performed according to the optimized ICC standard method 152 procedure, and the chemical composition of the extract was analyzed by isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. all-trans-Lutein ranged from 1.5 to 4 mg kg(-1), and zeaxanthin was found in traces. No lutein esters and carotenes were detected. Surprisingly, the fraction of carotenoids of the complete yellow pigment content amounted to only 30-50% of the yellow pigment quantities, so there are still compounds in durum wheat not yet identified that contribute considerably to the yellow color of the grain extracts. The isolation and chemical identification of those pigments are under investigation. PMID:12405758

  13. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible grain: a pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Reiko; Okamoto, Robert A; Maddalena, Randy L; Kado, Norman Y

    2008-06-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in a pilot study of field wheat grain as a model indicator for environmental contamination. The edible grain would serve as a portal for human exposure. Wheat grain was initially studied since it is one of the major food crops consumed internationally by many including infants and children. Wheat grain samples from five different geographical growing locations in California that span approximately 450 km were collected during the same growing season. The same variety of grain was harvested and analyzed for PAHs that ranged from 2- to 6-rings. PAHs were detected in all grain samples and were mainly 2- to 4-ring PAHs with naphthalene the most abundant among them. There were geographical differences in the levels of PAHs in the grain. The sources of the PAHs were not known in this pilot study, but the principal component analysis indicates that the major source is similar in all locations except for naphthalene. Grain naphthalene concentrations may reflect local naphthalene emissions. Diesel-fueled harvesting operations did not appear to contribute to the observed PAH concentrations in the grain. An estimate of naphthalene intake from eating grain compared to inhalation intake demonstrated the potential importance of field contamination of grain as a possible portal of human exposure. The relationship between PAH concentrations in grain and air should be quantitatively investigated to better quantitate exposure and to identify effective measures to lower the risk from PAH exposure through eating grain.

  15. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    PubMed Central

    Schönhofen, André; Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaploid wheat cultivar Lassik. Four mutant combinations were generated: SBEIIa/b-AB (Reg. No. GP-997, PI 675644); SBEIIa/b-A, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-998, PI 675645); SBEIIa/b-B, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-999, PI 675646); and SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-1000, PI 675647). The SBEII mutant lines were compared with a wild-type control in a greenhouse and field experiment. The quintuple mutant line (SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D) presented significant increases in both amylose (51% greenhouse; 63% field) and resistant starch (947% greenhouse; 1057% field) relative to the control. A decrease in total starch content (7.8%) was observed in the field experiment. The quintuple mutant also differed in starch viscosity parameters. Registration of the hexaploid wheat SBEII-mutant lines by University of California, Davis can help expedite the development of common wheat cultivars with increased amylose and resistant starch content.

  16. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat. PMID:26475192

  17. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat.

  18. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuhua; Cui, Zhengyong; Luo, Yongli; Zheng, Mengjing; Chen, Jin; Li, Yanxia; Yin, Yanping; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar) and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar), were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA). The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05). Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR) content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05) increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05), whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat. PMID:27203573

  19. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing. PMID:18954978

  20. A wheat 1-FEH w3 variant underlies enzyme activity for stem WSC remobilization to grain under drought.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Xu, Yunji; Chen, Wei; Dell, Bernard; Vergauwen, Rudy; Biddulph, Ben; Khan, Nusrat; Luo, Hao; Appels, Rudi; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In wheat stems, the levels of fructan-dominated water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) do not always correlate well with grain yield. Field drought experiments were carried out to further explain this lack of correlation. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties, Westonia, Kauz and c. 20 genetically diverse double haploid (DH) lines derived from them were investigated. Substantial genotypic differences in fructan remobilization were found and the 1-FEH w3 gene was shown to be the major contributor in the stem fructan remobilization process based on enzyme activity and gene expression results. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected in an auxin response element in the 1-FEH w3 promoter region, therefore we speculated that the mutated Westonia allele might affect gene expression and enzyme activity levels. A cleaved amplified polymorphic (CAP) marker was generated from the SNP. The harvested results showed that the mutated Westonia 1-FEH w3 allele was associated with a higher thousand grain weight (TGW) under drought conditions in 2011 and 2012. These results indicated that higher gene expression of 1-FEH w3 and 1-FEH w3 mediated enzyme activities that favoured stem WSC remobilization to the grains. The CAP marker residing in the 1-FEH w3 promoter region may facilitate wheat breeding by selecting lines with high stem fructan remobilization capacity under terminal drought.

  1. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil. PMID:27179316

  2. Antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of optimized composite flour, consisting wheat and amaranth seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi; Osemeke, Richard Onyemaechi; Ifesan, Beatrice O Temilade

    2016-02-01

    Consumer's interest in functional food has continued to increase due to its potential health benefits. This study therefore is aimed at developing a functional wheat based flour comprising, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace. The statistical analyses were carried out using response surface methodology (RSM). For the experimental design, the composite flour components were the variables while the proximate and mineral compositions were the responses. After the statistical optimisation process, the best three blends were chosen for further analyses; determination of antioxidant, functional and rheological properties. From the results, the best blends were Runs 11, 13 and 19, with percentages composition of wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace of 65 %, 30 %, 2 %, 3 %; 60.43 %, 29.68 %, 4.1 %, 5.79 % and 81.94 %, 6.75 %, 3.39 %, 7.92 % respectively. The ANOVA, R(2) and R(2) adjusted values for the proximate and mineral compositions showed that the composite flours were statistically satisfactory. The results also indicated that the antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of the three best blends showed good and acceptable nutritional and rheological properties. Composite flours with acceptable and excellent nutritional composition, functional properties and rheological behaviour can be obtained from composite blends consisting wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace flours. PMID:27162395

  3. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil.

  4. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C; Pedas, Pai R; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail; Andersen, Birgit; Finnie, Christine; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2016-09-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains. PMID:27159614

  5. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C; Pedas, Pai R; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail; Andersen, Birgit; Finnie, Christine; Schjoerring, Jan K; Husted, Søren

    2016-09-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins were analysed with liquid chromatography ICP-MS and Orbitrap MS(2) , respectively. Laser ablation ICP-MS with simultaneous Zn, sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) detection was used for bioimaging of Zn and its potential ligands. Increasing the Zn and N supply had a major impact on the Zn concentration in the endosperm, reaching concentrations higher than current breeding targets. The S concentration also increased, but S was only partly co-localized with Zn. The mutual Zn and S enrichment was reflected in substantially more Zn bound to small cysteine-rich proteins (apparent size 10-30 kDa), whereas the response of larger proteins (apparent size > 50 kDa) was only modest. Most of the Zn-responsive proteins were associated with redox- and stress-related processes. This study offers a methodological platform to deepen the understanding of processes behind endosperm Zn enrichment. Novel information is provided on how the localization and speciation of Zn is modified during Zn biofortification of grains.

  6. Exopolysaccharides from sourdough lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Galle, Sandra; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-01-01

    The use of sourdough improves the quality and increases the shelf life of bread. The positive effects are associated with metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation, including organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), and enzymes. EPS formed during sourdough fermentation by glycansucrase activity from sucrose influence the viscoelastic properties of the dough and beneficially affect the texture and shelf life (in particular, starch retrogradation) of bread. Accordingly, EPS have the potential to replace hydrocolloids currently used as bread improvers and meet so the consumer demands for a reduced use of food additives. In this review, the current knowledge about the functional aspects of EPS formation by sourdough LAB especially in baking applications is summarized.

  7. Development of sourdough fermented date seed for improving the quality and shelf life of flat bread: study with univariate and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Pourfarzad, Amir; Zahedi, Hoda; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Zahra; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of a novel sourdough system prepared by wheat flour supplemented by combination of pulverized date seed, Lactobacillus plantarum, and/or Lactobacillus brevis as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the sourdough characteristics, quality, sensory, texture, shelf life and image properties of Barbari flat bread. The highest sourdough acidity and bread specific volume was obtained with co-culture of Lb. plantarum + Lb. brevis + S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improving sensory aspects of bread supplemented with pulverized date seed, as a dietary fiber resource. Texture analysis of bread samples during 7 days of storage indicated that the presence of pulverized date seed in sourdough was able to diminish bread staling. The interaction of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has led to increase the particle average size of bread crumb and decrease the area fraction than the LAB samples. It was observed that all treatments of sourdough Barbari breads had higher cell wall thickness than the control Barbari bread. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among sourdough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data.

  8. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation.

  9. Development of sourdough fermented date seed for improving the quality and shelf life of flat bread: study with univariate and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Pourfarzad, Amir; Zahedi, Hoda; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Zahra; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of a novel sourdough system prepared by wheat flour supplemented by combination of pulverized date seed, Lactobacillus plantarum, and/or Lactobacillus brevis as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the sourdough characteristics, quality, sensory, texture, shelf life and image properties of Barbari flat bread. The highest sourdough acidity and bread specific volume was obtained with co-culture of Lb. plantarum + Lb. brevis + S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that fermentation is a potential bioprocessing technology for improving sensory aspects of bread supplemented with pulverized date seed, as a dietary fiber resource. Texture analysis of bread samples during 7 days of storage indicated that the presence of pulverized date seed in sourdough was able to diminish bread staling. The interaction of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has led to increase the particle average size of bread crumb and decrease the area fraction than the LAB samples. It was observed that all treatments of sourdough Barbari breads had higher cell wall thickness than the control Barbari bread. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among sourdough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data. PMID:26787943

  10. Wheat Grain Yield Increase in Response to Pre-Anthesis Foliar Application of 6-Benzylaminopurine Is Dependent on Floret Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunfeng; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat yield is largely determined during the period prior to flowering, when the final numbers of fertile florets and grains per spike are established. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of floret primordia development in winter wheat in response to pre-anthesis application of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA). We conducted an experiment in which two foliar spray treatments were applied (water or 6-BA) to Chinese winter wheat at 25 days after jointing during two growing seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014). Both the final grain number per spike and grain yield at maturity exhibited remarkable increases in response to the 6-BA treatment. Application of 6-BA increased the number of fertile florets in basal spikelets and, to a greater extent, in central spikelets. The mechanism by which 6-BA application affected the final number of fertile florets primarily involved suppression of the floret abortion rates. Application of 6-BA considerably reduced the abortion rates of basal, central and apical spikelet florets (by as much as 77% compared with the control), as well as the degeneration rates of basal and central spikelet florets, albeit to a lesser degree. The effect of 6-BA application on the likelihood of proximal florets being set was limited to the distal florets in the whole spike, whereas obvious increases in the likelihood of grain set under 6-BA treatment were observed in distal florets, primarily in central spikelet positions. The results of this study provide important evidence that 6-BA application to florets (final fertile floret production) results in an increased grain yield. PMID:27258059

  11. Wheat Grain Yield Increase in Response to Pre-Anthesis Foliar Application of 6-Benzylaminopurine Is Dependent on Floret Development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunfeng; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat yield is largely determined during the period prior to flowering, when the final numbers of fertile florets and grains per spike are established. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of floret primordia development in winter wheat in response to pre-anthesis application of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA). We conducted an experiment in which two foliar spray treatments were applied (water or 6-BA) to Chinese winter wheat at 25 days after jointing during two growing seasons (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). Both the final grain number per spike and grain yield at maturity exhibited remarkable increases in response to the 6-BA treatment. Application of 6-BA increased the number of fertile florets in basal spikelets and, to a greater extent, in central spikelets. The mechanism by which 6-BA application affected the final number of fertile florets primarily involved suppression of the floret abortion rates. Application of 6-BA considerably reduced the abortion rates of basal, central and apical spikelet florets (by as much as 77% compared with the control), as well as the degeneration rates of basal and central spikelet florets, albeit to a lesser degree. The effect of 6-BA application on the likelihood of proximal florets being set was limited to the distal florets in the whole spike, whereas obvious increases in the likelihood of grain set under 6-BA treatment were observed in distal florets, primarily in central spikelet positions. The results of this study provide important evidence that 6-BA application to florets (final fertile floret production) results in an increased grain yield. PMID:27258059

  12. Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Qingsen; Liu, Lijun

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount of nitrogen (HN) at heading time. Plants were either well-watered (WW) or water-stressed (WS) from 9 days post anthesis until maturity. Leaf water potentials markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning. Photosynthetic rate and zeatin + zeatin riboside concentrations in the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants, and they decreased more slowly with HN than with NN when soil water potential was the same, indicating that the water deficit enhanced, whereas HN delayed, senescence. Water stress, both at NN and HN, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and fructans in the stems but increased the sucrose level there, promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and accelerated the grain-filling rate. Grain weight and grain yield were increased under the controlled water deficit when HN was applied. Fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities were substantially enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with the total NSC and fructan remobilization from the stems. Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity was also enhanced by the water stress and associated with the change in fructan concentration, but not correlated with the total NSC remobilization and (14)C increase in the grains. Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) activity was inhibited by the water stress and negatively correlated with the remobilization of carbon reserves

  13. The Genetic Control of Grain Protein Content under Variable Nitrogen Supply in an Australian Wheat Mapping Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation has been observed in both protein concentration in wheat grain and total protein content (protein yield). Here we describe the genetic analysis of variation for grain protein in response to nitrogen (N) supply and locate significant genomic regions controlling grain protein components in a spring wheat population. In total, six N use efficiency (NUE) field trials were carried out for the target traits in a sub-population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian varieties, RAC875 and Kukri, in Southern and Western Australia from 2011 to 2013. Twenty-four putative Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for protein-related traits were identified at high and low N supply and ten QTL were identified for the response to N for the traits studied. These loci accounted for a significant proportion of the overall effect of N supply. Several of the regions were co-localised with grain yield QTL and are promising targets for further investigation and selection in breeding programs. PMID:27438012

  14. The Genetic Control of Grain Protein Content under Variable Nitrogen Supply in an Australian Wheat Mapping Population.

    PubMed

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation has been observed in both protein concentration in wheat grain and total protein content (protein yield). Here we describe the genetic analysis of variation for grain protein in response to nitrogen (N) supply and locate significant genomic regions controlling grain protein components in a spring wheat population. In total, six N use efficiency (NUE) field trials were carried out for the target traits in a sub-population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian varieties, RAC875 and Kukri, in Southern and Western Australia from 2011 to 2013. Twenty-four putative Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for protein-related traits were identified at high and low N supply and ten QTL were identified for the response to N for the traits studied. These loci accounted for a significant proportion of the overall effect of N supply. Several of the regions were co-localised with grain yield QTL and are promising targets for further investigation and selection in breeding programs. PMID:27438012

  15. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Kenny; Pauk, János; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Sass, László

    2016-01-01

    We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI) and performance (PI) indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves is correlated with

  16. Effect of Rht alleles on wheat grain yield and quality under high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis.

    PubMed

    Alghabari, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Hussain, Saddam; Aishia, Ghulam; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of gibberellin semi-sensitive reduced height (Rht) alleles on wheat grain yield and quality under high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis stages. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of winter wheat (Rht (tall), Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-8c, Rht-D1c, Rht-12) having background of Mercia and Maris Widgeon cultivars were compared under variable temperatures (day/night: 20/12, 27/19, 30/22, 33/25, 36/28, and 39/31 °C) and irrigation regimes. Pots were transferred to controlled thermal conditions (Saxcil growth chamber) during booting and anthesis stages and were maintained at field capacity (FC) or had water withheld. High temperature (>30 °C) and drought stress for seven consecutive days during booting and anthesis stages reduced the grain yield, while increased nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentrations. A 50 % reduction in grain yield was fitted to have occurred at 37.4 °C for well-watered plants and at 31.4 °C for drought-stressed plants. The N and S concentrations were higher for severe dwarfs, whereas no significant differences were observed between tall and semi-dwarfs in Mercia. In the taller background (Maris Widgeon), N and S concentrations were significantly higher compared with that in Mercia. In Mercia, the severe dwarf Rht-D1c had higher Hagberg falling number (HFN) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) sedimentation volume. In both backgrounds, semi-dwarfs and severe dwarfs had higher HFN. Moreover, the SDS sedimentation volumes in Maris Widgeon were also higher than that in Mercia. Greater adaptability and improved grain quality traits suggested that severe dwarf Rht alleles are better able to enhance tolerance to high temperature and drought stress in wheat. PMID:26006072

  17. Detection of powdery mildew in two winter wheat plant densities and prediction of grain yield using canopy hyperspectral reflectance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xueren; Luo, Yong; Zhou, Yilin; Fan, Jieru; Xu, Xiangming; West, Jonathan S; Duan, Xiayu; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of plant density and powdery mildew infection of winter wheat and to predict grain yield, hyperspectral canopy reflectance of winter wheat was measured for two plant densities at Feekes growth stage (GS) 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. Reflectance in near infrared (NIR) regions was significantly correlated with disease index at GS 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 at two plant densities in both seasons. For the two plant densities, the area of the red edge peak (Σdr680-760 nm), difference vegetation index (DVI), and triangular vegetation index (TVI) were significantly correlated negatively with disease index at three GSs in two seasons. Compared with other parameters Σdr680-760 nm was the most sensitive parameter for detecting powdery mildew. Linear regression models relating mildew severity to Σdr680-760 nm were constructed at three GSs in two seasons for the two plant densities, demonstrating no significant difference in the slope estimates between the two plant densities at three GSs. Σdr680-760 nm was correlated with grain yield at three GSs in two seasons. The accuracies of partial least square regression (PLSR) models were consistently higher than those of models based on Σdr680760 nm for disease index and grain yield. PLSR can, therefore, provide more accurate estimation of disease index of wheat powdery mildew and grain yield using canopy reflectance. PMID:25815468

  18. Detection of Powdery Mildew in Two Winter Wheat Plant Densities and Prediction of Grain Yield Using Canopy Hyperspectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xueren; Luo, Yong; Zhou, Yilin; Fan, Jieru; Xu, Xiangming; West, Jonathan S.; Duan, Xiayu; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of plant density and powdery mildew infection of winter wheat and to predict grain yield, hyperspectral canopy reflectance of winter wheat was measured for two plant densities at Feekes growth stage (GS) 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 in the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons. Reflectance in near infrared (NIR) regions was significantly correlated with disease index at GS 10.5.3, 10.5.4, and 11.1 at two plant densities in both seasons. For the two plant densities, the area of the red edge peak (Σdr680–760 nm), difference vegetation index (DVI), and triangular vegetation index (TVI) were significantly correlated negatively with disease index at three GSs in two seasons. Compared with other parameters Σdr680–760 nm was the most sensitive parameter for detecting powdery mildew. Linear regression models relating mildew severity to Σdr680–760 nm were constructed at three GSs in two seasons for the two plant densities, demonstrating no significant difference in the slope estimates between the two plant densities at three GSs. Σdr680–760 nm was correlated with grain yield at three GSs in two seasons. The accuracies of partial least square regression (PLSR) models were consistently higher than those of models based on Σdr680760 nm for disease index and grain yield. PLSR can, therefore, provide more accurate estimation of disease index of wheat powdery mildew and grain yield using canopy reflectance. PMID:25815468

  19. Effect of Rht alleles on wheat grain yield and quality under high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis.

    PubMed

    Alghabari, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Hussain, Saddam; Aishia, Ghulam; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of gibberellin semi-sensitive reduced height (Rht) alleles on wheat grain yield and quality under high temperature and drought stress during booting and anthesis stages. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of winter wheat (Rht (tall), Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-8c, Rht-D1c, Rht-12) having background of Mercia and Maris Widgeon cultivars were compared under variable temperatures (day/night: 20/12, 27/19, 30/22, 33/25, 36/28, and 39/31 °C) and irrigation regimes. Pots were transferred to controlled thermal conditions (Saxcil growth chamber) during booting and anthesis stages and were maintained at field capacity (FC) or had water withheld. High temperature (>30 °C) and drought stress for seven consecutive days during booting and anthesis stages reduced the grain yield, while increased nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentrations. A 50 % reduction in grain yield was fitted to have occurred at 37.4 °C for well-watered plants and at 31.4 °C for drought-stressed plants. The N and S concentrations were higher for severe dwarfs, whereas no significant differences were observed between tall and semi-dwarfs in Mercia. In the taller background (Maris Widgeon), N and S concentrations were significantly higher compared with that in Mercia. In Mercia, the severe dwarf Rht-D1c had higher Hagberg falling number (HFN) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) sedimentation volume. In both backgrounds, semi-dwarfs and severe dwarfs had higher HFN. Moreover, the SDS sedimentation volumes in Maris Widgeon were also higher than that in Mercia. Greater adaptability and improved grain quality traits suggested that severe dwarf Rht alleles are better able to enhance tolerance to high temperature and drought stress in wheat.

  20. Nematicides Increase Grain Yields in Spring Wheat Cultivars and Suppress Plant-Parasitic and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Kimpinski, J.; Martin, R. A.; Sturz, A. V.

    2005-01-01

    Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P < 0.001) by an average of 0.56 (25.1%) and 1.17 (52.5%) tonnes/ha in comparison to untreated check plots when aldicarb at 2.24 kg or fosthiazate at 13.5 a.i./ha, respectively, were broadcast and incorporated into the soil to suppress nematodes. The planned F test using orthogonal coefficients indicated that the mean response of grain yields to nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P < 0.001). Root lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) in wheat roots and in root zone soil at harvest were reduced by the nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada. PMID:19262893

  1. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  2. Comparison of wheat- versus corn-based dried distillers' grains with solubles on meat quality of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Aldai, N; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Robertson, W M; McAllister, T A; Walter, L J; McKinnon, J J

    2010-03-01

    A considerable amount of information has been generated on the feeding value and impact of corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) on meat quality, whereas little is known about the effects of wheat DDGS on meat quality, and no direct comparison of these two sources of DDGS has been completed. The current study was conducted to examine the objective and subjective carcass and meat quality traits of cattle fed diets containing corn or wheat (20% or 40%) DDGS (DM basis) as compared to a standard barley-based finishing diet (control). In general, meat obtained from animals fed the barley-based control diet was slightly darker in colour (lower chroma and hue at 24 h, P<0.01) and less tender (highest proportion of tough shears at 2 d and lowest proportion of tender shears at 20 d). Meat from corn DDGS was rated as more tender and palatable than control samples (P<0.05), and 20% corn samples were rated better for beef flavour intensity (P<0.01) and desirability (P<0.05) than 40% corn DDGS samples. In contrast, meat from steers fed wheat DDGS showed intermediate characteristics between steers fed control and corn DDGS diets. Hence, feeding wheat DDGS had no negative effects, and feeding corn DDGS had some positive effects on meat quality characteristics of beef.

  3. Wheat genotypic variation in dynamic fluxes of WSC components in different stem segments under drought during grain filling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Chen, Wei; Dell, Bernard; Vergauwen, Rudy; Zhang, Xinmin; Mayer, Jorge E; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In wheat, stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), composed mainly of fructans, are the major carbon sources for grain filling during periods of decreasing photosynthesis or under drought stress after anthesis. Here, in a field drought experiment, WSC levels and associated enzyme activities were followed in different stem segments (peduncle, penultimate internode, lower parts of stem, and sheath) during grain filling. The focus was on two double haploid (DH) lines, DH 307 and DH 338, derived from a Westonia/Kauz cross, two drought-tolerant wheat varieties that follow different drought adaptation strategies during grain filling. The results showed that in irrigated plants, in the period between 20 and 30 days after anthesis (DAA), 70-80% of WSC were fructans. Before and after this period, the fructan proportion varied from 10 to 60%, depending on the location along the stem. Under drought, the fructan proportion changed, depending on genotype, and developmental stages. After anthesis, stem fructans accumulation occurred mainly in the peduncle and penultimate internode until 14 DAA in both DH lines, with clear genotypic variation in subsequent fructan degradation under drought. In DH 307 a significant reduction of fructans with a concomitant increase in fructose levels occurred earlier in the lower parts of the stem and the sheath, as compared to DH 338 or other stem segments in both lines. This was associated with an earlier increase of grain weight and thousand grain weight in DH 307. Spatiotemporal analysis of fructan dynamics and enzymatic activities in fructan metabolism revealed that several types of FEHs are involved in fructan remobilization to the grain under drought. PMID:26322065

  4. Wheat genotypic variation in dynamic fluxes of WSC components in different stem segments under drought during grain filling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Chen, Wei; Dell, Bernard; Vergauwen, Rudy; Zhang, Xinmin; Mayer, Jorge E.; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In wheat, stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), composed mainly of fructans, are the major carbon sources for grain filling during periods of decreasing photosynthesis or under drought stress after anthesis. Here, in a field drought experiment, WSC levels and associated enzyme activities were followed in different stem segments (peduncle, penultimate internode, lower parts of stem, and sheath) during grain filling. The focus was on two double haploid (DH) lines, DH 307 and DH 338, derived from a Westonia/Kauz cross, two drought-tolerant wheat varieties that follow different drought adaptation strategies during grain filling. The results showed that in irrigated plants, in the period between 20 and 30 days after anthesis (DAA), 70–80% of WSC were fructans. Before and after this period, the fructan proportion varied from 10 to 60%, depending on the location along the stem. Under drought, the fructan proportion changed, depending on genotype, and developmental stages. After anthesis, stem fructans accumulation occurred mainly in the peduncle and penultimate internode until 14 DAA in both DH lines, with clear genotypic variation in subsequent fructan degradation under drought. In DH 307 a significant reduction of fructans with a concomitant increase in fructose levels occurred earlier in the lower parts of the stem and the sheath, as compared to DH 338 or other stem segments in both lines. This was associated with an earlier increase of grain weight and thousand grain weight in DH 307. Spatiotemporal analysis of fructan dynamics and enzymatic activities in fructan metabolism revealed that several types of FEHs are involved in fructan remobilization to the grain under drought. PMID:26322065

  5. Wheat genotypic variation in dynamic fluxes of WSC components in different stem segments under drought during grain filling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjuan; Chen, Wei; Dell, Bernard; Vergauwen, Rudy; Zhang, Xinmin; Mayer, Jorge E; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In wheat, stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), composed mainly of fructans, are the major carbon sources for grain filling during periods of decreasing photosynthesis or under drought stress after anthesis. Here, in a field drought experiment, WSC levels and associated enzyme activities were followed in different stem segments (peduncle, penultimate internode, lower parts of stem, and sheath) during grain filling. The focus was on two double haploid (DH) lines, DH 307 and DH 338, derived from a Westonia/Kauz cross, two drought-tolerant wheat varieties that follow different drought adaptation strategies during grain filling. The results showed that in irrigated plants, in the period between 20 and 30 days after anthesis (DAA), 70-80% of WSC were fructans. Before and after this period, the fructan proportion varied from 10 to 60%, depending on the location along the stem. Under drought, the fructan proportion changed, depending on genotype, and developmental stages. After anthesis, stem fructans accumulation occurred mainly in the peduncle and penultimate internode until 14 DAA in both DH lines, with clear genotypic variation in subsequent fructan degradation under drought. In DH 307 a significant reduction of fructans with a concomitant increase in fructose levels occurred earlier in the lower parts of the stem and the sheath, as compared to DH 338 or other stem segments in both lines. This was associated with an earlier increase of grain weight and thousand grain weight in DH 307. Spatiotemporal analysis of fructan dynamics and enzymatic activities in fructan metabolism revealed that several types of FEHs are involved in fructan remobilization to the grain under drought.

  6. Green manures in continuous wheat systems affect grain yield and nitrogen content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) is the foundation for most U.S. southern Great Plains (SGP) agriculture. Inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizers are important to wheat production, but increasing N prices have caused farmers to reconsider growing legumes during summer fallow for ‘...

  7. Genotypic variation in spike fertility traits and ovary size as determinants of floret and grain survival rate in wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Slafer, Gustavo A; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Spike fertility traits are critical attributes for grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we examine the genotypic variation in three important traits: maximum number of floret primordia, number of fertile florets, and number of grains. We determine their relationship in determining spike fertility in 30 genotypes grown under two contrasting conditions: field and greenhouse. The maximum number of floret primordia per spikelet (MFS), fertile florets per spikelet (FFS), and number of grains per spikelet (GS) not only exhibited large genotypic variation in both growth conditions and across all spikelet positions studied, but also displayed moderate levels of heritability. FFS was closely associated with floret survival and only weakly related to MFS. We also found that the post-anthesis process of grain set/abortion was important in determining genotypic variation in GS; an increase in GS was mainly associated with improved grain survival. Ovary size at anthesis was associated with both floret survival (pre-anthesis) and grain survival (post-anthesis), and was thus believed to 'connect' the two traits. In this work, proximal florets (i.e. the first three florets from the base of a spikelet: F1, F2, and F3) produced fertile florets and set grains in most cases. The ovary size of more distal florets (F4 and beyond) seemed to act as a decisive factor for grain setting and effectively reflected pre-anthesis floret development. In both growth conditions, GS positively correlated with ovary size of florets in the distal position (F4), suggesting that assimilates allocated to distal florets may play a critical role in regulating grain set. PMID:27279276

  8. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  9. Supplemental selenium improves wheat grain yield and quality through alterations in biochemical processes under normal and water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Fahim; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Waraich, E A; Shabbir, R N; Bukhari, M A

    2015-05-15

    The paper mainly reported the effects of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (Se seed priming, Se fertigation and Se foliar spray) on physiological and antioxidant system of wheat aiming to clarify its effect on yield and nutritional quality of wheat under both normal and water deficit conditions. Water stress markedly decreased the grain Se, iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) contents. Supplemental Se (Na2SeO4) improved the yield and quality of water stressed plants due to enhancement in the production of osmoprotectants and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. The foliar spray of Se was more effective than Se fertigation and Se seed treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first elaborate study that involved various Se application methods to evaluate the efficiency of Se supply to plants that would be crucial to develop better understanding of Se translocation and accumulation within crop plants under drought stress.

  10. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  11. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  13. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  14. Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in whole grain of rye, wheat and rice: Effects on linoleic and linolenic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, C. E.; Harms-Ringdahl, M.

    Changes in the fatty acid composition in lipids after γ-irradation of whole grain of wheat, rye and rice were examined. The radiosensitivity of linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) was studied up to a dose of 63 kGy in seeds with different water content and after a post-irradiation storage time of 2 months. At doses in the range recommended for grain desinfestation, i.e. 0.1-1.0 kGy, no detectable degradation of 18:2 and 18:3 was found, but at the highest dose applied, 63 kGy, a degradation in the range from a few percent up to 40% was observed. Under extreme conditions, i.e. pre- and post-irradation treatment with oxygen, or when the flour prepared from the seeds was mixed with water and heated before the extraction of the lipids, a more pronounced degradation of the unsaturated fatty acids was noticed. Lipid peroxidation induced by γ-irradation was estimated using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. High yields of the TBA-reactive material were formed in the three types of grain investigated corresponding to G-values in the range of 12-18. The influence on peroxidation yields of the water content of the seeds was studied in wheat. The origin of the TBA-reactive material formed in the seeds is not yet known, but could only to a minor extent be due to fatty acid peroxidation.

  15. Overexpression of wheat gene TaMOR improves root system architecture and grain yield in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Liu, Dan; Li, Qiaoru; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Wang, Jingyi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-07-01

    Improved root architecture is an effective strategy to increase crop yield. We demonstrate that overexpression of transcription factor gene MORE ROOT (TaMOR) from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) results in more roots and higher grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). TaMOR, encoding a plant-specific transcription factor belonging to the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) protein family, is highly conserved in wheat and its wild relatives. In this study, tissue expression patterns indicated that TaMOR mainly localizes to root initiation sites. The consistent gene expression pattern suggests that TaMOR is involved in root initiation. Exogenous auxin treatment induced TaMOR expression without de novo protein biosynthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that TaMOR interacts with TaMOR-related protein TaMRRP, which contains a four-tandem-pentatricopeptide repeat motif. Overexpression of TaMOR led to more lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana, and TaMOR-overexpressing rice plants had more crown roots, a longer main panicle, a higher number of primary branches on the main panicle, a higher grain number per plant, and higher yield per plant than the plants of wild type. In general, TaMOR-D-overexpressing lines had larger root systems in Arabidopsis and rice, and produce a higher grain yield per plant. TaMOR therefore offers an opportunity to improve root architecture and increase yield in crop plants. PMID:27229732

  16. Small RNA and Degradome Sequencing Reveal Complex Roles of miRNAs and Their Targets in Developing Wheat Grains

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yuke; Hao, Chenyang; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2015-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we employed small RNA combined with degradome sequencing to survey development-related miRNAs and their validated targets during wheat grain development. A total of 186 known miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified in four small RNA libraries. Moreover, a miRNA-like long hairpin locus was first identified to produce 21~22-nt phased siRNAs that act in trans to cleave target mRNAs. A comparison of the miRNAomes revealed that 55 miRNA families were differentially expressed during the grain development. Predicted and validated targets of these development-related miRNAs are involved in different cellular responses and metabolic processes including cell proliferation, auxin signaling, nutrient metabolism and gene expression. This study provides insight into the complex roles of miRNAs and their targets in regulating wheat grain development. PMID:26426440

  17. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1–T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20–30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  18. Predominant bacteria diversity in Chinese traditional sourdough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohua; He, Guoqing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major bacteria in Chinese traditional sourdough (CTS). Five CTS samples (Hn-87, Sx-91, Gs-107, Hf-112, and Hr-122) were collected from different Chinese steamed breads shops or private households. The total bacterial DNA was extracted from sourdough samples and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq 2000 system. Illumina tags were assigned to BLASTN server based on 16S rRNA libraries to reveal a genetic profile. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria in traditional sourdough samples were dominated by the genera Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. Beta diversity analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis compared the bacterial differences in traditional sourdough samples. The results showed that Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were the predominant genera among the 5 samples. This differentiated the sourdoughs into 3 typologies, namely, 1) Gs-107 and Sx-91, 2) Hr-122 and Hn-87, and 3) Hf-112. This study identified 3 unique major bacteria genus in CTS bread ecosystems.

  19. Gene networks in the synthesis and deposition of protein polymers during grain development of wheat.

    PubMed

    She, Maoyun; Ye, Xingguo; Yan, Yueming; Howit, C; Belgard, M; Ma, Wujun

    2011-03-01

    As the amino acid storing organelle, the protein bodies provide nutrients for embryo development, seed germination and early seedling growth through storage proteolysis in cereal plants, such as wheat and rice. In protein bodies, the monomeric and polymeric prolamins, i.e. gliadins and glutenins, form gluten and play a key role in determining dough functionality and end-product quality of wheat. The formation of intra- and intermolecular bonds, including disulphide and tyrosine bonds, in and between prolamins confers cohesivity, viscosity, elasticity and extensibility to wheat dough during mixing and processing. In this review, we summarize recent progress in wheat gluten research with a focus on the fundamental molecular biological aspects, including transcriptional regulation on genes coding for prolamin components, biosynthesis, deposition and secretion of protein polymers, formation of protein bodies, genetic control of seed storage proteins, the transportation of the protein bodies and key enzymes for determining the formation of disulphide bonds of prolamin polymers.

  20. Effect of process variables on the quality characteristics of pelleted wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Lope Tabil; Anthony Opoku; Maria Rosario Mosqueda; Olaniyi Fadeyi

    2011-04-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol processing plants in Canada has resulted in a significant increase in the production of wheat-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Transportation and flowability problems associated with DDGS necessitate investigations on pelleting. In the present study, the effect of process variables like die temperature (T) and feed moisture content (Mw) on the pellet properties like pellet moisture content, durability and pellet density was explored using a single pelleting machine; further studies on pelleting DDGS using a pilot-scale pellet mill were also conducted to understand the effect of die diameter and steam conditioning on durability and bulk density of pellets. Proximate analysis of DDGS indicated that crude protein and dry matter were in the range of 37.37–40.33% and 91.27–92.60%, respectively. Linear regression models developed for pellet quality attributes like pellet moisture content, pellet density and durability adequately described the single pelleting process with R2 value of 0.97, 0.99 and 0.7, respectively. ANOVA results have indicated that linear terms T and Mw and the interaction term T × Mw were statistically significant at P < 0.01 and P < 0.1 for pellet moisture content and pellet density. Based on the trends of the surface plots, a medium T of about 50–80 °C and a low Mw of about 5.1% resulted in maximum pellet density and durability and minimum pellet moisture content. Results from pilot-scale studies indicated that bulk density, durability and throughput values were 436.8–528.9 kg m-3, 60.3–92.7% and 45.52–68.77 kg h-1, respectively. It was observed that both die diameter and steam addition had a significant effect on the bulk density and the durability values. The highest bulk density and durability were achieved with 6.4 mm die diameter with steam addition compared to 7.9 mm die with or without steam addition.

  1. Effects of mine wastewater irrigation on activities of soil enzymes and physiological properties, heavy metal uptake and grain yield in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shou-Chen; Zhang, He-Bing; Ma, Shou-Tian; Wang, Rui; Wang, Gui-Xian; Shao, Yun; Li, Chun-Xi

    2015-03-01

    In China, coal-mining industries are mainly located in the water shortage areas including arid or semiarid areas. Mine wastewater is used for irrigation of agricultural land in these areas. However, few studies have been conducted to address ecological and food safety risks caused by mine wastewater irrigation. In this research, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of mine wastewater irrigation on soil enzymes, physiological properties of wheat and potential risks of heavy metal contamination to wheat crop. Plants were subjected to three mine wastewater irrigation treatments: leacheate of coal gangue (T1), coal-washing wastewater (T2) and precipitated coal-washing wastewater (T3). Plants irrigated with well water were taken as the control (CK). The results showed that mine wastewater irrigation caused adverse effects on soil enzymes, physiological properties and grain yield of winter wheat. At anthesis, T1, T2 and T3 treatments significantly reduced the activities of soil enzymes (urease, sucrase and catalase), root activity and net photosynthetic rate of wheat compared to CK. At maturity, grain yield was decreased by 17.8%, 15.4% and 9.8% by T1, T2 and T3, respectively, as compared to that of CK. Importantly, mine wastewater irrigation resulted in accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn) in wheat grain. Contents of these heavy metals in grains of winter wheat subjected to mine wastewater irrigation were significantly higher than those in CK. The comprehensive contamination indexes of wheat grain in T1, T2 and T3 all reached high pollution level. Our results showed that mine wastewater irrigation significantly increased the pollution risk of heavy metals, thus unsuitable for crop irrigation. PMID:25562177

  2. Effects of mine wastewater irrigation on activities of soil enzymes and physiological properties, heavy metal uptake and grain yield in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shou-Chen; Zhang, He-Bing; Ma, Shou-Tian; Wang, Rui; Wang, Gui-Xian; Shao, Yun; Li, Chun-Xi

    2015-03-01

    In China, coal-mining industries are mainly located in the water shortage areas including arid or semiarid areas. Mine wastewater is used for irrigation of agricultural land in these areas. However, few studies have been conducted to address ecological and food safety risks caused by mine wastewater irrigation. In this research, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of mine wastewater irrigation on soil enzymes, physiological properties of wheat and potential risks of heavy metal contamination to wheat crop. Plants were subjected to three mine wastewater irrigation treatments: leacheate of coal gangue (T1), coal-washing wastewater (T2) and precipitated coal-washing wastewater (T3). Plants irrigated with well water were taken as the control (CK). The results showed that mine wastewater irrigation caused adverse effects on soil enzymes, physiological properties and grain yield of winter wheat. At anthesis, T1, T2 and T3 treatments significantly reduced the activities of soil enzymes (urease, sucrase and catalase), root activity and net photosynthetic rate of wheat compared to CK. At maturity, grain yield was decreased by 17.8%, 15.4% and 9.8% by T1, T2 and T3, respectively, as compared to that of CK. Importantly, mine wastewater irrigation resulted in accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn) in wheat grain. Contents of these heavy metals in grains of winter wheat subjected to mine wastewater irrigation were significantly higher than those in CK. The comprehensive contamination indexes of wheat grain in T1, T2 and T3 all reached high pollution level. Our results showed that mine wastewater irrigation significantly increased the pollution risk of heavy metals, thus unsuitable for crop irrigation.

  3. Determination of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, and a musty-earthy odor in wheat grain by SPME-GC-MS, profiling volatiles, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Wiewiórowska, Małgorzata; Wasowicz, Erwin

    2003-11-19

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol-compounds responsible for the musty-earthy off-odor of wheat grain, were isolated by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. Carboxen/PDMS/DVB fiber coating was selected because of its highest extraction efficiency. Concentrations of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol as low as 0.001 microg/kg were detected in SIM mode using ion trap mass spectrometer. Apart from GC-MS determination of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, various methods for evaluating the musty-earthy off-odor caused by these compounds in wheat grain are presented. Sensory profile analysis differentiated wheat grain into sound and off-flavored, but the method was tedious. Similar groupings, however, were obtained using more rapid methods such as comparison of volatile profiles using SPME-fast GC with PCA projection of data and metal oxide (MOS) based electronic nose. PMID:14611175

  4. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  5. Aeration management for stored hard red winter wheat: simulated impact on rusty grain beetle (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F H; Flinn, P W

    2000-08-01

    Simulation studies were conducted to determine temperature accumulations below defined thresholds and to show the impact of controlled aeration on populations of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrigineus (Stephens), a major secondary pest of stored wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.). Recorded data from weather stations in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, eastern New Mexico, and eastern Colorado (356 total) were used to determine hours of temperature accumulation below 23.9 degrees C in June and July, 15.6 degrees C in September and October, and 7.2 degrees C in December. At an airflow rate of 0.0013 m3/s/m3 (0.1 cubic ft3/min/bu), which requires 120 h of temperatures below the specified threshold to complete an aeration cycle, summer cooling at 23.9 degrees C in bulk-stored wheat could be completed throughout the hard red winter wheat zone except for extreme southern Texas. An early-autumn cooling cycle at 15.6 degrees C could not be completed throughout most of Texas and Oklahoma before the end of September. The late-autumn cooling cycle could be completed in all states except Texas by the end of November. Five geographic regions were delineated and the times required for completion of the summer, early-autumn, and late-autumn cooling cycles within each region were estimated. Population growth of the rusty grain beetle was modeled for San Antonio, TX; Abilene, TX; Tulsa, OK; Topeka KS; and Goodland, KS, by predicting the numbers of adults in the top, outer middle, outer periphery, and the center of the bin during a 1-yr storage season. Populations of C. ferrugineus in San Antonio and Austin were predicted to exceed the Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) threshold of two beetles per kilogram of wheat in all four levels of the bin during late autumn, decline during the winter, and increase the following spring. In Midland, TX, and Oklahoma City, OK, populations were predicted to exceed the threshold only in the top and outer middle of the bin, whereas populations in

  6. Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...

  7. Transcriptome dynamics of a susceptible wheat upon Fusarium head blight reveals that molecular responses to Fusarium graminearum infection fit over the grain development processes.

    PubMed

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lasserre-Zuber, Pauline; Cambon, Florence; Pelletier, Sandra; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Langin, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    In many plant/pathogen interactions, host susceptibility factors are key determinants of disease development promoting pathogen growth and spreading in plant tissues. In the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, the molecular basis of wheat susceptibility is still poorly understood while it could provide new insights into the understanding of the wheat/Fusarium graminearum (Fg) interaction and guide future breeding programs to produce cultivars with sustainable resistance. To identify the wheat grain candidate genes, a genome-wide gene expression profiling was performed in the French susceptible wheat cultivar, Recital. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA of about 40 K transcripts at five grain developmental stages identified 1309 differentially expressed genes. Out of these, 536 were impacted by the Fg effect alone. Most of these Fg-responsive genes belonged to biological and molecular functions related to biotic and abiotic stresses indicating the activation of common stress pathways during susceptibility response of wheat grain to FHB. This analysis revealed also 773 other genes displaying either specific Fg-responsive profiles along with grain development stages or synergistic adjustments with the grain development effect. These genes were involved in various molecular pathways including primary metabolism, cell death, and gene expression reprogramming. An increasingly complex host response was revealed, as was the impact of both Fg infection and grain ontogeny on the transcription of wheat genes. This analysis provides a wealth of candidate genes and pathways involved in susceptibility responses to FHB and depicts new clues to the understanding of the susceptibility determinism in plant/pathogen interactions.

  8. The MS(E)-proteomic analysis of gliadins and glutenins in wheat grain identifies and quantifies proteins associated with celiac disease and baker's asthma.

    PubMed

    Uvackova, Lubica; Skultety, Ludovit; Bekesova, Slavka; McClain, Scott; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-20

    Precise content of gliadin (Glia) and glutenin (Glu) proteins in wheat grain are largely unknown despite their association with celiac disease, various allergies, and physical processing properties of wheat. Developing methods to quantitatively measure clinically relevant proteins could support advancement in understanding exposure thresholds and clinical study design. The aim of this study was to use a data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)) approach for quantifying gliadin and glutenin proteins in wheat grain. The biologically replicated analysis yielded concentrations for 34 gliadin and 22 glutenin proteins. The primary focus of this survey was on measuring celiac disease proteins and baker's asthma associated proteins along with the proteins associated with viscoelastic properties of wheat flour and grain texture. The technical coefficients of variation ranged from 0.12 to 1.39 and indicate that MS(E) proteomics is a reproducible quantitative method for the determination of gliadin and glutenin content in the highly complex matrix of protein extracts from wheat grain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics.

  9. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp. PMID:24941167

  10. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.

  11. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India

    PubMed Central

    Guild, Georgia E.; Stangoulis, James C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644

  12. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India.

    PubMed

    Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644

  13. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India.

    PubMed

    Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program.

  14. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  15. Vertical movement of adult rusty grain beetles, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, in stored corn and wheat at uniform moisture content.

    PubMed

    Jian, Fuji; Jayas, Digvir S; White, Noel D G

    2006-01-01

    Vertical movement and distribution of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) adults in stored wheat and corn were studied in small (0.1 x 0.1 x 1 m) and large (0.6 m diameter and 1.12 m high) columns. The adults were introduced at the top, middle, and bottom of the small columns with a uniform moisture content (wheat: 14.5 +/- 0.1%, corn 13.5 +/- 0.1%, 15.5 +/- 0.1%, and 17.5 +/- 0.1%) at 27.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C. When introduced at different locations, adults showed a similar distribution in stored grain bulk with a uniform temperature and moisture content of 14.5% for wheat or 15.5% for corn. Adults showed downward displacement over 24 h when corn moisture was lower than 15.5%, but they did not show downward displacement when moisture content was 17.5%. The upward or downward movement might partially be caused by a drift effect due to beetles sliding between seeds and the displacement of the adults might be the combined effect of walking and falling during their movement. The hydrophilic behavior plus the drift effect explain why the beetles had a faster downward dispersal in the 13.5% corn than in the 15.5% and 17.5% corn and a slight upward displacement in 17.5% corn because they were more active at the lower moisture contents. Adults had a similar movement and distribution in both the small and large wheat columns.

  16. Association between allelic variation at the Phytoene synthase 1 gene and yellow pigment content in the wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Dubcovsky, J

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of the genetic factors controlling grain yellow pigment content (GYPC) is important for both pasta (high GYPC) and bread wheat (low GYPC) quality improvement. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for GYPC have been mapped repeatedly on the distal regions of chromosome arms 7AL and 7BL in wheat, and the Phytoene synthase 1 (PSY-1) gene located in this region has been proposed as a candidate gene. We show here that PSY-E1, the tall wheatgrass orthologue, is completely linked to differences in GYPC, and that selection for white endosperm mutants in recombinant lines carrying this gene resulted in the identification of a mutation in a conserved amino acid of PSY-E1. These results, together with the association between GYPC and allelic differences in PSY-1 in hexaploid wheat, suggest that this gene plays an important role in the determination of GYPC. However, a second white endosperm mutant previously mapped to chromosome arm 7EL showed no mutations in PSY-E1 suggesting the existence of additional gene(s) affecting GYPC in this chromosome region. This hypothesis was further supported by the mapping of QTL for GYPC on 7AL proximal to PSY-1 in a cross between pasta wheat varieties UC1113 and Kofa. Interestingly, the Kofa PSY-B1 allele showed unusually high levels of polymorphisms as a result of a conversion event involving the PSY-A1 allele. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that allelic differences in PSY-1 and at least one additional gene in the distal region of the long arm of homoeologous group 7L are associated with differences in GYPC. PMID:18193186

  17. Photosynthetic contribution of the ear to grain filling in wheat: a comparison of different methodologies for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P; Araus, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    The culm (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play a major role in providing assimilates for grain filling in wheat. However, the results obtained in the past varied depending on the methodology applied. Three different methodologies were compared that aimed to assess the relative contribution of the culm (photosynthetic organs below the ear) and the ear to grain filling. The first two consisted of applications of photosynthesis inhibition treatments, including the use of the herbicide DCMU and organ shading. The third was a non-intrusive method that compared the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of mature kernels with the δ(13)C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, awns and glumes. Several advanced CIMMYT lines were tested under good agronomic conditions. The δ(13)C approach assigned a higher photosynthetic contribution to the ear than to the culm. However, some methodological considerations should be taken into account when applying the δ(13)C approach, particularly the sampling method used, in order to prevent post-harvest respiration. The shading approach assigned a similar contribution to the ear as to the culm. The DCMU approach assigned a greater role to the culm but herbicide application to the culm affected the ear, thus biasing the final grain weight. Moreover DCMU and shading approaches may cause compensatory effects which overestimated the contribution of unaffected organs. This study may help to develop precise phenotyping tools to identify physiological traits such as ear photosynthesis that could contribute towards increasing grain yield.

  18. Application of ozone for reduction of mycological infection in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Steponavicius, Dainius; Railiene, Marija; Steponaviciene, Ausra; Zvicevicius, Egidijus

    2006-01-01

    In 2004-2005 means were sought to clean grain from microbiological contamination during transportation and storage. For this purpose, grains with a moisture content of 23.2 % of the "Tauras" variety were selected and ventilated daily for 8 hours until grain wetness was reduced to 14.0 %. The effect of ventilation duration and ozone impact was evaluated according to the changes in grain contamination with micromycetes propagules (cfu x g (-1)), and alternation of micromycetes species on the grain surface. At drying grains by active ventilation with an ozone--air mixture, at O (3) concentration of 700 ppb, the drying period was reduced by about 20 %, and mycological contamination depends on initial grain moisture content (w): when w=15.2 %, contamination was reduced by up to 2.2 times, and when w=22.0 %--up to 3 times. At the same time, the composition of micromycetes species on the grain surface changed significantly: in non-ventilated grain there were detected micromycetes of 26 species, and in ventilated grain--of 11 species. Efficient ozone impact was established only when the mound of wet (w>18.0 %) grains was exposed to ozone.

  19. Diverse accumulation and distribution of nutrient elements in developing wheat grain studied by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Andersch, Franka; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Becker, J Sabine

    2013-09-01

    The present study focused on the elemental distribution in the developing wheat grain by using the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging technique. Our studies show that the embryo accumulated high concentrations of nutrient elements, such as Fe, K, Cu, and Zn, while Ca was accumulated in the bran of the wheat grain which might be attributed to its function of structural maintenance. In the endosperm the majority of the nutrients were located in the aleurone layer. Within the grain, the embryo could be considered as a nutrient pool for macro- and micro-elements essential for the development of the seedling. Elemental images showed that considerable amounts of nutrients were stored in the scutellum of the embryo, which might be related to the high gene expression of element transporters in the scutellum. Root primordia and leaf primordia were enriched in particular elements, such as Mn and Zn respectively. In total 34 cross sections were analyzed and used for generation of a sequence of elemental distribution images to demonstrate elemental changes along the perpendicular axis of the wheat grain embryo. Further development of three-dimensional modeling will be combined with physiological studies to better understand the mechanisms of elemental distribution and storage in the wheat grain. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge on improving the nutritional value and agronomic practices.

  20. A wheat ABC transporter contributes to both grain formation and mycotoxin tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi which acts as a disease virulence factor, aiding fungal pathogenesis of cereals spikelets and spread of the economically important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Previously, a fragment of a wheat ABC transporter gene was shown to be...

  1. Multiple view image analysis of freefalling U.S. wheat grains for damage assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, inspection of wheat in the United States for grade and class is performed by human visual analysis. This is a time consuming operation typically taking several minutes for each sample. Digital imaging research has addressed this issue over the past two decades, with success in recognition...

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of starch biosynthesis in the developing grain of hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of genes involved in starch synthesis in wheat was analyzed together with the accumulation profiles of soluble sugars, starch, protein, and starch granule distribution in developing caryopses obtained from the same biological materials used for profiling of gene expression using DN...

  3. Impact of different types of polluted irrigation water on soil fertility and wheat grain yield in clayey black soils of central India.

    PubMed

    Saha, J K; Sharma, A K; Srivastava, Ajay

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out in three different cities of western Madhya Pradesh (India) to investigate the effects of long-term irrigation with industrial waste water (IWW), contaminated groundwater (CGW), and untreated municipal sewage water (USW) on soil fertility as well as on wheat crop yield. Irrigation with these three types of polluted water increased organic matter content as well as contents of available P (with IWW and USW only), available K, available S, available Zn, available Cu (IWW only), and available Mn (IWW and CGW only). The magnitude of improvement in soil fertility status was the highest in the case of USW, followed by IWW and finally, by CGW. Concentrations of Na in wheat leaf tissue increased by 198 and 58% whereas concentrations of Ca decreased significantly by 16 and 13% due to the use of IWW and CGW, respectively, resulting in poor Ca nutrition to the crop. Although wheat grain yield increased considerably due to USW, the same recorded significant decreases with IWW and CGW. In spite of the enhancement in the available nutrient status, decrease in wheat grain yield with the use of IWW and CGW could be due to the build-up of salts in the soil and an imbalance in the Na/Ca ratio in wheat crops irrigated with IWW and CGW. The adverse effect on wheat productivity was more pronounced with IWW as compared to CGW.

  4. Impact of different types of polluted irrigation water on soil fertility and wheat grain yield in clayey black soils of central India.

    PubMed

    Saha, J K; Sharma, A K; Srivastava, Ajay

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out in three different cities of western Madhya Pradesh (India) to investigate the effects of long-term irrigation with industrial waste water (IWW), contaminated groundwater (CGW), and untreated municipal sewage water (USW) on soil fertility as well as on wheat crop yield. Irrigation with these three types of polluted water increased organic matter content as well as contents of available P (with IWW and USW only), available K, available S, available Zn, available Cu (IWW only), and available Mn (IWW and CGW only). The magnitude of improvement in soil fertility status was the highest in the case of USW, followed by IWW and finally, by CGW. Concentrations of Na in wheat leaf tissue increased by 198 and 58% whereas concentrations of Ca decreased significantly by 16 and 13% due to the use of IWW and CGW, respectively, resulting in poor Ca nutrition to the crop. Although wheat grain yield increased considerably due to USW, the same recorded significant decreases with IWW and CGW. In spite of the enhancement in the available nutrient status, decrease in wheat grain yield with the use of IWW and CGW could be due to the build-up of salts in the soil and an imbalance in the Na/Ca ratio in wheat crops irrigated with IWW and CGW. The adverse effect on wheat productivity was more pronounced with IWW as compared to CGW. PMID:24271649

  5. Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions

    PubMed Central

    Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Martre, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently. PMID:23881399

  6. Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Martre, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently.

  7. [Effects of combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus on diurnal variation of photosynthesis at grain-filling stage and grain yield of super high-yielding wheat].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-bo; Lin, Qi; Liu, Yi-guo; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Jian-jun; Zhai, Yan-ju

    2010-10-01

    Taking super high-yielding wheat cultivar Jimai 22 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined application of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on the diurnal variation of photosynthesis at grain-filling stage and the grain yield of the cultivar. In treatments CK (without N and P application) and low N/P application (225 kg N x hm(-2) and 75 kg P x hm(-2)), the diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was presented as double-peak curve, and there existed obvious midday depression of photosynthesis. Under reasonable application of N/P (300 kg N x hm(-2) and 150 kg P x hm(-2), treatment N2P2), the midday depression of photosynthesis weakened or even disappeared. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations could be the causes of the midday depression. Increasing N and P supply increased the Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs), stomatal limitation value (Ls), and transpiration rate (Tr). Fertilizer P had less effects on the photosynthesis, compared with fertilizer N. When the P supply was over 150 kg x hm(-2), the increment of Pn was alleviated and even decreased. Among the fertilization treatments, treatment N2P2 had the highest Pn, Gs, and water use efficiency, being significantly different from CK. It appeared that fertilizer N had greater regulatory effect on the diurnal variation of photosynthesis, compared with fertilizer P, while the combined application of N and P had significant co-effect on the Pn, Gs, and Tr. A combined application of 300 kg N x hm(-2) and 150 kg P x hm(-2) benefited the enhancement of Pn and grain yield.

  8. Wheat genotypic variability in grain yield and carbon isotope discrimination under Mediterranean conditions assessed by spectral reflectance.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Matus, Iván; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Romero-Bravo, Sebastián; Araus, José Luis; del Pozo, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    A collection of 368 advanced lines and cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from Chile, Uruguay, and CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo), with good agronomic characteristics were evaluated under the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile. Three different water regimes were assayed: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed), mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation around booting), and full irrigation (FI; four irrigations: at tillering, flag leaf appearance, heading, and middle grain filling). Traits evaluated were grain yield (GY), agronomical yield components, days from sowing to heading, carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13) C) in kernels, and canopy spectral reflectance. Correlation analyses were performed for 70 spectral reflectance indices (SRI) and the other traits evaluated in the three trials. GY and Δ(13) C were the traits best correlated with SRI, particularly when these indices were measured during grain filling. However, only GY could be predicted using a single regression, with Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI2: 2,200; 1,100) having the best fit to the data for the three trials. For Δ(13) C, only individual regressions could be forecast under FI (r(2): 0.25-0.37) and MWS (r(2): 0.45-0.59) but not under SWS (r(2): 0.03-0.09). NIR-based SRI proved to be better predictors than those that combine visible and NIR wavelengths. PMID:24118723

  9. [Effects of mono- and mixed culture on the grain yield and water use efficiency of two winter wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Li, Feng-min; Xu, Bing-cheng; Ma, Shou-chen; Liu, Wen-zhao

    2008-01-01

    Taking two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Changwu 135 and Pingliang 40 commonly cultivated in the semi-arid area on Loess Plateau as test materials, and by the method of ecological replacement, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of mono- and mixed culture on the grain yield and water use efficiency of the cultivars. The results showed that under mono-culture, Pingliang 40 had a much higher unit area root biomass (367.60 g x m(-2)) than Changwu 135 (297.31 g x m(-2)), and a more uniform root distribution (i.e., a better root type for water absorption), but its grain yield and water use efficiency were lower than Changwu 135. Under mixed culture, the population root biomass of Pingliang 40 and Changwu 135 was 13.36 g * m(-2) and 8.50 g x m(-2) higher than that under mono-culture, respectively, suggesting that mixed population could absorb the water in deeper soil layers, and had higher total unit area biomass, which in turn increased the water use efficiency. Comparing with Pingliang 40, Changwu 135 allocated more dry matter to its productive organ, leading to its higher grain yield, harvest index, and water use efficiency. PMID:18419078

  10. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    PubMed

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types.

  11. Microbial ecology of sourdough fermentations: diverse or uniform?

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, L; Van Kerrebroeck, S; Harth, H; Huys, G; Daniel, H-M; Weckx, S

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough is a specific and stressful ecosystem inhabited by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly heterofermentative lactobacilli. On the basis of their inocula, three types of sourdough fermentation processes can be distinguished, namely backslopped ones, those initiated with starter cultures, and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping. Typical sourdough LAB species are Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Typical sourdough yeast species are Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whereas region specificity is claimed in the case of artisan backslopped sourdoughs, no clear-cut relationship between a typical sourdough and its associated microbiota can be found, as this is dependent on the sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. Both simple and very complex consortia may occur. Moreover, a series of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence the composition of the sourdough microbiota. For instance, an influence of the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (temperature, pH, dough yield, backslopping practices, etc.) occurs. In this way, the presence of Lb. sanfranciscensis during sourdough fermentation depends on specific environmental and technological factors. Also, Triticum durum seems to select for obligately heterofermentative LAB species. Finally, there are indications that the sourdough LAB are of intestinal origin.

  12. Ecological parameters influencing microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-02-01

    The quality of some leavened, sourdough baked goods is not always consistent, unless a well propagated sourdough starter culture is used for the dough fermentation. Among the different types of sourdough used, the traditional sourdough has attracted the interest of researchers, mainly because of its large microbial diversity, especially with respect to lactic acid bacteria. Variation in this diversity and the factors that cause it will impact on quality and is the subject of this review. Sourdough microbial diversity is mainly caused by the following factors: (i) sourdough is obtained through spontaneous, multi-step fermentation; (ii) it is propagated using flour, whose nutrient content may vary according to the batch and to the crop, and which is naturally contaminated by microorganisms; and (iii) it is propagated under peculiar technological parameters, which vary depending on the historical and cultural background and type of baked good. In the population dynamics leading from flour to mature sourdough, lactic acid bacteria (several species of Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., and Weissella sp.) and yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida sp.) outcompete other microbial groups contaminating flour, and interact with each other at different levels. Ecological parameters qualitatively and quantitatively affecting the dominant sourdough microbiota may be classified into specific technological parameters (e.g., percentage of sourdough used as inoculum, time and temperature of fermentation) and parameters that are not fully controlled by those who manage the propagation of sourdough (e.g., chemical, enzyme and microbial composition of flour). Although some sourdoughs have been reported to harbour a persistent dominant microbiota, the stability of sourdough ecosystem during time is debated. Indeed, several factors may interfere with the persistence of species and strains associations that are typical of a given sourdough: metabolic adaptability to the

  13. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    PubMed

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  14. Favorable alleles for stem water-soluble carbohydrates identified by association analysis contribute to grain weight under drought stress conditions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  15. Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

  16. Effect of Fusarium Head Blight on Hard Red Spring Wheat Quality and Correlation with Accumulation of the Toxin Deoxynivalenol in the Grain After Fungicide Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a fungal disease that negatively affects small grains. In wheat this is caused by the pathogen Fusarium graminearum. An important effect of FHB infection is the production of several toxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) also referred to as vomitoxin. The Food and Dr...

  17. Favorable alleles for stem water-soluble carbohydrates identified by association analysis contribute to grain weight under drought stress conditions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat.

  18. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat was evaluated against 11 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grai...

  19. Effects of Wheat and Oat-Based Whole Grain Foods on Serum Lipoprotein Size and Distribution in Overweight Middle Aged People: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Paula; Duthie, Garry; Brittenden, Julie; Vaughan, Nicholas; Mutch, William; Simpson, William G.; Duthie, Susan; Horgan, Graham W.; Thies, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies suggest three daily servings of whole-grain foods (WGF) might lower cardiovascular disease risk, at least partly by lowering serum lipid levels. We have assessed the effects of consuming three daily portions of wholegrain food (provided as wheat or a mixture of wheat and oats) on lipoprotein subclass size and concentration in a dietary randomised controlled trial involving middle aged healthy individuals. Methods After a 4-week run-in period on a refined diet, volunteers were randomly allocated to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 weeks. Our servings were determined in order to significantly increase the intakes of non starch polysaccharides to the UK Dietary Reference Value of 18 g per day in the whole grain groups (18.5 g and 16.8 g per day in the wheat and wheat + oats groups respectively in comparison with 11.3 g per day in the control group). Outcome measures were serum lipoprotein subclasses' size and concentration. Habitual dietary intake was assessed prior and during the intervention. Of the 233 volunteers recruited, 24 withdrew and 3 were excluded. Results At baseline, significant associations were found between lipoprotein size and subclasses' concentrations and some markers of cardiovascular risk such as insulin resistance, blood pressure and serum Inter cellular adhesion molecule 1 concentration. Furthermore, alcohol and vitamin C intake were positively associated with an anti-atherogenic lipoprotein profile, with regards to lipoprotein size and subclasses' distribution. However, none of the interventions with whole grain affected lipoprotein size and profile. Conclusion Our results indicate that three portions of wholegrain foods, irrelevant of the type (wheat or oat-based) do not reduce cardiovascular risk by beneficially altering the size and distribution of lipoprotein subclasses. Trial Registration www.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 27657880. PMID:23940575

  20. Whole Grains and Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... fiber. Some examples of refined grains are wheat flour, enriched bread and white rice. Most refined grains are enriched , which means that ... grains. Some examples of enriched grains are wheat flour, enriched bread and white rice. Eating whole grains provides important health benefits: Many ...

  1. Usability of rapeseed cake and wheat-dried distillers' grains with solubles in the feeding of growing Californian rabbits.

    PubMed

    Strychalski, Janusz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Gugołek, Andrzej; Wyczling, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Tomasz; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    By-products of biofuels production such as rapeseed cake and dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) may constitute valuable feedstuffs for livestock. The objectives of the study were to determine the usability of these components in the feeding of growing rabbits and to assess their impact on physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of the animals. Sixty-four rabbits were divided into four feeding groups: Control (5% soyabean meal [SBM] in the diet), R (5% rapeseed cake [RSC]), DDGS (5% wheat DDGS), and R/DDGS (2.5% RSC and 2.5% wheat DDGS). The study included a production experiment, a digestibility-balance experiment and physiological assessment of the functioning of animals' gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, caecum and colon). No statistically significant differences were determined in production results of the rabbits. Digestibility of nutrients and energy and nitrogen retention were the highest in the Control and the lowest in Group DDGS. Group DDGS was characterised by the highest relative weight of small intestine and digesta. In turn, Group R was characterised by the highest degree of caecal digesta hydration and bulking and by the highest pH value and the lowest concentration of VFA in caecum. The activity of selected bacterial enzymes released to the caecal environment was similar in all groups; however, the activity of α-arabinopyranosidase was significantly increased in Groups R and DDGS. Worthy of notice is the enhanced enzymatic activity of colonic microbiota in the R/DDGS group which has a positive effect upon increased utilisation of dietary nutrients compared to the DDGS group. The obtained results indicate that SBM from rabbit diets may be successfully replaced by 5% RSC as well as by 2.5% RSC + 2.5% wheat DDGS.

  2. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanović, Zeljko

    2012-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management.

  3. Usability of rapeseed cake and wheat-dried distillers' grains with solubles in the feeding of growing Californian rabbits.

    PubMed

    Strychalski, Janusz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Gugołek, Andrzej; Wyczling, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Tomasz; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    By-products of biofuels production such as rapeseed cake and dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) may constitute valuable feedstuffs for livestock. The objectives of the study were to determine the usability of these components in the feeding of growing rabbits and to assess their impact on physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of the animals. Sixty-four rabbits were divided into four feeding groups: Control (5% soyabean meal [SBM] in the diet), R (5% rapeseed cake [RSC]), DDGS (5% wheat DDGS), and R/DDGS (2.5% RSC and 2.5% wheat DDGS). The study included a production experiment, a digestibility-balance experiment and physiological assessment of the functioning of animals' gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, caecum and colon). No statistically significant differences were determined in production results of the rabbits. Digestibility of nutrients and energy and nitrogen retention were the highest in the Control and the lowest in Group DDGS. Group DDGS was characterised by the highest relative weight of small intestine and digesta. In turn, Group R was characterised by the highest degree of caecal digesta hydration and bulking and by the highest pH value and the lowest concentration of VFA in caecum. The activity of selected bacterial enzymes released to the caecal environment was similar in all groups; however, the activity of α-arabinopyranosidase was significantly increased in Groups R and DDGS. Worthy of notice is the enhanced enzymatic activity of colonic microbiota in the R/DDGS group which has a positive effect upon increased utilisation of dietary nutrients compared to the DDGS group. The obtained results indicate that SBM from rabbit diets may be successfully replaced by 5% RSC as well as by 2.5% RSC + 2.5% wheat DDGS. PMID:24870270

  4. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanović, Zeljko

    2012-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

  5. Stable radicals and biochemical compounds in embryos and endosperm of wheat grains differentiating sensitive and tolerant genotypes--EPR and Raman studies.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Magdalena; Dłubacz, Aleksandra; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Filek, Maria; Łabanowska, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover the specific species in grains that might differentiate the wheat genotypes according to their tolerance to oxidative stress. Measurements by EPR and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used to examine whole grains and their parts (embryo, endosperm, seed coat) originating from four wheat genotypes with differing tolerance to drought stress. Raman spectra showed that, in spite of the similar amounts of proteins in whole grains from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, in tolerant ones they were accumulated mainly in embryos. Moreover, in embryos from these grains, a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids was observed. Endosperm of grains from the tolerant genotype, richer with starch than that of sensitive one, exhibited higher content of amylopectin. Detailed analysis of EPR signals and simulation procedures of the spectra allowed the estimation of the nature of interactions of Fe(III) and Mn(II) with organic and inorganic structures of grains and the character of organic stable radicals. Three types of these radicals: carbohydrate, semiquinone and phenoxyl, were identified. The amounts of these radicals were higher in grains of sensitive genotypes, mostly because of differences in carbohydrate radical content in endosperm. Taking into account the level of radical concentration and greater capacity for radical formation in grains from plants of lower tolerance to stress, the content of radicals, especially of a carbohydrate nature, was considered as a marker of the plant resistance to stress conditions.

  6. Characterization of key aroma compounds in distiller's grains from wheat as a basis for utilization in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Roth, M; Meiringer, M; Kollmannsberger, H; Zarnkow, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

    2014-11-12

    The limited use of distiller's grains (DG) in the food industry depends occasionally on the characteristic odor of DG. For a better understanding of this typical odor, a sensory evaluation was performed first. The impressions seasoninglike, roasty/breadlike, and malty/caramellike were revealed as the most intensive odors. Furthermore, analysis of volatile flavor compounds was applied on dried DG from wheat. Isolation was performed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and simultaneous distillation/extraction and identification with gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. As a result, 42 odor-active compounds could be identified in total. Among 24 of the 42 odor-active compounds obtained by SAFE, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoninglike) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor, and 7 compounds (3-methylbutanioc acid, dimethyl trisulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-phenylethanol, 2,6-nonadienal, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone) with a FD factor ≥ 32 were identified as key aroma compounds in DG from wheat.

  7. The impact of the SSIIa null mutations on grain traits and composition in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Botticella, Ermelinda; Sestili, Francesco; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Mantovani, Paola; Cammerata, Alessandro; D’Egidio, Maria Grazia; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Starch represents a major nutrient in the human diet providing essentially a source of energy. More recently the modification of its composition has been associated with new functionalities both at the nutritional and technological level. Targeting the major starch biosynthetic enzymes has been shown to be a valuable strategy to manipulate the amylose-amylopectin ratio in reserve starch. In the present work a breeding strategy aiming to produce a set of SSIIa (starch synthases IIa) null durum wheat is described. We have characterized major traits such as seed weight, total starch, amylose, protein and β-glucan content in a set of mutant families derived from the introgression of the SSIIa null trait into Svevo, an elite Italian durum wheat cultivar. A large degree of variability was detected and used to select wheat lines with either improved quality traits or agronomic performances. Semolina of a set of two SSIIa null lines showed new rheological behavior and an increased content of all major dietary fiber components, namely arabinoxylans, β-glucans and resistant starch. Furthermore the investigation of gene expression highlighted important differences in some genes involved in starch and β-glucans biosynthesis. PMID:27795682

  8. Reduced ozone by air filtration consistently improved grain yield in wheat.

    PubMed

    Pleijel, Håkan

    2011-04-01

    This study considered effects of reduced [O(3)] on wheat yield. Open-top chamber charcoal filtered air treatments were compared with non-filtered treatments for field-grown wheat. 30 experiments meeting requirements were found, representing nine countries in North America, Europe and Asia. 26 experiments reported improved yield and 4 experiments reduced yield by filtration, a significant positive effect. Average yield improvement was 9%. Average daytime [O(3)] was reduced by filtration from 35 to 13 nmol mol(-1). Filtration efficiency was 63% for O(3) and 56% for SO(2). For NO(x) it was observed that NO(2) was reduced and NO increased by filtration. Thus, filters convert NO(2) to NO. Most experiments reported low or very low [SO(2)] and [NO(x)]. Thus, O(3) can be concluded to be the main phytotoxic component in the experiments. Elevated [NO(2)] was observed in one experiment. The conclusion is that current [O(3)] over large parts of the world adversely affect wheat yield.

  9. Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 μg L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults. PMID:27491949

  10. Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 μg L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults.

  11. Photosynthetic contribution of the ear to grain filling in wheat: a comparison of different methodologies for evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Araus, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The culm (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play a major role in providing assimilates for grain filling in wheat. However, the results obtained in the past varied depending on the methodology applied. Three different methodologies were compared that aimed to assess the relative contribution of the culm (photosynthetic organs below the ear) and the ear to grain filling. The first two consisted of applications of photosynthesis inhibition treatments, including the use of the herbicide DCMU and organ shading. The third was a non-intrusive method that compared the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of mature kernels with the δ13C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, awns and glumes. Several advanced CIMMYT lines were tested under good agronomic conditions. The δ13C approach assigned a higher photosynthetic contribution to the ear than to the culm. However, some methodological considerations should be taken into account when applying the δ13C approach, particularly the sampling method used, in order to prevent post-harvest respiration. The shading approach assigned a similar contribution to the ear as to the culm. The DCMU approach assigned a greater role to the culm but herbicide application to the culm affected the ear, thus biasing the final grain weight. Moreover DCMU and shading approaches may cause compensatory effects which overestimated the contribution of unaffected organs. This study may help to develop precise phenotyping tools to identify physiological traits such as ear photosynthesis that could contribute towards increasing grain yield. PMID:27012283

  12. Biodiversity, ecological determinants, and metabolic exploitation of sourdough microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, L; Vrancken, G; Ravyts, F; Rimaux, T; Weckx, S

    2009-10-01

    Sourdough is a microbial ecosystem of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in a matrix of mainly cereal flour and water. Culture-dependent and culture-independent microbiological analysis together with metabolite target analyses of different sourdoughs enabled to understand this complex fermentation process. It is difficult to link the species diversity of the sourdough microbiota with the (geographical) type of sourdough and the flour used, although the type and quality of the latter is the main source of autochthonous LAB in spontaneous sourdough fermentations and plays a key role in establishing stable microbial consortia within a short time. Carbohydrate fermentation targeted towards maltose catabolism, the use of external alternative electron acceptors, amino acid transamination reactions, and/or the arginine deiminase pathway are metabolic activities that favour energy production, cofactor (re)cycling, and/or tolerance towards acid stress, and hence contribute to the competitiveness and dominance of certain species of LAB found in sourdoughs. Also, microbial interactions play an important role. The availability of genome sequences for several LAB species that are of importance in sourdough as well as technological advances in the fields of functional genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics enable new approaches to study sourdough fermentations beyond the single species level and will allow an integral analysis of the metabolic activities and interactions taking place in sourdough. Finally, the implementation of selected starter cultures in sourdough technology is of pivotal importance for the industrial production of sourdoughs to be used as flavour carrier, texture-improving, or health-promoting dough ingredient.

  13. New insights into the structural and spatial variability of cell-wall polysaccharides during wheat grain development, as revealed through MALDI mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rogniaux, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the major components of wheat grain cell walls. Although incompletely described at the molecular level, it is known that the chemical and distributional heterogeneity of these compounds impacts the quality and use of wheat. In this work, an emerging technique based on MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was employed to map variations in the quantity, localization, and structure of these polysaccharides in the endosperm during wheat maturation. MALDI MSI couples detailed structural information with the spatial localization observed at the micrometer scale. The enzymic hydrolysis of AX and BG was performed directly on the grain sections, resulting in the efficient formation of smaller oligosaccharides that are easily measurable through MS, with no relocation across the grain. The relative quantification of the generated oligosaccharides was achieved. The method was validated by confirming data previously obtained using other analytical techniques. Furthermore, in situ analysis of grain cell walls through MSI revealed previously undetectable intense acetylation of AX in young compared to mature grains, together with findings concerning the feruloylation of AX and different structural features of BG. These results provide new insights into the physiological roles of these polysaccharides in cell walls and the specificity of the hydrolytic enzymes involved. PMID:24600018

  14. A multistrategic approach in the development of sourdough bread targeted towards blood pressure reduction.

    PubMed

    Peñas, E; Diana, M; Frias, J; Quílez, J; Martínez-Villaluenga, C

    2015-03-01

    Rising prevalence of hypertension is pushing food industry towards the development of innovative food products with antihypertensive effects. The aim was to study the effect of reduced sodium content and 21% addition of wholemeal wheat sourdough (produced by Lactobacillus brevis CECT 8183 and protease) on proximate composition, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and peptide content of wheat bread. Angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Sodium replacement by potassium salt did not affect chemical composition and biological activities of bread. In contrast, GABA and peptides <3 kDa contents in sourdough bread (SDB) were 7 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the observed in control. ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction < 3 kDa from SDB was 1.7 and 2.6-3.0 times higher than control. Therefore, the combination of reduced sodium content with enriched concentrations of bioactive compounds in bread making may provide interesting perspectives for development of innovative breads towards blood pressure reduction.

  15. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05) during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%). Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05) decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05) increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  16. Can Triticum urartu (Poaceae) be identified by pollen analysis? Implications for detecting the ancestor of the extinct two-grained einkorn-like wheat

    PubMed Central

    López-Merino, Lourdes; Leroy, Suzanne A G; Haldorsen, Sylvi; Heun, Manfred; Reynolds, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of the one-grained einkorn (Triticum monococcum) in the Near East is relatively well known. However, an independent two-grained einkorn-like domestication has been archaeobotanically detected and scarce information is available. Triticum urartu, a wild wheat, was not fully described until the 1970s because the phenology does not allow it to be distinguished easily from wild einkorn (Triticum boeoticum subsp. thaoudar), although a genetic separation exists. Both species are mostly two grained and could potentially be the relatives of the extinct two-grained form. Pollen grains of several genetically well-identified wheat species, including T. urartu and T. boeoticum subsp. thaoudar, were studied by measuring the grain diameter and examining the exine sculpturing with phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to gain an insight into differences enabling taxonomic identification. This work showed that, although T. urartu pollen is smaller on average, grain diameter is not sufficient because of the size overlap between the species, but T. urartu presents a different exine sculpturing (scabrate) from other Triticum spp. (aerolate). This outcome is useful for taxonomists and archaeobotanists. First, it will allow a simple re-classification of herbarium materials. Second, further research could establish whether T. urartu was cultivated. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 177, 278–289. PMID:25821246

  17. Endomembrane proteomics reveals putative enzymes involved in cell wall metabolism in wheat grain outer layers

    PubMed Central

    Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Suliman, Muhtadi; Bouchet, Brigitte; Alvarado, Camille; Lollier, Virginie; Rogniaux, Hélène; Guillon, Fabienne; Larré, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Cereal grain outer layers fulfil essential functions for the developing seed such as supplying energy and providing protection. In the food industry, the grain outer layers called ‘the bran’ is valuable since it is rich in dietary fibre and other beneficial nutriments. The outer layers comprise several tissues with a high content in cell wall material. The cell wall composition of the grain peripheral tissues was investigated with specific probes at a stage of active cell wall synthesis. Considerable wall diversity between cell types was revealed. To identify the cellular machinery involved in cell wall synthesis, a subcellular proteomic approach was used targeting the Golgi apparatus where most cell wall polysaccharides are synthesized. The tissues were dissected into outer pericarp and intermediate layers where 822 and 1304 proteins were identified respectively. Many carbohydrate-active enzymes were revealed: some in the two peripheral grain fractions, others only in one tissue. Several protein families specific to one fraction and with characterized homologs in other species might be related to the specific detection of a polysaccharide in a particular cell layer. This report provides new information on grain cell walls and its biosynthesis in the valuable outer tissues, which are poorly studied so far. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling cell wall composition could help to improve several quality traits of cereal products (e.g. dietary fibre content, biomass conversion to biofuel). PMID:25769308

  18. Effects of different physical forms of wheat grain in corn-based starter on performance of young Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Pezhveh, N; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of partially replacing corn with 2 forms of wheat grain on daily intake of starter feed, average daily gain, feed efficiency, rumen pH, fecal score, weaning weight, skeletal growth, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Thirty-two male and female Holstein dairy calves (n=8 calves per treatment) were used in a completely randomized block design. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly allocated to different treatments consisting of a starter diet with 60% ground corn (control), a starter diet with 60% whole corn, a starter diet with 30% ground corn plus 30% ground wheat (GCGW), and a starter with 30% ground corn plus 30% whole wheat (GCWW), with all other components in a meal form. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk replacer/d from d 3 to 50 and 2 L/d from d 50 to 52; weaning occurred at the end of d 52. Feed intake was recorded daily and body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 10 and every 10 d thereafter. Rumen pH was measured on d 30, 45, and 60. Blood sample were collected on d 30 and every 10 d thereafter through d 70. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Over the experimental period (d 1-70), the starter intake for the GCWW group was significantly different from the control group, but not different from the other groups. Calves fed whole wheat had a significantly greater average daily gain compared with other groups over the experimental period (d 1-70). Feed efficiency was only better in calves fed the GCWW diet than the GCGW group for postweaning and overall periods. No differences were observed for preweaning in body length, hip height, or withers height among the treatments; however, differences were significant in heart girth and body barrel. Postweaning, some of the body measurements were greater in calves fed the GCWW and GCGW starter diets. Blood

  19. [Effects of irrigation using dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus utilization and distribu- tion in soil profile in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui-ying; Feng, Jie; Guo, Hai-gang; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ke-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments of winter wheat-summer maize rotation were conducted in North China Plain irrigation area to explore the effects of wheat season irrigation with dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus uptake, accumulative phosphorus usage efficiency and phosphorus accumulation in soil. The results showed that the irrigation with dairy effluent significantly improved the yields of winter wheat and summer maize. With the increasing of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent into soil, winter wheat yield increased at first and then decreased. When the P2O5 increased 137 kg · hm(-2), winter wheat yield increased to the maximum (7646.4 kg · hm(-2)) and the phosphorus utilization rate was the highest (24.8%). But excessive phosphorus decreased the winter wheat yield and phosphorus utilization efficiency. Summer maize yield and phosphorus uptake increased with the increase of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent. The summer maize yield increased by 2222.4-2628.6 kg · hm(-2) and the phosphorus uptake increased by 13.9-21.1 kg · hm(-2) in contrast to the control (CK). Under conventional phosphorus fertilization at 88 kg · hm(-2), and the summer maize yield increased by 2235.0 kg · hm(-2) compared with CK. As the time of irrigation with dairy effluent increasing, the grain yield increased more significantly. The cumulative phosphorus utilization in this rotation system increased year by year. After six seasons of crop harvest, the cumulative phosphorus utilization rate increased into 40.0%-47.7%. Under the experimental condition, two times of irrigation with the dairy effluents in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system was the best operating mode.

  20. [Effects of irrigation using dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus utilization and distribu- tion in soil profile in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui-ying; Feng, Jie; Guo, Hai-gang; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ke-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments of winter wheat-summer maize rotation were conducted in North China Plain irrigation area to explore the effects of wheat season irrigation with dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus uptake, accumulative phosphorus usage efficiency and phosphorus accumulation in soil. The results showed that the irrigation with dairy effluent significantly improved the yields of winter wheat and summer maize. With the increasing of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent into soil, winter wheat yield increased at first and then decreased. When the P2O5 increased 137 kg · hm(-2), winter wheat yield increased to the maximum (7646.4 kg · hm(-2)) and the phosphorus utilization rate was the highest (24.8%). But excessive phosphorus decreased the winter wheat yield and phosphorus utilization efficiency. Summer maize yield and phosphorus uptake increased with the increase of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent. The summer maize yield increased by 2222.4-2628.6 kg · hm(-2) and the phosphorus uptake increased by 13.9-21.1 kg · hm(-2) in contrast to the control (CK). Under conventional phosphorus fertilization at 88 kg · hm(-2), and the summer maize yield increased by 2235.0 kg · hm(-2) compared with CK. As the time of irrigation with dairy effluent increasing, the grain yield increased more significantly. The cumulative phosphorus utilization in this rotation system increased year by year. After six seasons of crop harvest, the cumulative phosphorus utilization rate increased into 40.0%-47.7%. Under the experimental condition, two times of irrigation with the dairy effluents in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system was the best operating mode. PMID:26685601

  1. Response of winter and spring wheat grain yields to meteorological variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyerherm, A. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Paulsen, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Mathematical models which quantify the relation of wheat yield to selected weather-related variables are presented. Other sources of variation (amount of applied nitrogen, improved varieties, cultural practices) have been incorporated in the models to explain yield variation both singly and in combination with weather-related variables. Separate models were developed for fall-planted (winter) and spring-planted (spring) wheats. Meteorological variation is observed, basically, by daily measurements of minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, and tabled values of solar radiation at the edge of the atmosphere and daylength. Two different soil moisture budgets are suggested to compute simulated values of evapotranspiration; one uses the above-mentioned inputs, the other uses the measured temperatures and precipitation but replaces the tabled values (solar radiation and daylength) by measured solar radiation and satellite-derived multispectral scanner data to estimate leaf area index. Weather-related variables are defined by phenological stages, rather than calendar periods, to make the models more universally applicable.

  2. Genotype × Environment interactions for mineral concentration in grain of organically grown spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotype × environment (G×E) interactions among multiple mineral nutrients are not well understood, particularly in the context of diverse and inherently variable organic farming systems. The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate G×E interactions for grain yield and mineral nutrient con...

  3. Delicious, healthy dishes incorporating whole grain wheat, brown rice and buckwheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing problems with poor dietary habits, especially among the aging population. Increased fiber from foods such as whole grains are beneficial in preventing metabolic disease and in promoting health. However, products derived from whol...

  4. Molecular and genealogical analysis of grain dormancy in Japanese wheat varieties, with specific focus on MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Nakamura, Shingo

    2015-03-01

    In the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Zenkoujikomugi', a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A (MFT-3A) causes an increase in the level of gene expression, resulting in strong grain dormancy. We used a DNA marker to detect the 'Zenkoujikomugi'-type (Zen-type) SNP and examined the genotype of MFT-3A in Japanese wheat varieties, and we found that 169 of 324 varieties carry the Zen-type SNP. In Japanese commercial varieties, the frequency of the Zen-type SNP was remarkably high in the southern part of Japan, but low in the northern part. To examine the relationship between MFT-3A genotype and grain dormancy, we performed a germination assay in three wheat-growing seasons. On average, the varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP showed stronger grain dormancy than the varieties carrying the non-Zen-type SNP. Among commercial cultivars, 'Iwainodaichi' (Kyushu), 'Junreikomugi' (Kinki-Chugoku-Shikoku), 'Kinuhime' (Kanto-Tokai), 'Nebarigoshi' (Tohoku-Hokuriku), and 'Kitamoe' (Hokkaido) showed the strongest grain dormancy in each geographical group, and all these varieties, except for 'Kitamoe', were found to carry the Zen-type SNP. In recent years, the number of varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP has increased in the Tohoku-Hokuriku region, but not in the Hokkaido region.

  5. Molecular and genealogical analysis of grain dormancy in Japanese wheat varieties, with specific focus on MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A

    PubMed Central

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Nakamura, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    In the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘Zenkoujikomugi’, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A (MFT-3A) causes an increase in the level of gene expression, resulting in strong grain dormancy. We used a DNA marker to detect the ‘Zenkoujikomugi’-type (Zen-type) SNP and examined the genotype of MFT-3A in Japanese wheat varieties, and we found that 169 of 324 varieties carry the Zen-type SNP. In Japanese commercial varieties, the frequency of the Zen-type SNP was remarkably high in the southern part of Japan, but low in the northern part. To examine the relationship between MFT-3A genotype and grain dormancy, we performed a germination assay in three wheat-growing seasons. On average, the varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP showed stronger grain dormancy than the varieties carrying the non-Zen-type SNP. Among commercial cultivars, ‘Iwainodaichi’ (Kyushu), ‘Junreikomugi’ (Kinki-Chugoku-Shikoku), ‘Kinuhime’ (Kanto-Tokai), ‘Nebarigoshi’ (Tohoku-Hokuriku), and ‘Kitamoe’ (Hokkaido) showed the strongest grain dormancy in each geographical group, and all these varieties, except for ‘Kitamoe’, were found to carry the Zen-type SNP. In recent years, the number of varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP has increased in the Tohoku-Hokuriku region, but not in the Hokkaido region. PMID:25931984

  6. [Effects of postponing nitrogen application on photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat subjected to water stress after heading stage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-da; Ma, Shou-chen; Yang, Shen-jiao; Zhang, Su-yu; Guan, Xiao-kang; Li, Xue-mei; Wang, Tong-chao; Li, Chun-xi

    2015-11-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of postponing nitrogen (N) application on photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat subjected to water stress after heading stage. Equal in the total N rate in winter wheat growth season, N application was split before sowing, and/or at jointing and /or at anthesis at the ratio of 10:0:0 (N1), 6:4:0 (N2) and 4:3:3 (N3), combined with unfavorable water condition (either waterlogged or drought) with the sufficient water condition as control. The results showed that, under each of the water condition, both N2 and N3 treatments significantly improved the leaf photosynthetic rate and the SPAD value of flag leaf compared with N1 treatment during grain filling stage, and also the crop ear number, grain number per spike and above-ground biomass were increased. Although postponing nitrogen application increased water consumption, both grain yield and water use efficiency were increased. Compared with sufficient water supply, drought stress and waterlogging stress significantly reduced the photosynthetic rate of flag leaves at anthesis and grain filling stages, ear number, 1000-grain mass and yield under all of the N application patterns. The decline of photosynthetic rate under either drought stress or waterlogging stress was much less in N2 and N3 than in N1 treatments, just the same as the grain yield. The results indicated that postponing nitrogen application could regulate winter wheat yield as well as its components to alleviate the damages, caused by unfavorable water stress by increasing flag leaf SPAD and maintaining flag leaf photosynthetic rate after anthesis, and promoting above-ground dry matter accumulation.

  7. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Åman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Bakken, Toril; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Asli, Lene Angell; Sánchez, Soledad; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-05-28

    Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye.

  8. Effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage and grain protein accumulation of dryland wheat and its regulatory effect by nitrogen application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing

    2013-01-01

    To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0-300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60-160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40-160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm(-2), was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat.

  9. Effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage and grain protein accumulation of dryland wheat and its regulatory effect by nitrogen application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing

    2013-01-01

    To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0-300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60-160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40-160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm(-2), was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat. PMID:24098371

  10. Characterization of Ferredoxin-Dependent Glutamine-Oxoglutarate Amidotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) Genes and Their Relationship with Grain Protein Content QTL in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In higher plants, inorganic nitrogen is assimilated via the glutamate synthase cycle or GS-GOGAT pathway. GOGAT enzyme occurs in two distinct forms that use NADH (NADH-GOGAT) or Fd (Fd-GOGAT) as electron carriers. The goal of the present study was to characterize wheat Fd-GOGAT genes and to assess the linkage with grain protein content (GPC), an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. Results We report the complete genomic sequences of the three homoeologous A, B and D Fd-GOGAT genes from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and their localization and characterization. The gene is comprised of 33 exons and 32 introns for all the three homoeologues genes. The three genes show the same exon/intron number and size, with the only exception of a series of indels in intronic regions. The partial sequence of the Fd-GOGAT gene located on A genome was determined in two durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) cvs Ciccio and Svevo, characterized by different grain protein content. Genomic differences allowed the gene mapping in the centromeric region of chromosome 2A. QTL analysis was conducted in the Svevo×Ciccio RIL mapping population, previously evaluated in 5 different environments. The study co-localized the Fd-GOGAT-A gene with the marker GWM-339, identifying a significant major QTL for GPC. Conclusions The wheat Fd-GOGAT genes are highly conserved; both among the three homoeologous hexaploid wheat genes and in comparison with other plants. In durum wheat, an association was shown between the Fd-GOGAT allele of cv Svevo with increasing GPC - potentially useful in breeding programs. PMID:25099972

  11. Carotenoid evolution during short-storage period of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum conv. durum) and tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner) whole-grain flours.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Ortega, Elena; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of storage temperature on carotenoid composition in durum wheat and tritordeum whole-grain flours. For both cereal genotypes, total carotenoid content significantly decreased during storage, following a temperature dependent first-order kinetic model. Individual and total carotenoid content decay were similar for durum wheat, with a maximum at 50 °C at the end of the storage period (94%). In contrast, the evolution of lutein ester fractions in tritordeum showed lower losses than for free lutein (∼ 50%), and consequently the total carotenoid content was less affected (83%). A decrease in the lutein monoesters fraction was observed, coinciding with an increase in the diesterified forms, especially for lutein dilinoleate. These data suggest an esterifying activity in flours different from the enzyme systems operating in vivo (xanthophyll acyl transferase). The formation of lutein diesters, with greater stability, explains the slower carotenoid degradation in tritordeum whole-grain flours.

  12. Molecular survey of Tamyb10-1 genes and their association with grain colour and germinability in Chinese wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhong Dong; Chen, Jie; Li, Ting; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dang Qun

    2015-09-01

    To investigate allelic variation of Myb10-1 genes in Chinese wheat and to examine its association with germination level in wheat, a total of 582 Chinese bread wheat cultivars and 110 Aegilops tauschii accessions were used to identify allelic variations of three Myb10-1 genes. Identification results indicated that there is a novel Tamyb10-B1 allele, designated Tamyb10-B1c, in the five Chinese landraces. The Tamyb10-B1c possibly has a large deletion including Tamyb10-B1 gene. There are three novel Tamyb10-D1 alleles (Aetmyb10-D1c, Aetmyb10-D1d and Aetmyb10-D1e) that were discovered in Aegilops tauschii. Of them, Aetmyb10-D1c allele possessed a 104-bp deletion and this resulted in a frame shift in the open reading frame of the Aetmyb10-D1 gene. AETMYB10-D1d and AETMYB10-D1e proteins possessed three and two different amino acids when compared with TAMYB10-D1b protein, respectively. Association of Tamyb10-1 allelic variation with grain germination level indicated that all five allelic combinations with red grains showed a significantly higher GP (germination percentage) and GI (germination index) values than those of white-grained Tamyb10-A1a/Tamyb10-B1a/Tamyb10-D1a genotype after storing it for one year. Moreover, the Tamyb10-A1b/Tamyb10-B1c/Tamyb10-D1b genotype possesses the significantly highest GP and GI among the six different Tamyb10-1 combinations. This study could provide useful information for wheat breeding programme in terms of grain colour and germination level.

  13. Molecular survey of Tamyb10-1 genes and their association with grain colour and germinability in Chinese wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhong Dong; Chen, Jie; Li, Ting; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dang Qun

    2015-09-01

    To investigate allelic variation of Myb10-1 genes in Chinese wheat and to examine its association with germination level in wheat, a total of 582 Chinese bread wheat cultivars and 110 Aegilops tauschii accessions were used to identify allelic variations of three Myb10-1 genes. Identification results indicated that there is a novel Tamyb10-B1 allele, designated Tamyb10-B1c, in the five Chinese landraces. The Tamyb10-B1c possibly has a large deletion including Tamyb10-B1 gene. There are three novel Tamyb10-D1 alleles (Aetmyb10-D1c, Aetmyb10-D1d and Aetmyb10-D1e) that were discovered in Aegilops tauschii. Of them, Aetmyb10-D1c allele possessed a 104-bp deletion and this resulted in a frame shift in the open reading frame of the Aetmyb10-D1 gene. AETMYB10-D1d and AETMYB10-D1e proteins possessed three and two different amino acids when compared with TAMYB10-D1b protein, respectively. Association of Tamyb10-1 allelic variation with grain germination level indicated that all five allelic combinations with red grains showed a significantly higher GP (germination percentage) and GI (germination index) values than those of white-grained Tamyb10-A1a/Tamyb10-B1a/Tamyb10-D1a genotype after storing it for one year. Moreover, the Tamyb10-A1b/Tamyb10-B1c/Tamyb10-D1b genotype possesses the significantly highest GP and GI among the six different Tamyb10-1 combinations. This study could provide useful information for wheat breeding programme in terms of grain colour and germination level. PMID:26440084

  14. Comparison of Genomic Selection Models to Predict Flowering Time and Spike Grain Number in Two Hexaploid Wheat Doubled Haploid Populations.

    PubMed

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Dolferus, Rudy; Thumma, Bala R

    2015-10-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is becoming an important selection tool in crop breeding. In this study, we compared the ability of different GS models to predict time to young microspore (TYM), a flowering time-related trait, spike grain number under control conditions (SGNC) and spike grain number under osmotic stress conditions (SGNO) in two wheat biparental doubled haploid populations with unrelated parents. Prediction accuracies were compared using BayesB, Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Bayesian LASSO / BL), ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP), partial least square regression (PLS), and sparse partial least square regression (SPLS) models. Prediction accuracy was tested with 10-fold cross-validation within a population and with independent validation in which marker effects from one population were used to predict traits in the other population. High prediction accuracies were obtained for TYM (0.51-0.84), whereas moderate to low accuracies were observed for SGNC (0.10-0.42) and SGNO (0.27-0.46) using cross-validation. Prediction accuracies based on independent validation are generally lower than those based on cross-validation. BayesB and SPLS outperformed all other models in predicting TYM with both cross-validation and independent validation. Although the accuracies of all models are similar in predicting SGNC and SGNO with cross-validation, BayesB and SPLS had the highest accuracy in predicting SGNC with independent validation. In independent validation, accuracies of all the models increased by using only the QTL-linked markers. Results from this study indicate that BayesB and SPLS capture the linkage disequilibrium between markers and traits effectively leading to higher accuracies. Excluding markers from QTL studies reduces prediction accuracies. PMID:26206349

  15. Assessment of the AquaCrop model for use in simulation of irrigated winter wheat canopy cover, biomass, and grain yield in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiu-liang; Feng, Hai-kuan; Zhu, Xin-kai; Li, Zhen-hai; Song, Sen-nan; Song, Xiao-yu; Yang, Gui-Jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Guo, Wen-shan

    2014-01-01

    Improving winter wheat water use efficiency in the North China Plain (NCP), China is essential in light of current irrigation water shortages. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to calibrate, and validate winter wheat crop performance under various planting dates and irrigation application rates. All experiments were conducted at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during seasons of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This model was first calibrated using data from 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and subsequently validated using data from 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results showed that the simulated canopy cover (CC), biomass yield (BY) and grain yield (GY) were consistent with the measured CC, BY and GY, with corresponding coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.93, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. In addition, relationships between BY, GY and transpiration (T), (R(2) = 0.57 and 0.71, respectively) was observed. These results suggest that frequent irrigation with a small amount of water significantly improved BY and GY. Collectively, these results indicate that the AquaCrop model can be used in the evaluation of various winter wheat irrigation strategies. The AquaCrop model predicted winter wheat CC, BY and GY with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, we concluded that AquaCrop is a useful decision-making tool for use in efforts to optimize wheat winter planting dates, and irrigation strategies.

  16. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping