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Sample records for grand forks minnesota

  1. 78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk... prepared for a proposed highway project in Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR... Sorlie Bridge over the Red River between Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks,...

  2. Origin & Evolution of the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, 1970-90

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1960s William E Cornatzer, MD, PhD, suggested the need for increased USDA research concerning human nutrition, and creation of the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Laboratory (Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center). He shared ideas with Senator Milton R. Young of North Dakota, who requ...

  3. 75 FR 56051 - Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line... Rapids, Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project (``Project'') in Minnesota. The Final EIS was prepared... application of Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc. for RUS financing to construct a 230 kilovolt...

  4. 78 FR 74005 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks,...

  5. 78 FR 33016 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB,...

  6. Flood of July 5-7, 1978, on the South Fork Zumbro River at Rochester, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    The intense thunderstorm of July 5-6, 1978, caused record flooding on the South Fork Zumbro River at Rochester, Minnesota. The peak discharge on July 6 was 30,500 cubic feet per second compared with 19,600 cubic feet per second for the flood of March 1965, which was the largest previously known. The 1965 flood had a recurrence interval of about 30 years, whereas the 1978 flood had a recurrence interval exceeding 100 years. The flood waters claimed at least 5 lives and 5,000 people were forced to leave their homes. Millions of dollars in flood damage was reported, and this report summarizes some of the flood data and a photomosaic map shows the inundated area.

  7. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  8. The Western Progression of Lyme Disease: Infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Brandee L.; Russart, Nathan M.; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2014-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. PMID:25304515

  9. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. PMID:25304515

  10. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  11. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  12. Assessment of conservation easements, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids in West Fork Beaver Creek, Minnesota, 1999-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Kieta, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined conservation easements and their effectiveness at reducing phosphorus and solids transport to streams. The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources and worked collaboratively with the Hawk Creek Watershed Project to examine the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin in Renville County, which has the largest number of Reinvest In Minnesota land retirement contracts in the State (as of 2013). Among all conservation easement programs, a total of 24,218 acres of agricultural land were retired throughout Renville County, and 2,718 acres were retired in the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin from 1987 through 2012. Total land retirement increased steadily from 1987 until 2000. In 2000, land retirement increased sharply because of the Minnesota River Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, then leveled off when the program ended in 2002. Streamflow data were collected during 1999 through 2011, and total phosphorus and total suspended solids data were collected during 1999 through 2012. During this period, the highest peak streamflow of 1,320 cubic feet per second was in March 2010. Total phosphorus and total suspended solids are constituents that tend to increase with increases in streamflow. Annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.140 to 0.759 milligrams per liter, and annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 217 milligrams per liter. Annual flow-weighted mean total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations decreased steadily during the first 4 years of water-quality sample collection. A downward trend in flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was significant from 1999 through 2008; however, flow-weighted total-phosphorus concentrations increased substantially in 2009, and the total phosphorus trend was no longer significant. The high annual flow-weighted mean concentrations for total phosphorus and total suspended solids

  13. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  14. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River basins, southern Minnesota and northern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  15. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-046-1763, American Crystal Sugar Company, East Grand Forks, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Boiano, J.M.; Almaguer, D.

    1986-12-01

    Following a request from the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union and management of the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), employee exposures to airborne contaminants during beet processing and welding fumes during facility maintenance were determined at a sugar beet mill owned by ACSCO. Exposures in excess of the most stringent criteria were found for calcium oxide and calcium carbonate in lime kiln workers, sugar dust in sugar bin workers, insoluble hexavalent chromium and nickel during welding, total welding fumes in one case, and nickel during a metal coating spray process. Quartz was found in several settled dust samples and high volume air samples. Nickel and chromium exposure presented potential cancer risks. The authors conclude that workers were overexposed to calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, sugar dust, total welding fumes, hexavalent chromium, and nickel at this facility. Recommendations include particulate containment, ventilation, and respiratory protection where appropriate.

  16. Mercury in streams at Grand Portage National Monument (Minnesota, USA): assessment of ecosystem sensitivity and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Wiener, James G; Haro, Roger J; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bailey, Sean W; Seitz, Brandon R

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) in water, sediment, soils, seston, and biota were quantified for three streams in the Grand Portage National Monument (GRPO) in far northeastern Minnesota to assess ecosystem contamination and the potential for harmful exposure of piscivorous fish, wildlife, and humans to methylmercury (MeHg). Concentrations of total Hg in water, sediment, and soil were typical of those in forest ecosystems within the region, whereas MeHg concentrations and percent MeHg in these ecosystem components were markedly higher than values reported elsewhere in the western Great Lakes Region. Soils and sediment were Hg-enriched, containing approximately 4-fold more total Hg per unit of organic matter. We hypothesized that localized Hg enrichment was due in part to anthropogenic pollution associated with historic fur-trading activity. Bottom-up forcing of bioaccumulation was evidenced by MeHg concentrations in larval dragonflies, which were near the maxima for dragonflies sampled concurrently from five other national park units in the region. Despite its semi-remote location, GRPO is a Hg-sensitive landscape in which MeHg is produced and bioaccumulated in aquatic food webs to concentrations that pose ecological risks to MeHg-sensitive piscivores, including predatory fish, belted kingfisher, and mink.

  17. Analysis of the results of hydraulic-fracture stimulation of two crystalline bedrock boreholes, Grand Portage, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Fredrick L.; Olson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    Hydraulic fracture-stimulation procedures typical of those provided by contractors in the water-well industry were applied to two boreholes in basaltic and gabbroic rocks near Grand Portage, Minnesota.These boreholes were considered incapable of supplying adequate ground water for even a single household although geophysical logs showed both boreholes were intersected by many apparently permeable fractures. Tests made before and after stimulation indicated that the two boreholes would produce about 0.05 and 0.25 gallon per minute before stimulation, and about 1.5 and 1.2 gallons per minute after stimulation. These increases would be enough to obtain adequate domestic water supplies from the two boreholes but would not furnish enough water for more than a single household from either borehole. Profiles of high-resolution flow made during pumping after stimulation indicated that the stimulation enhanced previously small inflows or stimulated new inflow from seven fractures or fracture zones in one borehole and from six fractures or fracture zones in the other.Geophysical logs obtained after stimulation showed no specific changes in these 13 fractures that could be related to stimulation other than the increases in flow indicated by the flowmeter logs. The results indicate that the stimulation has increased inflow to the two boreholes by improving the connectivity of favorably orientated fractures with larger scale flow zones in the surrounding rocks. Three of four possible diagnostics related to measured pressure and flow during the stimulation treatments were weakly correlated with the increases in production associated with each treatment interval. These correlations are not statistically significant on the basis of the limited sample of 16 treatment intervals in two boreholes, but the results indicate that significant correlations might be established from a much larger data set.

  18. Wildfire Impacts on Water Quality, Macroinvertebrates and Trout: An Initial Survey After the West Fork Complex Fire in the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, A.; Knipper, K. R.; Randall, J.; Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires affect water quality in the disrupted watershed, which can devastate the aquatic ecosystem including sensitive trout (Salmonidae) and macroinvertebrate species. The West Fork Fire Complex consumed 88,724 acres of forest in the state of Colorado during the summer of 2013. The majority (88%) of the burn area was comprised of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanii) trees killed previously by Spruce Beetle (Ips spp.). Damage to the soils was of moderate to high severity in the majority of the area (60%). The recent fire surrounded the Rio Grande, affecting water quality and habitat critical to insects and fish. The water quality of the Rio Grande (above and below the burn) and some of the effected tributaries is currently being monitored for both quality and quantity. Parameters important to the survival of aquatic life, such as flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, turbidity, nutrients, and suspended and dissolved metals are being monitored along the Rio Grande and in tributaries. Macroinvertebrate and fish populations are sampled in the same locations. First year observations showed the ecosystem to be relatively resilient, with stable water quality and survival of insects and fish. However, an intense monsoon season this summer is driving extensive sediments into tributaries from steep, severely burned hillslopes. These monsoon events have caused acute and dramatic fish kills, where hundreds of trout were reported killed in one tributary in a single day event. Turbidity was observed as high as 488 NTU in the impacted stream with fish kill, whereas the turbidity was 25 NTU in a neighboring tributary outside of the burn area. Salmonids can be negatively impacted by relatively low turbidity, with prior studies noting that the turbidity threshold for rainbow trout is 70 NTU. Continued monitoring of water quality, macroinvertebrate populations, and fish populations is being undertaken to determine

  19. Linking Climate, Hydrology and Groundwater in High-Resolution Transient Groundwater Flow Models: a Case Study For a Climate Change Impacts Assessment in Grand Forks, BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibek, J.; Allen, D. M.; Whitfield, P.; Wei, M.

    2004-05-01

    A case study of an unconfined aquifer in the Grand Forks valley in south-central BC was used to develop methodology for linking climate models, hydrologic models, and groundwater models to investigate future impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. A three dimensional groundwater flow model of variable spatial resolution (constrained by borehole spacing) was implemented in MODFLOW, and calibrated to observation well data. Multiple scenarios of the hydraulic conductivity fields were used in a sensitivity analysis. A new methodology was developed for generating spatially-distributed and temporally-varying recharge zonation for the surficial aquifer, using GIS linked to the one-dimensional HELP (USEPA) hydrologic model that estimates aquifer recharge. The recharge model accounts for soil distribution, vadose zone depth and hydraulic conductivity, extent of impermeable areas, surficial geology, and vadose zone thickness. Production well pumping and irrigation return flow during the summer season were included in recharge computations. Although recharge was computed as monthly averages per climate scenario, it is driven by physically-based daily weather inputs generated by a stochastic weather generator and calibrated to local observed climate. Four year long climate scenarios were run, each representing one typical year in the present and future (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), by perturbing the historical weather according to the downscaled CGCM1 general circulation model results (Environment Canada). CGCM1 model outputs were calibrated for local conditions during the downscaling procedure. These include absolute and relative changes in precipitation; including indirect measures of precipitation intensity, dry and wet spell lengths, temperature, and solar radiation for the evapotranspiration model. CGCM1 downscaling was also used to predict basin-scale runoff for the Kettle River upstream of Grand Forks. This river exerts strong control on the groundwater levels

  20. Physical and chemical properties of water and sediments, Grand Portage and Wauswaugoning Bays, Lake Superior, Grand Portage Indian Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 1993-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of data on the physical and chemical properties of water and sediments in Grand Portage and Wauswaugoning Bays of Lake Superior along the shoreline of the Grand Portage Indian Reservation. The data were collected during 1993-96 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Grand Portage Indian Reservation. The data include: (1) temperature, pH, and specific conductance measurements and dissolved oxygen concentrations; (2) Secchi disk transparency, alkalinity, and turbidity measurements; (3) fecal Coliform and fecal Streptococcal bacteria colony counts (per 100 milliliters of sample water); (4) major and minor ion, nutrient, and trace-metal concentrations; (5) dissolved and suspended residue concentrations; (6) pesticide, phenol, and asbestos concentrations; (7) suspended sediment trace-metal concentrations; and (8) bottom sediment trace-metal concentrations. Water samples were collected from nine sites; suspended and bottom sediment samples were collected from five sites. The data in this report can be used to evaluate present water-quality conditions and as a reference to monitor potential long-term changes in these conditions.

  1. U-Pb geochronological constraints on the timing of episodic regional metamorphism and rapid high-T exhumation of the Grand Forks complex, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubley, J. F.; Pattison, D. R. M.; Tinkham, D. K.; Fanning, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Forks complex (GFC) is a fault-bounded metamorphic core complex in the southern Omineca Belt of British Columbia, Canada. It experienced prograde metamorphism ranging from upper-amphibolite to granulite facies conditions during the Mesozoic to early Tertiary compressional stage of the Cordilleran orogeny. Peak metamorphism was followed by multi-stage exhumation in the Early Eocene. This study provides U-Pb monazite and zircon constraints on the timing of metamorphic episodes in the GFC and subsequent high-T, amphibolite facies decompression in the Early Eocene. Monazite LA-ICP-MS ages from metapelitic gneisses record episodic metamorphism from the Late Jurassic to Paleocene, with peak metamorphism occurring between ~ 59 and 50 Ma. Peak metamorphism was followed by rapid, near-isothermal decompression of the GFC between ~ 52 and 50 Ma, and leucosome crystallization at ~ 50 Ma. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelites in the system MnNCKFMASHPYCe predicts that monazite was not stable at peak metamorphic conditions, consistent with the dominant population of ~ 59 Ma ages representing growth along the prograde path, most likely at subsolidus conditions. Growth of widespread high-Y monazite rims (~ 50 Ma) is predicted along suprasolidus decompression and cooling paths. Zircon SHRIMP ages from igneous bodies in the GFC and hanging wall of the bounding Kettle River fault (KRF) suggest ductile deformation related to high-T decompression of the GFC was ongoing at 51 Ma but had ceased by 50 Ma, truncated by post-kinematic granitoids. This high-T deformation predates subsequent greenschist facies extension on the overlying KRF. A pre-KRF, hanging wall ductile shear zone is constrained to ~ 59-51 Ma. It deforms 59 Ma Ladybird suite leucogranites and may be related to high-T exhumation of the core complex. Rapid, > 100 °C/Ma cooling rates are required to accommodate high-T (amphibolite facies) exhumation of the GFC at 52-50 Ma followed by low-T (greenschist facies

  2. Water quality (2000-08) and historical phosphorus concentrations from paleolimnological studies of Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes, Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Jones, Perry M.; Edlund, Mark B.; Ramstack, Joy M.

    2010-01-01

    A paleolimnological approach was taken to aid the Grand Portage Reservation, in northeastern Minnesota, in determining reference conditions for lakes on the reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians and the Science Museum of Minnesota, conducted a study to describe water quality (2000-08) and historical total phosphorus concentrations (approximately 1781-2006) for Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes. Results from this study may be used as a guide in establishing nutrient criteria in these and other lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation. Historical phosphorus concentrations were inferred through paleolimnological reconstruction methods involving diatom analysis and lead-210 dating of lake-sediment cores. Historical diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations in Swamp Lake ranged from 0.017 to 0.025 milligrams per liter (mg/L) based on diatom assemblages in sediment samples dated 1781-2005. Historical diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations in Speckled Trout Lake ranged from 0.008 to 0.014 mg/L based on diatom assemblages in sediment samples dated 1825-2006. In both lakes, historical changes in diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations did not exceed model error estimates, indicating that there has been minimal change in total phosphorus concentrations in the two lakes over about two centuries. Nutrient concentrations in monthly water samples collected May through October during 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008 were compared to the diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations. Total phosphorus concentrations from water samples collected from Swamp Lake during 2000-08 ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.160 mg/L (median= 0.023 mg/L) compared to diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations of 0.018 to 0.020 mg/L for 2002 to 2005. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected from Speckled Trout Lake during 2000-08 were similar to those of Swamp Lake, ranging from less than 0

  3. 75 FR 52925 - Opportunity for Designation in the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND; and Plainview, TX Areas; Request... North Dakota State line south to the southern Grand Forks County line; Bounded on the South by the southern Grand Forks and Nelson County lines west to the western Nelson County line; the western...

  4. Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, view to west - North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek at Middle Fork Road, Buffalo, Johnson County, WY

  5. Estimation of Monthly Evaporation from Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota, 1931-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2003-01-01

    Reservoirs on tributaries of the Red River of the North provide water for Fargo and Grand Forks, N. Dak., and other cities along the river. Adequate estimates of evaporative losses from the reservoirs are needed to determine the total water supply in the Basin. Many equations could be used to estimate lake or reservoir evaporation. However, in addition to measurements of air temperature, the equations require measurements of net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. Evaporation and air temperature data from energy budget evaporation sites at Wetland P1 in North Dakota and at Williams Lake in Minnesota are available. Air temperature data collected from climate stations near Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, from Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and from Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota also are available. Therefore, the combined data sets were used to estimate monthly evaporation from Lake Ashtabula, Orwell Lake, and Lake Traverse. Averaged monthly mean air temperatures determined for each reservoir study site were used to calculate monthly evaporation data sets for 1931-2001. Results from the procedure that estimates reservoir evaporation indicate that slight downward trends in annual evaporation occurred from 1931-2001. The trends may have been caused by the selected time period of the study, which began with the drought conditions in the mid 1930's and ended with the more wet conditions in the late 1990's. Average annual evaporation values for each reservoir for 1931-2001 correspond well with published average annual lake evaporation values for 1946-55.

  6. 77 FR 51966 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee will meet in South Fork... will begin at 10:00 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the South Fork Community Building, 0254 Highway 149, South Fork, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Mike Blakeman, San Luis...

  7. Tuning fork decay.

    PubMed

    Miller, G W

    1979-03-01

    Tuning fork tests are used routinely by many otologists. A different group of otologists find the tests inconsistent and unreliable. This controversy has probably developed because the audiometer has replaced the tuning fork in hearing measurement. As a result, the art of use of the tuning fork is poorly learned. This study examines decay, one of the physical parameters of tuning forks. Measurements of acoustic (sound wave) and vibration (stem movement) decay were made. Alteration in decay due to pressure changes on the fork stem were studied. Acoustic signals were generated in an anechoic chamber. Vibration measurements were obtained using an artificial mastoid. Analysis of the signals was accomplished by a system of amplifiers, filters, tape recorders, and a graphic recorder. Tuning fork sound decay is a property of the instrument which occurs every time the fork is struck. The decay is a constant in decibels per second. The acoustic mode and the vibration mode decay at similar rates for the same fork. The strike frequency (a higher frequency than the fundamental produced when the fork is struck) also has a constant decay rate in decibels per second, and it is reported here for the first time. Force of 800 gm. and less applied to the bottom of the stem in vibration measurement caused minimal decay constant changes. When the physical parameters of the tuning fork (including this information on damping) are fully studied, tuning fork testing should become more of a science and less of an art.

  8. 4. VIEW UPSTREAM ALONG NORTH FORK OF MIDDLE FORK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW UPSTREAM ALONG NORTH FORK OF MIDDLE FORK OF TULE RIVER, LOOKING TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE AND POWERHOUSE; FLUME AT LEFT. LOOKING EAST. 90mm lens - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, Tule River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  9. 3. SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AT THE NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK CROSSING SHOWING ORIGINAL DIMENSIONAL STONE PIER ON WEST BANK AT PHOTO CENTER, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL EAST BANK DIMENSIONAL STONE PIER AT PHOTO LEFT BELOW NEW (ca. 1931) EAST BANK PIER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  10. 76 FR 15936 - Designation for the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the August 30, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 52925..., IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND; and Plainview, TX Areas AGENCY... Grand Forks, ND (701) 772-2414 4/1/2011 3/31/2014 Plainview Plainview, TX (806) 893-1364 4/1/2011...

  11. 1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK BRANCH FLUME AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. CONCRETE ABUTMENTS OF THE ORIGINAL HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE OVER THE NORTH FORK ARE VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE DAM. NEW HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS TOP OF PHOTO. VIEW TO NORTH. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  12. 75 FR 32359 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee will meet in South Fork... to hold the first meeting of the newly formed committee. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 22, 2010, and will begin at 1 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the South Fork Community...

  13. Design of a new portable fork detector for research reactor spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Rinard, P.M.

    1995-02-01

    There are many situations in nonproliferation and international safeguards when one needs to verify spent research-reactor fuel. Special inspections, a reactor coming under safeguards for the first time, and failed surveillance are prime examples. Several years ago, Los Alamos developed the FORK detector for the IAEA and EURATOM. This detector, together with the GRAND electronics package, is used routinely by inspectors to verify light-water-reactor spent fuels. Both the FORK detector and the GRAND electronics technologies have been transferred and are now commercially available. Recent incidents in the world indicate that research-reactor fuel is potentially a greater concern for proliferation than light-water-reactor fuels. A device similar to the FORK/GRAND should be developed to verify research-reactor spent fuels because the signals from light-water-reactor spent fuel are quite different than those from research-reactor fuels.

  14. 4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shoreof Clark Fork River showing 4 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  15. 2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  16. 1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama showing the entire span of bridge from north shore of the Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  17. 7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  18. 3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge from north shore of Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  19. Tuning fork tests: forgotten art.

    PubMed

    Girgis, T F; Shambaugh, G E

    1988-01-01

    Four examples are cited in which tuning fork tests helped in proper selection of patients for surgery, after audiometric air and bone tests were equivocal or gave the wrong diagnostic and prognostic indication.

  20. Tuning Forks and Monitor Screens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, M. A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Defines the vibrations of a tuning fork against a computer monitor screen as a pattern that can illustrate or explain physical concepts like wave vibrations, wave forms, and phase differences. Presents background information and demonstrates the experiment. (Author/YDS)

  1. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  2. Welcome to Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    There is more than snow in Minnesota: Summer brings the Aquatennial with sandcastle competitions, milk-carton-boat races and a torchlight parade, and the St. Paul Winter Carnival has ice carving and snow sculptures and another torchlight parade. But natives and visitors alike note that their favorite season is autumn, which in Minnesota brings…

  3. Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugo, John E.

    The state of Minnesota has established the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) to coordinate the state's educational computing activities. The Consortium is governed by a board of directors representing the State Department of Education, the State Junior Colleges, the State Colleges, the State University and the public and is…

  4. Minnesota and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Environmental Education Board.

    Eight energy education activities are provided. Each activity includes an overview, a brief summary, lists of objectives and materials needed, teacher's notes, and student materials. The activities focus on: (1) using social studies skills to understand Minnesota energy data and to clarify and understand some Minnesota energy issues; (2) giving…

  5. 19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north abutment and underside of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  6. 20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  7. 21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  8. 22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing downwest side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing down-west side. Looking at road deck and vertical laced channel. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  9. 18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Looking at north concrete abutment and timber stringers. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  10. 12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Approach from the north road. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  11. 11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Southernmost span. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  12. 8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Looking at understructure of northernmost span. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  13. Managing Minnesota's recovered wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2001-01-01

    The Minnesota wolf (Canis lupus) population was estimated by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources at 2,450 during winter 1997-1998 and had increased at an average annual rate of 4.5% since winter 1988-1989. The population may be removed from the federal endangered species list by 2002, and management would then return to the state. A federal recovery team recommended a population goal of 1,250

  14. An Analysis and Evaluation of Islands of Differentiated Staffing in Grand Forks Public Schools, Grand Forks, North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John A.; Williams, John D.

    Critics argue against differentiated staffing on the bases that (1) limited compensation ranges lower teacher morale, (2) the loss of the services of trained teachers and the impersonality of the large group organization lower student incentive to achieve, and (3) salary savings are at the expense of the quality of the instructional program. Since…

  15. Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Mitton, Gregory B.; Kruse, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    During September 22-24, 2010, heavy rainfall ranging from 3 inches to more than 10 inches caused severe flooding across southern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions, where summer rainfall totals were as high as 20 inches, exceeding the historical average by more than 4 inches. Widespread flooding that occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of hundreds of residents, and damages in excess of 64 million dollars to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, 21 counties in southern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine U.S. Geological Survey and three Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 27 U.S. Geological Survey and 5 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages and 5 ungaged sites. Flood-peak streamflows in 2010 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.2 percent (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) at 7 streamgages and less than 1 percent (recurrence interval greater than 100 years) at 5 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Faribault along the Cannon and Straight Rivers, Owatonna along the Straight River and Maple Creek, Pine Island along the North Branch and Middle Fork Zumbro River, and Zumbro Falls along the Zumbro River. The nearby communities of Hammond, Henderson, Millville, Oronoco, Pipestone, and Rapidan also received extensive flooding and damage but were not surveyed for high-water marks. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for the four most severely affected communities were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available. The flood maps and

  16. 5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River-southernmost span. 1900-era Northern Pacific Railway Bridge in background. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  17. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  18. Replication fork collapse at replication terminator sequences.

    PubMed

    Bidnenko, Vladimir; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Michel, Bénédicte

    2002-07-15

    Replication fork arrest is a source of genome re arrangements, and the recombinogenic properties of blocked forks are likely to depend on the cause of blockage. Here we study the fate of replication forks blocked at natural replication arrest sites. For this purpose, Escherichia coli replication terminator sequences Ter were placed at ectopic positions on the bacterial chromosome. The resulting strain requires recombinational repair for viability, but replication forks blocked at Ter are not broken. Linear DNA molecules are formed upon arrival of a second round of replication forks that copy the DNA strands of the first blocked forks to the end. A model that accounts for the requirement for homologous recombination for viability in spite of the lack of chromosome breakage is proposed. This work shows that natural and accidental replication arrests sites are processed differently.

  19. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ..., Cass, Traill, Grand Forks, Walsh, and Pembina Counties, plus those in Minnesota South of a line drawn..., Grand Forks, Walsh, and Pembina Counties in North Dakota, extending the entire width of the river. To... of the river bordered by Richland, Cass, Traill, Grand Forks, Walsh, and Pembina Counties, plus...

  20. Topological locking restrains replication fork reversal

    PubMed Central

    Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Hernández, Pablo; Krimer, Dora B.; Stasiak, Andrzej; Schvartzman, Jorge B.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, psoralen cross-linking, and electron microscopy were used to study the effects of positive supercoiling on fork reversal in isolated replication intermediates of bacterial DNA plasmids. The results obtained demonstrate that the formation of Holliday-like junctions at both forks of a replication bubble creates a topological constraint that prevents further regression of the forks. We propose that this topological locking of replication intermediates provides a biological safety mechanism that protects DNA molecules against extensive fork reversals. PMID:17242356

  1. Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  2. Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  3. Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  4. General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  5. General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  6. General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  7. Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  8. Grand Canyon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Monument on the right. Meteor Crater appears as a small dark depression with a brighter rim, and is just visible along the upper right-hand ... Grand Canyon location:  United States region:  Western United States Order:  ...

  9. 78 FR 43850 - Opportunity for Designation in Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND and Plainview, TX; Areas; Request for Comments on the Official Agencies Servicing These Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... official services in the areas presently served by these agencies to submit an application for...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  11. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  12. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  13. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  14. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1525 Tuning fork. (a) Identification. A tuning...

  15. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  16. Fifth-wheel fork truck adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.

    1969-01-01

    Standard fifth wheel mounted on a rectangular steel structure adapted for use with a fork lift truck provides a fast, safe, and economical way of maneuvering semitrailers in close quarters at plants and warehouses. One operator can move and locate a semitrailer without dismounting from a fork lift truck.

  17. Libraries in Minnesota: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/minnesota.html Libraries in Minnesota To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Austin University of Minnesota Hormel Institute Library 801 NE 16th Avenue Austin, MN 55912-3679 ...

  18. Water resources of the Grand Portage Indian Reservation, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Water types determined from analyses of water from nine wells completed in bedrock were sodium-chloride, calcium-chloride, sodium-bicarbonate, and calcium-bicarbonate. Water from three wells had concentrations of dissolved solids (800 to 3,110 milligrams per liter) and dissolved chloride (410 to 1,600 milligrams per liter) that were higher than their respective Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels of 500 and 250 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from two wells had concentrations of dissolved iron (1,600 and 1,300 micrograms per liter) that were higher than the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 micrograms per liter. Water from an observation well located about 200 feet downgradient from an abandoned landfill and screened from 79 to 84 feet below land surface in a gravel aquifer had a trace amount of toluene (0.2 micrograms per liter). The presence of toluene suggested possible contamination.

  19. 16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for front fork. 1512.13 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.13 Requirements for front fork. The front fork shall... fork test, § 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet...

  20. 23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing upwest side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing up-west side. Looking at structural connection of top chord, vertical laced channel and diagonal bars. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  1. 24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge. Presently located at the Bonner County Historical Museum in Sandpoint, Idaho. A plaque was attached at each end of the bridge. Only one remains. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  2. 13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where strioed traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  3. 16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for front fork. 1512.13 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.13 Requirements for front fork. The front fork shall... fork test, § 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet...

  4. 16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for front fork. 1512.13 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.13 Requirements for front fork. The front fork shall... fork test, § 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet...

  5. 16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for front fork. 1512.13 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.13 Requirements for front fork. The front fork shall... fork test, § 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet...

  6. 14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing north. Approach from the south. Concrete barrier blocks access. Plaque was originally located where striped traffic sign is posted at right. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  7. 16 CFR 1512.13 - Requirements for front fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for front fork. 1512.13 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.13 Requirements for front fork. The front fork shall... fork test, § 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk bicycles need not meet...

  8. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Minnesota Kids: A Closer Look. Minnesota Kids Count 1994 Report [and] Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kids Count Minnesota, Minneapolis.

    This first annual report of Minnesota KIDS COUNT focuses on key indicators of children's well-being and details the condition of children in each of Minnesota's 87 counties. Minnesota KIDS COUNT--as part of a campaign by Children's Defense Fund-Minnesota and Congregations Concerned for Children to end child poverty in Minnesota--collects,…

  10. WRNIP1 protects stalled forks from degradation and promotes fork restart after replication stress.

    PubMed

    Leuzzi, Giuseppe; Marabitti, Veronica; Pichierri, Pietro; Franchitto, Annapaola

    2016-07-01

    Accurate handling of stalled replication forks is crucial for the maintenance of genome stability. RAD51 defends stalled replication forks from nucleolytic attack, which otherwise can threaten genome stability. However, the identity of other factors that can collaborate with RAD51 in this task is poorly elucidated. Here, we establish that human Werner helicase interacting protein 1 (WRNIP1) is localized to stalled replication forks and cooperates with RAD51 to safeguard fork integrity. We show that WRNIP1 is directly involved in preventing uncontrolled MRE11-mediated degradation of stalled replication forks by promoting RAD51 stabilization on ssDNA We further demonstrate that replication fork protection does not require the ATPase activity of WRNIP1 that is however essential to achieve the recovery of perturbed replication forks. Loss of WRNIP1 or its catalytic activity causes extensive DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Intriguingly, downregulation of the anti-recombinase FBH1 can compensate for loss of WRNIP1 activity, since it attenuates replication fork degradation and chromosomal aberrations in WRNIP1-deficient cells. Therefore, these findings unveil a unique role for WRNIP1 as a replication fork-protective factor in maintaining genome stability.

  11. 21 CFR 808.73 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minnesota. 808.73 Section 808.73 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.73 Minnesota. The following Minnesota medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Minnesota Statutes, sections 145.43 and 145.44....

  12. 21 CFR 808.73 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minnesota. 808.73 Section 808.73 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.73 Minnesota. The following Minnesota medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Minnesota Statutes, sections 145.43 and 145.44....

  13. 21 CFR 808.73 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minnesota. 808.73 Section 808.73 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.73 Minnesota. The following Minnesota medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Minnesota Statutes, sections 145.43 and 145.44....

  14. 21 CFR 808.73 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minnesota. 808.73 Section 808.73 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.73 Minnesota. The following Minnesota medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Minnesota Statutes, sections 145.43 and 145.44....

  15. 21 CFR 808.73 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minnesota. 808.73 Section 808.73 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.73 Minnesota. The following Minnesota medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Minnesota Statutes, sections 145.43 and 145.44....

  16. Achieving Technological Literacy in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Minnesota implemented the Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology. Includes the timeline, rationale, potential activities and estimated costs associated with all phases, and steps for implementing the plan: investigate, replicate, integrate, and mandate. (JOW)

  17. Tuning fork shear-force feedback.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, A G; van der Werf, K O; Veerman, J A; Garcia-Parajo, M F; Rensen, W H; van Hulst, N F

    1998-03-01

    Investigations have been performed on the dynamics of a distance regulation system based on an oscillating probe at resonance. This was examined at a tuning fork shear-force feedback system, which is used as a distance control mechanism in near-field scanning optical microscopy. In this form of microscopy, a tapered optical fiber is attached to the tuning fork and scanned over the sample surface to be imaged. Experiments were performed measuring both amplitude and phase of the oscillation of the tuning fork as a function of driving frequency and tip-sample distance. These experiments reveal that the resonance frequency of the tuning fork changes upon approaching the sample. Both the amplitude and the phase of the tuning fork can be used as distance control parameter in the feedback system. Using the amplitude a second-order behavior is observed, while with phase only a first-order behavior is observed. Numerical calculations confirm these observations. This first-order behavior results in an improved stability of the feedback system. As an example, a sample consisting of DNA strands on mica was imaged which showed the height of the DNA as 1.4 +/- 0.2 nm.

  18. 15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INSIDE VIEW OF FLUME, LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, LEFT FORK TO SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING RIGHT FORK WITH GATE IN PLACE AND A FEW NEEDLES IN PLACE - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  19. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  20. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  1. South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view west - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  2. 12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. Resonant tuning fork detector for electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Pohlkötter, Andreas; Willer, Ulrike; Bauer, Christoph; Schade, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    A mechanical quartz microresonator (tuning fork) is used to detect electromagnetic radiation. The detection scheme is based on forces created due to the incident electromagnetic radiation on the piezoelectric tuning fork. A force can be created due to the transfer of the photon momentum of the incident electromagnetic radiation. If the surfaces of the tuning fork are nonuniformly heated, a second force acts on it, the so-called photophoretic force. These processes occur for all wavelengths of the incident radiation, making the detector suitable for sensing of ultraviolet, visible, and mid-infrared light, even THz-radiation. Here the detector is characterized in the visible range; noise analysis is performed for 650 nm and 5.26 microm. A linear power characteristic and the dependence on pulse lengths of the incoming light are shown. Examples for applications for the visible and mid-infrared spectral region are given by 2f and absorption spectroscopy of oxygen and nitric oxide, respectively.

  14. 27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Fork of Roanoke. 9... North Fork of Roanoke. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Roanoke.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  15. 27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Fork of Roanoke. 9... North Fork of Roanoke. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Roanoke.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  16. 27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Fork of Roanoke. 9... North Fork of Roanoke. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Roanoke.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  17. 27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Fork of Roanoke. 9... North Fork of Roanoke. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Roanoke.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  18. Pyrimidine dimers block simian virus 40 replication forks

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1986-10-01

    UV light produces lesions, predominantly pyrimidine dimers, which inhibit DNA replication in mammalian cells. The mechanism of inhibition is controversial: is synthesis of a daughter strand halted at a lesion while the replication fork moves on and reinitiates downstream, or is fork progression itself blocked for some time at the site of a lesion. We directly addressed this question by using electron microscopy to examine the distances of replication forks from the origin in unirradiated and UV-irradiated simian virus 40 chromosomes. If UV lesions block replication fork progression, the forks should be asymmetrically located in a large fraction of the irradiated molecules; if replication forks move rapidly past lesions, the forks should be symmetrically located. A large fraction of the simian virus 40 replication forks in irradiated molecules were asymmetrically located, demonstrating that UV lesions present at the frequency of pyrimidine dimers block replication forks. As a mechanism for this fork blockage, we propose that polymerization of the leading strand makes a significant contribution to the energetics of fork movement, so any lesion in the template for the leading strand which blocks polymerization should also block fork movement.

  19. 27 CFR 9.65 - North Fork of Roanoke.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Fork of Roanoke. 9... North Fork of Roanoke. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Roanoke.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  20. CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE, CIRCA 1896, SHOWING INCLINED STAY CABLES EXTENDING FROM TOP OF TOWER TO DECK. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  1. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island... North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries...

  2. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island... North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries...

  3. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island... North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries...

  4. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island... North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries...

  5. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island... North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries...

  6. Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located center of frame), view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  7. 33 CFR 117.663 - Minnesota River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota River. 117.663 Section 117.663 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.663 Minnesota River. The draws...

  8. 33 CFR 117.663 - Minnesota River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota River. 117.663 Section 117.663 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.663 Minnesota River. The draws...

  9. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  10. 33 CFR 117.663 - Minnesota River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota River. 117.663 Section 117.663 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.663 Minnesota River. The draws...

  11. 33 CFR 117.663 - Minnesota River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minnesota River. 117.663 Section 117.663 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.663 Minnesota River. The draws...

  12. 33 CFR 117.663 - Minnesota River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minnesota River. 117.663 Section 117.663 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.663 Minnesota River. The draws...

  13. Student Loan Default Rates in Minnesota, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    While Minnesota undergraduates are more likely to take out student loans, they are substantially less likely than their peers nationally to default on federal student loans. Fifty-four percent of Minnesota undergraduates took out student loans in 2007-2008, compared to 39 percent of undergraduates across the U.S. Minnesota undergraduates were also…

  14. Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

    1999-08-27

    An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod.

  15. Man-induced gradient adjustment of the South Fork Forked Deer River, west Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, A.; Robbins, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Channel modifications from 1968 to 1969 on the South Fork Forked Deer River in western Tennessee have caused upstream degradation, downstream aggradation, and bank failures along the altered channels, adjacent reaches, and tributaries. The result of these adjustments is a general decrease in gradient as the channel attempts to absorb the imposed increase in energy conditions created by channelization. Headward degradation at a rate of approximately 2.57 km/yr on the South Fork Forked Deer River caused from 1.52 m to about 3.14 m of incision over a 13.5 km reach from 1969 to 1981. As a consequence of substantially increased sediment supply, approximately 2.13 m of aggradation was induced downstream of this reach during the same period. This accumulation represents a 60% recovery of bed level at the downstream site since the completion of channel work in 1969. Gradient adjustment with time is described by exponential decay functions. The length of time required for adjustment to some new quasi-equilibrium condition is computed by these decay functions and is about 20 years from the completion of channel work. Adjusted slopes are less than predisturbed values, probably because straightened channels dissipate less energy by friction, allowing more energy for sediment transport. An equivalent sediment load, therefore, can be transported at a considerably gentler slope. The predisturbed slope exceeds the adjusted slope by an order of magnitude on the downstream reach of the South Fork Forked Deer River. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  16. Anticipating chromosomal replication fork arrest: SSB targets repair DNA helicases to active forks.

    PubMed

    Lecointe, François; Sérèna, Céline; Velten, Marion; Costes, Audrey; McGovern, Stephen; Meile, Jean-Christophe; Errington, Jeffrey; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Noirot, Philippe; Polard, Patrice

    2007-10-01

    In bacteria, several salvage responses to DNA replication arrest culminate in reassembly of the replisome on inactivated forks to resume replication. The PriA DNA helicase is a prominent trigger of this replication restart process, preceded in many cases by a repair and/or remodeling of the arrested fork, which can be performed by many specific proteins. The mechanisms that target these rescue effectors to damaged forks in the cell are unknown. We report that the single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein is the key factor that links PriA to active chromosomal replication forks in vivo. This targeting mechanism determines the efficiency by which PriA reaches its specific DNA-binding site in vitro and directs replication restart in vivo. The RecG and RecQ DNA helicases, which are involved in intricate replication reactivation pathways, also associate with the chromosomal replication forks by similarly interacting with SSB. These results identify SSB as a platform for linking a 'repair toolbox' with active replication forks, providing a first line of rescue responses to accidental arrest.

  17. Gaps and forks in DNA replication: Rediscovering old models.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Alan R; Fuchs, Robert P

    2006-12-01

    Most current models for replication past damaged lesions envisage that translesion synthesis occurs at the replication fork. However older models suggested that gaps were left opposite lesions to allow the replication fork to proceed, and these gaps were subsequently sealed behind the replication fork. Two recent articles lend support to the idea that bypass of the damage occurs behind the fork. In the first paper, electron micrographs of DNA replicated in UV-irradiated yeast cells show regions of single-stranded DNA both at the replication forks and behind the fork, the latter being consistent with the presence of gaps in the daughter-strands opposite lesions. The second paper describes an in vitro DNA replication system reconstituted from purified bacterial proteins. Repriming of synthesis downstream from a blocked fork occurred not only on the lagging strand as expected, but also on the leading strand, demonstrating that contrary to widely accepted beliefs, leading strand synthesis does not need to be continuous.

  18. Minnesota's Soils and Their Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Clifton

    There is an increasing need for land planning and understanding soil is one step toward assuring proper land use. This publication, written by soil scientists and teachers, is designed as a reference for high school teachers. It is designed to be a comprehensive collection about Minnesota soils (although the information can be applied to other…

  19. Integrative holistic medicine in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Torkelson, Carolyn J; Manahan, Bill

    2009-05-01

    Minnesota has played a leading role in the integrative holistic medicine movement in the United States for more than 2 decades. This article defines integrative holistic medicine and describes how it is practiced. It also discusses the reasons why institutions and providers here and elsewhere in the country have embraced this approach to patient care.

  20. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  1. Quartz tuning fork based microwave impedance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-06-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), a near-field microwave scanning probe technique, has become a powerful tool to characterize local electrical responses in solid state samples. We present the design of a new type of MIM sensor based on quartz tuning fork and electrochemically etched thin metal wires. Due to a higher aspect ratio tip and integration with tuning fork, such design achieves comparable MIM performance and enables easy self-sensing topography feedback in situations where the conventional optical feedback mechanism is not available, thus is complementary to microfabricated shielded stripline-type probes. The new design also enables stable differential mode MIM detection and multiple-frequency MIM measurements with a single sensor.

  2. The E. coli DNA Replication Fork.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J S; Jergic, S; Dixon, N E

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication in Escherichia coli initiates at oriC, the origin of replication and proceeds bidirectionally, resulting in two replication forks that travel in opposite directions from the origin. Here, we focus on events at the replication fork. The replication machinery (or replisome), first assembled on both forks at oriC, contains the DnaB helicase for strand separation, and the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) for DNA synthesis. DnaB interacts transiently with the DnaG primase for RNA priming on both strands. The Pol III HE is made up of three subassemblies: (i) the αɛθ core polymerase complex that is present in two (or three) copies to simultaneously copy both DNA strands, (ii) the β2 sliding clamp that interacts with the core polymerase to ensure its processivity, and (iii) the seven-subunit clamp loader complex that loads β2 onto primer-template junctions and interacts with the α polymerase subunit of the core and the DnaB helicase to organize the two (or three) core polymerases. Here, we review the structures of the enzymatic components of replisomes, and the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that ensure they remain intact while undergoing substantial dynamic changes as they function to copy both the leading and lagging strands simultaneously during coordinated replication.

  3. Checkpoint regulation of replication forks: global or local?

    PubMed

    Iyer, Divya Ramalingam; Rhind, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    Cell-cycle checkpoints are generally global in nature: one unattached kinetochore prevents the segregation of all chromosomes; stalled replication forks inhibit late origin firing throughout the genome. A potential exception to this rule is the regulation of replication fork progression by the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint. In this case, it is possible that the checkpoint is global, and it slows all replication forks in the genome. However, it is also possible that the checkpoint acts locally at sites of DNA damage, and only slows those forks that encounter DNA damage. Whether the checkpoint regulates forks globally or locally has important mechanistic implications for how replication forks deal with damaged DNA during S-phase.

  4. Minnesota Geological Survey may close

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The future of the Minnesota Geological Survey is up in the air until January 1992, when the state legislature reconvenes. On June 4, Governor Arne H. Carlson vetoed a line-item of the 2-year University of Minnesota budget that contains funding for the MGS. If funds are not restored by special legislative appropriation and approved by the governor during the spring of 1992, MGS will be abolished effective July 1992.The possibility of closing the survey reflects a financial decision, according to Robert A. Schroeder, assistant to the governor. It is not based on the usefulness of the survey's work. “The governor's objective with his line-item vetoes was to control overall spending, not to target specific programs,” he said. Since MGS is university-affiliated, it is funded under Minnesota's Higher Education bill, rather than as a state agency. Because of overspending in 1991, the state has had to cut back funds, and the university is one area hit by budget cuts. The university may still choose to fund the program and has the flexibility to reallocate funds within the system.

  5. Evolution of tail fork depth in genus Hirundo.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    A classic example of a sexually selected trait, the deep fork tail of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica is now claimed to have evolved and be maintained mainly via aerodynamic advantage rather than sexually selected advantage. However, this aerodynamic advantage hypothesis does not clarify which flight habits select for/against deep fork tails, causing diversity of tail fork depth in hirundines. Here, by focusing on the genus Hirundo, we investigated whether the large variation in tail fork depth could be explained by the differential flight habits. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found that migrant species had deeper fork tails, but less colorful plumage, than the other species, indicating that migration favors a specific trait, deep fork tails. At the same time, tail fork depth but not plumage coloration decreased with increasing bill size - a proxy of prey size, suggesting that foraging on larger prey items favors shallower fork tails. Variation of tail fork depth in the genus Hirundo may be explained by differential flight habits, even without assuming sexual selection. PMID:26865972

  6. BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Buehler, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

  7. Impediments to replication fork movement: stabilisation, reactivation and genome instability.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sarah; Carr, Antony M

    2013-03-01

    Maintaining genome stability is essential for the accurate transmission of genetic material. Genetic instability is associated with human genome disorders and is a near-universal hallmark of cancer cells. Genetic variation is also the driving force of evolution, and a genome must therefore display adequate plasticity to evolve while remaining sufficiently stable to prevent mutations and chromosome rearrangements leading to a fitness disadvantage. A primary source of genome instability are errors that occur during chromosome replication. More specifically, obstacles to the movement of replication forks are known to underlie many of the gross chromosomal rearrangements seen both in human cells and in model organisms. Obstacles to replication fork progression destabilize the replisome (replication protein complex) and impact on the integrity of forked DNA structures. Therefore, to ensure the successful progression of a replication fork along with its associated replisome, several distinct strategies have evolved. First, there are well-orchestrated mechanisms that promote continued movement of forks through potential obstacles. Second, dedicated replisome and fork DNA stabilization pathways prevent the dysfunction of the replisome if its progress is halted. Third, should stabilisation fail, there are mechanisms to ensure damaged forks are accurately fused with a converging fork or, when necessary, re-associated with the replication proteins to continue replication. Here, we review what is known about potential barriers to replication fork progression, how these are tolerated and their impact on genome instability.

  8. 6. View from the Minnesota side, looking northwest at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View from the Minnesota side, looking northwest at the Minnesota portal the bridge - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  9. 3. Photocopy of photograph (original print in collection of Minnesota ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph (original print in collection of Minnesota Historical Society) CORNER VIEW, CORNER OF MINNESOTA AND EAST SIXTH STREETS - New York Life Insurance Company Building, Sixth & Minnesota Streets, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  10. Bedload measurements, East Fork River, Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Luna B.; Emmett, William W.

    1976-01-01

    A bedload trap in the riverbed provided direct quantitative measurement of debris-transport rate in the East Fork River, Wyoming, a basin of 466 km2 drainage area. Traction load moves only during the spring snow melt season. Data collected in three spring runoff seasons during which a peak flow of 45 m3/s occurred showed that transport rate is correlated with power expenditure of the flowing water and at high flows becomes directly proportional to power as suggested by Bagnold. PMID:16592302

  11. 33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307 Section 117.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw...

  12. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307 Section 117.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307 Section 117.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New River, South Fork. 117.315 Section 117.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The...

  16. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  17. 33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307 Section 117.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307 Section 117.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New River, South Fork. 117.315 Section 117.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The...

  20. Musical-grade tuning forks for emergent audiometric screening.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Rodger J; Poling, Mikaela I

    2015-06-11

    We discuss our experience using high-quality, musical-grade tuning forks for emergent audiometric screening in a 22-year-old woman with sudden-onset unilateral hearing sensation loss. We present a framework for using this method when proper audiometric equipment is unavailable but where musical-grade tuning forks can be rapidly supplied.

  1. 33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section 117.1063 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission bridge across the South...

  2. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section 117.1063 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission bridge across the South...

  4. 33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New River, South Fork. 117.315 Section 117.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The...

  5. 33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section 117.1063 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission bridge across the South...

  6. 33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River, South Fork. 117.315 Section 117.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 117.315 - New River, South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New River, South Fork. 117.315 Section 117.315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.315 New River, South Fork. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section 117.1063 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission bridge across the South...

  10. 33 CFR 117.1063 - Willapa River South Fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Willapa River South Fork. 117.1063 Section 117.1063 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Fork. (a) The draw of the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission bridge across the South...

  11. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, general view in setting showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, general view in setting showing (N) side; view (S) - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  12. South Fork Latrine, interior showing head with steel tank mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, interior showing head with steel tank mounted to wall; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  13. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  14. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and (S) sides, view to northeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  15. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  16. Preventing Replication Fork Collapse to Maintain Genome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, David

    2015-01-01

    Billions of base pairs of DNA must be replicated trillions of times in a human lifetime. Complete and accurate replication once and only once per cell division cycle is essential to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. Impediments to replication fork progression including difficult to replicate DNA sequences, conflicts with transcription, and DNA damage further add to the genome maintenance challenge. These obstacles frequently cause fork stalling, but only rarely cause a failure to complete replication. Robust mechanisms ensure that stalled forks remain stable and capable of either resuming DNA synthesis or being rescued by converging forks. However, when failures do happen the fork collapses leading to genome rearrangements, cell death and disease. Despite intense interest, the mechanisms to repair damaged replication forks, stabilize them, and ensure successful replication remain only partly understood. Different models of fork collapse have been proposed with varying descriptions of what happens to the DNA and replisome. Here, I will define fork collapse and describe what is known about how the replication checkpoint prevents it to maintain genome stability. PMID:25957489

  17. 14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF LAKE FORK CANAL, UINTAH PROJECT. TWO SLUICEWAYS TWENTY FEET WIDE HAVE BEEN LEFT IN THE DAM TO PASS BOULDERS DURING HIGH WATER. THESE SLUICEWAYS ARE CLOSED BY LOGS AND HAY DURING LOW WATER.' Date unknown - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  20. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  1. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  2. Choosing a College. Minnesota 2014-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Minnesota is home to some of the finest postsecondary institutions in the country. From campuses large to small, urban to rural, close to home or far away, the state's public and private colleges and universities offer a broad spectrum of surprising educational opportunities and experiences. This guide can help students explore Minnesota College…

  3. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  5. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  6. The changing epidemiology of malaria in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Seys, S A; Bender, J B

    2001-01-01

    Malaria cases reported to the Minnesota Department of Health increased from 5 in 1988 to 76 in 1998, paralleling the number of immigrants to Minnesota. In 20% of cases, the Plasmodium species was not identified; 44% of cases were hospitalized. The public health community needs to reevaluate current recommendations for refugee screening, provider and patient education, and laboratory capacity.

  7. The changing epidemiology of malaria in Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Seys, S. A.; Bender, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    Malaria cases reported to the Minnesota Department of Health increased from 5 in 1988 to 76 in 1998, paralleling the number of immigrants to Minnesota. In 20% of cases, the Plasmodium species was not identified; 44% of cases were hospitalized. The public health community needs to reevaluate current recommendations for refugee screening, provider and patient education, and laboratory capacity. PMID:11747727

  8. [The Minnesota Story, American Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Minority Cultures.

    This student booklet, one of a series of readings on minority cultures, contains nine Indian folktales. Stories included are: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land, about the way Minnesota was formed; How We Got the Rainbow; How the Birds Came to Have Their Many Colors; The Study of Coyote and Moradjawinga (Earth Wanderer); The Four Winds, A Sioux legend,…

  9. Water use for aquaculture in Minnesota, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trotta, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Little change in the number of licensees since 1980 -indicates that aquaculture is a viable segment of the Minnesota economy. Trout farming has grown from 10 farms in 1978, to 23 in 1984; most use dug ponds sustained by ground-water inflow. Withdrawals for aquaculture are nonconsumptive and are small compared to other water-use categories in Minnesota.

  10. 76 FR 41552 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00031

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated...

  11. 77 FR 51101 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated...

  12. 75 FR 65389 - Minnesota Disaster # MN-00027

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated...

  13. 75 FR 41245 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated...

  14. Bellechester, Minnesota, USA, lagoon collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, E. C.; Broberg, J. S.; Kehren, A. R.; Graziani, M. M.; Turri, W. L.

    1993-12-01

    Bellechester, Minnesota, is a small community of approximately 155 residents located on the county line between Goodhue and Wabasha counties in southeast Minnesota's karst region. Bellechester is served by a 21-year-old wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) consisting of three waste-stabilization ponds. On 28 April 1992 six sinkholes were discovered to have drained cell 2 of the WWTF resulting in the loss of approximately 8.7×106 1 of partially treated effluent and about 600 m3 of soil into previously undetected subsurface voids of unknown dimensions. In the week following the collapse, approximately 200 water wells located within a 5-km radius of the WWTF were sampled in an after-the-fact, emergency sampling program. Twelve samples with elevated fecal coliform levels, 18 samples with nitrate-nitrogen greater than the 10 mg/1 standard, and no samples with elevated chlorides were found. However, the elevated levels could not be unambiguously attributed to the WWTF collapse. This is the third WWTF to fail by sinkhole collapse in southeast Minnesota since 1974. All three collapsed lagoons have been located in similar geomorphic and stratigraphic settings. However, at least two lagoons have collapsed in the adjacent area in northeast Iowa, and these lagoons are located at different stratigraphic positions. Twenty-two WWTFs constructed in southeast Minnesota's karst region in the last 25 years have been identified as subject to potential sinkhole collapse. An unknown but significant number of manure storage lagoons, flood control structures, etc., have also been constructed in the karst region and are at risk. Public agencies are beginning to develop plans to deal with the risk associated with existing and future waste lagoons in this environment. The critical hydrogeologic parameters that can be used to prioritize the risk of collapse at existing facilities include: (1) the lithology of the first bedrock beneath each lagoon, (2) the thickness of surficial materials

  15. fork head domain genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Odenthal, J; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1998-07-01

    Nine members of the fork head domain gene family (fkd1-fkd9) were isolated from early cDNA libraries in the zebrafish. They show unique expression patterns in whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization during the first 24 h of embryonic development. These fkd genes fall into three of ten classes, based on sequence similarities within the DNA-binding domain, whereas members for the other seven classes described in other vertebrates were not found. In addition to conserved residues at certain positions in the fork head domain, characteristic transcription activation domains as well as similarities in expression patterns were found for members of the different classes. Members of class I (fkd1/axial, fkd2/Zffkh1, fkd4 and fkd7) are differentially transcribed in unsegmented dorsal axial structures such as the floor plate, the notochord, the hypochord and, in addition, the endoderm. Transcripts of fkd3 and fkd5 (class II) are mainly detected in the cells of the ectoderm which form neural tissues, as is the case for genes of this class in other species. RNAs of the three members of class V (fkd6, fkd8 and fkd9) are expressed in the paraxial mesoderm and transiently in the neuroectoderm. fkd6 is strongly expressed in neural crest cells from early stages on, whereas fkd2 and fkd7 are transcribed in individual neural crest cells in the pharyngula period.

  16. Outcome Evaluation: Minnesota Reading Corps PreK Program. Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovitz, Carrie E.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Hedberg, Eric C.; Silberglitt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Minnesota Reading Corps is the largest AmeriCorps State program in the country. Its mission is to help every Minnesota child become a proficient reader by the end of third grade. To meet this goal, the Minnesota Reading Corps and its host organization, ServeMinnesota Action Network, engages a diverse group of AmeriCorps members to provide…

  17. Process Assessment: Minnesota Reading Corps PreK Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaconis, Athena; Estrera, Elc; Hafford, Carol; Hernandez, Marc; Markovitz, Carrie; Muyskens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Minnesota Reading Corps is the largest AmeriCorps State program in the country. Its mission is to help every Minnesota child become a proficient reader by the end of third grade. To meet this goal, the Minnesota Reading Corps and its host organization, ServeMinnesota Action Network, engages a diverse group of AmeriCorps members to provide…

  18. Hydrologic data for floods of July 1978 in Southeast Minnesota and Southwest Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    Intense storms of July 1978 caused floods of historical significance in southeast Minnesota and southwest Wisconsin. Local, State, and Federal officials need data and information to evaluate, coordinate, and manage programs concerned with floods and flood losses. Because of a need to document stream discharges, elevations, and sediment concentrations, current-meter and indirect measurements were made at 34 gaging stations during or immediately after the floods. This report summarizes some of the hydrologic data collected. Peak discharges of record occurred at 20 gaging stations. Frequency of peak discharge equaled or exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 11 stations. The Federal Benchmark gaging station on the North Fork Whitewater River was destroyed. Five people died as a result of the floods, and property damages were estimated to exceed $114 million. Thirty-three counties were officially declared disaster areas.

  19. 77 FR 45597 - Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Middle Fork American River Hydrolectric Project and Intention To Hold... Fork American River Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2079), located on the Middle Fork of the...

  20. PTEN regulates RPA1 and protects DNA replication forks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangxi; Li, Yang; Wang, Pan; Liang, Hui; Cui, Ming; Zhu, Minglu; Guo, Limei; Su, Qian; Sun, Yujie; McNutt, Michael A; Yin, Yuxin

    2015-11-01

    Tumor suppressor PTEN regulates cellular activities and controls genome stability through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we report that PTEN is necessary for the protection of DNA replication forks against replication stress. We show that deletion of PTEN leads to replication fork collapse and chromosomal instability upon fork stalling following nucleotide depletion induced by hydroxyurea. PTEN is physically associated with replication protein A 1 (RPA1) via the RPA1 C-terminal domain. STORM and iPOND reveal that PTEN is localized at replication sites and promotes RPA1 accumulation on replication forks. PTEN recruits the deubiquitinase OTUB1 to mediate RPA1 deubiquitination. RPA1 deletion confers a phenotype like that observed in PTEN knockout cells with stalling of replication forks. Expression of PTEN and RPA1 shows strong correlation in colorectal cancer. Heterozygous disruption of RPA1 promotes tumorigenesis in mice. These results demonstrate that PTEN is essential for DNA replication fork protection. We propose that RPA1 is a target of PTEN function in fork protection and that PTEN maintains genome stability through regulation of DNA replication.

  1. New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.

    1986-08-01

    Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193 bbl of oil and 3,061,522 mcf of gas, with Lakota sandstones being most productive. Lakota production occurs from a structural-stratigraphic trap in an east-west-trending channel on the axis of Clarks Fork anticline, geographically near the center of the township. Our structural reinterpretation of Clarks Fork field suggests that Elk Basin anticline is a northwest extension of the Elk Basin field anticline. The Elk Basin thrust truncates the north limb of the fold and does not strike to the northwest, as shown by earlier interpretations. They interpret a northwest-striking thrust in the center of the township as a splay off the Elk Basin thrust, and have named it the Clarks Fork thrust. The Clarks Fork anticline is located on the hanging wall of Clarks Fork thrust. Subsurface maps indicate the Clarks Fork area has not been fully developed. Stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Greybull sandstones are present in several areas of the township. Structural traps in the center and northwest portions of the township may also exist.

  2. The Fork+ burnup measurement system: Design and first measurement campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.E.; Bronowski, D.R.; McMurtry, W.; Ewing, R.; Jordan, R.; Rivard, D.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work with the original Fork detector showed that burnup as determined by reactor records could be accurately allocated to spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The original Fork detector, designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, used an ion chamber to measure gross gamma count and a fission chamber to measure neutrons from an activation source, {sup 244}Cm. In its review of the draft Topical Report on Burnup Credit, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission indicated it felt uncomfortable with a measurement system that depended on reactor records for calibration. The Fork+ system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with the aim of providing this independent measurement capability. The initial Fork+ prototype was used in a measurement campaign at the Maine Yankee reactor. The campaign confirmed the applicability of the sensor approach in the Fork+ system and the efficiency of the hand-portable Fork+ prototype in making fuel assembly measurements. It also indicated potential design modifications that will be necessary before the Fork+ can be used effectively on high-burnup spent fuel.

  3. Development of Tuning Fork Based Probes for Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilian, Romaneh; Yazdanpanah, Mehdi M.; Torrez, Neil; Alizadeh, Amirali; Askari, Davood

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on the development of tuning fork-based AFM/STM probes in NaugaNeedles LLC for use in atomic force microscopy. These probes can be mounted on different carriers per customers' request. (e.g., RHK carrier, Omicron carrier, and tuning fork on a Sapphire disk). We are able to design and engineer tuning forks on any type of carrier used in the market. We can attach three types of tips on the edge of a tuning fork prong (i.e., growing Ag2Ga nanoneedles at any arbitrary angle, cantilever of AFM tip, and tungsten wire) with lengths from 100-500 μm. The nanoneedle is located vertical to the fork. Using a suitable insulation and metallic coating, we can make QPlus sensors that can detect tunneling current during the AFM scan. To make Qplus sensors, the entire quartz fork will be coated with an insulating material, before attaching the nanoneedle. Then, the top edge of one prong is coated with a thin layer of conductive metal and the nanoneedle is attached to the fork end of the metal coated prong. The metal coating provides electrical connection to the tip for tunneling current readout and to the electrodes and used to read the QPlus current. Since the amount of mass added to the fork is minimal, the resonance frequency spectrum does not change and still remains around 32.6 KHz and the Q factor is around 1,200 in ambient condition. These probes can enhance the performance of tuning fork based atomic microscopy.

  4. Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

  5. Fork gratings based on ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Wei, B Y; Shi, L Y; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H-S; Hu, W; Lu, Y Q

    2016-03-21

    In this article, we disclose a fork grating (FG) based on the photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC). The Digital Micro-mirror Device based system is used as a dynamic photomask to generated different holograms. Because of controlled anchoring energy, the photo alignment process offers optimal conditions for the multi-domain FLC alignment. Two different electro-optical modes namely DIFF/TRANS and DIFF/OFF switchable modes have been proposed where the diffraction can be switched either to no diffraction or to a completely black state, respectively. The FLC FG shows high diffraction efficiency and fast response time of 50µs that is relatively faster than existing technologies. Thus, the FLC FG may pave a good foundation toward optical vertices generation and manipulation that could find applications in a variety of devices. PMID:27136779

  6. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  7. 78 FR 48292 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... (78 FR 33016) Docket No. FAA-2013-0261. Interested parties were ] invited to participate in this... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  8. The Yampa Bed - A Regionally Extensive Tonstein in the Williams Fork Formation, Northwestern Piceance Creek and Southern Sand Wash Basins, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    A regionally persistent and distinctive unit of Upper Cretaceous age is here formally named the Yampa Bed of the Williams Fork Formation for exposures in the Yampa, Danforth Hills, and Grand Hogback coal fields, Moffat and Routt Counties, northwest Colorado; the name is derived from the Yampa River valley. The type section was measured in the NE? SW? sec. 6, T. 5 N., R. 91 W., about 8 miles south of Craig, Colo., where the bed is 38 inches thick and lies within the C-D coal bed in the lower part of the Williams Fork Formation, about 165 feet above the Trout Creek Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation. The Yampa Bed is dated at 72.2 ? .1 mega-annum using the K-Ar method. Regionally, the Yampa Bed is a 0.5- to 5-ft-thick, regionally persistent tonstein that can be readily identified in several different lithofacies in the lower part of the Williams Fork Formation. The unit is useful as a regional datum in the correlation of facies within the Williams Fork, and it is easily recognized on geophysical logs by its low resistivity response. Evidence suggests that it is a diagenetically altered airfall ash.

  9. 117. Laurel Fork Viaduct. Elevation view of this 545 1939 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Laurel Fork Viaduct. Elevation view of this 545 1939 steel girder viaduct. Example of structure with plain reinforced concrete arches. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks.

    PubMed

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-08-13

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress.

  11. 26. MOORSE DRILL CABINET AND FORK ART FABRICATED AT SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. MOORSE DRILL CABINET AND FORK ART FABRICATED AT SHOP (L TO R)- LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  12. 8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  13. 9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. Little Known Facts about the Common Tuning Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, P. P.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the physical principles of the tuning fork which has a common use in teaching laboratories. Includes information on its vibration, frequency of vibration, elasticity, and reasons for having two prongs. (YDS)

  15. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-01-01

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress. PMID:26113155

  16. 8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  17. 9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  18. TRAIP regulates replication fork recovery and progression via PCNA

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wanjuan; Guo, Yingying; Huang, Jun; Deng, Yiqun; Zang, Jianye; Huen, Michael Shing-Yan

    2016-01-01

    PCNA is a central scaffold that coordinately assembles replication and repair machineries at DNA replication forks for faithful genome duplication. Here, we describe TRAIP (RNF206) as a novel PCNA-interacting factor that has important roles during mammalian replicative stress responses. We show that TRAIP encodes a nucleolar protein that migrates to stalled replication forks, and that this is accomplished by its targeting of PCNA via an evolutionarily conserved PIP box on its C terminus. Accordingly, inactivation of TRAIP or its interaction with the PCNA clamp compromised replication fork recovery and progression, and leads to chromosome instability. Together, our findings establish TRAIP as a component of the mammalian replicative stress response network, and implicate the TRAIP-PCNA axis in recovery of stalled replication forks. PMID:27462463

  19. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE STIRRING FORK THAT MIXED COFFEE BEANS AS THEY WERE HUSKED - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  20. The MCM helicase: linking checkpoints to the replication fork.

    PubMed

    Forsburg, Susan L

    2008-02-01

    The MCM (minichromosome maintenance) complex is a helicase which is essential for DNA replication. Recent results suggest that the MCM helicase is important for replication fork integrity, and may function as a target of the replication checkpoint. Interactions between MCM proteins, checkpoint kinases, and repair and recovery proteins suggest that MCMs are proximal effectors of replication fork stability in the cell and are likely to play an important role in maintaining genome integrity. PMID:18208397

  1. Force regulated dynamics of RPA on a DNA fork

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerich, Felix E.; Daldrop, Peter; Pinto, Cosimo; Levikova, Maryna; Cejka, Petr; Seidel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA binding protein, involved in most aspects of eukaryotic DNA metabolism. Here, we study the behavior of RPA on a DNA substrate that mimics a replication fork. Using magnetic tweezers we show that both yeast and human RPA can open forked DNA when sufficient external tension is applied. In contrast, at low force, RPA becomes rapidly displaced by the rehybridization of the DNA fork. This process appears to be governed by the binding or the release of an RPA microdomain (toehold) of only few base-pairs length. This gives rise to an extremely rapid exchange dynamics of RPA at the fork. Fork rezipping rates reach up to hundreds of base-pairs per second, being orders of magnitude faster than RPA dissociation from ssDNA alone. Additionally, we show that RPA undergoes diffusive motion on ssDNA, such that it can be pushed over long distances by a rezipping fork. Generally the behavior of both human and yeast RPA homologs is very similar. However, in contrast to yeast RPA, the dissociation of human RPA from ssDNA is greatly reduced at low Mg2+ concentrations, such that human RPA can melt DNA in absence of force. PMID:27016742

  2. Claspin promotes normal replication fork rates in human cells.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Eva; Helleday, Thomas; Caldecott, Keith W

    2008-06-01

    The S phase-specific adaptor protein Claspin mediates the checkpoint response to replication stress by facilitating phosphorylation of Chk1 by ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR). Evidence suggests that these components of the ATR pathway also play a critical role during physiological S phase. Chk1 is required for high rates of global replication fork progression, and Claspin interacts with the replication machinery and might therefore monitor normal DNA replication. Here, we have used DNA fiber labeling to investigate, for the first time, whether human Claspin is required for high rates of replication fork progression during normal S phase. We report that Claspin-depleted HeLa and HCT116 cells display levels of replication fork slowing similar to those observed in Chk1-depleted cells. This was also true in primary human 1BR3 fibroblasts, albeit to a lesser extent, suggesting that Claspin is a universal requirement for high replication fork rates in human cells. Interestingly, Claspin-depleted cells retained significant levels of Chk1 phosphorylation at both Ser317 and Ser345, raising the possibility that Claspin function during normal fork progression may extend beyond facilitating phosphorylation of either individual residue. Consistent with this possibility, depletion of Chk1 and Claspin together doubled the percentage of very slow forks, compared with depletion of either protein alone.

  3. Force regulated dynamics of RPA on a DNA fork.

    PubMed

    Kemmerich, Felix E; Daldrop, Peter; Pinto, Cosimo; Levikova, Maryna; Cejka, Petr; Seidel, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA binding protein, involved in most aspects of eukaryotic DNA metabolism. Here, we study the behavior of RPA on a DNA substrate that mimics a replication fork. Using magnetic tweezers we show that both yeast and human RPA can open forked DNA when sufficient external tension is applied. In contrast, at low force, RPA becomes rapidly displaced by the rehybridization of the DNA fork. This process appears to be governed by the binding or the release of an RPA microdomain (toehold) of only few base-pairs length. This gives rise to an extremely rapid exchange dynamics of RPA at the fork. Fork rezipping rates reach up to hundreds of base-pairs per second, being orders of magnitude faster than RPA dissociation from ssDNA alone. Additionally, we show that RPA undergoes diffusive motion on ssDNA, such that it can be pushed over long distances by a rezipping fork. Generally the behavior of both human and yeast RPA homologs is very similar. However, in contrast to yeast RPA, the dissociation of human RPA from ssDNA is greatly reduced at low Mg(2+) concentrations, such that human RPA can melt DNA in absence of force.

  4. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  5. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G. )

    1996-01-01

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  6. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  7. Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s neoclassical competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. A GRAND affair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tima2014; tomandersen; mugundhan; toadgreen

    2015-10-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “GRAND plans for new neutrino observatory”, which called for a new detector made up of hundreds of thousands of antennas spread over an area slightly smaller than the UK (18 August, http://owl.ly/R5N6u).

  9. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  10. Fascin, may the Forked be with you.

    PubMed

    Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Llimargas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The FGFR pathway triggers a wide range of key biological responses. Among others, the Breathless (Btl, Drosophila FGFR1) receptor cascade promotes cell migration during embryonic tracheal system development. However, how the actin cytoskeleton responds to Btl pathway activation to induce cell migration has remained largely unclear. Our recent results shed light into this issue by unveiling a link between the actin-bundling protein Singed (Sn) and the Btl pathway. We showed that the Btl pathway regulates sn, which leads to the stabilization of the actin bundles required for filopodia formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. This regulation contributes to tracheal migration, tracheal branch fusion and tracheal cell elongation. Parallel actin bundles (PABs) are usually cross-linked by more than one actin-bundling protein. Accordingly, we have also shown that sn synergistically interacts with forked (f), another actin crosslinker. In this Extra View we extend f analysis and hypothesize how both actin-bundling proteins may act together to regulate the PABs during tracheal embryonic development. Although both proteins are required for similar tracheal events, we suggest that Sn is essential for actin bundle initiation and stiffening, while F is required for the lengthening and further stabilization of the PABs.

  11. Methane production in Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.T.; Crawford, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Rates of methane production in Minnesota peats were studied. Surface (10- to 25-cm) peats produced an average of 228 nmol of CH/sub 4/ per g (dry weight) per h at 25/sup 0/C and ambient pH. Methanogenesis rates generally decreased with depth in ombrotrophic peats, but on occasion were observed to rise within deeper layers of certain fen peats. Methane production was temperature dependent, increasing with increasing temperature (4 to 30/sup 0/C), except in peats from deeper layers. Maximal methanogenesis from these deeper regions occurred at 12/sup 0/C. Methane production rates were also pH dependent. Two peats with pHs of 3.8 and 4.3 had an optimum rate of methane production at pH 6.0. The addition to peat of glucose and H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/ stimulated methanogenesis, whereas the addition of acetate inhibited methanogenesis. Cysteine-sulfide, nitrogen-phosphorus-trace metals, and vitamins-yeast extract affected methane production very little. Various gases were found to be trapped or dissolved (or both) within peatland waters. Dissolved methane increased linearly to a depth of 210 cm. The accumulation of metabolic end products produced within peat bogs appears to be an important mechanism limiting turnover in peatland environments.

  12. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  13. Methane flux from Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Crill, P.M.; Bartlett, K.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S. )

    1988-12-01

    Northern (> 40 deg N) wetlands have been suggested as the largest natural source of methane (CH{sub 4}) to the troposphere. To refine the authors estimates of source strengths from this region and to investigate climatic controls on the process, fluxes were measured from a variety of Minnesota peatlands during May, June, and August 1986. Late spring and summer fluxes ranged from 11 to 866 mg CH{sub 4}/sq/m/day, averaging 207 mg CH{sub 4} sq/m/day overall. At Marcell Forest, forested bogs and fen sites had lower fluxes than open bogs. In the Red Lake peatland, circumneutral fens, with standing water above the peat surface, produced more methane than acid bog sites in which the water table was beneath the moss surface. Peat temperature was an important control. Methane flux increased in response to increasing soil temperature. It is estimated that the methane flux from all peatlands north of 40 deg may be on the order of 70 to 90 Tg/yr though estimates of this sort are plagued by uncertainties in the areal extent of peatlands, length of the CH{sub 4} producing season, and the spatial and temporal variability of the flux. 60 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

  15. Minnesota Tribal Coalition - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Triplett

    2006-12-19

    The project helped tribal leaders, staff and community members on the Grand Portage, Leech Lake, and White Earth Reservations better understand their community's energy usage, assess local resources that might be utilized to reduce energy consumption and begin to formulate appropriate development strategies. The principal guiding interest was to assess energy usage and the potential for wind resource development on each of the three reservations. Key tribal staff became familiar with wind energy technology and assessment methodologies that will be of continued use as each tribe moves forward with development projects. The findings were that wind resources are available at each reservation with varying degrees of potential for development. At White Earth moderate to excellent resources are present at White Earth village and along the U.S. 59 corridor sufficient to be tapped to serve several scattered tribal complexes. At Grand Portage a former community television repeater tower site provides a viable elevated location for a wind turbine to serve the tribal community settlement. At Leech Lake, while most constrained by tree cover, a site adjacent to a casino holds promise for the newer taller wind turbines now coming to market at ever-increasing taller rotor heights. The project developed considerable data of importance regarding the potential for wind development on and near each reservation.

  16. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. 4. View of bridge from Minnesota bank, near northern side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of bridge from Minnesota bank, near northern side of the southeast portal looking southwest - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  18. 76. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1860. #22358.) UPPER LEVEE FROM CHESTNUT STREET, 1860 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  19. 79. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, ca. 1890, #741.) ALEXANDER RAMSEY HOUSE, ca. 1890 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  20. 77. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1859. #377. Photographer: Illingworth.) LOWER LEVEE FROM JACKSON STREET, 1859 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  1. 10. Detail of deck underside, from the Minnesota bank, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of deck underside, from the Minnesota bank, looking northwest - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  2. 7. Detail of Minnesota (southeast) portal of bridge, from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of Minnesota (southeast) portal of bridge, from the southeast - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  3. 74. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1896. #35105.) FIRST ROBERT STREET BRIDGE, ca. 1896 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. 5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the southeast portal looking north - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  5. Single strand transposition at the host replication fork

    PubMed Central

    Lavatine, Laure; He, Susu; Caumont-Sarcos, Anne; Guynet, Catherine; Marty, Brigitte; Chandler, Mick; Ton-Hoang, Bao

    2016-01-01

    Members of the IS200/IS605 insertion sequence family differ fundamentally from classical IS essentially by their specific single-strand (ss) transposition mechanism, orchestrated by the Y1 transposase, TnpA, a small HuH enzyme which recognizes and processes ss DNA substrates. Transposition occurs by the ‘peel and paste’ pathway composed of two steps: precise excision of the top strand as a circular ss DNA intermediate; and subsequent integration into a specific ssDNA target. Transposition of family members was experimentally shown or suggested by in silico high-throughput analysis to be intimately coupled to the lagging strand template of the replication fork. In this study, we investigated factors involved in replication fork targeting and analysed DNA-binding properties of the transposase which can assist localization of ss DNA substrates on the replication fork. We showed that TnpA interacts with the β sliding clamp, DnaN and recognizes DNA which mimics replication fork structures. We also showed that dsDNA can facilitate TnpA targeting ssDNA substrates. We analysed the effect of Ssb and RecA proteins on TnpA activity in vitro and showed that while RecA does not show a notable effect, Ssb inhibits integration. Finally we discuss the way(s) in which integration may be directed into ssDNA at the replication fork. PMID:27466393

  6. 75 FR 16819 - Minnesota; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of an emergency for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-3310-EM), dated March 19, 2010, and related... conditions in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from flooding beginning on March 1, 2010,...

  7. Minnesota Measures: 2007 Report on Higher Education Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Governor Tim Pawlenty and the Minnesota Legislature charged the Minnesota Office of Higher Education with developing an accountability system to measure the higher education sector's effectiveness in meeting state goals. Minnesota's leaders recognized that the knowledge, creativity and intellectual capacity of the state's people are the…

  8. 75 FR 23792 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1900-DR), dated April 19, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from flooding beginning on March 1, 2010,...

  9. 76 FR 53141 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-4009-DR), dated July 28, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms,...

  10. 78 FR 51202 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-4131-DR), dated July 25, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms,...

  11. 75 FR 39959 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1921-DR), dated July 2, 2010, and related... damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, and...

  12. 77 FR 46103 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-4069-DR), dated July 6, 2012, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms...

  13. 76 FR 44348 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1990-DR), dated June 7, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms...

  14. 76 FR 8723 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2011, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC), 2665 145th Street West... Dakota/Minnesota border, and receives gas on the South Dakota side near Big Stone City. MERC...

  15. 76 FR 36141 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1982-DR), dated May 10, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms...

  16. Recommended Best Practices for Mold Investigations in Minnesota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    The Minnesota Department of Health developed this guidance at the request of the Minnesota Department of Children, Families and Learning. The goal of the document is to assist school district staff of Minnesota public schools in responding to problems related to indoor mold. Its focus is on practical, cost-effective methods to identify indoor mold…

  17. 75 FR 65501 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Minnesota are eligible to apply for... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1941-DR), dated October 13, 2010, and...

  18. 78 FR 32416 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Minnesota have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Cottonwood, Jackson, Murray, Nobles, and Rock Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Minnesota are eligible... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  19. Grand alliance HDTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petajan, Eric D.

    1995-12-01

    Terrestrial broadcast television in the United States has remained essentially unchanged in the last fifty years except for the addition of color and stereo sound. Today, personal computers are addressing the need for random access of high resolution images and CD quality audio. Furthermore, advances in digital video compression and digital communication technology have cleared the way toward offering high resolution video and audio services to consumers using traditional analog communications channels. In 1987, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) chartered an advisory committee to recommend an advanced television system for the United States. From 1990 to 1992, the Advanced Television Test Center tested four all-digital systems, one analog High Definition Television (HDTV) system, and one enhancement NTSC system using broadcast and cable television environment simulators. The formation of the HDTV Grand Alliance in May of 1993 resulted from the withdrawal of the only analog HDTV system from the competition and a stalemate between the other four all- digital systems. The HDTV Grand Alliance system is composed of the best components from previously competing digital systems demonstrated to the FCC. Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG-2) syntax is used with novel encoding techniques to deliver a set of video scanning formats for a variety of applications. This paper describes the important features and concepts embodied in the HDTV Grand Alliance system.

  20. State Health Expenditure Accounts: Minnesota's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Sonier, Julie; Gustafson, Brent C.; Leitz, Scott D.

    1999-01-01

    Minnesota's approach to the development and use of State health expenditure accounts (SHEAs) was developed to assist State policymakers with decisions regarding health care reform. The accounts are based on an annual survey of third-party payers and summary Medicaid and Medicare data. Summary data are presented along with a discussion of data collection methodology, estimation, and dissemination. Minnesota's experience demonstrates that the ability of States to conduct detailed analysis of health care spending and to use these estimates to change State policy, inform national policy debate, conduct impact analysis, educate policymakers, and monitor market trends. PMID:11481787

  1. A multi-fork z-axis quartz micromachined gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

  2. A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

  3. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  4. Characterization of the ATPase activity of RecG and RuvAB proteins on model fork structures reveals insight into stalled DNA replication fork repair.

    PubMed

    Abd Wahab, Syafiq; Choi, Meerim; Bianco, Piero R

    2013-09-13

    RecG and RuvAB are proposed to act at stalled DNA replication forks to facilitate replication restart. To clarify the roles of these proteins in fork regression, we used a coupled spectrophotometric ATPase assay to determine how these helicases act on two groups of model fork substrates: the first group mimics nascent stalled forks, whereas the second mimics regressed fork structures. The results show that RecG is active on the substrates in group 1, whereas these are poor substrates for RuvAB. In addition, in the presence of group 1 forks, the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) enhances the activity of RecG and enables it to compete with excess RuvA. In contrast, SSB inhibits the activity of RuvAB on these substrates. Results also show that the preferred regressed fork substrate for RuvAB is a Holliday junction, not a forked DNA. The active form of the enzyme on the Holliday junction contains a single RuvA tetramer. In contrast, although the enzyme is active on a regressed fork structure, RuvB loading by a single RuvA tetramer is impaired, and full activity requires the cooperative binding of two forked DNA substrate molecules. Collectively, the data support a model where RecG is responsible for stalled DNA replication fork regression. SSB ensures that if the nascent fork has single-stranded DNA character RuvAB is inhibited, whereas the activity of RecG is preferentially enhanced. Only once the fork has been regressed and the DNA is relaxed can RuvAB bind to a RecG-extruded Holliday junction.

  5. Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

  6. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California AGENCY... trust for gaming purposes for the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California on November 26... land in trust for the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California under the authority of...

  7. 16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for fork and frame assembly... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.14 Requirements for fork and frame assembly. The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by application of a load of 890 N...

  8. Recovery of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone.

    PubMed

    Iraqui, Ismail; Chekkal, Yasmina; Jmari, Nada; Pietrobon, Violena; Fréon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A E

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination.

  9. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate... flows in excess of bankfull on the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of...

  10. 16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for fork and frame assembly... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.14 Requirements for fork and frame assembly. The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by application of a load of 890 N...

  11. 16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for fork and frame assembly... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.14 Requirements for fork and frame assembly. The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by application of a load of 890 N...

  12. 16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for fork and frame assembly... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.14 Requirements for fork and frame assembly. The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by application of a load of 890 N...

  13. 78 FR 13660 - Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Middle Fork American River Hydrolectric Project In accordance with the... Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric...

  14. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate... flows in excess of bankfull on the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of...

  15. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate... flows in excess of bankfull on the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of...

  16. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate... flows in excess of bankfull on the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of...

  17. 76 FR 62038 - Boundary Establishment for North Fork Crooked National Wild and Scenic River, Ochoco National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Forest Service Boundary Establishment for North Fork Crooked National Wild and Scenic River, Ochoco..., Washington Office, is transmitting the final boundary of the North Fork Crooked National Wild and Scenic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The North Fork Crooked Wild and Scenic River boundary is available for review at...

  18. 16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for fork and frame assembly... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.14 Requirements for fork and frame assembly. The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by application of a load of 890 N...

  19. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt... changed to the Whitman District Ranger. This 2012 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary...

  20. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. 208.33 Section 208.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate... flows in excess of bankfull on the North Fork of Ninnescah and Ninnescah River downstream of...

  1. Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dimude, Juachi U; Midgley-Smith, Sarah L; Stein, Monja; Rudolph, Christian J

    2016-07-25

    Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becomes a serious problem to cells if the second fork is stalled at an impediment, as replication cannot be completed, suggesting that a significant evolutionary advantage for maintaining this chromosomal arrangement must exist. Recently, we demonstrated that head-on fusion of replication forks can trigger over-replication of the chromosome. This over-replication is normally prevented by a number of proteins including RecG helicase and 3' exonucleases. However, even in the absence of these proteins it can be safely contained within the replication fork trap, highlighting that multiple systems might be involved in coordinating replication fork fusions. Here, we discuss whether considering the problems associated with head-on replication fork fusion events helps us to better understand the important role of the replication fork trap in cellular metabolism.

  2. Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dimude, Juachi U.; Midgley-Smith, Sarah L.; Stein, Monja; Rudolph, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becomes a serious problem to cells if the second fork is stalled at an impediment, as replication cannot be completed, suggesting that a significant evolutionary advantage for maintaining this chromosomal arrangement must exist. Recently, we demonstrated that head-on fusion of replication forks can trigger over-replication of the chromosome. This over-replication is normally prevented by a number of proteins including RecG helicase and 3’ exonucleases. However, even in the absence of these proteins it can be safely contained within the replication fork trap, highlighting that multiple systems might be involved in coordinating replication fork fusions. Here, we discuss whether considering the problems associated with head-on replication fork fusion events helps us to better understand the important role of the replication fork trap in cellular metabolism. PMID:27463728

  3. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  4. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... North Fork well field (Village of Ruidoso 2006). The Village of Ruidoso drilled four production wells on...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells... wells on the North Fork of Eagle Creek, located on National Forest System land. The new permit...

  5. Job Satisfaction among Minnesota High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyd, Steven DuWayne

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported the demands of the high school principalship in the United States has deterred qualified candidates from accepting the position. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of job satisfaction among Minnesota high school principals within a potentially dwindling supply of qualified candidates as reported in other…

  6. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, Anne D., Ed.

    This book is a collection of six papers presented at a 1974 University of Minnesota symposium on child development. The six chapters deal with language acquisition, visual perception, effects of television viewing, the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), problem-solving strategies, and Piagetian concepts related to social development. The first…

  7. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  8. Troubled Waters for the University of Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priesmeyer, Molly

    2012-01-01

    More than a year and a half after the University of Minnesota made headlines when an administrator halted the premiere of an environmental documentary, controversy and questions persist at the Twin Cities university. "Troubled Waters: A Mississippi River Story" took nearly four years to make. It explores how agricultural runoff and pollution…

  9. Minnesota: The State and Its Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    In Minnesota, democracy really works. A higher percentage of voters go to the polls, the business leaders genuinely care about the community, and the legislature works harder than most to provide for the people's welfare. Behind all of this is an energetic, well-educated citizenry who pay fairly high taxes and receive excellent services in return.…

  10. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

  11. Environment and Public Opinion in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichenor, P. J.; And Others

    Surveys conducted in Minnesota in 1969 and 1970 to obtain public opinion regarding environmental issues are discussed. Several generalizations are made about the state of public opinion about the environmental issue, as follows: (1) The environmental issue has reached public prominence through a sequence from professional and interest-group…

  12. Minnesota Family Service Collaboratives: 1998 Outcome Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement.

    In 1993 the Minnesota Legislature provided funding to establish local collaborative initiatives to integrate services and improve outcomes for children and families. This report is based on the individual outcome reports mandated for the 24 collaboratives that first received implementation grants in 1995 or 1996. Information from a variety of…

  13. A Guide to Minnesota Environmental Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wes, Comp.; Gruchow, Nancy, Comp.

    More than 400 areas in Minnesota, useful as sites for environmental studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include state parks and waysides, state forests, state wildlife management areas, waterfowl production areas, national forests, nature centers and preserves, metropolitan, county and city parks, outdoor education school sites, school…

  14. Sociophonetics of Hmong American English in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Eden A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a sociophonetic analysis of the English spoken by Hmong Americans living in the "Twin Cities" of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. The Twin Cities has the largest urban population of Hmong Americans in the United States. Through studies of production and perception of vowels involved in sound changes, I investigate whether…

  15. 75 FR 22167 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  16. 76 FR 47286 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  17. 77 FR 47908 - MINNESOTA Disaster #MN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MINNESOTA Disaster MN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  18. 78 FR 28939 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  19. 78 FR 47815 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  20. 75 FR 65391 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for...

  1. 75 FR 39994 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  2. 76 FR 35261 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  3. Ten Things You Should Do with a Tuning Fork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, James

    2013-01-01

    Tuning forks are wonderful tools for teaching physics. Every physics classroom should have several and every physics student should be taught how to use them. In this article, I highlight 10 enriching demonstrations that most teachers might not know, as well as provide tips to enhance the demonstrations teachers might already be doing. Some of…

  4. 80. Laurel Fork Creek Bridge #2. Example of a concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. Laurel Fork Creek Bridge #2. Example of a concrete slab bridge with T beams. It was built in 1937 and the wing walls were faced with stone to blend with its surroundings. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading

    PubMed Central

    Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance; Neelsen, Kai J.; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Zhao, Xiaobei; Lees, Michael; Sandelin, Albin; Pasero, Philippe; Lopes, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA unloading is delayed in the absence of nucleosome assembly. We propose that coupling of fork speed and PCNA unloading to nucleosome assembly provides a simple mechanism to adjust DNA replication and maintain chromatin integrity during transient histone shortage. PMID:24379417

  6. A description of the hydrologic system and the effects of coal mining on water quality in the East Fork Little Chariton River and the alluvial aquifer between Macon and Huntsville, north-central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of surface and groundwater has been affected by abandoned strip mines and by abandoned underground mines in a 110-sq mi subbasin of the East Fork Little Chariton River. More than 14% of the area was strip mined for coal before 1979. The hydrologic system in the area was investigated and the effects of coal mining on quality of water in the river and alluvial aquifer were analyzed, with major emphasis on defining strip-mining effects. The groundwater gradient was from glacial drift or coal spring to alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River, and was greatest in spring and least in fall. Seepage from alluvium to the East Fork Little Chariton River occurs throughout the year, except during drought conditions when the only river flow is water released from Long Branch Lake. In the East Fork Little Chariton River median dissolved-solids concentrations increased from 153 mg/L near Macon to 630 mg/L near Huntsville and median sulfate concentrations increased from 36 mg/L near Macon to 360 mg/L near Huntsville. The median dissolved-solids concentration in water from the alluvium increased from 408 mg/L upstream from the strip mines to 641 mg/L near the mines and median dissolved-sulfate concentration increased from 140 to 350 mg/L. The sulfate-to-chloride ratio, used as the most sensitive indicator of strip-mining effects, increased markedly downstream in the East Fork Little Chariton River and nearby Middle Fork Little Chariton River, which also is affected by strip mining. There were no significant increases in sulfate-to-chloride ratio and dissolved-solids concentrations in comparable nearby subbasins of the Grand, Thompson, and Chariton Rivers where there was no mining. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Mechanisms of dissipation of an oscillating quartz tuning fork immersed in He II at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, I. A.; Zadorozhko, A. A.; Sheshin, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The dissipative processes that occur with immersing a vibrating tuning fork in superfluid helium are investigated. The tuning forks resonance width Δf of frequencies from 32 to 97 kHz was measured in the temperature range from 0.2 to 2.5 K and He II pressure from SVP to 24.9 atm. Some of the tuning forks were in the original can (closed tuning fork), and for some tuning forks the can was either completely or partially removed (opened fork). We found that for the open tuning forks two dissipation mechanisms are clearly revealed in the temperature dependence of Δf, namely, acoustic radiation and scattering of ballistic thermal excitations at low temperatures, and viscous friction at high temperatures. At low temperatures (below ˜ 0.8 K) acoustic dissipation dominates, and the model of quadrupole oscillator for a tuning fork can be applied. We found that acoustic radiation for closed tuning forks is less effective and appears at lower temperatures. The first experimental data on dissipative processes in the quartz tuning fork-He II system at increased liquid pressures are obtained. It is shown that, for high frequency tuning forks the resonance bandwidth decreases with increasing pressure, i.e., with increasing wavelength of sound λ, according to the law λ-5. At low frequencies and low temperatures, with increasing mean free path of thermal excitations the resonance bandwidth is well described by the model of ballistic scattering.

  8. Oak Grove Fork Habitat Improvement Project, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Scott

    1989-04-01

    The Lower Oak Grove Fork of the Clackamas River is a fifth-order tributary of the Clackamas River drainage supporting depressed runs of coho and chinook salmon, and summer and winter steelhead. Habitat condition rating for the Lower Oak Grove is good, but smelt production estimates are below the average for Clackamas River tributaries. Limiting factors in the 3.8 miles of the Lower Oak Grove supporting anadromous fish include an overall lack of quality spawning and rearing habitat. Beginning in 1986. measures to improve fish habitat in the Lower Oak Grove were developed in coordination with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODF&W) and Portland General Electric (PGE) fisheries biologists. Prior to 1986, no measures had been applied to the stream to mitigate for PGE's storage and regulation of flows in the Oak Grove Fork (Timothy Lake, Harriet Lake). Catchable rainbow trout are stocked by ODF&W two or three times a year during the trout fishing season in the lowermost portion of the Oak Grove Fork near two Forest Service campgrounds (Ripplebrook and Rainbow). The 1987 field season marked the third year of efforts to improve fish habitat of the Lower Oak Grove Fork and restore anadromous fish production. The efforts included the development of an implementation plan for habitat improvement activities in the Lower Oak Grove Fork. post-project monitoring. and maintenance of the 1986 improvement structures. No new structures were constructed or placed in 1987. Fiscal year 1988 brought a multitude of changes which delayed implementation of plans developed in 1987. The most prominent change was the withdrawal of the proposed Spotted Owl Habitat Area (SOHA) which overlapped the Oak Grove project implementation area. Another was the change in the Forest Service biologist responsible for implementation and design of this project.

  9. BOD1L Is Required to Suppress Deleterious Resection of Stressed Replication Forks.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Martin R; Reynolds, John J; Winczura, Alicja; Blackford, Andrew N; Borel, Valérie; Miller, Edward S; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Ryan, Ellis L; Davies, Nicholas J; Stankovic, Tatjana; Boulton, Simon J; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech; Stewart, Grant S

    2015-08-01

    Recognition and repair of damaged replication forks are essential to maintain genome stability and are coordinated by the combined action of the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination pathways. These pathways are vital to protect stalled replication forks from uncontrolled nucleolytic activity, which otherwise causes irreparable genomic damage. Here, we identify BOD1L as a component of this fork protection pathway, which safeguards genome stability after replication stress. Loss of BOD1L confers exquisite cellular sensitivity to replication stress and uncontrolled resection of damaged replication forks, due to a failure to stabilize RAD51 at these forks. Blocking DNA2-dependent resection, or downregulation of the helicases BLM and FBH1, suppresses both catastrophic fork processing and the accumulation of chromosomal damage in BOD1L-deficient cells. Thus, our work implicates BOD1L as a critical regulator of genome integrity that restrains nucleolytic degradation of damaged replication forks.

  10. Termination of DNA replication forks: "Breaking up is hard to do".

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachael; Priego Moreno, Sara; Gambus, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    To ensure duplication of the entire genome, eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from thousands of replication origins. The replication forks move through the chromatin until they encounter forks from neighboring origins. During replication fork termination forks converge, the replisomes disassemble and topoisomerase II resolves the daughter DNA molecules. If not resolved efficiently, terminating forks result in genomic instability through the formation of pathogenic structures. Our recent findings shed light onto the mechanism of replisome disassembly upon replication fork termination. We have shown that termination-specific polyubiquitylation of the replicative helicase component - Mcm7, leads to dissolution of the active helicase in a process dependent on the p97/VCP/Cdc48 segregase. The inhibition of terminating helicase disassembly resulted in a replication termination defect. In this extended view we present hypothetical models of replication fork termination and discuss remaining and emerging questions in the DNA replication termination field.

  11. RFWD3-Dependent Ubiquitination of RPA Regulates Repair at Stalled Replication Forks.

    PubMed

    Elia, Andrew E H; Wang, David C; Willis, Nicholas A; Boardman, Alexander P; Hajdu, Ildiko; Adeyemi, Richard O; Lowry, Elizabeth; Gygi, Steven P; Scully, Ralph; Elledge, Stephen J

    2015-10-15

    We have used quantitative proteomics to profile ubiquitination in the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrate that RPA, which functions as a protein scaffold in the replication stress response, is multiply ubiquitinated upon replication fork stalling. Ubiquitination of RPA occurs on chromatin, involves sites outside its DNA binding channel, does not cause proteasomal degradation, and increases under conditions of fork collapse, suggesting a role in repair at stalled forks. We demonstrate that the E3 ligase RFWD3 mediates RPA ubiquitination. RFWD3 is necessary for replication fork restart, normal repair kinetics during replication stress, and homologous recombination (HR) at stalled replication forks. Mutational analysis suggests that multisite ubiquitination of the entire RPA complex is responsible for repair at stalled forks. Multisite protein group sumoylation is known to promote HR in yeast. Our findings reveal a similar requirement for multisite protein group ubiquitination during HR at stalled forks in mammalian cells.

  12. Termination of DNA replication forks: “Breaking up is hard to do”

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Rachael; Priego Moreno, Sara; Gambus, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    To ensure duplication of the entire genome, eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from thousands of replication origins. The replication forks move through the chromatin until they encounter forks from neighboring origins. During replication fork termination forks converge, the replisomes disassemble and topoisomerase II resolves the daughter DNA molecules. If not resolved efficiently, terminating forks result in genomic instability through the formation of pathogenic structures. Our recent findings shed light onto the mechanism of replisome disassembly upon replication fork termination. We have shown that termination-specific polyubiquitylation of the replicative helicase component – Mcm7, leads to dissolution of the active helicase in a process dependent on the p97/VCP/Cdc48 segregase. The inhibition of terminating helicase disassembly resulted in a replication termination defect. In this extended view we present hypothetical models of replication fork termination and discuss remaining and emerging questions in the DNA replication termination field. PMID:25835602

  13. Mitomycin C reduces abundance of replication forks but not rates of fork progression in primary and transformed human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kehrli, Keffy; Sidorova, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA crosslinks can block replication in vitro and slow down S phase progression in vivo. We characterized the effect of mitomycin C crosslinker on S phase globally and on individual replication forks in wild type and FANCD2-deficient human cells. FANCD2 is critical to crosslink repair, and is also implicated in facilitating DNA replication. We used DNA fiber analysis to demonstrate persistent reduction in abundance but not progression rate of replication forks during an S phase of MMC-treated cells. FANCD2 deficiency did not eliminate this phenotype. Immunoprecipitation of EdU-labeled DNA indicated that replication was not suppressed in the domains that were undergoing response to MMC as marked by the presence of γH2AX, and in fact γH2AX was overrepresented on DNA that had replicated immediately after MMC in wild type through less so in FANCD2-depleted cells. FANCD2-depleted cells also produced fewer tracks of uninterrupted replication of up to 240Kb long, regardless of MMC treatment. Overall, the data suggest that crosslinks may not pose a block to S phase as a whole, but instead profoundly change its progress by reducing density of replication forks and causing at least a fraction of forks to operate within a DNA damage response-altered chromatin. PMID:25580447

  14. Watershed characterization for precipitation-runoff modeling system, north fork, American River and east fork, Carson River watersheds, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Reece, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its Global Change Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating the potential effects of climate change on the water resources of several river basins in the United States. The American River Basin in California represents the windward slope of the north-central Sierra Nevada, and the California part of the Carson River Basin, most of which is in Nevada, represents the leeward slope. Parts of the American River and Carson River Basins—the North Fork American River and East Fork Carson River watersheds, both in California—were studied to determine the sensitivity of water resources to potential climate change. The water resources of both basins are derived primarily from snowmelt. A geographic information system (GIS) data base has been created to facilitate paired-basin analysis. The GIS data base incorporates (1) land-surface data, which include elevation, land use and land cover, soil type, and geology; (2) hydrologic data, such as stream networks and streamflow-gaging stations; and (3) climatic data, such as snow-course, snow-telemetry, radiosonde, and meteorological data. Precipitation-runoff models were developed and calibrated for the North Fork watershed within the American River Basin and for the East Fork watershed within the Carson River Basin. (These watersheds were selected to represent the climatic and physiographic variability of the two larger basins.) Synthesized climate scenarios then were used in the model to predict potential effects of climate change.

  15. Water resources of the Minnesota River-Hawk Creek watershed, southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Voast, Wayne A.; Broussard, W.L.; Wheat, D.E.

    1972-01-01

    The Minnesota River – Hawk Creek watershed is located in southwestern Minnesota. The watershed has an area of 1,479 square miles and is drained along its southwestern edge by the Minnesota River (Minnesota Division of Waters, 1959). The major watercourse within the watershed is Hawk Creek, having a drainage area of 510 square miles. Other, shorter streams drain into the Minnesota River but are mostly ephemeral. The watershed has a gently undulating land surface formed on glacial deposits. Directly underlying the glacial deposits in most of the area are Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks are also locally in contact with overlying glacial deposits. Beds of sand and gravel buried at various depths within the glacial deposits are generally thin and discomtinuous but are the most accessible and widely used aquifers in the watershed. Beds of poorly consolidated sandstone in the Cretaceous rocks are locally good aquifers, generally yielding softer water, but in lesser quantities, than aquifers in the overlying glacial deposits. In the eastern part of the watershed, aquifers in Paleozoic and Precambrian sedimentary rocks are capable of high yields to wells and contain water of similar quality to water in the overlying Cretaceous and glacial deposits.

  16. Minnesota GPR Project 1998: testing ground penetrating radar technology on Minnesota roads and highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarenketo, Timo; van Deusen, David; Maijala, Pekka

    2000-04-01

    During May 1998, Roadscanners Oy together with the Office of Minnesota Road Research performed a series of GPR tests in Minnesota, in order to determine the level of accuracy of the GPR technology in pavement and subgrade soil testing. The project involved a total of 195 km of GPR surveys carried out in different locations throughout Minnesota. The test sections represented a range of pavement materials, structures and soils found in the state. A number of GPR tests were performed to evaluate different types of pavement defect and ascertain their causes. The results of the Minnesota GPR Project 1998 clearly show the potential benefits that GPR techniques could offer the Minnesota Department of Transportation (DOT). The results of the Mn/ROAD tests show that GPR can be applied in measuring the layer thickness of various pavement structures. The surface reflection technique can be used to determine the signal velocity of both asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Mn/ROAD surveys also revealed evidence of some previously unknown defects in test cells, e.g. stripping, voids and moisture anomalies. A good example of the benefits the GPR technique can offer in detecting stripping is the T.H. 23, T.H. 71 Willmar case, where reference data, drill cores and FWD data matched almost perfectly with the GPR data. Another notable case presented in the paper is U.S. 52, Oronoco, where defects due to differential frost heave were located.

  17. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in Minnesota wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, M.A.; Goyal, S.M.; Diesch, S.L.; Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 457) from wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Minnesota were collected from 1972 through 1986 and were tested for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans using a microtiter agglutination test. Twelve serovars included in the study were: australis, autumnalis, ballum, bataviae, bratislava, canicola, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, hardjo, pomona, pyrogenes, and tarassovi. Fifty-two (11%) sera had antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:50 against one or more serovars of L. interrogans. The seroprevalence of different serovars in decreasing order was: grippotyphosa, bratislava, autumnalis, canicola, pomona, ballum, pyrogenes, hardjo, and copenhageni. No antibodies were found against australis, bataviae, and tarassovi. These results indicate that L. interrogans infection may occur in wolves of Minnesota.

  18. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A

    2003-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.

  19. Terrain, weather pose challenges in Minnesota project

    SciTech Connect

    Trojack, L. )

    1994-12-01

    This paper briefly reviews an innovative method used in installing a natural gas pipeline in Minnesota which traversed a marsh area. Because of the special problems associated with this wetland area, special equipment and techniques had to be used to minimize disturbance associated with the construction. It describes the equipment and the resulting performance the equipment had. It proved to significantly reduce disturbance and result in minimum site restoration work.

  20. The Minnesota Agri-Power project

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1996-12-31

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP), a farmer-owned cooperative, is leading a public/private effort to develop a $200 million integrated alfalfa processing and biomass energy system. MnVAP will produce and process 700,000 tons of alfalfa per year. A wide range of value-added alfalfa products, including electricity, will be produced at MnVAP`s facilities. The power plant will utilize integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation technology to produce 75 megawatts of baseload power. The Minnesota Agri-Power (MAP) project is a sustainable development project. It will invigorate the economy of southwestern Minnesota by maximizing the value added to a biomass resource and returning the benefits of ownership to the rural community. Products produced from the protein-rich leaf material may include feed pellets, liquefied protein supplements, pharmaceutical bases, and natural fragrances and dyes. The primary product to be produced from alfalfa stems will be electricity, as this was determined in a DOE-sponsored feasibility study to be the highest value use of the fibrous stem material. Air emissions from the power plant will be less harmful than emissions from fossil-fuel plants. In addition, the new production of alfalfa required by this project will improve the health of agricultural soil, water quality and wildlife habitat.

  1. Temperature mediated moose survival in Northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenarz, M.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Schrage, M.W.; Edwards, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The earth is in the midst of a pronounced warming trend and temperatures in Minnesota, USA, as elsewhere, are projected to increase. Northern Minnesota represents the southern edge to the circumpolar distribution of moose (Alces alces), a species intolerant of heat. Moose increase their metabolic rate to regulate their core body temperature as temperatures rise. We hypothesized that moose survival rates would be a function of the frequency and magnitude that ambient temperatures exceeded the upper critical temperature of moose. We compared annual and seasonal moose survival in northeastern Minnesota between 2002 and 2008 with a temperature metric. We found that models based on January temperatures above the critical threshold were inversely correlated with subsequent survival and explained >78 of variability in spring, fall, and annual survival. Models based on late-spring temperatures also explained a high proportion of survival during the subsequent fall. A model based on warm-season temperatures was important in explaining survival during the subsequent winter. Our analyses suggest that temperatures may have a cumulative influence on survival. We expect that continuation or acceleration of current climate trends will result in decreased survival, a decrease in moose density, and ultimately, a retreat of moose northward from their current distribution.

  2. Water resources of the Yellow Medicine River Watershed, Southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.; Van Voast, Wayne A.; Jerabek, L.A.

    1969-01-01

    The Yellow Medicine and Minnesota Rivers are the major sources of surface water. For physiographic regions – Upland Plain, Slope, Lowland Plain, and Minnesota River Flood Plain – influence surface drainage, and the flow of ground water through the aquifers. The watershed comprises 1070 square miles, including the drainage basin of the Yellow Medicine River (665 square miles) and 405 square miles drained by small streams tributary to the Minnesota River.

  3. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the lower Minnesota River basin, south-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Lower Minnesota River Basin, located in south-central Minnesota are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  4. Optimal information provision for maximizing flow in a forked lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takeaki; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    In a forked road, the provision of inappropriate information to car drivers sometimes leads to undesirable situations such as one-sided congestion, which is called the hunting phenomenon in real traffic. To address such problems, we propose a forked exclusion model and investigate the behavior of traffic flow in two routes, providing various types of information to a limited number of traveling particles according to the share rate of information. To analytically understand the phenomena, we develop a coarse-grained representation of the model. By analyzing the model, we find the most effective types of information to minimize particles' travel time and the existence of an optimal share rate according to route conditions.

  5. Optimal information provision for maximizing flow in a forked lattice.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takeaki; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    In a forked road, the provision of inappropriate information to car drivers sometimes leads to undesirable situations such as one-sided congestion, which is called the hunting phenomenon in real traffic. To address such problems, we propose a forked exclusion model and investigate the behavior of traffic flow in two routes, providing various types of information to a limited number of traveling particles according to the share rate of information. To analytically understand the phenomena, we develop a coarse-grained representation of the model. By analyzing the model, we find the most effective types of information to minimize particles' travel time and the existence of an optimal share rate according to route conditions.

  6. A molecular tuning fork in single-molecule mechanochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shankar; Koirala, Deepak; Selvam, Sangeetha; Ghimire, Chiran; Mao, Hanbin

    2015-06-22

    The separate arrangement of target recognition and signal transduction in conventional biosensors often compromises the real-time response and can introduce additional noise. To address these issues, we combined analyte recognition and signal reporting by mechanochemical coupling in a single-molecule DNA template. We incorporated a DNA hairpin as a mechanophore in the template, which, under a specific force, undergoes stochastic transitions between folded and unfolded hairpin structures (mechanoescence). Reminiscent of a tuning fork that vibrates at a fixed frequency, the device was classified as a molecular tuning fork (MTF). By monitoring the lifetime of the folded and unfolded hairpins with equal populations, we were able to differentiate between the mono- and bivalent binding modes during individual antibody-antigen binding events. We anticipate these mechanospectroscopic concepts and methods will be instrumental for the development of novel bioanalyses.

  7. The verification of reactor operating history using the fork detector

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Reilly, T.D.; Siebelist, R.

    1996-07-01

    A technique has been developed for verification of light-water reactor operating history from measurements of irradiated fuel assemblies. The Fork detector is used to measure neutron and gross gamma-ray emissions from fuel assemblies. The measurements can be performed a few days after discharge or up to several years later. The neutron and gamma-ray ratios are used to check the consistency of the declared number of irradiated cycles for the assembly in the core. Reactor burnup calculation codes are used to correct the measured neutron rates for different initial enrichments and discontinuous irradiation histories. We have modified the Fork detector so that it can operate in the intense gamma-ray field emitted from freshly discharged fuel. This modification makes it possible to perform fuel verification during the annual fuel-reload and maintenance period.

  8. Optimal information provision for maximizing flow in a forked lattice.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takeaki; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    In a forked road, the provision of inappropriate information to car drivers sometimes leads to undesirable situations such as one-sided congestion, which is called the hunting phenomenon in real traffic. To address such problems, we propose a forked exclusion model and investigate the behavior of traffic flow in two routes, providing various types of information to a limited number of traveling particles according to the share rate of information. To analytically understand the phenomena, we develop a coarse-grained representation of the model. By analyzing the model, we find the most effective types of information to minimize particles' travel time and the existence of an optimal share rate according to route conditions. PMID:26172765

  9. NORTH FORK SMITH RIVER ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA AND OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Hamilton, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the North Fork Smith River Roadless Area, California. The area has probable and sustantiated resource potential for nickel, chromium, copper, and mercury and approximately 2300 mining claims exist in or adjacent to the area. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  10. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  11. Stalled replication forks within heterochromatin require ATRX for protection

    PubMed Central

    Huh, M S; Ivanochko, D; Hashem, L E; Curtin, M; Delorme, M; Goodall, E; Yan, K; Picketts, D J

    2016-01-01

    Expansive growth of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is a prerequisite to the temporal waves of neuronal differentiation that generate the six-layered neocortex, while also placing a heavy burden on proteins that regulate chromatin packaging and genome integrity. This problem is further reflected by the growing number of developmental disorders caused by mutations in chromatin regulators. ATRX gene mutations cause a severe intellectual disability disorder (α-thalassemia mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) syndrome; OMIM no. 301040), characterized by microcephaly, urogenital abnormalities and α-thalassemia. Although the ATRX protein is required for the maintenance of repetitive DNA within heterochromatin, how this translates to disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood and was a focus of this study. We demonstrate that AtrxFoxG1Cre forebrain-specific conditional knockout mice display poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp-1) hyperactivation during neurogenesis and generate fewer late-born Cux1- and Brn2-positive neurons that accounts for the reduced cortical size. Moreover, DNA damage, induced Parp-1 and Atm activation is elevated in progenitor cells and contributes to their increased level of cell death. ATRX-null HeLa cells are similarly sensitive to hydroxyurea-induced replication stress, accumulate DNA damage and proliferate poorly. Impaired BRCA1-RAD51 colocalization and PARP-1 hyperactivation indicated that stalled replication forks are not efficiently protected. DNA fiber assays confirmed that MRE11 degradation of stalled replication forks was rampant in the absence of ATRX or DAXX. Indeed, fork degradation in ATRX-null cells could be attenuated by treatment with the MRE11 inhibitor mirin, or exacerbated by inhibiting PARP-1 activity. Taken together, these results suggest that ATRX is required to limit replication stress during cellular proliferation, whereas upregulation of PARP-1 activity functions as a compensatory mechanism to protect stalled forks

  12. Stalled replication forks within heterochromatin require ATRX for protection.

    PubMed

    Huh, M S; Ivanochko, D; Hashem, L E; Curtin, M; Delorme, M; Goodall, E; Yan, K; Picketts, D J

    2016-05-12

    Expansive growth of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is a prerequisite to the temporal waves of neuronal differentiation that generate the six-layered neocortex, while also placing a heavy burden on proteins that regulate chromatin packaging and genome integrity. This problem is further reflected by the growing number of developmental disorders caused by mutations in chromatin regulators. ATRX gene mutations cause a severe intellectual disability disorder (α-thalassemia mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) syndrome; OMIM no. 301040), characterized by microcephaly, urogenital abnormalities and α-thalassemia. Although the ATRX protein is required for the maintenance of repetitive DNA within heterochromatin, how this translates to disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood and was a focus of this study. We demonstrate that Atrx(FoxG1Cre) forebrain-specific conditional knockout mice display poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp-1) hyperactivation during neurogenesis and generate fewer late-born Cux1- and Brn2-positive neurons that accounts for the reduced cortical size. Moreover, DNA damage, induced Parp-1 and Atm activation is elevated in progenitor cells and contributes to their increased level of cell death. ATRX-null HeLa cells are similarly sensitive to hydroxyurea-induced replication stress, accumulate DNA damage and proliferate poorly. Impaired BRCA1-RAD51 colocalization and PARP-1 hyperactivation indicated that stalled replication forks are not efficiently protected. DNA fiber assays confirmed that MRE11 degradation of stalled replication forks was rampant in the absence of ATRX or DAXX. Indeed, fork degradation in ATRX-null cells could be attenuated by treatment with the MRE11 inhibitor mirin, or exacerbated by inhibiting PARP-1 activity. Taken together, these results suggest that ATRX is required to limit replication stress during cellular proliferation, whereas upregulation of PARP-1 activity functions as a compensatory mechanism to protect stalled forks

  13. NORTH FORK OF THE AMERICAN RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the North Fork of the American River Wilderness study area, California have identified a zone of substantiated resource potential for gold and silver. Zones of probable gold and silver potential occur in the eastern part of the area between the Wubbena and La Trinidad mines and locally around the Marrs mine. A zone with probable chromium potential occurs in the serpentinite belt along the western border of the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  14. Supercoiling, knotting and replication fork reversal in partially replicated plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Olavarrieta, L.; Martínez-Robles, M. L.; Sogo, J. M.; Stasiak, A.; Hernández, P.; Krimer, D. B.; Schvartzman, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    To study the structure of partially replicated plasmids, we cloned the Escherichia coli polar replication terminator TerE in its active orientation at different locations in the ColE1 vector pBR18. The resulting plasmids, pBR18-TerE@StyI and pBR18-TerE@EcoRI, were analyzed by neutral/neutral two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Replication forks stop at the Ter–TUS complex, leading to the accumulation of specific replication intermediates with a mass 1.26 times the mass of non-replicating plasmids for pBR18-TerE@StyI and 1.57 times for pBR18-TerE@EcoRI. The number of knotted bubbles detected after digestion with ScaI and the number and electrophoretic mobility of undigested partially replicated topoisomers reflect the changes in plasmid topology that occur in DNA molecules replicated to different extents. Exposure to increasing concentrations of chloroquine or ethidium bromide revealed that partially replicated topoisomers (CCCRIs) do not sustain positive supercoiling as efficiently as their non-replicating counterparts. It was suggested that this occurs because in partially replicated plasmids a positive ΔLk is absorbed by regression of the replication fork. Indeed, we showed by electron microscopy that, at least in the presence of chloroquine, some of the CCCRIs of pBR18-Ter@StyI formed Holliday-like junction structures characteristic of reversed forks. However, not all the positive supercoiling was absorbed by fork reversal in the presence of high concentrations of ethidium bromide. PMID:11809877

  15. Molecular clock fork phylogenies: closed form analytic maximum likelihood solutions.

    PubMed

    Chor, Benny; Snir, Sagi

    2004-12-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM) are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model-three-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. Quoting Ziheng Yang, who initiated the analytic approach,"this seems to be the simplest case, but has many of the conceptual and statistical complexities involved in phylogenetic estimation."In this work, we give general analytic solutions for a family of trees with four-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. The change from three to four taxa incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system, and requires novel techniques and approaches. We start by presenting the general maximum likelihood problem on phylogenetic trees as a constrained optimization problem, and the resulting system of polynomial equations. In full generality, it is infeasible to solve this system, therefore specialized tools for the molecular clock case are developed. Four-taxa rooted trees have two topologies-the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock fork trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations for the fork. We finally employ symbolic algebra software to obtain closed formanalytic solutions (expressed parametrically in the input data). In general, four-taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that each fork topology has a unique(local and global) ML point.

  16. Grand slam on cancer.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. PMID:24400624

  17. Grand slam on cancer.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010.

  18. Replication fork stability confers chemoresistance in BRCA-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Callen, Elsa; Ding, Xia; Gogola, Ewa; Duarte, Alexandra A; Lee, Ji-Eun; Wong, Nancy; Lafarga, Vanessa; Calvo, Jennifer A; Panzarino, Nicholas J; John, Sam; Day, Amanda; Crespo, Anna Vidal; Shen, Binghui; Starnes, Linda M; de Ruiter, Julian R; Daniel, Jeremy A; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Cortez, David; Cantor, Sharon B; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Ge, Kai; Jonkers, Jos; Rottenberg, Sven; Sharan, Shyam K; Nussenzweig, André

    2016-07-21

    Cells deficient in the Brca1 and Brca2 genes have reduced capacity to repair DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and consequently are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, including cisplatin and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Here we show that loss of the MLL3/4 complex protein, PTIP, protects Brca1/2-deficient cells from DNA damage and rescues the lethality of Brca2-deficient embryonic stem cells. However, PTIP deficiency does not restore homologous recombination activity at double-strand breaks. Instead, its absence inhibits the recruitment of the MRE11 nuclease to stalled replication forks, which in turn protects nascent DNA strands from extensive degradation. More generally, acquisition of PARP inhibitors and cisplatin resistance is associated with replication fork protection in Brca2-deficient tumour cells that do not develop Brca2 reversion mutations. Disruption of multiple proteins, including PARP1 and CHD4, leads to the same end point of replication fork protection, highlighting the complexities by which tumour cells evade chemotherapeutic interventions and acquire drug resistance. PMID:27443740

  19. Split quartz tuning fork sensors for enhanced sensitivity force detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.

    2015-03-01

    Quartz tuning forks (TFs) are often employed in dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) as piezoelectric force sensors, to replace the usual AFM microcantilevers, especially in ultra-high vacuum or cryogenic environments. A sharp tip is attached to one of the fork prongs, to obtain atomic scale AFM resolution. We devise a novel TF design by splitting the electrodes of its two prongs, which are produced at the factory as connected to each other, in order to address each of them separately. In such way, the motion of the probe tip can be unambiguously measured, irrespective of the motion of the other prong, which conversely influences its measurement in standard TFs. Furthermore, attachment of the probe tip dramatically spoils the oscillator Q-factor, as it unbalances the two prongs of the TF, with consequent dissipation of energy through the fork holder, due to the motion of the center of mass (CM) of the system. The possibility to independently drive the two prongs of the split TF gives the opportunity to rebalance them just by electrical means, thereby restoring the original Q-factor, by stopping the CM motion. By modeling the split TF as a three-mass, four-spring system, its behavior can be accurately described. Our model is used to explore alternative operation modes with enhanced sensitivity to applied forces.

  20. Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 1 directs polar replication fork pausing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yonghong; Posse, Viktor; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hyvärinen, Anne K; Jacobs, Howard T; Falkenberg, Maria; Gustafsson, Claes M

    2016-07-01

    During replication of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), clashes with the transcription apparatus can cause replication fork collapse and genomic instability. To avoid this problem, a replication fork barrier protein is situated downstream of rDNA, there preventing replication in the direction opposite rDNA transcription. A potential candidate for a similar function in mitochondria is the mitochondrial transcription termination factor 1 (MTERF1, also denoted mTERF), which binds to a sequence just downstream of the ribosomal transcription unit. Previous studies have shown that MTERF1 prevents antisense transcription over the ribosomal RNA genes, a process which we here show to be independent of the transcription elongation factor TEFM. Importantly, we now demonstrate that MTERF1 arrests mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication with distinct polarity. The effect is explained by the ability of MTERF1 to act as a directional contrahelicase, blocking mtDNA unwinding by the mitochondrial helicase TWINKLE. This conclusion is also supported by in vivo evidence that MTERF1 stimulates TWINKLE pausing. We conclude that MTERF1 can direct polar replication fork arrest in mammalian mitochondria. PMID:27112570

  1. Protection or resection: BOD1L as a novel replication fork protection factor.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Martin R; Stewart, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Replication stress, defined as the slowing or stalling of cellular DNA replication forks, represents a serious threat to genome stability. Numerous cellular pathways protect against replication stress and maintain genomic integrity. Among these, the Fanconi Anemia/homologous recombination pathways are critical for recognizing and repairing stalled replication forks. Members of these pathways play a vital role in protecting damaged forks from uncontrolled attack from cellular nucleases, which would otherwise render these irreparable. Recent studies have begun to shed light on the protective factors necessary to suppress nucleolytic over-processing of nascent DNA, and on the different cellular nucleases involved. Here, we review our recent identification of a novel fork protection factor, BOD1L, and discuss its role in preventing the processing of stalled replication forks within the context of current knowledge of the replication fork 'protectosome'.

  2. RecA protein promotes the regression of stalled replication forks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Robu, M E; Inman, R B; Cox, M M

    2001-07-17

    Replication forks are halted by many types of DNA damage. At the site of a leading-strand DNA lesion, forks may stall and leave the lesion in a single-strand gap. Fork regression is the first step in several proposed pathways that permit repair without generating a double-strand break. Using model DNA substrates designed to mimic one of the known structures of a fork stalled at a leading-strand lesion, we show here that RecA protein of Escherichia coli will promote a fork regression reaction in vitro. The regression process exhibits an absolute requirement for ATP hydrolysis and is enhanced when dATP replaces ATP. The reaction is not affected by the inclusion of the RecO and R proteins. We present this reaction as one of several potential RecA protein roles in the repair of stalled and/or collapsed replication forks in bacteria. PMID:11459955

  3. Coordinated protein and DNA remodeling by human HLTF on stalled replication fork.

    PubMed

    Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Haracska, Lajos

    2011-08-23

    Human helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) exhibits ubiquitin ligase activity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) polyubiquitylation as well as double-stranded DNA translocase activity for remodeling stalled replication fork by fork reversal, which can support damage bypass by template switching. However, a stalled replication fork is surrounded by various DNA-binding proteins which can inhibit the access of damage bypass players, and it is unknown how these proteins become displaced. Here we reveal that HLTF has an ATP hydrolysis-dependent protein remodeling activity, by which it can remove proteins bound to the replication fork. Moreover, we demonstrate that HLTF can displace a broad spectrum of proteins such as replication protein A (RPA), PCNA, and replication factor C (RFC), thereby providing the first example for a protein clearing activity at the stalled replication fork. Our findings clarify how remodeling of a stalled replication fork can occur if it is engaged in interactions with masses of proteins.

  4. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    ScienceCinema

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Calibrating a tuning fork for use as a scanning probe microscope force sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Yexian; Reifenberger, R.

    2007-06-15

    Quartz tuning forks mounted with sharp tips provide an alternate method to silicon microcantilevers for probing the tip-substrate interaction in scanning probe microscopy. The high quality factor and stable resonant frequency of the tuning fork allow accurate measurements of small shifts in the resonant frequency as the tip approaches the substrate. To permit an accurate measure of surface interaction forces, the electrical and piezoelectromechanical properties of a tuning fork have been characterized using a fiber optical interferometer.

  7. Recovery of arrested replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone.

    PubMed

    Iraqui, Ismail; Chekkal, Yasmina; Jmari, Nada; Pietrobon, Violena; Fréon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A E

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination. PMID:23093942

  8. Minnesota`s experience using shingle scrap in bituminous pavements. Final report, 1991-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Janisch, D.W.; Turgeon, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) has experimented with the use of shingle scrap in hot mix asphalt (HMA) since 1990. To date, the source of the shingle scrap has been shingle manufacturers exclusively. The manufactured shingle scrap consists primarily of tab punch-outs but also contains some mis-colored and damaged shingles. Test sections were constructed on the Willard Munger Recreational Trail, T.H. 25 in Mayer, Minnesota and on County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 17, in Scott County, Minnesota. Not only are the test sections performing as well as the control sections, but using shingle scrap reduces the amount of virgin asphalt cement required in a bituminous mix, thus creating the potential for a cost savings when using shingle scrap in HMA. Based on the performance of these test sections, shingle manufacturing scrap is now an allowable salvage material in hot mix asphalt under Mn/DOT specification 2331.E2e, Recycled Mixture Requirements. This report outlines the history of shingle scrap use in Minnesota, presents laboratory and field performance data and contains the current Mn/DOT specifications allowing shingle scrap to be used as a salvage material in HMA pavements.

  9. Future Environment of Minnesota: The Educational Task. Conference Proceedings (Onamia, Minnesota, May 12-14, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Academy of Science, Minneapolis.

    This booklet is a compilation of report proceedings of the Industry-Education Conference of the Minnesota Academy of Science. It was designed as an orientation booklet for participants in this conference and includes the text of the speeches given by a number of keynote speakers. The theme of the conference was total environmental impact, with a…

  10. Manual for the Minnesota Satisfactoriness Scales. Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation: XXVII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dennis L.; And Others

    Intended as a manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Scales, this monograph describes the development of the 28-item questionnaire designed to be completed by a worker's supervisor to assess the satisfactoriness of an employee. The scales were developed from supervisor ratings of 2,373 workers, and norms are provided for the occupational groups of…

  11. Strand-specific analysis shows protein binding at replication forks and PCNA unloading from lagging strands when forks stall.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuanhe; Gan, Haiyun; Han, Junhong; Zhou, Zhi-Xiong; Jia, Shaodong; Chabes, Andrei; Farrugia, Gianrico; Ordog, Tamas; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-20

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication proceeds with continuous synthesis of leading-strand DNA and discontinuous synthesis of lagging-strand DNA. Here we describe a method, eSPAN (enrichment and sequencing of protein-associated nascent DNA), which reveals the genome-wide association of proteins with leading and lagging strands of DNA replication forks. Using this approach in budding yeast, we confirm the strand specificities of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and show that the PCNA clamp is enriched at lagging strands compared with leading-strand replication. Surprisingly, at stalled forks, PCNA is unloaded specifically from lagging strands. PCNA unloading depends on the Elg1-containing alternative RFC complex, ubiquitination of PCNA, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53. Cells deficient in PCNA unloading exhibit increased chromosome breaks. Our studies provide a tool for studying replication-related processes and reveal a mechanism whereby checkpoint kinases regulate strand-specific unloading of PCNA from stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability.

  12. Mammalian RAD51 paralogs protect nascent DNA at stalled forks and mediate replication restart.

    PubMed

    Somyajit, Kumar; Saxena, Sneha; Babu, Sharath; Mishra, Anup; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2015-11-16

    Mammalian RAD51 paralogs are implicated in the repair of collapsed replication forks by homologous recombination. However, their physiological roles in replication fork maintenance prior to fork collapse remain obscure. Here, we report on the role of RAD51 paralogs in short-term replicative stress devoid of DSBs. We show that RAD51 paralogs localize to nascent DNA and common fragile sites upon replication fork stalling. Strikingly, RAD51 paralogs deficient cells exhibit elevated levels of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and increased DSB formation, the latter being attributed to extensive degradation of nascent DNA at stalled forks. RAD51C and XRCC3 promote the restart of stalled replication in an ATP hydrolysis dependent manner by disengaging RAD51 and other RAD51 paralogs from the halted forks. Notably, we find that Fanconi anemia (FA)-like disorder and breast and ovarian cancer patient derived mutations of RAD51C fails to protect replication fork, exhibit under-replicated genomic regions and elevated micro-nucleation. Taken together, RAD51 paralogs prevent degradation of stalled forks and promote the restart of halted replication to avoid replication fork collapse, thereby maintaining genomic integrity and suppressing tumorigenesis.

  13. THE FORK AND THE KINASE: A DNA REPLICATION TALE FROM A CHK1 PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    González Besteiro, Marina A.; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2014-01-01

    Replication fork progression is being continuously hampered by exogenously introduced and naturally occurring DNA lesions and other physical obstacles. The checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is activated at replication forks that encounter damaged-DNA. Chk1 inhibits the initiation of new replication factories and stimulates the firing of dormant origins (those in the vicinity of stalled forks). Chk1 also avoids fork collapse into DSBs (double strand breaks) and promotes fork elongation. At the molecular level, the current model considers stalled forks as the site of Chk1 activation and the nucleoplasm as the location where Chk1 phosphorylates target proteins. This model certainly serves to explain how Chk1 modulates origin firing, but how Chk1 controls the fate of stalled forks is less clear. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrating that Chk1 phosphorylates chromatin-bound proteins and even holds kinase-independent functions might shed light on how Chk1 contributes to the elongation of damaged DNA. Such findings unveil a puzzling connection between Chk1 and DNA-lesion bypass, which might be central to promoting fork elongation and checkpoint attenuation. In summary, the multifaceted and versatile functions of Chk1 at ongoing forks and replication origins determine the extent and quality of the cellular response to replication stress. PMID:25795119

  14. Chk1 requirement for high global rates of replication fork progression during normal vertebrate S phase.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Eva; Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Zachos, George; Gillespie, David A F; Jackson, Dean A; Caldecott, Keith W

    2006-04-01

    Chk1 protein kinase maintains replication fork stability in metazoan cells in response to DNA damage and DNA replication inhibitors. Here, we have employed DNA fiber labeling to quantify, for the first time, the extent to which Chk1 maintains global replication fork rates during normal vertebrate S phase. We report that replication fork rates in Chk1(-/-) chicken DT40 cells are on average half of those observed with wild-type cells. Similar results were observed if Chk1 was inhibited or depleted in wild-type DT40 cells or HeLa cells by incubation with Chk1 inhibitor or small interfering RNA. In addition, reduced rates of fork extension were observed with permeabilized Chk1(-/-) cells in vitro. The requirement for Chk1 for high fork rates during normal S phase was not to suppress promiscuous homologous recombination at replication forks, because inhibition of Chk1 similarly slowed fork progression in XRCC3(-/-) DT40 cells. Rather, we observed an increased number of replication fibers in Chk1(-/-) cells in which the nascent strand is single-stranded, supporting the idea that slow global fork rates in unperturbed Chk1(-/-) cells are associated with the accumulation of aberrant replication fork structures.

  15. 69. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1984. #32375.) VIEW TO WEST, SHOWING DAMAGED BRIDGE AFTER CYCLONE. 1904. - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  16. Strange Brew: Minnesota's Motley Mix of School Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlstein, Mitchell B.

    Minnesota has been the first state to embrace many education reforms, but it is also characterized by low state standards and problematic desegregation and diversity proposals. This report examines why Minnesota is good on some education policies and bad on others. It also draws the lessons with the greatest importance for other states. The…

  17. Minnesota Academic Standards in History and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Public education in Minnesota must help students gain the knowledge and skills that are necessary to, in Thomas Jefferson's view, protect and maintain freedom. The Social Studies Standards in this document attempt to do just this by specifying the particular knowledge and skills that Minnesota students will be required to learn in the disciplines…

  18. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  19. 66. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, ca. 1925. #19657.) VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING SPAN NOS. 21 TO 26 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  20. 75 FR 3461 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing January 13, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC) filed to...

  1. 68. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1924. #35108. Photographer: St. Paul Daily News.) VIEW TO EAST, SHOWING SPAN NOS. 10-20, 1924 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  2. 65. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1889. #37682.) VIEW TO NORTH, SHOWING SPAN NOS. 6-24, 1889 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  3. 71. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Pal, Minnesota, ca. 1905. #30454.) VIEW TO NORTHWEST, POSSIBLY AFTER THE REOPENING OF THE BRIDGE IN MAY 1905 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. The Minnesota Family, Friend and Neighbor Grant Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Stout, Karen; Cleveland, Jennifer; Hawley, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, Minnesota became the first state in the nation to pass legislation establishing an education and support program for family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) care providers. This article describes the Minnesota Family, Friend and Neighbor Grant Program and findings from an evaluation of the programs and a curriculum scan of materials used in…

  5. 2. View from the Minnesota bank looking downstream (northnorthwest) at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the Minnesota bank looking downstream (north-northwest) at bridge's southwest elevation; the bridge approach is missing - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  6. 70. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1904. #18613g. Photographer: Albert Munson) VIEW TO WEST, SHOWING FALSEWORK USED IN RECONTRUCTING THE HIGH BRIDGE, 1904. - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  7. 75. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, ca. 1870s. #22006. Photographer: Illingworth.) VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, SHOWING THE UPPER LEVEE AND BLUSS (on left) TO WHICH THE HIGH BRIDGE WAS BUILT - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  8. 64. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul Minnesota, ca. 1891. #35805. Photographer: Haynes and Bros., St. Paul.) VIEW TO SOUTH, SHOWING FOUR PERCENT GRADE OF HIGH BRIDGE, ca. 1981 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  9. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  10. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  11. 73. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1867. #MR2.9 SP4.2/rll.) FIRST WABASHA STREET BRIDGE, 1867 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  12. 63. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1958. #31008. Photographer: St. Paul Dispatch-Pioneer Press.) AERIAL VIEW OF HIGH BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 1958 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  13. 72. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, June 25, 1958. #31024. Photographer: St. Paul Dispatch-Pioneer Press. VIEW TO SOUTH, SHOWING THE RESURFACING OF THE BRIDGE IN 1958 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  14. Minnesota STAR Project: Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kimberly A.; Frank, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on findings and implications from a two-year evaluation of the Minnesota STudent Achievement in Reading (STAR) Project. This long-term, job-embedded, professional development activity is provided for Minnesota Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners serving intermediate-level adult students reading between 4.0 to 8.9 grade…

  15. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  16. Housing Seasonal Workers for the Minnesota Processed Vegetable Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebarth, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…

  17. Minnesota Health Statistics 1985. [35th Annual Summary Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Center for Health Statistics.

    This document contains the 35th annual summary of vital statistics prepared by the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics of the Minnesota Department of Health. The introduction contains technical notes on changes in the summary format, sources of data, data quality, geographic allocation, and definition of rates. Trends of the 1970s and the 1980s…

  18. The Teaching of Evolution and Creationism in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Kraemer, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The evolution-related attitudes and actions of Minnesota high school biology teachers were studied to estimate the prevalence of creationism among biology teachers. Minnesota's high school biology teachers were questioned about the evolution education in public schools regarding the percentage of biology teachers who teach evolution, class-time…

  19. Minnesota School Effectiveness Program. End of Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnek, Ida Mae

    In April 1984, 26 schools were selected as pilot sites for the Minnesota School Effectiveness Program (MSEP). A leadership team composed of four teachers, the building principal, and a district office representative from each site participated in a week-long training session sponsored by the Minnesota Department of Education. In August 1984,…

  20. Guide for Planning School Construction Projects in Minnesota. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, St. Paul.

    A 1997 report estimates Minnesota needs to spend up to $4.5 billion to replace or improve its current educational facilities to meet the needs of its students in the future. This guide, designed to encourage and guide Minnesota school districts in enhancing student achievement and school-community partnerships, summarizes changes in laws and…

  1. Minnesota Measures: 2008 Report on Higher Education Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    For most of Minnesota's 150 years of statehood, its distinctive economic advantages were largely a function of its natural resources, such as timber, taconite and tourism. Today, while these and other resources remain cornerstones of the state economy, it is clear that the intellectual capacity of Minnesota's people is emerging as a promising…

  2. Minnesota Undergraduate Demographics: Characteristics of Post-Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Tricia; Mehta, Shefali V.

    2006-01-01

    As Minnesota's state population changes, the undergraduate student population is also changing. This report is designed to present information about the characteristics of undergraduates who attend post-secondary institutions in Minnesota, based on data from a 2004 national survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Education. The report provides…

  3. "Skeen"--Minnesota's School Finance Case. House Research Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lisa

    This document summarizes the Minnesota state district court opinion in "Skeen v. State of Minnesota" and outlines changes made by the 1992 legislature in the state school finance system. In "Skeen," the court found several elements of the state's school finance system unconstitutional. These included the referendum levy, the debt service levy, and…

  4. 67. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Photocopy of photograph (original print in the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul Minnesota, ca. 1925. #35109. Photographer: St. Paul Daily News.) VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING SPAN NOS. 9-19, ca. 1925 - Smith Avenue High Bridge, Smith Avenue between Cherokee Avenue & Cliff Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  5. MN State Profile. Minnesota: Graduation Required Assessments for Diploma (GRAD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Minnesota's Graduation Required Assessments for Diploma (GRAD), comprehensive proficiency assessments of the skills and knowledge in mathematics, reading, and writing that are necessary for graduation. The Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments, Series II, into which the GRAD tests are embedded, measure…

  6. Impact Evaluation of the Minnesota Reading Corps K-3 Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovitz, Carrie E.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Hedberg, Eric C.; Silberglitt, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Minnesota Reading Corps (MRC) is the largest AmeriCorps State program in the country. The goal of MRC is to ensure that students become successful readers and meet reading proficiency targets by the end of the third grade. To meet this goal, the MRC program, and its host organization, ServeMinnesota Action Network, recruit, train, place and…

  7. Perimeter security for Minnesota correctional facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, D.; Spencer, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    For the past few years, the Minnesota Department of Corrections, assisted by Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a set of standards for perimeter security at medium, close, and maximum custody correctional facilities in the state. During this process, the threat to perimeter security was examined and concepts about correctional perimeter security were developed. This presentation and paper will review the outcomes of this effort, some of the lessons learned, and the concepts developed during this process and in the course of working with architects, engineers and construction firms as the state upgraded perimeter security at some facilities and planned new construction at other facilities.

  8. Irrigation survey in Sherburne County, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissel, D.; Woodward, D.

    1981-01-01

    Approximately 70% of Minnesota's irrigation is with center pivot distribution systems whose diagnostic appearance on remotely sensed imagery is a circular pattern which can be readily identified on LANDSAT MSS band imagery. Fields irrigated with traveling guns, laterals, booms, or cornering systems either result in angular field patterns or obscure the circular patterns normally visible on imagery. The IDMS system at Goddard was used to develop a LANDSAT digital classification of the Sherburne County area, which located fields regardless of shape, and was not dependent of visual interpretation. Ground truth collection and classification attempts are described in an effort to inventory all wells in the area.

  9. Supercomputer chemistry at the University of Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almlof, Jan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Davis, H. T.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Tirrell, Matthew

    1988-01-01

    The focus of cluster chemistry studies at the University of Minnesota is on the adsorption of small hydrocarbon molecules on metal and graphite surfaces, and on the substitution defects in diamond and silicon. Of particular interest is the study of very large systems such as the C60 molecule and the C150H30 molecule. Many of the properties of such clusters converge extremely slowly toward bulk values. Ultrathin films and microporous media are discussed as well as the Brownian dynamics of polymers.

  10. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task IV research report

    SciTech Connect

    Fruin, J.; Tiffany, D.

    1997-10-30

    Economic analysis is being conducted by the Department of Applied Economics in support of Minnesota Alfalfa Producer`s development of alfalfa as a dedicated biomass feedstock for energy production. University Researchers have assisted in the development and implementation of inventory control systems and procedures. This report lists the tasks for which researchers are currently finalizing economic analysis. The tasks encompass three main areas: (1) optimization of feedstock transportation system, (2) analysis of market potential for new alfalfa products, and (3) total systems analysis.

  11. Karst database development in Minnesota: Design and data assembly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gao, Y.; Alexander, E.C.; Tipping, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Karst Feature Database (KFD) of Minnesota is a relational GIS-based Database Management System (DBMS). Previous karst feature datasets used inconsistent attributes to describe karst features in different areas of Minnesota. Existing metadata were modified and standardized to represent a comprehensive metadata for all the karst features in Minnesota. Microsoft Access 2000 and ArcView 3.2 were used to develop this working database. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets have been assembled into the KFD, which is capable of visualizing and analyzing the entire data set. By November 17 2002, 11,682 karst features were stored in the KFD of Minnesota. Data tables are stored in a Microsoft Access 2000 DBMS and linked to corresponding ArcView applications. The current KFD of Minnesota has been moved from a Windows NT server to a Windows 2000 Citrix server accessible to researchers and planners through networked interfaces. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  12. BRCA1 controls homologous recombination at Tus/Ter-stalled mammalian replication forks.

    PubMed

    Willis, Nicholas A; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Huang, Bin; Kwok, Amy; Follonier, Cindy; Deng, Chuxia; Scully, Ralph

    2014-06-26

    Replication fork stalling can promote genomic instability, predisposing to cancer and other diseases. Stalled replication forks may be processed by sister chromatid recombination (SCR), generating error-free or error-prone homologous recombination (HR) outcomes. In mammalian cells, a long-standing hypothesis proposes that the major hereditary breast/ovarian cancer predisposition gene products, BRCA1 and BRCA2, control HR/SCR at stalled replication forks. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 affect replication fork processing, direct evidence that BRCA gene products regulate homologous recombination at stalled chromosomal replication forks is lacking, due to a dearth of tools for studying this process. Here we report that the Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex can be engineered to induce site-specific replication fork stalling and chromosomal HR/SCR in mouse cells. Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination entails processing of bidirectionally arrested forks. We find that the Brca1 carboxy (C)-terminal tandem BRCT repeat and regions of Brca1 encoded by exon 11-two Brca1 elements implicated in tumour suppression-control Tus/Ter-induced homologous recombination. Inactivation of either Brca1 or Brca2 increases the absolute frequency of 'long-tract' gene conversions at Tus/Ter-stalled forks, an outcome not observed in response to a site-specific endonuclease-mediated chromosomal double-strand break. Therefore, homologous recombination at stalled forks is regulated differently from homologous recombination at double-strand breaks arising independently of a replication fork. We propose that aberrant long-tract homologous recombination at stalled replication forks contributes to genomic instability and breast/ovarian cancer predisposition in BRCA mutant cells.

  13. Survival of postfledging mallards in northcentral Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Ronald E.; Sargeant, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    Effective, economical management of waterfowl populations requires an understanding of age-, sex-, and cause-specific forces of mortality. We used radio telemetry to estimate survival rates of immature mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from fledging to autumn migration in northcentral Minnesota. We monitored 48 females and 42 males during 1972-74 and observed 31 deaths during 2,984 exposure-days. We attributed 7 deaths to predation and 24 to hunting. Survival rates were 0.86 (SE=0.047) for the postfledging-prehunting period, 0.29 (SE=0.107) from the onset of hunting to migration, and 0.25 (SE=0.094) for both periods combined. Natural mortality of fledged young had a negligible effect on recruitment to migration. Reducing natural mortality of fledged juvenile mallards would not have been a feasible means of increasing recruitment. Management strategies that increased nest success, increased brood survival, or decreased hunting mortality would more likely have produced meaningful gains in recruitment and are worthy subjects for continuing study. In northcentral Minnesota, changes in waterfowl habitats, predator populations, and hunting pressure have probably not changed the relative importance of hunting and nonhunting mortality to fledged juvenile mallards since our data were collected.

  14. Children's Report Card, 1999: Measuring Minnesota's Progress for Children and Youth. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy

    Minnesota Planning developed the Children's Report Card in 1994 to help the state and its 87 counties gauge the well-being of Minnesota's children and youth. The report was created as an extension of Minnesota Milestones, a long-range plan for the state and a tool to measure results which was developed by Minnesota Planning in 1992. For the first…

  15. Valuing the Benefits of the Education Provided by Public Universities: A Case Study of Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damon, Amy; Glewwe, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates the value of the private and public benefits that accrue to Minnesota residents from state government subsidies to higher education. In 2005, the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system received $832 million from Minnesota's state government to support educational programs. These…

  16. Outcome Evaluation: Minnesota Reading Corps PreK Program. Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovitz, Carrie E.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Hedberg, Eric C.; Silberglitt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Minnesota Reading Corps is the largest AmeriCorps State program in the country. Its mission is to help every Minnesota child become a proficient reader by the end of third grade. To meet this goal, the Minnesota Reading Corps and its host organization, ServeMinnesota Action Network, engages a diverse group of AmeriCorps members to provide…

  17. 78 FR 75581 - Minnesota Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Minnesota Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application December 6, 2013. AGENCY: The.... Applicants: Minnesota Life Insurance Company (``Minnesota Life'' or ``Insurance Company''), Variable Annuity...., Washington, D.C. 20549- 1090. Applicants, c/o Daniel P. Preiner, Counsel, Minnesota Life Insurance...

  18. Hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks become progressively inactivated and require two different RAD51-mediated pathways for restart and repair.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Eva; Orta, Manuel Luís; Issaeva, Natalia; Schultz, Niklas; Helleday, Thomas

    2010-02-26

    Faithful DNA replication is essential to all life. Hydroxyurea (HU) depletes the cells of dNTPs, which initially results in stalled replication forks that, after prolonged treatment, collapse into DSBs. Here, we report that stalled replication forks are efficiently restarted in a RAD51-dependent process that does not trigger homologous recombination (HR). The XRCC3 protein, which is required for RAD51 foci formation, is also required for replication restart of HU-stalled forks, suggesting that RAD51-mediated strand invasion supports fork restart. In contrast, replication forks collapsed by prolonged replication blocks do not restart, and global replication is rescued by new origin firing. We find that RAD51-dependent HR is triggered for repair of collapsed replication forks, without apparent restart. In conclusion, our data suggest that restart of stalled replication forks and HR repair of collapsed replication forks require two distinct RAD51-mediated pathways.

  19. 77 FR 42761 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Oil and Gas Management Plan at Big South Fork...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Fork National River and Recreation Area and Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee and Kentucky AGENCY... Blount, Big South Fork National River ] and Recreation Area and Obed Wild and Scenic River Chief...

  20. Acoustic Resonances in Helium Fluids Excited by Quartz Tuning Forks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmela, A.; Tuoriniemi, J.; Rysti, J.

    2011-03-01

    Ordinary quartz tuning fork resonators, operated at about 30 or 200 kHz frequency, couple to acoustic first and second sound resonances in helium fluids under certain conditions. We have studied acoustic resonances in supercritical 4He, normal and superfluid 4He, and in isotopic mixtures of helium. Suggestive temperature, pressure, and concentration dependences are given. Furthermore, we propose a thermometric reference point device based on second sound resonances in helium mixtures, and indicate possible differences in the nature of second sound resonances in superfluid 4He and helium mixtures.

  1. MIDDLE FORK OF THE JUDITH RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Hamilton, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Middle Fork of the Judith River Wilderness Study Area in Montana has several prospects containing local small inferred resources and several exposed mineral occurrences bearing silver, lead, copper, and gold along its north and west edges with no identified resource potential. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies, conducted to appraise the mineral resources of the study area, identified no other anomalous concentrations of metallic elements. A gem-quality sapphire resource, present near the east boundary, cannot be identified within the study area. The area holds little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  2. BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.

    1984-01-01

    Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

  3. UV stalled replication forks restart by re-priming in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Elvers, Ingegerd; Johansson, Fredrik; Groth, Petra; Erixon, Klaus; Helleday, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Restarting stalled replication forks is vital to avoid fatal replication errors. Previously, it was demonstrated that hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks rescue replication either by an active restart mechanism or by new origin firing. To our surprise, using the DNA fibre assay, we only detect a slightly reduced fork speed on a UV-damaged template during the first hour after UV exposure, and no evidence for persistent replication fork arrest. Interestingly, no evidence for persistent UV-induced fork stalling was observed even in translesion synthesis defective, Polη(mut) cells. In contrast, using an assay to measure DNA molecule elongation at the fork, we observe that continuous DNA elongation is severely blocked by UV irradiation, particularly in UV-damaged Polη(mut) cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that UV-blocked replication forks restart effectively through re-priming past the lesion, leaving only a small gap opposite the lesion. This allows continuation of replication on damaged DNA. If left unfilled, the gaps may collapse into DNA double-strand breaks that are repaired by a recombination pathway, similar to the fate of replication forks collapsed after hydroxyurea treatment.

  4. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the...

  5. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the...

  6. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the...

  7. Analysis of protein dynamics at active, stalled, and collapsed replication forks.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Bianca M; Couch, Frank B; Feigerle, Jordan T; Bhaskara, Srividya; Hiebert, Scott W; Cortez, David

    2011-06-15

    Successful DNA replication and packaging of newly synthesized DNA into chromatin are essential to maintain genome integrity. Defects in the DNA template challenge genetic and epigenetic inheritance. Unfortunately, tracking DNA damage responses (DDRs), histone deposition, and chromatin maturation at replication forks is difficult in mammalian cells. Here we describe a technology called iPOND (isolation of proteins on nascent DNA) to analyze proteins at active and damaged replication forks at high resolution. Using this methodology, we define the timing of histone deposition and chromatin maturation. Class 1 histone deacetylases are enriched at replisomes and remove predeposition marks on histone H4. Chromatin maturation continues even when decoupled from replisome movement. Furthermore, fork stalling causes changes in the recruitment and phosphorylation of proteins at the damaged fork. Checkpoint kinases catalyze H2AX phosphorylation, which spreads from the stalled fork to include a large chromatin domain even prior to fork collapse and double-strand break formation. Finally, we demonstrate a switch in the DDR at persistently stalled forks that includes MRE11-dependent RAD51 assembly. These data reveal a dynamic recruitment of proteins and post-translational modifications at damaged forks and surrounding chromatin. Furthermore, our studies establish iPOND as a useful methodology to study DNA replication and chromatin maturation.

  8. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  9. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  12. Replication forks blocked by protein-DNA complexes have limited stability in vitro.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Peter; Guy, Colin P

    2008-08-29

    There are many barriers that replication forks must overcome in order to duplicate a genome in vivo. These barriers include damage to the template DNA and proteins bound to this template. If replication is halted by such a block, then the block must be either removed or bypassed for replication to continue. If continuation of replication employs the original fork, avoiding the need to reload the replication apparatus, then the blocked replisome must retain functionality. In vivo studies of Escherichia coli replication forks suggest that replication forks blocked by protein-DNA complexes retain the ability to resume replication upon removal of the block for several hours. Here we tested the functional stability of replication forks reconstituted in vitro and blocked by lac repressor-operator complexes. Once a fork comes to a halt at such a block, it cannot continue subsequently to translocate through the block until addition of IPTG induces repressor dissociation. However, the ability to resume replication is retained only for 4-6 min regardless of the topological state of the template DNA. Comparison of our in vitro data with previous in vivo data suggests that either accessory factors that stabilise blocked forks are present in vivo or the apparent stability of blocked forks in vivo is due to continual reloading of the replication apparatus at the site of the block.

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  14. 77 FR 66541 - Safety Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black Warrior River, Locust Fork; Birmingham, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Warrior River, Locust Fork; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Locust Fork to the...

  15. The intra-S phase checkpoint targets Dna2 to prevent stalled replication forks from reversing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiazhi; Sun, Lei; Shen, Fenfen; Chen, Yufei; Hua, Yu; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Mian; Hu, Yiren; Wang, Qingsong; Xu, Wei; Sun, Fei; Ji, Jianguo; Murray, Johanne M; Carr, Antony M; Kong, Daochun

    2012-06-01

    When replication forks stall at damaged bases or upon nucleotide depletion, the intra-S phase checkpoint ensures they are stabilized and can restart. In intra-S checkpoint-deficient budding yeast, stalling forks collapse, and ∼10% form pathogenic chicken foot structures, contributing to incomplete replication and cell death (Lopes et al., 2001; Sogo et al., 2002; Tercero and Diffley, 2001). Using fission yeast, we report that the Cds1(Chk2) effector kinase targets Dna2 on S220 to regulate, both in vivo and in vitro, Dna2 association with stalled replication forks in chromatin. We demonstrate that Dna2-S220 phosphorylation and the nuclease activity of Dna2 are required to prevent fork reversal. Consistent with this, Dna2 can efficiently cleave obligate precursors of fork regression-regressed leading or lagging strands-on model replication forks. We propose that Dna2 cleavage of regressed nascent strands prevents fork reversal and thus stabilizes stalled forks to maintain genome stability during replication stress.

  16. Substrate-selective repair and restart of replication forks by DNA translocases.

    PubMed

    Bétous, Rémy; Couch, Frank B; Mason, Aaron C; Eichman, Brandt F; Manosas, Maria; Cortez, David

    2013-06-27

    Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork-remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single-molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA-annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologs, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases.

  17. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla. 208.26 Section 208.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., North Fork Red River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the...

  18. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency... comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American River Project No....

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  20. First report of anther smut caused by Microbotryum violaceum on forked catchfly in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forked catchfly (Silene dichotoma Ehrh.), family Caryophyllaceae, is a common and native plant in rangelands and pastures in Turkey. It is also an introduced plant that is widely distributed in North America. In May, 2007 about 20 forked catchfly plants on the campus of Ondokuz Mayis University, i...

  1. UV stalled replication forks restart by re-priming in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Elvers, Ingegerd; Johansson, Fredrik; Groth, Petra; Erixon, Klaus; Helleday, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Restarting stalled replication forks is vital to avoid fatal replication errors. Previously, it was demonstrated that hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks rescue replication either by an active restart mechanism or by new origin firing. To our surprise, using the DNA fibre assay, we only detect a slightly reduced fork speed on a UV-damaged template during the first hour after UV exposure, and no evidence for persistent replication fork arrest. Interestingly, no evidence for persistent UV-induced fork stalling was observed even in translesion synthesis defective, Polηmut cells. In contrast, using an assay to measure DNA molecule elongation at the fork, we observe that continuous DNA elongation is severely blocked by UV irradiation, particularly in UV-damaged Polηmut cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that UV-blocked replication forks restart effectively through re-priming past the lesion, leaving only a small gap opposite the lesion. This allows continuation of replication on damaged DNA. If left unfilled, the gaps may collapse into DNA double-strand breaks that are repaired by a recombination pathway, similar to the fate of replication forks collapsed after hydroxyurea treatment. PMID:21646340

  2. 77 FR 55796 - Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Forest Service Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY AGENCY... Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project involves activities to improve water quality and reduce soil loss by plugging abandoned oil wells, removing abandoned flow lines, restoration of...

  3. Replication fork movement and methylation govern SeqA binding to the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed

    Waldminghaus, Torsten; Weigel, Christoph; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2012-07-01

    In Escherichia coli, the SeqA protein binds specifically to GATC sequences which are methylated on the A of the old strand but not on the new strand. Such hemimethylated DNA is produced by progression of the replication forks and lasts until Dam methyltransferase methylates the new strand. It is therefore believed that a region of hemimethylated DNA covered by SeqA follows the replication fork. We show that this is, indeed, the case by using global ChIP on Chip analysis of SeqA in cells synchronized regarding DNA replication. To assess hemimethylation, we developed the first genome-wide method for methylation analysis in bacteria. Since loss of the SeqA protein affects growth rate only during rapid growth when cells contain multiple replication forks, a comparison of rapid and slow growth was performed. In cells with six replication forks per chromosome, the two old forks were found to bind surprisingly little SeqA protein. Cell cycle analysis showed that loss of SeqA from the old forks did not occur at initiation of the new forks, but instead occurs at a time point coinciding with the end of SeqA-dependent origin sequestration. The finding suggests simultaneous origin de-sequestration and loss of SeqA from old replication forks.

  4. FANCJ couples replication past natural fork barriers with maintenance of chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Rebekka A.; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Defective DNA repair causes Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare childhood cancer–predisposing syndrome. At least 15 genes are known to be mutated in FA; however, their role in DNA repair remains unclear. Here, we show that the FANCJ helicase promotes DNA replication in trans by counteracting fork stalling on replication barriers, such as G4 quadruplex structures. Accordingly, stabilization of G4 quadruplexes in ΔFANCJ cells restricts fork movements, uncouples leading- and lagging-strand synthesis and generates small single-stranded DNA gaps behind the fork. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that FANCJ suppresses heterochromatin spreading by coupling fork movement through replication barriers with maintenance of chromatin structure. We propose that FANCJ plays an essential role in counteracting chromatin compaction associated with unscheduled replication fork stalling and restart, and suppresses tumorigenesis, at least partially, in this replication-specific manner. PMID:23530069

  5. Active Control of Repetitive Structural Transitions between Replication Forks and Holliday Junctions by Werner Syndrome Helicase.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soochul; Lee, Jinwoo; Yoo, Sangwoon; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Ahn, Byungchan; Hohng, Sungchul

    2016-08-01

    The reactivation of stalled DNA replication via fork regression invokes Holliday junction formation, branch migration, and the recovery of the replication fork after DNA repair or error-free DNA synthesis. The coordination mechanism for these DNA structural transitions by molecular motors, however, remains unclear. Here we perform single-molecule fluorescence experiments with Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and model replication forks. The Holliday junction is readily formed once the lagging arm is unwound, and migrated unidirectionally with 3.2 ± 0.03 bases/s velocity. The recovery of the replication fork was controlled by branch migration reversal of WRN, resulting in repetitive fork regression. The Holliday junction formation, branch migration, and migration direction reversal are all ATP dependent, revealing that WRN uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to actively coordinate the structural transitions of DNA.

  6. Continued DNA synthesis in replication checkpoint mutants leads to fork collapse.

    PubMed

    Sabatinos, Sarah A; Green, Marc D; Forsburg, Susan L

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment activates the intra-S phase checkpoint proteins Cds1 and Mrc1 to prevent replication fork collapse. We found that prolonged DNA synthesis occurs in cds1Δ and mrc1Δ checkpoint mutants in the presence of HU and continues after release. This is coincident with increased DNA damage measured by phosphorylated histone H2A in whole cells during release. High-resolution live-cell imaging shows that mutants first accumulate extensive replication protein A (RPA) foci, followed by increased Rad52. Both DNA synthesis and RPA accumulation require the MCM helicase. We propose that a replication fork "collapse point" in HU-treated cells describes the point at which accumulated DNA damage and instability at individual forks prevent further replication. After this point, cds1Δ and mrc1Δ forks cannot complete genome replication. These observations establish replication fork collapse as a dynamic process that continues after release from HU block.

  7. Minnesota Heat Flow and Geothermal Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Crowell, J.; Bubach, B.; Wahl, P.; Crowell, A. M.; Mcdonald, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Radiogenic heat production, bedrock geology, gravity, magnetics, and heat flow were combined to study heat flow and geothermal energy potential in Minnesota. Heat production was determined from one-hundred 800 kg samples collected at outcrops and from drill cores by gamma ray spectrometry. Small splits of the samples were also analyzed by chemical methods for K, U, and Th. Heat production averaged 2.6 W m-1 K-1 ± 2.0 for 42 felsic samples and 0.9 W m-1 K-1 ± 0.6 for 58 mafic samples. Areal variation in heat production measured with a portable gamma ray spectrometer was compared to bedrock geology and gravity and magnetic anomaly patterns. Gravity lows and magnetic highs correlate with higher heat production and vice versa. Prior to this study heat flow was reported for only four borehole sites in Minnesota. Those sites were located in Keweenawan mafic rocks of the mid-continent rift and heat flow values averaged 39 ± 6 mW m-2. These low heat flows are consistent with a heat flow study conducted in Lake Superior that showed a trough of low heat flow (19.2 - 41.0 mW m-2) along the northern edge of the lake. Thirty-one new heat flow determinations in the mafic rocks obtained from borehole temperature measurements in mining holes average (34.1 mW m-2 ± 1.9 mW m-2). However, paleoclimate signals evident in the temperature vs. depth profiles indicate that the temperature gradients are at least 27 percent low and heat flow is likely 46.7 mW m-2. Based on a reduced heat flow of 32 mW m-2 and a depth parameter of 10 km, the heat flow heat production relation yields a heat flow value of 58 mW m-2 in the felsic regions in Minnesota. These heat flow values suggest that EGS with a binary power plant would be achievable in the felsic regions.

  8. Minnesota clinics' adoption, use and exchange of electronic health information.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, Karen; Laventure, Marty

    2013-09-01

    In 2007, Minnesota passed a law requiring all health care providers in the state to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR) system by January 1, 2015. Since then, the Minnesota Department of Health has been monitoring progress each year by surveying hospitals, clinics and other health and health care facilities about their EHR use. This article summarizes findings from the 2013 survey of ambulatory clinics. Those results show Minnesota clinics are well on the way to achieving the state's goals for using EHRs to exchange information: 87% of clinics have adopted EHRs, 80% routinely use medication guides and alerts, and 36% exchange health information with unaffiliated settings.

  9. 75 FR 7266 - Roaring Fork Valley Physicians I.P.A.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Roaring Fork Valley Physicians I.P.A.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public.... Comments should refer to ``Roaring Fork Valley, File No. 061 0172'' to facilitate the organization of... release describing it. A comment filed in paper form should include the ``Roaring Fork Valley, File...

  10. 75 FR 41237 - Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the... recreational values along the South Fork of the American River. DATES: Effective Date: July 15, 2010. ADDRESSES... along the South Fork of the American River. Order By virtue of the authority vested in the Secretary...

  11. 75 FR 54601 - Lower South Fork LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lower South Fork LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...-000. c. Date filed: April 19, 2010 and supplemented July 28, 2010. d. Applicant: Lower South Fork LLC. e. Name of Project: Lower South Fork Irrigation Project. f. Location: The project is located...

  12. Seasonal alterations in park visitation, amenity use and physical activity - Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2012-2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Park amenities promote visitation and physical activity during summer. Physical activity declines during winter. Identifying park amenities that promote visitation during winter would help to promote year-round activity. The purpose was to determine how park visitation, amenity choice, ...

  13. Measurements of bed load transport on Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork and The Snake River in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Dams disrupt the flow of both of water and sediment through a watershed. Channel morphology is a function of discharge and sediment load, and perturbations caused by dams often alter channel form, causing significant geomorphic and, potentially, ecological changes (e.g. Petts and Gurnell, 2005). At the first order, dams often produce a flow regime that is profoundly altered in the timing, magnitude, and frequency of flows (Magilligan and Nislow, 2005). Yet, the nature of channel adjustments will be specific to both the physical setting, size of the river, dam characteristics, and nature and severity of the flow regulation (Church 1995; Knighton, 1998).

  14. The stability of nucleosomes at the replication fork.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R; Koller, T; Sogo, J M

    1996-05-01

    Purified simian virus (SV40) minichromosomes were photoreacted with psoralen under various conditions that moderately destabilize nucleosomes. This assay allows indirect distinction between stable nucleosomes, partially unravelled nucleosomes and nucleosomes containing (or lacking) histone H1. In replicating molecules the passage of the replication machinery destabilizes the nucleosomal organization of the chromatin fiber over a distance of 650 to 1100 bp. In front of the fork, an average of two nucleosomes are destabilized presumably by the dissociation of histone H1 and the advancing replication machinery. On daughter strands, the first nucleosome is detected at a distance of about 260 nucleotides from the elongation point. This nucleosome is interpreted to contain no histone H1, while no stepwise association of (H3-H4)2 tetramers with H2A/H2B dimers on nascent DNA can be detected in vivo. The second nucleosome after the replication fork appears to contain histone H1. The prolonged nuclease sensitivity of newly replicated chromatin described in the literature therefore may not be due to a slow reassociation of histone H1.

  15. Environment of deposition of Clear Fork Formation: Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    The Clear Fork Formation is Permian (Leonardian) in age and constitutes a major oil-bearing unit in the Permian basin of west Texas. In Yoakum County, west Texas, the upper Clear Fork carbonates record a subtidal upward-shoaling sequence of deposition. A small bryozoan-algal patch reef is situated within these carbonates near the southern edge of the North Basin platform. The reef is completely dolomitized, but paramorphic replacement has facilitated a study of the paleoecology, lateral variations, and community succession within this buildup. Build-ups of this type are scarcely known in strata of Permian age. The reef was apparently founded on a coquina horizon at the base of the buildup. The reef apparently had a low-relief, dome-shaped morphology. The trapping and binding of sediment by bryozoa appear to have been the main constructional process. A significant role was also played by encrusting forams and the early precipitation of submarine cements, both of which added rigidity to the structure. The reef also contains a low-diversity community of other invertebrates. Algal constituents predominate at the basinward edge of the buildup. The reef was formed entirely subaqueously on a broad, relatively shallow tropical marine carbonate shelf environment. An understanding of the lithofacies distribution and paragenesis within this sequence will provide information on porosity variations and the nature and distribution of permeability barriers. Such information is useful in reservoir modeling studies and for secondary recovery techniques in shelf-edge carbonate reservoirs of this type.

  16. BRCA1 controls homologous recombination at Tus/Ter-stalled mammalian replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Nicholas A.; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Huang, Bin; Kwok, Amy; Follonier, Cindy; Deng, Chuxia; Scully, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Replication fork stalling can promote genomic instability, predisposing to cancer and other diseases1–3. Stalled replication forks may be processed by sister chromatid recombination (SCR), generating error-free or error-prone homologous recombination (HR) outcomes4–8. In mammalian cells, a long-standing hypothesis proposes that the major hereditary breast/ovarian cancer predisposition gene products, BRCA1 and BRCA2, control HR/SCR at stalled replication forks9. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 affect replication fork processing10–12, direct evidence that BRCA genes regulate HR at stalled chromosomal replication forks is lacking due to a dearth of tools for studying this process. We report that the Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex13–16 can be engineered to induce site-specific replication fork stalling and chromosomal HR/SCR in mammalian cells. Tus/Ter-induced HR entails processing of bidirectionally arrested forks. We find that the BRCA1 C-terminal tandem BRCT repeat and regions of BRCA1 encoded by exon 11—two BRCA1 elements implicated in tumor suppression—control Tus/Ter-induced HR. Inactivation of either BRCA1 or BRCA2 increases the absolute frequency of “long-tract” gene conversions at Tus/Ter-stalled forks—an outcome not observed in response to a restriction endonuclease-mediated chromosomal double strand break (DSB). Therefore, HR at stalled forks is regulated differently from HR at DSBs arising independently of a fork. We propose that aberrant long-tract HR at stalled replication forks contributes to genomic instability and breast/ovarian cancer predisposition in BRCA mutant cells. PMID:24776801

  17. Reconnaissance geology and hydrology on the Nett Lake Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norvitch, R.F.

    1963-01-01

    The Nett Lake Indian Reservation is in northern Minnesota, about 210 miles north of Minneapolis and St. Paul. The village of Nett Lake (population about 300) is the only community on the reservation. This report is the result of an investigation made to provide a central water source for the village, at the request of the Public Health Service of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The climate of the area is continental, characterized by cool, subhumid summers and long, severe winters. The average annual precipitation is 24.2 inches. Altitudes in the area range from about 1,190 feet above mean sea level in the Little Fork River channel on the west border of the reservation to about 1,550 feet on top of the Vermilion end moraine, just south of Nett Lake. During the latter part of the Pleistocene Epoch most of the area was inundated by the waters of glacial Lake Agassiz. The area is now drained by the Little Fork River which flows north into the Rainy River, thence into Lake of the Woods, and eventually into Hudson Bay. The geologic units in the Nett Lake area consist of unconsolidated deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age and crystalline rocks of Precambrian age. Most ground water in the Nett Lake area occurs in three different zones: 1) surficial sand and gravel deposits, 2) lake sand underlying compact lake clay, and 3) bedrock fractures. The lake sand underlying the compact clay is the best source of ground water for the village of Nett Lake. It occurs in a small channel immediately west of the village, and it ranges in depth from about 11 to 30 feet below land surface and in thickness from 0 to about 3 feet. The water level is near the surface. A test well yielded 30 gpm (gallons per minute). Two 15 gpm wells would not exceed the long-term yield of the aquifer and would be adequate for the needs of the village.

  18. Planned Parenthood of Minnesota v. State.

    PubMed

    1990-08-01

    A 1988 Minnesota statute regulates the disposal of fetal remains resulting from abortions and miscarriages, with the purpose of providing for the remains' "dignified" disposal. The statute is triggered only when the fetal remains show "cartilaginous structures or fetal skeletal parts." In response to a challenge by Planned Parenthood, the U.S. Court of Appeals found the statute constitutional. The court ruled that the statute is not unconstitutionally vague, because "dignified" is mere preamble, and not an operative part of the statute. Moreover, while the "cartilaginous structures" language is not absolutely certain, the attending physician generally can determine from gross examination whether the remains trigger the statute. Secondly, the statute does not infringe on a woman's right to choose to have an abortion because it regulates an issue related to abortion, and neither financially nor psychologically burdens her choice.

  19. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  20. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Lively, R S; Krafthefer, B C

    1995-04-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4-h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature-induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  1. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  2. An assessment of air toxics in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Pratt, G C; Palmer, K; Wu, C Y; Oliaei, F; Hollerbach, C; Fenske, M J

    2000-09-01

    We used monitoring and modeling to assess the concentrations of air toxics in the state of Minnesota. Model-predicted concentrations for 148 hazardous air pollutants were from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cumulative Exposure Project (1990 data). Monitoring data consisted of samples of volatile organic compounds, carbonyls, and particulate matter [Less than and equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter collected at 25 sites throughout the state for varying periods of time (up to 8 years; 1991-1998). Ten pollutants exceeded health benchmark values at one or more sites by modeling, monitoring, or both (including acrolein, arsenic, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, chloroform, ethylene dibromide, formaldehyde, and nickel). Polycyclic organic matter also exceeded the benzo[a]pyrene health benchmark value assumed to represent this class of pollutants. The highest modeled and monitored concentrations of most pollutants were near the center of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area; however, many smaller cities throughout the state also had elevated concentrations. Where direct comparisons were possible, monitored values often tended to exceed model estimates. Upper-bound excess lifetime inhalation cancer risks were estimated to range from 2.7 [times] 10(-5) to 140. 9 [times] 10(-5) (modeling) and 4.7 [times] 10(-5) to 11.0 [times] 10(-5) (using a smaller set of monitored carcinogens). Screening noncancer hazard indices summed over all end points ranged from 0.2 to 58.1 (modeling) and 0.6 to 2.0 (with a smaller set of monitored pollutants). For common sets of pollutants, the concentrations, cancer risks, and noncancer hazard indices were comparable between model-based estimates and monitored values. The inhalation cancer risk was apportioned to mobile sources (54%), area sources (22%), point sources (12%), and background (12%). This study provides evidence that air toxics are a public health concern in Minnesota.

  3. Satellite inventory of Minnesota forest resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Marvin E.; Burk, Thomas E.; Ek, Alan R.; Coppin, Pol R.; Lime, Stephen D.; Walsh, Terese A.; Walters, David K.; Befort, William; Heinzen, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The methods and results of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to classify and estimate the acreage of forest covertypes in northeastern Minnesota are described. Portions of six TM scenes covering five counties with a total area of 14,679 square miles were classified into six forest and five nonforest classes. The approach involved the integration of cluster sampling, image processing, and estimation. Using cluster sampling, 343 plots, each 88 acres in size, were photo interpreted and field mapped as a source of reference data for classifier training and calibration of the TM data classifications. Classification accuracies of up to 75 percent were achieved; most misclassification was between similar or related classes. An inverse method of calibration, based on the error rates obtained from the classifications of the cluster plots, was used to adjust the classification class proportions for classification errors. The resulting area estimates for total forest land in the five-county area were within 3 percent of the estimate made independently by the USDA Forest Service. Area estimates for conifer and hardwood forest types were within 0.8 and 6.0 percent respectively, of the Forest Service estimates. A trial of a second method of estimating the same classes as the Forest Service resulted in standard errors of 0.002 to 0.015. A study of the use of multidate TM data for change detection showed that forest canopy depletion, canopy increment, and no change could be identified with greater than 90 percent accuracy. The project results have been the basis for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Forest Service to define and begin to implement an annual system of forest inventory which utilizes Landsat TM data to detect changes in forest cover.

  4. Designing a Virtual Grand Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Per Skafte

    2004-01-01

    The Virtual Grand Tour (VGT) is a paradigm for integrating a presentation of an overview of a larger subject with the possibility of launching at any time an exploratory study of a given sub-topic. The name derives from the paradigm's emulation of those 18th-century travels intended to educate (especially) young, affluent British men; today, with…

  5. Giving a grand rounds presentation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Laura J; Portenoy, Russell

    2010-12-01

    Giving a Grand Rounds presentation provides the hospice and palliative medicine subspecialist with the occasion to participate in a time-honored and respected event. It remains an opportunity to promote the discipline, support institutional culture change, and favorably influence the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and performance of colleagues. For those pursuing academic careers, it also is a chance to establish academic currency and develop teaching and presentation skills. In most academic settings, the format of Grand Rounds has shifted over time from a patient and problem-based discussion to a didactic, topic-focused lecture. A body of literature questions the value of this shift toward a more passive learner. Limited evidence prevents a definitive answer but many advocate for the integration of more interactive methods to improve the effectiveness of Grand Rounds. This article provides a flexible framework to guide those preparing to give a Grand Rounds and those teaching and supporting others to do so. To do this well, adult learning principles must be thoughtfully incorporated into a presentation style and method appropriate to the venue. The approach emphasizes learner-centeredness, interactive strategies, and evaluation. Room for creativity exists at every step and can add enjoyment and challenge along the way. PMID:21155643

  6. Thomas Moran: "The Grand Canyon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for introducing students in grades four through six to Thomas Moran's painting, "The Grand Canyon." The goal of the lesson is to illustrate the importance of the American West as a subject for artists in the nineteenth century. (JDH)

  7. How Energy Efficiency is Adding Jobs in St. Paul, Minnesota

    ScienceCinema

    Hannigan, Jim; Coleman, Chris; Oliver, LeAnn; Jambois, Louis

    2016-07-12

    Saint Paul, Minnesota is using an energy efficiency grant to provide commercial retrofits that will allow a local produce distribution company to dramatically reduce its energy costs and add dozens of new workers.

  8. How Energy Efficiency is Adding Jobs in St. Paul, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Hannigan, Jim; Coleman, Chris; Oliver, LeAnn; Jambois, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Saint Paul, Minnesota is using an energy efficiency grant to provide commercial retrofits that will allow a local produce distribution company to dramatically reduce its energy costs and add dozens of new workers.

  9. 20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. Paul Dispatch photograph, ca. 1934 Sculptor Carl Milles working on Indian God of Peace - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  10. 75 FR 32821 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  11. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... Control Agency, UST/LUST Program, 520 Lafayette Road North, St. Paul, MN 55155-3898. (1) State...

  12. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... Control Agency, UST/LUST Program, 520 Lafayette Road North, St. Paul, MN 55155-3898. (1) State...

  13. 75 FR 29590 - Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster Number MN-00024 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  14. 5. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908, Duluth, Minnesota, workhouse scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908, Duluth, Minnesota, workhouse scale floor-Fairbanks scale. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  15. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  16. Grand rip and grand bang/crunch cosmological singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Jambrina, L.

    2014-09-01

    The present accelerated expansion of the Universe has enriched the list of possible scenarios for its fate, singular or not. In this paper a unifying framework for analyzing such behaviors is proposed, based on generalized power and asymptotic expansions of the barotropic index w, or equivalently of the deceleration parameter q, in terms of the time coordinate. Besides well-known singular and nonsingular future behaviors, other types of strong singularities appear around the phantom divide in flat models, with features similar to those of big rip or big bang/crunch, which we have dubbed "grand rip" and "grand bang/crunch," respectively, since energy density and pressure diverge faster than t-2 in coordinate time. In addition to this, the scale factor does not admit convergent generalized power series around these singularities with a finite number of terms with negative powers.

  17. Molecular anatomy and regulation of a stable replisome at a paused eukaryotic DNA replication fork.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Arturo; Hodgson, Ben; Kanemaki, Masato; Bueno, Avelino; Labib, Karim

    2005-08-15

    Eukaryotic cells regulate the progression and integrity of DNA replication forks to maintain genomic stability and couple DNA synthesis to other processes. The budding yeast proteins Mrc1 and Tof1 associate with the putative MCM-Cdc45 helicase and limit progression of the replisome when nucleotides are depleted, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 stabilize such stalled forks and prevent disassembly of the replisome. Forks also pause transiently during unperturbed chromosome replication, at sites where nonnucleosomal proteins bind DNA tightly. We describe a method for inducing prolonged pausing of forks at protein barriers assembled at unique sites on a yeast chromosome, allowing us to examine for the first time the effects of pausing upon replisome integrity. We show that paused forks maintain an intact replisome that contains Mrc1, Tof1, MCM-Cdc45, GINS, and DNA polymerases alpha and epsilon and that recruits the Rrm3 helicase. Surprisingly, pausing does not require Mrc1, although Tof1 and Csm3 are both important. In addition, the integrity of the paused forks does not require Mec1, Rad53, or recombination. We also show that paused forks at analogous barriers in the rDNA are regulated similarly. These data indicate that paused and stalled eukaryotic replisomes resemble each other but are regulated differently.

  18. Replication forks reverse at high frequency upon replication stress in Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Maric, Chrystelle; Bénard, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    The addition of hydroxyurea after the onset of S phase allows replication to start and permits the successive detecting of replication-dependent joint DNA molecules and chicken foot structures in the synchronous nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. We find evidence for a very high frequency of reversed replication forks upon replication stress. The formation of these reversed forks is dependent on the presence of joint DNA molecules, the impediment of the replication fork progression by hydroxyurea, and likely on the propensity of some replication origins to reinitiate replication to counteract the action of this compound. As hydroxyurea treatment enables us to successively detect the appearance of joint DNA molecules and then of reversed replication forks, we propose that chicken foot structures are formed both from the regression of hydroxyurea-frozen joint DNA molecules and from hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks. These experiments underscore the transient nature of replication fork regression, which becomes detectable due to the hydroxyurea-induced slowing down of replication fork progression.

  19. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  20. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  1. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  2. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  3. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  4. Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork

  5. Effects of Transposable Elements on the Expression of the Forked Gene of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, K. K.; Chien, A. J.; Corces, V. G.

    1993-01-01

    The products of the forked gene are involved in the formation and/or maintenance of a temporary fibrillar structure within the developing bristle rudiment of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations in the forked locus alter this structure and result in aberrant development of macrochaetae, microchaetae and trichomes. The locus has been characterized at the molecular level by walking, mutant characterization and transcript analysis. Expression of the six forked transcripts is temporally restricted to midlate pupal development. At this time, RNAs of 6.4, 5.6, 5.4, 2.5, 1.9 and 1.1 kilobases (kb) are detected by Northern analysis. The coding region of these RNAs has been found to be within a 21-kb stretch of genomic DNA. The amino terminus of the proteins encoded by the 5.4- and 5.6-kb forked transcripts contain tandem copies of ankyrin-like repeats that may play an important role in the function of forked-encoded products. The profile of forked RNA expression is altered in seven spontaneous mutations characterized during this study. Three forked mutations induced by the insertion of the gypsy retrotransposon contain a copy of this element inserted into an intron of the gene. In these mutants, the 5.6-, 5.4- and 2.5-kb forked mRNAs are truncated via recognition of the polyadenylation site in the 5' long terminal repeat of the gypsy retrotransposon. These results help explain the role of the forked gene in fly development and further our understanding of the role of transposable elements in mutagenesis. PMID:8244011

  6. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a cloudless sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  7. GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH IS INDICATED BY HORIZONTAL LINE NEAR TOP OF CLOUD COVERED PEAKS - Grand Ditch, Baker Creek to LaPoudre Pass Creek, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

  8. Improved Tuning Fork for Terahertz Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Giglio, Marilena; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We report on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) sensor for methanol (CH3OH) detection employing a novel quartz tuning fork (QTF), specifically designed to enhance the QEPAS sensing performance in the terahertz (THz) spectral range. A discussion of the QTF properties in terms of resonance frequency, quality factor and acousto-electric transduction efficiency as a function of prong sizes and spacing between the QTF prongs is presented. The QTF was employed in a QEPAS sensor system using a 3.93 THz quantum cascade laser as the excitation source in resonance with a CH3OH rotational absorption line located at 131.054 cm−1. A minimum detection limit of 160 ppb in 30 s integration time, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption NNEA = 3.75 × 10−11 cm−1W/Hz½, was achieved, representing a nearly one-order-of-magnitude improvement with respect to previous reports. PMID:27023552

  9. Wavelike movement of bedload sediment, East Fork River, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Bedload is moved down the East Fork River in distinct wavelike pulses that have the form of composite dune fields The moving material consists mostly of coarse sand and fine gravel The wavelengths of the pulses are about 500-600 m, a distance that is predetermined by the pattern of stoage of bed sediment in the river during low water As the river discharge increases, the bed sediment is scoured from the storage areas, and it is moved onto and across the interventing riffles As the river discharge decreases, the bed sediment is scoured off the riffles and moved into the next storage area downstream Each successive pulse of water discharge sets into motion a wave of bedload that continues to move unitil it reaches the next storage area ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaolo, A.; Patimisco, P.; Dong, L.; Geras, A.; Scamarcio, G.; Starecki, T.; Tittel, F. K.; Spagnolo, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor (QEPAS) based on a custom-made quartz tuning fork (QTF) to operate in both the fundamental and the first overtone vibrational mode resonances. The QTF fundamental mode resonance falls at ˜3 kHz and the first overtone at ˜18 kHz. Electrical tests showed that the first overtone provides a higher quality factor and increased piezoelectric current peak values, with respect to the fundamental flexural mode. To evaluate the QTF acousto-electric energy conversion efficiency, we operated the QEPAS in the near-IR and selected water vapor as the target gas. The first overtone resonance provides a QEPAS signal-to-noise ratio ˜5 times greater with respect to that measured for the fundamental mode. These results open the way to employing QTF overtone vibrational modes for QEPAS based trace gas sensing.

  11. Finite element analysis of electrically excited quartz tuning fork devices.

    PubMed

    Oria, Roger; Otero, Jorge; González, Laura; Botaya, Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Puig-Vidal, Manel

    2013-05-30

    Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF)-based Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is an important field of research. A suitable model for the QTF is important to obtain quantitative measurements with these devices. Analytical models have the limitation of being based on the double cantilever configuration. In this paper, we present an electromechanical finite element model of the QTF electrically excited with two free prongs. The model goes beyond the state-of-the-art of numerical simulations currently found in the literature for this QTF configuration. We present the first numerical analysis of both the electrical and mechanical behavior of QTF devices. Experimental measurements obtained with 10 units of the same model of QTF validate the finite element model with a good agreement.

  12. Quartz tuning forks with novel geometries for optoacoustic gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, V.; Sampaolo, A.; Patimisco, P.; Dong, L.; Gupta, Y.; Yu, Y.; Geras, A.; Giglio, M.; Calabrese, P. P.; Starecki, T.; Scamarcio, G.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-02-01

    We report the successful realization of quartz-enhanced photo-acoustic (QEPAS) sensors employing quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with novel geometrical parameters. We investigated the influence of QTF sizes on the main resonator parameters, in order to identify the best design parameters optimizing the QTF figures of merit for optoacoustic gas sensing. To evaluate the QTF acousto-electric energy conversion efficiency, we operated the QEPAS sensors in the near- IR and selected water vapor as the target gas. QTFs are forced to resonate at both the fundamental and the first overtone vibrational mode frequencies. Our results shows that two QTF designs exhibit an higher quality factor (and consequently an higher QEPAS signal) when operating on the first overtone mode with respect to the fundamental one.

  13. Mechanism of asymmetric polymerase assembly at the eukaryotic replication fork

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Roxana E; Langston, Lance; Yao, Nina Y; Yurieva, Olga; Zhang, Dan; Finkelstein, Jeff; Agarwal, Tani; O’Donnell, Mike E

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes use distinct polymerases for leading- and lagging-strand replication, but how they target their respective strands is uncertain. We reconstituted Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication forks and found that CMG helicase selects polymerase (Pol) ε to the exclusion of Pol δ on the leading strand. Even if Pol δ assembles on the leading strand, Pol ε rapidly replaces it. Pol δ–PCNA is distributive with CMG, in contrast to its high stability on primed ssDNA. Hence CMG will not stabilize Pol δ, instead leaving the leading strand accessible for Pol ε and stabilizing Pol ε. Comparison of Pol ε and Pol δ on a lagging-strand model DNA reveals the opposite. Pol δ dominates over excess Pol ε on PCNA-primed ssDNA. Thus, PCNA strongly favors Pol δ over Pol ε on the lagging strand, but CMG over-rides and flips this balance in favor of Pol ε on the leading strand. PMID:24997598

  14. Mechanism of asymmetric polymerase assembly at the eukaryotic replication fork.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Roxana E; Langston, Lance; Yao, Nina Y; Yurieva, Olga; Zhang, Dan; Finkelstein, Jeff; Agarwal, Tani; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2014-08-01

    Eukaryotes use distinct polymerases for leading- and lagging-strand replication, but how they target their respective strands is uncertain. We reconstituted Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication forks and found that CMG helicase selects polymerase (Pol) ɛ to the exclusion of Pol δ on the leading strand. Even if Pol δ assembles on the leading strand, Pol ɛ rapidly replaces it. Pol δ-PCNA is distributive with CMG, in contrast to its high stability on primed ssDNA. Hence CMG will not stabilize Pol δ, instead leaving the leading strand accessible for Pol ɛ and stabilizing Pol ɛ. Comparison of Pol ɛ and Pol δ on a lagging-strand model DNA reveals the opposite. Pol δ dominates over excess Pol ɛ on PCNA-primed ssDNA. Thus, PCNA strongly favors Pol δ over Pol ɛ on the lagging strand, but CMG over-rides and flips this balance in favor of Pol ɛ on the leading strand. PMID:24997598

  15. MFH-1, a new member of the fork head domain family, is expressed in developing mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Miura, N; Wanaka, A; Tohyama, M; Tanaka, K

    1993-07-12

    We have isolated a novel mouse gene, MFH-1 (mesenchyme fork head 1) that is related to the Drosophila fork head and rat HNF3 genes. MFH-1 encodes a distinct fork head domain that is classified into a distinct subfamily. A recombinant MFH-1 protein could bind to the HNF3 binding site. MFH-1 is expressed temporally in developing embryos, first in the non-notochordal mesoderm and later in areas of mesenchymal condensation in the trunk, head, and limbs. Our results suggest that MFH-1 might be involved in the formation of special mesenchymal tissues.

  16. Geochemical map of the North Fork John Day River Roadless Area, Grant County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.

    1986-01-01

    The North Fork John Day River Roadless Area comprised 21,210 acres in the Umatilla and Wallowa-Whitman National Forests, Grant County, Oregon, about 30 miles northwest of Baker, Oregon. The irregularly shaped area extends for about 1 mile on both sides of a 25-mile segment of the North Fork John Day River from Big Creek on the west to North Fork John Day Campground on the east. Most of the roadless area is in the northern half of the Desolation Butte 15-minute quadrangle. The eastern end of the area is in parts of the Granite and Trout Meadows 7½-minute quadrangles.

  17. Crossover from hydrodynamic to acoustic drag on quartz tuning forks in normal and superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. I.; Človečko, M.; Fisher, S. N.; Garg, D.; Guise, E.; Haley, R. P.; Kolosov, O.; Pickett, G. R.; Tsepelin, V.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the drag forces on quartz tuning forks oscillating at low velocities in normal and superfluid 4He. We have investigated the dissipative drag over a wide range of frequencies, from 6.5 to 600 kHz, by using arrays of forks with varying prong lengths and by exciting the forks in their fundamental and first overtone modes. At low frequencies the behavior is dominated by laminar hydrodynamic drag, governed by the fluid viscosity. At higher frequencies acoustic drag is dominant and is described well by a three-dimensional model of sound emission.

  18. Diabase dikes of the Midcontinent Rift in Minnesota: a record of Keweenawan magmatism and tectonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.C.; Chandler, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    Swarms of both reversed-polarity (R, older) and normal-polarity (N, younger) basaltic dikes help to define the evolution of the Minnesota portion of the Midcontinent Rift of North America. Each swarm, representing fissure-feeders for a package of overlying plateau lavas now eroded away, shows the direction of least principal stress at that time and place in the complex evolution of this abortive but nearly-successful rift. Paleomagnetic pole determinations for Carlton county (CC) and Grand Portage (GP) R dikes are coincident along the Logan Loop of the Proterozoic track, showing essential contemporaneity, though their trends are different (N.30/sup 0/E vs. N. 70-90/sup 0/E.) and they are 250 km apart. These poles match that of the R lavas of the North Shore Volcanic Group (NSVG) and imply a younger age than the R Logan sills and dikes. The geochemistry of the dikes (71 analyses) also correlates well with NSVG flows, ranging from olivine tholeiites to transitional basalts and basaltic andesites and is similar to tholeiites of Columbia River, Parana, and Tertiary No. Atlantic provinces. Though each swarm shows a range of compositions, some are dominantly more evolved, whereas others contain more primitive dikes with higher Al, Mg/Fe, Cr and Ni and lower Fe, Ti, P and LIL's. An early major episode of rifting during the R polarity interval was followed by at least one major N episode in Minnesota before the final one along the present Lake Superior syncline axis. Rifting directions and mantle sources were different for each episode as shown by cross-trending dike sets, indicating complex rift development.

  19. Floods of June 2012 in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Kessler, Erich W.

    2012-01-01

    During June 19–20, 2012, heavy rainfall, as much as 10 inches locally reported, caused severe flooding across northeastern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions from a relatively rainy spring, with May 2012 as one of the wettest Mays on record in Duluth. The June 19–20, 2012, rainfall event set new records in Duluth, including greatest 2-day precipitation with 7.25 inches of rain. The heavy rains fell on three major watersheds: the Mississippi Headwaters; the St. Croix, which drains to the Mississippi River; and Western Lake Superior, which includes the St. Louis River and other tributaries to Lake Superior. Widespread flash and river flooding that resulted from the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of residents, and damages to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, nine counties in northeastern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas as a result of the flooding. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at 13 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 35 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Flood-peak streamflows in June 2012 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.002 (0.2 percent; recurrence interval greater than 500 years) for five streamgages, and between 0.002 and 0.01 (1 percent; recurrence interval greater than 100 years) for four streamgages. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Barnum (Moose Horn River), Carlton (Otter Creek), Duluth Heights neighborhood of Duluth (Miller Creek), Fond du Lac neighborhood of Duluth (St. Louis River), Moose Lake (Moose Horn River and Moosehead Lake), and Thomson (Thomson Reservoir outflow near the St. Louis River). Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were produced for these six severely affected communities. The inundation maps were constructed in a

  20. ATR-like kinase Mec1 facilitates both chromatin accessibility at DNA replication forks and replication fork progression during replication stress.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jairo; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication is essential for normal cell division and differentiation. In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication takes place on chromatin. This poses the critical question as to how DNA replication can progress through chromatin, which is inhibitory to all DNA-dependent processes. Here, we developed a novel genome-wide method to measure chromatin accessibility to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) that is normalized for nucleosome density, the NCAM (normalized chromatin accessibility to MNase) assay. This method enabled us to discover that chromatin accessibility increases specifically at and ahead of DNA replication forks in normal S phase and during replication stress. We further found that Mec1, a key regulatory ATR-like kinase in the S-phase checkpoint, is required for both normal chromatin accessibility around replication forks and replication fork rate during replication stress, revealing novel functions for the kinase in replication stress response. These results suggest a possibility that Mec1 may facilitate DNA replication fork progression during replication stress by increasing chromatin accessibility around replication forks.

  1. Minnesota court overturns ban on Medicaid coverage for abortion.

    PubMed

    1994-06-24

    Hennipin County District Court Judge William Posten issued a decision on June 16 striking down Minnesota's near ban on abortion coverage for low-income women. Ruling in Women of the State of Minnesota vs. Haas-Steffen, Judge Posten found that the state Constitution's rights of privacy and equality are more protective of women's reproductive choices than the corresponding federal rights. Holding that "the state's selective funding of childbirth over abortion impinges on an indigent woman's fundamental right to decide for herself whether to continue or terminate her pregnancy," the state district court permanently enjoined enforcement of the measure. Minnesota must now cover all medically necessary abortions for women receiving Medicaid. For more than 15 years, the statutes and regulations invalidated by Judge Posten have limited abortion coverage to cases of life endangerment or reported rape or incest. State officials have indicated that they will seek a stay and expedited review of Judge Posten's decision from the Minnesota Supreme Court. Filed on March 8, 1993, the Minnesota case is one of 5 such lawsuits brought by CRLP. Last December, in a similar case, the West Virginia Supreme Court struck down that state's ban on Medicaid coverage for abortions. Similar CRLP cases are still pending in Florida, Texas, and Montana. Plaintiffs--a class of Minnesota Medicaid-eligible women seeking abortions, Dr. Jane Hodgson, Pro-Choice Resources, Women's Health Center, Midwest Health Center for Women, and Meadowbrook Women's Clinic, on behalf of themselves and the women they serve--are represented by CRLP's Simon Heller, Janet Benshoof, and Lenora Lapidus, along with Minnesota attorney Linda Ojala.

  2. Decrease in smoking prevalence--Minnesota, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-02-11

    Following the landmark 1998 settlement of the lawsuit, State of Minnesota versus Philip Morris, Inc., et al., Minnesota implemented a series of tobacco control efforts to limit the harm caused by tobacco use. In 2001, quitline services for tobacco users without health insurance coverage for cessation services were introduced and statewide mass media campaigns publicizing them were initiated. In 2005, Minnesota imposed a $0.75 per pack tax on cigarettes, followed in 2009 by a $0.62 per pack increase in federal excise tax, contributing in large part to a more than $2 increase in the average price of cigarettes. In 2007, a comprehensive, statewide smoke-free law was passed. Using surveillance data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) and cigarette pack sales data, this report examines the effects of these tobacco-related public health efforts. Compared with a 15% decline in national adult smoking prevalence since 1999, adult smoking prevalence in Minnesota decreased 27.1%, from 22.1% in 1999 to 16.1% in 2010. During the same period, per capita cigarette sales in Minnesota decreased 40%. In addition, in 2010 compared with 1999, a higher percentage of adults reported that smoking was restricted in their homes (87.2% versus 64.5%), and adults were less likely to report exposure to secondhand smoke (45.6% versus 67.2%). In the past decade, Minnesota has benefited from sustained tobacco control. Future progress in decreasing adult smoking and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will depend on a concerted effort across the public health community to keep tobacco control a priority.

  3. Decrease in smoking prevalence--Minnesota, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-02-11

    Following the landmark 1998 settlement of the lawsuit, State of Minnesota versus Philip Morris, Inc., et al., Minnesota implemented a series of tobacco control efforts to limit the harm caused by tobacco use. In 2001, quitline services for tobacco users without health insurance coverage for cessation services were introduced and statewide mass media campaigns publicizing them were initiated. In 2005, Minnesota imposed a $0.75 per pack tax on cigarettes, followed in 2009 by a $0.62 per pack increase in federal excise tax, contributing in large part to a more than $2 increase in the average price of cigarettes. In 2007, a comprehensive, statewide smoke-free law was passed. Using surveillance data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) and cigarette pack sales data, this report examines the effects of these tobacco-related public health efforts. Compared with a 15% decline in national adult smoking prevalence since 1999, adult smoking prevalence in Minnesota decreased 27.1%, from 22.1% in 1999 to 16.1% in 2010. During the same period, per capita cigarette sales in Minnesota decreased 40%. In addition, in 2010 compared with 1999, a higher percentage of adults reported that smoking was restricted in their homes (87.2% versus 64.5%), and adults were less likely to report exposure to secondhand smoke (45.6% versus 67.2%). In the past decade, Minnesota has benefited from sustained tobacco control. Future progress in decreasing adult smoking and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will depend on a concerted effort across the public health community to keep tobacco control a priority. PMID:21307824

  4. Movements of translocated wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    From Feb. 1975-May 1978, 104 wolves (C. lupus) captured at or near Minnesota farms where depredations on livestock had been reported were translocated northward and eastward for 50-317 km into extensive forests; 3 others were released westward. Nine wolves were translocated twice, and 1 three times. Information on movements was obtained by radiotracking 17 wolves and by recovery of 16 others. All radio-tagged wolves left the release areas; adults left quickly, but pups generally remained longer, behaved less decisively, and settled nearby temporarily. Wolves released together did not remain together. Initial travel of most radio-tagged adults was between south and west, the general direction to their original location. Final directions were primarily to the west and northwest, due in part to physiographic barriers. Eight adults homed, 1 twice, to capture areas that were < 64 km from release sites. Nonhoming wolves were radiotracked and/or recovered 32-351 km from their capture sites and 23-302 km from their release sites. Translocation was largely unsuccessful at keeping problem wolves out of lifestock production areas. The problem of initial travel away from release sites in wolf reintroductions probably could be minimized by transport and release of 6-9 mo. old wolves.

  5. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  6. Personal networks and private forestry in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sagor, Eli S; Becker, Dennis R

    2014-01-01

    Personal networks affect the flow information and behavior through social groups. We investigated the role of personal relationships in the flow of information and adoption of sustainable forest management behavior by private forest landowners. Among the 1767 owners of 20 or more acres of Minnesota forest land surveyed, 90% have received forestry information from at least one source including 65% from a peer and 53% from a professional forester. Forestry information personal network size ranged from 0 to 14 with a mean of 2.92. Network diversity, expressed as the number of different types of information sources within the network, was relatively high relative to network size, suggesting that most landowners value diverse perspectives, despite reporting fairly small networks. Larger acreage owners, management plan holders, and frequent visitors to their forest land had significantly larger and more diverse networks. Network size and diversity were statistically unrelated to ownership tenure, landowner age, and resident/absentee status. Significantly more respondents named a peer or a professional as their most helpful source than other source categories. Satisfaction with forestry information networks was positively associated with network size and diversity, further suggesting that landowners prefer information from a variety of different sources. The results suggest that landowner education designed to foster peer learning and relationship building between landowners, foresters, loggers, and other groups may promote adoption of sustainable forest management practices.

  7. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA.

  8. Topoisomerase I poisoning results in PARP-mediated replication fork reversal.

    PubMed

    Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Hashimoto, Yoshitami; Herrador, Raquel; Neelsen, Kai J; Fachinetti, Daniele; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Cocito, Andrea; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Lopes, Massimo

    2012-04-01

    Topoisomerase I (Top1) releases torsional stress during DNA replication and transcription and is inhibited by camptothecin and camptothecin-derived cancer chemotherapeutics. Top1 inhibitor cytotoxicity is frequently linked to double-strand break (DSB) formation as a result of Top1 being trapped on a nicked DNA intermediate in replicating cells. Here we use yeast, mammalian cell lines and Xenopus laevis egg extracts to show that Top1 poisons rapidly induce replication-fork slowing and reversal, which can be uncoupled from DSB formation at sublethal inhibitor doses. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, but not single-stranded break repair in general, is required for effective fork reversal and limits DSB formation. These data identify fork reversal as a means to prevent chromosome breakage upon exogenous replication stress and implicate proteins involved in fork reversal or restart as factors modulating the cytotoxicity of replication stress-inducing chemotherapeutics. PMID:22388737

  9. DNA damage-induced replication fork regression and processing in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Courcelle, Justin; Donaldson, Janet R; Chow, Kin-Hoe; Courcelle, Charmain T

    2003-02-14

    DNA lesions that block replication are a primary cause of rearrangements, mutations, and lethality in all cells. After ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in Escherichia coli, replication recovery requires RecA and several other recF pathway proteins. To characterize the mechanism by which lesion-blocked replication forks recover, we used two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis to show that replication-blocking DNA lesions induce a transient reversal of the replication fork in vivo. The reversed replication fork intermediate is stabilized by RecA and RecF and is degraded by the RecQ-RecJ helicase-nuclease when these proteins are absent. We propose that fork regression allows repair enzymes to gain access to the replication-blocking lesion, allowing processive replication to resume once the blocking lesion is removed. PMID:12543983

  10. Theoretical model and optimization of a novel temperature sensor based on quartz tuning fork resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xu; Bo, You; Xin, Li; Juan, Cui

    2007-12-01

    To accurately measure temperatures, a novel temperature sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator has been designed. The principle of the quartz tuning fork temperature sensor is that the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator changes with the variation in temperature. This type of tuning fork resonator has been designed with a new doubly rotated cut work at flexural vibration mode as temperature sensor. The characteristics of the temperature sensor were evaluated and the results sufficiently met the target of development for temperature sensor. The theoretical model for temperature sensing has been developed and built. The sensor structure was analysed by finite element method (FEM) and optimized, including tuning fork geometry, tine electrode pattern and the sensor's elements size. The performance curve of output versus measured temperature is given. The results from theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that the sensor's sensitivity can reach 60 ppm °C-1 with the measured temperature range varying from 0 to 100 °C.

  11. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA. PMID:27425605

  12. The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability.

    PubMed

    Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C

    2012-03-15

    Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA-protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA-protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability.

  13. Characterization and Optimization of Quartz Tuning Fork-Based Force Sensors for Combined STM/AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino

    This chapter will be divided in two main parts. In the first one, we will show a detailed analysis of the dynamics of quartz tuning fork resonators which are being increasingly used in scanning probe microscopy as force sensors. We will also show that a coupled harmonic oscillators model, which includes a finite coupling between the prongs, is in remarkable agreement with the observed motion of the tuning forks. Relevant parameters for the tuning fork performance such as the effective spring constant can be obtained from our analysis. In the second one, we will present an implementation of a quartz tuning fork supplemented with optimized tips based on carbon fibers. The remarkable electrical and mechanical properties of carbon fiber make these tips more suitable for combined and/or simultaneous STM and AFM than conventional metallic tips. The fabrication and the characterization of these carbon fiber tips as well as their performance in STM/AFM will be detailed.

  14. The Sound Field around a Tuning Fork and the Role of a Resonance Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical two-tine tuning fork is barely audible when held vibrating at an arm's length. It is enough, however, to touch its base to a table or, better, to a resonance box and the emitted sound becomes much louder. An inquiring student may pose questions: (1) Why is a bare tuning fork such a weak emitter of sound? (2) What is the role of the…

  15. Spring constant of a tuning-fork sensor for dynamic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Manfred; Schmuck, Merlin; Schmidt, Nico; Möller, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Summary We present an overview of experimental and numerical methods to determine the spring constant of a quartz tuning fork in qPlus configuration. The simple calculation for a rectangular cantilever is compared to the values obtained by the analysis of the thermal excitation and by the direct mechanical measurement of the force versus displacement. To elucidate the difference, numerical simulations were performed taking account of the real geometry including the glue that is used to mount the tuning fork. PMID:23365793

  16. Probing Liquid ^4He with Quartz Tuning Forks Using a Novel Multifrequency Lock-in Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. I.; Haley, R. P.; Kafanov, S.; Noble, M. T.; Pickett, G. R.; Tsepelin, V.; Vonka, J.; Wilcox, T.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a novel technique to measure quartz tuning forks, and possibly other vibrating objects, in a quantum fluid using a multifrequency lock-in amplifier. The multifrequency technique allows to measure the resonance curve of a vibrating object much faster than a conventional single frequency lock-in amplifier technique. Forks with resonance frequencies of 12 kHz and 16 kHz were excited and measured electro-mechanically either at a single frequency or at up to 40 different frequencies simultaneously around the same mechanical mode. The response of each fork was identical for both methods and validates the use of the multifrequency lock-in technique to probe properties of liquid helium at low fork velocities. Using both methods we measured the resonance frequency and drag of two 25-μ m-wide quartz tuning forks immersed in liquid ^4He in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1.5 K at saturated vapour pressure. The damping and shift of resonance frequency experienced by both tuning forks at low velocities are well described by hydrodynamic contributions in the framework of the two-fluid model. The sensitivity of the 25-μ m-wide tuning forks is larger compared to similar 75-μ m-wide forks and in combination with the faster multifrequency lock-in technique could be used to improve thermometry in liquid ^4He. The multifrequency technique could also be used for studies of the onset of non-linear phenomena such as quantum turbulence and cavitation in superfluids.

  17. 78 FR 66988 - Minnesota Northern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Minn.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Minnesota Northern Railroad, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, Minn. On October 18, 2013, Minnesota Northern Railroad, Inc. (MNN) filed with the...

  18. 75 FR 6790 - Nebraska Northwestern Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Dakota, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...--Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation Nebraska Northwestern Railroad, Inc. (NNW), a noncarrier... Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation (DM&E) and to operate approximately 28.1 miles of...

  19. 75 FR 6224 - Northern States Power Company of Minnesota; Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company of Minnesota; Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental... Northern States Power Company of Minnesota (NSPM) for operation of Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant... Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of...

  20. Geologic map of the Dillon quadrangle, Summit and Grand Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    1997-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Dillon quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, 1999), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts through the center of the quadrangle, although is mostly covered by surficial deposits. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Williams Fork Mountains and the ridge immediately east of South Fork Middle Fork River, and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, 1987). The oldest exposed sedimentary unit is the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, but Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale, underlies the southern part of the quadrangle. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. Surficial deposits include (1) an old, deeply dissected landslide deposit, possibly as old as Pliocene, on the west flank of the Williams Fork Mountains, (2) deeply weathered, very coarse gravel deposits underlying a mesa in the southwest part of the quadrangle (the Mesa Cortina subdivision. The gravels are gold bearing and were mined by hydraulic methods in the 1800s), (3) moderately to deeply weathered, widespread, bouldery material that is a combination of till of the Bull Lake glaciation, debris