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Sample records for gram vigna mungo

  1. Microwave assisted dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    PubMed

    Joyner, J Jerish; Yadav, B K

    2015-04-01

    This article summarises the results of the investigation of application of microwave exposure on the dehulling characteristics of the black gram and the properties of the dehulled grains. Black gram was exposed to 3 microwave power levels, viz., 450, 630 and 810 W for 7 different exposure, ranging from 60 to 150 s at an interval of 15 s with a view to determine the suitable combination of dosage in order to get the maximum yield with little change in colour. Related changes in properties were also studied. It was observed that the surface temperature of the grain increased with the increase in microwave power level from 450 to 810 W as well as exposure time from 60 to 150 s in the range from 58 to 123 °C while the dehulling time reduced from 445 to 170 s. The dehulling yield increased with increasing microwave dosage in the beginning and reached to the maximum value followed by decreasing trend. The colour of the dehulled grain changed slowly up to a microwave dosage of 972 J/g after that it changed vividly darker than the control. The dehulling and dhal yields and colour change were polynomial functions of microwave dosage. The highest yield of 73.7 % was achieved at about 972 J/g with a little change in colour (CIELAB ΔE* value of 2.58). The corresponding dehulling time, cooking time and losses during dehulling were respectively 185 s, 10 min and 15.1 % as compared to 492 s, 20 min and 31.5 % for control respectively. It is concluded that a dosage of about 972 J/g was the best for the black gram dehulling at a rate of 630 W or higher power level.

  2. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  3. Occurrence of a Lysogenic Streptomyces sp. on the Nodule Surface of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, M.; Ravindran, A. David; Hariharan, K.

    1984-01-01

    A lysogenic Streptomyces sp., strain NS.A4, which was isolated from the nodule surface of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), was found to inhibit rhizobia of fast-and slow-growing strains of cowpeas and soybeans. It exhibited plaques when there was a change in cultural conditions. Repeated culturing of the organism in nutrient agar and broth confirmed the infection of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 by an actinophage. Addition of the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 to shaken broth cultures of three other Streptomyces spp. resulted in phage infection. PMID:16346593

  4. Occurrence of a Lysogenic Streptomyces sp. on the Nodule Surface of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, M; Ravindran, A D; Hariharan, K

    1984-07-01

    A lysogenic Streptomyces sp., strain NS.A4, which was isolated from the nodule surface of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), was found to inhibit rhizobia of fast-and slow-growing strains of cowpeas and soybeans. It exhibited plaques when there was a change in cultural conditions. Repeated culturing of the organism in nutrient agar and broth confirmed the infection of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 by an actinophage. Addition of the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 to shaken broth cultures of three other Streptomyces spp. resulted in phage infection.

  5. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean.

  6. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean. PMID:26069442

  7. Construction of a genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, based on molecular markers and comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Souframanien, J; Gopalakrishna, T

    2008-08-01

    A genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, was constructed with 428 molecular markers using an F9 recombinant inbred population of 104 individuals. The population was derived from an inter-subspecific cross between a black gram cultivar, TU94-2, and a wild genotype, V. mungo var. silvestris. The linkage analysis at a LOD score of 5.0 distributed all 428 markers (254 AFLP, 47 SSR, 86 RAPD, and 41 ISSR) into 11 linkage groups. The map spanned a total distance of 865.1 cM with an average marker density of 2 cM. The largest linkage group spanned 115 cM and the smallest linkage group was of 44.9 cM. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 11 to 86 and the average distance between markers varied from 1.1 to 5.6 cM. Comparison of the map with other published azuki bean and black gram maps showed high colinearity of markers, with some inversions. The current map is the most saturated map for black gram to date and will provide a useful tool for identification of QTLs and for marker-assisted selection of agronomically important characters in black gram.

  8. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    PubMed

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop.

  9. The in vivo synthesis and accumulation of lectin in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Suseelan, K N; Mitra, R; Bhatia, C R; Gopalakrishna, T

    2004-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) seed contains two D-galactose-specific lectin species, BGL-I and BGL-II, identified on the basis of elution from ion exchange column and immunochemical cross-reactivity. BGL-I consisted of two monomeric lectins, BGL-I-1 and BGL-1-2, of relative molecular weights 94 and 89 kDa, respectively. BGL-II is another monomeric lectin with a molecular weight of 83 kDa. The in vivo synthesis studies using pulse-chase experiment showed that BGL-II lectin was synthesized as early as 14 days after flowering (DAF). The 94-kDa BGL-I-1 lectin was synthesized around 17 DAF. There was no cotranslational or posttranslational modification of the lectin proteins. The amount of lectin in developing seeds was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay technique. The maximum amount of lectin per seed was found at 28 DAF.

  10. Purification and characterization of a Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo).

    PubMed

    Prasad, E R; Dutta-Gupta, A; Padmasree, K

    2010-03-01

    A proteinase inhibitor (BgPI) was purified from black gram, Vigna mungo (cv. TAU-1) seeds by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by ion-exchange, affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. BgPI showed a single band in SDS-PAGE under non-reducing condition with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 8kDa correlating to the peak 8041.5Da in matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum. BgPI existed in different isoinhibitor forms with pI values ranging from 4.3 to 6.0. The internal sequence "SIPPQCHCADIR" of a peak 1453.7 m/z, obtained from MALDI-TOF-TOF showed 100% similarity with Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) family. BgPI exhibited non-competitive-type inhibitory activity against both bovine pancreatic trypsin (K(i) of 309.8nM) and chymotrypsin (K(i) of 10.7muM), however, with a molar ratio of 1:2 with trypsin. BgPI was stable up to a temperature of 80 degrees C and active over a wide pH range between 2 and 12. The temperature-induced conformational changes in secondary structure are reversed when BgPI was cooled from 90 to 25 degrees C. Further, upon reduction with dithiothreitol, BgPI lost both its inhibitory activity as well as secondary structural conformation. Lysine residue(s) present in the reactive site of BgPI play an important role in inhibiting the bovine trypsin activity. The present study provides detailed biochemical characteristic features of a BBI type serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from V. mungo.

  11. Tannin contents and protein digestibility of black grams (Vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ur-rehman; Shah, W H

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to ascertain the effects of soaking black grams (Cultivar AARI-5732) in different salt solutions at different temperatures and different time periods, and different methods of cooking on the tannin content and protein digestibility. Tannin content of black grams was reduced to various extents by soaking at 30 degrees and 100 degrees C for different time periods. However, soaking at 100 degrees C increased the rate of extraction and reduced the extraction time of tannins. Soaking black grams in water at 100 degrees C reduced tannins by 22.14% in 45 minutes whereas about 2.5 times more tannin was reduced after soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution with or without sodium chloride. Maximum improvement in protein digestibility was also observed after soaking black grams in sodium bicarbonate solution. Tannin contents were further reduced along with improvement in protein digestibility as a result of cooking.

  12. Estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in black gram (Vigna mungo L.) by gas liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Kousik; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-01-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide is used for post emergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the harvest time residues of quizalofop ethyl in black gram for two seasons. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on black gram seed, foliage and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following a single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods. Application of the herbicide is quite safe from a consumer and environmental point of view.

  13. Temperature Effect on Morphobiochemical Characters in Some Black Gram (Vigna mungo) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dash, Manasi; Shree, Dhara

    2013-01-01

    Lack of suitable varieties and genotypes of black gram with adaptation to local conditions is among the factors affecting its production. Efforts to genetically improve the crop mostly involve identifying important morphological descriptors followed by development of advanced breeding lines for locale-specific cultivars. The present day available black gram varieties have not been properly characterized for their thermo sensitiveness with respect to morphological and biochemical characters. Hence efforts were taken in the present research to study the effect of the temperature on these characters in seven black gram varieties over different development stages. We aimed at studying the effect of 3 temperature regimes for identifying suitable stress tolerant genotypes. High percent germination (87.2%), root length (3.68 cm), carbohydrate content (3.72 mg g(-1) fresh tissue) among the genotypes was highest at 10°C-20°C temperature. High shoot length (13.39 cm), free amino acid content (3.73 mg g(-1) fresh tissue), and protein content (9.54 mg g(-1) fresh tissue) was found to be present when the genotypes were exposed to 20°C-30°C temperature. The black gram varieties J.L and PDU-1 performed best in all the temperature regimes over characters. Thus suitable varieties for all temperature regimes were identified using biochemical analysis.

  14. Temperature Effect on Morphobiochemical Characters in Some Black Gram (Vigna mungo) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Manasi; Shree, Dhara

    2013-01-01

    Lack of suitable varieties and genotypes of black gram with adaptation to local conditions is among the factors affecting its production. Efforts to genetically improve the crop mostly involve identifying important morphological descriptors followed by development of advanced breeding lines for locale-specific cultivars. The present day available black gram varieties have not been properly characterized for their thermo sensitiveness with respect to morphological and biochemical characters. Hence efforts were taken in the present research to study the effect of the temperature on these characters in seven black gram varieties over different development stages. We aimed at studying the effect of 3 temperature regimes for identifying suitable stress tolerant genotypes. High percent germination (87.2%), root length (3.68 cm), carbohydrate content (3.72 mg g−1 fresh tissue) among the genotypes was highest at 10°C–20°C temperature. High shoot length (13.39 cm), free amino acid content (3.73 mg g−1 fresh tissue), and protein content (9.54 mg g−1 fresh tissue) was found to be present when the genotypes were exposed to 20°C–30°C temperature. The black gram varieties J.L and PDU-1 performed best in all the temperature regimes over characters. Thus suitable varieties for all temperature regimes were identified using biochemical analysis. PMID:25969785

  15. Oligosaccharins of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) as affected by processing methods.

    PubMed

    Girigowda, K; Prashanth, S J; Mulimani, V H

    2005-12-01

    The oligosaccharide content was determined in 12 different cultivars of black gram. The effect of various treatments such as soaking, cooking, and enzyme treatment on the raffinose family oligosaccharides of dry seeds and flour was studied. Ajugose, a higher oligosaccharide (DP 6) found in trace quantities in seeds, was shown in black gram by HPLC. The percent reduction of raffinose, stachyose, verbascose, and ajugose after soaking for 16 hr was 41.66%, 47.61%, 28.48%, and 26.82%, respectively in Local-I variety and 43.75%, 20.58%, 23.60%, and 15.88%, respectively in Local-II variety. Cooking for 60 min resulted in decrease of 100% for raffinose, 76.19% for stachyose, 36.39% for verbascose, and 60.97% for ajugose in Local-I variety and 100% for raffinose, 55.88% for stachyose, 48.52% for verbascose, and 56.07% for ajugose in Local-II variety. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of 3 hr enzyme-treated samples revealed almost complete hydrolysis of raffinose family of oligosaccharides. Among the different methods employed, enzyme treatment was found to be the most effective for removing alpha-galactosides in black gram.

  16. Gamma-rays and EMS induced pentaphyllous mutant in black gram (Vigna mungo).

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S; Prakash, D

    1988-01-01

    Pentaphyllous mutants in black gram were isolated in M2 generation of a segregating family, irradiated at 20 kR. The genetic nature of mutants was tested by hybridizing with controls, and chi-square tests applied to the F2 population, proved it to be a monogenic recessive. The pentaphyllous mutant had a greater number of pods and leaves per plant and larger and more root nodules. It also showed improved nutritional value with increased seed protein percentage and no increase in TIA (trypsin inhibitor activity).

  17. Optimization of continuous hydrothermal treatment for improving the dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    PubMed

    Jerish Joyner, J; Yadav, B K

    2015-12-01

    Black gram kernels with three initial moisture contents (10, 14 & 18 % w.b.) were steam treated in a continuous steaming unit at three inlet steam pressures (2, 3 & 4 kg/cm(2)) for three grain residence times (2, 4 & 6 min) in order to determine best treatment condition for maximizing the dhal yield while limiting the colour change in acceptable range. The dhal yield, dehulling loss and the colour difference (Delta E*) of the dehulled dhal were found to vary respectively, from 56.4 to 78.8 %, 30.8 to 8.6 % and 2.1 to 9.5 with increased severity of treatment. Optimization was done in order to obtain higher dhal yield while limiting the colour difference (Delta E*) within acceptable range i.e. 2.0 to 3.5 using response surface methodology. The best condition was obtained with the samples having 13.1 % initial moisture treated with 4 kg/cm(2) for about 6 min to achieve a dhal yield of 71.2 % and dehulling loss of 15.5 %. PMID:26604354

  18. Optimization of continuous hydrothermal treatment for improving the dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    PubMed

    Jerish Joyner, J; Yadav, B K

    2015-12-01

    Black gram kernels with three initial moisture contents (10, 14 & 18 % w.b.) were steam treated in a continuous steaming unit at three inlet steam pressures (2, 3 & 4 kg/cm(2)) for three grain residence times (2, 4 & 6 min) in order to determine best treatment condition for maximizing the dhal yield while limiting the colour change in acceptable range. The dhal yield, dehulling loss and the colour difference (Delta E*) of the dehulled dhal were found to vary respectively, from 56.4 to 78.8 %, 30.8 to 8.6 % and 2.1 to 9.5 with increased severity of treatment. Optimization was done in order to obtain higher dhal yield while limiting the colour difference (Delta E*) within acceptable range i.e. 2.0 to 3.5 using response surface methodology. The best condition was obtained with the samples having 13.1 % initial moisture treated with 4 kg/cm(2) for about 6 min to achieve a dhal yield of 71.2 % and dehulling loss of 15.5 %.

  19. Changes in hydraulic conductance cause the difference in growth response to short-term salt stress between salt-tolerant and -sensitive black gram (Vigna mungo) varieties.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Hirasawa, Tadashii

    2016-04-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important crop in Asia, However, most black gram varieties are salt-sensitive. The causes of varietal differences in salt-induced growth reduction between two black gram varieties, 'U-Taung-2' (salt-tolerant; BT) and 'Mut Pe Khaing To' (salt-sensitive; BS), were examined the potential for the first step toward the genetic improvement of salt tolerance. Seedlings grown in vermiculite irrigated with full-strength Hoagland solution were treated with 0mM NaCl (control) or 225 mM NaCl for up to 10 days. In the 225 mM NaCl treatment, plant growth rate, net assimilation rate, mean leaf area, leaf water potential, and leaf photosynthesis were reduced more in BS than in BT plants. Leaf water potential was closely related to leaf photosynthesis, net assimilation rate, and increase in leaf area. In response to salinity stress, hydraulic conductance of the root, stem, and petiole decreased more strongly in BS than in BT plants. The reduction in stem and petiole hydraulic conductance was caused by cavitation, whereas the reduction in root hydraulic conductance in BS plants was caused by a reduction in root surface area and hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that the different reduction in hydraulic conductance is a cause of the differences in the growth response between the two black gram varieties under short-term salt stress.

  20. Changes in hydraulic conductance cause the difference in growth response to short-term salt stress between salt-tolerant and -sensitive black gram (Vigna mungo) varieties.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Hirasawa, Tadashii

    2016-04-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important crop in Asia, However, most black gram varieties are salt-sensitive. The causes of varietal differences in salt-induced growth reduction between two black gram varieties, 'U-Taung-2' (salt-tolerant; BT) and 'Mut Pe Khaing To' (salt-sensitive; BS), were examined the potential for the first step toward the genetic improvement of salt tolerance. Seedlings grown in vermiculite irrigated with full-strength Hoagland solution were treated with 0mM NaCl (control) or 225 mM NaCl for up to 10 days. In the 225 mM NaCl treatment, plant growth rate, net assimilation rate, mean leaf area, leaf water potential, and leaf photosynthesis were reduced more in BS than in BT plants. Leaf water potential was closely related to leaf photosynthesis, net assimilation rate, and increase in leaf area. In response to salinity stress, hydraulic conductance of the root, stem, and petiole decreased more strongly in BS than in BT plants. The reduction in stem and petiole hydraulic conductance was caused by cavitation, whereas the reduction in root hydraulic conductance in BS plants was caused by a reduction in root surface area and hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that the different reduction in hydraulic conductance is a cause of the differences in the growth response between the two black gram varieties under short-term salt stress. PMID:26962708

  1. Fluctuations in peroxidase and catalase activities of resistant and susceptible black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes elicited by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) feeding

    PubMed Central

    Taggar, Gaurav Kumar; Gill, Ranjit Singh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Sandhu, Jeet Singh

    2012-01-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleryrodidae), is a serious pest of black gram, (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important legume pulse crop grown in north India. This research investigated the potential role of selected plant oxidative enzymes in resistance/susceptibility to whitefly in nine black gram genotypes. Oxidative enzyme activity was estimated spectrophotometrically from leaf samples collected at 30 and 50 d after sowing (DAS) from whitefly infested and uninfested plants. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The results indicated that in general, whitefly infestation increased the activities of peroxidase and decreased the catalase activity. Resistant genotypes NDU 5-7 and KU 99-20 recorded higher peroxidase and catalase activities at 30 and 50 DAS under whitefly-stress conditions as compared with non-stressed plants. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of black gram plants against B. tabaci infestation. The potential mechanisms to explain the correlation of resistance to whitefly in black gram genotypes with higher activities of oxidative enzymes are also discussed. PMID:22902801

  2. Fluctuations in peroxidase and catalase activities of resistant and susceptible black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes elicited by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) feeding.

    PubMed

    Taggar, Gaurav Kumar; Gill, Ranjit Singh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Sandhu, Jeet Singh

    2012-10-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleryrodidae), is a serious pest of black gram, (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important legume pulse crop grown in north India. This research investigated the potential role of selected plant oxidative enzymes in resistance/susceptibility to whitefly in nine black gram genotypes. Oxidative enzyme activity was estimated spectrophotometrically from leaf samples collected at 30 and 50 d after sowing (DAS) from whitefly infested and uninfested plants. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The results indicated that in general, whitefly infestation increased the activities of peroxidase and decreased the catalase activity. Resistant genotypes NDU 5-7 and KU 99-20 recorded higher peroxidase and catalase activities at 30 and 50 DAS under whitefly-stress conditions as compared with non-stressed plants. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of black gram plants against B. tabaci infestation. The potential mechanisms to explain the correlation of resistance to whitefly in black gram genotypes with higher activities of oxidative enzymes are also discussed.

  3. Allergic manifestation by black gram (Vigna mungo) proteins in allergic patients, BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Roy, Ruchi; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of black gram (Vigna mungo) induced allergic reactions are reported from several parts of the world including Asia and Australia. But, a thorough exploration of the allergic reactions induced by black gram proteins is still lacking. Therefore, efforts have been made to explore black gram allergy using in vivo and in vitro approaches. In this study, Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) assay and IgE immunoblotting were carried out to identify clinically relevant allergens of black gram. BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells were used for elucidation of allergenic reactions of black gram proteins. Further, this study was extended to screen black gram sensitive patients among nasobronchial allergic patients on the basis of clinical history, skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE levels and IgE immunoblotting. Enhanced levels of specific IgE, IgG1/IgG2a (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), clinical symptoms, pathological indications in the lungs, intestine and spleen were evident in black gram sensitized BALB/c mice. Moreover, the expression of Th2 cytokine transcripts and GATA-3/T-bet ratio was found enhanced in the treated group. In vitro studies on RBL-2H3 cells,showed increased release of β-hexosaminidase (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), cysteinyl leukotriene (p<0.05) and prostaglandin D2 (p < 0.05). Further, 8.5% of screened patients were found allergic to black gram and concomitant sensitization with other allergens has shown the possibility of further enhancement in allergenic problem. Conclusively, the present study suggested that black gram consumption may be responsible for inducing immediate type of allergic sensitization in susceptible subjects.

  4. A monomeric protein with hemagglutinating activity from seeds of Vigna mungo (Phaseolus mungo).

    PubMed

    Singh, S S; Rao, S L

    1991-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are shown to contain a lectin with certain unusual features. The lectin agglutinates only trypsinized red cells, and its sugar specificity is complex as none of the common sugars, oligosaccharides or complex polysaccharides exhibit any affinity for the lectin. The purified lectin has a molecular weight of 58 kDa and is a monomer. Unlike other plant lectins, antibodies to the P. mungo lectin do not exhibit any immunological cross reactivity. The clot forming ability of the lectin is unusual in that the clot once formed is rapidly disaggregated indicated that it induces, as yet undefined, certain membrane alterations.

  5. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  6. Protection of DNA and erythrocytes from free radical induced oxidative damage by black gram (Vigna mungo L.) husk extract.

    PubMed

    Girish, Talakatta K; Vasudevaraju, Padmaraju; Prasada Rao, Ummiti J S

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidants present in various plant tissues exhibit health benefits by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated under various pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, bioactive compounds from black gram husk were extracted with water and the protection of black gram husk (BGH) extract against oxidative damage in DNA and erythrocytes were studied. BGH extract had total polyphenol content of 59 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The phenolic acids identified in the extract using RP-HPLC were gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and ferulic acids. The extract showed good antioxidant properties. The IC(50) value for DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 3.92 μg of GAE. The BGH extract also showed α-glucosidase inhibition and the IC(50) value was found to be 2.78 μg of GAE. The oxidative hemolysis caused by hydrogen peroxide in rat erythrocytes was inhibited by BGH extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) values for BGH extract and BHA for hemolysis were 11.5 and 14 μg of GAE, respectively. Morphological changes in erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by BGH extract. As BGH extract exhibited various antioxidant properties in different systems, it could be used as a functional food or nutraceutical product for health benefits.

  7. De novo Assembly, Characterization of Immature Seed Transcriptome and Development of Genic-SSR Markers in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    PubMed Central

    Souframanien, J.; Reddy, Kandali Sreenivasulu

    2015-01-01

    Black gram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] is an important legume crop extensively grown in south and south-east Asia, where it is a major source of dietary protein for its predominantly vegetarian population. However, lack of genomic information and markers has become a limitation for genetic improvement of this crop. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the immature seeds of black gram cv. TU94-2, by Illumina paired end sequencing technology to generate transcriptome sequences for gene discovery and genic-SSR marker development. A total of 17.2 million paired-end reads were generated and 48,291 transcript contigs (TCS) were assembled with an average length of 443 bp. Based on sequence similarity search, 33,766 TCS showed significant similarity to known proteins. Among these, only 29,564 TCS were annotated with gene ontology (GO) functional categories. A total number of 138 unique KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways were identified, of which majority of TCS are grouped into purine metabolism (678) followed by pyrimidine metabolism (263). A total of 48,291 TCS were searched for SSRs and 1,840 SSRs were identified in 1,572 TCS with an average frequency of one SSR per 11.9 kb. The tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (35%) followed by di-nucleotide repeats (32%). PCR primer pairs were successfully designed for 933 SSR loci. Sequences analyses indicate that about 64.4% and 35.6% of the SSR motifs were present in the coding sequences (CDS) and untranslated regions (UTRs) respectively. Tri-nucleotide repeats (57.3%) were preferentially present in the CDS. The rate of successful amplification and polymorphism were investigated using selected primers among 18 black gram accessions. Genic-SSR markers developed from the Illumina paired end sequencing of black gram immature seed transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for genetic diversity, evolution, linkage mapping, comparative genomics and marker-assisted selection in black gram. PMID

  8. De novo Assembly, Characterization of Immature Seed Transcriptome and Development of Genic-SSR Markers in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper].

    PubMed

    Souframanien, J; Reddy, Kandali Sreenivasulu

    2015-01-01

    Black gram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] is an important legume crop extensively grown in south and south-east Asia, where it is a major source of dietary protein for its predominantly vegetarian population. However, lack of genomic information and markers has become a limitation for genetic improvement of this crop. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the immature seeds of black gram cv. TU94-2, by Illumina paired end sequencing technology to generate transcriptome sequences for gene discovery and genic-SSR marker development. A total of 17.2 million paired-end reads were generated and 48,291 transcript contigs (TCS) were assembled with an average length of 443 bp. Based on sequence similarity search, 33,766 TCS showed significant similarity to known proteins. Among these, only 29,564 TCS were annotated with gene ontology (GO) functional categories. A total number of 138 unique KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways were identified, of which majority of TCS are grouped into purine metabolism (678) followed by pyrimidine metabolism (263). A total of 48,291 TCS were searched for SSRs and 1,840 SSRs were identified in 1,572 TCS with an average frequency of one SSR per 11.9 kb. The tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (35%) followed by di-nucleotide repeats (32%). PCR primer pairs were successfully designed for 933 SSR loci. Sequences analyses indicate that about 64.4% and 35.6% of the SSR motifs were present in the coding sequences (CDS) and untranslated regions (UTRs) respectively. Tri-nucleotide repeats (57.3%) were preferentially present in the CDS. The rate of successful amplification and polymorphism were investigated using selected primers among 18 black gram accessions. Genic-SSR markers developed from the Illumina paired end sequencing of black gram immature seed transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for genetic diversity, evolution, linkage mapping, comparative genomics and marker-assisted selection in black gram.

  9. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, A S; Sarma, K S; Veluthambi, K

    1996-01-01

    Transformed Vigna mungo (blackgram) calli were obtained by cocultivating segments of primary leaves with Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir helper strains harbouring the binary vector pGA472 having kanamycin resistance gene as plant transformation marker. Transformed calli were selected on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 50 mg/l kanamycin and 500 mg/l carbenicillin. Transformed calli were found to be resistant to kanamycin up to 900 mg/l concentration. Expression of kanamycin resistance gene in transformed calli was demonstrated by neomycin phosphotransferase assay. Stable integration of transferred DNA into V. mungo genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.

  10. Trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors from Vigna mungo seeds.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Allen H K; Wong, Jack H; Ng, T B

    2009-01-01

    Three trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were isolated from seeds of the black gram (Vigna mungo) with a procedure that entailed cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Mono Q and Mono S, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. Two of the trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were adsorbed on the first four types of chromatographic media. All three inhibitors have a molecular mass of 16 kDa as judged by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The trypsin inhibitory activity of the inhibitors was attenuated in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. The remaining inhibitor was unadsorbed on SP-Sepharose but adsorbed on Q-Sepharose, Mono Q and Mono S. The protease inhibitors did not exert any inhibitory effect on hepatoma (Hep G2) and breast cancer (MCF 7) cells or antifungal action toward Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Two of the inhibitors slightly inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, with an IC50 in the millimolar range.

  11. Isolation and structural analysis of ajugose from Vigna mungo L.

    PubMed

    Kotiguda, Girigowda; Peterbauer, Thomas; Mulimani, Veerappa H

    2006-09-01

    The hexasaccharide ajugose, alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1<-->2)-beta-D-fructofuranoside, generally uncommon in legumes, was detected in the seeds of Vigna mungo L. by TLC and paper chromatography. Ajugose was then isolated by silica gel chromatography and its structure was established by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and both one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR techniques.

  12. Biosynthesis of α-Amylase in Vigna mungo Cotyledon 1

    PubMed Central

    Tomura, Hideaki; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    1985-01-01

    In vitro translation of RNA extracted from Vigna mungo cotyledons showed that α-amylase is synthesized as a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 45,000, while cotyledons contain a form of α-amylase with a molecular mass of 43,000. To find out whether the 45,000 molecular mass polypeptide is a precursor to the 43,000 found in vivo, the cell free translation systems were supplemented with canine microsomal membrane; when mRNA was translated in the wheat germ system supplemented with canine microsomes, the 45,000 molecular mass form was not processed to a smaller form but the precursor form was partly processed in the membrane-supplemented reticulocyte lysate system. When V. mungo RNA was translated in Xenopus oocyte system, only the smaller form (molecular mass 43,000) was detected. Involvement of contranslational glycosylation in the maturating process of the α-amylase was ruled out because there was no effect of tunicamycin, and the polypeptide was resistant to endo-β-H or endo-β-D digestion. We interpret these results to mean that the 45,000 molecular mass form is a precursor with a signal peptide or transit sequence, and that the 43,000 molecular mass is the mature form of the protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16664549

  13. Biosynthesis of alpha-Amylase in Vigna mungo Cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Tomura, H; Koshiba, T

    1985-12-01

    In vitro translation of RNA extracted from Vigna mungo cotyledons showed that alpha-amylase is synthesized as a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 45,000, while cotyledons contain a form of alpha-amylase with a molecular mass of 43,000. To find out whether the 45,000 molecular mass polypeptide is a precursor to the 43,000 found in vivo, the cell free translation systems were supplemented with canine microsomal membrane; when mRNA was translated in the wheat germ system supplemented with canine microsomes, the 45,000 molecular mass form was not processed to a smaller form but the precursor form was partly processed in the membrane-supplemented reticulocyte lysate system. When V. mungo RNA was translated in Xenopus oocyte system, only the smaller form (molecular mass 43,000) was detected. Involvement of contranslational glycosylation in the maturating process of the alpha-amylase was ruled out because there was no effect of tunicamycin, and the polypeptide was resistant to endo-beta-H or endo-beta-D digestion. We interpret these results to mean that the 45,000 molecular mass form is a precursor with a signal peptide or transit sequence, and that the 43,000 molecular mass is the mature form of the protein.

  14. Characterization of seed storage proteins of urdbean (Vigna mungo).

    PubMed

    Mahajan, R; Malhotra, S P; Singh, R

    1988-01-01

    Dehulled and defatted flour of urdbean (Vigna mungo), Var T-9, contained 25% protein with maximum contribution by globulins (63%). Albumins and glutelins contributed 12% and 21% respectively, whereas prolamins were present only in traces (1%). Globulins were further fractionated into legumin and vicilin type proteins which were present in the ratio of 4:1. All the protein fractions were heterogenous in nature as revealed by high performance liquid chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the total protein sample to contain 21 different components with molecular weights ranging from 8.92 to 117.49 kd. Albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins resolved into 4, 8, 6 and 13 different sized components of molecular weights ranging from 10.23 to 25.53, 10.84 to 112.72, 10.33 to 51.52 and 8.91 to 112.72 kd, respectively. Amino acid analysis of all fractions revealed that glutamic acid was present in maximum concentration followed by aspartic acid and lysine. Just like other pulse proteins, the urdbean proteins were also deficient in sulphur containing amino acids.

  15. Structure and expression of alpha-amylase gene from Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, D; Takeuchi, H; Minamikawa, T

    1994-06-01

    A single copy of the alpha-amylase gene, composed of three introns and four exons, was found in Vigna mungo. Examination of levels of alpha-amylase and its mRNA in detached cotyledons indicated that attachment of the embryonic axis is not required for expression of the gene in cotyledons of germinating seeds.

  16. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Sayak; Dey, Avishek; Banik, Rahul; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2016-03-01

    Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV) is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control) and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731) of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by 'SeqQC V2.2' bioinformatics tool.

  17. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Sayak; Dey, Avishek; Banik, Rahul; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV) is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control) and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731) of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by ‘SeqQC V2.2’ bioinformatics tool. PMID:26981413

  18. Immunostimolatory activities of Vigna mungo L. extract in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Yogendrasinh B; Jain, Sunita M

    2010-01-01

    Vigna mungo L. (Fabaceae) is a popular food legume used in the traditional Indian system of medicine for the treatment of a variety of disease conditions. The objective of the study was to evaluate any immunostimulatory activities of the extract of V. mungo seeds in an animal model. The induction of any immunostimulatory effects were evaluated using measures of sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced humoral antibody titer, SRBC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), neutrophil adhesion, and in vivo phagocytosis (via the carbon clearance method) after host treatment with the extract. The results here indicated that primary and secondary antibody titers in the rats were significantly increased by treatment with the V. mungo extract as compared with those noted among rats in a control group. Increases in DTH response, the percentage (%) neutrophil adhesion, and in situ phagocytosis were also observed after treatment with the extract. We summarize that the apparent immunostimulatory effect of the V. mungo seed extract might be attributed to an augmentation of humoral and cell-mediated responses, phagocytosis, and hematopoiesis in the treated rats. The findings in this study suggest that V. mungo seed extract possesses profound immunostimulatory activities. Whether such outcomes are also evidenced by consumption of the intact seeds themselves, as is most likely to be the case with humans, remains to be determined. Nonetheless, the present study provides evidence that could help explain how the traditional use of V. mungo has been successful in the treatment of various disorders in humans.

  19. Screening three cultivars of Vigna mungo L. against ozone by application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, M

    2010-10-01

    Three Indian black gram cultivars (Vigna mungo L. cv. Barkha, Shekhar and TU-94-2) were grown at a tropical suburban site in Varanasi, India to evaluate the varietal differences in response to ambient O(3) under field conditions using ethylenediurea (EDU). EDU (400 ppm) was given as soil drench at 10-day intervals during the growth period of the cultivars. O(3) monitoring data clearly showed high concentrations with a mean value ranging between 41.3 and 59.9 ppb. EDU treatment caused significant increases in various growth parameters and total biomass accumulation in Barkha and Shekhar. EDU caused retention of more biomass in leaves during vegetative period and translocated more photosynthates towards reproductive parts, which resulted into yield enhancement. Weight of seeds plant(-1) was higher by 36.4% and 35.6% in Barkha and Shekhar, respectively, treated with EDU compared to non-EDU-treated plants. However, TU-94-2 did not exhibit any significant difference in weight of seeds plant(-1). Starch, total sugar, amino acids and K contents increased in seeds of EDU-treated plants leading to improvement in quality response index (QRI) of seeds. EDU helped in identifying the cultivar susceptibility to O(3) stress and therefore is very useful as a monitoring tool to assess the impact of ambient O(3) on plants under natural field conditions particularly in areas experiencing moderate concentrations of O(3).

  20. Inheritance of resistance to yellow mosaic virus in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    PubMed

    Singh, D P

    1980-09-01

    The inheritance of resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) was studied in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). The highly resistant donors Pant U-84 and UPU-2 and a highly susceptible line, UL-2, their F1's, F2's and backcrosses were grown with spreader located every 5 to 6 rows. The resistance was found to be digenic and recessive in all the crosses and free from cytoplasmic effect.

  1. Measurement of nitrite reductase in leaf tissue of Vigna mungo : A new method.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R C; Bose, B; Mukerji, D; Mathur, S N; Srivastava, H S

    1979-12-01

    The enzyme nitrite reductase (EC 1.6.6.4) is generally assayed in terms of disappearance of nitrite from the assay medium. We describe a technique which allowed estimation of the enzyme level in leaf tissues of Vigna mungo (L). Hepper in terms of the release of the product (NH3) of the enzyme reaction. The technique is offered as an alternative, possibly more convenient method for assay of nitrite reductase in plant tissue in vivo.

  2. Appearance and Disappearance of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Vigna mungo Cotyledons during and following Germination of the Axis

    PubMed Central

    Morohashi, Yukio; Matsushima, Hisashi

    1983-01-01

    Mitochondrial preparations isolated from black gram (Vigna mungo L.) cotyledons exhibited cyanide-resistant respiration which was of mitochondrial origin. The appearance and the disappearance of this alternative respiration took place during and following imbibition. During the first 6 hours of imbibition, the respiration was completely inhibited by cyanide, but after this time the alternative respiration markedly developed, reaching a maximal cyanide-resistance 12 to 16 hours after the start of imbibition. Subsequently, the alternative respiration gradually disappeared. The actions of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol indicated that the appearance was dependent on cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that the disappearance depended on both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The alternative pathway contributed to state 4 respiration, but not to state 3 respiration, in mitochondria from 1-day-old cotyledons. On day 3, it contributed to neither state 3 nor state 4. PMID:16663192

  3. Appearance and Disappearance of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Vigna mungo Cotyledons during and following Germination of the Axis.

    PubMed

    Morohashi, Y; Matsushima, H

    1983-09-01

    Mitochondrial preparations isolated from black gram (Vigna mungo L.) cotyledons exhibited cyanide-resistant respiration which was of mitochondrial origin. The appearance and the disappearance of this alternative respiration took place during and following imbibition. During the first 6 hours of imbibition, the respiration was completely inhibited by cyanide, but after this time the alternative respiration markedly developed, reaching a maximal cyanide-resistance 12 to 16 hours after the start of imbibition. Subsequently, the alternative respiration gradually disappeared. The actions of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol indicated that the appearance was dependent on cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that the disappearance depended on both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The alternative pathway contributed to state 4 respiration, but not to state 3 respiration, in mitochondria from 1-day-old cotyledons. On day 3, it contributed to neither state 3 nor state 4.

  4. Involvement of gibberellins in expression of a cysteine proteinase (SH-EP) in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings.

    PubMed

    Taneyama, M; Okamoto, T; Yamane, H; Minamikawa, T

    2001-11-01

    The expression of a papain-type proteinase, designated SH-EP, in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings has been shown to require some factors in the embryonic axes. Gibberellin A1 (GA(1)) and GA(20) were identified by GC-MS in embryonic axes of V. mungo seedlings. The level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings was greatly reduced by treatment of the seeds with uniconazole-P, an inhibitor for GA biosynthesis. The reduced level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons by uniconazole-P was recovered by exogenous application of GA(1) and GA(20) to the seedlings.

  5. Temporal variation in protein content and yield of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper leaves.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V N; Srivastava, A K

    1990-10-01

    Temporal variation in total protein and soluble protein contents and protein yield of Vigna mungo leaves at intervals of every three hours during day and night was studied. The study was done with the view to ascertain the hour of harvesting the leaves for maximum yield of leaf protein concentrate. Observations reveal that the total protein and soluble protein contents in the leaves are minimum during 3.00 to 6.00 hrs, which steadily rise with time to reach the maximum values during 12.00 to 15.00 hrs, after which the same shows a steady decrease with time.

  6. Production and composition of extracellular polysaccharide synthesized by a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi Mohan; Ray, Bimalendu; Dey, Satyahari; Pati, Bikas Ranjan

    2007-08-01

    An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) was produced by a Rhizobium sp. isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Maximum EPS production (346 mg l(-1)) was when the yeast extract basal medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%), biotin (1.5 mg l(-1)) and asparagine (0.3%). Ribose (53%) and mannose (47%) were the principle monomers of the EPS. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis showed that this polymer, which has Man(4)Rib(1) as an oligomeric subunit, has an apparent molecular mass of 750 kDa.

  7. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1986-01-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664675

  8. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, W; Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1986-03-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts.

  9. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Anbalagan, S; Veluthambi, K

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5'-TGTATCGGTGT-3') iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5'-ATCGGTGT-3') had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMVVig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  10. Induced changes in the antioxidative compounds of Vigna mungo genotypes due to infestation by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius).

    PubMed

    Taggar, Gaurav Kumar; Gill, Ranjit Singh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sarvjeet

    2014-11-01

    Antioxidative compounds were quantified from the leaves of nine black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes over a period of two years, for potential whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleryrodidae) resistance. Oviposition preference, nymphal and adult development were evaluated under screen-house conditions. Biochemical analysis revealed that higher per cent increase in the total phenol and o-dihydroxy phenol contents both at 30 and 50 days after sowing was evident in moderately resistant genotypes NDU 5-7 (49.6 and 50.8%, respectively) and KU 99-20 (47.8 and 50.8%, respectively) under whitefly stress conditions as compared to non-stressed plants. Tannin and flavonol contents in leaves increased to varying degrees (up to 11.1 and 7.1%, respectively) in resistant plants after whitefly infestation, indicating that the changes in tannin and flavonol contents were closely associated with the resistance to whitefly. Correlation studies relating leaf content of black gram antioxidative compounds from different genotypes with whitefly population were also worked out. Total phenols (r = -0.71 & -0.88), o- dihydroxy phenols (r = -0.56 & -0.76), flavonols (r = -0.80 & -0.81) and tannins (r= -0.16 & -0.26) showed significant negative correlation with whitefly population (nymphs and adults) suggesting that enhanced level of these biochemicals may contribute to bioprotection of black gram plants against B. tabaci infestation. Comparatively higher level of resistance in genotype NDU 5-7 and KU 99-20 can serve as base for genetic improvement of black gram, focusing on the development of resistant varieties to B. tabaci.

  11. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops.

  12. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    PubMed

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  13. Imunohistochemical Localization of alpha-Amylase in Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tomura, H; Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1985-12-01

    We studied the localization of alpha-amylase with indirect fluorescence microscopy in transversely sectioned cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Tissue sections were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde and treated with anti-alpha-amylase immunoglobulin G followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G. alpha-Amylase appeared in the cells farthest from vascular bundles on the second day of growth and appeared gradually closer to the vascular bundles as growth progressed. The pattern of alpha-amylase appearance was similar in detached cotyledons, indicating that attachment of the embryonic axis has no effect on this pattern. However, in attached cotyledons, alpha-amylase disappeared from the regions where starch grains had been digested, but in detached cotyledons there was no disappearance of alpha-amylase, and digestion was slower than in intact cotyledons.

  14. Imunohistochemical Localization of α-Amylase in Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Tomura, Hideaki; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1985-01-01

    We studied the localization of α-amylase with indirect fluorescence microscopy in transversely sectioned cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Tissue sections were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde and treated with anti-α-amylase immunoglobulin G followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G. α-Amylase appeared in the cells farthest from vascular bundles on the second day of growth and appeared gradually closer to the vascular bundles as growth progressed. The pattern of α-amylase appearance was similar in detached cotyledons, indicating that attachment of the embryonic axis has no effect on this pattern. However, in attached cotyledons, α-amylase disappeared from the regions where starch grains had been digested, but in detached cotyledons there was no disappearance of α-amylase, and digestion was slower than in intact cotyledons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16664548

  15. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = −0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  16. Effect of Arsenic on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Blackgram (Vigna mungo).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Gouri, Samiran S; De, Debasis; Das, Bidus K; Mondal, Keshab C; Pati, Bikas R

    2011-01-01

    Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction is an efficient model system for soil remediation and reclamation. We earlier isolated an arsenic (As) (2.8 mM arsenate) tolerant and symbiotically effective Rhizobium strain, VMA301 from Vigna mungo and in this study we further characterized its efficacy for arsenic removal from the soil and its nitrogen fixation capacity. Although nodule formation is delayed in plants with As-treated composite when the inoculum was prepared without arsenic in culture medium, whereas it attains the significant number of nodules compare to plant grown in As-free soil when the inoculum was prepared with arsenic supplemented medium. Arsenic accumulation was higher in roots than root nodules. Nitrogenase activity is reduced to almost 2 fold in plants with As-treated soil but not abolished. These results suggest that this strain, VMA301, has been able to establish an effective symbiotic interaction in V. mungo in As-contaminated soil and can perform dual role of arsenic bioremediation as well as soil nitrogen improvement.

  17. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with the Accumulation of Distinct Sulfur γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dengqun; Cram, Dustin; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) accumulate γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-Glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing data at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulfur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately fourfold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was twofold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulfhydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methylcysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulfur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulfur amino acid γ-Glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo. PMID:23532826

  19. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with the Accumulation of Distinct Sulfur γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Seeds.

    PubMed

    Liao, Dengqun; Cram, Dustin; Sharpe, Andrew G; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) accumulate γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-Glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing data at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulfur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately fourfold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was twofold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulfhydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methylcysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulfur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulfur amino acid γ-Glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo.

  20. Synergism of VAM and Rhizobium on production and metabolism of IAA in roots and root nodules of Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Jayanta; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Sisir; Chatterjee, Narayan Chandra; Dutta, Sikha

    2010-09-01

    Mature and healthy root nodules of Vigna mungo appeared to contain higher amount of indole-acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. Dual effect of VAM fungus, Glomus fasciculatum and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Rhizobium sp. on the nodulation of roots of V. mungo was studied. It was recorded that the roots which were inoculated simultaneously with both the symbionts i.e., G. fasciculatum and Rhizobium exhibited greater amount of IAA production than the non-inoculated roots. A tryptophan pool present in the mature nodules and young leaves might serve as a precursor for IAA production in the roots and in the nodules. Activity of IAA-metabolizing enzymes, such as IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase was investigated which indicates the active metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules. The Rhizobium symbiont isolated from fresh nodules of V. mungo produced significant amount of IAA under in vitro condition when tryptophan was added to the medium as precursor. Present study represents some beneficial effects of Rhizobium and G. fasciculatum on the production and metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules of V. mungo. The important physiological implication of the study on IAA production and its metabolism in Rhizobium-Legume-VAM tripartite symbiosis is certainly representing a new approach to satisfy the hormonal balance in the host plant.

  1. Properties of a cyclic 3'5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase from Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Abidin, U Z

    1989-10-01

    Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) partially purified from roots of Vigna mungo exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.5 to 6.0 and maximum enzyme activity at 50 degrees C. Levels of PDE activity in roots remained relatively constant from the first to the eleventh day after germination; on the twelfth day there was a 400% increase in PDE activity. The enzyme was stable for at least 48 hours at 28 degrees C, retaining 92% of its original activity. Plant growth hormones including gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid and kinetin at 1.0 and 10.0 microM concentrations did not have any significant effect on enzyme activity. Nucleotides tested including cyclic 2'3' AMP, cyclic 2'3' GMP completely abolished enzyme activity at 1.0mM while cyclic 3'5' GMP, cyclic 3'5' GMP, 2'deoxy 5' ATP, 2'deoxy 5'GTP and 5'ADP were also inhibitory to the enzyme. The enzyme was stimulated by Mg2+, Fe2+ and NH4+ while Cu2+ and Fe3+ were inhibitory. Theophylline, caffeine, phosphate, pyrophosphate and EDTA were inhibitory to the enzyme.

  2. Proteomic analysis of salicylic acid induced resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus in Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Subrata; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Pal, Amita

    2011-03-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing resistance to MYMIV infection in Vigna mungo has been elucidated by proteomics. Twenty-nine proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF, predicted to be involved in stress responses, metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction, showed increased abundance upon SA treatment. Susceptible plants showed characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms upon MYMIV infection. A concentration dependent decrease in physiological symptoms associated with MYMIV was observed upon exogenous SA treatment prior to viral inoculation; and no visible symptom was observed at 100 μM SA. SA treatment stimulated SOD and GPX activity and inhibited CAT activity thus preventing ROS mediated damage. Significant increase in chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, phenolic content and H(2)O(2) were observed. Involvement of calmodulin for transmission of defense signal by SA is suggested. A metabolic reprogramming leading to enhanced synthesis of proteins involved in primary and secondary metabolisms is necessary for SA mediated resistance to MYMIV. Identification of proteins showing increased abundance, involved in photosynthetic process is a significant finding which restores virus-induced degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus and provides enhanced metabolites required for repartition of resources towards defense.

  3. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    PubMed Central

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 – 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%. PMID:25482817

  4. Zinc and copper induced changes in physiological characteristics of Vigna mungo (L.).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Radha; Anju; Poonam; Dhankhar, R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of deleterious concentration of zinc and copper provided either individually or in combination in the nutrient media was investigated in order to assess the effect of metal interaction in Vigna mungo (L.). Both metals showed negative effect and led to a marked decrease in seed germination (20%), seedling growth (91.7%) and nitrate reductase activity (85.7%) with the increase in metal concentrations. The present study also emphasizes on the response of catalase and peroxidase enzyme under zinc and copper stress. Both antioxidant enzymes exhibited an increasing trend under different treatment conditions but it was reverse at highly toxic metal concentration. The results showed active involvement of peroxidase enzyme in regulating oxidative stress rather than catalase enzyme, as the specific activity of peroxidase enzyme got increased by 8.94% under the combined metals stress whereas catalase activity got declined by 60.97% in comparison to control due to excessive stress. The combined effect of copper and zinc metal was more pronounced in comparison to their individual effects.

  5. Molecular characterization of urdbean (Vigna mungo) germplasm related to resistance against urdbean leaf crinkle virus.

    PubMed

    Binyamin, R; Aslam Khan, M; Khan, A I; Azam Khan, M; Awan, F S; Khan, N A

    2011-01-01

    Urdbean (Vigna mungo) is an important pulse crop grown worldwide. Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a pathogen of urdbean found in Pakistan that causes huge losses in yield. Forty urdbean varieties/lines were screened against the virus under field conditions during spring season 2009. None of the lines appeared to be highly resistant or resistant. On the basis of a 0-5 disease rating scale and disease severity index, genotypes varied significantly in their reaction to ULCV. Four lines (M-6206, IAM-382-15, IAM-133, and Mash-1) were moderately resistant, eight were rated as moderately susceptible, and 21 as susceptible; the remaining seven lines were highly susceptible. RAPD analyses revealed an extensive amount of variation, which could be used for cultivar identification. Genetic differentiation among urdbean genotypes was similar to the field screening data. The varieties 6065-3 and 6206 were highly susceptible and moderately resistant, respectively, to ULCV under field conditions, confirmed by the RAPD analysis. These varieties were the most diverse varieties in the similarity matrix (67.2%), while the varieties IAM-382-9 and 07M003 were the most similar (98.4%). This information will help in the recognition of available resistant germplasms that can resist this disease and will be utilized for urdbean improvement in Pakistan.

  6. Stable genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L. Hepper via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Saini, R; Sonia; Jaiwal, P K; Jaiwal, S

    2003-06-01

    Vigna mungo is one of the large-seeded grain legumes that has not yet been transformed. We report here for the first time the production of morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants from cotyledonary-node explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying binary vector pCAMBIA2301, the latter of which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase ( nptII) gene and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA) interrupted with an intron. The transformed green shoots, selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, tested positive for nptII and uidA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These shoots were established in soil and grown to maturity to collect the seeds. Mechanical wounding of the explants prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium, time lag in regeneration due to removal of the cotyledons from explants and a second round of selection at the rooting stage were found to be critical for transformation. Analysis of T(0) plants showed the expression and integration of uidA into the plant genome. GUS activity in leaves, roots, flowers, anthers and pollen grains was detected by histochemical assay. PCR analysis of T(1) progeny revealed a Mendelian transgene inheritance pattern. The transformation frequency was 1%, and 6-8 weeks were required for the generation of transgenics.

  7. Evaluation of anti-osteoarthritic activity of Vigna mungo in papain induced osteoarthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhaval V.; Sawant, Mrunal Ghag; Kaur, Ginpreet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vigna mungo hydroalcoholic extract (VMHA) by papain induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat model. Materials and Methods: OA was induced by intra-articular injection of papain (4% w/v) along with cysteine (0.03 M) on day 1, 4 and 7 in rats and VMHA was administered orally in three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) after last papain injection. The anti-osteoarthritic activity was evaluated by measuring knee joint diameter, grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time. Histopathological analysis and acute toxicity study were also performed. Results: VMHA improved inflammatory condition with all the doses, but significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inflammation was present only with 400 mg/kg dose. The grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time were also significantly (P < 0.05) improved at dose level of 100 mg/kg however other two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) were not found to be effective. VMHA did not show any mortality or any toxic clinical signs after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose. Conclusion: VMHA improved arthritic condition by significantly reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25821313

  8. Identification and expression profiling of Vigna mungo microRNAs from leaf small RNA transcriptome by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sujay; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been characterized to date, predominantly from the plant species whose genome is well characterized. However, information on the variability of these regulatory RNAs in economically important but genetically less characterized crop species are limited. Vigna mungo is an important grain legume, which is grown primarily for its protein-rich edible seeds. miRNAs from this species have not been identified to date due to lack of genome sequence information. To identify miRNAs from V. mungo, a small RNA library was constructed from young leaves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic analysis of the small RNA reads led to the identification of 66 miRNA loci represented by 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 19 families and eight non-conserved miRNAs belonging to seven families. Besides, 13 novel miRNA candidates in V. mungo were also identified. Expression patterns of selected conserved, non-conserved, and novel miRNA candidates have been demonstrated in leaf, stem, and root tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and potential target genes were predicted for most of the conserved miRNAs. This information offers genomic resources for better understanding of miRNA mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation.

  9. Isolation of a putative receptor for KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (SH-EP) from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tsuru-Furuno, A; Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    2001-10-01

    SH-EP is the major papain-type proteinase expressed in cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds. The proteinase possesses a KDEL sequence at the C-terminus although the mature form of SH-EP is localized in vacuoles. It has also been shown that the proform of SH-EP is accumulated at the edge or middle region of the endoplasmic reticulum, and the accumulated proSH-EP is directly transported to vacuoles via the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase-accumulating vesicle, KV. In this study, to address the transport machinery of proSH-EP through KV, putative receptor for proSH-EP was isolated from membrane proteins of cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings using a proSH-EP-immobilized column. The deduced amino acid sequence from cDNA to the protein revealed that the putative receptor for proSH-EP is a member of vacuolar sorting receptor, VSR, that is known to be localized in the Golgi-complex and/or clathrin coated vesicle. We carried out subcellular fractionation of cotyledon cells and subsequently conducted SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry with anti-V. mungo VSR (VmVSR) or SH-EP antibody. The results showed that VmVSR is co-localized in the fraction of the gradient in which KV existed.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) using AFLP and transferable microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi).

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2009-02-01

    Genetic diversity in 20 elite blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes was studied using microsatellite and AFLP markers. Thirty-six microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) were successfully amplified across the 20 blackgram genotypes and 33 microsatellite markers showed polymorphism. A total of 137 microsatellite alleles were generated with an average of 4.1 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from two to nine and the polymorphic information content value for the microsatellite markers varied from 0.10 to 0.87 with an average of 0.49. Microsatellite markers were highly informative and a combination of only three microsatellite markers (CEDG264, CEDG173, and CEDG044) was sufficient to discriminate all 20 blackgram genotypes. In the case of AFLP, 11 primer pairs generated 324 polymorphic marker fragments. The polymorphic information content values for AFLP primer combinations ranged from 0.21 to 0.34 with an average of 0.29. Similarity measures and clustering analyses were made using microsatellite and AFLP data separately. The resulting dendrograms distributed the 20 blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The dendrograms were comparable with each other with the Mantel test between the cophenetic matrices of microsatellite data and AFLP data showing moderate correlation (r = 0.64). The results of the principal components analysis were well congruent with the dendrograms. In the dendrograms as well as in the principal components analyses, genotype Trombay wild (Vigna mungo var. silvestris) was placed separately from rest of the genotypes. This study demonstrated that the azuki bean microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and informative and can be successfully used for genome analysis in blackgram. Results indicate that sufficient variability is present in the blackgram genotypes and would be helpful in the selection of suitable parents for breeding purposes and gene mapping studies.

  11. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, W; Minamikawa, T

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 +/- 1 degrees C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme.

  12. Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov., a novel plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Ehsan, Muhammad; Sin, Yeseul; Paek, Jayoung; Khalid, Nauman; Hayat, Rifat; Chang, Young H

    2014-02-01

    The taxonomic status of a bacterium, strain NCCP-246(T), isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain NCCP-246(T) can grow at 16-37 °C (optimum 32 °C), at pH ranges of 6-8 (optimum growth occurs at pH 7) and in 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based upon on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain NCCP-246(T) belonged to genus Sphingobacterium. Strain NCCP-246(T) showed highest similarity to the type strain of Sphingobacterium canadense CR11(T) (97.67 %) and less than 97 % with other species of the genus. The DNA-DNA relatedness value of strain NCCP-246(T) with S. canadense CR11(T) and Sphingobacterium thalpophilum JCM 21153(T) was 55 and 44.4 %, respectively. The chemotaxonomic data revealed the major menaquinone as MK-7 and dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 [C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c] (37.07 %), iso-C15:0 (28.03 %), C16:0 (11.85 %), C17:0 cyclo (8.84 %) and C14:0 (2.42 %). The G+C content of the strain was 39.2 mol%. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses, physiological and, biochemical data, strain NCCP-246(T) can be differentiated from the validly named members of genus Sphingobacterium and thus represents as a new species, for which the name, Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain NCCP-246(T) (= JCM18974 (T) = KCTC 23914(T)).

  13. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Minamikawa, Takao

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 ± 1°C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16666526

  14. Theoretical model of the three-dimensional structure of a disease resistance gene homolog encoding resistance protein in Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Basak, Jolly; Bahadur, Ranjit P

    2006-10-01

    Plant disease resistance (R) genes, the key players of innate immunity system in plants encode 'R' proteins. 'R' protein recognizes product of avirulance gene from the pathogen and activate downstream signaling responses leading to disease resistance. No three dimensional (3D) structural information of any 'R' proteins is available as yet. We have reported a 'R' gene homolog, the 'VMYR1', encoding 'R' protein in Vigna mungo. Here, we describe the homology modeling of the 'VMYR1' protein. The model was created by using the 3D structure of an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein from Vibrio cholerae as a template. The strategy for homology modeling was based on the high structural conservation in the superfamily of P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in which target and template proteins belong. This is the first report of theoretical model structure of any 'R' proteins.

  15. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna mungo is altered by overexpression of ALDRXV4 gene via reactive carbonyl detoxification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Deepak; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2016-06-01

    Vigna mungo (blackgram) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein rich edible seeds. Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the growth and productivity of crop plants including blackgram. The ALDRXV4 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of carbonyl metabolites in the cells and plays an important role in the osmoprotection and detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species. In the present study, we developed transgenic plants of V. mungo using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis whereas the expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme activity. The T1 generation transgenic plants displayed improved tolerance to various environmental stresses, including drought, salt, methyl viologen and H2O2 induced oxidative stress. The increased aldose reductase activity, higher sorbitol content and less accumulation of the toxic metabolite, methylglyoxal in the transgenic lines under non-stress and stress (drought and salinity) conditions resulted in increased protection through maintenance of better photosynthetic efficiency, higher relative water content and less photooxidative damage. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type plants. This study of engineering multiple stress tolerance in blackgram, is the first report to date and this strategy for trait improvement is proposed to provide a novel germplasm for blackgram production on marginal lands. PMID:26956699

  16. In Vivo Synthesis and Turnover of alpha-Amylase in Attached and Detached Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seeds.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1983-01-01

    alpha-Amylase activity increased in attached cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds until the 5th day after imbibition and decreased thereafter, whereas in detached and incubated cotyledons the activity continuously increased and, at the 6th day, reached the value more than three times that of the maximum activity of attached cotyledons. Zymograms of the activities and Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion test on the activities of attached and detached cotyledons showed that the increase of activity in detached cotyledons was due to the identical enzyme as in attached tissues. alpha-Amylase contents, determined by single radial immunodiffusion method, changed in parallel with enzyme activity in both attached and detached cotyledons, which also suggested the de novo synthesis of alpha-amylase in V. mungo cotyledons.The rate of incorporation of the label from [(3)H]leucine into alpha-amylase and the ratios of dpm in alpha-amylase/dpm in trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction did not show significant difference between attached and detached cotyledons. The results indicated that in attached cotyledons fluctuation of alpha-amylase activity was regulated by both synthesis and degradation of the enzyme, whereas in detached cotyledons alpha-amylase was synthesized and accumulated, because of low degrading activity during incubation.

  17. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna mungo is altered by overexpression of ALDRXV4 gene via reactive carbonyl detoxification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Deepak; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2016-06-01

    Vigna mungo (blackgram) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein rich edible seeds. Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the growth and productivity of crop plants including blackgram. The ALDRXV4 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of carbonyl metabolites in the cells and plays an important role in the osmoprotection and detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species. In the present study, we developed transgenic plants of V. mungo using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis whereas the expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme activity. The T1 generation transgenic plants displayed improved tolerance to various environmental stresses, including drought, salt, methyl viologen and H2O2 induced oxidative stress. The increased aldose reductase activity, higher sorbitol content and less accumulation of the toxic metabolite, methylglyoxal in the transgenic lines under non-stress and stress (drought and salinity) conditions resulted in increased protection through maintenance of better photosynthetic efficiency, higher relative water content and less photooxidative damage. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type plants. This study of engineering multiple stress tolerance in blackgram, is the first report to date and this strategy for trait improvement is proposed to provide a novel germplasm for blackgram production on marginal lands.

  18. In Vivo Synthesis and Turnover of α-Amylase in Attached and Detached Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1983-01-01

    α-Amylase activity increased in attached cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds until the 5th day after imbibition and decreased thereafter, whereas in detached and incubated cotyledons the activity continuously increased and, at the 6th day, reached the value more than three times that of the maximum activity of attached cotyledons. Zymograms of the activities and Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion test on the activities of attached and detached cotyledons showed that the increase of activity in detached cotyledons was due to the identical enzyme as in attached tissues. α-Amylase contents, determined by single radial immunodiffusion method, changed in parallel with enzyme activity in both attached and detached cotyledons, which also suggested the de novo synthesis of α-amylase in V. mungo cotyledons. The rate of incorporation of the label from [3H]leucine into α-amylase and the ratios of dpm in α-amylase/dpm in trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction did not show significant difference between attached and detached cotyledons. The results indicated that in attached cotyledons fluctuation of α-amylase activity was regulated by both synthesis and degradation of the enzyme, whereas in detached cotyledons α-amylase was synthesized and accumulated, because of low degrading activity during incubation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:16662780

  19. Inheritance of the dwarf plant type in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S; Singh, D P

    1985-07-01

    The inheritance of the dwarf plant type was studied in blackgram (V. mungo (L.) Hepper). 'Type 9' has erect plant type with normal internode length. The mutant line, 'EMSD' has reduced internode length. The F1, F2 and F3 generations of a cross between 'Type 9' and 'EMSD' and its reciprocal were studied. The extreme dwarf plant type appeared to be governed by a single recessive gene, dw 1 dw 1 with no cytoplasmic effect.

  20. Effect of cooking and supplementation with different kinds of meats on the nutritional value of mash (Vigna mungo).

    PubMed

    Bhatty, N; Gilani, A H; Nagra, S A

    2000-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the nutritional value of mash (Vigna mungo) in raw and cooked forms and as effected by supplementation with different kind of meat, i.e. poultry, mutton and beef at 10, 15 and 20% levels. Nutritional assessment of all mash-containing diets (without or with supplementation) was made by chemical analysis as well as through rat assay. Mash contained 23.83% protein. Cooking resulted in minor changes in nutrients. Mash had 1.79% lysine which was reduced by 35% on cooking. All other amino acids also showed losses during cooking. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of diet containing raw mash was 1.9% and cooking improved it to 2.8%. True digestibility (TD) also showed a significant improvement. Supplementation of mash with different kinds of meat did not improve the PER significantly over unsupplemented diet containing cooked mash only. TD, however, was improved from 74.89% in cooked to 75.58-87.06% in supplemented diets. Similarly net protein utilization (NPU), as a result of meat supplementation, improved from 43.54% in cooked to 42.88%-51.96%. Higher PER, TD and NPU values were observed in diets containing mash supplemented with 20% level of different meats.

  1. Correlation of endogenous free polyamine levels with root nodule senescence in different genotypes in Vigna mungo L.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Kajari; Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ghosh, Bharati

    2004-05-01

    Endogenous free polyamines, nitrogenase (EC 1.1.8.6.1, acetylene reduction), and leghaemoglobin (pyridine-hemochrome assay) levels were compared among five genotypes of developing Vigna root nodules grown under field conditions. Nitrogenase activity and leghaemoglobin level attained a peak at the flowering stage and gradually declined thereafter. Individual and total polyamine also followed the same pattern. Ranking on the basis of legume yield and other morphometric attributes was PDU-2 > UH-28 > UH-82 > T-9 > Sardhomash. Except spermine, the levels of putrescine, spermidine, and total polyamine showed significant differences (p<0.05) amongst the genotypes, particularly from flowering to mid-pod development stage. Genotype, development stage, and their interaction between the two had significant (p<0.01) effects on individual as well as total polyamines. Moreover, significant high linear correlations were found between total free polyamine and putrescine with conventional nodule senescence marker like nitrogenase (R2 = 0.94 and R2 = 0.92, respectively). Putrescine had an overall positive correlation with high legume yield. The results strongly suggest a relationship between polyamine and nodule senescence. Endogenous free polyamine and putrescine may be considered as genotypic markers for nodule senescence in field grown V. mungo. It is suggested that the flowering stage is more suitable for selection.

  2. Transcript Dynamics at Early Stages of Molecular Interactions of MYMIV with Resistant and Susceptible Genotypes of the Leguminous Host, Vigna mungo

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Anirban; Patel, Anju; Paul, Sujay; Pal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Initial phases of the MYMIV- Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in

  3. Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anirban; Patel, Anju; Paul, Sujay; Pal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in

  4. Vigna mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants sampled in different agronomical-ecological-climatic regions of India are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense.

    PubMed

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; N'Zoue, Angèle; Moulin, Lionel; Depret, Géraldine; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2009-10-01

    Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata are important legume crops cultivated in India, but little is known about the genetic resources in native rhizobia that nodulate these species. To identify these bacteria, a core collection of 76 slow-growing isolates was built from root nodules of V. mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants grown at different sites within three agro-ecological-climatic regions of India. The genetic diversity of the bacterial collection was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. One rDNA IGS type grouped 91% of isolates, but more diversity was found at the symbiotic loci (17 symbiotic genotypes). Overall, no host plant specificity was shown, the three host plant species sharing common bradyrhizobial genotypes that represented 62% of the collection. Similarly, the predominant genotypes were found at most sampling sites and in all agro-ecological-climatic regions. Phylogenies inferred from IGS sequencing and multi-locus sequence analysis of the dnaK, glnII and recA genes indicated that all isolates but one were clustered with the Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense species. The nifH phylogeny also grouped the different nif haplotypes within a cluster including B. yuanmingense, except for one infrequent nif haplotype which formed a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus. These results may reflect a long history of co-evolution between B. yuanmingense and Vigna spp. in India, while intra-species polymorphism detected in the symbiotic loci may be linked with the long history of diversification of B. yuanmingense coinciding with that of its host legumes.

  5. Isolation, characterization, and structure analysis of a non-TIR-NBS-LRR encoding candidate gene from MYMIV-resistant Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Soumitra; Paul, Sujay; Pal, Amita

    2012-11-01

    Yellow mosaic disease of Vigna mungo caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is still a major threat in the crop production. A candidate disease resistance (R) gene, CYR1 that co-segregates with MYMIV-resistant populations of V. mungo has been isolated. CYR1 coded in silico translated protein sequence comprised of 1,176 amino acids with coiled coil structure at the N-terminus, central nucleotide binding site (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR) that belongs to non-TIR-NBS-LRR subfamily of plant R genes. CYR1 transcript was unambiguously expressed during incompatible plant virus interactions. A putative promoter-like sequence present upstream of this candidate gene perhaps regulates its expression. Enhanced transcript level upon MYMIV infection suggests involvement of this candidate gene in conferring resistance against the virus. In silico constructed 3D models of NBS and LRR regions of this candidate protein and MYMIV-coat protein (CP) revealed that CYR1-LRR forms an active pocket and successively interacts with MYMIV-CP during docking, like that of receptor-ligand interaction; indicating a critical role of CYR1 as signalling molecule to protect V. mungo plants from MYMIV. This suggests involvement of CYR1 in recognizing MYMIV-effector molecule thus contributing to incompatible interaction. This study is the first stride to understand molecular mechanism of MYMIV resistance.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone of UDP-galactose: flavonoid 3-O-galactosyltransferase (UF3GaT) expressed in Vigna mungo seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mato, M; Ozeki, Y; Itoh, Y; Higeta, D; Yoshitama, K; Teramoto, S; Aida, R; Ishikura, N; Shibata, M

    1998-11-01

    Four cDNA clones were isolated from Vigna mungo seedlings by the screening with cDNA encoding UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) of Antirrhinum majus as a probe; the product of the gene corresponding to one cDNA was more highly expressed in the first simple leaves than in stems. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed 1,691 bp (including 326 bp non-reading) containing an open reading frame of 455 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 42% and 23% identity with those of A. majus UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) and Petunia hybrida UDP-rhamnose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside rhamnosyltransferase (RT), respectively. One region of the cDNA (amino acids 325 to 387) showed similarity to ceramide UDP-galactosyltransferases of mice, rats and humans. A crude extract from Escherichia coli, in which the protein was expressed from the cDNA, showed high UF3GaT activity but low UF3GT activity, and was similar in K(m), optimal pH and substrate specificity to UF3GaT from V. mungo. We conclude that we have obtained UDP-galactose:flavonoid 3-O-galactosyltransferase (UF3GaT) cDNA from V. mungo.

  7. In vitro high frequency regeneration of plantlets of Vigna mungo and their ex vitro growth.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, S; Singh, R R; Chaturvedi, H C

    2001-09-01

    Of the five explants of V. mungo var. T9 used, the excised shoot tips gave best response with regard to offshoot formation followed by the embryonal axis explants. While a treatment comprising 0.5 mgL(-1) BAP, 0.5 mgL(-1) 2iP and 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA induced differentiation of an average 10 offshoots in shoot tip explants, only 3 offshoots were formed in the explants of embryonal axis in a treatment containing 0.5 mgL(-1) BAP and 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA, found optimum for them. Multiple shoots differentiated when explants with earlier regenerated and growing offshoots were first cultured in a treatment containing 0.1 mgL(-1) BAP, 0.25 mgL(-1) IAA and 5 mgL(-1) CCC and then subcultured in the same treatment but having only 1 mgL(-1) CCC. The isolated shoots rooted in 0.5 mgL(-1) IAA resulted in the formation of complete plantlets of an average height of 15 cm in 20 days. The in vitro-regenerated plants grew normally under field conditions and came to flowering as well.

  8. Leaf crinkle disease in urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper): An overview on causal agent, vector and host.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Narinder Kumar; Kumar, Krishna; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle disease (ULCD) is an economically significant widespread and devastating disease resulting in extreme crinkling, puckering and rugosity of leaves inflicting heavy yield losses annually in major urdbean-producing countries of the world. This disease is caused by urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV). Urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) is relatively more susceptible than other pulses to leaf crinkle disease. Urdbean is an important and useful crop cultivated in various parts of South-East Asia and well adapted for cultivation under semi-arid and subtropical conditions. Aphids, insects and whiteflies have been reported as vectors of the disease. The virus is also transmitted through sap inoculation, grafting and seed. The loss in seed yield in ULCD-affected urdbean crop ranges from 35 to 81%, which is dependent upon type of genotype location and infection time. The diseased material and favourable climatic conditions contribute for the widespread viral disease. Anatomical and biochemical changes take place in the affected diseased plants. Genetic variations have been reported in the germplasm screening which suggest continuous screening of available varieties and new germplasm to search for new traits (new genes) and identify new sources of disease resistance. There are very few reports on breeding programmes for the development and release of varieties tolerant to ULCD. Mostly random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as well as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers have been utilized for fingerprinting of blackgram, and a few reports are there on sequence-tagged micro-satellite site (STMS) markers. There are so many RNA viruses which have also developed strategies to counteract silencing process by encoding suppressor proteins that create hindrances in the process. But, in the case of ULCV, there is no report available indicating which defence pathway is operating for its resistance in the plants and whether same silencing suppression

  9. Leaf crinkle disease in urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper): An overview on causal agent, vector and host.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Narinder Kumar; Kumar, Krishna; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle disease (ULCD) is an economically significant widespread and devastating disease resulting in extreme crinkling, puckering and rugosity of leaves inflicting heavy yield losses annually in major urdbean-producing countries of the world. This disease is caused by urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV). Urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) is relatively more susceptible than other pulses to leaf crinkle disease. Urdbean is an important and useful crop cultivated in various parts of South-East Asia and well adapted for cultivation under semi-arid and subtropical conditions. Aphids, insects and whiteflies have been reported as vectors of the disease. The virus is also transmitted through sap inoculation, grafting and seed. The loss in seed yield in ULCD-affected urdbean crop ranges from 35 to 81%, which is dependent upon type of genotype location and infection time. The diseased material and favourable climatic conditions contribute for the widespread viral disease. Anatomical and biochemical changes take place in the affected diseased plants. Genetic variations have been reported in the germplasm screening which suggest continuous screening of available varieties and new germplasm to search for new traits (new genes) and identify new sources of disease resistance. There are very few reports on breeding programmes for the development and release of varieties tolerant to ULCD. Mostly random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as well as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers have been utilized for fingerprinting of blackgram, and a few reports are there on sequence-tagged micro-satellite site (STMS) markers. There are so many RNA viruses which have also developed strategies to counteract silencing process by encoding suppressor proteins that create hindrances in the process. But, in the case of ULCV, there is no report available indicating which defence pathway is operating for its resistance in the plants and whether same silencing suppression

  10. Proteomics approach combined with biochemical attributes to elucidate compatible and incompatible plant-virus interactions between Vigna mungo and Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vigna mungo, a tropical leguminous plant, highly susceptible to yellow mosaic disease caused by Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) resulting in high yield penalty. The molecular events occurring during compatible and incompatible interactions between V. mungo and MYMIV pathosystem are yet to be explored. In this study biochemical analyses in conjunction with proteomics of MYMIV-susceptible and -resistant V. mungo genotypes were executed to get an insight in the molecular events during compatible and incompatible plant-virus interactions. Results Biochemical analysis revealed an increase in phenolics, hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrate contents in both compatible and incompatible interactions; but the magnitudes were higher during incompatible interaction. In the resistant genotype the activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase increased significantly, while catalase activity decreased. Comparative proteome analyses using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified 109 differentially abundant proteins at 3, 7 and 14 days post MYMIV-inoculation. Proteins of several functional categories were differentially changed in abundance during both compatible and incompatible interactions. Among these, photosynthesis related proteins were mostly affected in the susceptible genotype resulting in reduced photosynthesis rate under MYMIV-stress. Differential intensities of chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll contents are in congruence with proteomics data. It was revealed that Photosystem II electron transports are the primary targets of MYMIV during pathogenesis. Quantitative real time PCR analyses of selected genes corroborates with respective protein abundance during incompatible interaction. The network of various cellular pathways that are involved in inducing defense response contains several conglomerated cores of nodal proteins, of which ascorbate peroxidase, rubisco activase and serine

  11. Assessment of peroxidase isozyme marker-based model for cross identifications in hybrids (F(1)) of urdbean [ Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper].

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R.; Shukla, A.; Gaur, K.

    2002-12-01

    Four hybrids (4 F(1)s) were chosen out of crosses in the urdbean [ Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, 2n = 22] having contrasting morphological characters. Zymograms for isozyme peroxidase were drawn from the patterns obtained from parents and their respective F(1) hybrids on the basis of relative similarities to parental bands. The selfed or crossed nature of hybrid pods was determined from the zymograms and their analysis. The number of bands and their intensities gave an idea about the extent of crossing in F(1) populations. Genetic identity (I) values were indicative of their selfed nature. Dendrograms were constructed on the basis of genetic identity values to display the relative similarities between the populations. Analysis was based on individual pods to confirm their hybrid or selfed nature. Possible use of this technique for identification of F(1) pods and elimination of selfed pods might be implemented to shorten the breeding operations during crossing.

  12. Characterization of a symbiotically effective Rhizobium resistant to arsenic: Isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper grown in an arsenic-contaminated field.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Pati, Bikas R; Das, Amit K; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2008-04-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, grown in an arsenic-contaminated field and the strain was selected by its nodulation ability as well as better arsenic tolerant capacity compared to others. The selected strain was identified as Rhizobium by 16S rDNA sequencing and designated as VMA301. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequences showed its close relatedness with Sinorhizobium fredii. LC(50) value of arsenate for the bacteria as determined by flow cytometry was found to be 2.8 mM and arsenic uptake was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry as 0.048 mg g(-1) biomass. The high amount of arsenic was toxic to the cell, which changed the morphology of the bacteria to an elongated shape. Presence of a transcriptional regulatory gene (ArsR) of the ars genetic system was confirmed by amplification and sequencing. The symbiotic property of the isolate was also confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the NodC gene. These results indicate that the isolated Rhizobium bacteria may exert dual roles in the environment, arsenic bioremediation from the soil as well as increase of soil fertility through nitrogen fixation.

  13. Transformation of blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) by barley chitinase and ribosome-inactivating protein genes towards improving resistance to Corynespora leaf spot fungal disease.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rajan; Saini, Raman

    2014-12-01

    Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important grain legume crop, is sensitive to many fungal pathogens including Corynespora cassiicola, the causal agent of corynespora leaf spot disease. In the present study, plasmid pGJ42 harboring neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) a selectable marker gene, the barley antifungal genes chitinase (AAA56786) and ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP; AAA32951) were used for the transformation, to develop fungal resistance for the first time in blackgram. The presence and integration of transgene into the blackgram genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis with an overall transformation frequency of 10.2 %. Kanamycin selection and PCR analysis of T0 progeny revealed the inheritance of transgene in Mendelian fashion (3:1). Transgenic plants (T1), evaluated for fungal resistance by in vitro antifungal assay, arrested the growth of C. cassiicola up to 25-40 % over the wild-type plants. In fungal bio-assay screening, the transgenic plants (T1) sprayed with C. cassiicola spores showed a delay in onset of disease along with their lesser extent in terms of average number of diseased leaves and reduced number and size of lesions. The percent disease protection among different transformed lines varies in the range of 27-47 % compare to control (untransformed) plants. These results demonstrate potentiality of chitinase and RIP from a heterologous source in developing fungal disease protection in blackgram and can be helpful in increasing the production of blackgram.

  14. Transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume, Vigna mungo L. Hepper, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to shoot apical meristem cultures.

    PubMed

    Saini, Raman; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of Vigna mungo L. Hepper transformation was significantly increased from an average of 1% to 6.5% by using shoot apices excised from embryonic axes precultured on 10 microM benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP) for 3 days and wounded prior to inoculation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the binary vector pCAMBIA2301, which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gusA) interrupted by an intron. The transformed green shoots that were selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, and which tested positive for nptII gene by polymerase chain reaction, were established in soil to collect seeds. GUS activity was detected in whole T(0) shoots and T(1) seedlings. All T(0) plants were morphologically normal, fertile and the majority of them transmitted transgenes in a 3:1 ratio to their progenies. Southern analysis of T(1) plants showed integration of nptII into the plant genome.

  15. Cotyledon cells of Vigna mungo seedlings use at least two distinct autophagic machineries for degradation of starch granules and cellular components

    PubMed Central

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Okamoto, Takashi; Minamikawa, Takao

    2001-01-01

    α-Amylase is expressed in cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds and is responsible for the degradation of starch that is stored in the starch granule (SG). Immunocytochemical analysis of the cotyledon cells with anti–α-amylase antibody showed that α-amylase is transported to protein storage vacuole (PSV) and lytic vacuole (LV), which is converted from PSV by hydrolysis of storage proteins. To observe the insertion/degradation processes of SG into/in the inside of vacuoles, ultrastructural analyses of the cotyledon cells were conducted. The results revealed that SG is inserted into LV through autophagic function of LV and subsequently degraded by vacuolar α-amylase. The autophagy for SG was structurally similar to micropexophagy detected in yeast cells. In addition to the autophagic process for SG, autophagosome-mediated autophagy for cytoplasm and mitochondria was detected in the cotyledon cells. When the embryo axes were removed from seeds and the detached cotyledons were incubated, the autophagosome-mediated autophagy was observed, but the autophagic process for the degradation of SG was not detected, suggesting that these two autophagic processes were mediated by different cellular mechanisms. The two distinct autophagic processes were thought to be involved in the breakdown of SG and cell components in the cells of germinated cotyledon. PMID:11524437

  16. Cotyledon cells of Vigna mungo seedlings use at least two distinct autophagic machineries for degradation of starch granules and cellular components.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, K; Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    2001-09-01

    alpha-Amylase is expressed in cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds and is responsible for the degradation of starch that is stored in the starch granule (SG). Immunocytochemical analysis of the cotyledon cells with anti-alpha-amylase antibody showed that alpha-amylase is transported to protein storage vacuole (PSV) and lytic vacuole (LV), which is converted from PSV by hydrolysis of storage proteins. To observe the insertion/degradation processes of SG into/in the inside of vacuoles, ultrastructural analyses of the cotyledon cells were conducted. The results revealed that SG is inserted into LV through autophagic function of LV and subsequently degraded by vacuolar alpha-amylase. The autophagy for SG was structurally similar to micropexophagy detected in yeast cells. In addition to the autophagic process for SG, autophagosome-mediated autophagy for cytoplasm and mitochondria was detected in the cotyledon cells. When the embryo axes were removed from seeds and the detached cotyledons were incubated, the autophagosome-mediated autophagy was observed, but the autophagic process for the degradation of SG was not detected, suggesting that these two autophagic processes were mediated by different cellular mechanisms. The two distinct autophagic processes were thought to be involved in the breakdown of SG and cell components in the cells of germinated cotyledon.

  17. A TGACGT motif in the 5'-upstream region of alpha-amylase gene from Vigna mungo is a cis-element for expression in cotyledons of germinated seeds.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, D

    2001-06-01

    Alpha-amylase is expressed at high levels in cotyledons of germinated seeds of Vigna mungo. The mRNA for alpha-amylase appeared in cotyledons of the seeds at 1 d after imbibition started (DAI). Two TGACGT motifs at -445 and at -125 in the promoter region of the gene interacted with nuclear proteins from cotyledons of dry seeds and the activities were detected until 3 DAI. A transient assay with particle bombardment showed that the downstream region from -135 in the promoter was required for high level expression in the cotyledons and the activity was reduced by mutation of the TGACGT motif at -125. The activities to bind the TGACGT motifs were detected in the axes of the seeds at 1 DAI but disappeared at 4 DAI, although the mRNA for alpha-amylase in the axes appeared at 4 DAI and increased in level by 6 DAI. A transient assay experiment showed that a positive regulatory element for the expression in the axes was located in the region from -630 to -453. These results indicated that the TGACGT motif at -125 was required for high level expression of the gene in the cotyledons of the germinated seeds.

  18. Effect of formulated root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria fluorescent pseudomonads R62 and R81 on Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Sarma, M V R K; Saharan, Krishna; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Lalit; Sahai, Vikram; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, A K

    2012-02-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of three beneficial organisms (root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and pseudomonads strains R62 and R81) and their four different consortia (Pi+R62, Pi+R81, R62+R81, Pi+R62+R81) was investigated on the plant Vigna mungo through their inorganic carrier-based (talcum powder and vermiculite) formulations. All the treatments resulted in significant increase in growth parameters under glasshouse as well as field conditions and showed a consistency in their performance on moving from glasshouse to field conditions. In glasshouse conditions, a maximum increase of 4.5-fold in dry root weight and 3.9-fold in dry shoot weight compared to control was obtained with vermiculite-based consortium formulation of Pi+R81. In field studies using vermiculite as carrier, a maximum enhancement of 3.2-fold in dry root weight, 3.0-fold in dry shoot weight, 8.4-fold in number of nodules and 4.0-fold in number of pods in comparison to control was obtained with the bio-inoculant formulation containing consortium of Pi+R81. The same treatment also caused the highest improvement of 1.9-fold in nitrogen content and 1.7-fold in phosphorus content, while the highest increase of 1.4-fold in potassium content was obtained with Pi alone.

  19. Roller milled black gram (Phaseolus mungo) semolina and its influence on the quality characteristics of high protein pasta.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, Jyotsna; Milind; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Sakhare, Suresh; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2015-04-01

    Black gram (Phaseolus mungo) was roller milled into semolina (BGS) and was substituted at 25, 50 and 75 % levels in vermicelli making in this investigation. There was an increase in ash and protein content as the inclusion of BGS in blends increased. The quality characteristics of pasta showed marginal increase in cooking loss up to 50 % level of BGS. The firmness value did not change much up to 50 % BGS in pasta. At 75 % level of BGS, the cooking loss and stickiness value were highest (6.10 % and 0. 90 N) whereas firmness value and overall quality score were lowest (4 N and 27.5/40) indicating that the pasta had mushy, indiscrete, sticky strands and had a prominent beany odour making it unacceptable. Hence 50 % BGS was considered optimum in vermicelli. The pasta made with 50 % BGS inclusion had a protein and dietary fiber content of 15.30 % and 8 % as against the control value of 11.30 and 4.20 % respectively. PMID:25829634

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1 (VmPE-1), an asparaginyl endopeptidase possibly involved in post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (SH-EP).

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase that has strict substrate specificity toward the carboxy side of asparagine residues. Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1, termed VmPE-1, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of V. mungo, and is possibly involved in the post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase, designated SH-EP, which degrades seed storage protein. VmPE-1 also showed a substrate specificity to asparagine residues, and its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NEM but not E-64. In addition, purified VmPE-1 had a potential to process the recombinant SH-EP precursor to its intermediate in vitro. cDNA clones for VmPE-1 and its homologue, named VmPE-1A, were identified and sequenced, and their expressions in the cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings and other organs were investigated. VmPE-1 mRNA and SH-EP mRNA were expressed in germinated seeds at the same stage of germination although the enzymatic activity of VmPE-1 rose prior to that of SH-EP. The level of VmPE-1A mRNA continued increasing as germination proceeded. In roots, stems and leaves of fully grown plants, and in hypocotyls, VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A were little expressed. We discuss possible functions of VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A in the cotyledons of germinated seeds.

  1. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  2. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    PubMed

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  3. Community Profiling of Culturable Fluorescent Pseudomonads in the Rhizosphere of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Rupak K.; Gogoi, Animesh; Dehury, Budheswar; Debnath, Rajal; Bora, Tarun C.; Saikia, Ratul

    2014-01-01

    Study on microbial diversity in the unexplored rhizosphere is important to understand their community structure, biology and ecological interaction with the host plant. This research assessed the genetic and functional diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads [FP] in the green gram rhizophere. One hundred and twenty types of morphologically distinct fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated during vegetative as well as reproductive growth phase of green gram. Rep PCR, ARDRA and RISA revealed two distinct clusters in each case at 75, 61 and 70% similarity coefficient index respectively. 16S rRNA partial sequencing analysis of 85 distantly related fluorescent pseudomonads depicted Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the dominant group. Out of 120 isolates, 23 (19%) showed antagonistic activity towards phytopathogenic fungi. These bacterial isolates showed varied production of salicylic acid, HCN and chitinase, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and pyoluteorin (PLT). Production efficiency of inherent level of plant growth promoting (PGP) traits among the 120 isolates demonstrated that 10 (8%) solubilised inorganic phosphates, 25 (20%) produced indoles and 5 (4%) retained ACC deaminase activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GGRJ21 showed the highest production of all antagonistic and plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. In a greenhouse experiment, GGRJ21 suppressed root rot disease of green gram by 28–93% (p = 0.05). Consistent up regulation of three important stress responsive genes, i.e., acdS, KatA and gbsA and elevated production efficiency of different PGP traits could promote GGRJ21 as a potent plant growth regulator. PMID:25279790

  4. Community profiling of culturable fluorescent pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of green gram (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rupak K; Gogoi, Animesh; Dehury, Budheswar; Debnath, Rajal; Bora, Tarun C; Saikia, Ratul

    2014-01-01

    Study on microbial diversity in the unexplored rhizosphere is important to understand their community structure, biology and ecological interaction with the host plant. This research assessed the genetic and functional diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads [FP] in the green gram rhizophere. One hundred and twenty types of morphologically distinct fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated during vegetative as well as reproductive growth phase of green gram. Rep PCR, ARDRA and RISA revealed two distinct clusters in each case at 75, 61 and 70% similarity coefficient index respectively. 16S rRNA partial sequencing analysis of 85 distantly related fluorescent pseudomonads depicted Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the dominant group. Out of 120 isolates, 23 (19%) showed antagonistic activity towards phytopathogenic fungi. These bacterial isolates showed varied production of salicylic acid, HCN and chitinase, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and pyoluteorin (PLT). Production efficiency of inherent level of plant growth promoting (PGP) traits among the 120 isolates demonstrated that 10 (8%) solubilised inorganic phosphates, 25 (20%) produced indoles and 5 (4%) retained ACC deaminase activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GGRJ21 showed the highest production of all antagonistic and plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. In a greenhouse experiment, GGRJ21 suppressed root rot disease of green gram by 28-93% (p = 0.05). Consistent up regulation of three important stress responsive genes, i.e., acdS, KatA and gbsA and elevated production efficiency of different PGP traits could promote GGRJ21 as a potent plant growth regulator. PMID:25279790

  5. Microwave drying for safe storage and improved nutritional quality of green gram seed (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Pande, Ranjana; Mishra, H N; Singh, M N

    2012-04-11

    The present study describes the effect of the microwave-heating method on disinfestations and physico characteristics, viz., grain size, grain hardness, and nutritional quality, of the stored green gram seed. It has been observed that the use of the microwave-heating method not only prolongs the storage duration of the green gram seed but also enhances its nutritional quality. The effect of independent parameters, viz., microwave power level and time of exposure, on the moisture content, insect mortality, color, and antinutrient factor (phyic acid) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), with the optimized value for power of 808 W and time at 80 s. The optimally treated green gram seed has 8.9% moisture, 99.5% insect mortality, 2.22 Δa* (green color of seed), and 591.79 mg/100 g of antinutrient factor (phytic acid). The grain size (geometric mean diameter, D(m)) of the control (untreated) sample was 3.75 mm, and that of the microwave-treated sample using optimum conditions was 3.99 mm. The grain hardness of the control sample was 3.31 kg, and that of the microwave-treated sample using optimum conditions was 1.305 kg. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the control (untreated) sample was 83 ± 0.289%, and that of the microwave-treated sample using optimum conditions was 85 ± 0.296%. These values are significantly difference (p < 0.05). The mineral elements studied were Zn, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cu, K, Ca, and Na. The microwave treatment resulted in a non-significant (p < 0.05) effect for Mg, Mn, Cu, K, and Na but a significant (p < 0.05) effect for Zn, Ca, and Fe. The results indicate that the microwave heating not only increases the insect mortality but also reduces the moisture content and antinutritional factor (phytic acid), while the natural green color of the seed is not affected much. This study provides a novel and environmentally safe technique and increase in the nutritive quality.

  6. Impact of zinc application methods on green gram (Vigna radiata L.) productivity and grain zinc fortification.

    PubMed

    Roy, P Deb; Narwal, R P; Malik, R S; Saha, B N; Kumar, S

    2014-09-01

    Application of Zn @ 0, 5.5 kg, 22 kg Zn ha(-1), 0.1% Zn foliar application, 5.5 kg Zn + 0.1% Znspray, increased the yield, concentration and its uptake in seed and straw in all the green gram genotypes. However, combined application of 5.5 kg Zn ha(-1) + 0.1% Zn as foliar increased the straw yield by 56.4% and seed yield by 57%, which was the highest. Maximum Zn concentration in straw and seed (5.48 and 3.5 folds over control) was achieved when combined application of soil + foliar was made. Soil + foliar application of Zn increased the seed crude protein by 26.9% over control. Seed and straw Zn content showed a significant and positive correlation with all yield attributes except branches per plant. PMID:25204058

  7. Comparison of Activities and Properties of Pyrophosphate and Adenosine Triphosphate-Dependent Phosphofructokinases of Black Gram (Phaseolus mungo) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, H; Stupavska, S

    1984-09-01

    Both pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFKase, EC 2.7.1.90) and ATPdependent phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFKase, EC 2.7. 1.11) were present in dry and germinated black gram seeds. In the absence of fructose-2,6-biphosphate (F2,6BP), the activity of PPi-PFKase expressed as nmol · min(-1) · (pair of cotyledons)(-1) was much lower than that of ATP-PFKase in both dry and germinated seeds. However, PPi-PFKase was activated by F2,6BP and its activity reached the same level as ATP-PFKase activity. ATP-PFKase showed sigmoidal kinetics respective to fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), while PPi-PFKase exhibited hyperbolic kinetics in the presence of F2,6BP. The F6P concentration for half maximal activity of ATP-PFKase (1.5 mM) was nearly 5 times lower than that of PPi-PFKase (7.1 mM). The apparent Km values of PPi-PFKase for PPi and that of ATP-PFKase for ATP were 0.29 mM and 0.23 mM, respectively. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and citrate inhibited ATP-PFKase activity, but they did not affect PPi-PFKase activity. The activity of PPi-PFKase was inhibited by Pi, while only a little Pi inhibition was observed in the case of ATP-PFKase. These results suggest that the control mechanism of PPi-PFKase and that of ATP-PFKase are quite different. In contrast to pineapple leaves (Carnal, N. W. and C. C. Black, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 86, 20-26, 1979) and caster bean seedlings (Krugar et al., FEBS Lett. 153, 409-412, 1983), PPi-PFKase is not the predominant PFKase activity in black gram seeds.

  8. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  9. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers.

  10. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on germination, metabolism and early growth of green gram, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Liu, Haijun; Yu, Chan; Cai, Minmin

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the leguminous plant, Vigna radiata L. Seed germination, metabolism and early growth performance of V. radiata L. were studied as parameters by applying a combined approach. The employed combined method which included microcalorimetry and analysis of the root cross section revealed dose dependent effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on V. radiata L. for most parameters. Although significant reductions in measured parameters were observed even at low total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels such as 1 % and 1.5 %, calculated inhibitions, IC50 values and metabolic heat emission-time curves inferred that substantial negative effects can be expected on V. radiata L. in soils with comparatively high contamination levels, such as 2.5 % TPH and higher.

  11. The impact of foliar boron sprays on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nalini; Gupta, Bhavana

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted under glass house condition to study the effect of foliar application of boron (B) on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram (Vigna mungo). Black gram (V. mungo L. var. DPU-88-31) was grown under controlled sand culture condition at deficient and sufficient B levels. After 32 days of sowing B deficient plants were sprayed with three concentrations of B (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% borax) at three different stages of reproductive development, i.e. prior to flowering, initiation of bud formation and after bud formation. Deficient B supply decreased the anther and pollen size, pollen tube growth, pollen viability as well as stigmatic receptivity which were increased by foliar B application. Foliar spray at all the three concentrations and at all stages increased the yield parameters like number of pods, pod size and number of seeds formed per plant. Foliar B application also improved the seed yield and seed quality in terms of storage seed proteins (albumin, globulin, glutenin and prolamin) and carbohydrates (sugars and starch) in black gram. The foliar application of B in appropriate doses (particularly 0.1%) after bud formation made quantitative and qualitative improvement in seed yield of black gram by supplementing additional/critical B requirements for reproductive development. PMID:22947393

  12. Impact of Arsenic Toxicity on Black Gram and Its Amelioration Using Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of arsenic in soil and ground water is one of the most important environmental problems particularly in South-East Asia. Arsenic-polluted irrigation water creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) to arsenic with or without phosphate application was investigated. Arsenic-treated plants showed reduction in their growth and pigment content. Arsenic significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and level of proline showing oxidative stress. Arsenic toxicity was associated with an increase in the activities of antioxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase whereas catalase activity decreased at higher arsenic dose. Joint application of phosphate with arsenic resulted in significant alterations in most of the parameters tested under the purview of arsenic treatment alone which lead to better growth in black gram. PMID:23970978

  13. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), green gram (Vigna radiata), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as influenced by domestic food processing.

    PubMed

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-11-19

    Cereals (wheat and sorghum) and legumes (green gram and chickpea) commonly consumed in Asia and Africa were evaluated for polyphenolic content. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from these grains as influenced by domestic processing was also estimated. Total polyphenol content of wheat and sorghum was 1.20 and 1.12 mg/g respectively, which was increased by 49% and 20% respectively, on roasting. In contrast, a significant reduction of the same was observed in both the cereals after pressure-cooking, open-pan boiling, and microwave heating. Total flavonoids, which was 0.89 mg/g in native sorghum, reduced drastically after processing. Tannin content of both the cereals significantly increased on sprouting as well as roasting. Total polyphenol content reduced by 31% on sprouting but increased to 24% on roasting in green gram. Pressure-cooking (53%), open-pan boiling (64%), and microwave heating (>2-fold increase) significantly increased total polyphenol content in chickpea, while drastic reduction was observed in the total flavonoid content. Bioaccessible total polyphenols from these grains were in the following order: green gram > chickpea > wheat > sorghum. Domestic processing of these grains had minimal/no effect on the bioaccessible total flavonoid content. Not all the phenolic compounds present in them were bioaccessible. Concentration of bioaccessible phenolic compounds increased especially on sprouting and roasting of these grains, except chickpea, where sprouting significantly reduced the same (476 to 264 μg/g). Microwave heating significantly enhanced the concentration of bioaccessible polyphenols especially from chickpea. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible polyphenols from the cereals and legumes studied. PMID:25340251

  14. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), green gram (Vigna radiata), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as influenced by domestic food processing.

    PubMed

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-11-19

    Cereals (wheat and sorghum) and legumes (green gram and chickpea) commonly consumed in Asia and Africa were evaluated for polyphenolic content. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from these grains as influenced by domestic processing was also estimated. Total polyphenol content of wheat and sorghum was 1.20 and 1.12 mg/g respectively, which was increased by 49% and 20% respectively, on roasting. In contrast, a significant reduction of the same was observed in both the cereals after pressure-cooking, open-pan boiling, and microwave heating. Total flavonoids, which was 0.89 mg/g in native sorghum, reduced drastically after processing. Tannin content of both the cereals significantly increased on sprouting as well as roasting. Total polyphenol content reduced by 31% on sprouting but increased to 24% on roasting in green gram. Pressure-cooking (53%), open-pan boiling (64%), and microwave heating (>2-fold increase) significantly increased total polyphenol content in chickpea, while drastic reduction was observed in the total flavonoid content. Bioaccessible total polyphenols from these grains were in the following order: green gram > chickpea > wheat > sorghum. Domestic processing of these grains had minimal/no effect on the bioaccessible total flavonoid content. Not all the phenolic compounds present in them were bioaccessible. Concentration of bioaccessible phenolic compounds increased especially on sprouting and roasting of these grains, except chickpea, where sprouting significantly reduced the same (476 to 264 μg/g). Microwave heating significantly enhanced the concentration of bioaccessible polyphenols especially from chickpea. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible polyphenols from the cereals and legumes studied.

  15. Proximate composition and antinutritional factors in rice bean (Vigna umbellata).

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Malik, D; Dhindsa, K S

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen promising strains of Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) were analysed for their proximate compositions and antinutritional factors. Protein content in these varieties ranged from 17.50 to 23.10 per cent, ash from 3.06 to 4.48 per cent, ether extract from 2.4 to 3.9 per cent and crude fibre from 1.70 to 4.25 per cent. Trypsin inhibitor activity ranged from 112.63 to 163.98 units/g and polyphenols ranged from 0.58 to 1.19 per cent. Phytohemagglutinating activity was present in all the strains, except one, RB-32. Oligosaccharides, viz., raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, ranged from 0.32 to 0.91, 0.95 to 1.98 and 1.40 to 2.58 per cent, respectively. Attempts have been made to compare the results with a standard variety each of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), moong (Vigna radiata) and mash (Vigna mungo). PMID:3231596

  16. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program. PMID:26697053

  17. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program.

  18. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J.; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program. PMID:26697053

  19. Emerging tuberculosis pathogen hijacks social communication behavior in the group-living banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium mungi, a novel M. tuberculosis complex pathogen (MtbC), has emerged in wild banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. Unlike other members of the MtbC, M. mungi is not transmitted through a primary aerosol route. Rather, pathogen invasion occur...

  20. Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gram stain; Feces - Gram stain; Stool - Gram stain; Joint fluid - Gram stain; Pericardial fluid - Gram stain; Gram ... body to test. This could be from a joint, from the sac around your heart, or from ...

  1. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of the seven cultivated Vigna species (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    She, C-W; Jiang, X-H; Ou, L-J; Liu, J; Long, K-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, W-T; Zhao, W; Hu, J-C

    2015-01-01

    The genomic organisation of the seven cultivated Vigna species, V. unguiculata, V. subterranea, V. angularis, V. umbellata, V. radiata, V. mungo and V. aconitifolia, was determined using sequential combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. For phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomic in situ hybridisation (cGISH) onto somatic chromosomes and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 45S rDNA were used. Quantitative karyotypes were established using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands and rDNA FISH signals. All species had symmetrical karyotypes composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Distinct heterochromatin differentiation was revealed by CPD staining and DAPI counterstaining after FISH. The rDNA sites among all species differed in their number, location and size. cGISH of V. umbellata genomic DNA to the chromosomes of all species produced strong signals in all centromeric regions of V. umbellata and V. angularis, weak signals in all pericentromeric regions of V. aconitifolia, and CPD-banded proximal regions of V. mungo var. mungo. Molecular phylogenetic trees showed that V. angularis and V. umbellata were the closest relatives, and V. mungo and V. aconitifolia were relatively closely related; these species formed a group that was separated from another group comprising V. radiata, V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis and V. subterranea. This result was consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the heterochromatin and cGISH patterns; thus, fluorochrome banding and cGISH are efficient tools for the phylogenetic analysis of Vigna species.

  2. Gram staining.

    PubMed

    Coico, R

    2001-05-01

    Named after Hans Christian Gram who developed the method in 1884, the Gram stain allows one to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of differential staining with a crystal violet-iodine complex and a safranin counterstain. The cell walls of Gram-positive organisms retain this complex after treatment with alcohol and appear purple, whereas gram-negative organisms decolorize following such treatment and appear pink. The method described here is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  3. Gram staining.

    PubMed

    Coico, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Named after Hans Christian Gram who developed the method in 1884, the Gram stain allows one to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of differential staining with a crystal violet-iodine complex and a safranin counterstain. The cell walls of Gram-positive organisms retain this complex after treatment with alcohol and appear purple, whereas gram-negative organisms decolorize following such treatment and appear pink. The method described here is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  4. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Vigna Savi germplasm revealed by DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Simon, M V; Benko-Iseppon, A-M; Resende, L V; Winter, P; Kahl, G

    2007-06-01

    The pantropical genus Vigna (Leguminosae) comprises 7 cultivated species that are adapted to a wide range of extreme agroclimatic conditions. Few data are available on the relationships among these cultivated species or on their importance as sources of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, we optimized DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) to estimate the genetic diversity within, and genetic relationships among, a representative core collection of cowpea, as compared with 16 accessions representing cultivars from 6 Vigna species. A set of 26 primers was selected from 262 tested random primers and used for the characterization of 85 Vigna accessions (6 V. angularis, 4 each of V. mungo and V. radiata, 2 V. umbellata, 1 V. aconitifolia, and 68 V. unguiculata), with Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. vulgaris as outgroup. A total of 212 polymorphic bands were used for maximum parsimony analysis. Our results clearly distinguished Brazilian from African V. unguiculata genotypes. At the species level, V. angularis was the most related and V. radiata the most divergent species relative to V. unguiculata. DAF markers were also informative at the intraspecific level, detecting a large diversity between cowpea cultivars. The implications of the presented results for cowpea breeding programs are discussed.

  5. Gram Stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... definitively identify the cause of infection. Fungi , including yeast, may also be detected with a Gram stain. ^ ... white blood cells Fungi (in the form of yeasts or molds) may be seen on a Gram ...

  6. The impact of health status on dispersal behavior in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo).

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Bonnie M; Hawley, Dana M; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2014-06-01

    While disease and injury have obvious impacts on mortality, they can have less understood non-lethal impacts on behavior. These behavioral effects might have a significant consequences for population-level disease dynamics if diseased individuals are more or less likely to disperse. We opportunistically observed dispersal events in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) that were either healthy or unhealthy due to injury and/or clinical signs of a novel tuberculosis pathogen, Mycobacterium mungi. We found that diseased and/or injured mongooses were significantly less likely to disperse than healthy individuals, suggesting that disease may have an important consequences for dispersal that could in turn affect population-level disease dynamics. PMID:24504905

  7. Detection and characterization of p-coumaric acid hydroxylase in mung bean, Vigna mungo, seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kojima, M; Takeuchi, W

    1989-02-01

    A new p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) hydroxylase was detected in mung bean seedlings treated with tentoxin, a fungal toxin, in which polyphenol oxidase that hydroxylates a wide variety of monophenols in vitro was completely eliminated. The enzyme required molecular oxygen and showed a pH optimum of 5.0. The enzyme acted only on p-coumaric acid (Km, 3.0 X 10(-5) M), while its specificity for the electron donor was rather broad. The Km value for NADPH (1.5 X 10(-4) M) was much lower than that for L-ascorbic acid (1.0 X 10(-2) M), although the Vmax value was almost the same with both electron donors. The enzyme was potently inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol (Ki, 3.5 X 10(-6) M) and diethyldithiocarbamate (Ki, 2.3 X 10(-4) M), but was insensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoate. The enzyme was localized in the cell organelles which sedimented between mitochondria and endplasmic reticulum on sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The enzyme activity in the seedling was changed in response to induction by light in a manner suggesting its involvement in biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in mung bean seedlings.

  8. Genetic assessment of traits and genetic relationship in blackgram (Vigna mungo) revealed by isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Shukla, Arvind

    2009-08-01

    Sixty blackgram accessions were evaluated and classified into different clusters to assess genetic diversity and traits using isoenzymes. Trait-specific expression was assessed, and isoenzyme bands were observed: a peroxidase band (Rm 0.60) associated with dwarfness and an esterase band (Rm 0.25) with tallness. Early maturing varieties were characterized by a specific esterase isoenzyme band of Rm 0.51. All yellow mosaic virus susceptible genotypes had two bands of esterase isoenzyme, Rm 0.42 and 0.70. Resistant genotypes showed three bands (0.32, 0.33, and 0.35) of alkaline phosphatase. Peroxidase isoenzyme was helpful to differentiate green-seeded from black-seeded varieties. Two bands (0.58 and 0.83) were observed in black-seeded accessions, and two different bands (0.74 and 0.76) were observed in green-seeded accessions. Clustering of germplasm and assessment of traits will facilitate the use of germplasm for the improvement of blackgram.

  9. Emerging Tuberculosis Pathogen Hijacks Social Communication Behavior in the Group-Living Banded Mongoose (Mungos mungo)

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Claire E.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Williams, Mark C.; Palmer, Mitchell V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An emerging Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) pathogen, M. mungi, infects wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. This MTC pathogen did not appear to be transmitted through a primary aerosol or oral route. We utilized histopathology, spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and molecular markers (regions of difference [RDs] from various MTC members, including region of difference 1 [RD1] from M. bovis BCG [RD1BCG], M. microti [RD1mic], and M. pinnipedii [RD1seal], genes Rv1510 [RD4], Rv1970 [RD7], Rv3877/8 [RD1], and Rv3120 [RD12], insertion element IS1561, the 16S RNA gene, and gene Rv0577 [cfp32]), including the newly characterized mongoose-specific deletion in RD1 (RD1mon), in order to demonstrate the presence of M. mungi DNA in infected mongooses and investigate pathogen invasion and exposure mechanisms. M. mungi DNA was identified in 29% of nasal planum samples (n = 52), 56% of nasal rinses and swabs (n = 9), 53% of oral swabs (n = 19), 22% of urine samples (n = 23), 33% of anal gland tissue (n = 18), and 39% of anal gland secretions (n = 44). The occurrence of extremely low cycle threshold values obtained with qPCR in anal gland and nasal planum samples indicates that high levels of M. mungi can be found in these tissue types. Histological data were consistent with these results, suggesting that pathogen invasion occurs through breaks in the nasal planum and/or skin of the mongoose host, which are in frequent contact with anal gland secretions and urine during olfactory communication behavior. Lesions in the lung, when present, occurred only with disseminated disease. No environmental sources of M. mungi DNA could be found. We report primary environmental transmission of an MTC pathogen that occurs in association with social communication behavior. PMID:27165798

  10. Segmental concatenation of individual signatures and context cues in banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) close calls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All animals are anatomically constrained in the number of discrete call types they can produce. Recent studies suggest that by combining existing calls into meaningful sequences, animals can increase the information content of their vocal repertoire despite these constraints. Additionally, signalers can use vocal signatures or cues correlated to other individual traits or contexts to increase the information encoded in their vocalizations. However, encoding multiple vocal signatures or cues using the same components of vocalizations usually reduces the signals' reliability. Segregation of information could effectively circumvent this trade-off. In this study we investigate how banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) encode multiple vocal signatures or cues in their frequently emitted graded single syllable close calls. Results The data for this study were collected on a wild, but habituated, population of banded mongooses. Using behavioral observations and acoustical analysis we found that close calls contain two acoustically different segments. The first being stable and individually distinct, and the second being graded and correlating with the current behavior of the individual, whether it is digging, searching or moving. This provides evidence of Marler's hypothesis on temporal segregation of information within a single syllable call type. Additionally, our work represents an example of an identity cue integrated as a discrete segment within a single call that is independent from context. This likely functions to avoid ambiguity between individuals or receivers having to keep track of several context-specific identity cues. Conclusions Our study provides the first evidence of segmental concatenation of information within a single syllable in non-human vocalizations. By reviewing descriptions of call structures in the literature, we suggest a general application of this mechanism. Our study indicates that temporal segregation and segmental concatenation of

  11. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  12. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

  13. Meningitis - gram-negative

    MedlinePlus

    Gram-negative meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Meningococcal and H. influenzae meningitis are caused by Gram-negative bacteria and are covered in detail in other articles. This article ...

  14. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, James M.; Johnston, Harvey; Olley, Jon M.; Prescott, John R.; Roberts, Richard G.; Shawcross, Wilfred; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2003-02-01

    Australia's oldest human remains, found at Lake Mungo, include the world's oldest ritual ochre burial (Mungo III) and the first recorded cremation (Mungo I). Until now, the importance of these finds has been constrained by limited chronologies and palaeoenvironmental information. Mungo III, the source of the world's oldest human mitochondrial DNA, has been variously estimated at 30 thousand years (kyr) old, 42-45kyr old and 62 +/- 6kyr old, while radiocarbon estimates placed the Mungo I cremation near 20-26kyr ago. Here we report a new series of 25 optical ages showing that both burials occurred at 40 +/- 2kyr ago and that humans were present at Lake Mungo by 50-46kyr ago, synchronously with, or soon after, initial occupation of northern and western Australia. Stratigraphic evidence indicates fluctuations between lake-full and drier conditions from 50 to 40kyr ago, simultaneously with increased dust deposition, human arrival and continent-wide extinction of the megafauna. This was followed by sustained aridity between 40 and 30kyr ago. This new chronology corrects previous estimates for human burials at this important site and provides a new picture of Homo sapiens adapting to deteriorating climate in the world's driest inhabited continent.

  15. Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Santi; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Amit K; Das, Amit; Pati, Bikas R; Pati, Bikas; Ghosh, Ananta K; Ghosh, Ananta

    2009-04-01

    The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium).

  16. Do not feed the wildlife: associations between garbage use, aggression, and disease in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo).

    PubMed

    Flint, Bonnie Fairbanks; Hawley, Dana M; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    Urbanization and other human modifications of the landscape may indirectly affect disease dynamics by altering host behavior in ways that influence pathogen transmission. Few opportunities arise to investigate behaviorally mediated effects of human habitat modification in natural host-pathogen systems, but we provide a potential example of this phenomenon in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo), a social mammal. Our banded mongoose study population in Botswana is endemically infected with a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi, that primarily invades the mongoose host through the nasal planum and breaks in the skin. In this system, several study troops have access to human garbage sites and other modified landscapes for foraging. Banded mongooses in our study site (N = 4 troops, ~130 individuals) had significantly higher within-troop aggression levels when foraging in garbage compared to other foraging habitats. Second, monthly rates of aggression were a significant predictor of monthly number of injuries in troops. Finally, injured individuals had a 75% incidence of clinical tuberculosis (TB) compared to a 0% incidence in visibly uninjured mongooses during the study period. Our data suggest that mongoose troops that forage in garbage may be at greater risk of acquiring TB by incurring injuries that may allow for pathogen invasion. Our study suggests the need to consider the indirect effects of garbage on behavior and wildlife health when developing waste management approaches in human-modified areas. PMID:27547366

  17. Do not feed the wildlife: associations between garbage use, aggression, and disease in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo).

    PubMed

    Flint, Bonnie Fairbanks; Hawley, Dana M; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    Urbanization and other human modifications of the landscape may indirectly affect disease dynamics by altering host behavior in ways that influence pathogen transmission. Few opportunities arise to investigate behaviorally mediated effects of human habitat modification in natural host-pathogen systems, but we provide a potential example of this phenomenon in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo), a social mammal. Our banded mongoose study population in Botswana is endemically infected with a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi, that primarily invades the mongoose host through the nasal planum and breaks in the skin. In this system, several study troops have access to human garbage sites and other modified landscapes for foraging. Banded mongooses in our study site (N = 4 troops, ~130 individuals) had significantly higher within-troop aggression levels when foraging in garbage compared to other foraging habitats. Second, monthly rates of aggression were a significant predictor of monthly number of injuries in troops. Finally, injured individuals had a 75% incidence of clinical tuberculosis (TB) compared to a 0% incidence in visibly uninjured mongooses during the study period. Our data suggest that mongoose troops that forage in garbage may be at greater risk of acquiring TB by incurring injuries that may allow for pathogen invasion. Our study suggests the need to consider the indirect effects of garbage on behavior and wildlife health when developing waste management approaches in human-modified areas.

  18. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  19. Phytotoxic effects of chromium and tannery effluent on growth and metabolism of Phaseolus mungo Roxb.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamlesh; Singh, Dharam; Shyam, Shilpa; Sharma, Y K

    2009-03-01

    The various dilution levels of treated tannery effluent (T.E.) (10, 25, 50 and 100%) and Cr6+ (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 10 ppm) were used in experiment to know their effect on seed germination, seedling growth, pigments and enzymes content in Black gram (Phaseolus mungo Roxb.). Chromium is known as the main toxic component of tannery effluent so its various concentration were given to know their effects. For the recovery of plant damage, protective value of 10 and 25 ppm of zinc, potassium and iron sulphate were also given with 50% treated tannery effluent and 10 ppm Cr6+ levels in separate petridishes. The different concentrations of tannery effluent and Cr6+ showed significant reduction in germination percentage, seedling growth (plumule and radicle length, number of lateral roots, fresh and dry weight, and moisture %) and pigments (chlorophyll, pheophytin and carotenoids) with increase in concentrations. The lower doses of tannery effluent (10%) and Cr6+ (0.5, 2 and 5 ppm) slightly increases the pigments concentration. The amylase activity and total sugar contents were also significantly decreased while catalase and peroxidase activity showed significant increase with rise in concentrations of treatments. The lower concentrations of tannery effluent (dilution 10 and 25%) and Cr6+ (0.5 and 2 ppm) showed significant increase in total protein contents while decrease at higher concentrations. The zinc, potassium and iron treatments led to recover the damage caused by chromium and tannery effluent in all parameters. In recovery treatments zinc showed highest and significant recovery in maximum parameters. Iron also showed almost similar effect to the zinc while potassium showed minimum recovery.

  20. Cowpox Virus Outbreak in Banded Mongooses (Mungos mungo) and Jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) with a Time-Delayed Infection to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Straube, Martin; Kuczka, Annette; Dunsche, Anton Josef; Meyer, Hermann; Nitsche, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Background Often described as an extremely rare zoonosis, cowpox virus (CPXV) infections are on the increase in Germany. CPXV is rodent-borne with a broad host range and contains the largest and most complete genome of all poxviruses, including parts with high homology to variola virus (smallpox). So far, most CPXV cases have occurred individually in unvaccinated animals and humans and were caused by genetically distinguishable virus strains. Methodology/Principal Findings Generalized CPXV infections in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) and jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) at a Zoological Garden were observed with a prevalence of the affected animal group of 100% and a mortality of 30%. A subsequent serological investigation of other exotic animal species provided evidence of subclinical cases before the onset of the outbreak. Moreover, a time-delayed human cowpox virus infection caused by the identical virus strain occurred in a different geographical area indicating that handling/feeding food rats might be the common source of infection. Conclusions/Significance Reports on the increased zoonotic transmission of orthopoxviruses have renewed interest in understanding interactions between these viruses and their hosts. The list of animals known to be susceptible to CPXV is still growing. Thus, the likely existence of unknown CPXV hosts and their distribution may present a risk for other exotic animals but also for the general public, as was shown in this outbreak. Animal breeders and suppliers of food rats represent potential multipliers and distributors of CPXV, in the context of increasingly pan-European trading. Taking the cessation of vaccination against smallpox into account, this situation contributes to the increased incidence of CPXV infections in man, particularly in younger age groups, with more complicated courses of clinical infections. PMID:19727399

  1. Evaluation of the antioxidant and melanogenesis inhibitory properties of pracparatum mungo (lu-do huang).

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions.

  2. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Melanogenesis Inhibitory Properties of Pracparatum Mungo (Lu-Do Huang)

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions. PMID:24716173

  3. Endocervical gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Endocervical Gram stain is a method to identify bacteria on tissue from the cervix using a special series of stains. ... a slide. A series of stains called a Gram stain is applied to the ... presence of bacteria. The color, size, and shape of the cells ...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    PubMed

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  5. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  6. The GRAM-3 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) is under continuous development and improvement. GRAM data were compared with Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) predictions and with shuttle data. An important note: Users should employ only step sizes in altitude that give vertical density gradients consistent with shuttle-derived density data. Using too small a vertical step size (finer then 1 km) will result in what appears to be unreasonably high values of density shears but what in reality is noise in the model.

  7. Gram stain of urethral discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Urethral discharge Gram stain ... microscope slide. A series of stains called a Gram stain is applied to the specimen. The stained ... culture ) should be performed in addition to the gram stain. More sophisticated diagnostic tests (such as PCR ...

  8. Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrum, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    GRAM series of four-dimensional atmospheric model validated by years of data. GRAM program, still available. More current are Gram 86, which includes atmospheric data from 1986 and runs on DEC VAX, and GRAM 88, which runs on IBM 3084. Program generates altitude profiles of atmospheric parameters along any simulated trajectory through atmosphere, and also useful for global circulation and diffusion studies.

  9. Think (Gram) negative!

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main driver of antibiotic resistance, which again increases broad spectrum antibiotic use, resulting in a vicious circle that is difficult to interrupt. The present commentary highlights important findings of a surveillance study of antimicrobial use and resistance in German ICUs over 8 years with a focus on Gram-negative resistance. PMID:20587087

  10. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jaewook; Park, Jaesung; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-04-01

    Like mammalian cells, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria release nano-sized membrane vesicles into the extracellular environment either in a constitutive manner or in a regulated manner. These bacterial extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids enriched with bioactive proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and virulence factors. Recent progress in this field supports the critical pathophysiological functions of these vesicles in both bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. This review provides an overview of the current understanding on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles, especially regarding the biogenesis, components, and functions in poly-species communities. We hope that this review will stimulate additional research in this emerging field of bacterial extracellular vesicles and contribute to the development of extracellular vesicle-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines against pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  12. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. PMID:26463703

  13. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain.

  14. Draft genome sequence of adzuki bean, Vigna angularis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jae; Satyawan, Dani; Shim, Sangrea; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Hwang, Won Joo; Kim, Sue K; Lestari, Puji; Laosatit, Kularb; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Tae Joung; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kim, Moon Young; Ko, Jong-Min; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Varshney, Rajeev K; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2015-01-28

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) is a dietary legume crop in East Asia. The presumed progenitor (Vigna angularis var. nipponensis) is widely found in East Asia, suggesting speciation and domestication in these temperate climate regions. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of adzuki bean. The genome assembly covers 75% of the estimated genome and was mapped to 11 pseudo-chromosomes. Gene prediction revealed 26,857 high confidence protein-coding genes evidenced by RNAseq of different tissues. Comparative gene expression analysis with V. radiata showed that the tissue specificity of orthologous genes was highly conserved. Additional re-sequencing of wild adzuki bean, V. angularis var. nipponensis, and V. nepalensis, was performed to analyze the variations between cultivated and wild adzuki bean. The determined divergence time of adzuki bean and the wild species predated archaeology-based domestication time. The present genome assembly will accelerate the genomics-assisted breeding of adzuki bean.

  15. Draft genome sequence of adzuki bean, Vigna angularis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jae; Satyawan, Dani; Shim, Sangrea; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Hwang, Won Joo; Kim, Sue K; Lestari, Puji; Laosatit, Kularb; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Tae Joung; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kim, Moon Young; Ko, Jong-Min; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Varshney, Rajeev K; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) is a dietary legume crop in East Asia. The presumed progenitor (Vigna angularis var. nipponensis) is widely found in East Asia, suggesting speciation and domestication in these temperate climate regions. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of adzuki bean. The genome assembly covers 75% of the estimated genome and was mapped to 11 pseudo-chromosomes. Gene prediction revealed 26,857 high confidence protein-coding genes evidenced by RNAseq of different tissues. Comparative gene expression analysis with V. radiata showed that the tissue specificity of orthologous genes was highly conserved. Additional re-sequencing of wild adzuki bean, V. angularis var. nipponensis, and V. nepalensis, was performed to analyze the variations between cultivated and wild adzuki bean. The determined divergence time of adzuki bean and the wild species predated archaeology-based domestication time. The present genome assembly will accelerate the genomics-assisted breeding of adzuki bean. PMID:25626881

  16. The tropics and the rise of the British Empire: Mungo Park's perspective on Africa in the late eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Viana, Larissa

    2011-03-01

    The young Scottish physician Mungo Park, aged 23, arrived in Africa in 1795 with a mission as specific as it was complex in those bygone days, namely to travel the entire length of the River Niger. In 1799, the story of this journey was published in a book that sold 1500 copies in the first month alone, with two further editions published that same year, as well as the translation of the work into French and German the following year. In this article, the narrative of Mungo Park is examined by taking due consideration of the relationship between the tropics, science and travel in the early days of British expansionism into the heart of Africa.

  17. Differential staining of bacteria: gram stain.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    In 1884, Hans Christian Gram, a Danish doctor, developed a differential staining technique that is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic division. This multistep, sequential staining protocol separates bacteria into four groups based on cell morphology and cell wall structure: Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Gram-positive rods, and Gram-negative rods. The Gram stain is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  18. Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Blocker, Rhonda; Justus, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    4D model provides atmospheric parameter values either automatically at positions along linear path or along any set of connected positions specified by user. Based on actual data, GRAM provides thermal wind shear for monthly mean winds, percent deviation from standard atmosphere, mean vertical wind, and perturbation data for each position.

  19. Mr. Conkin's Special Happy Grams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conkin, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    In order to provide closer personal contact between principal and students, author initiated a program of Special Happy Grams given by the principal in recognition of special efforts in good behavior, growth of independence, academic achievement, and originality. (Author/RK)

  20. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  1. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Yu; Muto, Chiaki; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops. PMID:27736995

  2. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2012-05-01

    A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase.

  3. Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liou, Kun-Pei; Huang, Bow-Shin; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1) and two new isoflavones (2,3) were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23), abscisic acid (25), and quercetin (40) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. PMID:22949828

  4. The Mungo Mega-Lake Event, Semi-Arid Australia: Non-Linear Descent into the Last Ice Age, Implications for Human Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Stern, Nicola; Murray-Wallace, Colin V; Truscott, William; Pop, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    The Willandra Lakes complex is one of the few locations in semi-arid Australia to preserve both paleoenvironmental and Paleolithic archeological archives at high resolution. The stratigraphy of transverse lunette dunes on the lakes' downwind margins record a late Quaternary sequence of wetting and drying. Within the Willandra system, the Lake Mungo lunette is best known for its preservation of the world's oldest known ritual burials, and high densities of archeological traces documenting human adaptation to changing environmental conditions over the last 45 ka. Here we identify evidence at Lake Mungo for a previously unrecognised short-lived, very high lake filling phase at 24 ka, just prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. Mega-lake Mungo was up to 5 m deeper than preceding or subsequent lake full events and represented a lake volume increase of almost 250%. Lake Mungo was linked with neighboring Lake Leaghur at two overflow points, creating an island from the northern part of the Mungo lunette. This event was most likely caused by a pulse of high catchment rainfall and runoff, combined with neotectonic activity which may have warped the lake basin. It indicates a non-linear transition to more arid ice age conditions. The mega-lake restricted mobility for people living in the area, yet archeological traces indicate that humans rapidly adapted to the new conditions. People repeatedly visited the island, transporting stone tools across water and exploiting food resources stranded there. They either swam or used watercraft to facilitate access to the island and across the lake. Since there is no evidence for watercraft use in Australia between initial colonization of the continent prior to 45 ka and the mid-Holocene, repeated visits to the island may represent a resurrection of waterfaring technologies following a hiatus of at least 20 ky.

  5. The Mungo Mega-Lake Event, Semi-Arid Australia: Non-Linear Descent into the Last Ice Age, Implications for Human Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Stern, Nicola; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.; Truscott, William; Pop, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    The Willandra Lakes complex is one of the few locations in semi-arid Australia to preserve both paleoenvironmental and Paleolithic archeological archives at high resolution. The stratigraphy of transverse lunette dunes on the lakes’ downwind margins record a late Quaternary sequence of wetting and drying. Within the Willandra system, the Lake Mungo lunette is best known for its preservation of the world’s oldest known ritual burials, and high densities of archeological traces documenting human adaptation to changing environmental conditions over the last 45 ka. Here we identify evidence at Lake Mungo for a previously unrecognised short-lived, very high lake filling phase at 24 ka, just prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. Mega-lake Mungo was up to 5 m deeper than preceding or subsequent lake full events and represented a lake volume increase of almost 250%. Lake Mungo was linked with neighboring Lake Leaghur at two overflow points, creating an island from the northern part of the Mungo lunette. This event was most likely caused by a pulse of high catchment rainfall and runoff, combined with neotectonic activity which may have warped the lake basin. It indicates a non-linear transition to more arid ice age conditions. The mega-lake restricted mobility for people living in the area, yet archeological traces indicate that humans rapidly adapted to the new conditions. People repeatedly visited the island, transporting stone tools across water and exploiting food resources stranded there. They either swam or used watercraft to facilitate access to the island and across the lake. Since there is no evidence for watercraft use in Australia between initial colonization of the continent prior to 45 ka and the mid-Holocene, repeated visits to the island may represent a resurrection of waterfaring technologies following a hiatus of at least 20 ky. PMID:26083665

  6. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  7. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  8. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  9. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Jackson, Scott A; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2014-11-11

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis.

  10. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K.; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Jackson, Scott A.; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis. PMID:25384727

  11. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  12. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. PMID:26644460

  13. Just What Is a Gram, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.; Whitfield, Kathleen F.

    1992-01-01

    Authors have found that students have experience with metric units for volume and length; however, students have difficulty conceptualizing mass measurements in terms of grams and kilograms. Presents an activity, "Mass Appeal," where students use an equal arm balance to become familiar with the gram. (PR)

  14. Modeling Martian Dust Using Mars-GRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: TES Mapping Years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from MGCM model results driven by observed TES dust optical depth TES Mapping Year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES).

  15. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories. PMID:26888900

  16. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories.

  17. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2014-07-01

    The investigation was carried out to study the effect of halopriming on NaCl and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) induced stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties, with varied abiotic stress tolerance potential. Halopriming is a seed priming technique in which the seeds were soaked in various salt solutions (in this study NaCl was used). The results of the study indicated that the application of stresses (both NaCl and PEG) induced retardation of growth attributes (measured in terms of shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight) and decrease in physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, metabolites, photosynthetic and mitochondrial activity of the seedlings in all three V. radiata (L.) varieties. However, halopriming of the seeds could reduce the extent of decrease in these biological attributes. NaCl and PEG stress also caused increase in MDA content (a product of membrane lipid peroxidation) in all the varieties studied and this increase was significantly minimized under halopriming. From the present investigation it was evident that among the green gram varieties studied, Pusa Vishal, a NaCl tolerant variety showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress, when the seeds were subjected to halopriming followed by Pusa Ratna (stress sensitive variety). Pusa 9531 (drought tolerant variety) also showed positive halopriming effects but it was less significant when compared to other two varieties. It could be concluded that halopriming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all varieties and it was significantly higher in the Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa 9531 and Pusa Ratna.

  18. Earth GRAM-99 and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. No current need to update GRAM constituent climatology in that height range was identified. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to

  19. Gram staining for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Takeda, Kazuya; Yoshii, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Inohara, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether Gram staining can influence the choice of antibiotic for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess. Methods. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 57 cases of peritonsillar abscess were analyzed with regard to cultured bacteria and Gram staining. Results. Only aerobes were cultured in 16% of cases, and only anaerobes were cultured in 51% of cases. Mixed growth of aerobes and anaerobes was observed in 21% of cases. The cultured bacteria were mainly aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Phagocytosis of bacteria on Gram staining was observed in 9 cases. The bacteria cultured from these cases were aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. The sensitivity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 90% and 64%, respectively. The specificity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 62% and 76%, respectively. Most of the Gram-positive cocci were sensitive to penicillin, but some of anaerobic Gram-negative rods were resistant to penicillin. Conclusion. When Gram staining shows only Gram-positive cocci, penicillin is the treatment of choice. In other cases, antibiotics effective for the penicillin-resistant organisms should be used.

  20. Evolving resistance among Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Munita, Jose M; Bayer, Arnold S; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-09-15

    Antimicrobial therapy is a key component of modern medical practice and a cornerstone for the development of complex clinical interventions in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance is now recognized as a major public health threat jeopardizing the care of thousands of patients worldwide. Gram-positive pathogens exhibit an immense genetic repertoire to adapt and develop resistance to virtually all antimicrobials clinically available. As more molecules become available to treat resistant gram-positive infections, resistance emerges as an evolutionary response. Thus, antimicrobial resistance has to be envisaged as an evolving phenomenon that demands constant surveillance and continuous efforts to identify emerging mechanisms of resistance to optimize the use of antibiotics and create strategies to circumvent this problem. Here, we will provide a broad perspective on the clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance in relevant gram-positive pathogens with emphasis on the mechanistic strategies used by these organisms to avoid being killed by commonly used antimicrobial agents.

  1. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

  2. Computational Identification of Novel MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS) databases of Vigna unguiculata, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 47 miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNA families were identified, and 30 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in Vigna unguiculata.

  3. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume.

  4. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation.

    PubMed

    Difo, V H; Onyike, E; Ameh, D A; Njoku, G C; Ndidi, U S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work. PMID:26345026

  5. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  6. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  7. Gram staining with an automatic machine.

    PubMed

    Felek, S; Arslan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new Gram-staining machine controlled by a micro-controller and to investigate the quality of slides that were stained in the machine. The machine was designed and produced by the authors. It uses standard 220 V AC. Staining, washing, and drying periods are controlled by a timer built in the micro-controller. A software was made that contains a certain algorithm and time intervals for the staining mode. One-hundred and forty smears were prepared from Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria sp., blood culture, trypticase soy broth, direct pus and sputum smears for comparison studies. Half of the slides in each group were stained with the machine, the other half by hand and then examined by four different microbiologists. Machine-stained slides had a higher clarity and less debris than the hand-stained slides (p < 0.05). In hand-stained slides, some Gram-positive organisms showed poor Gram-positive staining features (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that Gram staining with the automatic machine increases the staining quality and helps to decrease the work load in a busy diagnostic laboratory.

  8. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  9. Gram's Trunk. Curriculum Guides for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert Hoover Presidential Library-Museum, West Branch, IA.

    This story and activities are intended to motivate students, grades K-8, to investigate history. The story "Gram's Trunk"-- is about a family's memories being saved by the grandmother, and about her daughter and granddaughter visiting her to look at the objects stored in the trunk. The activities are varied, but nearly all have to do with the…

  10. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  11. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  12. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar.

  13. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar. PMID:24867807

  14. Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Jack, R W; Tagg, J R; Ray, B

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, a group of antibacterial proteins produced by gram-positive bacteria have attracted great interest in their potential use as food preservatives and as antibacterial agents to combat certain infections due to gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. They are ribosomally synthesized peptides of 30 to less than 60 amino acids, with a narrow to wide antibacterial spectrum against gram-positive bacteria; the antibacterial property is heat stable, and a producer strain displays a degree of specific self-protection against its own antibacterial peptide. In many respects, these proteins are quite different from the colicins and other bacteriocins produced by gram-negative bacteria, yet customarily they also are grouped as bacteriocins. Although a large number of these bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) have been reported, only a few have been studied in detail for their mode of action, amino acid sequence, genetic characteristics, and biosynthesis mechanisms. Nevertheless, in general, they appear to be translated as inactive prepeptides containing an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal propeptide component. During posttranslational modifications, the leader peptide is removed. In addition, depending on the particular type, some amino acids in the propeptide components may undergo either dehydration and thioether ring formation to produce lanthionine and beta-methyl lanthionine (as in lantibiotics) or thio ester ring formation to form cystine (as in thiolbiotics). Some of these steps, as well as the translocation of the molecules through the cytoplasmic membrane and producer self-protection against the homologous bacteriocin, are mediated through specific proteins (enzymes). Limited genetic studies have shown that the structural gene for such a bacteriocin and the genes encoding proteins associated with immunity, translocation, and processing are present in a cluster in either a plasmid, the chromosome, or a transposon. Following

  15. Electrochemical classification of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Nakajima, T

    1985-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria were classified as gram-positive or gram-negative by an electrode system with a basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and a porous nitrocellulose membrane filter to trap bacteria. When the potential of the graphite electrode was run in the range of 0 to 1.0 V versus the saturated calomel electrode (SCE), gram-positive bacteria gave peak currents at 0.65 to 0.69 V versus the SCE. The peak potentials of gram-negative bacteria were 0.70 to 0.74 V versus the SCE. Gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria were also classified based on the ratio of the second peak current to the first peak current when the potential cycle was repeated twice. The numbers of cells on the membrane filter were determined from the peak currents. It was found that the peak currents result from the electrochemical oxidation of coenzyme A in the cells of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Images PMID:3931548

  16. Pili in gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Telford, John L; Barocchi, Michèle A; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido

    2006-07-01

    Most bacterial pathogens have long filamentous structures known as pili or fimbriae extending from their surface. These structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of the bacteria to host tissues during colonization. In gram-negative bacteria, pili are typically formed by non-covalent interactions between pilin subunits. By contrast, the recently discovered pili in gram-positive pathogens are formed by covalent polymerization of adhesive pilin subunits. Evidence from studies of pili in the three principal streptococcal pathogens of humans indicates that the genes that encode the pilin subunits and the enzymes that are required for the assembly of these subunits into pili have been acquired en bloc by the horizontal transfer of a pathogenicity island.

  17. Evolving Resistance Among Gram-positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Munita, Jose M.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a key component of modern medical practice and a cornerstone for the development of complex clinical interventions in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance is now recognized as a major public health threat jeopardizing the care of thousands of patients worldwide. Gram-positive pathogens exhibit an immense genetic repertoire to adapt and develop resistance to virtually all antimicrobials clinically available. As more molecules become available to treat resistant gram-positive infections, resistance emerges as an evolutionary response. Thus, antimicrobial resistance has to be envisaged as an evolving phenomenon that demands constant surveillance and continuous efforts to identify emerging mechanisms of resistance to optimize the use of antibiotics and create strategies to circumvent this problem. Here, we will provide a broad perspective on the clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance in relevant gram-positive pathogens with emphasis on the mechanistic strategies used by these organisms to avoid being killed by commonly used antimicrobial agents. PMID:26316558

  18. Differential effects of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial products on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Ninkovic; Vidhu, Anand; Raini, Dutta; Zhang, Li; Saluja, Anuj; Meng, Jingjing; Lisa, Koodie; Santanu, Banerjee; Sabita, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Opioid drug abusers have a greater susceptibility to gram positive (Gram (+)) bacterial infections. However, the mechanism underlying opioid modulation of Gram (+) versus Gram (−) bacterial clearance has not been investigated. In this study, we show that opioid treatment resulted in reduced phagocytosis of Gram (+), when compared to Gram (−) bacteria. We further established that LPS priming of chronic morphine treated macrophages leads to potentiated phagocytosis and killing of both Gram (+) and Gram (−) bacteria in a P-38 MAP kinase dependent signaling pathway. In contrast, LTA priming lead to inhibition of both phagocytosis and bacterial killing. This study demonstrates for the first time the differential effects of TLR4 and TLR2 agonists on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis. Our results suggest that the incidence and severity of secondary infections with Gram (+) bacteria would be higher in opioid abusers. PMID:26891899

  19. Differential effects of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial products on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ninkovic, Jana; Jana, Ninkovic; Anand, Vidhu; Vidhu, Anand; Dutta, Raini; Raini, Dutta; Zhang, Li; Saluja, Anuj; Meng, Jingjing; Koodie, Lisa; Lisa, Koodie; Banerjee, Santanu; Santanu, Banerjee; Roy, Sabita; Sabita, Roy

    2016-02-19

    Opioid drug abusers have a greater susceptibility to gram positive (Gram (+)) bacterial infections. However, the mechanism underlying opioid modulation of Gram (+) versus Gram (-) bacterial clearance has not been investigated. In this study, we show that opioid treatment resulted in reduced phagocytosis of Gram (+), when compared to Gram (-) bacteria. We further established that LPS priming of chronic morphine treated macrophages leads to potentiated phagocytosis and killing of both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria in a P-38 MAP kinase dependent signaling pathway. In contrast, LTA priming lead to inhibition of both phagocytosis and bacterial killing. This study demonstrates for the first time the differential effects of TLR4 and TLR2 agonists on morphine induced inhibition of phagocytosis. Our results suggest that the incidence and severity of secondary infections with Gram (+) bacteria would be higher in opioid abusers.

  20. [Usefulness and limit of Gram staining smear examination].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kuniaki; Mino, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2010-05-01

    Gram staining is one of the most simple and inexpensive methods for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. It yields results much faster than culture, and provides important data for the patient's treatment and prognosis. However, a difference exists in the quality and quantity of information yielded by Gram staining smears based on the experience and knowledge of those conducting the tests. Therefore, a risk of misdiagnosis based on the information obtained from Gram staining smears is also present. The Gram staining conditions and morphology of bacteria sometimes change due to antimicrobial therapy. Species of Gram-negative rods sometimes become filamentous and pleomorphic. Gram-positive bacteria may become gram variable (change in staining condition) after antimicrobial therapy. Even bacteria that are easy to mis-identify exist, because the morphology of bacteria may be similar. Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive diplococcus, forming Gram-positive clustered cocci in specimens from blood culture bottles, resembling Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative diplococcus in sputum, resembling Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Pasteurella multocida is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in the sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Prevotella intermedia is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Capnocytophaga sp. is a Gram-negative fusiform (thin needle shape) rod present in clinical specimens, resembling Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  1. Mars-GRAM 2010: Improving the Precision of Mars-GRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.; Ramey, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) when used for sensitivity studies for Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) MapYear=0 and large optical depth values, such as tau=3, is less than realistic. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from TES. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: (1) TES mapping year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth, or (2) TES mapping years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from MGCM results driven by observed TES dust optical depth. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on NASA Ames MGCM. Above 80 km, Mars-GRAM is based on the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. This choice of data has led to discrepancies that have become apparent during recent sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depths. Unrealistic energy absorption by time-invariant atmospheric dust leads to an unrealistic thermal energy balance on the polar caps. The outcome is an inaccurate cycle of condensation/sublimation of the polar caps and, as a consequence, an inaccurate cycle of total atmospheric mass and global-average surface pressure. Under an assumption of unchanged temperature profile and hydrostatic equilibrium, a given percentage change in surface pressure would produce a corresponding percentage

  2. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  3. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  4. N-gram-based text categorization

    SciTech Connect

    Cavnar, W.B.; Trenkle, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Text categorization is a fundamental task in document processing, allowing the automated handling of enormous streams of documents in electronic form. One difficulty in handling some classes of documents is the presence of different kinds of textual errors, such as spelling and grammatical errors in email, and character recognition errors in documents that come through OCR. Text categorization must work reliably on all input, and thus must tolerate some level of these kinds of problems. We describe here an N-gram-based approach to text categorization that is tolerant of textual errors. The system is small, fast and robust. This system worked very well for language classification, achieving in one test a 99.8% correct classification rate on Usenet newsgroup articles written in different languages. The system also worked reasonably well for classifying articles from a number of different computer-oriented newsgroups according to subject, achieving as high as an 80% correct classification rate. There are also several obvious directions for improving the system`s classification performance in those cases where it did not do as well. The system is based on calculating and comparing profiles of N-gram frequencies. First, we use the system to compute profiles on training set data that represent the various categories, e.g., language samples or newsgroup content samples. Then the system computes a profile for a particular document that is to be classified. Finally, the system computes a distance measure between the document`s profile and each of the category profiles. The system selects the category whose profile has the smallest distance to the document`s profile. The profiles involved are quite small, typically 10K bytes for a category training set, and less than 4K bytes for an individual document. Using N-gram frequency profiles provides a simple and reliable way to categorize documents in a wide range of classification tasks.

  5. Regulatory mechanisms differ in UMP kinases from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Evrin, Cécile; Straut, Monica; Slavova-Azmanova, Neli; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian; Assairi, Liliane; Ionescu, Mihaela; Palibroda, Nicolae; Bârzu, Octavian; Gilles, Anne-Marie

    2007-03-01

    In this work, we examined the regulation by GTP and UTP of the UMP kinases from eight bacterial species. The enzyme from Gram-positive organisms exhibited cooperative kinetics with ATP as substrate. GTP decreased this cooperativity and increased the affinity for ATP. UTP had the opposite effect, as it decreased the enzyme affinity for ATP. The nucleotide analogs 5-bromo-UTP and 5-iodo-UTP were 5-10 times stronger inhibitors than the parent compound. On the other hand, UMP kinases from the Gram-negative organisms did not show cooperativity in substrate binding and catalysis. Activation by GTP resulted mainly from the reversal of inhibition caused by excess UMP, and inhibition by UTP was accompanied by a strong increase in the apparent K(m) for UMP. Altogether, these results indicate that, depending on the bacteria considered, GTP and UTP interact with different enzyme recognition sites. In Gram-positive bacteria, GTP and UTP bind to a single site or largely overlapping sites, shifting the T R equilibrium to either the R or T form, a scenario corresponding to almost all regulatory proteins, commonly called K systems. In Gram-negative organisms, the GTP-binding site corresponds to the unique allosteric site of the Gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, UTP interacts cooperatively with a site that overlaps the catalytic center, i.e. the UMP-binding site and part of the ATP-binding site. These characteristics make UTP an original regulator of UMP kinases from Gram-negative organisms, beyond the common scheme of allosteric control.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have remarkably different structures as well as biological activity profiles, whereupon most of these peptides are supposed to kill bacteria via membrane damage. In order to understand their molecular mechanism and target cell specificity for Gram-positive bacteria, it is essential to consider the architecture of their cell envelopes. Before AMPs can interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, they have to traverse the cell wall composed of wall- and lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan. While interaction of AMPs with peptidoglycan might rather facilitate penetration, interaction with anionic teichoic acids may act as either a trap for AMPs or a ladder for a route to the cytoplasmic membrane. Interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane frequently leads to lipid segregation affecting membrane domain organization, which affects membrane permeability, inhibits cell division processes or leads to delocalization of essential peripheral membrane proteins. Further, precursors of cell wall components, especially the highly conserved lipid II, are directly targeted by AMPs. Thereby, the peptides do not inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis via binding to proteins like common antibiotics, but form a complex with the precursor molecule, which in addition can promote pore formation and membrane disruption. Thus, the multifaceted mode of actions will make AMPs superior to antibiotics that act only on one specific target. PMID:27657092

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Malanovic, Nermina; Lohner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have remarkably different structures as well as biological activity profiles, whereupon most of these peptides are supposed to kill bacteria via membrane damage. In order to understand their molecular mechanism and target cell specificity for Gram-positive bacteria, it is essential to consider the architecture of their cell envelopes. Before AMPs can interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, they have to traverse the cell wall composed of wall- and lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan. While interaction of AMPs with peptidoglycan might rather facilitate penetration, interaction with anionic teichoic acids may act as either a trap for AMPs or a ladder for a route to the cytoplasmic membrane. Interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane frequently leads to lipid segregation affecting membrane domain organization, which affects membrane permeability, inhibits cell division processes or leads to delocalization of essential peripheral membrane proteins. Further, precursors of cell wall components, especially the highly conserved lipid II, are directly targeted by AMPs. Thereby, the peptides do not inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis via binding to proteins like common antibiotics, but form a complex with the precursor molecule, which in addition can promote pore formation and membrane disruption. Thus, the multifaceted mode of actions will make AMPs superior to antibiotics that act only on one specific target. PMID:27657092

  8. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    GRAM is a Fortran software package that can run on a variety of platforms including PC's. GRAM provides values of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, pressure, density, winds, constituents, etc. GRAM99 covers all global locations, all months, and heights from the surface to approx. 1000 km). Dispersions (perturbations) of these parameters are also provided and are spatially and temporally correlated. GRAM can be run in a stand-alone mode or called as a subroutine from a trajectory program. GRAM07 is diagnostic, not prognostic (i.e., it describes the atmosphere, but it does not forecast). The source code is distributed free-of-charge to eligible recipients.

  9. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  10. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  11. Fumaric Acid and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Inactivate Gram Positive and Gram Negative Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Sanitizing effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and fumaric acid (FA) at different dipping temperatures (25–60 °C), times (1–5 min), and concentrations (5–30 ppm for SAEW and 0.125%–0.5% for FA) on pure cultures of two Gram positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and two Gram negative pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) was evaluated. FA (0.25%) showed the strongest sanitizing effect, demonstrating complete inactivation of EC, ST, and LM, while SA was reduced by 3.95–5.76 log CFU/mL at 25–60 °C, respectively, after 1 min of treatment. For SAEW, the complete inactivation was obtained when available chlorine concentration was increased to 20 ppm at 40 °C for 3 and 5 min. Moreover, Gram positive pathogens have been shown to resist to all treatment trends more than Gram negative pathogens throughout this experiment. Regardless of the different dipping temperatures, concentrations, and times, FA treatment was more effective than treatment with SAEW for reduction of foodborne pathogens. This study demonstrated that application of FA in food systems may be useful as a method for inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  12. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, T A; Midden, W R; Hartman, P E

    1989-01-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids. PMID:2703469

  13. Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives with Enhanced Activity against Both Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Field, Des; Begley, Maire; O’Connor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510

  14. Fumaric Acid and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Inactivate Gram Positive and Gram Negative Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Sanitizing effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and fumaric acid (FA) at different dipping temperatures (25–60 °C), times (1–5 min), and concentrations (5–30 ppm for SAEW and 0.125%–0.5% for FA) on pure cultures of two Gram positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and two Gram negative pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) was evaluated. FA (0.25%) showed the strongest sanitizing effect, demonstrating complete inactivation of EC, ST, and LM, while SA was reduced by 3.95–5.76 log CFU/mL at 25–60 °C, respectively, after 1 min of treatment. For SAEW, the complete inactivation was obtained when available chlorine concentration was increased to 20 ppm at 40 °C for 3 and 5 min. Moreover, Gram positive pathogens have been shown to resist to all treatment trends more than Gram negative pathogens throughout this experiment. Regardless of the different dipping temperatures, concentrations, and times, FA treatment was more effective than treatment with SAEW for reduction of foodborne pathogens. This study demonstrated that application of FA in food systems may be useful as a method for inactivation of foodborne pathogens. PMID:27682077

  15. Fumaric Acid and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Inactivate Gram Positive and Gram Negative Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-02-12

    Sanitizing effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and fumaric acid (FA) at different dipping temperatures (25-60 °C), times (1-5 min), and concentrations (5-30 ppm for SAEW and 0.125%-0.5% for FA) on pure cultures of two Gram positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and two Gram negative pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) was evaluated. FA (0.25%) showed the strongest sanitizing effect, demonstrating complete inactivation of EC, ST, and LM, while SA was reduced by 3.95-5.76 log CFU/mL at 25-60 °C, respectively, after 1 min of treatment. For SAEW, the complete inactivation was obtained when available chlorine concentration was increased to 20 ppm at 40 °C for 3 and 5 min. Moreover, Gram positive pathogens have been shown to resist to all treatment trends more than Gram negative pathogens throughout this experiment. Regardless of the different dipping temperatures, concentrations, and times, FA treatment was more effective than treatment with SAEW for reduction of foodborne pathogens. This study demonstrated that application of FA in food systems may be useful as a method for inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  16. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  17. Development and Validation of EST-SSR Markers from the Transcriptome of Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Liu, Liping; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Somta, Prakit; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis (Ohwi) Ohwi and Ohashi) is an important grain legume of Asia. It is cultivated mainly in China, Japan and Korea. Despite its importance, few genomic resources are available for molecular genetic research of adzuki bean. In this study, we developed EST-SSR markers for the adzuki bean through next-generation sequencing. More than 112 million high-quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from adzuki bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, and the sequences were de novo assembled into 65,950 unigenes. The average length of the unigenes was 1,213 bp. Among the unigenes, 14,547 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 3,350 sequences contained more than one SSR. A total of 7,947 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats (99.0%) as the most abundant motif class, followed by AG/CT (68.4%), AAG/CTT (30.0%), AAAG/CTTT (26.2%), AAAAG/CTTTT (16.1%), and AACGGG/CCCGTT (6.0%). A total of 500 SSR markers were randomly selected for validation, of which 296 markers produced reproducible amplicons with 38 polymorphic markers among the 32 adzuki bean genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations across China. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and EST-SSR markers will be valuable for genetic analysis of the adzuki bean and related Vigna species.

  18. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  19. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  20. Gram-Schmidt algorithms for covariance propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Bierman, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper addresses the time propagation of triangular covariance factors. Attention is focused on the square-root free factorization, P = UDU/T/, where U is unit upper triangular and D is diagonal. An efficient and reliable algorithm for U-D propagation is derived which employs Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Partitioning the state vector to distinguish bias and colored process noise parameters increases mapping efficiency. Cost comparisons of the U-D, Schmidt square-root covariance and conventional covariance propagation methods are made using weighted arithmetic operation counts. The U-D time update is shown to be less costly than the Schmidt method; and, except in unusual circumstances, it is within 20% of the cost of conventional propagation.

  1. Gram-Schmidt algorithms for covariance propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Bierman, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper addresses the time propagation of triangular covariance factors. Attention is focused on the square-root free factorization, P = UD(transpose of U), where U is unit upper triangular and D is diagonal. An efficient and reliable algorithm for U-D propagation is derived which employs Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Partitioning the state vector to distinguish bias and coloured process noise parameters increase mapping efficiency. Cost comparisons of the U-D, Schmidt square-root covariance and conventional covariance propagation methods are made using weighted arithmetic operation counts. The U-D time update is shown to be less costly than the Schmidt method; and, except in unusual circumstances, it is within 20% of the cost of conventional propagation.

  2. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

    PubMed

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding.

  3. Gram staining in the diagnosis of acute septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Faraj, A A; Omonbude, O D; Godwin, P

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining of synovial fluid as a diagnostic tool in acute septic arthritis. A retrospective study was made of 22 patients who had arthroscopic lavage following a provisional diagnosis of acute septic arthritis of the knee joint. Gram stains and cultures of the knee aspirates were compared with the clinical and laboratory parameters, to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosing acute arthritis. All patients who had septic arthritis had pain, swelling and limitation of movement. CRP was elevated in 90% of patients. The incidence of elevated white blood cell count was higher in the group of patients with a positive Gram stain study (60%) as compared to patients with a negative Gram stain study (33%). Gram staining sensitivity was 45%. Its specificity was however 100%. Gram staining is an unreliable tool in early decision making in patients requiring urgent surgical drainage and washout.

  4. Influence of bentonite particles on representative gram negative and gram positive bacterial deposition in porous media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiyan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2012-11-01

    The significance of clay particles on the transport and deposition kinetics of bacteria in irregular quartz sand was examined by direct comparison of both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with clay particles in bacteria suspension versus those without clay particles. Two representative cell types, Gram-negative strain E. coli DH5α and Gram-positive strain Bacillus subtilis were utilized to systematically determine the influence of clay particles (bentonite) on cell transport behavior. Packed column experiments for both cell types were conducted in both NaCl (5 and 25 mM ionic strengths) and CaCl(2) (5 mM ionic strength) solutions at pH 6.0. The breakthrough plateaus with bentonite in solutions (30 mg L(-1) and 50 mg L(-1)) were lower than those without bentonite for both cell types under all examined conditions, indicating that bentonite in solutions decreased cell transport in porous media regardless of cell types (Gram-negative or Gram-positive) and solution chemistry (ionic strength and ion valence). The enhanced cell deposition with bentonite particles was mainly observed at segments near to column inlet, retained profiles for both cell types with bentonite particles were therefore steeper relative to those without bentonite. The increased cell deposition with bentonite observed in NaCl solutions was attributed to the codeposition of bacteria with bentonite particles whereas, in addition to codeposition of bacteria with bentonite, the bacteria-bentonite-bacteria cluster formed in suspensions also contributed to the increased deposition of bacteria with bentonite in CaCl(2) solution. PMID:22970735

  5. Effect of Allelochemicals from Leaf Leachates of Gmelina arborea on Inhibition of Some Essential Seed Germination Enzymes in Green Gram, Red Gram, Black Gram, and Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Madhan Shankar, Ramakrishnan; Veeralakshmi, Shanmugham; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    The present work focused on identification of allelochemicals from the leaf leachates of Gmelina arborea and analyzing its influence on the germination of red gram, green gram, black gram, and chickpea in terms of the levels of some important germination enzymes like acid phosphatase, catalase, peroxidase, and amylase. The study showed that allelopathic effects were more predominant in chickpea with 80% followed by red gram, green gram, and black gram where the inhibition ranged between 26% and 75%. The vigor index in the seed lots is also considerably reduced. Total chlorophyll content was also reduced by allelopathic effect in all treated seeds ranging between 0.7 and 7.5 μg/g dry weight. The effect of allelochemicals drastically reduced the relative water content in red gram followed by the other seed lots. The total protein content varied considerably in the control and the treated seed lots. Allelochemicals inhibited the expression and activity of the enzymes required for efficient germination. The present study also threw limelight on the effective use of this tree, wherein planting this tree amidst pulse related herb plantations could affect the growth of the economically viable plants, but this tree can very well adapt to diversified soil conditions and rainfall zones. PMID:27350959

  6. Effect of Allelochemicals from Leaf Leachates of Gmelina arborea on Inhibition of Some Essential Seed Germination Enzymes in Green Gram, Red Gram, Black Gram, and Chickpea.

    PubMed

    Madhan Shankar, Ramakrishnan; Veeralakshmi, Shanmugham; Sirajunnisa, Abdul Razack; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    The present work focused on identification of allelochemicals from the leaf leachates of Gmelina arborea and analyzing its influence on the germination of red gram, green gram, black gram, and chickpea in terms of the levels of some important germination enzymes like acid phosphatase, catalase, peroxidase, and amylase. The study showed that allelopathic effects were more predominant in chickpea with 80% followed by red gram, green gram, and black gram where the inhibition ranged between 26% and 75%. The vigor index in the seed lots is also considerably reduced. Total chlorophyll content was also reduced by allelopathic effect in all treated seeds ranging between 0.7 and 7.5 μg/g dry weight. The effect of allelochemicals drastically reduced the relative water content in red gram followed by the other seed lots. The total protein content varied considerably in the control and the treated seed lots. Allelochemicals inhibited the expression and activity of the enzymes required for efficient germination. The present study also threw limelight on the effective use of this tree, wherein planting this tree amidst pulse related herb plantations could affect the growth of the economically viable plants, but this tree can very well adapt to diversified soil conditions and rainfall zones. PMID:27350959

  7. Interfacial charge transfer between CdTe quantum dots and Gram negative vs. Gram positive bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, E.; Gao, C.; Suffern, D.; Bradforth, S. E.; Dimitrejevic, N. M.; Nadeau, J. L.; McGill Univ.; Univ. of Southern California

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative toxicity of semiconductor and metal nanomaterials to cells has been well established. However, it may result from many different mechanisms, some requiring direct cell contact and others resulting from the diffusion of reactive species in solution. Published results are contradictory due to differences in particle preparation, bacterial strain, and experimental conditions. It has been recently found that C{sub 60} nanoparticles can cause direct oxidative damage to bacterial proteins and membranes, including causing a loss of cell membrane potential (depolarization). However, this did not correlate with toxicity. In this study we perform a similar analysis using fluorescent CdTe quantum dots, adapting our tools to make use of the particles fluorescence. We find that two Gram positive strains show direct electron transfer to CdTe, resulting in changes in CdTe fluorescence lifetimes. These two strains also show changes in membrane potential upon nanoparticle binding. Two Gram negative strains do not show these effects - nevertheless, they are over 10-fold more sensitive to CdTe than the Gram positives. We find subtoxic levels of Cd{sup 2+} release from the particles upon irradiation of the particles, but significant production of hydroxyl radicals, suggesting that the latter is a major source of toxicity. These results help establish mechanisms of toxicity and also provide caveats for use of certain reporter dyes with fluorescent nanoparticles which will be of use to anyone performing these assays. The findings also suggest future avenues of inquiry into electron transfer processes between nanomaterials and bacteria.

  8. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes. PMID:27173351

  9. The inhibitory effect of metals and other ions on acid phosphatase activity from Vigna aconitifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Anand, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of acid phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia seeds to metal ions, fluoride, and phosphate was examined. All the effectors had different degree of inhibitory effect on the enzyme. Among metal ions, molybdate and ferric ion were observed to be most potent inhibitors and both exhibited mixed type of inhibition. Acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by Cu2+ in a noncompetitive manner. Zn and Mn showed mild inhibition on the enzyme activity. Inhibition kinetics analysis explored molybdate as a potent inhibitor for acid phosphatase in comparison with other effectors used in this study. Fluoride was the next most strong inhibitor for the enzyme activity, and caused a mixed type of inhibition. Phosphate inhibited the enzyme competitively, which demonstrates that inhibition due to phosphate is one of the regulatory factors for enzyme activity.

  10. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  11. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-03-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean.

  12. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  13. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant.

    PubMed

    Silva, F V; Simões-Araújo, J L; Silva Júnior, J P; Xavier, G R; Rumjanek, N G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  14. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  15. Stable transformation of moth bean Vigna aconitifolia via direct gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Köhler, F; Golz, C; Eapen, S; Kohn, H; Schieder, O

    1987-07-01

    Direct gene transfer proved to be an efficient transformation method for Vigna aconitifolia, a member of the legume family. Kanamycin resistant calli and plants were regenerated from heat shocked protoplasts treated with PEG and plasmid DNA containing the coding region for aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene (NPT II). The plant cultivar used was an important factor in attaining higher transformation frequencies. Transformation was confirmed by Southern blot analysis using a non-radioactive detection system. Attempts to transform mesophyll and suspension cultured cells by this method were unsuccessful. Protoplasts electroporated with the plasmid pCAP212, which codes for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, exhibited transient expression of this gene two days after treatment while electroporated cells did not show this enzyme activity. It is therefore assumed that the DNA uptake is prevented by the cell wall.

  16. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. PMID:25142352

  17. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  18. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  19. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events.

  20. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (créole bean), and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of mungbean Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 and a phylogenetic analysis of crops in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The entire mitogenome of the Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 was identified as a circular molecule of 401 262 bp length (DDBJ accession number: AP014716). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the NM92 mitogenome were found to be 27.48%, 27.41%, 22.63%, and 22.48%, respectively. The NM92 mitogenome encoded 3 rRNAs, 16 tRNAs and 33 proteins. Eight protein-coding genes (nad1, nad2, nad4, nad5, nad7, rps3, and rps10) centain introns. Among them, three (nad1, nad2, and nad5) are trans-spliced genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the 21 protein-coding genes of 16 crops. A species of gymnosperms, Cycas, was selected as the outgroup. This complete mitogenome sequence provides useful information to understand the cultivation of Vigna radiata and other crops.

  2. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  3. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  4. Applications of N-Grams in Textual Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Alexander M.; Willett, Peter

    1998-01-01

    An n-gram is a string of characters, usually adjacent, extracted from a section of continuous text that can be used in spelling error detection and correction, query expansion, information retrieval, dictionary search, text compression, and language identification applications. This article provides an introduction to the use of n-grams in textual…

  5. n-Gram-Based Indexing for Korean Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joon Ho; Cho, Hyun Yang; Park, Hyouk Ro

    1999-01-01

    Discusses indexing methods in Korean text retrieval and proposes a new indexing method based on n-grams which can handle compound nouns effectively without dictionaries and complex linguistic knowledge. Experimental results show that n-gram-based indexing is considerably faster than morpheme-based indexing, and also provides better retrieval…

  6. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  7. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata forms a highly stable dimeric structure.

    PubMed

    Rao, K N; Suresh, C G

    2007-10-01

    Different protease inhibitors including Bowman-Birk type (BBI) have been reported from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. Protease isoinhibitors of double-headed Bowman-Birk type from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata have been purified and characterized. The BBI from Vigna unguiculata (Vu-BBI) has been found to undergo self-association to form very stable dimers and more complex oligomers, by size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE in the presence of urea. Many BBIs have been reported to undergo self-association to form homodimers or more complex oligomers in solution. Only one dimeric crystal structure of a BBI (pea-BBI) is reported to date. We report the three-dimensional structure of a Vu-BBI determined at 2.5 A resolution. Although, the inhibitor has a monomer fold similar to that found in other known structures of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors, its quaternary structure is different from that commonly observed in this family. The structural elements responsible for the stability of monomer molecule and dimeric association are discussed. The Vu-BBI may use dimeric or higher quaternary association to maintain the physiological state and to execute its biological function.

  8. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Legume Vigna radiata and the Analysis of Recombination across Short Mitochondrial Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Alverson, Andrew J.; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W.; Sloan, Daniel B.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38–297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  9. Dustborne and airborne gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in high versus low ERMI homes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study aimed at investigating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in moldy and non-moldy homes, as defined by the home's Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value. The ERMI values were determined from floor dust samples in 2010 and 2011 and homes were classified...

  10. "CultureGrams[TM]" and "StateGrams[TM]": Making Places and People Relevant to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2002-01-01

    Describes "CultureGrams" and "StateGrams", sources that provide practical cultural information including attitudes, appearances, greetings, gestures, dating, family life, transportation, health, and education. Focuses on the edition suitable for elementary school students, explaining specific features and suggesting assignments and class…

  11. Disinfection of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using DynaJets® hydrodynamic cavitating jets.

    PubMed

    Loraine, Gregory; Chahine, Georges; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Aley, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    Cavitating jet technologies (DynaJets®) were investigated as a means of disinfection of gram-negative Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The hydrodynamic cavitating jets were found to be very effective in reducing the concentrations of all of these species. In general, the observed rates of disinfection of gram-negative species were higher than for gram-positive species. However, different gram-negative species also showed significant differences (P. syringae 6-log(10) reduction, P. aeruginosa 2-log(10) reduction) under the same conditions. Disinfection of E. coli repeatedly showed five orders of magnitude reduction in concentration within 45-60-min at low nozzle pressure (2.1 bar). Optimization of nozzle design and operating pressures increased disinfection rates per input energy by several orders of magnitude. The power efficiencies of the hydrodynamic cavitating jets were found to be 10-100 times greater than comparable ultrasonic systems.

  12. Gramicidin A Mutants with Antibiotic Activity against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Joo, Yechaan; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-03-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential as alternatives to traditional antibiotics for fighting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One promising example of this is gramicidin A (gA). In its wild-type sequence, gA is active by permeating the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. However, gA is toxic to human red blood cells at similar concentrations to those required for it to exert its antimicrobial effects. Installing cationic side chains into gA has been shown to lower its hemolytic activity while maintaining the antimicrobial potency. In this study, we present the synthesis and the antibiotic activity of a new series of gA mutants that display cationic side chains. Specifically, by synthesizing alkylated lysine derivatives through reductive amination, we were able to create a broad selection of structures with varied activities towards Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Importantly, some of the new mutants were observed to have an unprecedented activity towards important Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Psuedomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26918268

  13. Molecular screening for alkane hydroxylase genes in Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains.

    PubMed

    Smits, T H; Röthlisberger, M; Witholt, B; van Beilen, J B

    1999-08-01

    We have developed highly degenerate oligonucleotides for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genes related to the Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1 and Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 alkane hydroxylases, based on a number of highly conserved sequence motifs. In all Gram-negative and in two out of three Gram-positive strains able to grow on medium- (C6-C11) or long-chain n-alkanes (C12-C16), PCR products of the expected size were obtained. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced and found to encode peptides with 43.2-93.8% sequence identity to the corresponding fragment of the P. oleovorans GPo1 alkane hydroxylase. Strains that were unable to grow on n-alkanes did not yield PCR products with homology to alkane hydroxylase genes. The alkane hydroxylase genes of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus EB104 and Pseudomonas putida P1 were cloned using the PCR products as probes. The two genes allow an alkane hydroxylase-negative mutant of Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 and an Escherichia coli recombinant containing all P. oleovorans alk genes except alkB, respectively, to grow on n-alkanes, showing that the cloned genes do indeed encode alkane hydroxylases. PMID:11207749

  14. Effect of betamethasone in combination with antibiotics on gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Cellini, A; Tilotta, M; Barbato, G; Koverech, A; Selan, L

    2014-01-01

    Betamethasone is an anti-inflammatory steroid drug used in cases of anaphylactic and allergic reactions, of Alzheimer and Addison diseases and in soft tissue injuries. It modulates gene expression for anti-inflammatory activity suppressing the immune system response. This latter effect might decrease the effectiveness of immune system response against microbial infections. Corticosteroids, in fact, mask some symptoms of infection and during their use superimposed infections may occur. Thus, the use of glucocorticoids in patients with sepsis remains extremely controversial. In this study we analyzed the in vitro effect of a commercial formulation of betamethasone (Bentelan) on several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of clinical relevance. It was found to be an inhibitor of the growth of most of the strains examined. Also the effect of betamethasone in combination with some classes of antibiotics was evaluated. Antibiotic-steroid combination therapy is, in such cases, superior to antibiotic-alone treatment to impair bacterial growths. Such effect was essentially not at all observable on Staphylococcus aureus or Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS).

  15. Cytokine profile in severe Gram-positive and Gram-negative abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Surbatovic, Maja; Popovic, Nada; Vojvodic, Danilo; Milosevic, Ivan; Acimovic, Gordana; Stojicic, Milan; Veljovic, Milic; Jevdjic, Jasna; Djordjevic, Dragan; Radakovic, Sonja

    2015-06-16

    Sepsis is a principal cause of death in critical care units worldwide and consumes considerable healthcare resources. The aim of our study was to determine whether the early cytokine profile can discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteraemia (GPB and GNB, respectively) and to assess the prognostic value regarding outcome in critically ill patients with severe abdominal sepsis. The outcome measure was hospital mortality. Blood samples were obtained from 165 adult patients with confirmed severe abdominal sepsis. Levels of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 and IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1 were determined and correlated with the nature of the bacteria isolated from the blood culture and outcome. The cytokine profile in our study indicated that the TNF-α levels were 2-fold, IL-8 were 3.3-fold, IFN-γ were 13-fold, IL-1ra were 1.05-fold, IL-4 were 1.4-fold and IL-10 were 1.83-fold higher in the GNB group compared with the GPB group. The TNF-α levels were 4.7-fold, IL-8 were 4.6-fold, IL-1ra were 1.5-fold and IL-10 were 3.3-fold higher in the non-survivors compared with the survivors.

  16. Gramicidin A Mutants with Antibiotic Activity against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Joo, Yechaan; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-03-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential as alternatives to traditional antibiotics for fighting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One promising example of this is gramicidin A (gA). In its wild-type sequence, gA is active by permeating the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. However, gA is toxic to human red blood cells at similar concentrations to those required for it to exert its antimicrobial effects. Installing cationic side chains into gA has been shown to lower its hemolytic activity while maintaining the antimicrobial potency. In this study, we present the synthesis and the antibiotic activity of a new series of gA mutants that display cationic side chains. Specifically, by synthesizing alkylated lysine derivatives through reductive amination, we were able to create a broad selection of structures with varied activities towards Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Importantly, some of the new mutants were observed to have an unprecedented activity towards important Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Psuedomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Comparing Medline citations using modified N-grams

    PubMed Central

    Nawab, Rao Muhammad Adeel; Stevenson, Mark; Clough, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aim to identify duplicate pairs of Medline citations, particularly when the documents are not identical but contain similar information. Materials and methods Duplicate pairs of citations are identified by comparing word n-grams in pairs of documents. N-grams are modified using two approaches which take account of the fact that the document may have been altered. These are: (1) deletion, an item in the n-gram is removed; and (2) substitution, an item in the n-gram is substituted with a similar term obtained from the Unified Medical Language System  Metathesaurus. N-grams are also weighted using a score derived from a language model. Evaluation is carried out using a set of 520 Medline citation pairs, including a set of 260 manually verified duplicate pairs obtained from the Deja Vu database. Results The approach accurately detects duplicate Medline document pairs with an F1 measure score of 0.99. Allowing for word deletions and substitution improves performance. The best results are obtained by combining scores for n-grams of length 1–5 words. Discussion Results show that the detection of duplicate Medline citations can be improved by modifying n-grams and that high performance can also be obtained using only unigrams (F1=0.959), particularly when allowing for substitutions of alternative phrases. PMID:23715801

  18. [Usefulness of sputum Gram staining in community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Sato, Tadashi; Aoshima, Masahiro; Ohmagari, Norio; Tada, Hiroshi; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of sputum gram staining in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we reviewed 144 cases requiring hospitalization in the last 4 years. The sensitivity was 75.5%, specificity 68.2%, positive predictive value 74.1%, negative predictive value 69.8%, positive likelihood ratio 2.37, negative likelihood ratio 0.36 and accuracy 72.2% in 97 cases. Both sputum gram staining and culture were performed. Concerning bacterial pneumonia (65 cases), we compared the Gram staining group (n = 33), which received initial antibiotic treatment, based on sputum gram staining with the Empiric group (n = 32) that received antibiotics empirically. The success rates of the initial antibiotic treatment were 87.9% vs. 78.1% (P = 0.473); mean hospitalization periods were 9.67 vs. 11.75 days (P = 0.053); and periods of intravenous therapy were 6.73 vs. 7.91 days (P = 0.044), respectively. As for initial treatment, penicillins were used in the Gram staining group more frequently (P < 0.01). We conclude that sputum gram staining is useful for the shortening of the treatment period and the appropriate selection of initial antibiotics in bacterial pneumonia. We believe, therefore, that sputum gram staining is indispensable as a diagnostic tool CAP.

  19. Validation of Mars-GRAM and Planned New Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    For altitudes below 80 km, Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is based on output climatology from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). At COSPAR 2002, results were presented of validation tests of Mars-GRAM versus data from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiment. Further validation tests are presented comparing Mars- GRAM densities with those from the European Mars Climate Database (MCD), and comparing densities from both Mars-GRAM and MCD against TES observations. Throughout most of the height and latitude range of TES data (040 km and 70s to 70N), good agreement is found between atmospheric densities from Mars-GRAM and MCD. However, at the season and latitude zone for Mars Phoenix arrival and landing (Ls = 65 to 80 degrees and latitude 65 to 75N), Mars-GRAM densities are about 30 to 45 percent higher than MCD densities near 40 km altitude. Further evaluation is warranted concerning potential impact of these model differences on planning for Phoenix entry and descent. Three planned features for Mars-GRAM update are also discussed: (1) new MGCM and Thermospheric General Circulation Model data sets to be used as a revised basis for Mars-GRAM mean atmosphere, (2) a new feature to represent planetary-scale traveling waves for upper altitude density variations (such as found during Mars Odyssey aerobraking), and (3) a new model for effects of high resolution topographic slope on winds near the surface (0 to 4.5 km above MOLA topography level). Mars-GRAM slope winds will be computed from a diagnostic (algebraic) relationship based on Ye, Segal, and Pielke (1990). This approach differs from mesoscale models (such as MRAMS and Mars MM5), which use prognostic, full-physics solutions of the time- and space-dependent differential equations of motion. As such, slope winds in Mars-GRAM will be consistent with its "engineering-level" approach, and will be extremely fast and easy to evaluate

  20. MetaLocGramN: A meta-predictor of protein subcellular localization for Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Marcin; Pawlowski, Marcin; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2012-12-01

    Subcellular localization is a key functional characteristic of proteins. It is determined by signals encoded in the protein sequence. The experimental determination of subcellular localization is laborious. Thus, a number of computational methods have been developed to predict the protein location from sequence. However predictions made by different methods often disagree with each other and it is not always clear which algorithm performs best for the given cellular compartment. We benchmarked primary subcellular localization predictors for proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, PSORTb3, PSLpred, CELLO, and SOSUI-GramN, on a common dataset that included 1056 proteins. We found that PSORTb3 performs best on the average, but is outperformed by other methods in predictions of extracellular proteins. This motivated us to develop a meta-predictor, which combines the primary methods by using the logistic regression models, to take advantage of their combined strengths, and to eliminate their individual weaknesses. MetaLocGramN runs the primary methods, and based on their output classifies protein sequences into one of five major localizations of the Gram-negative bacterial cell: cytoplasm, plasma membrane, periplasm, outer membrane, and extracellular space. MetaLocGramN achieves the average Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.806, i.e. 12% better than the best individual primary method. MetaLocGramN is a meta-predictor specialized in predicting subcellular localization for proteins from Gram-negative bacteria. According to our benchmark, it performs better than all other tools run independently. MetaLocGramN is a web and SOAP server available for free use by all academic users at the URL http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/MetaLocGramN. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Methods for Protein Interaction and Structural Prediction. PMID:22705560

  1. Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-10-01

    Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi.

  2. Invasive gram-positive bacterial infection in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Holland, Thomas; Fowler, Vance G; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2014-11-15

    Systematic studies have shown that gram-positive organisms are the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in patients with cancer. A broad range of gram-positive bacteria cause serious infections in the cancer patient with the greatest burden of disease being due to staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. The evolution of cancer therapy and the changing epidemiology of major gram-positive pathogens mean that ongoing efforts are needed to understand and mitigate the impact of these bacteria in patients with malignancy. The development of novel antibacterials, optimization of treatment approaches, implementation of improved vaccines, and manipulation of the microbiome are all active areas of investigation in the goal of improving the survival of the cancer patient through amelioration of the disease burden of gram-positive bacteria.

  3. New antimicrobial approaches to gram positive respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Liapikou, Adamantia; Cilloniz, Catia; Mensa, Josep; Torres, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, we face growing resistance among gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens that cause respiratory infection in the hospital and in the community. The spread of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant pneumococci, Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (Ca-MRSA), the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant staphylococci underline the need for underline the need for therapeutic alternatives. A number of new therapeutic agents, with activity against the above Gram (+) respiratory pathogens, as ceftaroline, ceftopibrole, telavancin, tedizolid have become available, either in clinical trials or have been approved for clinical use. Especially, the development of new oral antibiotics, as nemonaxacin, omadacyclin, cethromycin and solithromycin will give a solution to the lack of oral drugs for outpatient treatment. In the future the clinician needs to optimize the use of old and new antibiotics to treat gram (+) respiratory serious infections.

  4. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM99): Short Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    Earth-GRAM is a FORTRAN software package that can run on a variety of platforms including PC's. For any time and location in the Earth's atmosphere, Earth-GRAM provides values of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, pressure, density, winds, constituents, etc.. Dispersions (perturbations) of these parameters are also provided and have realistic correlations, means, and variances - useful for Monte Carlo analysis. Earth-GRAM is driven by observations including a tropospheric database available from the National Climatic Data Center. Although Earth-GRAM can be run in a "stand-alone" mode, many users incorporate it into their trajectory codes. The source code is distributed free-of-charge to eligible recipients.

  5. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  6. Conjugative plasmid transfer in gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Muth, Günther; Espinosa, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    Conjugative transfer of bacterial plasmids is the most efficient way of horizontal gene spread, and it is therefore considered one of the major reasons for the increase in the number of bacteria exhibiting multiple-antibiotic resistance. Thus, conjugation and spread of antibiotic resistance represents a severe problem in antibiotic treatment, especially of immunosuppressed patients and in intensive care units. While conjugation in gram-negative bacteria has been studied in great detail over the last decades, the transfer mechanisms of antibiotic resistance plasmids in gram-positive bacteria remained obscure. In the last few years, the entire nucleotide sequences of several large conjugative plasmids from gram-positive bacteria have been determined. Sequence analyses and data bank comparisons of their putative transfer (tra) regions have revealed significant similarities to tra regions of plasmids from gram-negative bacteria with regard to the respective DNA relaxases and their targets, the origins of transfer (oriT), and putative nucleoside triphosphatases NTP-ases with homologies to type IV secretion systems. In contrast, a single gene encoding a septal DNA translocator protein is involved in plasmid transfer between micelle-forming streptomycetes. Based on these clues, we propose the existence of two fundamentally different plasmid-mediated conjugative mechanisms in gram-positive microorganisms, namely, the mechanism taking place in unicellular gram-positive bacteria, which is functionally similar to that in gram-negative bacteria, and a second type that occurs in multicellular gram-positive bacteria, which seems to be characterized by double-stranded DNA transfer. PMID:12794193

  7. Gram's Stain Does Not Cross the Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael J; Sheffield, Joel B; Sharifian Gh, Mohammad; Wu, Yajing; Spahr, Christian; Gonella, Grazia; Xu, Bolei; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2015-07-17

    For well over a century, Hans Christian Gram's famous staining protocol has been the standard go-to diagnostic for characterizing unknown bacteria. Despite continuous and ubiquitous use, we now demonstrate that the current understanding of the molecular mechanism for this differential stain is largely incorrect. Using the fully complementary time-resolved methods: second-harmonic light-scattering and bright-field transmission microscopy, we present a real-time and membrane specific quantitative characterization of the bacterial uptake of crystal-violet (CV), the dye used in Gram's protocol. Our observations contradict the currently accepted mechanism which depicts that, for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, CV readily traverses the peptidoglycan mesh (PM) and cytoplasmic membrane (CM) before equilibrating within the cytosol. We find that not only is CV unable to traverse the CM but, on the time-scale of the Gram-stain procedure, CV is kinetically trapped within the PM. Our results indicate that CV, rather than dyes which rapidly traverse the PM, is uniquely suited as the Gram stain.

  8. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification was also made which allows heights to go 'below' local terrain height and return 'realistic' pressure, density, and temperature, and not the surface values, as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local 'valley' areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch versions of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  9. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.

    1991-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification has also been made which allows heights to go below local terrain height and return realistic pressure, density, and temperature (not the surface values) as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local valley areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch version of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  10. [Estimation of activity of pharmakopeal disinfectants and antiseptics against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, drugs and environment].

    PubMed

    Grzybowska, Wanda; Młynarczyk, Grazyna; Młynarczyk, Andrzej; Bocian, Ewa; Luczak, Mirosław; Tyski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The MIC of nine different disinfectants and antiseptics were determined for the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Strains originated from clinical specimens, drugs and environment. A sensitivity was determined against chlorhexidinum digluconate (Gram-negative: 0,625-80 mg/L, Gram-positive: 0,3-10 mg/L), benzalconium chloride (Gram-negative: 2,5-1280 mg/L, Gram-positive: 1,25-20 mg/L), salicilic acid (Gram-negative and Gram-positive: 400-1600 mg/L), benzoic acid (Gram-negative: 800-1600 mg/L, Gram-positive: 400-1 600 mg/L), boric acid (Gram-negative: 800-12 800 mg/L, Gram-positive: 1 600-6400 mg/L), chloramine B (Gram-negative: 1600-6400 mg/L, Gram-positive:800- 6400 mg/L), jodine (Gram-negative: 200-1600 mg/L, Gram-positive: 200-1600 mg/L), etacridine lactate (Gram-negative: 40 do > 20480 mg/L, Gram-positive: 40-1280 mg/L) and resorcine (Gram-negative: 1600-6400 mg/L, Gram-positive: 800-6400 mg/L). Diversified values of MIC for different strains were obtained, especially in the case of benzalconium chloride, etacridine lactate, chlorhexidinum digluconate, boric acid and iodine. Strains isolated from environment were usually more susceptible to examined compounds than clinical strains. The biggest diversification of sensitivity was observed among strains originated from drugs where besides sensitive appeared strains characterizing by very high MIC values of some substances, eg. boric acid.

  11. Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Sonker, Nivedita; Singh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    During mycofloral analysis of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) seed samples taken from different grocery stores by agar and standard blotter paper methods, 5 fungal species were identified, of which Aspergillus flavus exhibited higher relative frequency (75.20% to 80.60%) and was found to produce aflatoxin B1 . On screening of 11 plant essential oils against this mycotoxigenic fungi, Lippia alba essential oil was found to be most effective and showed absolute inhibition of mycelia growth at 0.28 μL/mL. The oil of L. alba was fungistatic and fungicidal at 0.14 and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. Oil had broad range of fungitoxicity at its MIC value and was absolutely inhibited the AFB1 production level at 2.0 μL/mL. Chemical analysis of this oil revealed geranial (36.9%) and neral (29.3%) as major components followed by myrcene (18.6%). Application of a dose of 80 μL/0.25 L air of Lippia oil in the storage system significantly inhibited the fungal proliferation and aflatoxin production without affecting the seed germination rate. By the virtue of fungicidal, antiaflatoxigenic nature and potent efficacy in storage food system, L. alba oil can be commercialized as botanical fungicide for the protection of green gram seeds during storage. PMID:26928885

  12. In vitro assessment of Ag2O nanoparticles toxicity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Negi, Harshita; Rathinavelu Saravanan, Palaniyandi; Agarwal, Tithi; Ghulam Haider Zaidi, Mohd; Goel, Reeta

    2013-01-01

    In view of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, the present study is to address the toxicity of Ag2O nanoparticles against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through in vitro assays. The preliminary screening by agar diffusion assay confirms the antibacterial activity of Ag2O nanoparticles against all the test bacteria. Comparative antibacterial activity of Ag2O nanoparticles and respective antibiotics reveals their broad range of activity and lower inhibitory dose against the used bacterial strains. Further, they can inhibit E. coli with an effective dose of 0.036 mg/ml within 1 h of exposure time as determined by luciferin based ATP assay. Moreover, the Ag2O nanoparticles exhibit higher antibacterial efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria, as revealed by their MIC & MBC values. Therefore, Ag2O nanoparticles pave the way for a new generation of antibacterial agents against the emerging multidrug resistant pathogens.

  13. Real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klaschik, Sven; Lehmann, Lutz E; Raadts, Ansgar; Book, Malte; Hoeft, Andreas; Stuber, Frank

    2002-11-01

    We developed a consensus real-time PCR protocol that enables us to detect spiked bacterial 16S DNA from specimens such as water, urine, plasma, and sputum. The technique allows an exact Gram stain classification of 17 intensive care unit-relevant bacteria by means of fluorescence hybridization probes. All tested bacteria were identified correctly, and none gave a false-positive signal with the opposite Gram probe.

  14. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka. PMID:27441212

  15. Biological effect of audible sound control on mung bean (Vigna radiate) sprout.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; He, H; Zhu, S; Wang, N

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20-20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000-1500 Hz, 1500-2000 Hz, and 2000-2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  17. Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance human health.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Yang, Ray-Yu; Easdown, Warwick J; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A; Keatinge, J D H Dyno

    2013-06-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in South, East and Southeast Asia. It provides significant amounts of protein (240 g kg(-1)) and carbohydrate (630 g kg(-1)) and a range of micronutrients in diets. Mungbean protein and carbohydrate are easily digestible and create less flatulence than proteins derived from other legumes. In addition, mungbean is lower in phytic acid (72% of total phosphorus content) than pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and cereals; phytic acid is commonly found in cereal and legume crops and has a negative impact on iron and zinc bioavailability in plant-based diets. Owing to its palatable taste and nutritional quality, mungbean has been used as an iron-rich whole food source for baby food. The wide genetic variability of mineral concentrations (e.g. 0.03-0.06 g Fe kg(-1), 0.02-0.04 g Zn kg(-1)) in mungbean indicates possibilities to improve its micronutrient content through biofortification. Therefore biofortification of existing mungbean varieties has great potential for enhancing the nutritional quality of diets in South and Southeast Asia, where protein and micronutrient malnutrition are among the highest in the world. This review paper discusses the importance of mungbean in agricultural production and traditional diets and the potential of enhancing the nutritional quality of mungbean through breeding and other means, including agronomic practices. PMID:23426879

  18. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    PubMed

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution. PMID:27191550

  19. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies. PMID:26758200

  20. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  1. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  2. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva, F.V.; Simões-Araújo, J.L.; Silva Júnior, J.P.; Xavier, G.R.; Rumjanek, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. PMID:24031880

  3. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus. PMID:22661784

  4. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zain; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash

    2014-01-01

    Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29%) was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26%) was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80%) of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83%) and serine (5.45%) were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46%) was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results. PMID:25401158

  5. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  6. Characterization of seed storage proteins in high protein genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Rohtas; Malhotra, S; Boora, K S; Singal, H R

    2010-01-01

    Twenty one genotypes and two check varieties viz. CS-88 and V-240 of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ] were screened for total proteins. The total protein content ranged from 22.4 (HC-3) to 27.9 % (HC-98-64) in 21 genotypes whereas in check varieties it was 25.6 (V-240) and 26.0 % (CS-88). Seven genotypes viz. HC-6, HC-5, CP-21, LST-II-C-12, CP-16, COVU-702 and HC-98-64 having high protein content (26.7 to 27.9 %) were selected for further characterization of their seed storage proteins. Globulins were the major protein fraction ranging from 55.6 (LST-II-C-12) to 58.8 % (CP-16 and HC-6) of total protein. Glutelins was the second major fraction ranging from 14.4 to 15.6 % followed by albumins (8.2 to 11.9 %) and prolamins (2.3 to 5.0 %). Content of free amino acids also showed variations amongst genotypes with COVU-702 having maximum and LST-II-C-12 having minimum content. Essential amino acid analysis revealed that S-amino acids (cysteine and methionine) were the first limiting amino acids followed by tryptophan. From the results presented here it could be suggested that two genotypes viz. LST-II-C-12 and HC-5 be used in breeding programmes aimed at developing high protein moth bean varieties with good quality.

  7. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  8. Genetic relationship of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties from Senegal based on SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Badiane, F A; Gowda, B S; Cissé, N; Diouf, D; Sadio, O; Timko, M P

    2012-02-08

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 22 local cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties and inbred lines collected throughout Senegal were evaluated using simple sequence repeat molecular markers. A set of 49 primer combinations were developed from cowpea genomic/expressed sequence tags and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms among the various cowpea genotypes. Forty-four primer combinations detected polymorphisms, with the remaining five primer sets failing to yield PCR amplification products. From one to 16 alleles were found among the informative primer combinations; their frequencies ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 (mean = 0.79). The genetic diversity of the sample varied from 0.08 to 0.42 (mean = 0.28). The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 (mean = 0.23). The local varieties clustered in the same group, except 53-3, 58-53, and 58-57; while Ndoute yellow pods, Ndoute violet pods and Baye Ngagne were in the second group. The photosensitive varieties (Ndoute yellow pods and Ndoute violet pods) were closely clustered in the second group and so were inbred line Mouride and local cultivar 58-57, which is also one of the parents for inbred line Mouride. These molecular markers could be used for selection and identification of elite varieties for cowpea improvement and germplasm management in Senegal.

  9. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    PubMed

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution.

  10. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.

    PubMed

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo Márcia do Vale Barreto

    2011-07-01

    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

  11. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  12. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  13. Lifespan Extending and Stress Resistant Properties of Vitexin from Vigna angularis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kim, Mina; Song, Seuk Bo; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Sooncheon; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-11-01

    Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan.

  14. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  15. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly of two Vigna angularis varieties collected from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), a member of the family Fabaceae, is widely grown in Asia, from East Asia to the Himalayas. The adzuki bean is known as an ingredient that adds sweetness to diverse desserts made in Eastern Asian countries. Libraries prepared from two V. angularis varieties referred to as Taejin Black and Taejin Red were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession numbers of SRR3406660 and SRR3406553. After de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity, we obtained 324,219 and 280,056 transcripts from Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively. We predicted a total of 238,321 proteins and 179,519 proteins for Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively, by the TransDecoder program. We carried out BLASTP on the predicted proteins against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to predict the putative functions of identified proteins. Taken together, we provide transcriptomes of two adzuki bean varieties by RNA-Seq, which might be usefully applied to generate molecular markers.

  17. Lifespan Extending and Stress Resistant Properties of Vitexin from Vigna angularis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kim, Mina; Song, Seuk Bo; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Sooncheon; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan. PMID:26535084

  18. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  19. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  20. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  1. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly of two Vigna angularis varieties collected from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), a member of the family Fabaceae, is widely grown in Asia, from East Asia to the Himalayas. The adzuki bean is known as an ingredient that adds sweetness to diverse desserts made in Eastern Asian countries. Libraries prepared from two V. angularis varieties referred to as Taejin Black and Taejin Red were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession numbers of SRR3406660 and SRR3406553. After de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity, we obtained 324,219 and 280,056 transcripts from Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively. We predicted a total of 238,321 proteins and 179,519 proteins for Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively, by the TransDecoder program. We carried out BLASTP on the predicted proteins against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to predict the putative functions of identified proteins. Taken together, we provide transcriptomes of two adzuki bean varieties by RNA-Seq, which might be usefully applied to generate molecular markers. PMID:27257605

  3. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  4. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  5. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  6. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties. PMID:25463718

  7. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    PubMed

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  8. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  9. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  10. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  11. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  12. Biological effect of audible sound control on mung bean (Vigna radiate) sprout.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; He, H; Zhu, S; Wang, N

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20-20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000-1500 Hz, 1500-2000 Hz, and 2000-2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  13. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes. PMID:26155963

  14. Antioxidant and Myocardial Preservation Activities of Natural Phytochemicals from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Chang, Jiawei; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Liu, Hongxin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-06-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds (MBS) contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This study was aimed to isolate key bioactive components from MBS with antioxidant and myocardial preservation activities. A new flavonoid C-glycoside, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and 14 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were identified by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and FT-ICR-MS spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1-5 and 7-10 displayed 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, but only 5 and 7 exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity. The myocardial preservation effect of 2, 3, and MBS were investigated by measuring the serum levels of LDH, CK, and AST as well as the tissue level of MDA and SOD. The results demonstrated that 2, 3, and MBS had a significant protective effect against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. MBS can be regarded as a potential new source of antioxidants and myocardial preservation agents.

  15. Changes in antioxidant metabolism of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. by propiconazole under water deficit stress.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, P; Abdul Jaleel, C; Kishorekumar, A; Sankar, B; Somasundaram, R; Sridharan, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2007-05-15

    In the present study, a pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the ameliorating effect of propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) plants. From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 3, 6 and 9 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought stress with PCZ at 15 and 15 mg l(-1) PCZ alone and 1 day interval irrigation was kept as control. The plant samples were collected on 34 DAS (3 DID), 37 DAS (6 DID) and 40 DAS (9 DID). The plants were separated into root, stem and leaf for estimating the antioxidant contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Individual and combined drought stress and PCZ treatments increased ascorbic acid (AA), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toc) contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities when compared to control. The PCZ treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the antioxidant potentials and thereby paved the way for overcoming drought stress in V. unguiculata plants.

  16. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM has been utilized during previous aerobraking operations in the atmosphere of Mars. Mars-GRAM has also been used in the prediction and validation of Mars Pathfinder hypersonic aerodynamics, the aerothermodynamic and entry dynamics studies for Mars Polar Lander, the landing site selection process for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the Mars Aerocapture System Study (MASS) as well as the Aerocapture Technology Assessment Group (TAG). Most recently, Mars-GRAM 2010 was used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. The most recent release of Mars-GRAM 2010 contains several changes including an update to Fortran 90/95 and the addition of adjustment factors. Following the completion of a comparison analysis between Mars-GRAM, Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), as well as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) aerobraking density data, adjustment factors were added to Mars-GRAM 2010 that alter the input data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for the mapping year 0 user-controlled dust case. The addition of adjustment factors resolved the issue of previous versions of Mars-GRAM being less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for mapping year 0 and large optical depth values, such as tau equal to 3. Mars-GRAM was evaluated at locations and times of TES limb observations and adjustment factors were determined. For altitudes above 80 km and below 135 km, Mars-GRAM (MTGCM) densities were compared to aerobraking densities measured by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) to determine the adjustment

  17. Type IV Pili in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Type IV pili (T4P) are surface-exposed fibers that mediate many functions in bacteria, including locomotion, adherence to host cells, DNA uptake (competence), and protein secretion and that can act as nanowires carrying electric current. T4P are composed of a polymerized protein, pilin, and their assembly apparatuses share protein homologs with type II secretion systems in eubacteria and the flagella of archaea. T4P are found throughout Gram-negative bacterial families and have been studied most extensively in certain model Gram-negative species. Recently, it was discovered that T4P systems are also widespread among Gram-positive species, in particular the clostridia. Since Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have many differences in cell wall architecture and other features, it is remarkable how similar the T4P core proteins are between these organisms, yet there are many key and interesting differences to be found as well. In this review, we compare the two T4P systems and identify and discuss the features they have in common and where they differ to provide a very broad-based view of T4P systems across all eubacterial species. PMID:24006467

  18. Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L.; Crispell, Emily K.; McBride, Shonna M.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:25419466

  19. Decreased mortality associated with prompt Gram staining of blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Barenfanger, Joan; Graham, Donald R; Kolluri, Lavanya; Sangwan, Gaurav; Lawhorn, Jerry; Drake, Cheryl A; Verhulst, Steven J; Peterson, Ryan; Moja, Lauren B; Ertmoed, Matthew M; Moja, Ashley B; Shevlin, Douglas W; Vautrain, Robert; Callahan, Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Gram stains of positive blood cultures are the most important factor influencing appropriate therapy. The sooner appropriate therapy is initiated, the better. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the sooner Gram stains are performed, the better. To determine the value of timely Gram stains and whether improvement in Gram stain turnaround time (TAT) is feasible, we compared data for matched pairs of patients with cultures processed promptly (<1 hour TAT) with data for patients with cultures not processed promptly (> or =1 hour TAT) and then monitored TAT by control charting.In 99 matched pairs, average difference in time to detection of positive blood cultures within a pair of patients was less than 0.1 hour. For the less than 1 hour TAT group, the average TAT and crude mortality were 0.1 hour and 10.1%, respectively; for the 1 hour or longer TAT group, they were 3.3 hours and 19.2%, respectively (P < .0001 and P = .0389, respectively). After multifaceted efforts, we achieved significant improvement in the TAT for Gram stains.

  20. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  1. Insights into Newer Antimicrobial Agents Against Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Kaur, Harsimran

    2016-01-01

    Currently, drug resistance, especially against cephalosporins and carbapenems, among gram-negative bacteria is an important challenge, which is further enhanced by the limited availability of drugs against these bugs. There are certain antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, temocillin, and rifampicin) that have been revived from the past to tackle the menace of superbugs, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas species. Very few newer antibiotics have been added to the pool of existing drugs. There are still many antibiotics that are passing through various phases of clinical trials. The initiative of Infectious Disease Society of America to develop 10 novel antibiotics against gram-negative bacilli by 2020 is a step to fill the gap of limited availability of drugs. This review aims to provide insights into the current and newer drugs in pipeline for the treatment of gram-negative bacteria and also discusses the major challenging issues for their management. PMID:27013887

  2. Pilins in gram-positive bacteria: A structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2015-07-01

    Pilins or fimbrilins are a class of proteins found in bacterial surface pilus, a hair-like surface appendage. Both the Gram-negative and -positive bacteria produce pilins to assemble pili on their cell-surface for different purposes including adherence, twitching motility, conjugation, immunomodulation, biofilm formation, and electron transfer. Immunogenic properties of the pilins make them attractive vaccine candidates. The polymerized pilins play a key role in the initiation of host adhesion, which is a critical step for bacterial colonization and infection. Because of their key role in adhesion and exposure on the cell surface, targeting the pilins-mediated adhesion (anti-adhesion therapy) is also seen as a promising alternative approach for preventing and treating bacterial infections, one that may overcome their ever-increasing repertoires of resistance mechanisms. Individual pilins interact with each other non-covalently to assemble the pilus fiber with the help of associated proteins like chaperones and Usher in Gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, the pilins in Gram-positive bacteria often connect with each other covalently, with the help of sortases. Certain unique structural features present on the pilins distinguish them from one another across different bacterial strains, and these dictate their cellular targets and functions. While the structure of pilins has been extensively studied in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, the pilins in Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria have been in only during the last decade. Recently, the discovery of pilins in non-pathogenic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, has received great attention, though traditionally the attention was on pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes and discusses the current structural knowledge of pilins in Gram-positive bacteria with emphasis on those pilins which are sortase substrates.

  3. Neither Single nor a Combination of Routine Laboratory Parameters can Discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, Franz; Dedeyan, Michel; Rammerstorfer, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Burgmann, Heinz; Makristathis, Athanasios; Dorffner, Georg; Loetsch, Felix; Blacky, Alexander; Ramharter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adequate early empiric antibiotic therapy is pivotal for the outcome of patients with bloodstream infections. In clinical practice the use of surrogate laboratory parameters is frequently proposed to predict underlying bacterial pathogens; however there is no clear evidence for this assumption. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory capacity of predictive models consisting of routinely available laboratory parameters to predict the presence of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia. Major machine learning algorithms were screened for their capacity to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for discriminating between Gram-positive and Gram-negative cases. Data from 23,765 patients with clinically suspected bacteremia were screened and 1,180 bacteremic patients were included in the study. A relative predominance of Gram-negative bacteremia (54.0%), which was more pronounced in females (59.1%), was observed. The final model achieved 0.675 ROC-AUC resulting in 44.57% sensitivity and 79.75% specificity. Various parameters presented a significant difference between both genders. In gender-specific models, the discriminatory potency was slightly improved. The results of this study do not support the use of surrogate laboratory parameters for predicting classes of causative pathogens. In this patient cohort, gender-specific differences in various laboratory parameters were observed, indicating differences in the host response between genders. PMID:26522966

  4. Neither Single nor a Combination of Routine Laboratory Parameters can Discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Franz; Dedeyan, Michel; Rammerstorfer, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Burgmann, Heinz; Makristathis, Athanasios; Dorffner, Georg; Loetsch, Felix; Blacky, Alexander; Ramharter, Michael

    2015-11-02

    Adequate early empiric antibiotic therapy is pivotal for the outcome of patients with bloodstream infections. In clinical practice the use of surrogate laboratory parameters is frequently proposed to predict underlying bacterial pathogens; however there is no clear evidence for this assumption. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory capacity of predictive models consisting of routinely available laboratory parameters to predict the presence of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia. Major machine learning algorithms were screened for their capacity to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for discriminating between Gram-positive and Gram-negative cases. Data from 23,765 patients with clinically suspected bacteremia were screened and 1,180 bacteremic patients were included in the study. A relative predominance of Gram-negative bacteremia (54.0%), which was more pronounced in females (59.1%), was observed. The final model achieved 0.675 ROC-AUC resulting in 44.57% sensitivity and 79.75% specificity. Various parameters presented a significant difference between both genders. In gender-specific models, the discriminatory potency was slightly improved. The results of this study do not support the use of surrogate laboratory parameters for predicting classes of causative pathogens. In this patient cohort, gender-specific differences in various laboratory parameters were observed, indicating differences in the host response between genders.

  5. Wall Teichoic Acids of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie; Santa Maria, John P.; Walker, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The peptidoglycan layers of many gram-positive bacteria are densely functionalized with anionic glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs). These polymers play crucial roles in cell shape determination, regulation of cell division, and other fundamental aspects of gram-positive bacterial physiology. Additionally, WTAs are important in pathogenesis and play key roles in antibiotic resistance. We provide an overview of WTA structure and biosynthesis, review recent studies on the biological roles of these polymers, and highlight remaining questions. We also discuss prospects for exploiting WTA biosynthesis as a target for new therapies to overcome resistant infections. PMID:24024634

  6. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  7. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  8. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  9. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  10. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit. PMID:27323025

  11. Regulation of rhizosphere acidification by photosynthetic activity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rao, Theertham P; Yano, Katsuya; Iijima, Morio; Yamauchi, Akira; Tatsumi, Jiro

    2002-02-01

    In contrast to cereals or other crops, legumes are known to acidify the rhizosphere even when supplied with nitrates. This phenomenon has been attributed to N2 fixation allowing excess uptake of cations over anions; however, as we have found previously, the exposure of the shoot to illumination can cause rhizosphere acidification in the absence of N2 fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). In this study, we examined whether the light-induced acidification can relate to photosynthetic activity and corresponding alterations in cation-anion uptake ratios. The changes of rhizosphere pH along the root axis were visualized using a pH indicator agar gel. The intensity of pH changes (alkalization/acidification) in the rhizosphere was expressed in proton fluxes, which were obtained by processing the images of the pH indicator agar gel. The uptake of cations and anions was measured in nutrient solution. The rhizosphere was alkalinized in the dark but acidified with exposure of the shoots to light. The extent of light-induced acidification was increased with leaf size and intensity of illumination on the shoot, and completely stopped with the application of photosynthesis inhibitor. Although the uptake of cations was significantly lower than that of anions, the rhizosphere was acidified by light exposure. Proton pump inhibitors N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodimide and vanadate could not stop the light-induced acidification. The results indicate that light-induced acidification in cowpea seedlings is regulated by photosynthetic activity, but is not due to excess uptake of cations. PMID:12099352

  12. Effect of seaweed extracts on the growth and biochemical constituents of Vigna sinensis.

    PubMed

    Sivasankari, S; Venkatesalu, V; Anantharaj, M; Chandrasekaran, M

    2006-09-01

    The effect of seaweed liquid fertilizers (SLF) of Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa chemnitzia on growth and biochemical constituents of Vigna sinensis was studied. The seeds soaked with aqueous extract of seaweeds performed better when compared to the water soaked controls. Hundred per cent germination was recorded both in aqueous extract soaked and water soaked treatments. The low concentration (20%) of aqueous extracts of S. wightii and C. chemnitzia promoted the seedling growth including the parameters of shoot length (15.87, 14.13 cm/seedling), root length (6.42, 5.38 cm/seedling), fresh weight (4.017, 4.012 g/seedling) and dry weight (0.878, 0.865 g/seedling), chlorophyll (1.599, 1.491 mg g-1 fr. wt.), carotenoids (0.899, 0.875 mg g-1 fr. wt.), protein content of shoot (3.956, 3.474 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (2.926, 2.890 mg g-1 fr. wt.), amino acid content of shoot (1.447, 1.429 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (0.698, 0.680 mg g-1 fr. wt.), reducing sugar content of shoot (6.426, 6.233 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (5.118, 5.103 mg g-1 fr. wt.), total sugar content of shoot (11.846, 11.350 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (10.368, 10.102 mg g-1 fr. wt.), alpha-amylase (1.927, 1.819 microg min-1 mg-1 protein) and beta-amylase (1.730, 1.617 microg min-1 mg-1 protein) activities in V. sinensis. Among the two seaweeds tested, S. wightii exhibited better responses. PMID:16112855

  13. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Fate of ZnO nanoparticles in soils and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A; Johannessen, Bernt; Glover, Chris J; Kappen, Peter; Kopittke, Peter M

    2013-12-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in various commercial products is prompting detailed investigation regarding the fate of these materials in the environment. There is, however, a lack of information comparing the transformation of ZnO-NPs with soluble Zn(2+) in both soils and plants. Synchrotron-based techniques were used to examine the uptake and transformation of Zn in various tissues of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) exposed to ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2 following growth in either solution or soil culture. In solution culture, soluble Zn (ZnCl2) was more toxic than the ZnO-NPs, although there was substantial accumulation of ZnO-NPs on the root surface. When grown in soil, however, there was no significant difference in plant growth and accumulation or speciation of Zn between soluble Zn and ZnO-NP treatments, indicating that the added ZnO-NPs underwent rapid dissolution following their entry into the soil. This was confirmed by an incubation experiment with two soils, in which ZnO-NPs could not be detected after incubation for 1 h. The speciation of Zn was similar in shoot tissues for both soluble Zn and ZnO-NPs treatments and no upward translocation of ZnO-NPs from roots to shoots was observed in either solution or soil culture. Under the current experimental conditions, the similarity in uptake and toxicity of Zn from ZnO-NPs and soluble Zn in soils indicates that the ZnO-NPs used in this study did not constitute nanospecific risks.

  15. Functional associations between the metabolome and manganese tolerance in Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Führs, Hendrik; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Horst, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic- and silicon (Si)-mediated differences in manganese (Mn) tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) arise from a combination of symplastic and apoplastic traits. A detailed metabolomic inspection could help to identify functional associations between genotype- and Si-mediated Mn tolerance and metabolism. Two cowpea genotypes differing in Mn tolerance (TVu 91, Mn sensitive; TVu 1987, Mn tolerant) were subjected to differential Mn and Si treatments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profiling of leaf material was performed. Detailed evaluation of the response of metabolites was combined with gene expression and physiological analyses. After 2 d of 50 μM Mn supply TVu 91 expressed toxicity symptoms first in the form of brown spots on the second oldest trifoliate leaves. Silicon treatment suppressed symptom development in TVu 91. Despite higher concentrations of Mn in leaves of TVu 1987 compared with TVu 91, the tolerant genotype did not show symptoms. From sample cluster formation as identified by independent component analysis (ICA) of metabolite profiles it is concluded that genotypic differences accounted for the highest impact on variation in metabolite pools, followed by Mn and Si treatments in one of two experiments. Analysis of individual metabolites corroborated a comparable minor role for Mn and Si treatments in the modulation of individual metabolites. Mapping individual metabolites differing significantly between genotypes onto biosynthetic pathways and gene expression studies on the corresponding pathways suggest that genotypic Mn tolerance is a consequence of differences (i) in the apoplastic binding capacity; (ii) in the capability to maintain a high antioxidative state; and (iii) in the activity of shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  16. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

    2010-09-01

    The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

  17. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems—biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  18. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA.

  19. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    PubMed

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

  20. Activity of recombinant and natural defensins from Vigna unguiculata seeds against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Géssika Silva; do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; de Carvalho, Laís Pessanha; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Fernandes, Keysson Vieira; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Retamal, Claudio Andres; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Carvalho, André de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are differentiated from other antibiotic peptides, such as gramicidins and polymyxins, because they are synthesized by large enzymatic complex and bear modified amino acids including d-amino acids, are short polymers of l-amino acids synthesized by ribosomes upon which all living organisms rely to defend themselves from invaders or competitor microorganisms. AMPs have received a great deal of attention from the scientific community as potential new drugs for neglected diseases such as Leishmaniasis. In plants, they include several families of compounds, including the plant defensins. The aim of the present study was to improve the expression of recombinant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds (Vu-Defr) and to test its activity against Leishmania amazonensis promatigotes. Recombinant expression was performed in LB and TB media and under different conditions. The purification of Vu-Defr was achieved by immobilized metal ion affinity and reversed-phase chromatography. The purified Vu-Defr was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD), and its biological activity was tested against L. amazonenis promastigotes. To demonstrate that the recombinant production of Vu-Defr did not interfere with its fold and biological activity, the results of all experiments were compared with the results from the natural defensin (Vu-Def). The CD spectra of both peptides presented good superimposition indicating that both peptides present very similar secondary structure and that the Vu-Defr was correctly folded. L. amazonensis treated with Vu-Defr led to the elimination of 54.3% and 46.9% of the parasites at 24 and 48h of incubation time, respectively. Vu-Def eliminated 50% and 54.8% of the parasites at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Both were used at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. These results suggested the potential for plant defensins to be used as new antiparasitic substances.

  1. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems-biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  2. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    PubMed

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  3. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA. PMID:27112006

  4. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  5. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada )

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  6. De novo assembly of the complete organelle genome sequences of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) using next-generation sequencers.

    PubMed

    Naito, Ken; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kawase, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    Since chloroplasts and mitochondria are maternally inherited and have unique features in evolution, DNA sequences of those organelle genomes have been broadly used in phylogenetic studies. Thanks to recent progress in next-generation sequencer (NGS) technology, whole-genome sequencing can be easily performed. Here, using NGS data generated by Roche GS Titanium and Illumina Hiseq 2000, we performed a hybrid assembly of organelle genome sequences of Vigna angularis (azuki bean). Both the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of V. angularis have very similar size and gene content to those of V. radiata (mungbean). However, in structure, mtDNA sequences have undergone many recombination events after divergence from the common ancestor of V. angularis and V. radiata, whereas cpDNAs are almost identical between the two. The stability of cpDNAs and the variability of mtDNAs was further confirmed by comparative analysis of Vigna organelles with model plants Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. The importance of horse gram was well recognized by the folk/alternative/traditional medicine as a potential therapeutic agent to treat kidney stones, urinary diseases, piles, common cold, throat infection, fever etc. The inception of nutraceutical concept and increasing health consciousness the demand of nutraceutical and functional food is increased. In recent years, isolation and utilization of potential antioxidants from legumes including horse gram are increased as it decreases the risk of intestinal diseases, diabetes, coronary heart disease, prevention of dental caries etc. Keeping in view the increasing demand of food having nutraceutical values, the present review ascribed with recent scientific knowledge towards the possibilities of exploring the horse gram, as a source of food and nutraceuticals compounds. PMID:25892749

  8. Will new antimicrobials overcome resistance among Gram-negatives?

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Ginocchio, Francesca; Mikulska, Małgorzata; Taramasso, Lucia; Giacobbe, Daniele Roberto

    2011-10-01

    The spread of resistance among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria represents a growing challenge for the development of new antimicrobials. The pace of antibiotic drug development has slowed during the last decade and, especially for Gram-negatives, clinicians are facing a dramatic shortage in the availability of therapeutic options to face the emergency of the resistance problem throughout the world. In this alarming scenario, although there is a shortage of compounds reaching the market in the near future, antibiotic discovery remains one of the keys to successfully stem and maybe overcome the tide of resistance. Analogs of already known compounds and new agents belonging to completely new classes of antimicrobials are in early stages of development. Novel and promising anti-Gram-negative antimicrobials belong both to old (cephalosporins, carbapenems, β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, aminoglycosides, polymyxin analogues and tetracycline) and completely new antibacterial classes (boron-containing antibacterial protein synthesis inhibitors, bis-indoles, outer membrane synthesis inhibitors, antibiotics targeting novel sites of the 50S ribosomal subunit and antimicrobial peptides). However, all of these compounds are still far from being introduced into clinical practice. Therefore, infection control policies and optimization in the use of already existing molecules are still the most effective approaches to reduce the spread of resistance and preserve the activity of antimicrobials.

  9. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Deitzler, Grace E.; Ruiz, Maria J.; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  10. V-antigen homologs in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Katoh, Hideya; Yasumoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria cause many types of infections in animals from fish and shrimps to humans. Bacteria use Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) to translocate their toxins directly into eukaryotic cells. The V-antigen is a multifunctional protein required for the TTSS in Yersinia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. V-antigen vaccines and anti-V-antigen antisera confer protection against Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections in animal models. The V-antigen forms a pentameric cap structure at the tip of the Type III secretory needle; this structure, which has evolved from the bacterial flagellar cap structure, is indispensable for toxin translocation. Various pathogenic gram-negative bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio spp., and Aeromonas spp. encode homologs of the V-antigen. Because the V-antigens of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria play a key role in toxin translocation, they are potential therapeutic targets for combatting bacterial virulence. In the USA and Europe, these vaccines and specific antibodies against V-antigens are in clinical trials investigating the treatment of Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections. Pathogenic gram-negative bacteria are of great interest because of their ability to infect fish and shrimp farms, their potential for exploitation in biological terrorism attacks, and their ability to cause opportunistic infections in humans. Thus, elucidation of the roles of the V-antigen in the TTSS and mechanisms by which these functions can be blocked is critical to facilitating the development of improved anti-V-antigen strategies. PMID:24641673

  11. The Career-O-Gram: A Postmodern Career Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorngren, Jill M.; Feit, Stephen S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the usefulness of postmodernism in career counseling. Makes a case for broadening career counseling theories and techniques to feature the contextual influences inherent in each individual's unique career history. Introduces a career intervention, titled the Career-O-Gram, as a tool for exploring contextual influences on career…

  12. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Deitzler, Grace E; Ruiz, Maria J; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  13. Cyclic diguanylate signaling in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Erin B; Tamayo, Rita

    2016-09-01

    The nucleotide second messenger 3'-5' cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of the transition between motile and non-motile lifestyles in bacteria, favoring sessility. Most research investigating the functions of c-di-GMP has focused on Gram-negative species, especially pathogens. Recent work in Gram-positive species has revealed that c-di-GMP plays similar roles in Gram-positives, though the precise targets and mechanisms of regulation may differ. The majority of bacterial life exists in a surface-associated state, with motility allowing bacteria to disseminate and colonize new environments. c-di-GMP signaling regulates flagellum biosynthesis and production of adherence factors and appears to be a primary mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to surfaces. Ultimately, c-di-GMP influences the ability of a bacterium to alter its transcriptional program, physiology and behavior upon surface contact. This review discusses how bacteria are able to sense a surface via flagella and type IV pili, and the role of c-di-GMP in regulating the response to surfaces, with emphasis on studies of Gram-positive bacteria.

  14. Cyclic diguanylate signaling in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Erin B; Tamayo, Rita

    2016-09-01

    The nucleotide second messenger 3'-5' cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of the transition between motile and non-motile lifestyles in bacteria, favoring sessility. Most research investigating the functions of c-di-GMP has focused on Gram-negative species, especially pathogens. Recent work in Gram-positive species has revealed that c-di-GMP plays similar roles in Gram-positives, though the precise targets and mechanisms of regulation may differ. The majority of bacterial life exists in a surface-associated state, with motility allowing bacteria to disseminate and colonize new environments. c-di-GMP signaling regulates flagellum biosynthesis and production of adherence factors and appears to be a primary mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to surfaces. Ultimately, c-di-GMP influences the ability of a bacterium to alter its transcriptional program, physiology and behavior upon surface contact. This review discusses how bacteria are able to sense a surface via flagella and type IV pili, and the role of c-di-GMP in regulating the response to surfaces, with emphasis on studies of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27354347

  15. Authorship Attribution with Function Word N-Grams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rusty

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has considered the sequential order of function words, after the contextual words of the text have been removed, as a stylistic indicator of authorship. This research describes an effort to enhance authorship attribution accuracy based on this same information source with alternate classifiers, alternate n-gram construction methods,…

  16. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Kill Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photostimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl2. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID

  17. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50  μ L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  18. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50  μ L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.

  19. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  20. Tryptophan-containing lipopeptide antibiotics derived from polymyxin B with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Manresa, Ángeles; Pujol, Montserrat; Rabanal, Francesc; Cajal, Yolanda

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to all known antibiotics is a growing concern worldwide, and has renewed the interest in antimicrobial peptides, a structurally diverse class of amphipathic molecules that essentially act on the bacterial membrane. Propelled by the antimicrobial potential of this compound class, we have designed three new lipopeptides derived from polymyxin B, sp-34, sp-96 and sp-100, with potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The three peptides bind with high affinity to lipopolysaccharide as demonstrated by monolayer penetration and dansyl-displacement. The interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane has been elucidated by biophysical experiments with model membranes of POPG or POPE/POPG (6:4), mimicking the Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial membrane. Trp-based fluorescence experiments including steady-state, quenching, anisotropy and FRET, reveal selectivity for anionic phospholipids and deep insertion into the membrane. All three lipopeptides induce membrane fusion and leakage from anionic vesicles, a process that is favored by the presence of POPE. The molecules bind to zwitterionic POPC vesicles, a model of the eukaryotic membrane, but in a different way, with lower affinity, less penetration into the bilayer and no fusion or permeabilization of the membrane. Results in model membranes are consistent with flow cytometry experiments in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using a membrane potential sensitive dye (bis-oxonol) and a nucleic acid dye (propidium iodide), suggesting that the mechanism of action is based on membrane binding and collapse of membrane integrity by depolarization and permeabilization.

  1. Detection of and discrimination between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in intraocular samples by using nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Carroll, N M; Jaeger, E E; Choudhury, S; Dunlop, A A; Matheson, M M; Adamson, P; Okhravi, N; Lightman, S

    2000-05-01

    A nested PCR protocol has been developed for the detection of and discrimination between 14 species of gram-positive and -negative bacteria in samples of ocular fluids. First-round PCR with pan-bacterial oligonucleotide primers, based on conserved sequences of the 16S ribosomal gene, was followed by a gram-negative-organism-specific PCR, which resulted in a single 985-bp amplification product, and a multiplex PCR which resulted in two PCR products: a 1,025 bp amplicon (all bacteria) and a 355 bp amplicon (gram-positive bacteria only). All products were detected by gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity of the assay was between 10 fg and 1 pg of bacterial DNA, depending on the species tested, equivalent to between 24 and 4 live bacteria spiked in water. The identification was complete in 3.5 h. The molecular techniques were subsequently applied to four samples of intraocular fluid, (three vitreous and one aqueous) from three patients with clinical signs of bacterial endophthalmitis (test samples) and two samples of vitreous from a patient with chronic intraocular inflammation (control samples). In all culture-positive samples (two of three vitreous and one of one aqueous), a complete concordance was observed between molecular methods and culture results. PCR correctly identified the gram stain classification of the organisms. The bacterial etiology was also identified in a culture-negative patient with clinical history and signs highly suggestive of bacterial endophthalmitis. Furthermore, control samples from a patient with chronic intraocular inflammation remained PCR negative. In summary, this protocol has demonstrated potential as a rapid diagnostic test in confirming the diagnosis of infection and also determining the Gram status of bacteria with high specificity and sensitivity.

  2. Lysophosphatidylcholine reduces the organ injury and dysfunction in rodent models of Gram-negative and Gram-positive shock

    PubMed Central

    Murch, Oliver; Collin, Marika; Sepodes, Bruno; Foster, Simon J; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) modulates the inflammatory response and reduces mortality in animal models of sepsis. Here, we investigate the effects of LPC from synthetic (sLPC) and natural, soy bean derived LPC, (nLPC) sources on the organ injury/dysfunction caused by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PepG) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Rats were subjected to (i) endotoxaemia (LPS 6 mg kg–1 i.v.) and treated with sLPC (1–100 mg kg−1), (ii) endotoxaemia and treated with nLPC (10 mg kg−1) or (iii) Gram-positive shock (PepG 10 mg kg–1 and LTA 3 mg kg–1 i.v.) and treated with sLPC (10 mg kg−1). Endotoxaemia or Gram-positive shock for 6 h resulted in increases in serum makers of renal dysfunction and liver, pancreatic and neuromuscular injury. Administration of sLPC, at 1 or 2 h after LPS, dose dependently (1–10 mg kg−1) reduced the organ injury/dysfunction. High doses of sLPC (30 and 100 mg kg−1) were shown to be detrimental in endotoxaemia. sLPC also afforded protection against the organ injury/dysfunction caused by Gram-positive shock. nLPC was found to be protective in endotoxaemic animals. The beneficial effects of sLPC were associated with an attenuation in circulating levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In conclusion, LPC dose and time dependently reduces the organ injury and circulating IL-1β levels caused by Gram-negative or Gram-positive shock in the rat. Thus, we speculate that appropriate doses of LPC may be useful in reducing the degree of organ injury and dysfunction associated with shock of various aetiologies. PMID:16751791

  3. Transcriptome sequencing of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) genes and the identification of EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liu, Chunji; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0%) and 23,235 (47.7%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 6,585 (8.3%) were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%), GAA/TTC (12.6%), AAAT/ATTT (6.8%), AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2%) and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%). A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or

  4. Postantibiotic effect of ceftaroline against gram-positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs), postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA-SMEs), and sub-MIC effects (SMEs) of ceftaroline, a novel injectable cephalosporin, were determined for 15 gram-positive organisms. The pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal PAEs were 0.8 to 1.8 h, 0.7 to 2.2 h, and 0.2 to 1.1 h, respectively. The corresponding PA-SMEs (0.4 times the MIC) were 2.5 to 6.7 h, 2.9 to >0.0 h, and 7.9 to >10.3 h, respectively. The PA-SMEs were longer than the PAEs, suggesting that sub-MIC levels extend the PAE of ceftaroline against gram-positive cocci.

  5. Gram-negative outer membrane vesicles: beyond the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    MASHBURN-WARREN, L.; MCLEAN, R. J. C.; WHITELEY, M.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has recently mounted regarding the biological roles of Gram-negative outer membrane vesicles (MVs). The first discovery of MVs was made over four decades ago, and it is now clear that most Gram-negative bacteria produce MVs, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as the most extensively studied. Much of our knowledge of the biological roles of MVs and mechanism of MV formation is due to T.J. Beveridge and colleagues. Beveridge pioneered the field of MV research not only by enhancing our understanding of MV function, but also through the application of a wide variety of physical, chemical, and genetic techniques to complement his elegant electron microscopy investigations. Here we review the contributions of Beveridge’s group to our understanding of MV biology. PMID:18459967

  6. Which antibiotic for resistant Gram-positives, and why?

    PubMed

    Bradley, John S

    2014-01-01

    Increasing resistance in Gram-positive pathogens, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, and enterococcus, has become a major clinical problem, particularly in the hospital environment, causing significant morbidity and mortality in both healthy hosts and in those with underlying comorbidities. Increased resistance drives the use of empiric therapy with less well-studied and potentially more toxic agents. Resistance mechanisms for currently recommended agents are discussed, with options for therapy of resistant pathogens. For any new agent used, resistance is likely to develop, which underscores the concept that both antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance are ancient, and only by prudent use of antimicrobial agents and effective infection control measures when resistance arises, will effective agents be available to treat Gram-positive pathogens in the future.

  7. Mars-Gram Validation with Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many b4ars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), while above 80 km it is based on University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science (RS) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75deg S to 72deg N, surface to approx. 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160deg and 265-310deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, measured RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over the range of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, average RS/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally lf0.05, except at heights above approx. 25 km and latitudes above approx.50deg N. Average standard deviation of RS/Mars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approx. 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85deg S to 85deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (> 45deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approx. 90 and 180deg). Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of approx. 6

  8. Global Summary MGS TES Data and Mars-Gram Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM), while above 80 km it is based on University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topograph$ from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with a global summary data set of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. TES averages and standard deviations were assembled from binned TES data which covered surface to approx. 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). TES data were binned in 10-by-10 degree latitude-longitude bins (i.e. 36 longitude bins by 19 latitude bins), 12 seasonal bins (based on 30 degree increments of Ls angle). Bin averages and standard deviations were assembled at 23 data levels (temperature at 21 pressure levels, plus surface temperature and surface pressure). Two time-of day bins were used: local time near 2 or 14 hours local time). Two dust optical depth bins wereused: infrared optical depth either less than or greater than 0.25 (which corresponds to visible optical depth either less than or greater than about 0.5). For interests in aerocapture and precision entry and landing, comparisons focused on atmospheric density. TES densities versus height were computed from TES temperature versus pressure, using assumptions of perfect gas law and hydrostatics. Mars-GRAM validation studies used density ratio (TES/Mars-GRAM) evaluated at data bin center points in space and time. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (> 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approx. 90 and 180deg

  9. Sphingomonas paucimobilis: a persistent Gram-negative nosocomial infectious organism.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P; Adley, C C

    2010-07-01

    Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli create a significant problem in clinical settings, being the most widespread cause of nosocomial infections. They are opportunistic pathogens that take advantage of underlying conditions and diseases. Sphingomonas paucimobilis, a non-fermenting Gram-negative bacillus, is regarded as of minor clinical significance; however, many instances of infections with this organism can be found in the literature. Infections include bacteraemia/septicaemia caused by contaminated solutions, e.g. distilled water, haemodialysis fluid and sterile drug solutions. Cases of pseudobacteraemia have been recorded in association with S. paucimobilis, as have many cases of unusual infections both invasive and severe, e.g. septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. No cases of death have been recorded in the literature related to S. paucimobilis. This review illustrates that S. paucimobilis is a more important pathogen than previously thought.

  10. Virulence Plasmids of Nonsporulating Gram-Positive Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Van Tyne, Daria; Gilmore, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are leading causes of many types of human infection, including pneumonia, skin and nasopharyngeal infections, as well as urinary tract and surgical wound infections among hospitalized patients. These infections have become particularly problematic because many of the species causing them have become highly resistant to antibiotics. The role of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria has been well studied; less well understood is the role of mobile elements in the evolution and spread of virulence traits among these pathogens. While these organisms are leading agents of infection, they are also prominent members of the human commensal ecology. It appears that these bacteria are able to take advantage of the intimate association between host and commensal, via virulence traits that exacerbate infection and cause disease. However, evolution into an obligate pathogen has not occurred, presumably because it would lead to rejection of pathogenic organisms from the host ecology. Instead, in organisms that exist as both commensal and pathogen, selection has favored the development of mechanisms for variability. As a result, many virulence traits are localized on mobile genetic elements, such as virulence plasmids and pathogenicity islands. Virulence traits may occur within a minority of isolates of a given species, but these minority populations have nonetheless emerged as a leading problem in infectious disease. This chapter reviews virulence plasmids in nonsporulating Gram-positive bacteria, and examines their contribution to disease pathogenesis.

  11. Efficient n-gram analysis in R with cmscu.

    PubMed

    Vinson, David W; Davis, Jason K; Sindi, Suzanne S; Dale, Rick

    2016-09-01

    We present a new R package, cmscu, which implements a Count-Min-Sketch with conservative updating (Cormode and Muthukrishnan Journal of Algorithms, 55(1), 58-75, 2005), and its application to n-gram analyses (Goyal et al. 2012). By writing the core implementation in C++ and exposing it to R via Rcpp, we are able to provide a memory-efficient, high-throughput, and easy-to-use library. As a proof of concept, we implemented the computationally challenging (Heafield et al. 2013) modified Kneser-Ney n-gram smoothing algorithm using cmscu as the querying engine. We then explore information density measures (Jaeger Cognitive Psychology, 61(1), 23-62, 2010) from n-gram frequencies (for n=2,3) derived from a corpus of over 2.2 million reviews provided by a Yelp, Inc. dataset. We demonstrate that these text data are at a scale beyond the reach of other more common, more general-purpose libraries available through CRAN. Using the cmscu library and the smoothing implementation, we find a positive relationship between review information density and reader review ratings. We end by highlighting the important use of new efficient tools to explore behavioral phenomena in large, relatively noisy data sets. PMID:27496173

  12. Disulfide-Bond-Forming Pathways in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are important for the stability and function of many secreted proteins. In Gram-negative bacteria, these linkages are catalyzed by thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (Dsb) in the periplasm. Protein oxidation has been well studied in these organisms, but it has not fully been explored in Gram-positive bacteria, which lack traditional periplasmic compartments. Recent bioinformatics analyses have suggested that the high-GC-content bacteria (i.e., actinobacteria) rely on disulfide-bond-forming pathways. In support of this, Dsb-like proteins have been identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but their functions are not known. Actinomyces oris and Corynebacterium diphtheriae have recently emerged as models to study disulfide bond formation in actinobacteria. In both organisms, disulfide bonds are catalyzed by the membrane-bound oxidoreductase MdbA. Remarkably, unlike known Dsb proteins, MdbA is important for pathogenesis and growth, which makes it a potential target for new antibacterial drugs. This review will discuss disulfide-bond-forming pathways in bacteria, with a special focus on Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26644434

  13. Ionizing radiation induced changes in phenotype, photosynthetic pigments and free polyamine levels in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-05-01

    Effects of gamma rays on the free polyamine (PA) levels were studied in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Seeds exposed to different doses of gamma rays were checked for damage on phenotype, germination frequency and alteration in photosynthetic pigments. Free polyamine levels were estimated from seeds irradiated in dry and water imbibed conditions. Polyamine levels of seedlings grown from irradiated seeds, and irradiated seedlings from unexposed seeds were also measured. Damage caused by gamma irradiation resulted in decrease in final germination percentage and seedling height. Photosynthetic pigments decreased in a dose dependent manner as marker of stress. Polyamines decreased in irradiated dry seeds and in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. Radiation stress induced increase in free polyamines was seen in irradiated imbibed seeds and irradiated seedlings. Response of polyamines towards gamma rays is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the plant.

  14. Studies on phytotoxic effect of aluminium on growth and some morphological parameters of Vigna radiata L. Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Neogy, Mala; Datta, Jayanta; Roy, Amit Kumar; Mukherji, Subendhu

    2002-10-01

    Aluminium toxicity is a major deterrent for plant growth in acid soils below pH 5.0. This study deals with effect of aluminium toxicity on growth of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings. Seed germination (in %) declined with increased content of Al2(SO4)3, while promotive effect was observed at very low dosage. Different concentrations of aluminum sulphate salt were applied to mungbean seeds. Measurement of aluminium content in mungbean leaves was done through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Root length (root and hypocotyl length) and shoot length (shoot and epicotyl length) was measured at seven days old seedling stage. Different concentrations of Al2(SO4)3 were found to have significant effect both on shoot and root length. Leaf area, fresh and dry weight was significantly reduced. Increased stomatal frequency and trichome density with an increase in concentrations of Al2(S04)3 was observed through scanning electron microscope.

  15. Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Amarowicz, Ryszard; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-05

    The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.).

    PubMed

    Charchafchi, Fawzia Al; Al-Nabhani, Iman; Al-Kharousi, Hanan; Al-Quraini, Fatma; Al-Hanai, Amal

    2007-11-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic effect of leaves aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Different methods were used to preparing leaves aqueous extract. Germination percentage and seedling growth of V. radiata significantly decreased gradually as the concentration of the aqueous leaves extracts of A. indica increased in comparison with water control. Severe toxicity was observed at high concentrations and moderate toxicity at low concentrations in comparison with water control. Aqueous leaves extract significantly inhibited root length more than shoot. These results indicated that some kind of inhibitor(s) was the responsible agent for the phytotoxic effect of A. indica on germination and seedling growth of V. radiata. PMID:19090247

  17. Arginine Patch Predicts the RNA Annealing Activity of Hfq from Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Amy; Panja, Subrata; Woodson, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    The Sm-protein Hfq facilitates interactions between small non-coding RNA (sRNA) and target mRNAs. In enteric Gram-negative bacteria, Hfq is required for sRNA regulation, and hfq deletion results in stress intolerance and reduced virulence. By contrast, the role of Hfq in Gram-positive is less established and varies among species. The RNA binding and RNA annealing activity of Hfq from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus were compared using minimal RNAs and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that RNA annealing activity increases with the number of arginines in a semi-conserved patch on the rim of the Hfq hexamer and correlates with the previously reported requirement for Hfq in sRNA regulation. Thus, the amino acid sequence of the arginine patch can predict the chaperone function of Hfq in sRNA regulation in different organisms. PMID:27049793

  18. Highly active modulators of indole signaling alter pathogenic behaviors in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Minvielle, Marine J; Eguren, Kristen; Melander, Christian

    2013-12-16

    Indole is a universal signal that regulates various bacterial behaviors, such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. To generate mechanistic probes of indole signaling and control indole-mediated pathogenic phenotypes in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, we have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives to generate highly active indole mimetics. We have developed non-microbicidal dFBr derivatives that are 27-2000 times more active than indole in modulating biofilm formation, motility, acid resistance, and antibiotic resistance. The activity of these analogues parallels indole, because they are dependent on temperature, the enzyme tryptophanase TnaA, and the transcriptional regulator SdiA. This investigation demonstrates that molecules based on the dFBr scaffold can alter pathogenic behaviors by mimicking indole-signaling pathways.

  19. Arginine Patch Predicts the RNA Annealing Activity of Hfq from Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Amy; Panja, Subrata; Woodson, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    The Sm-protein Hfq facilitates interactions between small non-coding RNA (sRNA) and target mRNAs. In enteric Gram-negative bacteria, Hfq is required for sRNA regulation, and hfq deletion results in stress intolerance and reduced virulence. By contrast, the role of Hfq in Gram-positive is less established and varies among species. The RNA binding and RNA annealing activity of Hfq from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus were compared using minimal RNAs and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that RNA annealing activity increases with the number of arginines in a semi-conserved patch on the rim of the Hfq hexamer and correlates with the previously reported requirement for Hfq in sRNA regulation. Thus, the amino acid sequence of the arginine patch can predict the chaperone function of Hfq in sRNA regulation in different organisms.

  20. Catabolite repression and inducer control in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saier, M H; Chauvaux, S; Cook, G M; Deutscher, J; Paulsen, I T; Reizer, J; Ye, J J

    1996-02-01

    Results currently available clearly indicate that the metabolite-activated protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-46 in HPr plays a key role in catabolite repression and the control of inducer levels in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. This protein kinase is not found in enteric bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium where an entirely different PTS-mediated regulatory mechanism is responsible for catabolite repression and inducer concentration control. In Table 2 these two mechanistically dissimilar but functionally related processes are compared (Saier et al., 1995b). In Gram-negative enteric bacteria, an external sugar is sensed by the sugar-recognition constituent of an Enzyme II complex of the PTS (IIC), and a dephosphorylating signal is transmitted via the Enzyme IIB/HPr proteins to the central regulatory protein, IIAGlc. Targets regulated include (1) permeases specific for lactose, maltose, melibiose and raffinose, (2) catabolic enzymes such as glycerol kinase that generate cytoplasmic inducers, and (3) the cAMP biosynthetic enzyme, adenylate cyclase that mediates catabolite repression (Saier, 1989, 1993). In low-GC Gram-positive bacteria, cytoplasmic phosphorylated sugar metabolites are sensed by the HPr kinase which is allostericlaly activated. HPr becomes phosphorylated on Ser-46, and this phosphorylated derivative regulates the activities of its target proteins. These targets include (1) the PTS, (2) non-PTS permeases (both of which are inhibited) and (3) a cytoplasmic sugar-P phosphatase which is activated to reduce cytoplasmic inducer levels. Other important targets of HPr(ser-P) action are (4) the CcpA protein and probably (5) the CepB transcription factor. These two proteins together are believed to determine the intensity of catabolite repression. Their relative importance depends on physiological conditions. Both proteins may respond to the cytoplasmic concentration of HPr(ser-P) and appropriate metabolites. CepA possibly binds

  1. Nanoemulsion Therapy for Burn Wounds Is Effective as a Topical Antimicrobial Against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dolgachev, Vladislav A; Ciotti, Susan M; Eisma, Rone; Gracon, Stephen; Wilkinson, J Erby; Baker, James R; Hemmila, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of two different nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in an in vivo rodent scald burn model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and received a partial-thickness scald burn. Eight hours after burn injury, the wound was inoculated with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment groups consisted of two different NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402), NE vehicle, or saline. Topical application of the treatment was performed at 16 and 24 hours after burn injury. Animals were killed 32 hours after burn injury, and skin samples were obtained for quantitative wound culture and determination of dermal inflammation markers. In a separate set of experiments, burn wound progression was measured histologically after 72 hours of treatment. Both NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402) significantly reduced burn wound infections with either P. aeruginosa or S. aureus and decreased median bacterial counts at least three logs when compared with animals with saline applications (p < .0001). NB-201 and NB-402 also decreased dermal neutrophil recruitment and sequestration into the wound as measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and histopathology (p < .05). In addition, there was a decrease in the proinflammatory dermal cytokines (interleukin 1-beta [IL-1β], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and the neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1 and CXCL2. Using histologic examination, it was found that both NB-201 and NB-402 appeared to suppress burn wound progression 72 hours after injury. Topically applied NB-201 and NB-402 are effective in decreasing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria growth in burn wounds, reducing inflammation, and abrogating burn wound progression.

  2. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L.) Based on Transcriptome Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Chen, Xin; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Zhenxing; Hao, Xiyu; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Liya; Yin, Fengxiang; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 9,301 (23.5%) were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%), AAG/CTT (8.1%) and AGAA/TTCT (20.0%) are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species. PMID:26950544

  3. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L.) Based on Transcriptome Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Chen, Xin; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Zhenxing; Hao, Xiyu; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Liya; Yin, Fengxiang; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 9,301 (23.5%) were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%), AAG/CTT (8.1%) and AGAA/TTCT (20.0%) are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Endolysin P28 against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongling; Zhu, Chaoyang; Chen, Jingyi; Ye, Xing; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Maltocin P28 is a phage-tail like bacteriocin produced by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia P28. The ORF8 of maltocin P28 gene cluster is predicted to encode an endolysin and we name it endolysin P28. Sequence analysis revealed that it contains the lysozyme_like superfamily conserved domain. Endolysin P28 has the four consensus motifs as that of Escherichia coli phage lambda gpR. In this study, endolysin P28 was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified with a C-terminal oligo-histidine tag. The antibacterial activity of endolysin P28 increased as the temperature rose from 25 to 45°C. Thermostability assays showed that endolysin P28 was stable up to 50°C, while its residual activity was reduced by 55% after treatment at 70°C for 30 min. Acidity and high salinity could enhance its antibacterial activity. Endolysin P28 exhibited a broad antibacterial activity against 14 out of 16 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria besides S. maltophilia. Moreover, it could effectively lyse intact Gram-negative bacteria in the absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as an outer membrane permeabilizer. Therefore, the characteristics of endolysin P28 make it a potential therapeutic agent against multi-drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:26635765

  5. Isolating "Unknown" Bacteria in the Introductory Microbiology Laboratory: A New Selective Medium for Gram-Positives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.; Drake, MaryAnne

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, preparation, and use of a medium that can select against a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria while still allowing growth and differentiation of a wide range of Gram-positives. (WRM)

  6. Green fluorescent protein-labeled monitoring tool to quantify conjugative plasmid transfer between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Arends, Karsten; Schiwon, Katarzyna; Sakinc, Türkan; Hübner, Johannes; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2012-02-01

    On the basis of pIP501, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged monitoring tool was constructed for quantifying plasmid mobilization among Gram-positive bacteria and between Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Furthermore, retromobilization of the GFP-tagged monitoring tool was shown from E. faecalis OG1X into the clinical isolate E. faecalis T9.

  7. The Appearance of New Active Forms of Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Lorensen, E; Prevosto, R; Wilson, K A

    1981-07-01

    Ungerminated seeds of mung bean contain a single major species (F) of trypsin inhibitor with five minor species (A-E) separable on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. During germination the level of trypsin inhibitory activity decreases from 1.8 units/grams dry weight in ungerminated cotyledons to 1.2 units/grams in cotyledons from seeds germinated 5 days. This decrease is accompanied by major changes in the distribution of inhibitory activity among the inhibitor species. By 48 hours of germination, inhibitor F has largely disappeared with an accompanying rapid increase in inhibitor C. Similarly, though less rapidly, inhibitor E decreases while inhibitor A increases. A similar sequence of changes is found in vitro when purified inhibitor F is incubated with extracts from seeds germinated 96 hours. The combined in vivo and in vitro data suggest a conversion sequence of: F --> E --> C --> A. The in vitro conversion is inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride but not by iodoacetamide, indicating that at least the initial phases of inhibitor conversion are not catalyzed by the mung bean vicilin peptidohydrolase.

  8. GRAM-86 - FOUR DIMENSIONAL GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE MODEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D.

    1994-01-01

    the variability due to synoptic, diurnal, planetary wave, and gravity wave variations. Quasi-biennial and random variation perturbations are computed from parameters determined by various empirical studies and are added to the monthly mean values. The UNIVAC version of GRAM is written in UNIVAC FORTRAN and has been implemented on a UNIVAC 1110 under control of EXEC 8 with a central memory requirement of approximately 30K of 36 bit words. The GRAM program was developed in 1976 and GRAM-86 was released in 1986. The monthly data files were last updated in 1986. The DEC VAX version of GRAM is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 under control of VMS 4.X with a central memory requirement of approximately 100K of 8 bit bytes. The GRAM program was originally developed in 1976 and later converted to the VAX in 1986 (GRAM-86). The monthly data files were last updated in 1986.

  9. GRAM 88 - 4D GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE MODEL-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere program was developed from an empirical atmospheric model which generates values for pressure, density, temperature, and winds from surface level to orbital altitudes. This program can generate altitude profiles of atmospheric parameters along any simulated trajectory through the atmosphere. The program was developed for design applications in the Space Shuttle program, such as the simulation of external tank re-entry trajectories. Other potential applications are global circulation and diffusion studies; also the generation of profiles for comparison with other atmospheric measurement techniques such as satellite measured temperature profiles and infrasonic measurement of wind profiles. GRAM-88 is the latest version of the software GRAM. The software GRAM-88 contains a number of changes that have improved the model statistics, in particular, the small scale density perturbation statistics. It also corrected a low latitude grid problem as well as the SCIDAT data base. Furthermore, GRAM-88 now uses the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 as a comparison standard rather than the US62 used in other versions. The program is an amalgamation of two empirical atmospheric models for the low (25km) and the high (90km) atmosphere, with a newly developed latitude-longitude dependent model for the middle atmosphere. The Jacchia (1970) model simulates the high atmospheric region above 115km. The Jacchia program sections are in separate subroutines so that other thermosphericexospheric models could easily be adapted if required for special applications. The improved code eliminated the calculation of geostrophic winds above 125 km altitude from the model. The atmospheric region between 30km and 90km is simulated by a latitude-longitude dependent empirical model modification of the latitude dependent empirical model of Groves (1971). A fairing technique between 90km and 115km accomplished a smooth transition between the modified Groves values and

  10. Bearing diagnosis based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Piyush; Kulkarni, Makarand S.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2015-02-01

    A methodology is developed for defect type identification in rolling element bearings using the integrated Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt (MTGS) method. Vibration data recorded from bearings with seeded defects on outer race, inner race and balls are processed in time, frequency, and time-frequency domains. Eleven damage identification parameters (RMS, Peak, Crest Factor, and Kurtosis in time domain, amplitude of outer race, inner race, and ball defect frequencies in FFT spectrum and HFRT spectrum in frequency domain and peak of HHT spectrum in time-frequency domain) are computed. Using MTGS, these damage identification parameters (DIPs) are fused into a single DIP, Mahalanobis distance (MD), and gain values for the presence of all DIPs are calculated. The gain value is used to identify the usefulness of DIP and the DIPs with positive gain are again fused into MD by using Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization process (GSP) in order to calculate Gram-Schmidt Vectors (GSVs). Among the remaining DIPs, sign of GSVs of frequency domain DIPs is checked to classify the probable defect. The approach uses MTGS method for combining the damage parameters and in conjunction with the GSV classifies the defect. A Defect Occurrence Index (DOI) is proposed to rank the probability of existence of a type of bearing damage (ball defect/inner race defect/outer race defect/other anomalies). The methodology is successfully validated on vibration data from a different machine, bearing type and shape/configuration of the defect. The proposed methodology is also applied on the vibration data acquired from the accelerated life test on the bearings, which established the applicability of the method on naturally induced and naturally progressed defect. It is observed that the methodology successfully identifies the correct type of bearing defect. The proposed methodology is also useful in identifying the time of initiation of a defect and has potential for implementation in a real time environment.

  11. Development and characterization of a chamber gram estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Dulco, G.B.; Gupta, V.P.; Balmer, D.K.

    1995-07-01

    The Chamber Gram Estimator (CGE), Model SAM-1B is a small article gamma monitor originally designed to screen items for radioactive contamination that may be placed into its chamber. Four plastic scintillator detectors detect photons emitted from bulk quantities of fissile materials in line generated waste and provide a fissile mass content estimate of waste packages. With the present CGE, a few grams of {sup 239}Pu could be distinguished above background in light matrix samples. It is controlled by a personal computer that uses a menu driven operating program. The program is designed to reduce the potential for operator error while obtaining a fissile material gram estimate of a line generated waste package prior to placement in a drum. This report describes the work performed to characterize the counting chamber for fissile material estimation. The operating features of the CGE, the results and conclusions drawn from the experiments, and the future work recommended for the next generation CGEs are also described. The CGE provides advantages over hand-held Ludlum 12-12 survey-type instruments presently in use. The CGE is easy to operate, does not require manual manipulation to measure the total surf ace of the sample, and provides a display free of rate meter response-time effects or the need for visual averaging. Moreover, the response variations due to sample geometry are significantly less than with a hand-held arrangement, particularly, for the low density matrix samples appropriate for estimation. The waste packages are placed inside the instrument`s shielded chamber which effectively eliminates gamma exposure to operators from waste packages.

  12. Use of magnetic beads for Gram staining of bacteria in aqueous suspension.

    PubMed

    Yazdankhah, S P; Sørum, H; Larsen, H J; Gogstad, G

    2001-12-01

    A Gram staining technique was developed using monodisperse magnetic beads in concentrating bacteria in suspension for downstream application. The technique does not require heat fixation of organisms, electrical power, or a microscope. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were identified macroscopically based on the colour of the suspension. The bacteria concentrated on magnetic beads may also be identified microscopically.

  13. Is the gram stain useful in the microbiologic diagnosis of VAP? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Horo, John C; Thompson, Deb; Safdar, Nasia

    2012-08-01

    In a meta-analysis examining respiratory specimen Gram stain for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia, absence of bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value, but a positive Gram stain correlated poorly with organisms recovered in culture. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major challenge and no generally accepted gold standard exists for VAP diagnosis. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the role of respiratory specimen Gram stain to diagnose VAP, and the correlation with final culture results. In 21 studies, pooled sensitivity of Gram stain for VAP was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77-0.81; P < .0001) and specificity was 0.75 (95% CI, .73-.78; P < .0001). Negative predictive value of Gram stain for a VAP prevalence of 20%-30% was 91%, suggesting that VAP is unlikely with a negative Gram stain but the positive predictive value of Gram stain was only 40%. Pooled kappa was 0.42 for gram-positive organisms and 0.34 for gram-negative organisms, suggesting fair concordance between organisms on Gram stain and recovery by culture. Therefore, a positive Gram stain should not be used to narrow anti-infective therapy until culture results become available.

  14. 78 FR 18352 - Determination That QUESTRAN (Cholestyramine for Oral Suspension, USP), Equivalent to 4 Grams, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Suspension, USP), Equivalent to 4 Grams, and QUESTRAN LIGHT (Cholestyramine for Oral Suspension, USP), Equivalent to 4 Grams, Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and... determined that QUESTRAN (cholestyramine for oral suspension, USP), equivalent to (EQ) 4 grams (g),...

  15. An eight-step gram-scale synthesis of (-)-jiadifenolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Hua; Martinez, Michael D.; Shenvi, Ryan A.

    2015-07-01

    Development of a biologically active secondary metabolite into a useful medicine requires continuous access to meaningful quantities of material. Although any chemical synthesis is broadly useful for its versatility, identification of a synthesis route that can be economically scaled represents a greater challenge. Here we report a concise synthesis of the neurotrophic trace metabolite (-)-jiadifenolide and its production on a gram-scale. The brevity of the route and the structural similarity of a key intermediate to many potent Illicium terpenes make chemical synthesis the unquestionable method for accessing and modifying these potential therapeutics.

  16. Characterization and identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Oberhofer, T R; Rowen, J W; Cunningham, G F

    1977-01-01

    The morphological and physiological characteristics of 593 strains of nonfermentative, gram-negative bacteria are described. A battery of 46 tests was used to identify and differentiate strains representing 8 genera and 31 species of named and group-designated bacteria. Seven selected amides and organic salts were closely examined to determine their usefulness, individually or as a battery, in characterizing and identifying the organisms. Of these, allantoin and acetamide showed the most promise in differentiating the more commonly occurring organisms from biochemically similar species. Susceptiblilty patterns to 12 antimicrobics also proved useful in differentiation, especially among atypical strains. PMID:845246

  17. [Epidemiology of the infection by resistant Gram-positive microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Cercenado, E

    2016-09-01

    Resistance among Gram-positive microorganisms to classical and new antimicrobials is a therapeutic threat. In Spain, methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus (25-30%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (50-60%) seems to have stabilized in the last decade. Among enterococci, vancomycin resistance is less than 5%. Both linezolid and daptomycin, in general, show good activity against these microorganisms. However, the resistance rates of Staphylococcus epidermidis to linezolid (20.9%), and of Enterococcus faecium to daptomycin (10.5%) in isolates from intensive care units are a worrying. PMID:27608305

  18. Current and novel antibiotics against resistant Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Salata, Robert A; Bonomo, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    The challenge posed by resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, epitomized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-intermediate and -resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA) is being met by a new generation of antimicrobials. This review focuses on the new β-lactams with activity against MRSA (ceftobiprole and ceftaroline) and on the new glycopeptides (oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin). It will also consider the role of vancomycin in an era of existing alternatives such as linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. Finally, compounds in early development are described, such as iclaprim, friulimicin, and retapamulin, among others. PMID:21694878

  19. Elasticity of the Rod-Shaped Gram-Negative Eubacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulbitch, A.; Quinn, B.; Pink, D.

    2000-12-01

    We report a theoretical calculation of the elasticity of the peptidoglycan network, the only stress-bearing part of rod-shaped Gram-negative eubacteria. The peptidoglycan network consists of elastic peptides and inextensible glycan strands, and it has been proposed that the latter form zigzag filaments along the circumference of the cylindrical bacterial shell. The zigzag geometry of the glycan strands gives rise to nonlinear elastic behavior. The four elastic moduli of the peptidoglycan network depend on its stressed state. For a bacterium under physiological conditions the elasticity is proportional to the bacterial turgor pressure. Our results are in good agreement with recent measurements.

  20. [Resistance in Gram negative bacteria: what is the current situation?].

    PubMed

    Elhani, Dalele; Elhani, Ichrak; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2012-10-01

    Emergence of antibiotic resistance put an end to the antibiotic miracle. According to recent review data, the number of cases of multiresistant bacteria, which are resistant to all antibiotics available, is increasing as well in the developed countries as in the developing countries. To face the emergence of these bacteria, it is necessary to evaluate the situation in Tunisian hospitals and act consequently. This review provide recent data on antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacilli in Tunisian hospitals by focusing on some emergent resistances, which represent a daily challenge for the medical profession, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases, carbapenem resistance, and fluoroquinolone resistance.

  1. Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chancey, Scott T; Zähner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often ‘silent’ spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of β-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

  2. Treatment of gram-negative infections with aztreonam.

    PubMed

    Simons, W J; Lee, T J

    1985-02-01

    Twenty-one patients with serious gram-negative infections were treated with aztreonam. Twenty of these were clinical and microbiologic cures; there was one clinical improvement with microbiologic persistence. No bacteria became resistant. Cure rates were: bone and joint (11 of 11); skin and soft tissue (six of six); pneumonia (two of two); perinephric abscess (one of one); and intra-abdominal abscess (zero of one). The bacteria responsible for these infections included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12), Serratia marcescens (two), Enterobacter gergoviae (three), Enterobacter aerogenes (two), Escherichia coli (one), Citrobacter diversus (one), and Hemophilus influenzae (one). Aztreonam was well tolerated. Significant serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase/serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase elevations developed in three patients, but none was symptomatic and all resolved after therapy was stopped. Two patients in whom a rash developed were receiving other antibiotics (vancomycin and metronidazole), making the cause of the rash unclear. Diarrhea developed in a single patient with Pseudomonas osteomyelitis, who also was receiving cefazolin for Staphylococcus aureus superinfection of his decubitus ulcer. Aztreonam was highly effective against gram-negative bacilli, including P. aeruginosa. The only clear-cut side effect was an asymptomatic rise in serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase/serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels in three patients.

  3. Current Epidemiology and Growing Resistance of Gram-Negative Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the 1980s, Gram-negative pathogens appeared to have been beaten by oxyimino-cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones. Yet these pathogens have fought back, aided by their membrane organization, which promotes the exclusion and efflux of antibiotics, and by a remarkable propensity to recruit, transfer, and modify the expression of resistance genes, including those for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemases, aminoglycoside-blocking 16S rRNA methylases, and even a quinolone-modifying variant of an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme. Gram-negative isolates -both fermenters and non-fermenters-susceptible only to colistin and, more variably, fosfomycin and tigecycline, are encountered with increasing frequency, including in Korea. Some ESBLs and carbapenemases have become associated with strains that have great epidemic potential, spreading across countries and continents; examples include Escherichia coli sequence type (ST)131 with CTX-M-15 ESBL and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 with KPC carbapenemases. Both of these high-risk lineages have reached Korea. In other cases, notably New Delhi Metallo carbapenemase, the relevant gene is carried by promiscuous plasmids that readily transfer among strains and species. Unless antibiotic stewardship is reinforced, microbiological diagnosis accelerated, and antibiotic development reinvigorated, there is a real prospect that the antibiotic revolution of the 20th century will crumble. PMID:22707882

  4. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Phospholipids in Gram Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Furse, Samuel; Scott, David J

    2016-08-30

    Exploration of the molecular structure of the bacterial cell envelope informs our understanding of its role in bacterial growth. This is crucial for research into both inhibiting and promoting bacterial growth as well as fundamental studies of cell cycle control. The spatial arrangement of the lipids in the cell envelope of Gram negative bacteria in particular has attracted considerable research attention in recent years. In this mini-review, we explore advances in understanding the spatial distribution of lipids in the model Gram negative prokaryote Escherichia coli. This includes the distribution of lipids in three dimensions, (a) lateral distribution within a monolayer, (b) asymmetry between bilayers and monolayers, and (c) distribution as a function of progress through membrane division (temporal shifts). We conclude that lipid distribution in E. coli and probably all bacteria is dynamic despite a narrow lipid profile and that the biophysical properties of the membrane are inhomogeneous as a result. Finally, we suggest that further work in this field may indicate how lipid distribution is controlled and what this means for bacterial growth and metabolism and even cell cycle control. PMID:27509296

  5. Teicoplanin in the treatment of gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Martino, P; Venditti, M; Micozzi, A; Brandimarte, C; Gentile, G; Santini, C; Serra, P

    1989-01-01

    Intravenous teicoplanin has been used to treat 23 cases of gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis, usually with 3 to 7 mg/kg every 12 h on the first day, followed by 3 to 7 mg/kg every 24 h. For some cases (staphylococcal and enterococcal endocarditis), the dosage was 8 to 14.4 mg/kg per day and/or other antibiotics were given. The mean duration was 48.2 days (range, 23 to 130 days). Of 23 patients, 21 (91.3%) had negative cultures or were cured. A total of 18 patients were treated with teicoplanin alone; of these, 4 had surgery, and all (except 2 who relapsed) were cured. Teicoplanin was combined with one or more antibiotics in five cases; in all cases appropriate cultures were negative, but three patients died during therapy or follow-up. Mild renal impairment was seen in two patients; both were receiving teicoplanin in combination with an aminoglycoside. We conclude that intravenous teicoplanin administered once a day at doses of 7 to 14 mg/kg per day is well tolerated, easy to administer, and may represent an efficacious therapy for gram-positive-bacterial endocarditis. PMID:2529815

  6. Activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fabry, Werner Hugo Karl; Kock, Hans-Jürgen; Vahlensieck, Winfried

    2014-04-01

    The activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide was tested against 250 gram-negative clinical isolates, that is, 50 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by using a serial broth microdilution technique according to DIN 58940. Time-kill studies were performed for reference stains E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, M. catarrhalis ATCC 43617, and H. influenzae ATCC 49247. All tested isolates had MICs and MBCs within a range of 1-32 mg/L and were regarded as susceptible to polyhexanide. The highest values were found for P. aeruginosa and H. influenzae with MICs and MBCs of 32 mg/L. Addition of up to 4% albumin to the test medium did not change MICs and MBCs. Time-kill studies of the reference strains showed reduction rates from 3 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/ml to more than 5 log10 CFU/ml for 200 and 400 mg/L polyhexanide within 5-30 min. Testing of polyhexanide in combination with antibiotics showed indifference with amoxicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin; no antagonism was found. As no resistance and no antagonism with antibiotics were detected, polyhexanide is regarded as suitable agent for topical eradication of gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Synergistic interaction of eugenol with antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hemaiswarya, S; Doble, M

    2009-11-01

    Eugenol, the principal chemical component of clove oil from Eugenia aromatica has been long known for its analgesic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The interaction of the eugenol with ten different hydrophobic and hydrophilic antibiotics was studied against five different Gram negative bacteria. The MIC of the combination was found to decrease by a factor of 5-1000 with respect to their individual MIC. This synergy is because of the membrane damaging nature of eugenol, where 1mM of its concentration is able to damage nearly 50% of the bacterial membrane. Eugenol was also able to enhance the activities of lysozyme, Triton X-100 and SDS in damaging the bacterial cell membrane. The hydrophilic antibiotics such as vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics which have a marginal activity on these gram negative bacteria exhibit an enhanced antibacterial activity when pretreated with eugenol. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to slow down the onset of antibiotic resistance as well as decrease its toxicity. Experiments performed with human blood cells indicated that the concentration of eugenol used for the combination studies were below its cytotoxic values. Pharmacodynamic studies of the combinations need to be performed to decide on the effective dosage. PMID:19540744

  8. Utilization of Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) for shuttle entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, Kent

    1987-01-01

    At high latitudes, dispersions in values of density for the middle atmosphere from the Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) are observed to be large, particularly in the winter. Trajectories have been run from 28.5 deg to 98 deg. The critical part of the atmosphere for reentry is 250,000 to 270,000 ft. 250,000 ft is the altitude where the shuttle trajectory levels out. For ascending passes the critical region occurs near the equator. For descending entries the critical region is in northern latitudes. The computed trajectory is input to the GRAM, which computes means and deviations of atmospheric parameters at each point along the trajectory. There is little latitude dispersion for the ascending passes; the strongest source of deviations is seasonal; however, very wide seasonal and latitudinal deviations are exhibited for the descending passes at all orbital inclinations. For shuttle operations the problem is control to maintain the correct entry corridor and avoid either aerodynamic skipping or excessive heat loads.

  9. GRAM Series of Atmospheric Models for Aeroentry and Aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere for either aeroentry or aeroassist, including aerocapture, are: Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn; Uranus. and Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for four of these (Earth, Mars, Titan, and Neptune) have been developed for use in NASA's systems analysis studies of aerocapture applications in potential future missions. Work has recently commenced on development of a similar atmospheric model for Venus. This series of MSFC-sponsored models is identified as the Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) series. An important capability of all of the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analyses in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, and for thermal systems design. Example applications for Earth aeroentry and Mars aerocapture systems analysis studies are presented and illustrated. Current and planned updates to the Earth and Mars atmospheric models, in support of NASA's new exploration vision, are also presented.

  10. The complete general secretory pathway in gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pugsley, A P

    1993-01-01

    The unifying feature of all proteins that are transported out of the cytoplasm of gram-negative bacteria by the general secretory pathway (GSP) is the presence of a long stretch of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids, the signal sequence. The interaction between signal sequence-bearing proteins and the cytoplasmic membrane may be a spontaneous event driven by the electrochemical energy potential across the cytoplasmic membrane, leading to membrane integration. The translocation of large, hydrophilic polypeptide segments to the periplasmic side of this membrane almost always requires at least six different proteins encoded by the sec genes and is dependent on both ATP hydrolysis and the electrochemical energy potential. Signal peptidases process precursors with a single, amino-terminal signal sequence, allowing them to be released into the periplasm, where they may remain or whence they may be inserted into the outer membrane. Selected proteins may also be transported across this membrane for assembly into cell surface appendages or for release into the extracellular medium. Many bacteria secrete a variety of structurally different proteins by a common pathway, referred to here as the main terminal branch of the GSP. This recently discovered branch pathway comprises at least 14 gene products. Other, simpler terminal branches of the GSP are also used by gram-negative bacteria to secrete a more limited range of extracellular proteins. PMID:8096622

  11. Charge effect on the photoinactivation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by cationic meso-substituted porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent times photodynamic antimicrobial therapy has been used to efficiently destroy Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria using cationic porphyrins as photosensitizers. There is an increasing interest in this approach, namely in the search of photosensitizers with adequate structural features for an efficient photoinactivation process. In this study we propose to compare the efficiency of seven cationic porphyrins differing in meso-substituent groups, charge number and charge distribution, on the photodynamic inactivation of a Gram (+) bacterium (Enterococcus faecalis) and of a Gram (-) bacterium (Escherichia coli). The present study complements our previous work on the search for photosensitizers that might be considered good candidates for the photoinactivation of a large spectrum of environmental microorganisms. Results Bacterial suspension (107 CFU mL-1) treated with different photosensitizers concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μM) were exposed to white light (40 W m-2) for a total light dose of 64.8 J cm-2. The most effective photosensitizers against both bacterial strains were the Tri-Py+-Me-PF and Tri-Py+-Me-CO2Me at 5.0 μM with a light fluence of 64.8 J cm-2, leading to > 7.0 log (> 99,999%) of photoinactivation. The tetracationic porphyrin also proved to be a good photosensitizer against both bacterial strains. Both di-cationic and the monocationic porphyrins were the least effective ones. Conclusion The number of positive charges, the charge distribution in the porphyrins' structure and the meso-substituent groups seem to have different effects on the photoinactivation of both bacteria. As the Tri-Py+-Me-PF porphyrin provides the highest log reduction using lower light doses, this photosensitizer can efficiently photoinactivate a large spectrum of environmental bacteria. The complete inactivation of both bacterial strains with low light fluence (40 W m-2) means that the photodynamic approach can be applied to wastewater treatment under natural

  12. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires.

  13. Simultaneous fluorescent gram staining and activity assessment of activated sludge bacteria.

    PubMed

    Forster, Scott; Snape, Jason R; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Porter, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    Wastewater treatment is one of the most important commercial biotechnological processes, and yet the component bacterial populations and their associated metabolic activities are poorly understood. The novel fluorescent dye hexidium iodide allows assessment of Gram status by differential absorption through bacterial cell walls. Differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative wastewater bacteria was achieved after flow cytometric analysis. This study shows that the relative proportions of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells identified by traditional microscopy and hexidium iodide staining were not significantly different. Dual staining of cells for Gram status and activity proved effective in analyzing mixtures of cultured bacteria and wastewater populations. Levels of highly active organisms at two wastewater treatment plants, both gram positive and gram negative, ranged from 1.5% in activated sludge flocs to 16% in the activated sludge fluid. Gram-positive organisms comprised <5% of the total bacterial numbers but accounted for 19 and 55% of the highly active organisms within flocs at the two plants. Assessment of Gram status and activity within activated sludge samples over a 4-day period showed significant differences over time. This method provides a rapid, quantitative measure of Gram status linked with in situ activity within wastewater systems.

  14. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23524682

  15. Adherence of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains to human lung fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martin, D; Mathieu, L G; Lecomte, J; deRepentigny, J

    1986-01-01

    The adherence to eukaryotic cells of Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeast Candida albicans was studied by light microscopy with an in vitro micromethod involving different cell lines. The method is inexpensive, consumes little time and material, and is reproducible. It was used to show that the gram-positive Cowan I strain of S. aureus, which naturally forms protein A on its surface, adheres in much larger numbers to human lung fibroblasts than the protein A-free Wood 46 strain, the strain of S. epidermidis, and the encapsulated Smith strain. The presence of a capsule on the latter strain apparently prevented its attachment to the fibroblasts. Among the gram-negative species studied, a piliated clinical isolate of N. gonorrhoeae, displaying the opaque colonial phenotype, adhered in larger numbers than another isolate lacking pili and displaying the transparent phenotype. E. coli K12 attached slightly to the cell line, whereas P. aeruginosa adhered to it moderately. One strain of C. albicans tested did not attach in any detectable numbers. No clear correlation between bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, as evaluated by the hexadecane assay, and adherence to eukaryotic cells could be demonstrated for these microorganisms. With our method, bacterial attachment proceeded best at 37 degrees C and did not require more than 1 h of contact with the cell monolayer. The method described revealed differences in the adherence to eukaryotic cells, not only among species, but also between strains of the same species.

  16. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air purifying systems, and wrappings used in the food industry; such contamination may lead to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent severe health concerns. In this study, selenium nanoparticles were coated on normal paper towel surfaces through a quick precipitation method, introducing antibacterial properties to the paper towels in a healthy way. Their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation was tested in bacterial assays involving Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed significant and continuous bacteria inhibition with about a 90% reduction from 24 to 72 hours for gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The selenium coated paper towels also showed significant inhibition of gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli growth at about 57% and 84%, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Therefore, this study established a promising selenium-based antibacterial strategy to prevent bacterial growth on paper products, which may lead to the avoidance of bacteria spreading and consequent severe health concerns. PMID:25926733

  17. A zebrafish intelectin ortholog agglutinates both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with binding capacity to bacterial polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Jie; Sun, Weiping; Zhang, Yan; Sui, Chao; Qi, Jing; Du, Yijun; Feng, Lijun

    2016-08-01

    Intelectins are glycan-binding lectins found in various species including cephalochordates, urochordates, fish, amphibians and mammals. But their detailed functions are not well studied in zebrafish which is a good model to study native immunity. In this study, we cloned a zebrafish intelectin ortholog, zebrafish intelectin 2 (zITLN2), which contains a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) in the N-terminus and the unique intelectin domain in the C-terminus. We examined the tissue distribution of zITLN2 in adult zebrafish and found that zITLN2 was expressed in various organs with the highest level in intestine. Like amphioxus intelectins, zITLN2 expression was upregulated in adult zebrafish infected with Staphylococcus aureus with the highest expression level at 12 h after challenge. Recombinant zITLN2 protein expressed in E. coli was able to agglutinate both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to similar degrees in a calcium-dependent manner. Furthermore, recombinant zITLN2 bound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN) comparably. Our work on zITLN2 provided further information to understand functions of this new family of lectins and the innate immunity in vertebrates. PMID:27329687

  18. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air purifying systems, and wrappings used in the food industry; such contamination may lead to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent severe health concerns. In this study, selenium nanoparticles were coated on normal paper towel surfaces through a quick precipitation method, introducing antibacterial properties to the paper towels in a healthy way. Their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation was tested in bacterial assays involving Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed significant and continuous bacteria inhibition with about a 90% reduction from 24 to 72 hours for gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The selenium coated paper towels also showed significant inhibition of gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli growth at about 57% and 84%, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Therefore, this study established a promising selenium-based antibacterial strategy to prevent bacterial growth on paper products, which may lead to the avoidance of bacteria spreading and consequent severe health concerns.

  19. Prior statin use and 90-day mortality in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bloodstream infection: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mehl, A; Harthug, S; Lydersen, S; Paulsen, J; Åsvold, B O; Solligård, E; Damås, J K; Edna, T-H

    2015-03-01

    In several studies on patients with bloodstream infection (BSI), prior use of statins has been associated with improved survival. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria alert the innate immune system in different ways. We, therefore, studied whether the relation between prior statin use and 90-day total mortality differed between Gram-positive and Gram-negative BSI. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 1,408 adults with BSI admitted to Levanger Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. Data on the use of statins and other medications at admission, comorbidities, functional status, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the patients' hospital records. The relation of statin use with 90-day mortality differed between Gram-negative and Gram-positive BSI (p-value for interaction 0.01). Among patients with Gram-negative BSI, statin users had significantly lower 90-day total mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.75, p = 0.003]. The association remained essentially unchanged after adjusting for the effect of sex, age, functional status before the infection, and underlying diseases that were considered confounders (adjusted OR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.20-0.72, p = 0.003). A similar analysis of patients with Gram-positive BSI showed no association of statin use with mortality (adjusted OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.69-2.17, p = 0.49). The present study suggests that prior statin use is associated with a lower 90-day total mortality in Gram-negative BSI, but not in Gram-positive BSI.

  20. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    PubMed

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  1. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    PubMed Central

    Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  2. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    PubMed

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  3. Polymyxins: a new hope in combating Gram-negative superbugs?

    PubMed

    Velkov, Tony; Roberts, Kade D; Thompson, Philip E; Li, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Polymyxins have emerged as an important last-line of defense against Gram-negative 'superbugs'. Unfortunately, the effective use of polymyxins in the clinic has been hampered by their nephrotoxic side effects. Over the last 10 years various industry and academic groups across the globe have been trying to develop new polymyxins that are safer and more efficacious than the currently approved polymyxin B and colistin. However these drug discovery programs are yet to deliver a new and improved polymyxin drug into the clinic. In this piece we provide an overview of the current state of these polymyxin drug discovery programs from a medicinal chemistry perspective as well as some thoughts on how future drug discovery efforts may ultimately find success.

  4. The genetics of glycosylation in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Power, P M; Jennings, M P

    2003-01-28

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in reports of glycosylation of proteins in various Gram-negative systems including Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Campylobacter jejuni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Caulobacter crescentus, Aeromonas caviae and Helicobacter pylori. Although this growing list contains many important pathogens (reviewed by Benz and Schmidt [Mol. Microbiol. 45 (2002) 267-276]) and the glycosylations are found on proteins important in pathogenesis such as pili, adhesins and flagella the precise role(s) of the glycosylation of these proteins remains to be determined. Furthermore, the details of the glycosylation biosynthetic process have not been determined in any of these systems. The definition of the precise role of glycosylation and the mechanism of biosynthesis will be facilitated by a detailed understanding of the genes involved. PMID:12586395

  5. Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

    2012-11-01

    Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

  6. Mars global reference atmosphere model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.

    1992-01-01

    Mars-GRAM is an empirical model that parameterizes the temperature, pressure, density, and wind structure of the Martian atmosphere from the surface through thermospheric altitudes. In the lower atmosphere of Mars, the model is built around parameterizations of height, latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal variations of temperature determined from a survey of published measurements from the Mariner and Viking programs. Pressure and density are inferred from the temperature by making use of the hydrostatic and perfect gas laws relationships. For the upper atmosphere, the thermospheric model of Stewart is used. A hydrostatic interpolation routine is used to insure a smooth transition from the lower portion of the model to the Stewart thermospheric model. Other aspects of the model are discussed.

  7. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Nonfermentative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Ruddell, K. A.; Anselmo, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if current methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing could be successfully applied to the gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli. Using clinical isolates and reference strains, experiments were conducted on the inherent reliability of the Bauer-Kirby method, as well as the effect of certain modifications on the method such as elimination of the 2- to 5-h incubation in broth and use of different agar media. Results obtained using these modifications were compared to the results obtained by the standard method. It was shown that the two modifications investigated had a significant effect on the interpretation of zone diameters. It was further shown that the standard Bauer-Kirby method with some exceptions correlates with minimal inhibitory concentrations as determined by broth dilution methods. Results suggest that the Bauer-Kirby method may be a reliable technique for testing the antibiotic susceptibility of the nonfermentative bacilli. PMID:1147576

  8. Unitary Operators, Entanglement, and Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Yorick; Steeb, Willi-Hans

    We consider finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces { H} with dim ({ H}) =n with n ≥ 2 and unitary operators. In particular, we consider the case n = 2m, where m ≥ 2 in order to study entanglement of states in these Hilbert spaces. Two normalized states ψ and ϕ in these Hilbert spaces { H} are connected by a unitary transformation (n×n unitary matrices), i.e. ψ = Uϕ, where U is a unitary operator UU* = I. Given the normalized states ψ and ϕ, we provide an algorithm to find this unitary operator U for finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The construction is based on a modified Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization technique. A number of applications important in quantum computing are given. Symbolic C++ is used to give a computer algebra implementation in C++.

  9. Kinase activity profiling of gram-negative pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Arie J; Diks, Sander H; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Van Der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processes essential to immune cells. The current study explored signal transduction events during murine Gram-negative pneumonia using a systems biology approach. Kinase activity arrays enable the analysis of 1,024 consensus sequences of protein kinase substrates. Using a kinase activity array on whole lung lysates, cellular kinase activities were determined in a mouse model of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Notable kinase activities also were validated with phospho-specific Western blots. On the basis of the profiling data, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling via p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) activity were reduced during infection, whereas v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian) (SRC) activity generally was enhanced. AKT signaling was represented in both metabolic and inflammatory (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [MKK], apoptosis signal-regulating kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 [ASK] and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 [b-RAF]) context. This study reaffirms the importance of classic inflammation pathways, such as MAPK and TGFβ signaling and reveals less known involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), AKT and SRC signaling cassettes in pneumonia.

  10. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results

  11. Target affinities of faropenem to and its impact on the morphology of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dalhoff, A; Nasu, T; Okamoto, K

    2003-07-01

    Faropenem is a new oral beta-lactam antibiotic unique from carbapenems and other available beta-lactams. Determinants of the in vitro activity of beta-lactam antibiotics include affinity to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and beta-lactamase stability. In this study, the binding affinity of faropenem to various PBPs and its impact on the morphology of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were evaluated. In general, faropenem demonstrated high binding affinity to high-molecular-weight PBPs but low affinity to low-molecular-weight PBPs. In S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, faropenem exhibited high binding affinity to PBP1, followed by PBP3 and PBP2. In E. coli, faropenem showed the highest affinity for PBP2, followed by PBP1A, PBP1B, PBP3 and PBP4. In Proteus vulgaris, binding was highest to PBP4, followed by PBP1A, PBP2 and PBP3. In Serratia marcescens, faropenem bound preferentially to PBP2 and PBP4. Exposure of S. aureus to faropenem at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1/8 or 1/4 resulted in irregular septum formation. At 1x MIC or higher, a larger number of lysed cells were observed. Exposure of E. coli to 1/8x MIC or 1/4x MIC also induced changes in cellular shape; the normal rod-shaped form changed to a spherical form in a time-dependent manner. After exposure of E. coli to 1x MIC for 2 h, bulging-shaped E. coli cells were observed and after 4 h of exposure cell lysis was demonstrated. In the presence of 4x MIC, spheroplast-like forms and cell lysis were observed. The morphological changes triggered by faropenem are in agreement with the PBP binding affinities reported. Thus, the high binding affinities of faropenem to PBPs from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are mirrored by its pronounced and concentration-dependent bactericidal effect. PMID:12886052

  12. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fröhling, Antje; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfill the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results. The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA), ozonated water (O3), and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s) with 0.25% PAA at 10°C, and after treatment (10 s) with 3.8 mg l−1 O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l−1. However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process parameters. PMID

  13. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results

  14. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection.

  15. Distinctive Binding of Avibactam to Penicillin-Binding Proteins of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Asli, Abdelhamid; Brouillette, Eric; Krause, Kevin M.; Nichols, Wright W.

    2015-01-01

    Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that covalently acylates a variety of β-lactamases, causing inhibition. Although avibactam presents limited antibacterial activity, its acylation ability toward bacterial penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) was investigated. Staphylococcus aureus was of particular interest due to the reported β-lactamase activity of PBP4. The binding of avibactam to PBPs was measured by adding increasing concentrations to membrane preparations of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria prior to addition of the fluorescent reagent Bocillin FL. Relative binding (measured here as the 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) to PBPs was estimated by quantification of fluorescence after gel electrophoresis. Avibactam was found to selectively bind to some PBPs. In Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, and S. aureus, avibactam primarily bound to PBP2, with IC50s of 0.92, 1.1, 3.0, and 51 μg/ml, respectively, whereas binding to PBP3 was observed in Streptococcus pneumoniae (IC50, 8.1 μg/ml). Interestingly, avibactam was able to significantly enhance labeling of S. aureus PBP4 by Bocillin FL. In PBP competition assays with S. aureus, where avibactam was used at a fixed concentration in combination with varied amounts of ceftazidime, the apparent IC50 of ceftazidime was found to be very similar to that determined for ceftazidime when used alone. In conclusion, avibactam is able to covalently bind to some bacterial PBPs. Identification of those PBP targets may allow the development of new diazabicyclooctane derivatives with improved affinity for PBPs or new combination therapies that act on multiple PBP targets. PMID:26574008

  16. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fröhling, Antje; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfill the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results. The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA), ozonated water (O3), and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s) with 0.25% PAA at 10°C, and after treatment (10 s) with 3.8 mg l(-1) O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l(-1). However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process parameters. PMID

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Sphingoid Bases and Fatty Acids against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carol L.; Drake, David R.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Brogden, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity—the sphingoid bases d-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid—against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. d-Sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection. PMID:22155833

  18. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  19. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. PMID:25791643

  20. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  1. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  2. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  3. Cultivar and processing effects on the pasting characteristics, tannin content and protein quality and digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Plahar, W A; Annan, N T; Nti, C A

    1997-01-01

    Four popular West African local cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), with distinctly different seed coat colors, were evaluated for their relative amylograph pasting characteristics, condensed tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and Tetrahymena protein efficiency ratio (t-PER). The effects of roasting and dehulling on these properties were also determined. There were wide variations in the hot paste viscosity characteristics of the different cultivars studied. The raw cowpea flour samples exhibited maximum paste viscosities ranging between 260 Brabender Units (BU) for the Mottled cultivar and 460 BU for the cream-colored Blackeye cultivar. Cowpea cultivars with the greatest peak viscosities showed low stabilities to extended cooking. Roasting depressed paste viscosity properties of all the cowpea cultivars studied. Tannin concentrations were 0.3-6.9 and 7.2-116 mg CE/g flour from whole cowpea seeds and seed coats respectively, increasing with intensity of seed color. Although dehulling removed 98% of the tannin content of raw cowpeas, improvement in protein quality as a result of dehulling was observed for only the highly-pigmented Maroon-red variety. Roasting significantly improved digestibility and more than doubled the t-PER of all cowpea cultivars studied. Roasted cowpeas possess adequate nutritional and functional qualities as protein supplements in cereal-based weaning foods. However, it appears that dehulling is necessary to enhance the nutritional quality of the highly pigmented cultivars of cowpea.

  4. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Champion, Antony; Diouf, Diaga; Ourèye Sy, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L(-1)) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations.

  5. Quantitative trait loci analysis of flowering time related traits identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Andargie, Mebeasealassie; Pasquet, Remy S; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Timko, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    Flowering time is a major adaptive trait in plants and an important selection criterion in the breeding for genetic improvement of crop species. QTLs for the time of flower opening and days to flower were identified in a cross between a short duration domesticated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety, 524B, and a relatively long duration wild accession, 219-01. A set of 159 F7 lines was grown under greenhouse conditions and scored for the flowering time associated phenotypes of time of flower opening and days to flower. Using a LOD threshold of 2.0, putative QTLs were identified and placed on a linkage map consisting of 202 SSR markers and four morphological loci. A total of five QTLs related to the time of flower opening were identified, accounting for 8.8%-29.8% of the phenotypic variation. Three QTLs for days to flower were detected, accounting for 5.7%-18.5% of the phenotypic variation. The major QTL of days to flower and time of flower opening were both mapped on linkage group 1. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for developing an efficient way to restrain the gene flow between the cultivated and wild plants.

  6. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  7. Bradyrhizobium manausense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vigna unguiculata grown in Brazilian Amazonian rainforest soils.

    PubMed

    Silva, Flavia V; De Meyer, Sofie E; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Barbé, Tatiane da Costa; Xavier, Gustavo R; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Rumjanek, Norma G; Willems, Anne; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-07-01

    Root nodule bacteria were trapped within cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in soils with different cultivation histories collected from the Amazonian rainforest in northern Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 3351(T), BR 3307, BR 3310, BR 3315, BR 3323 BR and BR 3361) isolated from cowpea nodules showed that they formed a distinct group within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was separate from previously identified type strains. Phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping genes (glnII, recA and rpoB) revealed that Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense CCBAU 23303(T) was the most closely related type strain (96% sequence similarity or lower). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles (predominant fatty acids being C16 : 0 and summed feature 8), the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, antibiotic resistance and physiological tests differentiated these novel strains from the most closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped the novel strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium together with Bradyrhizobium iriomotense strain EK05(T), with 94% and 96% sequence similarity, respectively. Based on these data, these six strains represent a novel species for which the name Brabyrhizobium manausense sp. nov. (BR 3351(T) = HAMBI 3596(T)), is proposed.

  8. Effect of in vitro culture conditions on somaclonal variation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Rajesh, S; Gnanam, R; Manickam, A

    2011-03-01

    We report a high frequency regeneration protocol in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp. var. C 152) via somatic embryogenesis from 10-d-old primary leaf explants. A study was conducted to examine the effect of somaclonal variations in in vitro derived cowpea plants under field conditions. The regenerated plantlets were successfully transferred to field after hardening in vitro and grown for collecting R0, R1 and R2 seeds. The seeds of R1 and R2 generations were subsequently, grown under field conditions and their various biometrical traits were compared and evaluated with non-tissue cultured cowpea plants as check. There was no detectable somaclonal variation induced in R0-R2 in any of the biometrical traits. The results indicate that the inclusion of different plant growth promoters at specified concentrations and duration in our earlier tissue culture work did not induce any detectable mutation. The RAPD analysis also shows that there is no genetic variation among R2 cowpea plants. The somatic embryogenesis protocol we report could thus be safely applied for high frequency true-to-type regeneration and transformations protocols without any somaclonal variation.

  9. The structure of a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) suggests functional diversity of haemopexins in plants.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vineet; Chanana, Veenu; Jain, Abha; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2011-02-01

    The haemopexin fold is present in almost all life forms and is utilized for carrying out diverse physiological functions. The structure of CP4, a haemopexin-fold protein from cow pea (Vigna unguiculata), was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The protein exists as a monomer both in solution and in the crystal. The structure revealed a typical four-bladed β-propeller topology. The protein exhibits 42% sequence similarity to LS-24 from Lathyrus sativus, with substantial differences in the surface-charge distribution and in the oligomeric state. A structure-based sequence analysis of haemopexin-fold proteins of plant and mammalian origin established a sequence signature associated with the haemopexin motif. This signature sequence enabled the identification of other proteins with possible haemopexin-like topology of both plant and animal origin. Although CP4 shares a structural fold with LS-24 and other haemopexins, biochemical studies indicated possible functional differences between CP4 and LS-24. While both of these proteins exhibit spermine-binding potential, CP4 does not bind to haem, unlike LS-24.

  10. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  11. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976

  12. A deep sequencing analysis of transcriptomes and the development of EST-SSR markers in mungbean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Liu, Changyou; Fan, Baojie; Cao, Zhimin; Su, Qiuzhu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhixiao; Wu, Jing; Tian, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is one of the most important leguminous food crops in Asia. We employed Illumina paired-end sequencing to analyse transcriptomes of three different mungbean genotypes. A total of 38.3-39.8 million pairedend reads with 73 bp lengths were generated. The pooled reads from the three libraries were assembled into 56,471 transcripts. Following a cluster analysis, 43,293 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 739 bp and N50 length of 1176 bp. Of the unigenes, 34,903 (80.6%) had significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nonredundant protein database (Nr), while 21,450 (58.4%) had BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database (E-value<10⁻⁵). Further, 1245 differential expression genes were detected among three mungbean genotypes. In addition, we identified 3788 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 320 tested loci, 310 (96.5%) yielded amplification products, and 151 (47.0%) exhibited polymorphisms among six mungbean accessions. These transcriptome data and mungbean EST-SSRs could serve as a valuable resource for novel gene discovery and the marker-assisted selective breeding of this species. PMID:27659323

  13. Effect of processing on flatus producing oligosaccharides in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the tropical African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa).

    PubMed

    Nwinuka, N M; Abbey, B W; Ayalogu, E O

    1997-01-01

    The effect of dehulling, soaking and soaking/cooking on sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in mature dry seeds of nine varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and one variety of tropical African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were investigated. The results showed a progressive decrease in sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose contents. Soaking for 12 hours and cooking for 30 min eliminated most of the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose. The sugar contents in whole raw cowpea were sucrose 0.73-4.58%, raffinose 0.71-6.86% and stachyose 2.38-3.87%, and for tropical African yam bean sucrose 4.08%, raffinose 1.08% and stachyose 4.14% while the seeds soaked for 12 hours and cooked for 30 min had for cowpea sucrose 0.03-0.81%, raffinose 0.04-0.20% and stachyose 0.12-0.72%, and tropical African yam bean sucrose 0.70%, raffinose 0.40% and stachyose 0.41%. PMID:9629861

  14. Utility of gram staining for evaluation of the quality of cystic fibrosis sputum samples.

    PubMed

    Nair, Bindu; Stapp, Jenny; Stapp, Lynn; Bugni, Linda; Van Dalfsen, Jill; Burns, Jane L

    2002-08-01

    The microscopic examination of Gram-stained sputum specimens is very helpful in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia and has also been recommended for use in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate that recommendation. One hundred one sputum samples from CF patients were cultured for gram-negative bacilli and examined by Gram staining for both sputum adequacy (using the quality [Q] score) and bacterial morphology. Subjective evaluation of adequacy was also performed and categorized. Based on Q score evaluation, 41% of the samples would have been rejected despite a subjective appearance of purulence. Only three of these rejected samples were culture negative for gram-negative CF pathogens. Correlation between culture results and quantitative Gram stain examination was also poor. These data suggest that subjective evaluation combined with comprehensive bacteriology is superior to Gram staining in identifying pathogens in CF sputum.

  15. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  16. One Small Step for the Gram Stain, One Giant Leap for Clinical Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    The Gram stain is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory, yet it is poorly controlled and lacks standardization. It was once the best rapid test in microbiology, but it is no longer trusted by many clinicians. The publication by Samuel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 54:1442-1447, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03066-15) is a start for those who want to evaluate and improve Gram stain performance. In an age of emerging rapid molecular results, is the Gram stain still relevant? How should clinical microbiologists respond to the call to reduce Gram stain error rates? PMID:27008876

  17. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in solid organ transplant recipients with bacteremias.

    PubMed

    Wan, Q Q; Ye, Q F; Yuan, H

    2015-03-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain as life-threatening complications and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria can cause serious bacteremias in these recipients. Reviews have aimed to investigate MDR Gram-negative bacteremias; however, they were lacking in SOT recipients in the past. To better understand the characteristics of bacteremias due to MDR Gram-negative bacteria, optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies, and improve the outcomes of SOT recipients, this review summarize the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics, and explores the mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of MDR Gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Independent Verification of Mars-GRAM 2010 with Mars Climate Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission and engineering applications. Applications of Mars-GRAM include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Atmospheric influences on landing site selection and long-term mission conceptualization and development can also be addressed utilizing Mars-GRAM. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte Carlo mode, to perform high-fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing. Mars-GRAM is an evolving software package resulting in improved accuracy and additional features. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Above 80 km, Mars-GRAM is based on the University of Michigan Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The most recent release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes an update to Fortran 90/95 and the addition of adjustment factors. These adjustment factors are applied to the input data from the MGCM and the MTGCM for the mapping year 0 user-controlled dust case. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), latitude and areocentric solar longitude (Ls).

  19. Robenidine Analogues as Gram-Positive Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rebecca J; Stevens, Andrew J; Young, Kelly A; Russell, Cecilia; Qvist, Anastasia; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Wong, Hui San; Abraham, Sam; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Page, Stephen W; O'Handley, Ryan; McCluskey, Adam; Trott, Darren J

    2016-03-10

    Robenidine, 1 (2,2'-bis[(4-chlorophenyl)methylene]carbonimidic dihydrazide), was active against MRSA and VRE with MIC's of 8.1 and 4.7 μM, respectively. SAR revealed tolerance for 4-Cl isosteres with 4-F (8), 3-F (9), 3-CH3 (22), and 4-C(CH3)3 (27) (23.7-71 μM) and with 3-Cl (3), 4-CH3 (21), and 4-CH(CH3)2 (26) (8.1-13.0 μM). Imine carbon alkylation identified a methyl/ethyl binding pocket that also accommodated a CH2OH moiety (75; 2,2'-bis[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethylidene]carbonimidic dihydrazide). Analogues 1, 27 (2,2'-bis{[4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]methylene}carbonimidic dihydrazide), and 69 (2,2'-bis[1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylidene]carbonimidic dihydrazide hydrochloride) were active against 24 clinical MRSA and MSSA isolates. No dose-limiting cytotoxicity at ≥2× MIC or hemolysis at ≥8× MIC was observed. Polymyxin B addition engendered Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-negative activity MIC's of 4.2-21.6 μM. 1 and 75 displayed excellent microsomal stability, intrinsic clearance, and hepatic extraction ratios with T1/2 > 247 min, CLint < 7 μL/min/mg protein, and EH < 0.22 in both human and mouse liposomes for 1 and in human liposomes for 75. PMID:26765953

  20. Resistance to antimicrobial peptides in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are present in virtually all organisms and are an ancient and critical component of innate immunity. In mammals, AMPs are present in phagocytic cells, on body surfaces such as skin and mucosa, and in secretions and body fluids such as sweat, saliva, urine, and breast milk, consistent with their role as part of the first line of defense against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. AMPs are microbicidal and have also been shown to act as immunomodulators with chemoattractant and signaling activities. During the co-evolution of hosts and bacterial pathogens, bacteria have developed the ability to sense and initiate an adaptive response to AMPs to resist their bactericidal activity. Here, we review the various mechanisms used by Gram-negative bacteria to sense and resist AMP-mediated killing. These mechanisms play an important role in bacterial resistance to host-derived AMPs that are encountered during the course of infection. Bacterial resistance to AMPs should also be taken into consideration in the development and use of AMPs as anti-infective agents, for which there is currently a great deal of academic and commercial interest.

  1. Biogenesis of outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-03-23

    The outer membrane, an essential organelle of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of four major components: lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, beta-barrel proteins, and lipoproteins. The mechanisms underlying the transport of these components to outer membranes are currently under extensive examination. Among them, the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli has been clarified in detail. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes outer membrane sorting of lipoproteins. Various Lpt proteins have recently been identified as factors involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane, although the mechanism remains largely unknown. Proteins with alpha-helical membrane spanning segments are found in the inner membrane, whereas amphipathic beta-barrel proteins span the outer membrane. These beta-barrel proteins are inserted into the outer membranes through a central core protein BamA (YaeT) with the help of four outer membrane lipoproteins. In contrast, little is known about how phospholipids are transported to the outer membrane. PMID:19270402

  2. Biogenesis of outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-03-23

    The outer membrane, an essential organelle of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of four major components: lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, beta-barrel proteins, and lipoproteins. The mechanisms underlying the transport of these components to outer membranes are currently under extensive examination. Among them, the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli has been clarified in detail. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes outer membrane sorting of lipoproteins. Various Lpt proteins have recently been identified as factors involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane, although the mechanism remains largely unknown. Proteins with alpha-helical membrane spanning segments are found in the inner membrane, whereas amphipathic beta-barrel proteins span the outer membrane. These beta-barrel proteins are inserted into the outer membranes through a central core protein BamA (YaeT) with the help of four outer membrane lipoproteins. In contrast, little is known about how phospholipids are transported to the outer membrane.

  3. Revisited distribution of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, H; Carbonnelle, E; Corvec, S; Illiaquer, M; Le Monnier, A; Bille, E; Zahar, J R; Beretti, J L; Jauréguy, F; Fihman, V; Tankovic, J; Cattoir, V

    2011-12-01

    Nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) are ubiquitous environmental opportunistic bacteria frequently misidentified by conventional phenotypic methods. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of NF-GNB species by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing (used as reference method) and to compare performances of biochemical tests and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). From nine French hospitals, 188 NF-GNB isolates (except P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) were prospectively collected from 187 clinical samples between December 2008 and May 2009. By using the genotypic approach, 173 (92%) and 188 (100%) isolates were identified to the species and genus level, respectively. They covered 35 species and 20 genera, with a predominance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Pseudomonas putida group bacteria. Of the 173 species-level identified strains, concordant identification to the species-level was obtained for 75.1%, 83% and 88.9% of isolates with API 20 NE strip, the VITEK-2 (ID-GN card) system and MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. By excluding S. maltophilia isolates accurately identified by the three methods, genus-level identification was much higher for MALDI-TOF-MS (92.9%), compared with API 20 NE and VITEK-2 (76.2% and 80.8%, respectively). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF-MS represents a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate tool for routine identification of NF-GNB in human clinical samples.

  4. Robenidine Analogues as Gram-Positive Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rebecca J; Stevens, Andrew J; Young, Kelly A; Russell, Cecilia; Qvist, Anastasia; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Wong, Hui San; Abraham, Sam; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Page, Stephen W; O'Handley, Ryan; McCluskey, Adam; Trott, Darren J

    2016-03-10

    Robenidine, 1 (2,2'-bis[(4-chlorophenyl)methylene]carbonimidic dihydrazide), was active against MRSA and VRE with MIC's of 8.1 and 4.7 μM, respectively. SAR revealed tolerance for 4-Cl isosteres with 4-F (8), 3-F (9), 3-CH3 (22), and 4-C(CH3)3 (27) (23.7-71 μM) and with 3-Cl (3), 4-CH3 (21), and 4-CH(CH3)2 (26) (8.1-13.0 μM). Imine carbon alkylation identified a methyl/ethyl binding pocket that also accommodated a CH2OH moiety (75; 2,2'-bis[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethylidene]carbonimidic dihydrazide). Analogues 1, 27 (2,2'-bis{[4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]methylene}carbonimidic dihydrazide), and 69 (2,2'-bis[1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylidene]carbonimidic dihydrazide hydrochloride) were active against 24 clinical MRSA and MSSA isolates. No dose-limiting cytotoxicity at ≥2× MIC or hemolysis at ≥8× MIC was observed. Polymyxin B addition engendered Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-negative activity MIC's of 4.2-21.6 μM. 1 and 75 displayed excellent microsomal stability, intrinsic clearance, and hepatic extraction ratios with T1/2 > 247 min, CLint < 7 μL/min/mg protein, and EH < 0.22 in both human and mouse liposomes for 1 and in human liposomes for 75.

  5. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  6. Statistical analysis of the Indus script using n-grams.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Nisha; Joglekar, Hrishikesh; Rao, Rajesh P N; Vahia, Mayank N; Adhikari, Ronojoy; Mahadevan, Iravatham

    2010-03-19

    The Indus script is one of the major undeciphered scripts of the ancient world. The small size of the corpus, the absence of bilingual texts, and the lack of definite knowledge of the underlying language has frustrated efforts at decipherment since the discovery of the remains of the Indus civilization. Building on previous statistical approaches, we apply the tools of statistical language processing, specifically n-gram Markov chains, to analyze the syntax of the Indus script. We find that unigrams follow a Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution. Text beginner and ender distributions are unequal, providing internal evidence for syntax. We see clear evidence of strong bigram correlations and extract significant pairs and triplets using a log-likelihood measure of association. Highly frequent pairs and triplets are not always highly significant. The model performance is evaluated using information-theoretic measures and cross-validation. The model can restore doubtfully read texts with an accuracy of about 75%. We find that a quadrigram Markov chain saturates information theoretic measures against a held-out corpus. Our work forms the basis for the development of a stochastic grammar which may be used to explore the syntax of the Indus script in greater detail.

  7. Resistance to bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire; Coelho, Marcus Lívio Varella; Santos, Olinda Cabral da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriocins are prokaryotic proteins or peptides with antimicrobial activity. Most of them exhibit a broad spectrum of activity, inhibiting micro-organisms belonging to different genera and species, including many bacterial pathogens which cause human, animal or plant infections. Therefore, these substances have potential biotechnological applications in either food preservation or prevention and control of bacterial infectious diseases. However, there is concern that continuous exposure of bacteria to bacteriocins may select cells resistant to them, as observed for conventional antimicrobials. Based on the models already investigated, bacteriocin resistance may be either innate or acquired and seems to be a complex phenomenon, arising at different frequencies (generally from 10(-9) to 10(-2)) and by different mechanisms, even amongst strains of the same bacterial species. In the present review, we discuss the prevalence, development and molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria. These mechanisms generally involve changes in the bacterial cell envelope, which result in (i) reduction or loss of bacteriocin binding or insertion, (ii) bacteriocin sequestering, (iii) bacteriocin efflux pumping (export) and (iv) bacteriocin degradation, amongst others. Strategies that can be used to overcome this resistance are also addressed.

  8. Multidrug efflux pumps of Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Bryan D; Kaatz, Glenn W

    2016-07-01

    Gram-positive organisms are responsible for some of the most serious of human infections. Resistance to front-line antimicrobial agents can complicate otherwise curative therapy. These organisms possess multiple drug resistance mechanisms, with drug efflux being a significant contributing factor. Efflux proteins belonging to all five transporter families are involved, and frequently can transport multiple structurally unrelated compounds resulting in a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. In addition to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents, MDR efflux proteins can transport environmental biocides and disinfectants which may allow persistence in the healthcare environment and subsequent acquisition by patients or staff. Intensive research on MDR efflux proteins and the regulation of expression of their genes is ongoing, providing some insight into the mechanisms of multidrug recognition and transport. Inhibitors of many of these proteins have been identified, including drugs currently being used for other indications. Structural modifications guided by structure-activity studies have resulted in the identification of potent compounds. However, lack of broad-spectrum pump inhibition combined with potential toxicity has hampered progress. Further work is required to gain a detailed understanding of the multidrug recognition process, followed by application of this knowledge in the design of safer and more highly potent inhibitors. PMID:27449594

  9. Screening for Gram-negative bacteria: Impact of preanalytical parameters.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Philipp; Johanna Pohl, Friederike Pola; Kundt, Guenther; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Screening recommendations for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria comprise microbiological analyses from rectal swabs. However, essential specifications of the preanalytic steps of such screenings, i.e. the sampling technique, sampling devices and sampling site, are lacking. For standardized and optimum screening conditions these parameters are indispensable. Here, the optimum parameters were examined irrespective of the antibiotic resistance patterns of the target bacteria in order to establish a general basis for this type of screening. Swabs with rayon, polyurethane-cellular-foam and nylon-flocked tips were tested. Different sampling locations were evaluated, i.e. perianal, intraanal and deep intraanal. Subjects were swabbed and quantities of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were assessed. Overall prevalences of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii were 94%, 16%, 12%, and 2%, respectively. Bacterial recovery rates were independent from the sampling-timepoint during hospital stay. Polyurethane-cellular-foam or nylon-flocked swabs recovered significantly more bacteria as compared to rayon swabs. Intraanal swabbing resulted in significantly higher bacterial quantities as compared to perianal swabbing. In contrast, for the detection of A. baumannii, perianal swabbing seems more suitable than intraanal swabbing. Gender-related differences in bacterial recovery could be detected from perianal but not from intraanal swabs. PMID:27460776

  10. Screening for Gram-negative bacteria: Impact of preanalytical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Warnke, Philipp; Johanna Pohl, Friederike Pola; Kundt, Guenther; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Screening recommendations for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria comprise microbiological analyses from rectal swabs. However, essential specifications of the preanalytic steps of such screenings, i.e. the sampling technique, sampling devices and sampling site, are lacking. For standardized and optimum screening conditions these parameters are indispensable. Here, the optimum parameters were examined irrespective of the antibiotic resistance patterns of the target bacteria in order to establish a general basis for this type of screening. Swabs with rayon, polyurethane-cellular-foam and nylon-flocked tips were tested. Different sampling locations were evaluated, i.e. perianal, intraanal and deep intraanal. Subjects were swabbed and quantities of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were assessed. Overall prevalences of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii were 94%, 16%, 12%, and 2%, respectively. Bacterial recovery rates were independent from the sampling-timepoint during hospital stay. Polyurethane-cellular-foam or nylon-flocked swabs recovered significantly more bacteria as compared to rayon swabs. Intraanal swabbing resulted in significantly higher bacterial quantities as compared to perianal swabbing. In contrast, for the detection of A. baumannii, perianal swabbing seems more suitable than intraanal swabbing. Gender-related differences in bacterial recovery could be detected from perianal but not from intraanal swabs. PMID:27460776

  11. Rapid detection and differentiation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria in urine using TaqMan probe.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, K; Shirakawa, T; Okada, H; Tanaka, K; Kamidono, S; Arakawa, S; Gotoh, A

    2005-03-01

    Urinary tract infection has been shown to be quite complicated and often difficult to diagnose and treat. For appropriate diagnosis, it is very important to find the correct Gram stain classification as soon as possible, especially in severe cases where there is a possibility of severe sepsis developing. In order to solve this problem, we developed a new method to detect a Gram stain of bacteria obtained from 1 ml of urine from urinary tract infection patients using a consensus real-time PCR protocol with a TaqMan probe that allows detection of spiked bacterial 16S DNA from urine. We extracted DNA of 55 urine samples obtained from patients with complicated urinary tract infection and at the same time performed urine culture testing. After DNA extraction, they were subjected to real-time PCR using a TaqMan discrimination system. Sixteen kinds of bacteria were cultured from the urine culture testing. Of these bacteria, eight were classified as Gram-positive bacteria and the other eight were classified as Gram-negative bacteria. Of the 55 samples, the TaqMan technique result showed 27 samples that were classified as Gram-negative bacteria; 11 samples that were Gram-positive, 10 that included both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, and 7 that showed no amplification. The classifications of all samples corresponded exactly to those determined by urine culture testing. The present genotyping method of real-time PCR using a TaqMan discrimination system could be applied to the rapid detection of Gram-positive or -negative bacteria in urine of urinary tract infection patients. This assay can differentiate those species tested, but whether the presence of other (untested) bacteria could lead to misinterpretation is unknown. For further investigation, it is important to test other (untested) bacteria in the near future.

  12. Rapid detection and differentiation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria in urine using TaqMan probe.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, K; Shirakawa, T; Okada, H; Tanaka, K; Kamidono, S; Arakawa, S; Gotoh, A

    2005-03-01

    Urinary tract infection has been shown to be quite complicated and often difficult to diagnose and treat. For appropriate diagnosis, it is very important to find the correct Gram stain classification as soon as possible, especially in severe cases where there is a possibility of severe sepsis developing. In order to solve this problem, we developed a new method to detect a Gram stain of bacteria obtained from 1 ml of urine from urinary tract infection patients using a consensus real-time PCR protocol with a TaqMan probe that allows detection of spiked bacterial 16S DNA from urine. We extracted DNA of 55 urine samples obtained from patients with complicated urinary tract infection and at the same time performed urine culture testing. After DNA extraction, they were subjected to real-time PCR using a TaqMan discrimination system. Sixteen kinds of bacteria were cultured from the urine culture testing. Of these bacteria, eight were classified as Gram-positive bacteria and the other eight were classified as Gram-negative bacteria. Of the 55 samples, the TaqMan technique result showed 27 samples that were classified as Gram-negative bacteria; 11 samples that were Gram-positive, 10 that included both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, and 7 that showed no amplification. The classifications of all samples corresponded exactly to those determined by urine culture testing. The present genotyping method of real-time PCR using a TaqMan discrimination system could be applied to the rapid detection of Gram-positive or -negative bacteria in urine of urinary tract infection patients. This assay can differentiate those species tested, but whether the presence of other (untested) bacteria could lead to misinterpretation is unknown. For further investigation, it is important to test other (untested) bacteria in the near future. PMID:15750767

  13. Amino acid addition to Vibrio cholerae LPS establishes a link between surface remodeling in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Jessica V.; Madsen, James A.; Giles, David K.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the O1 El Tor and classical biotypes of Vibrio cholerae have been differentiated by their resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with this phenotypic distinction have remained a mystery for 50 y. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria modify their cell wall components with amine-containing substituents to reduce the net negative charge of the bacterial surface, thereby promoting cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance. In the present study, we demonstrate that V. cholerae modify the lipid A anchor of LPS with glycine and diglycine residues. This previously uncharacterized lipid A modification confers polymyxin resistance in V. cholerae El Tor, requiring three V. cholerae proteins: Vc1577 (AlmG), Vc1578 (AlmF), and Vc1579 (AlmE). Interestingly, the protein machinery required for glycine addition is reminiscent of the Gram-positive system responsible for d-alanylation of teichoic acids. Such machinery was not thought to be used by Gram-negative organisms. V. cholerae O1 El Tor mutants lacking genes involved in transferring glycine to LPS showed a 100-fold increase in sensitivity to polymyxin B. This work reveals a unique lipid A modification and demonstrates a charge-based remodeling strategy shared between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. PMID:22589301

  14. Screening beneficial rhizobacteria from Spartina maritima for phytoremediation of metal polluted salt marshes: comparison of gram-positive and gram-negative strains.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Páliz, Karina I; Caviedes, Miguel A; Doukkali, Bouchra; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our work was the isolation and characterization of bacteria from the rhizosphere of Spartina maritima in the metal contaminated Odiel estuary (Huelva, SW Spain). From 25 strains, 84 % were identified as gram-positive, particularly Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Gram-negative bacteria were represented by Pantoea and Salmonella. Salt and heavy metal tolerance, metal bioabsorption, plant growth promoting (PGP) properties, and biofilm formation were investigated in the bacterial collection. Despite the higher abundance of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative isolates displayed higher tolerance toward metal(loid)s (As, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and greater metal biosorption, as deduced from ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analyses. Besides, they exhibited better PGP properties, which were retained in the presence of metals and the ability to form biofilms. Gram-negative strains Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7, together with gram-positive Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25, were selected for a bacterial consortium aimed to inoculate S. maritima plants in metal polluted estuaries for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:27417328

  15. Design and characterization of novel antimicrobial peptides, R-BP100 and RW-BP100, with activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Torcato, Inês M; Huang, Yen-Hua; Franquelim, Henri G; Gaspar, Diana; Craik, David J; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Troeira Henriques, Sónia

    2013-03-01

    BP100 is a short cationic antimicrobial peptide with a mechanism of action dependent on peptide-lipid interactions and microbial surface charge neutralization. Although active against Gram-negative bacteria, BP100 is inactive against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study we report two newly designed BP100 analogues, RW-BP100 and R-BP100 that have the Tyr residue replaced with a Trp and/or the Lys residues replaced with an Arg. The new analogues in addition to being active against Gram-negative bacteria, possess activity against all tested Gram-positive bacteria. Mechanistic studies using atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence methodologies reveal that the antibacterial efficiency follows the affinity for bacterial membrane. The studies suggest that the activity of BP100 and its analogues against Gram-negative bacteria is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions with the lipopolysaccharide layer and is followed by binding to and disruption of the inner membrane, whereas activity against Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to electrostatic attraction to the exposed lipoteichoic acids, requires an ability to more deeply insert in the membrane environment, which is favoured with Arg residues and is facilitated in the presence of a Trp residue. Knowledge on the mechanism of action of these antimicrobial peptides provides information that assists in the design of antimicrobials with higher efficacy and broader spectra of action, but also on the design of peptides with higher specificity if required. PMID:23246973

  16. Screening beneficial rhizobacteria from Spartina maritima for phytoremediation of metal polluted salt marshes: comparison of gram-positive and gram-negative strains.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Páliz, Karina I; Caviedes, Miguel A; Doukkali, Bouchra; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our work was the isolation and characterization of bacteria from the rhizosphere of Spartina maritima in the metal contaminated Odiel estuary (Huelva, SW Spain). From 25 strains, 84 % were identified as gram-positive, particularly Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Gram-negative bacteria were represented by Pantoea and Salmonella. Salt and heavy metal tolerance, metal bioabsorption, plant growth promoting (PGP) properties, and biofilm formation were investigated in the bacterial collection. Despite the higher abundance of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative isolates displayed higher tolerance toward metal(loid)s (As, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and greater metal biosorption, as deduced from ICP-OES and SEM-EDX analyses. Besides, they exhibited better PGP properties, which were retained in the presence of metals and the ability to form biofilms. Gram-negative strains Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7, together with gram-positive Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25, were selected for a bacterial consortium aimed to inoculate S. maritima plants in metal polluted estuaries for phytoremediation purposes.

  17. Predict Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Subcellular Localization via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Features Into Chou's General PseAAC.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ronesh; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lyons, James; Paliwal, Kuldip; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we used structural and evolutionary based features to represent the sequences of gram-positive and gram-negative subcellular localizations. To do this, we proposed a normalization method to construct a normalize Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) using the information from original PSSM. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method we compute feature vectors from normalize PSSM and by applying support vector machine (SVM) and naïve Bayes classifier, respectively, we compared achieved results with the previously reported results. We also computed features from original PSSM and normalized PSSM and compared their results. The archived results show enhancement in gram-positive and gram-negative subcellular localizations. Evaluating localization for each feature, our results indicate that employing SVM and concatenating features (amino acid composition feature, Dubchak feature (physicochemical-based features), normalized PSSM based auto-covariance feature and normalized PSSM based bigram feature) have higher accuracy while employing naïve Bayes classifier with normalized PSSM based auto-covariance feature proves to have high sensitivity for both benchmarks. Our reported results in terms of overall locative accuracy is 84.8% and overall absolute accuracy is 85.16% for gram-positive dataset; and, for gram-negative dataset, overall locative accuracy is 85.4% and overall absolute accuracy is 86.3%.

  18. Differential toxicity of Al2O3 particles on Gram-positive and Gram-negative sediment bacterial isolates from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Bairoliya, Sakcham; Parashar, Abhinav; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-06-01

    The current study was aimed to explore the differential effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative freshwater sediment bacterial isolates upon exposure to nano-particles and bulk particles of Al2O3 at low concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L). The Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible to both the nano-forms and bulk forms than the Gram-positive Bacillus altitudinis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of lipopolysaccharide due to membrane damage were dependent on the dose of nano-Al2O3. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies confirmed the attachment of nano-Al2O3 on bacterial cells, which may lead to subsequent changes in the cell membrane composition and integrity. Internalization of nano-Al2O3 was estimated to be more for P. aeruginosa than for B. altitudinis cells. As a role of defense mechanism, the biofilm formation and production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs; polysaccharide and protein) were increased with respect to the concentration of toxicant. Nano-Al2O3 was estimated to cause more DNA damage than the bulk particles in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  19. The Next Generation of Mars-GRAM and Its Role in the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Ramey, Holly S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM 2010 is currently being used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. In previous versions, Mars-GRAM was less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) MapYear=0 and large optical depth values, such as tau=3. A comparison analysis has been completed between Mars-GRAM, TES and data from the Planetary Data System (PDS) resulting in updated coefficients for the functions relating density, latitude, and longitude of the sun. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The latest release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes these adjustment factors that alter the in-put data from MGCM and MTGCM for the Mapping Year 0 (user-controlled dust) case. The greatest adjustment occurs at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-135 km. Improved simulations utilizing Mars-GRAM 2010 are vital to developing the onboard atmospheric density estimator for the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. Mars-GRAM 2010 was not the only planetary GRAM utilized during phase 1 of this plan; Titan-GRAM and Venus-GRAM were used to generate density data sets for Aerobraking Design Reference Missions. These data sets included altitude profiles (both vertical and along a trajectory), GRAM perturbations (tides, gravity waves, etc.) and provided density and scale height values for analysis by other Autonomous Aero-braking team members.

  20. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Mahfouz, Remi; Pan, Jun; Hou, Yuanfang; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2013-05-01

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols - so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) - are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach.Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size

  1. [On using EEG autointerval-grams for analysing reactions to periodical light stimulation].

    PubMed

    Solomatov, V F; Sviatogor, I A; Shuvaev, V T

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed autointerval-grams of the extremums of human electroencephalograms, registered during periodical light stimulation. We have compared them with the visual analysis of EEG and EEG's testing by sinusoids. We have shown that in most cases building interval-grams is as good or even better than two other methods, as it allows us to discover reactions and obtain additional information.

  2. Merit Gram: A Form of Recognition in a Long-Term Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Jacob; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Merit Gram, an alternative to tipping, which was devised to give nursing home residents and their families the opportunity to acknowledge staff and to give staff, in turn, the recognition they needed. Discusses the effectiveness of the Merit Gram in reinforcing the no tipping policy while providing an alternative means of…

  3. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  4. A Comparison of Heat versus Methanol Fixation for Gram Staining Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnerath, Jeanne M.; Roland, Jenna M.; Rossi, Lucas C.; Weishalla, Steven R.; Wolf, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Gram staining bacteria is a fundamental technique introduced in general biology and microbiology laboratory courses. Two common problems students encounter when Gram staining bacteria are (1) having a difficult time locating bacterial cells on the microscope slide and (2) over-decolorizing bacterial cells during the staining procedure such that…

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring frequency per subpart a Detection sensitivity level Bi-Monthly 60...

  6. A bivalent cationic dye enabling selective photo-inactivation against Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Jiang, Guo-Yu; Hou, Yuan-Jun; Zhang, Bao-Wen; Zhou, Qian-Xiong; Wang, Xue-Song

    2015-05-01

    A piperazine-modified Crystal Violet was found to be able to selectively inactivate Gram-negative bacteria upon visible light irradiation but left Gram-positive bacteria less damaged, which can serve as a blueprint for the development of novel narrow-spectrum agents to replenish the current arsenal of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT).

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams... 3 Table 3 to Subpart A of Part 65—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring Frequency per Subpart a DetectionSensitivity Level Bi-Monthly 60 Semi-Quarterly 85 Monthly 100 a When...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams... CATEGORIES General Provisions Pt. 63, Subpt. A, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 63—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring frequency per subpart a Detection sensitivity level Bi-Monthly 60...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per... Pt. 60, Subpt. A, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 60-Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring frequency per subpart a Detection sensitivity level Bi-Monthly 60 Semi-Quarterly...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams... 3 Table 3 to Subpart A of Part 65—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring Frequency per Subpart a DetectionSensitivity Level Bi-Monthly 60 Semi-Quarterly 85 Monthly 100 a When...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams... CATEGORIES General Provisions Pt. 63, Subpt. A, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 63—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring frequency per subpart a Detection sensitivity level Bi-Monthly 60...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per... CATEGORIES General Provisions Pt. 63, Subpt. A, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 63—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring frequency per subpart a Detection sensitivity level Bi-Monthly 60...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per... Pt. 60, Subpt. A, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 60-Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring frequency per subpart a Detection sensitivity level Bi-Monthly 60 Semi-Quarterly...

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams... 3 Table 3 to Subpart A of Part 65—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring Frequency per Subpart a DetectionSensitivity Level Bi-Monthly 60 Semi-Quarterly 85 Monthly 100 a When...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams... CATEGORIES General Provisions Pt. 63, Subpt. A, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 63—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring frequency per subpart a Detection sensitivity level Bi-Monthly 60...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart A of... - Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams... 3 Table 3 to Subpart A of Part 65—Detection Sensitivity Levels (grams per hour) Monitoring Frequency per Subpart a DetectionSensitivity Level Bi-Monthly 60 Semi-Quarterly 85 Monthly 100 a When...

  17. Early Development of the Low SES Infant Weighing Less Than 1001 Grams at Birth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finello, Karen M.; And Others

    To evaluate outcomes in infants of very low birth weight born in 1982-83 to families of extremely low socioeconomic status (SES), 33 infants who weighed less than 1001 grams at birth and survived the nursery period were followed for 1 year. The sample was 79 percent Hispanic and 58 percent female. Mean birth weight was 868 grams and mean…

  18. Nutritional and functional evaluation of wheat flour cookies supplemented with gram flour.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Ali A; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Hameed, Tabassum; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Hayat, Imran; Khalid, Nauman

    2013-02-01

    Protein-enriched cookies were prepared by supplementing gram flour into wheat flour at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and analysed for physicochemical properties. The protein quality of the cookies was assessed by feeding gram flour-supplemented cookies to albino rats for 10 days. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the cookies. The thickness and spread factor of cookies differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the cookies. The protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, biological value and true digestibility differed significantly among diets containing cookies with gram flour fed to rats. Cookies with 30% substitution of straight grade flour and gram flour produced acceptable cookies as compared to control. The cookies containing 40-50% gram flour were best regarded as protein bioavailability for rats.

  19. Comparison of Gram and Kopeloff stains in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Libman, Michael D; Kramer, Michael; Platt, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is commonly diagnosed by using the Nugent score, a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate bacterial morphotypes on Gram stain of vaginal secretions. Some authors have suggested using the Kopeloff modification of the Gram stain. Asymptomatic BV in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. We performed both stains on simultaneously collected vaginal smears from 2652 women at 24-26 weeks of gestation. Gram staining gave significantly higher (more abnormal) Nugent scores than Kopeloff staining. Compared to the Kopeloff stain, the number of specimens graded as indeterminate or consistent with BV by Gram stain increased by 29% (469 versus 364, P<.001). Interrater reliability of the Nugent score (n=413) for Kopeloff staining was significantly better than Gram staining (agreement=74% versus 63%, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87 versus 0.79, P<.05, 95% confidence intervals 0.85-0.89 and 0.75-0.82, respectively).

  20. Labeling and Selective Inactivation of Gram-Positive Bacteria Employing Bimodal Photoprobes with Dual Readouts.

    PubMed

    Galstyan, Anzhela; Block, Desiree; Niemann, Silke; Grüner, Malte C; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Oneto, Michele; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Hermann, Sven; Viappiani, Cristiano; Schäfers, Michael; Löffler, Bettina; Strassert, Cristian A; Faust, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Carbohydrate-conjugated silicon(IV) phthalocyanines with bimodal photoactivity were developed as probes with both fluorescent labeling and photosensitizing capabilities, and the concomitant fluorescent labeling and photoinduced inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative models was explored. The maltohexaose-conjugated photoprobe provides a dual readout to distinguish between both groups of pathogens, as only the Gram-positive species was inactivated, even though both appeared labeled with near-infrared luminescence. Antibiotic resistance did not hinder the phototoxic effect, as even the methicillin-resistant pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was completely photoinactivated. Time-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis suggests that the photoprobe sticks onto the outer rim of the microorganisms, explaining the resistance of Gram-negative species on the basis of their membrane constitution. The mannose-conjugated photoprobe yields a different readout because it is able to label and to inactivate only the Gram-positive strain.