Science.gov

Sample records for grande compression station

  1. Compression station upgrades include advanced noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, V.R.; Sherikar, S.

    1998-10-01

    Since its inception in the mid-`80s, AlintaGas` Dampier to Bunbury natural gas pipeline has been constantly undergoing a series of upgrades to boost capacity and meet other needs. Extending northward about 850 miles from near Perth to the northwest shelf, the 26-inch line was originally served by five compressor stations. In the 1989-91 period, three new compressor stations were added to increase capacity and a ninth station was added in 1997. Instead of using noise-path-treatment mufflers to reduce existing noise, it was decided to use noise-source-treatment technology to prevent noise creation in the first place. In the field, operation of these new noise-source treatment attenuators has been very quiet. If there was any thought earlier of guaranteed noise-level verification, it is not considered a priority now. It`s also anticipated that as AlintaGas proceeds with its pipeline and compressor station upgrade program, similar noise-source treatment equipment will be employed and retrofitted into older stations where the need to reduce noise and potential radiant-heat exposure is indicated.

  2. Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, R.D.; Baker, K.R.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.

  3. 78 FR 28005 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... COMMISSION System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect Transfers of Early Site Permit and Approving Conforming Amendment I System Energy Resources, Inc. (SERI), is... direct transfer of Grand Gulf ESP Site, to a new limited liability company, System Energy Resource,...

  4. Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-03-31

    This report describes a study conducted by PNNL for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterized the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL used the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish who are pulled through the pumps and turbines at Grand Coulee Dam's pump generation station and transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the pump generating plant's new 9-bladed turbines was also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The highest pressure experienced by the Sensor Fish was estimated at 157 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of kokanne would be carried through the pump without being struck and most likely without injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish would be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without injury.

  5. Steam Dryer Segmentation and Packaging at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station - 13577

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitman, Paul J.; Sirianni, Steve R.; Pillard, Mark M.

    2013-07-01

    Entergy recently performed an Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) on their Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, near Port Gibson, Mississippi. To support the EPU, a new Steam Dryer Assembly was installed during the last refueling outage. Due to limited access into the containment, the large Replacement Steam Dryer (RSD) had to be brought into the containment in pieces and then final assembly was completed on the refueling floor before installation into the reactor. Likewise, the highly contaminated Original Steam Dryer (OSD) had to be segmented into manageable sections, loaded into specially designed shielded containers, and rigged out of containment where they will be safely stored until final disposal is accomplished at an acceptable waste repository. Westinghouse Nuclear Services was contracted by Entergy to segment, package and remove the OSD from containment. This work was performed on critical path during the most recent refueling outage. The segmentation was performed underwater to minimize radiation exposure to the workers. Special hydraulic saws were developed for the cutting operations based on Westinghouse designs previously used in Sweden to segment ABB Reactor Internals. The mechanical cutting method was selected because of its proven reliability and the minimal cutting debris that is generated by the process. Maintaining stability of the large OSD sections during cutting was accomplished using a custom built support stand that was installed into the Moisture Separator Pool after the Moisture Separator was installed back in the reactor vessel. The OSD was then moved from the Steam Dryer Pool to the Moisture Separator Pool for segmentation. This scenario resolved the logistical challenge of having two steam dryers and a moisture separator in containment simultaneously. A water filtration/vacuum unit was supplied to maintain water clarity during the cutting and handling operations and to collect the cutting chips. (authors)

  6. Environmental Assessment: Demolish CASS Switch Stations Buildings 644, 645, 646 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The average...during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air Quality Control...approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per second (ft3/s). Peak flows result from

  7. Meteorological Processes Affecting the Transport of Emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Charles G.; Chen, Jun; Dye, Timothy S.; Willard Richards, L.; Blumenthal, Donald L.

    1999-08-01

    During the 1990 Navajo Generating Station (NGS) Winter Visibility Study, a network of surface and upper-air meteorological measurement systems was operated in and around Grand Canyon National Park to investigate atmospheric processes in complex terrain that affected the transport of emissions from the nearby NGS. This network included 15 surface monitoring stations, eight balloon sounding stations (equipped with a mix of rawinsonde, tethersonde, and Airsonde sounding systems), three Doppler radar wind profilers, and four Doppler sodars. Measurements were made from 10 January through 31 March 1990. Data from this network were used to prepare objectively analyzed wind fields, trajectories, and streak lines to represent transport of emissions from the NGS, and to prepare isentropic analyses of the data. The results of these meteorological analyses were merged in the form of a computer animation that depicted the streak line analyses along with measurements of perfluorocarbon tracer, SO2, and sulfate aerosol concentrations, as well as visibility measurements collected by an extensive surface monitoring network. These analyses revealed that synoptic-scale circulations associated with the passage of low pressure systems followed by the formation of high pressure ridges accompanied the majority of cases when NGS emittants appeared to be transported to the Grand Canyon. The authors' results also revealed terrain influences on transport within the topography of the study area, especially mesoscale flows inside the Lake Powell basin and along the plain above the Marble Canyon.

  8. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  9. Streamflow characteristics for selected stations in and near the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests, began a study in 2000 to develop selected streamflow characteristics for 60 streamflow-gaging stations in and near the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests. The study area is located in southwestern Colorado within the Gunnison River, Dolores River, and Plateau Creek Basins, which are tributaries of the Colorado River. In addition to presenting the compiled daily, monthly, and annual discharge data for the 60 stations, the report presents tabular and graphical results for the following computed streamflow characteristics: (1) Instantaneous peak-flow frequency; (2) flow duration for daily mean discharges on an annual (water year) basis and on a monthly basis, and flow duration for the annual and monthly mean discharges; (3) low-flow and high-flow frequency of daily mean discharges for periods of 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 183 consecutive days; and (4) annual and monthly mean and median discharges for each year and month of record, and frequency of the annual and monthly mean and median discharges. All discharge data and results from the streamflow-characteristics analyses are presented in Microsoft Excel workbooks on the enclosed CD-ROM.

  10. Environmental Assessment: Construct Fire Station at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Base Development CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CES Civil Engineer Squadron CEV Environmental Management Flight CFR Code of Federal...Act RAPCON Radar Approach Control USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USAF U.S. Air Force VII SECTION 1 Purpose of and Need for Action 1.1...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 319 Civil Engineer Squadron, 525 Tuskegee Airmen Blvd, Grand Forks AFB, ND, 58205-6434 10

  11. Grande Ronde Subbasin Gauging Station Operations, 2007-2008 Reporting Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Menton, R. Coby

    2008-11-10

    The Grande Ronde Basin (GRB) in Northeast Oregon is a moderately dry climate receiving between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation per year with surrounding mountains accumulating up to 100 inches. Irrigated agriculture is a major part of the economy with water being diverted or pumped from surface and ground sources from April through October. Several ESA listed species exist in the basin including Chinook, steelhead, and bulltrout. Agriculture and ESA (Endangered Species Act) listed aquatic species combined with a dry climate demonstrate the need for a network of stream gauges. The GRB covers over 5,000 square miles and includes several thousand miles of perennial flowing streams. This project is in place to operate 12 existing stream gauges in combination with USGS (4 gauges) and OWRD (one gauge) who, independent of this project, operate five additional gauges (Grande Ronde at Troy, Imnaha R. at Imnaha, Minam R. at Minam, Lookingglass Creek, and Upper Catherine Cr.) to characterizes flow in both the Grande Ronde and Imnaha subbasins. These gauges are intended to assist in irrigation water management, fisheries management, long term flow and trend analysis, TMDL and SB1010 water quality management plan effectiveness, subbasin plan implementation, and provide essential information regarding cumulative effects response to conservation in the GRB. Headwater characteristics, land management influence, and basin outlet data are all selectively collected in this network of 17 flow gauges. Prior to the 2007 water year there were three separate stream gauging programs with similar objectives, protocol, and funding sources in the GRB. Each of these programs for the past ten years has operated under separate administration consuming more time and administrative money than is necessary to accomplish stated objectives. By combining all programs into one project costs have been reduced, each funding source has one contract instead of three, and the same amount of work has been

  12. DoD’s Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station in Afghanistan: An Ill-conceived $43 Million Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    the Task Force spent nearly $43 million to construct a compressed natural gas (CNG) automobile filling station in the city of Sheberghan...construction and operation of a CNG automobile filling station in the city of Sheberghan, near Afghanistan’s natural gas fields.4 Figure 1 – The pumps...Mazar-e Sharif, the second-largest city in Afghanistan (sic), with a market of 100,000 cars;5  Provide subject matter expert support to the CNG

  13. Ribbon-cutting ceremony occurs at grand opening of new International Space Station Center at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Celebrating the official opening of the new International Space Station (ISS) Center at Kennedy Space Center are, left to right, James Ball, chief, NASA Public Services, KSC; KSC Director Roy D. Bridges Jr.; Hugh Harris, director, NASA Public Affairs, KSC; and Rick Abramson, president and chief operating officer, Delaware North Parks Services of Spaceport Inc. Center Director Bridges cuts the ribbon to the new tour attraction where full-scale mockups of station modules, through which visitors can walk, are on display. These include the Habitation Unit, where station crew members will live, sleep, and work; a Laboratory Module; and the Pressurized Logistics Module, where racks and supplies will be transported back and forth from KSC to space. Guests also can take an elevated walkway to a gallery overlooking the work are where actual ISS hardware is prepared for flight into space. This new tour site, in addition to a new Launch Complex 39 Observation Gantry, are part of a comprehensive effort by NASA and Delaware North to expand and improve the KSC public tour and visitor facilities.

  14. The effects of scrubber installation at the Navajo Generating Station on particulate sulfur and visibility levels in the Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark; Farber, Rob; Lien, Nghi; Gebhart, Kristi; Molenar, John; Iyer, Hari; Eatough, Delbert

    2005-11-01

    Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a mandatory Class I federal area that is afforded visibility protection under the Federal Clean Air Act. In this paper, we have examined the effects on visibility and particulate sulfur (Sp) at GCNP as a result of reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 90% from the Navajo Generating Station (NGS). Scrubbers were retrofitted to each of the three units at NGS during 1997, 1998, and 1999. The Inter-agency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments aerosol network database affords us an opportunity to examine trends in Sp and extinction both prescrubber and postscrubber. The NGS impacts GCNP primarily during the winter (December to February). During winter, at times, there are fogs, stratus, and high-relative humidity in the Grand Canyon. When the NGS plume interacts with these fogs and stratus, rapid conversion of SO2 to Sp can occur. A variety of analytical techniques were used, including cumulative frequency plots of Sp and extinction, and chemical mass balance and tracer source apportionment analysis. We also deployed P value statistical analysis of "extreme" Sp values. Before scrubbers were installed, values of Sp approaching 2 microg/m3 were occasionally observed. Because scrubbers have been installed, high levels of Sp have been markedly reduced. Statistical P value analysis suggests that these reductions were significant. Furthermore, we have also observed that Sp has been reduced throughout the cumulative frequency curve during winter by approximately 33% since scrubbers were installed. By contrast, during summer when the NGS impact on the Canyon is minimal, there has been only a relatively small decrease in Sp.

  15. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  16. Variability in rainfall at monitoring stations and derivation of a long-term rainfall intensity record in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caster, Joshua; Sankey, Joel B.

    2016-04-11

    In this study, we examine rainfall datasets of varying temporal length, resolution, and spatial distribution to characterize rainfall depth, intensity, and seasonality for monitoring stations along the Colorado River within Marble and Grand Canyons. We identify maximum separation distances between stations at which rainfall measurements might be most useful for inferring rainfall characteristics at other locations. We demonstrate a method for applying relations between daily rainfall depth and intensity, from short-term high-resolution data to lower-resolution longer-term data, to synthesize a long-term record of daily rainfall intensity from 1950–2012. We consider the implications of our spatio-temporal characterization of rainfall for understanding local landscape change in sedimentary deposits and archaeological sites, and for better characterizing past and present rainfall and its potential role in overland flow erosion within the canyons. We find that rainfall measured at stations within the river corridor is spatially correlated at separation distances of tens of kilometers, and is not correlated at the large elevation differences that separate stations along the Colorado River from stations above the canyon rim. These results provide guidance for reasonable separation distances at which rainfall measurements at stations within the Grand Canyon region might be used to infer rainfall at other nearby locations along the river. Like other rugged landscapes, spatial variability between rainfall measured at monitoring stations appears to be influenced by canyon and rim physiography and elevation, with preliminary results suggesting the highest elevation landform in the region, the Kaibab Plateau, may function as an important orographic influence. Stations at specific locations within the canyons and along the river, such as in southern (lower) Marble Canyon and eastern (upper) Grand Canyon, appear to have strong potential to receive high-intensity rainfall that

  17. Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

  18. Development of a Liquid to Compressed Natural Gas (LCNG) Fueling Station. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. A.

    1999-06-30

    The program objective was the development of equipment and processes to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) from liquified natural gas (LNG) for heavy duty vehicular applications. The interest for this technology is a result of the increased use of alternative fuels for the reduction of emissions and dependency of foreign energy. Technology of the type developed under this program is critical for establishing natural gas as an economical alternative fuel.

  19. The use of the Climate-Science Computational end Station (CCES) development and grand challenge team for the next IPCC assessment : an operational plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, W. M.; Drake, J.; Buja, L.; Anderson, A.; Bader, D.; Dickinson, R.; Erickson, D.; Gent, P.; Ghan, S.; Jones, P.; Jacob, R.

    2008-01-01

    The grand challenge of climate change science is to predict future climates based on scenarios of anthropogenic emissions and other changes resulting from options in energy and development policies. Addressing this challenge requires a Climate Science Computational End Station consisting of a sustained climate model research, development, and application program combined with world-class DOE leadership computing resources to enable advanced computational simulation of the Earth system. This project provides the primary computer allocations for the DOE SciDAC and Climate Change Prediction Program. It builds on the successful interagency collaboration of the National Science and the U.S. Department of Energy in developing and applying the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) for climate change science. It also includes collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in carbon data assimilation and university partners with expertise in high-end computational climate research.

  20. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  1. Model based multivariable controller for large scale compression stations. Design and experimental validation on the LHC 18KW cryorefrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, François; Bonnay, Patrick; Bradu, Benjamin

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, a multivariable model-based non-linear controller for Warm Compression Stations (WCS) is proposed. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to have precise control of every pressure in normal operation or to stabilize and control the cryoplant under high variation of thermal loads (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details how to set the WCS model up to synthesize the Linear Quadratic Optimal feedback gain and how to use it. After preliminary tuning at CEA-Grenoble on the 400W@1.8K helium test facility, the controller has been implemented on a Schneider PLC and fully tested first on the CERN's real-time simulator. Then, it was experimentally validated on a real CERN cryoplant. The efficiency of the solution is experimentally assessed using a reasonable operating scenario of start and stop of compressors and cryogenic turbines. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  2. Model based multivariable controller for large scale compression stations. Design and experimental validation on the LHC 18KW cryorefrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, François; Alamir, Mazen; Bonnay, Patrick; Bradu, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a multivariable model-based non-linear controller for Warm Compression Stations (WCS) is proposed. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to have precise control of every pressure in normal operation or to stabilize and control the cryoplant under high variation of thermal loads (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details how to set the WCS model up to synthesize the Linear Quadratic Optimal feedback gain and how to use it. After preliminary tuning at CEA-Grenoble on the 400W@1.8K helium test facility, the controller has been implemented on a Schneider PLC and fully tested first on the CERN's real-time simulator. Then, it was experimentally validated on a real CERN cryoplant. The efficiency of the solution is experimentally assessed using a reasonable operating scenario of start and stop of compressors and cryogenic turbines. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  3. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  4. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  5. Map Your Way to the Grand Canyon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand Canyon. At station two, students look at a…

  6. Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  7. Grand Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    Various concepts have been recently presented for a 100 m class astronomical observatory. The science virtues of such an observatory are many: resolving planets orbiting around other stars, resolving the surface features of other stars, extending our temporal reach back toward the beginning (at and before stellar and galactic development), improving on the Next Generation Space Telescope, and other (perhaps as yet) undiscovered purposes. This observatory would be a general facility instrument with wide spectral range from at least the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. The concept espoused here is based on a practical, modular design located in a place where temperatures remain (and instruments could operate) within several degrees of absolute zero with no shielding or cooling. This location is the bottom of a crater located near the north or south pole of the moon, most probably the South Polar Depression. In such a location the telescope would never see the sun or the earth, hence the profound cold and absence of stray light. The ideal nature of this location is elaborated herein. It is envisioned that this observatory would be assembled and maintained remotely through the use of expert robotic systems. A base station would be located above the crater rim with (at least occasional) direct line-of-sight access to the earth. Certainly it would be advantageous, but not absolutely essential, to have humans travel to the site to deal with unexpected contingencies. Further, observers and their teams could eventually travel there for extended observational campaigns. Educational activities, in general, could be furthered thru extended human presence. Even recreational visitors and long term habitation might follow.

  8. RadNet Air Data From Grand Rapids, MI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Grand Rapids, MI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. RadNet Air Data From Grand Junction, CO

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Grand Junction, CO from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  10. Data Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, Abraham; Storer, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces this issue, which contains papers from the 1991 Data Compression Conference, and defines data compression. The two primary functions of data compression are described, i.e., storage and communications; types of data using compression technology are discussed; compression methods are explained; and current areas of research are…

  11. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  12. Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  13. The Compressibility Burble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John

    1935-01-01

    Simultaneous air-flow photographs and pressure-distribution measurements have been made of the NACA 4412 airfoil at high speeds in order to determine the physical nature of the compressibility burble. The flow photographs were obtained by the Schlieren method and the pressures were simultaneously measured for 54 stations on the 5-inch-chord wing by means of a multiple-tube photographic manometer. Pressure-measurement results and typical Schlieren photographs are presented. The general nature of the phenomenon called the "compressibility burble" is shown by these experiments. The source of the increased drag is the compression shock that occurs, the excess drag being due to the conversion of a considerable amount of the air-stream kinetic energy into heat at the compression shock.

  14. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Finding of No Practicable Alternative (FONPA): Construct of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-18

    disposed at an approved location, such as the inert landfill, permit number IT-198, four miles northeast of the base. Petroleum-contaminated soils...thunderstorms. Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The...during the late fall, winter and spring and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air Quality Control

  15. Construction of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Finding of No Significant Impact (FOSNI). Finding of No Practical Alternative(FONPA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-23

    landfill, permit number IT-198, four miles northeast of the base. Petroleum-contaminated soils (PCSs) generated from proposed action would be treated...The summers are short and humid with frequent thunderstorms. Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall...recorded. Wind direction is generally from the northwest during the late fall, winter and spring and from the southeast during the summer. Grand

  16. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  17. Sampling video compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Lum, H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A system for transmitting video signal of compressed bandwidth is described. The transmitting station is provided with circuitry for dividing a picture to be transmitted into a plurality of blocks containing a checkerboard pattern of picture elements. Video signals along corresponding diagonal rows of picture elements in the respective blocks are regularly sampled. A transmitter responsive to the output of the sampling circuitry is included for transmitting the sampled video signals of one frame at a reduced bandwidth over a communication channel. The receiving station is provided with a frame memory for temporarily storing transmitted video signals of one frame at the original high bandwidth frequency.

  18. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  19. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  20. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  1. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  2. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  3. Data compression applied to HHVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William K.

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to study data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system. Specifically, the goals of the HHVT data compression study are to accomplish the following: (1) Determine the downlink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom to support HHVT data (i.e., determine the maximum data rates and link availability); (2) Determine current and projected capabilities of high speed storage media to support HHVT data by determining their maximum data acquisition/transmission rates and volumes; (3) Identify which experiment in the HHVT Users' Requirement data base need data compression, based on the experiments' imaging requirements; (4) Select the best data compression technique for each of these users by identifying a technique that provides compression but minimizes distortion; and (5) Investigate state-of-the-art technologies for possible implementation of selected data compression techniques. Data compression will be needed because of the high data rates and larger volumes of data that will result from the use of digitized video onboard the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom.

  4. Compressive Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Se Hoon

    Compressive holography estimates images from incomplete data by using sparsity priors. Compressive holography combines digital holography and compressive sensing. Digital holography consists of computational image estimation from data captured by an electronic focal plane array. Compressive sensing enables accurate data reconstruction by prior knowledge on desired signal. Computational and optical co-design optimally supports compressive holography in the joint computational and optical domain. This dissertation explores two examples of compressive holography: estimation of 3D tomographic images from 2D data and estimation of images from under sampled apertures. Compressive holography achieves single shot holographic tomography using decompressive inference. In general, 3D image reconstruction suffers from underdetermined measurements with a 2D detector. Specifically, single shot holographic tomography shows the uniqueness problem in the axial direction because the inversion is ill-posed. Compressive sensing alleviates the ill-posed problem by enforcing some sparsity constraints. Holographic tomography is applied for video-rate microscopic imaging and diffuse object imaging. In diffuse object imaging, sparsity priors are not valid in coherent image basis due to speckle. So incoherent image estimation is designed to hold the sparsity in incoherent image basis by support of multiple speckle realizations. High pixel count holography achieves high resolution and wide field-of-view imaging. Coherent aperture synthesis can be one method to increase the aperture size of a detector. Scanning-based synthetic aperture confronts a multivariable global optimization problem due to time-space measurement errors. A hierarchical estimation strategy divides the global problem into multiple local problems with support of computational and optical co-design. Compressive sparse aperture holography can be another method. Compressive sparse sampling collects most of significant field

  5. Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s neoclassical competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 11. GAS STATION AND OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT, FACING S. VISITOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GAS STATION AND OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT, FACING S. VISITOR CENTER BEHIND TREES. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS AZ-45-10. - South Entrance Road, Between South park boundary & Village Loop Road, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  7. A GRAND affair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tima2014; tomandersen; mugundhan; toadgreen

    2015-10-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “GRAND plans for new neutrino observatory”, which called for a new detector made up of hundreds of thousands of antennas spread over an area slightly smaller than the UK (18 August, http://owl.ly/R5N6u).

  8. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  9. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  10. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  11. Grand Lake Saint Marys, Ohio, Survey Report for Flood Control and Allied Purposes. Volume 2. Technical Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    collection and dissemination of climatological data. There are 12 weather stations lying within a 30-mile radius of the subject lake site. Two stations ...evaporation station is within close proximity (60 miles) to Grand Lake. There are no first order weather stations nearer than Cincinnati, Ohio. From...Wabash River which is apnroximatelv ?.1 miles east of the Indiana border. There are no flow gaging stations on Beaver Creek, but there is a USGS

  12. Asymptotically safe grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajc, Borut; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenologically appealing supersymmetric grand unified theories have large gauge representations and thus are not asymptotically free. Their ultraviolet validity is limited by the appearance of a Landau pole well before the Planck scale. One could hope that these theories save themselves, before the inclusion of gravity, by generating an interacting ultraviolet fixed point, similar to the one recently discovered in non-supersymmetric gauge-Yukawa theories. Employing a-maximization, a-theorem, unitarity bounds, as well as positivity of other central charges we nonperturbatively rule out this possibility for a broad class of prime candidates of phenomenologically relevant supersymmetric grand unified theories. We also uncover candidates passing these tests, which have either exotic matter or contain one field decoupled from the superpotential. The latter class of theories contains a model with the minimal matter content required by phenomenology.

  13. Compression stockings

    MedlinePlus

    ... knee bend. Compression Stockings Can Be Hard to Put on If it's hard for you to put on the stockings, try these tips: Apply lotion ... your legs, but let it dry before you put on the stockings. Use a little baby powder ...

  14. Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm that effects fast lossless compression of multispectral-image data is based on low-complexity, proven adaptive-filtering algorithms. This algorithm is intended for use in compressing multispectral-image data aboard spacecraft for transmission to Earth stations. Variants of this algorithm could be useful for lossless compression of three-dimensional medical imagery and, perhaps, for compressing image data in general.

  15. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  16. Traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, Water Years 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of water in the Rio Grande is becoming increasingly important as more surface water is proposed for diversion from the river for potable and nonpotable uses. In cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, the U.S. Geological Survey examined traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin to evaluate the potential travel of a conservative solute entrained in the river's streamflow. A flow-pulse analysis was performed to determine traveltimes of a wide range of streamflows in the Rio Grande, to develop traveltime curves for estimating the possible traveltime of a conservative solute in the Rio Grande between Cochiti Dam and Albuquerque, and to evaluate streamflow velocities and dispersion and storage characteristics of the Rio Grande in the entire Middle Rio Grande Basin. A flow-pulse analysis was applied to 12 pulse events recorded during the 2003-05 water years for streamflow-gaging stations between Cochiti Dam and the city of San Acacia. Pulse streamflows ranged from 495 to 5,190 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Three points of each pulse were tracked as the pulse passed a station - rising-limb leading edge, plateau leading edge, and plateau trailing edge. Most pulses indicated longer traveltimes for each successive point in the pulse. Dispersion and spreading of the pulses decreased with increased streamflow. Decreasing traveltimes were not always consistent with increasing streamflow, particularly for flows less than 1,750 ft3/s, and the relation of traveltime and original pulse streamflow at Cochiti indicated a nonlinear component. Average streamflow velocities decreased by greater than 30 percent from San Felipe to San Acacia. The expected trend of increasing dispersion with downstream travel was not always visible because of other influences on streamflow. With downstream flow, distributions of the pulses became more skewed to the descending limbs, indicating possible short-term storage of a part of the

  17. An image-data-compression algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Cluster Compression Algorithm (CCA) preprocesses Landsat image data immediately following satellite data sensor (receiver). Data are reduced by extracting pertinent image features and compressing this result into concise format for transmission to ground station. This results in narrower transmission bandwidth, increased data-communication efficiency, and reduced computer time in reconstructing and analyzing image. Similar technique could be applied to other types of recorded data to cut costs of transmitting, storing, distributing, and interpreting complex information.

  18. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  19. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations in the grand canonical ensemble: applications to polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2004-04-19

    We have used the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method in the grand canonical ensemble to study the compression of grafted polymer brushes in good solvent conditions. The force-distance profiles calculated from DPD simulations in the grand canonical ensemble are in very good agreement with the self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical models and with experimental results for two polystyrene brush layers grafted onto mica surfaces in toluene.

  20. Compressed convolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Franz; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of compressed convolution, a technique to convolve a given data set with a large number of non-orthogonal kernels. In typical applications our technique drastically reduces the effective number of computations. The new method is applicable to convolutions with symmetric and asymmetric kernels and can be easily controlled for an optimal trade-off between speed and accuracy. It is based on linear compression of the collection of kernels into a small number of coefficients in an optimal eigenbasis. The final result can then be decompressed in constant time for each desired convolved output. The method is fully general and suitable for a wide variety of problems. We give explicit examples in the context of simulation challenges for upcoming multi-kilo-detector cosmic microwave background (CMB) missions. For a CMB experiment with detectors with similar beam properties, we demonstrate that the algorithm can decrease the costs of beam convolution by two to three orders of magnitude with negligible loss of accuracy. Likewise, it has the potential to allow the reduction of disk space required to store signal simulations by a similar amount. Applications in other areas of astrophysics and beyond are optimal searches for a large number of templates in noisy data, e.g. from a parametrized family of gravitational wave templates; or calculating convolutions with highly overcomplete wavelet dictionaries, e.g. in methods designed to uncover sparse signal representations.

  1. Rio Grande Rift GPS Measurements 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, H.; Sheehan, A. F.; Nerem, R.; Choe, J.; Lowry, A. R.; Roy, M.; Blume, F.; Murray, M.

    2009-12-01

    We use three years of measurements from 25 continuous GPS stations across the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico and Colorado to estimate surface velocities, time series, baselines, and strain rates. The stations are part of the EarthScope Rio Grande Rift experiment, a collaboration between researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of New Mexico, and Utah State University. The network includes 5 east-west station profiles transecting the rift, with the southernmost line in southern New Mexico and the northernmost line in northern Colorado. Most of the stations have shallow-drilled braced monuments installed in 2006-2007 and will remain occupied until 2010-2011 or longer. We also estimate station coordinates and velocities from the 2001 and 2008 High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) campaigns conducted in Colorado. Initial 72-hour observations were made in the summer of 2001 and were repeated in the summer of 2008. Data from regional Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS stations are included in the processing to increase station density and extend profiles further to the east and west of the Rio Grande Rift. We use GAMIT/GLOBK to process regional sub-networks that share several common sites well determined in the Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF). These common sites are used as a tie between the sub-networks and SNARF. Our time series from the first three years of the experiment show excellent monument stability. We have solved for baseline distance as a function of time across each of these lines. Despite what might be expected for a rigid Colorado Plateau moving away from rigid North America about a pole near Colorado, we find no evidence of an increase in Rio Grande Rift opening to the south. Our results suggest that steady-state extension across the rift from northern Colorado to southern New Mexico has an upper bound less than ~1 mm/yr with strain rates less than ~20 nanostrain/yr, although these results are still preliminary

  2. End of truss showing upper chord, bottom chord rod, compression ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    End of truss showing upper chord, bottom chord rod, compression strut and connector - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  3. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-01-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  4. Computer networking at SLR stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Antonin

    1993-06-01

    There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

  5. Compressed television transmission: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

    1981-01-01

    NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

  6. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    ScienceCinema

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  9. Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

  10. Analysis of Cost-Effective Off-Board Hydrogen Storage and Refueling Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Barnes; William Liss

    2008-11-14

    This report highlights design and component selection considerations for compressed gas hydrogen fueling stations operating at 5000 psig or 350 bar. The primary focus is on options for compression and storage – in terms of practical equipment options as well as various system configurations and how they influence delivery performance and station economics.

  11. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  12. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Thomas Moran: "The Grand Canyon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for introducing students in grades four through six to Thomas Moran's painting, "The Grand Canyon." The goal of the lesson is to illustrate the importance of the American West as a subject for artists in the nineteenth century. (JDH)

  14. Seismic anisotropy of the Rio Grande Rift and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Rockett, C. V.; Grand, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, located between the Colorado Plateau and the Great Plains, has a complex tectonic history comprised of two distinct phases in the Cenozoic era. An early stage of rifting began in the mid-Oligocene (~30 Ma) and lasted until the early Miocene (~18 Ma), followed by a lull and then an apparent reactivation along previous zones of weakness during a separate extension event in the late Miocene (~10 Ma), which continues today. The rift now extends more than 1000 km in length, trending north-south from Southern Colorado through New Mexico and Western Texas and into Chihuahua, Mexico. Structure of the rift is complex due to its multiple events of extension. The LA RISTRA seismic study (1999-2006) deployed broadband seismographs on a transect from Texas to Utah to investigate the structure and processes that control the Rift. Among other results, they found distinct differences in orientation of the fast polarization direction, as measured from SKS splitting, in the three main regions: the Colorado Plateau, the Rio Grande Rift, and the Great Plains. In 2008 71 EarthScope FlexArray stations were installed between Transportable Array stations to form a broad 2D deployment on the eastern flank of the RGR in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas as part of the SIEDCAR (Seismic Investigation of Edge Driven Convection Associated with the Rio Grande Rift) study. SKS splitting measurements from these, as well as from TA stations in the vicinity, show a more complex 2D pattern, but one which conforms with variations in crustal thickness and velocity anomalies in the uppermost mantle. We will report on these measurements and their implications for the style of convection associated with the RGR.

  15. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  16. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  17. Microbunching and RF Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-05-23

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  18. Compressed gas manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  19. Rio Grande Wetbacks: Mexican Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norquest, Carrol

    Farmers in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas saw a rise of wetback labor in the 1930s and 40s. The wetback laborers were Mexicans who had crossed the Rio Grande and were in the United States illegally to work. Carrol Norquest, a farmer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, employed wetbacks regularly. In this book, Mr. Norquest writes about the…

  20. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  1. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  2. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  3. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  4. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  5. GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH IS INDICATED BY HORIZONTAL LINE NEAR TOP OF CLOUD COVERED PEAKS - Grand Ditch, Baker Creek to LaPoudre Pass Creek, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

  6. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a cloudless sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  7. Relation Between Pore Size and the Compressibility of a Confined Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.; Krekelberg, William P.; Shen, Vincent K.; Bernstein, Noam

    2015-01-01

    When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in these pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments. PMID:26590541

  8. Relation between pore size and the compressibility of a confined fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Krekelberg, William P.; Shen, Vincent K.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.; Bernstein, Noam

    2015-11-21

    When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here, we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in such pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments.

  9. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, E.A.; Monroe, S.A.; Springer, A.E.; Blasch, K.W.; Bills, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  10. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric A; Monroe, Stephen A; Springer, Abraham E; Blasch, Kyle W; Bills, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  11. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  12. Measurements of velocity and discharge, Grand Canyon, Arizona, May 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, Kevin A.; Fisk, Gregory G.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the feasibility of utilizing an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to collect velocity and discharge data in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, in May 1994. An ADCP is an instrument that can be used to measure water velocity and discharge from a moving boat. Measurements of velocity and discharge were made with an ADCP at 54 cross sections along the Colorado River between the Little Colorado River and Diamond Creek. Concurrent measurements of discharge with an ADCP and a Price-AA current meter were made at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations: Colorado River above the Little Colorado River near Desert View, Colorado River near Grand Canyon, and Colorado River above Diamond Creek near Peach Springs. Discharges measured with an ADCP were within 3 percent of the rated discharge at each streamflow-gaging station. Discharges measured with the ADCP were within 4 percent of discharges measured with a Price-AA meter, except at the Colorado River above Diamond Creek. Vertical velocity profiles were measured with the ADCP from a stationary position at four cross sections along the Colorado River. Graphs of selected vertical velocity profiles collected in a cross section near National Canyon show considerable temporal variation among profile.

  13. Parallel image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reif, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.

  14. HYDRODYNAMIC COMPRESSIVE FORGING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HYDRODYNAMICS), (*FORGING, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, LUBRICANTS, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), DIES, TENSILE PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS , STRAIN...MECHANICS), BERYLLIUM ALLOYS , NICKEL ALLOYS , CASTING ALLOYS , PRESSURE, FAILURE(MECHANICS).

  15. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

    2001-04-01

    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  16. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  17. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  18. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  19. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  20. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  1. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  2. Grand Tour outer planet missions definition phase. Part 2: Minutes of meetings and official correspondence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, M. J. S.; Aksnes, K.; Davies, M. E.; Hartmann, W. K.; Millis, R. L.; Owen, T. C.; Reilly, T. H.; Sagan, C.; Suomi, V. E.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A variety of imaging systems proposed for use aboard the Outer Planet Grand Tour Explorer are discussed and evaluated in terms of optimal resolution capability and efficient time utilization. It is pointed out that the planetary and satellite alignments at the time of encounter dictate a high degree of adaptability and versatility in order to provide sufficient image enhancement over earth-based techniques. Data compression methods are also evaluated according to the same criteria.

  3. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  4. 26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock locks two spans together at highest point. There are three compression locks. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Fractal image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnsley, Michael F.; Sloan, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    Fractals are geometric or data structures which do not simplify under magnification. Fractal Image Compression is a technique which associates a fractal to an image. On the one hand, the fractal can be described in terms of a few succinct rules, while on the other, the fractal contains much or all of the image information. Since the rules are described with less bits of data than the image, compression results. Data compression with fractals is an approach to reach high compression ratios for large data streams related to images. The high compression ratios are attained at a cost of large amounts of computation. Both lossless and lossy modes are supported by the technique. The technique is stable in that small errors in codes lead to small errors in image data. Applications to the NASA mission are discussed.

  6. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  7. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years.

  8. Spatial and temporal variations in streamflow, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment in the Rio Grande Valley study unit, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    Grande at Otowi Bridge, near San Ildefonso, New Mexico, and Rio Grande Floodway at San Marcial, NewMexico, for all constituents, and (3) between Rio Grande below Leasburg Dam, near Leasburg, New Mexico, and Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas, for all constituents. Streamflow increases along every reach of the Rio Grande between the streamflow-gaging station Rio Grande above the mouth of Trinchera Creek, near Lasauses, Colorado, and the station Rio Grande at Otowi Bridge, near San Ildefonso, NewMexico. These increases in streamflow result in increases in the loads of dissolved solids, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment regardless of changes in concentrations.

  9. View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  10. Grand challenges for biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Riley, Mark R

    2009-09-22

    Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society.

  11. Gravity and grand unified theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Toms, D. J.

    1985-02-01

    Curvature-dependent consequences of grand unified theories (GUTs) for the evolution of the very early universe are investigated, considering the possibility that at high curvature and particle energies of 10 to the 24th eV the effective values of the coupling constants governing the strength of the curvature-matter interaction are largely determined by the elementary-particle content defined by the particular GUT. The GUTs examined include those of Georgi and Glashow (1974) and Chang et al. (1980), and the coupling constants studied are the cosmological Lambda, Newtonian G, xi(phi) and xi(H) linking curvature and the scalar Higgs bosons, and alpha(i) (coefficients of action terms quadratically dependent on the curvature tensor).

  12. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  13. Grand unification of neutron stars

    PubMed Central

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  14. 76 FR 71379 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Operations, Inc.; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Facility Operating License No. NPF-29 for an Additional 20-Year Period The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC...

  15. 78 FR 75379 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Combined License Application for Grand Gulf Unit 3; Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ..., Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Klos, Office of New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... Boiling-Water Reactor to be constructed and operated at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station (GGNS) site in... accidents are increased. Therefore, there is no undue risk to public health and safety. Plant...

  16. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  17. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  18. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  19. Vascular compression syndromes.

    PubMed

    Czihal, Michael; Banafsche, Ramin; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Koeppel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Dealing with vascular compression syndromes is one of the most challenging tasks in Vascular Medicine practice. This heterogeneous group of disorders is characterised by external compression of primarily healthy arteries and/or veins as well as accompanying nerval structures, carrying the risk of subsequent structural vessel wall and nerve damage. Vascular compression syndromes may severely impair health-related quality of life in affected individuals who are typically young and otherwise healthy. The diagnostic approach has not been standardised for any of the vascular compression syndromes. Moreover, some degree of positional external compression of blood vessels such as the subclavian and popliteal vessels or the celiac trunk can be found in a significant proportion of healthy individuals. This implies important difficulties in differentiating physiological from pathological findings of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging with provocative manoeuvres. The level of evidence on which treatment decisions regarding surgical decompression with or without revascularisation can be relied on is generally poor, mostly coming from retrospective single centre studies. Proper patient selection is critical in order to avoid overtreatment in patients without a clear association between vascular compression and clinical symptoms. With a focus on the thoracic outlet-syndrome, the median arcuate ligament syndrome and the popliteal entrapment syndrome, the present article gives a selective literature review on compression syndromes from an interdisciplinary vascular point of view.

  20. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge, mile 0.7, shall open on...

  1. FOI and Fire at the MGM Grand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William N.; Marie, Janice

    The fire at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, brought to light a lack of compliance with the freedom of information philosophy and its supporting statutes. Freedom of information means circulation of important information. However, at the Grand Hotel, the hotel staff had not been properly trained in disaster procedures, the escape…

  2. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  3. Modeling Compressed Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, Daniel M.

    2012-07-13

    From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.

  4. Lossless Compression of Classification-Map Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Xie; Klimesh, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    A lossless image-data-compression algorithm intended specifically for application to classification-map data is based on prediction, context modeling, and entropy coding. The algorithm was formulated, in consideration of the differences between classification maps and ordinary images of natural scenes, so as to be capable of compressing classification- map data more effectively than do general-purpose image-data-compression algorithms. Classification maps are typically generated from remote-sensing images acquired by instruments aboard aircraft (see figure) and spacecraft. A classification map is a synthetic image that summarizes information derived from one or more original remote-sensing image(s) of a scene. The value assigned to each pixel in such a map is the index of a class that represents some type of content deduced from the original image data for example, a type of vegetation, a mineral, or a body of water at the corresponding location in the scene. When classification maps are generated onboard the aircraft or spacecraft, it is desirable to compress the classification-map data in order to reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted to a ground station.

  5. Compressive-projection principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, James E

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is often central to dimensionality reduction and compression in many applications, yet its data-dependent nature as a transform computed via expensive eigendecomposition often hinders its use in severely resource-constrained settings such as satellite-borne sensors. A process is presented that effectively shifts the computational burden of PCA from the resource-constrained encoder to a presumably more capable base-station decoder. The proposed approach, compressive-projection PCA (CPPCA), is driven by projections at the sensor onto lower-dimensional subspaces chosen at random, while the CPPCA decoder, given only these random projections, recovers not only the coefficients associated with the PCA transform, but also an approximation to the PCA transform basis itself. An analysis is presented that extends existing Rayleigh-Ritz theory to the special case of highly eccentric distributions; this analysis in turn motivates a reconstruction process at the CPPCA decoder that consists of a novel eigenvector reconstruction based on a convex-set optimization driven by Ritz vectors within the projected subspaces. As such, CPPCA constitutes a fundamental departure from traditional PCA in that it permits its excellent dimensionality-reduction and compression performance to be realized in an light-encoder/heavy-decoder system architecture. In experimental results, CPPCA outperforms a multiple-vector variant of compressed sensing for the reconstruction of hyperspectral data.

  6. 17. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids Michigan City Library, Michigan Room) circa 1908, photographer unknown. VIEW NORTH - NORTHEAST, SOUTHSIDE, GENERAL VIEW. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI

  7. Compressive Optical Image Encryption

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong

    2015-01-01

    An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946

  8. Compressive holographic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zihao; Spinoulas, Leonidas; He, Kuan; Tian, Lei; Cossairt, Oliver; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.; Chen, Huaijin

    2017-01-01

    Compressed sensing has been discussed separately in spatial and temporal domains. Compressive holography has been introduced as a method that allows 3D tomographic reconstruction at different depths from a single 2D image. Coded exposure is a temporal compressed sensing method for high speed video acquisition. In this work, we combine compressive holography and coded exposure techniques and extend the discussion to 4D reconstruction in space and time from one coded captured image. In our prototype, digital in-line holography was used for imaging macroscopic, fast moving objects. The pixel-wise temporal modulation was implemented by a digital micromirror device. In this paper we demonstrate $10\\times$ temporal super resolution with multiple depths recovery from a single image. Two examples are presented for the purpose of recording subtle vibrations and tracking small particles within 5 ms.

  9. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-06

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  10. Compressive laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  11. Compressive optical image encryption.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong

    2015-05-20

    An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume.

  12. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L.; Singer, M.

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  13. Compressive holographic video.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zihao; Spinoulas, Leonidas; He, Kuan; Tian, Lei; Cossairt, Oliver; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Chen, Huaijin

    2017-01-09

    Compressed sensing has been discussed separately in spatial and temporal domains. Compressive holography has been introduced as a method that allows 3D tomographic reconstruction at different depths from a single 2D image. Coded exposure is a temporal compressed sensing method for high speed video acquisition. In this work, we combine compressive holography and coded exposure techniques and extend the discussion to 4D reconstruction in space and time from one coded captured image. In our prototype, digital in-line holography was used for imaging macroscopic, fast moving objects. The pixel-wise temporal modulation was implemented by a digital micromirror device. In this paper we demonstrate 10× temporal super resolution with multiple depths recovery from a single image. Two examples are presented for the purpose of recording subtle vibrations and tracking small particles within 5 ms.

  14. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981- ... osteogenesis imperfecta contact : Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue, Suite 210, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel: 800- ...

  15. Automating existing stations

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    The task was to automate 20 major compressor stations along ANR Pipeline Co.'s Southeastern and Southwestern pipelines in as many months. Meeting this schedule required standardized hardware and software design. Working with Bristol Babcock Co., ANR came up with an off-the-shelf station automation package suitable for a variety of compressor stations. The project involved 148 engines with 488,880-hp in the 20 stations. ANR Pipeline developed software for these engines and compressors, including horsepower prediction and efficiency. The system places processors ''intelligence'' at each station and engine to monitor and control operations. The station processor receives commands from the company's gas dispatch center at Detroit and informs dispatchers of alarms, conditions, and decision it makes. The automation system is controlled by the Detroit center through a central communications network. Operating orders from the center are sent to the station processor, which obeys orders using the most efficient means of operation at the station's disposal. In a malfunction, a control and communications backup system takes over. Commands and information are directly transmitted between the center and the individual compressor stations. Stations receive their orders based on throughput, with suction and discharge pressure overrides. Additionally, a discharge temperature override protects pipeline coatings.

  16. Smoothing DCT Compression Artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, A. J., Jr.; Horng, R.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Image compression based on quantizing the image in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain can generate blocky artifacts in the output image. It is possible to reduce these artifacts and RMS error by adjusting measures of block edginess and image roughness, while restricting the DCT coefficient values to values that would have been quantized to those of the compressed image. We also introduce a DCT coefficient amplitude adjustment that reduces RMS error.

  17. Paleohydraulic interpretation and morphologic reconstruction of the northern Rio Grande River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Muriceak, D.R. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A flight of unpaired late Quaternary terraces comprised of fluvio-glacial deposits flanks the northern Rio Grande River for nearly ten miles along the upper Rio Grande valley. These terraces, which occur at decreasing heights due to progressive valley incision, are comprised of sediments that represent aggradation by braided streams flowing from the terminus of valley glaciers that flowed down the upper Rio Grande at least twice during late Quaternary time. Terminal moraines that are equivalent to Pinedale and Bull Lake stages of ice advance occur at the upstream origin of the terraces. Incision of the Rio Grande river since Pinedale time has resulted in at least three cut terraces that converge downstream. The purpose of this report is to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Rio Grande river valley during its transition from full glacial to interglacial conditions. A total geodetic station provided coordinate and elevation data to correlate the terraces, extrapolate channel geometry through cross sections, and construct longitudinal profiles of the individual terrace surfaces. Measurements of the B-axis length of boulders on both terrace tread surfaces and surfaces within the terrace deposits were used to reconstruct paleoflow hydrology. The coarsest channel morphological features, too large to be deposited by normal glacial outwash, were deposited during a catastrophic outburst flood (after the failure of an ice dammed lake) that produced high discharge.

  18. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  19. Alternative Compression Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  20. Compressed image deblurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuquan; Hu, Xiyuan; Peng, Silong

    2014-03-01

    We propose an algorithm to recover the latent image from the blurred and compressed input. In recent years, although many image deblurring algorithms have been proposed, most of the previous methods do not consider the compression effect in blurry images. Actually, it is unavoidable in practice that most of the real-world images are compressed. This compression will introduce a typical kind of noise, blocking artifacts, which do not meet the Gaussian distribution assumed in most existing algorithms. Without properly handling this non-Gaussian noise, the recovered image will suffer severe artifacts. Inspired by the statistic property of compression error, we model the non-Gaussian noise as hyper-Laplacian distribution. Based on this model, an efficient nonblind image deblurring algorithm based on variable splitting technique is proposed to solve the resulting nonconvex minimization problem. Finally, we also address an effective blind image deblurring algorithm which can deal with the compressed and blurred images efficiently. Extensive experiments compared with state-of-the-art nonblind and blind deblurring methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Image compression technique

    DOEpatents

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  2. Image compression technique

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  3. 33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE CORE MOLDS WERE HAND FILLED AND OFTEN PNEUMATICALLY COMPRESSED WITH A HAND-HELD RAMMER BEFORE THEY WERE BAKED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Compressed air energy storage technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loscutoff, W. V.

    1980-06-01

    Progress in the development of compressed air energy storage (CAES) technologies for central station electric utility applications is reported. It is reported that the concept improves the effectiveness of a gas turbine using petroleum fuels, could reduce petroleum fuel consumption of electric utility peaking plants, and is technically feasible and economically viable. Specific topics discussed include stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications and second-generation technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. The latter includes integration of thermal energy storage, fluidized bed combustion, or coal gasification with CAES.

  5. Predictive Temperature Equations for Three Sites at the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Katrina Marie Neitzel

    Climate data collected at a number of automated weather stations were used to create a series of predictive equations spanning from December 2009 to May 2010 in order to better predict the temperatures along hiking trails within the Grand Canyon. The central focus of this project is how atmospheric variables interact and can be combined to predict the weather in the Grand Canyon at the Indian Gardens, Phantom Ranch, and Bright Angel sites. Through the use of statistical analysis software and data regression, predictive equations were determined. The predictive equations are simple or multivariable best fits that reflect the curvilinear nature of the data. With data analysis software curves resulting from the predictive equations were plotted along with the observed data. Each equation's reduced chi2 was determined to aid the visual examination of the predictive equations' ability to reproduce the observed data. From this information an equation or pair of equations was determined to be the best of the predictive equations. Although a best predictive equation for each month and season was determined for each site, future work may refine equations to result in a more accurate predictive equation.

  6. Summary of Flow Loss between Selected Cross Sections on the Rio Grande in and near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veenhuis, Jack E.

    2002-01-01

    The upper middle Rio Grande Basin, as defined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, extends from the headwaters of the Rio Grande in southwestern Colorado to Fort Quitman, Texas. Most of the basin has a semiarid climate typical of the southwestern United States. This climate drives a highly variable streamflow regime that contributes to the complexity of water management in the basin. Currently, rapid population growth in the basin has resulted in increasing demands on the hydrologic system. Water management decisions have become increasingly complex because of the broad range of interests and issues. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico, conducted paired flow measurements at two cross sections to determine cross-sectional loss in the Albuquerque reach of the Rio Grande. This report statistically summarizes flow losses in the Albuquerque reach of the Rio Grande during the winter nonirrigation season from December 1996 to February 2000. The two previous flow-loss investigations are statistically summarized. Daily mean flow losses are calculated for the winter nonirrigation season using daily mean flows at three selected Rio Grande streamflow-gaging stations.For the winter nonirrigation season cross-sectional measurements (1996-2000), an average of 210 cubic feet per second was returned to the river between the measurement sites, of which 165 cubic feet per second was intercepted by riverside drains along the 21.9-mile reach from the Rio Grande near Bernalillo to the Rio Grande at Rio Bravo Bridge streamflow-gaging stations. Total cross-sectional losses in this reach averaged about 90 cubic feet per second. Regression equations were determined for estimating downstream total outflow from upstream total inflow for all three paired measurement studies. Regression equations relating the three daily mean flow recording stations also were determined. In each succeeding study, additional outside variables

  7. Precipitation variability of the Grand Canyon region, 1893 through 2009, and its implications for studying effects of gullying of Holocene terraces and associated archeological sites in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Richard; Bennett, Glenn E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    A daily precipitation dataset covering a large part of the American Southwest was compiled for online electronic distribution (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1006/). The dataset contains 10.8 million observations spanning January 1893 through January 2009 from 846 weather stations in six states and 13 climate divisions. In addition to processing the data for distribution, water-year totals and other statistical parameters were calculated for each station with more than 2 years of observations. Division-wide total precipitation, expressed as the average deviation from the individual station means of a climate division, shows that the region—including the Grand Canyon, Arizona, area—has been affected by alternating multidecadal episodes of drought and wet conditions. In addition to compiling and analyzing the long-term regional precipitation data, a second dataset consisting of high-temporal-resolution precipitation measurements collected between November 2003 and January 2009 from 10 localities along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon was compiled. An exploratory study of these high-temporal-resolution precipitation measurements suggests that on a daily basis precipitation patterns are generally similar to those at a long-term weather station in the canyon, which in turn resembles the patterns at other long-term stations on the canyon rims; however, precipitation amounts recorded by the individual inner canyon weather stations can vary substantially from station to station. Daily and seasonal rainfall patterns apparent in these data are not random. For example, the inner canyon record, although short and fragmented, reveals three episodes of widespread, heavy precipitation in late summer 2004, early winter 2005, and summer 2007. The 2004 event and several others had sufficient rainfall to initiate potentially pervasive erosion of the late Holocene terraces and related archeological features located along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon.

  8. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  9. Last workshop on grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, P.H. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-01-01

    The presentations at the workshop alternated between experiment and theory in the traditional manner. Let me introduce first all the experimental topics. For the proton decay experiments, their present status was provided by Ayres, Ernwein, Gajewski and Totsuka for the Soudan, Frejus, IMB and Kamioka groups respectively. Massive neutrinos were reviewed by Robertson, solar neutrinos by Bahcall, and double beta decay by Avignone. Monopole searches were covered by Barish. Other experimental talks concerned both astrophysics and the Standard Model. In astrophysics, Perlmutter presented the possible discovery of a sub- millisecond pulsar in supernova 1987A and Sadoulet outlined a program to search for dark matter. Within the Standard Model, Matthews reported the recent discovery of Z{sup 0} particle decays at SLC and Dehmelt described his high-accuracy measurement of (g-2){sub c}. The theoretical talks were on GUTs, extensions of the Standard Model, general relativity and strings, and theoretical astrophysics and cosmology. Langacker talked on grand unification, proton decay and neutrino masses.

  10. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, Antonio

    The following sections are included: * THE STANDARD MODEL: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL * The "Low Energy" Limit of Renormalizable Gauge Theories * The Standard Model: its purity * The Standard Model: its impurity * Vices and Virtues of the Standard Model * INTRODUCTION TO GRAND UNIFIED THEORIES * When "Strong" and "Weak" Merge Together * The "Big Desert" Picture of the World * A Persistent Cloud: the hierarchy problem * PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF GUTs * What is New in GUTs * General Features of the B and L Violating Processes * A FIRST GLIMPSE AT THE SU(5) MODEL * Why SU(5)? * The Higgs Sector and the Hierarchy Nightmare * LOW ENERGY PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF SU(5) * The Successful sin2θW Prediction of SU(5) * Fermion Masses in SU(5) * Mixing Angles and Phases * Proton Lifetime: A Death Blow to the SU(5) Model? * B-L and Neutrino Masses in SU(5) * SU(5): A Final Score * NEW PHYSICS NOT FAR FROM THE FERMI SCALE? * L-Right Symmetry: A Fundamental Symmetry? * Massive Majorana Neutrinos * Neutron -Antineutron Oscillations * Lepton Number as a Fourth Colour * THE SO(10) MODEL * Few Generalities on the Orthogonal Groups * The SO(10) Gauge Interactions * Patterns of Symmetry Breaking in the SO(10) Model * The Fermion Mass Spectrum * The Question of the Neutrino Mass * PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE INTERMEDIATE MASS SCALES * Renormalization Group Equations in the Presence of IMS * MI and MX in IMS models * Higgs Contributions to the β-Functions * Phenomenological Consequences of IMS * A GENERAL OUTLOOK ON GUTs * General Constraints on GUTs * Major Unsolved Questions in GUTs * Bibliography * References

  11. Grand unification through gravitational effects

    SciTech Connect

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Reeb, David

    2010-02-01

    We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHG{sub {mu}{nu}G}{sup {mu}{nu}/}4M{sub pl}, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge-coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales M{sub X} significantly different than naively expected. We find nonsupersymmetric models of SU(5) and SO(10) unification, with natural Wilson coefficients c, that easily satisfy the constraints from proton decay. Furthermore, gauge-coupling unification at scales as high as the Planck scale seems feasible, possibly hinting at simultaneous unification of gauge and gravitational interactions. In the Appendix we work out the group theoretical aspects of this scenario for SU(5) and SO(10) unified groups in detail; this material is also relevant in the analysis of nonuniversal gaugino masses obtained from supergravity.

  12. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.

    1993-12-31

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  13. Control of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made to develop controllers for the NASA-JSC Triangular Space Station and evaluate their performances to make recommendations for structural design and/or control alternatives. The control system design assumes the rigid body of the Space Station and developes the lumped parameter control system by using the Inverse Optimal Control Theory. In order to evaluate the performance of the control system, a Parameter Estimation algorithm is being developed which will be used in modeling an equivalent but simpler Space Station model. Finally, a scaled version of the Space Station is being built for the purpose of physical experiments to evaluate the control system performance.

  14. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  15. Space Station fluid resupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Al

    Viewgraphs on space station fluid resupply are presented. Space Station Freedom is resupplied with supercritical O2 and N2 for the ECLSS and USL on a 180 day resupply cycle. Resupply fluids are stored in the subcarriers on station between resupply cycles and transferred to the users as required. ECLSS contingency fluids (O2 and N2) are supplied and stored on station in a gaseous state. Efficiency and flexibility are major design considerations. Subcarrier approach allows multiple manifest combinations. Growth is achieved by adding modular subcarriers.

  16. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  17. Transverse Compression of Tendons.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, S T Samuel; Buckley, C Paul; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    A study was made of the deformation of tendons when compressed transverse to the fiber-aligned axis. Bovine digital extensor tendons were compression tested between flat rigid plates. The methods included: in situ image-based measurement of tendon cross-sectional shapes, after preconditioning but immediately prior to testing; multiple constant-load creep/recovery tests applied to each tendon at increasing loads; and measurements of the resulting tendon displacements in both transverse directions. In these tests, friction resisted axial stretch of the tendon during compression, giving approximately plane-strain conditions. This, together with the assumption of a form of anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model proposed previously for tendon, justified modeling the isochronal response of tendon as that of an isotropic, slightly compressible, neo-Hookean solid. Inverse analysis, using finite-element (FE) simulations of the experiments and 10 s isochronal creep displacement data, gave values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this solid of 0.31 MPa and 0.49, respectively, for an idealized tendon shape and averaged data for all the tendons and E = 0.14 and 0.10 MPa for two specific tendons using their actual measured geometry. The compression load versus displacement curves, as measured and as simulated, showed varying degrees of stiffening with increasing load. This can be attributed mostly to geometrical changes in tendon cross section under load, varying according to the initial 3D shape of the tendon.

  18. Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  19. William Shatner and the Grand Entrance

    NASA Video Gallery

    As NASA prepares for Curiosity rover landing on Mars, William Shatner shares this thrilling story of NASA's hardest planetary science mission to date. The video titled, "Grand Entrance," guides vie...

  20. Wil Wheaton and the Grand Entrance

    NASA Video Gallery

    As NASA prepares for Curiosity rover landing on Mars, Wil Wheaton shares this thrilling story of NASA's hardest planetary science mission to date. The video titled, "Grand Entrance," guides viewers...

  1. Changes in soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages after a sulphuric acid spill in the Rio Grande Harbor (RS, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bemvenuti, C E; Rosa-Filho, J S; Elliott, M

    2003-05-01

    The structure of macrobenthic assemblages in Rio Grande Harbor was analyzed during and after a sulphuric acid spill in August 1988. Five stations were sampled four times between September 1988 and March 1999. At each station, three samples were taken using a van Veen grab (0.078 m2). A total of 22 taxa were collected including Crustacea (9 spp.), Polychaeta (7 spp.), Mollusca (3 spp.), Phoronida (1 sp.), Nemertinea (1 sp.), and Plathyelminthea (1 sp.). The macrobenthic assemblages suffered different impacts depending on station location and time: 1) immediate impact, i.e., during acid discharge, as at the station nearest (250 m) the acid spill source; 2) impact some time after the discharge, as at the station 500 m downstream from the acid spill source; and 3) absence of direct impact on the remaining sampling points, on the discharge area outer limit. The macrobenthic assemblage recovered six months after the sulphuric acid spill.

  2. Algorithm for Compressing Time-Series Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Darlington, Edward Hugo

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials effects lossy compression of time-series data or other one-dimensional data streams (e.g., spectral data) that are arranged in blocks for sequential transmission. The algorithm was developed for use in transmitting data from spacecraft scientific instruments to Earth stations. In spite of its lossy nature, the algorithm preserves the information needed for scientific analysis. The algorithm is computationally simple, yet compresses data streams by factors much greater than two. The algorithm is not restricted to spacecraft or scientific uses: it is applicable to time-series data in general. The algorithm can also be applied to general multidimensional data that have been converted to time-series data, a typical example being image data acquired by raster scanning. However, unlike most prior image-data-compression algorithms, this algorithm neither depends on nor exploits the two-dimensional spatial correlations that are generally present in images. In order to understand the essence of this compression algorithm, it is necessary to understand that the net effect of this algorithm and the associated decompression algorithm is to approximate the original stream of data as a sequence of finite series of Chebyshev polynomials. For the purpose of this algorithm, a block of data or interval of time for which a Chebyshev polynomial series is fitted to the original data is denoted a fitting interval. Chebyshev approximation has two properties that make it particularly effective for compressing serial data streams with minimal loss of scientific information: The errors associated with a Chebyshev approximation are nearly uniformly distributed over the fitting interval (this is known in the art as the "equal error property"); and the maximum deviations of the fitted Chebyshev polynomial from the original data have the smallest possible values (this is known in the art as the "min-max property").

  3. American Grand Strategy: The End of Primacy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-13

    experts, this forum resulted in multiple strategic though pieces outlining a way ahead for American grand strategy. However, the lack of Presidential ...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AMERICAN GRAND STRATEGY THE END OF PRIMACY? by Carey J. Jones, USAF, Lt Col A Research Report Submitted...valid OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE 13 FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE American

  4. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  5. Summit Station Skiway Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    delivery of personnel and materials, is by skied airplanes (currently Twin Otters and LC-130s) or by annual traverse. To support aircraft, the station...Station during the first sea - son (2009) of skiway construction at Pegasus Airfield (Haehnel et al. 2013) but consistently lower than densities of

  6. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  7. The compressible mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandromme, Dany; Haminh, Hieu

    1991-01-01

    The capability of turbulence modeling correctly to handle natural unsteadiness appearing in compressible turbulent flows is investigated. Physical aspects linked to the unsteadiness problem and the role of various flow parameters are analyzed. It is found that unsteady turbulent flows can be simulated by dividing these motions into an 'organized' part for which equations of motion are solved and a remaining 'incoherent' part represented by a turbulence model. Two-equation turbulence models and second-order turbulence models can yield reasonable results. For specific compressible unsteady turbulent flow, graphic presentations of different quantities may reveal complementary physical features. Strong compression zones are observed in rapid flow parts but shocklets do not yet occur.

  8. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    SciTech Connect

    H. Oona; J.C. Solem; L.R. Veeser, C.A. Ekdahl; P.J. Rodriquez; S.M. Younger; W. Lewis; W.D. Turley

    1997-08-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal.

  9. Compressible Flow Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2006-01-01

    The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.

  10. Climate Change Impacts in the Upper Rio Grande Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, T.; Siegfried, T. U.; Sellars, S. L.; Schlager, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the US Southwest, evidence of increased future drought severity and duration in the context of climate change has been detected. Considering the already difficult water distribution and allocation strategies within the region, we are investigating the Costilla Creek, a tributary to the Rio Grande. The catchment is located in Costilla county in Colorado from where on runoff is crossing boundaries between Colorado and New Mexico three times before its confluence with the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Water allocation is governed by an interstate compact between Colorado and New Mexico. While the states have been relatively successful in complying with the compact’s allocation rules, the Costilla Creek catchment has experienced interstate upstream/downstream conflict, mainly during irrigation seasons. Whether or not the states will be able to avert conflict in the future and maintain compliance with the compact, is a critical question. The situation in the relatively small catchment is not unique. Various interstate watersheds, including the entire Rio Grande basin, the La Plata, Arkansas, and Colorado, are expected to face similar impacts from climate change, yet the water compacts that govern them may not be structured to adapt to these conditions. Looking at the Costilla Creek offers a valuable starting point for understanding how to model these effects across various basins. We have developed a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model including snow storage of the Costilla Creek watershed. Temperature and precipitation data from NCRS - SNOTEL stations together with USGS gauging station data were utilized for model calibration and validation. ISCCP solar radiation data and temperature data were used to estimate irrigation water demand in irrigated agriculture. The model is driven by the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. GCM ensemble averaged temperature / precipitation trends were extracted for the upper Rio Grande region. 50 year precipitation simulations were created using a

  11. Isentropic compression of argon

    SciTech Connect

    Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Oona, H.

    1997-06-01

    The compression was done in an MC-1 flux compression (explosive) generator, in order to study the transition from an insulator to a conductor. Since conductivity signals were observed in all the experiments (except when the probe is removed), both the Teflon and the argon are becoming conductive. The conductivity could not be determined (Teflon insulation properties unknown), but it could be bounded as being {sigma}=1/{rho}{le}8({Omega}cm){sub -1}, because when the Teflon breaks down, the dielectric constant is reduced. The Teflon insulator problem remains, and other ways to better insulate the probe or to measure the conductivity without a probe is being sought.

  12. Image data compression investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrie, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    NASA continuous communications systems growth has increased the demand for image transmission and storage. Research and analysis was conducted on various lossy and lossless advanced data compression techniques or approaches used to improve the efficiency of transmission and storage of high volume stellite image data such as pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM (DPCM), transform coding, hybrid coding, interframe coding, and adaptive technique. In this presentation, the fundamentals of image data compression utilizing two techniques which are pulse code modulation (PCM) and differential PCM (DPCM) are presented along with an application utilizing these two coding techniques.

  13. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a partially cloudy sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  14. 4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ON RIGHT. NOTE TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Harpers Ferry Station, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  15. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  16. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  17. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  18. Compress Your Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    File compression enables data to be squeezed together, greatly reducing file size. Why would someone want to do this? Reducing file size enables the sending and receiving of files over the Internet more quickly, the ability to store more files on the hard drive, and the ability pack many related files into one archive (for example, all files…

  19. The Compressed Video Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, John

    In the fall semester 1995, Southern Arkansas University- Magnolia (SAU-M) began a two semester trial delivering college classes via a compressed video link between SAU-M and its sister school Southern Arkansas University Tech (SAU-T) in Camden. As soon as the University began broadcasting and receiving classes, it was discovered that using the…

  20. Focus on Compression Stockings

    MedlinePlus

    ... soap. Do not use Woolite™ detergent. Use warm water and wash by hand or in the gentle cycle in the washing machine. After rinsing the compression stocking completely, remove excess water by rolling it in a ... the dryer on the deli- cate cycle at a cool temperature. It may be convenient ...

  1. Sediment discharge in the Upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California, during the 1968-73 water years were analyzed to determine total sediment discharge at four stations in the basins. Water discharge and total sediment discharge at these stations, representative of the 1943-72 period, were estimated from long-term flow data for nearby gaging stations and water-sediment discharge relations determined for the 1968-73 water years. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station occurs during a few days each year. The quantity of sediment transported in a single day often accounts for more than 40 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Estimated sediment discharge for the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins during the 1943-72 water years averaged 53,000 tons and 23,000 tons per year. Long-term sediment deposition in Lopez Reservoir, which is in the southern part of the upper Arroyo Grande basin, was estimated to be 35 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Different Views of the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.

    Each year the spectacular scenery of the Grand Canyon of Arizona awes its more than 4,000,000 visitors. Just as its enormous scale dwarfs our human sense of space, its geology also dwarfs our human sense of time. Perhaps here, more than anywhere else on the planet, we can experience a sense of ``Deep Time.'' The colorful rocks exposed in the vertical walls of the canyon display a span of 1.8 billion years of Earth's history [Beus and Morales, 2003]. But wait! There is a different view! According to Vail [2003], this time span is only 6,000 years and the Grand Canyon and its rocks are a record of the Biblical 6 days of creation and Noah's flood. During a visit to Grand Canyon, in August 2003, I learned that Vail's book, Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold within the National Park. The author and compiler of Grand Canyon: A Different View is a Colorado River guide who is well acquainted with the Grand Canyon at river level. He has produced a book with an attractive layout and beautiful photographs. The book is remarkable because it has 23 co-authors, all male, who comprise a veritable ``Who's Who'' in creationism. For example, Henry Morris and John Whitcomb, the authors of the seminal young Earth creationist text, The Genesis Flood [Whitcomb and Morris, 1961], each contribute a brief introduction. Each chapter of Grand Canyon: A Different View begins with an overview by Vail, followed by brief comments by several contributors that ``have been peer reviewed to ensure a consistent and Biblical perspective.'' This perspective is strict Biblical literalism.

  3. Parallel hyperspectral compressive sensing method on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, Sergio; Martín, Gabriel; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Remote hyperspectral sensors collect large amounts of data per flight usually with low spatial resolution. It is known that the bandwidth connection between the satellite/airborne platform and the ground station is reduced, thus a compression onboard method is desirable to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted. This paper presents a parallel implementation of an compressive sensing method, called parallel hyperspectral coded aperture (P-HYCA), for graphics processing units (GPU) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA). This method takes into account two main properties of hyperspectral dataset, namely the high correlation existing among the spectral bands and the generally low number of endmembers needed to explain the data, which largely reduces the number of measurements necessary to correctly reconstruct the original data. Experimental results conducted using synthetic and real hyperspectral datasets on two different GPU architectures by NVIDIA: GeForce GTX 590 and GeForce GTX TITAN, reveal that the use of GPUs can provide real-time compressive sensing performance. The achieved speedup is up to 20 times when compared with the processing time of HYCA running on one core of the Intel i7-2600 CPU (3.4GHz), with 16 Gbyte memory.

  4. Low-Power CO2 Compression Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Sridhar, K. R.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Presently, the most feasible processes for extracting oxygen from the Martian atmosphere either require or are much more efficient if the atmospheric CO2 feed is provided at pressures well above the Martian ambient. Electrical power for performing the desired compression is likely to be an extremely limited resource on the Mars surface. Even if "cheap" nuclear power is available at a central site/launch facility where rocket propellent and oxidant are manufactured, life support applications needing oxygen production capabilities, such as rovers, portable life support, and remote or independent exploration stations, will benefit from extremely low-power atmospheric compression technology, such as the one discussed here. Our experiments show the potential of one very low-power approach to performing CO2 compression that uses the Mars diurnal temperature cycle to drive a heat engine. The 1 kg compressor has been tested over an extended period in a Mars environmental simulation chamber that mimics the composition, pressure, and temperature cycles that can occur on the Martian surface. The simple design, which has very few moving parts and can easily be scaled to larger or smaller sizes, produces a CO2 stream at a rate of 100 g/ day at a quality and pressure suitable for a variety of oxygen production processes.

  5. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  6. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  7. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  8. Transportation - Space Station interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconchie, Ian O.; Eide, D. G.; Witcofski, R. D.; Pennington, J. E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Melfi, L. T.; Jones, W. R.; Morris, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A study aimed at identifying conceptual mechanisms for the transfer and manipulation of various masses in the vicinity of or on the Space Station is presented. These transfers encompass mass transfers involved in the arrivals or departures of various vehicles including the Shuttle, Orbital Manuever Vehicles (OMVs), and Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTVs); point-to-point mass transfer of a nonroutine nature around the Space Station; and routine transfer of cargo and spacecraft around the Space Station, including the mating and processing of OMVs, OTVs, propellants, and payloads.

  9. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  10. 2010 Panel on the biomaterials grand challenges.

    PubMed

    Reichert, William Monty; Ratner, Buddy D; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S; Laurencin, Cato T; Tirrell, David

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies-Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell-were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities.

  11. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  12. Lifeomics leads the age of grand discoveries.

    PubMed

    He, Fuchu

    2013-03-01

    When our knowledge of a field accumulates to a certain level, we are bound to see the rise of one or more great scientists. They will make a series of grand discoveries/breakthroughs and push the discipline into an 'age of grand discoveries'. Mathematics, geography, physics and chemistry have all experienced their ages of grand discoveries; and in life sciences, the age of grand discoveries has appeared countless times since the 16th century. Thanks to the ever-changing development of molecular biology over the past 50 years, contemporary life science is once again approaching its breaking point and the trigger for this is most likely to be 'lifeomics'. At the end of the 20th century, genomics wrote out the 'script of life'; proteomics decoded the script; and RNAomics, glycomics and metabolomics came into bloom. These 'omics', with their unique epistemology and methodology, quickly became the thrust of life sciences, pushing the discipline to new high. Lifeomics, which encompasses all omics, has taken shape and is now signalling the dawn of a new era, the age of grand discoveries.

  13. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  14. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  15. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  16. Enabler operator station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  17. Destination Station Atlanta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Destination Station was recently in Atlanta from April 15 through April 21. During the week, NASA visited schools, hospitals, museums, and the city’s well known Atlanta Science Tavern Meet Up gro...

  18. The Space Station Chronicles

    NASA Video Gallery

    As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

  19. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  20. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  1. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  2. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  3. Multiple Craft Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Mary Sue

    1980-01-01

    Described are three craft stations (claywork, papermaking, and stamp designing) for intermediate grade students, to correlate with their classroom study which focused on Ohio: its history, geography, cities, industries, products and famous natives. (KC)

  4. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  5. Station Commander Praises AMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    When asked what's the most important International Space Station experiment, Commander Chris Hadfield names the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2, a state-of-the-art particle physics detector that coul...

  6. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-02

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental

  7. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  8. NASA develops Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Space Station program's planning stage began in 1982, with a view to development funding in FY1987 and initial operations within a decade. An initial cost of $8 billion is projected for the continuously habitable, Space Shuttle-dependent system, not including either operational or scientific and commercial payload-development costs. As a customer-oriented facility, the Space Station will be available to foreign countries irrespective of their participation in the development phase.

  9. Multimode Data-Compression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi

    1996-01-01

    Data-compression system developed to satisfy need for high-speed, high-performance compression of data from sources as diverse as medical images, high-definition television images, audio signals, readouts from scientific instruments, and binary data files. Maximum data-transmission capability of communication channel or storage capacity of storage device multiplied by approximately compression ratio. Various combinations of lossless and lossy compression chosen to suit various data streams.

  10. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  11. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  12. Progressive transmission and compression images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.

    1996-01-01

    We describe an image data compression strategy featuring progressive transmission. The method exploits subband coding and arithmetic coding for compression. We analyze the Laplacian probability density, which closely approximates the statistics of individual subbands, to determine a strategy for ordering the compressed subband data in a way that improves rate-distortion performance. Results are presented for a test image.

  13. Compression of Ultrafast Laser Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    the theory, construction, and evaluation of 2 separate algorithms, a modified genetic algorithm and the multiphoton intrapulse interference phase...pulse compression was evaluated, and it was found that the MIIPS algorithm was superior to the genetic algorithm for pulse compression. 15...SUBJECT TERMS ultrafast lasers, pulse compression, genetic algorithm, MIIPS algorithm, pulse shaping, pulse shaper construction 16. SECURITY

  14. Predictive Encoding in Text Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raita, Timo; Teuhola, Jukka

    1989-01-01

    Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)

  15. Grand and Semigrand Canonical Basin-Hopping

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We introduce grand and semigrand canonical global optimization approaches using basin-hopping with an acceptance criterion based on the local contribution of each potential energy minimum to the (semi)grand potential. The method is tested using local harmonic vibrational densities of states for atomic clusters as a function of temperature and chemical potential. The predicted global minima switch from dissociated states to clusters for larger values of the chemical potential and lower temperatures, in agreement with the predictions of a model fitted to heat capacity data for selected clusters. Semigrand canonical optimization allows us to identify particularly stable compositions in multicomponent nanoalloys as a function of increasing temperature, whereas the grand canonical potential can produce a useful survey of favorable structures as a byproduct of the global optimization search. PMID:26669731

  16. Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

  17. Digital cinema video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, Walter

    2003-05-01

    The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Basic cluster compression algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Feature extraction and data compression of LANDSAT data is accomplished by BCCA program which reduces costs associated with transmitting, storing, distributing, and interpreting multispectral image data. Algorithm uses spatially local clustering to extract features from image data to describe spectral characteristics of data set. Approach requires only simple repetitive computations, and parallel processing can be used for very high data rates. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on SEL 32/55.

  19. Beamforming Using Compressive Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Am. 130 (4), October 2011 VC 2011 Acoustical Society of America G. F. Edelmann and C. F. Gaumond: JASA Express Letters [DOI: 10.1121/1.3632046...arbitrarily spaced array, the rank of A may be insufficient, G. F. Edelmann and C. F. Gaumond: JASA Express Letters [DOI: 10.1121/1.3632046] Published Online...09 September 2011 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130 (4), October 2011 G. F. Edelmann and C. F. Gaumond: Beamforming using compressive sensing EL233 Downloaded

  20. Magnetotelluric pilot study in the Rio Grande Rift, southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A magnetotelluric (MT) pilot study consisting of approximately 25 stations distributed in and around the Rio Grande Rift of the southwest United States was carried out in the summer of 2012. Both broadband (100 Hz to 1000 s) and long-period (up to 10 000 s) MT data were collected across two profiles that run perpendicular to the rift axis near Denver, Colorado and Taos, New Mexico, respectively. Time-domain EM data was also collected at each site to account for galvanic distortion in the near-surface. The tectonic forces and rheologic properties behind the initiation and propagation of the rift are poorly understood. Surface mapping of volcanism, normal faulting and sedimentary basins reveals a narrow band of crustal deformation confined to a region in close proximity to the rift axis while geophysical results suggest that deformation is distributed across a much broader and deeper region of the lithosphere. In particular, seismic tomography shows low seismic wave speeds into the lower crust and upper mantle. The magnetotelluric technique is a well-proven passive electromagnetic method that allows for the detection of apparent resistivity at a wide range of depth scales. Complimenting the seismic results with MT data will provide important new information on the geologic and geophysical properties that control the rifting process in this low-strain rate environment. Properties to which the MT method is particular sensitive include temperature, fluid content, and mineral alteration. Preliminary results from this most recent survey are encouraging, showing good data quality up to 10 000 s. In an important precursor to full 2D modeling, the magnetotelluric phase tensor has been used to assess the dimensionality of the electrical resistivity structure at depth. This pilot study provides proof of concept for a much larger magnetotelluric experiment planned to take place in the Rio Grande Rift in 2013.

  1. Shock compression of nitrobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozu, Naoshi; Arai, Mitsuru; Tamura, Masamitsu; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Masatake; Kondo, Ken-Ichi

    1999-06-01

    The Hugoniot (4 - 30 GPa) and the isotherm (1 - 7 GPa) of nitrobenzene have been investigated by shock and static compression experiments. Nitrobenzene has the most basic structure of nitro aromatic compounds, which are widely used as energetic materials, but nitrobenzene has been considered not to explode in spite of the fact its calculated heat of detonation is similar to TNT, about 1 kcal/g. Explosive plane-wave generators and diamond anvil cell were used for shock and static compression, respectively. The obtained Hugoniot consists of two linear lines, and the kink exists around 10 GPa. The upper line agrees well with the Hugoniot of detonation products calculated by KHT code, so it is expected that nitrobenzene detonates in that area. Nitrobenzene solidifies under 1 GPa of static compression, and the isotherm of solid nitrobenzene was obtained by X-ray diffraction technique. Comparing the Hugoniot and the isotherm, nitrobenzene is in liquid phase under experimented shock condition. From the expected phase diagram, shocked nitrobenzene seems to remain metastable liquid in solid phase region on that diagram.

  2. Compression of Cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nason, Sarah; Houghton, Brittany; Renfro, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The fall university physics class, at McMurry University, created a compression modulus experiment that even high school students could do. The class came up with this idea after a Young's modulus experiment which involved stretching wire. A question was raised of what would happen if we compressed something else? We created our own Young's modulus experiment, but in a more entertaining way. The experiment involves measuring the height of a cake both before and after a weight has been applied to the cake. We worked to derive the compression modulus by applying weight to a cake. In the end, we had our experimental cake and, ate it too! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.TSS.B1.1

  3. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  4. 2007 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Weather data constitute an integral part of ecosystem monitoring in the Colorado River corridor and are particularly valuable for understanding processes of landscape change that contribute to the stability of archeological sites. Data collected in 2007 are reported from nine weather stations in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The stations were deployed in February and March 2007 to measure wind speed and direction, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Sand traps near each weather station collect windblown sand, from which daily aeolian sand-transport rates are calculated. The data reported here were collected as part of an ongoing study to test and evaluate methods for quantifying processes that affect the physical integrity of archeological sites along the river corridor; as such, these data can be used to identify rainfall events capable of causing gully incision and to predict likely transport pathways for aeolian sand, two landscape processes integral to the preservation of archeological sites. Weather data also have widespread applications to other studies of physical, cultural, and biological resources in Grand Canyon. Aeolian sand-transport data reported here, collected in the year before the March 2008 High-Flow Experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam, represent baseline data against which the effects of the 2008 HFE on windblown sand will be compared in future reports.

  5. Compression therapy for venous disease.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Robert R; Ochoa Chaar, Cassius I

    2017-03-01

    For centuries, compression therapy has been utilized to treat venous disease. To date it remains the mainstay of therapy, particularly in more severe forms such as venous ulceration. In addition to mechanisms of benefit, we discuss the evidence behind compression therapy, particularly hosiery, in various forms of venous disease of the lower extremities. We review compression data for stand-alone therapy, post-intervention, as DVT prevention, post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulcer disease. We also review the data comparing compression modalities as well as the use of compression in mixed arteriovenous disease.

  6. Streamflow and water-quality trends of the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, northern and central New Mexico, water years 1985 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Nolan, Emma O.

    2005-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque plans to divert San Juan-Chama Project water from the Rio Grande for potable water use. This report examines streamflow and water-quality trends in the Rio Chama and the Rio Grande for water years 1985 to 2002 following the implementation of reservoir storage agreements in northern and central New Mexico. Streamflow/water-quality stations used for this study include the Rio Grande stations of Taos, Otowi, San Felipe, and Albuquerque and the Rio Chama station of Chamita. Water years 1985 to 2002 were a period of larger than average precipitation and streamflow compared to the stations. historical averages. Annual precipitation and streamflow trended downward during the study period because of a drought during 1999 to 2002. Streamflow in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande was divided into three distinct seasonal periods that corresponded to natural and anthropogenic influences: fall/winter baseflow (November through February), snowmelt runoff (March through June), and the irrigation/monsoon (July through October) seasons. A calcium bicarbonate water type was evident at all study area stations on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande. Specific conductance increased downstream, but alkalinity and pH did not substantially change in the downstream direction. Nearly all nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were less than 1 milligram per liter for all stations. Median trace-element concentrations and maximum radionuclide concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Anthropogenic compounds were infrequently detected in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande, and concentrations did not exceed drinking-water standards. Water quality in the Rio Chama and Rio Grande varied spatially and temporally during water years 1985 to 2002. Specific conductance increased downstream in the Rio Grande during the fall/winter baseflow and snowmelt runoff seasons but was similar at the Taos, Otowi, and San Felipe stations during the irrigation/monsoon season. This similarity was a

  7. Effect of force feeder on tablet strength during compression.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Guo, Hang; Lu, Jian; Desai, Divyakant S

    2010-11-30

    Mechanical strength of tablets is an important quality attribute, which depends on both formulation and process. In this study, the effect of process variables during compression on tablet tensile strength and tabletability (the ratio of tensile strength to compression pressure) was investigated using a model formulation. Increase in turret and force feeder speeds reduced tablet tensile strength and tabletability. Turret speed affected tabletability through changes in dwell time under the compression cam and the kinetics of consolidation of granules in the die cavity. The effect of force feeder was attributed to the shearing of the granulation, leading to its over-lubrication. A dimensionless equation was derived to estimate total shear imparted by the force feeder on the granulation in terms of a shear number. Scale-independence of the relationship of tabletability with the shear number was explored on a 6-station Korsch press, a 16-station Betapress, and a 35-station Korsch XL-400 press. The use of this relationship, the exact nature of which may be formulation dependent, during tablet development is expected to provide guidance to the scale-up and interchangeability of tablet presses.

  8. Haze in the Grand Canyon: An evaluation of the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of the most spectacular natural sights on earth. Approximately 4 million visitors travel to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) each year to enjoy its majestic geological formations and intensely colored views. However, visibility in GCNP can be impaired by small increases in concentrations of fine suspended particles that scatter and absorb light; the resulting visibility degradation is perceived as haze. Sulfate particles are a major factor in visibility impairment at Grand Canyon in summer and winter. Many wintertime hazes at GCNP are believed to result from the accumulation of emissions from local sources during conditions of air stagnation, which occur more frequently in winter than in summer. In January and February 1987, the National Park Service (NPS) carried out a large-scale experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX) to investigate the causes of wintertime haze in the region of GCNP and Canyonlands National Park. The overall objective of WHITEX was to assess the feasibility of attributing visibility impairment in specific geographic regions to emissions from a single point source. The experiment called for the injection of a tracer, deuterated methane (CD{sub 4}), into one of the stacks of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a major coal-fired power plant located 25 km from the GCNP boundary and 110 km northeast of Grand Canyon Village. A network of field stations was established in the vicinity -- mostly to the northeast of GCNP and NGS -- to measure CD{sub 4} concentrations, atmospheric aerosol and optical properties, and other chemical and physical attributes. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  9. [Compression therapy in leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J; Protz, K; Reich-Schupke, S; Stücker, M; Kröger, K

    2016-04-01

    Compression therapy is well-tried treatment with only few side effects for most patients with leg ulcers and/or edema. Despite the very long tradition in German-speaking countries and good evidence for compression therapy in different indications, recent scientific findings indicate that the current situation in Germany is unsatisfactory. Today, compression therapy can be performed with very different materials and systems. In addition to the traditional bandaging with Unna Boot, short-stretch, long-stretch, or multicomponent bandage systems, medical compression ulcer stockings are available. Other very effective but far less common alternatives are velcro wrap systems. When planning compression therapy, it is also important to consider donning devices with the patient. In addition to compression therapy, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy can be used. Through these various treatment options, it is now possible to develop an individually accepted, geared to the needs of the patients, and functional therapy strategy for nearly all patients with leg ulcers.

  10. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  11. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  12. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  13. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  14. Space station contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

  15. A Grand Unified Theory of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2007-01-01

    Aside from the appeal to administrators as a tool to reduce costs by combining less robust departments with heftier relations, interdisciplinarity is a powerful idea because it implies that different branches of knowledge can benefit from talking to one another: a grand, unified theory of knowledge in which each discipline contributes building…

  16. Toxic Waste in Grand Banks. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchka, Peter

    "Toxic Waste in Grand Banks" is an assessment task in which students from a high school economics class investigate the issues of economic prosperity, environmental concerns, government intervention in the market economy, and responsible civic participation in solving community problems. Students will demonstrate an ability--both individually and…

  17. Plasma nanoscience: setting directions, tackling grand challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya; Cvelbar, Uros; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2011-05-01

    This review paper presents historical perspectives, recent advances and future directions in the multidisciplinary research field of plasma nanoscience. The current status and future challenges are presented using a three-dimensional framework. The first and the largest dimension covers the most important classes of nanoscale objects (nanostructures, nanofeatures and nanoassemblies/nanoarchitectures) and materials systems, namely carbon nanotubes, nanofibres, graphene, graphene nanoribbons, graphene nanoflakes, nanodiamond and related carbon-based nanostructures; metal, silicon and other inorganic nanoparticles and nanostructures; soft organic nanomaterials; nano-biomaterials; biological objects and nanoscale plasma etching. In the second dimension, we discuss the most common types of plasmas and plasma reactors used in nanoscale plasma synthesis and processing. These include low-temperature non-equilibrium plasmas at low and high pressures, thermal plasmas, high-pressure microplasmas, plasmas in liquids and plasma-liquid interactions, high-energy-density plasmas, and ionized physical vapour deposition as well as some other plasma-enhanced nanofabrication techniques. In the third dimension, we outline some of the 'Grand Science Challenges' and 'Grand Socio-economic Challenges' to which significant contributions from plasma nanoscience-related research can be expected in the near future. The urgent need for a stronger focus on practical, outcome-oriented research to tackle the grand challenges is emphasized and concisely formulated as from controlled complexity to practical simplicity in solving grand challenges.

  18. The Cambrian eustatic signal: Not so grand

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.A.; James, N.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Efforts to decipher potential high-frequency (fourth- and fifth-order) eustatic signals within third-order grand cycles in Cambrian strata of western Newfoundland have yielded a surprising result: the conspicuous, large-scale stratigraphic rhythms, grand cycles, were not principally a bathymetric phenomenon, grand cycles, i.e., the stratigraphic repetition of tens-of-meters-thick lithosomes, which are alternately carbonate and terrigenous clastic rich, are widely cited as evidence for lower Paleozoic third-order eustatic fluctuations. Evidence from Middle to Upper Cambrian platform strata in western Newfoundland indicates that grand cyclicity in this area was not simply a response to sea level change. Instead, the stratigraphic signal of eustasy is marked by the presence of terrigenous clastics in an otherwise carbonate-prone succession. Detailed facies analysis reveals that both terrigenous and carbonate lithosomes are locally constructed of predictable, meter-scale, coarsening-upward cycles. Lithofacies constituting meter-scale cycles in both lithosomes are bathymetrically indistinguishable with respect to environmental energy, ichnofauna, and exposure index. Meter-scale cycles in either lithosome are typically capped by the same lithology, precluding contemporaneous generation of carbonate vs. terrigenous cycles along some presumed bathymetric gradient. Obvious lithologic differences between carbonate and terrigenous meter-scale cycles obscure their common origin. Terrigenous cycles are best explained by the incursion of siliciclastic fines into a shallow-water carbonate environment irrespective of sea level change.

  19. Rio Grande rift: problems and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Callender, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Topics and ideas addressed include: (1) the regional extent of the Rio Grande rift; (2) the structure of the crust and upper mantle; (3) whether the evidence for an axile dike in the lower crust is compelling; (4) the nature of faulting and extension in the crust; and (5) the structural and magmatic development of the rift. 88 references, 5 figures.

  20. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  1. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    emerging American political consciousness .6 Since the Revolutionary era, most American conflicts have been articulated and justified with some reference...The Grand Strategy of the United States ways. The result was a rise in international organized crime, quantum increases in international and domestic

  2. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  3. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  4. Search for a Realistic Orbifold Grand Unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2008-05-13

    We review the prototype model of a grand unified theory on the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} and discuss topics related to the choice of boundary conditions; the dynamical rearrangement of gauge symmetry and the equivalence classes of BCs. We explore a family unification scenario by orbifolding.

  5. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the…

  6. Monopoles of SU(15) grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, P.B.

    1991-03-01

    In a recently analyzed grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(15), monopoles are automatically consistent with the cosmological mass density bound. The Parker bound of monopole flux puts some constaints on the model which can be easily satisfied.

  7. Grand Unification with and without Supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra

    2007-06-19

    Grand Unified Theories based on the group SO(10) generically provide interesting and testable relations between the charged fermions and neutrino sector masses and mixings. In the light of the recent neutrino data, we reexamine these relations both in supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models, and give a brief review of their present status.

  8. Space station - Technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA manned space station program's systems technology effort involves the development of novel techniques that will reduce the scope of tasks neeeded for design, development, testing and evaluation of the hardware. Operations technology efforts encompass analyses that will define those techniques best able to improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of space station functions. The technology objective for data management calls for a fault-tolerant, distributed, expandable and adaptable, as well as repairable and user-friendly, flight data management system that employs state-of-the-art hardware and software. The space station's power system includes the largest element, a 'solar blanket', and the heaviest component, the batteries, of all the subsystems. A thermal management system for the power system is of paramount importance. Attention is also given to the exacting demands of attitude control and stabilization and a regenerative life support system of the requisite capacity and reliability.

  9. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  10. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  11. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  12. Space Station design integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the top Program level design integration process which involves the integration of a US Space Station manned base that consists of both US and international Elements. It explains the form and function of the Program Requirements Review (PRR), which certifies that the program is ready for preliminary design, the Program Design Review (PDR), which certifies the program is ready to start the detail design, and the Critical Design Review (CDR), which certifies that the program is completing a design that meets the Program objectives. The paper also discusses experience, status to date, and plans for continued system integration through manufacturing, testing and final verification of the Space Station system performance.

  13. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  14. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  15. Solar power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  16. Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

  17. Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. R.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ferdaus, M. M.; Khan, M. N. H.

    2013-12-01

    Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms.

  18. SeqCompress: an algorithm for biological sequence compression.

    PubMed

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    The growth of Next Generation Sequencing technologies presents significant research challenges, specifically to design bioinformatics tools that handle massive amount of data efficiently. Biological sequence data storage cost has become a noticeable proportion of total cost in the generation and analysis. Particularly increase in DNA sequencing rate is significantly outstripping the rate of increase in disk storage capacity, which may go beyond the limit of storage capacity. It is essential to develop algorithms that handle large data sets via better memory management. This article presents a DNA sequence compression algorithm SeqCompress that copes with the space complexity of biological sequences. The algorithm is based on lossless data compression and uses statistical model as well as arithmetic coding to compress DNA sequences. The proposed algorithm is compared with recent specialized compression tools for biological sequences. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm has better compression gain as compared to other existing algorithms.

  19. Compressible magnetohydrodynamic sawtooth crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Linda E.

    2014-02-01

    In a toroidal magnetically confined plasma at low resistivity, compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) predicts that an m = 1/n = 1 sawtooth has a fast, explosive crash phase with abrupt onset, rate nearly independent of resistivity, and localized temperature redistribution similar to experimental observations. Large scale numerical simulations show that the 1/1 MHD internal kink grows exponentially at a resistive rate until a critical amplitude, when the plasma motion accelerates rapidly, culminating in fast loss of the temperature and magnetic structure inside q < 1, with somewhat slower density redistribution. Nonlinearly, for small effective growth rate the perpendicular momentum rate of change remains small compared to its individual terms ∇p and J × B until the fast crash, so that the compressible growth rate is determined by higher order terms in a large aspect ratio expansion, as in the linear eigenmode. Reduced MHD fails completely to describe the toroidal mode; no Sweet-Parker-like reconnection layer develops. Important differences result from toroidal mode coupling effects. A set of large aspect ratio compressible MHD equations shows that the large aspect ratio expansion also breaks down in typical tokamaks with rq =1/Ro≃1/10 and a /Ro≃1/3. In the large aspect ratio limit, failure extends down to much smaller inverse aspect ratio, at growth rate scalings γ =O(ɛ2). Higher order aspect ratio terms, including B˜ϕ, become important. Nonlinearly, higher toroidal harmonics develop faster and to a greater degree than for large aspect ratio and help to accelerate the fast crash. The perpendicular momentum property applies to other transverse MHD instabilities, including m ≥ 2 magnetic islands and the plasma edge.

  20. International magnetic pulse compression

    SciTech Connect

    Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Siemens, P.D.

    1991-04-01

    Although pulsed-power engineering traditionally has been practiced by a fairly small, close community in the areas of defense and energy research, it is becoming more common in high-power, high-energy commercial pursuits such as material processing and lasers. This paper is a synopsis of the Feb. 12--14, 1990 workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation). During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card -- its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  1. International magnetic pulse compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbie, H. C.; Newton, M. A.; Siemens, P. D.

    1991-04-01

    Although pulsed-power engineering traditionally has been practiced by a fairly small, close community in the areas of defense and energy research, it is becoming more common in high-power, high-energy commercial pursuits such as material processing and lasers. This paper is a synopsis of the Feb. 12-14, 1990 workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation). During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card - its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  2. The compression of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, E.

    The compression of liquids can be measured either directly by applying a pressure and noting the volume change, or indirectly, by measuring the magnitude of the fluctuations of the local volume. The methods used in Ottawa for the direct measurement of the compression are reviewed. The mean-square deviation of the volume from the mean at constant temperature can be measured by X-ray and neutron scattering at low angles, and the meansquare deviation at constant entropy can be measured by measuring the speed of sound. The speed of sound can be measured either acoustically, using an acoustic transducer, or by Brillouin spectroscopy. Brillouin spectroscopy can also be used to study the shear waves in liquids if the shear relaxation time is > ∼ 10 ps. The relaxation time of water is too short for the shear waves to be studied in this way, but they do occur in the low-frequency Raman and infrared spectra. The response of the structure of liquids to pressure can be studied by neutron scattering, and recently experiments have been done at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Chalk River, on liquid D 2O up to 15.6 kbar. They show that the near-neighbor intermolecular O-D and D-D distances are less spread out and at shorter distances at high pressure. Raman spectroscopy can also provide information on the structural response. It seems that the O-O distance in water decreases much less with pressure than it does in ice. Presumably, the bending of O-O-O angles tends to increase the O-O distance, and so to largely compensate the compression due to the direct effect of pressure.

  3. Compression retaining piston

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglino, A.V. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    A piston apparatus is described for maintaining compression between the piston wall and the cylinder wall, that comprises the following: a generally cylindrical piston body, including: a head portion defining the forward end of the body; and a continuous side wall portion extending rearward from the head portion; a means for lubricating and preventing compression loss between the side wall portion and the cylinder wall, including an annular recessed area in the continuous side wall portion for receiving a quantity of fluid lubricant in fluid engagement between the wall of the recessed and the wall of the cylinder; a first and second resilient, elastomeric, heat resistant rings positioned in grooves along the wall of the continuous side wall portion, above and below the annular recessed area. Each ring engages the cylinder wall to reduce loss of lubricant within the recessed area during operation of the piston; a first pump means for providing fluid lubricant to engine components other than the pistons; and a second pump means provides fluid lubricant to the recessed area in the continuous side wall portion of the piston. The first and second pump means obtains lubricant from a common source, and the second pump means including a flow line supplies oil from a predetermined level above the level of oil provided to the first pump means. This is so that should the oil level to the second pump means fall below the predetermined level, the loss of oil to the recessed area in the continuous side wall portion of the piston would result in loss of compression and shut down of the engine.

  4. Initial characterization of the microgravity environment of the international space station: increments 2 through 4.

    PubMed

    Jules, Kenol; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric

    2004-11-01

    The primary objective of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a long-term quiescent environment for the conduct of scientific research for a variety of microgravity science disciplines. This paper reports to the microgravity scientific community the results of an initial characterization of the microgravity environment on the International Space Station for increments 2 through 4. During that period almost 70,000 hours of station operations and scientific experiments were conducted. 720 hours of crew research time were logged aboard the orbiting laboratory and over half a terabyte of acceleration data were recorded and much of that was analyzed. The results discussed in this paper cover both the quasi-steady and vibratory acceleration environment of the station during its first year of scientific operation. For the quasi-steady environment, results are presented and discussed for the following: the space station attitudes Torque Equilibrium Attitude and the X-Axis Perpendicular to the Orbital Plane; station docking attitude maneuvers; Space Shuttle joint operation with the station; cabin de-pressurizations and the station water dumps. For the vibratory environment, results are presented for the following: crew exercise, docking events, and the activation/de-activation of both station life support system hardware and experiment hardware. Finally, a grand summary of all the data collected aboard the station during the 1-year period is presented showing where the overall quasi-steady and vibratory acceleration magnitude levels fall over that period of time using a 95th percentile benchmark.

  5. Ultrasound beamforming using compressed data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yen-Feng; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    The rapid advancements in electronics technologies have made software-based beamformers for ultrasound array imaging feasible, thus facilitating the rapid development of high-performance and potentially low-cost systems. However, one challenge to realizing a fully software-based system is transferring data from the analog front end to the software back end at rates of up to a few gigabits per second. This study investigated the use of data compression to reduce the data transfer requirements and optimize the associated trade-off with beamforming quality. JPEG and JPEG2000 compression techniques were adopted. The acoustic data of a line phantom were acquired with a 128-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.5 MHz, and the acoustic data of a cyst phantom were acquired with a 64-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.33 MHz. The receive-channel data associated with each transmit event are separated into 8 × 8 blocks and several tiles before JPEG and JPEG2000 data compression is applied, respectively. In one scheme, the compression was applied to raw RF data, while in another only the amplitude of baseband data was compressed. The maximum compression ratio of RF data compression to produce an average error of lower than 5 dB was 15 with JPEG compression and 20 with JPEG2000 compression. The image quality is higher with baseband amplitude data compression than with RF data compression; although the maximum overall compression ratio (compared with the original RF data size), which was limited by the data size of uncompressed phase data, was lower than 12, the average error in this case was lower than 1 dB when the compression ratio was lower than 8.

  6. Compression and Entrapment Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, L.P.; Benstead, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Family physicians are often confronted by patients who present with pain, numbness and weakness. Such complaints, when confined to a single extremity, most particularly to a restricted portion of the extremity, may indicate focal dysfunction of peripheral nerve structures arising from compression and/or entrapment, to which such nerves are selectively vulnerable. The authors of this article consider the paramount clinical features that allow the clinician to arrive at a correct diagnosis, reviews major points in differential diagnosis, and suggest appropriate management strategies. PMID:21263858

  7. Beamforming using compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Gaumond, Charles F

    2011-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is compared with conventional beamforming using horizontal beamforming of at-sea, towed-array data. They are compared qualitatively using bearing time records and quantitatively using signal-to-interference ratio. Qualitatively, CS exhibits lower levels of background interference than conventional beamforming. Furthermore, bearing time records show increasing, but tolerable, levels of background interference when the number of elements is decreased. For the full array, CS generates signal-to-interference ratio of 12 dB, but conventional beamforming only 8 dB. The superiority of CS over conventional beamforming is much more pronounced with undersampling.

  8. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  9. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  10. 43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, 1934, and September 17, 1934 (original located at Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado, #113/3084-set of 2) SEWAGE PLANT ADDITION. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  11. 26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT 30TH STREET IN PHOENIX, LOOKING WEST, Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE WIDE DRY BED OF THE SALT RIVER SPANS THE BACKGROUND. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 31. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING ALONG GRAND CANAL. THE DRAGLINE SCOOPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING ALONG GRAND CANAL. THE DRAGLINE SCOOPS UP AQUATIC WEEDS AND DEPOSITS THEM IN A DUMP TRUCK. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  16. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Social and Environmental Inventory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Utilities 107-108 FIGUR~ES Figure Number Title Pag 14 Projected Population - Region 67 1 5 Projected Population - Grand Forks County 68 Study Area 16...Projected Population - Polk County Study Area 68 17 Planning Regions 105 TABLES Tale Number Title Pg 21 Historic Sites in the Grand Forks Area 61I 22...of Indians, traders and settlers; and those related to the populations which currently reside in the area. The information on archeology and history

  17. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  18. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. INEL seismograph stations

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    The report describes the array of five seismograph stations operated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to monitor earthquake activity on and adjacent to the eastern Snake River plain. Also included is the earthquake catalog from October 1972-December 1984. 2 refs., 2 figs. (ACR)

  20. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  1. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  2. Space Station structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-04-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  3. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  4. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  5. The Compressibility Burble and the Effect of Compressibility on Pressures and Forces Acting on a Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John; Lindsey, W F; Littell, Robert E

    1939-01-01

    Simultaneous air-flow photographs and pressure-distribution measurements were made of the NACA 4412 airfoil at high speeds to determine the physical nature of the compressibility burble. The tests were conducted in the NACA 24-inch high-speed wind tunnel. The flow photographs were obtained by the Schlieren method and the pressures were simultaneously measured for 54 stations in the 5-inch-chord airfoil by means of a multiple-tube manometer. Following the general program, a few measurements of total-pressure loss in the wake of the airfoil at high speeds were made to illustrate the magnitude of the losses involved and the extent of the disturbed region; and, finally, in order to relate this work to earlier force-test data, a force test of a 5-inch-chord NACA 4412 airfoil was made. The results show the general nature of the phenomenon known as the compressibility burble. The source of the increased drag is shown to be a compression shock that occurs on the airfoil as its speed approaches the speed of sound. Finally, it is indicated that considerable experimentation is needed in order to understand the phenomenon completely.

  6. Compression parameters of hexagonal boron nitride on direct compression mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Halaçoğlu, Mekin Doğa; Uğurlu, Timuçin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant "hexagonal boron nitride (HBN)" on direct compression powders. Lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), glyceryl behenate, stearic acid, talc and polyethylene glycol6000 were studied and tablets were manufactured on a single station instrumented tablet press. This study comprised the continuation of our previous one, so mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch was used as a master formula to evaluate effects of lubricants on pharmaceutical excipients that undergo complete plastic deformation without any fragmentation under compression pressure. Bulk and tapped densities, and Carr's index parameters were calculated for powders. Tensile strength, cohesion index, lower punch ejection force and lubricant effectiveness values were investigated for tablets. The deformation mechanisms of tablets were studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricant. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant and HBN was found very close to it. HBN did not show a significant negative effect on the crushing strength and disintegration time of the tablets when we compared with MGST. Based on the Heckel plots at the level of 1%, formulation prepared with HBN showed the most pronounced plastic character.

  7. Respiratory sounds compression.

    PubMed

    Yadollahi, Azadeh; Moussavi, Zahra

    2008-04-01

    Recently, with the advances in digital signal processing, compression of biomedical signals has received great attention for telemedicine applications. In this paper, an adaptive transform coding-based method for compression of respiratory and swallowing sounds is proposed. Using special characteristics of respiratory sounds, the recorded signals are divided into stationary and nonstationary portions, and two different bit allocation methods (BAMs) are designed for each portion. The method was applied to the data of 12 subjects and its performance in terms of overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values was calculated at different bit rates. The performance of different quantizers was also considered and the sensitivity of the quantizers to initial conditions has been alleviated. In addition, the fuzzy clustering method was examined for classifying the signal into different numbers of clusters and investigating the performance of the adaptive BAM with increasing the number of classes. Furthermore, the effects of assigning different numbers of bits for encoding stationary and nonstationary portions of the signal were studied. The adaptive BAM with variable number of bits was found to improve the SNR values of the fixed BAM by 5 dB. Last, the possibility of removing the training part for finding the parameters of adaptive BAMs for each individual was investigated. The results indicate that it is possible to use a predefined set of BAMs for all subjects and remove the training part completely. Moreover, the method is fast enough to be implemented for real-time application.

  8. Free compression tube. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  9. Perceptually Lossless Wavelet Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Yang, Gloria Y.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Villasenor, John

    1996-01-01

    The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter, which we call DWT uniform quantization noise. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2(exp -1), where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and L is the wavelet level. Amplitude thresholds increase rapidly with spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from low-pass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We propose a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a 'perceptually lossless' quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  10. libpolycomp: Compression/decompression library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Libpolycomp compresses and decompresses one-dimensional streams of numbers by means of several algorithms. It is well-suited for time-ordered data acquired by astronomical instruments or simulations. One of the algorithms, called "polynomial compression", combines two widely-used ideas (namely, polynomial approximation and filtering of Fourier series) to achieve substantial compression ratios for datasets characterized by smoothness and lack of noise. Notable examples are the ephemerides of astronomical objects and the pointing information of astronomical telescopes. Other algorithms implemented in this C library are well known and already widely used, e.g., RLE, quantization, deflate (via libz) and Burrows-Wheeler transform (via libbzip2). Libpolycomp can compress the timelines acquired by the Planck/LFI instrument with an overall compression ratio of ~9, while other widely known programs (gzip, bzip2) reach compression ratios less than 1.5.

  11. Compressive sensing in medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Christian G.; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2015-01-01

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed. PMID:25968400

  12. Energy transfer in compressible turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre

    1995-01-01

    This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.

  13. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  14. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  15. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  16. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  17. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  18. Radiocarbon dates from the Casa Grande. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This report suggests a very early Civano construction date for Casa Grande, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona on the basis of C14 dates from fragments of two primary roof beams. The radiocarbon dates presented are seen as a positive contribution to an understanding of the history of Casa Grande.

  19. Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  20. 16. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids, Michigan City Library, Michigan Room) 1904, photographer unknown. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTHSIDE, BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. Note old railroad tressel bridge. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI

  1. 76 FR 43597 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, LA AGENCY: Coast... operation of the LA 77 bridge across the ] Lower Grand River, mile 47.0 (Alternate Route) at Grosse Tete..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The LA 77 bridge across the Lower Grand River, mile...

  2. Compression of intensity interferometry signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribak, Erez N.; Shulamy, Yaron

    2016-02-01

    Correlations between photon currents from separate light-collectors provide information on the shape of the source. When the light-collectors are well separated, for example in space, transmission of these currents to a central correlator is limited by band-width. We study the possibility of compression of the photon fluxes and find that traditional compression methods have a similar chance of achieving this goal compared to compressed sensing.

  3. Shock compression of precompressed deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, M R; Crowhurst, J C; Zaug, J M; Bastea, S; Goncharov, A F; Militzer, B

    2011-07-31

    Here we report quasi-isentropic dynamic compression and thermodynamic characterization of solid, precompressed deuterium over an ultrafast time scale (< 100 ps) and a microscopic length scale (< 1 {micro}m). We further report a fast transition in shock wave compressed solid deuterium that is consistent with the ramp to shock transition, with a time scale of less than 10 ps. These results suggest that high-density dynamic compression of hydrogen may be possible on microscopic length scales.

  4. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    SciTech Connect

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. 78 FR 75579 - License Renewal Application for Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... County, Mississippi. Possible alternatives to the proposed action (license renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources. The NRC staff plans to hold two public meetings during the public... evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to the proposed action. The...

  6. 77 FR 41814 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... flooded, except for two oxbow lakes which are permanently inundated and are considered wetland areas... former farms as well as two lakes, Hamilton Lake and Gin Lake. The land in the vicinity of GGNS is mostly... small and localized compared to the overall volume of water in the river. Hamilton and Gin are lakes...

  7. 77 FR 27804 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... flooded, except for two oxbow lakes which are permanently inundated and are considered wetland areas..., comprised primarily of woodlands and former farms as well as two lakes, Hamilton Lake and Gin Lake. The land... river. Hamilton and Gin are lakes on the GGNS site. These lakes are what remain of the former...

  8. 75 FR 9955 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... factors, such as limited vendor resources. Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action The NRC has... of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an... no significant impact. Environmental Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action The...

  9. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Dan; Cook, Edward G.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  10. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

    1993-01-05

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  11. Spectroscopic insight for tablet compression.

    PubMed

    Lakio, S; Ylinärä, H; Antikainen, O; Räikkönen, H; Yliruusi, J

    2015-02-01

    Tablet compression process has been studied over the years from various perspectives. However what exactly happens to material during compression is still unknown. In this study a novel compression die which enables real-time spectroscopic measurements during the compression of material is represented. Both near infrared and Raman spectroscope probes can be attached to the die. In this study the usage of the die is demonstrated by using Raman spectroscopy. Eicosane, d-glucose anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and xylitol were used in the study because their compression behavior and bonding properties during compression were assumed to be different. The intensity of the Raman signal changed during compression with all of the materials. However, the intensity changes were different within the materials. The biggest differences were within the xylitol spectra. It was noticed that some peaks disappeared with higher compression pressures indicating that the pressure affected variously on different bonds in xylitol structure. These reversible changes were supposed to relate the changes in conformation and crystal structure. As a conclusion, the die was found to be a significant addition for studying compression process in real-time. It can help to reveal Process induced transformations (PITs) occurring during powder compaction.

  12. HIGH-COMPRESSIVE-STRENGTH CONCRETE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CONCRETE , COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES), PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), AGING(MATERIALS), MANUFACTURING, STRUCTURES, THERMAL PROPERTIES, CREEP, DEFORMATION, REINFORCED CONCRETE , MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, STRESSES, MIXTURES, TENSILE PROPERTIES

  13. Analysis and testing of axial compression in imperfect slender truss struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Georgiadis, Nicholas

    1990-01-01

    The axial compression of imperfect slender struts for large space structures is addressed. The load-shortening behavior of struts with initially imperfect shapes and eccentric compressive end loading is analyzed using linear beam-column theory and results are compared with geometrically nonlinear solutions to determine the applicability of linear analysis. A set of developmental aluminum clad graphite/epoxy struts sized for application to the Space Station Freedom truss are measured to determine their initial imperfection magnitude, load eccentricity, and cross sectional area and moment of inertia. Load-shortening curves are determined from axial compression tests of these specimens and are correlated with theoretical curves generated using linear analysis.

  14. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  15. 78 FR 11680 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ..., the former name of the Grand Rapids Public Museum). The object is a stone human effigy vessel that was... lot of unassociated funerary objects was bequeathed to the Grand Rapids Public Museum by Dr. Ruth Herrick. The lot of unassociated funerary objects is identified in the Grand Rapids Public...

  16. Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, C.H.

    1980-02-12

    Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape.

  17. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Jesse; & Tidwell, Vincent

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  18. Levels at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations

  19. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part IV. Television Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This fourth part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers television stations. Two sections are provided: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the other indexed by…

  20. SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image.

  1. Compression and compression fatigue testing of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of moisture and temperature on the fatigue and fracture response of composite laminates under compression loads were investigated. The structural laminates studied were an intermediate stiffness graphite-epoxy composite (a typical angle ply laimna liminate had a typical fan blade laminate). Full and half penetration slits and impact delaminations were the defects examined. Results are presented which show the effects of moisture on the fracture and fatigue strength at room temperature, 394 K (250 F), and 422 K (300 F). Static tests results show the effects of defect size and type on the compression-fracture strength under moisture and thermal environments. The cyclic tests results compare the fatigue lives and residual compression strength under compression only and under tension-compression fatigue loading.

  2. Survey of Header Compression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves

  3. Population attribute compression

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  4. Compressive Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Han; Guibas, Leonidas

    2014-01-01

    Modern data acquisition routinely produces massive amounts of network data. Though many methods and models have been proposed to analyze such data, the research of network data is largely disconnected with the classical theory of statistical learning and signal processing. In this paper, we present a new framework for modeling network data, which connects two seemingly different areas: network data analysis and compressed sensing. From a nonparametric perspective, we model an observed network using a large dictionary. In particular, we consider the network clique detection problem and show connections between our formulation with a new algebraic tool, namely Randon basis pursuit in homogeneous spaces. Such a connection allows us to identify rigorous recovery conditions for clique detection problems. Though this paper is mainly conceptual, we also develop practical approximation algorithms for solving empirical problems and demonstrate their usefulness on real-world datasets. PMID:25620806

  5. Compressed quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, B.

    2014-12-04

    Here, I summarize the results presented in B. Kraus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 250503 (2011). Recently, it has been shown that certain circuits, the so-called match gate circuits, can be compressed to an exponentially smaller universal quantum computation. We use this result to demonstrate that the simulation of a 1-D Ising chain consisting of n qubits can be performed on a universal quantum computer running on only log(n) qubits. We show how the adiabatic evolution can be simulated on this exponentially smaller system and how the magnetization can be measured. Since the Ising model displays a quantum phase transition, this result implies that a quantum phase transition of a very large system can be observed with current technology.

  6. Compressive Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Han; Guibas, Leonidas

    2014-11-01

    Modern data acquisition routinely produces massive amounts of network data. Though many methods and models have been proposed to analyze such data, the research of network data is largely disconnected with the classical theory of statistical learning and signal processing. In this paper, we present a new framework for modeling network data, which connects two seemingly different areas: network data analysis and compressed sensing. From a nonparametric perspective, we model an observed network using a large dictionary. In particular, we consider the network clique detection problem and show connections between our formulation with a new algebraic tool, namely Randon basis pursuit in homogeneous spaces. Such a connection allows us to identify rigorous recovery conditions for clique detection problems. Though this paper is mainly conceptual, we also develop practical approximation algorithms for solving empirical problems and demonstrate their usefulness on real-world datasets.

  7. Compressively sensed complex networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Ray, Jaideep; Pinar, Ali

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop low dimension parametric (deterministic) models of complex networks, to use compressive sensing (CS) and multiscale analysis to do so and to exploit the structure of complex networks (some are self-similar under coarsening). CS provides a new way of sampling and reconstructing networks. The approach is based on multiresolution decomposition of the adjacency matrix and its efficient sampling. It requires preprocessing of the adjacency matrix to make it 'blocky' which is the biggest (combinatorial) algorithm challenge. Current CS reconstruction algorithm makes no use of the structure of a graph, its very general (and so not very efficient/customized). Other model-based CS techniques exist, but not yet adapted to networks. Obvious starting point for future work is to increase the efficiency of reconstruction.

  8. Introduction-Grand Challenges and small steps.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, Giovanni; Efstathiou, Sophia

    2016-04-01

    This collection addresses two different audiences: 1) historians and philosophers of the life sciences reflecting on collaborations across disciplines, especially as regards defining and addressing Grand Challenges; 2) researchers and other stakeholders involved in cross-disciplinary collaborations aimed at tackling Grand Challenges in the life and medical sciences. The essays collected here offer ideas and resources both for the study and for the practice of goal-driven cross-disciplinary research in the life and medical sciences. We organise this introduction in three sections. The first section provides some background and context. The second motivates our take on this topic and then outlines the central ideas of each paper. The third section highlights the specificity and significance of this approach by considering: a) how this collection departs from existing literature on inter- and trans-disciplinarity, b) what is characteristic about this approach, and c) what role this suggests for the history and philosophy of the life sciences in addressing Grand Challenges.

  9. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  10. Station Tour: Cupola and Leonardo

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the tour of the International Space Station with a look at the station's observation deck, the cupola, as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Dev...

  11. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  12. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  13. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  14. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  15. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  16. Space Station Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor); Mays, C. R. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

  17. A lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  18. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  19. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  20. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  1. Key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateaus Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the winter of 1989--1990 a major meteorological and air pollution experiment was conducted in the Colorado Plateaus Basin (Richards et al., 1991). The focus of the experiment, conducted by Arizona`s Soft River Project, was to investigate the influence of three 750-MW coal-fired power plant units at the Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona, on visibility at Grand Canyon National Park. As part of the meteorological experiment, surface and upper air data were collected from multiple sites within the basin. This data set is the most comprehensive meteorological data set ever collected within the region, and the purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the key wintertime meteorological features of the Colorado Plateaus Basin and the Grand Canyon, through which the basin drains, using analyses of the Winter Visibility Study data. Our analyses focused primarily on thermally driven circulations within the basin and the Grand Canyon, but we also investigated the surface energy budget that drives these circulations and the interactions between the thermal circulations and the overlying synoptic-scale flows.

  2. Key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateaus Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the winter of 1989--1990 a major meteorological and air pollution experiment was conducted in the Colorado Plateaus Basin (Richards et al., 1991). The focus of the experiment, conducted by Arizona's Soft River Project, was to investigate the influence of three 750-MW coal-fired power plant units at the Navajo Generating Station near Page, Arizona, on visibility at Grand Canyon National Park. As part of the meteorological experiment, surface and upper air data were collected from multiple sites within the basin. This data set is the most comprehensive meteorological data set ever collected within the region, and the purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the key wintertime meteorological features of the Colorado Plateaus Basin and the Grand Canyon, through which the basin drains, using analyses of the Winter Visibility Study data. Our analyses focused primarily on thermally driven circulations within the basin and the Grand Canyon, but we also investigated the surface energy budget that drives these circulations and the interactions between the thermal circulations and the overlying synoptic-scale flows.

  3. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  4. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  5. Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This fish-eye view of the Russian Mir Space Station was photographed by a crewmember of the STS-74 mission after the separation. The image shows the installed Docking Module at bottom. The Docking Module was delivered and installed, making it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with Mir. The Orbiter Atlantis delivered water, supplies, and equipment, including two new solar arrays to upgrade the Mir; and returned to Earth with experiment samples, equipment for repair and analysis, and products manufactured on the Station. Mir was constructed in orbit by cornecting different modules, each launched separately from 1986 to 1996, providing a large and livable scientific laboratory in space. The 100-ton Mir was as big as six school buses and commonly housed three crewmembers. Mir was continuously occupied, except for two short periods, and hosted international scientists and American astronauts until August 1999. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific ocean. STS-74 was the second Space Shuttle/Mir docking mission launched on November 12, 1995, and landed at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995.

  6. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  7. Application specific compression : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-12-01

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  8. Data compression by wavelet transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1992-01-01

    A wavelet transform algorithm is applied to image compression. It is observed that the algorithm does not suffer from the blockiness characteristic of the DCT-based algorithms at compression ratios exceeding 25:1, but the edges do not appear as sharp as they do with the latter method. Some suggestions for the improved performance of the wavelet transform method are presented.

  9. Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Roland

    2011-01-01

    After finding Moloney and McGarvey's modified adiabatic compression apparatus, I decided to insert this experiment into my physical chemistry laboratory at the last minute, replacing a problematic experiment. With insufficient time to build the apparatus, we placed a bottle between two thick textbooks and compressed it with a third textbook forced…

  10. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  11. Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

  12. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  13. Build Your Own Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  14. Compressive sensing exploiting wavelet-domain dependencies for ECG compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polania, Luisa F.; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging signal processing paradigm that enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse signals. Extensive previous work has exploited the sparse representation of ECG signals in compression applications. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelet domain dependencies to further reduce the number of samples in compressive sensing-based ECG compression while decreasing the computational complexity. R wave events manifest themselves as chains of large coefficients propagating across scales to form a connected subtree of the wavelet coefficient tree. We show that the incorporation of this connectedness as additional prior information into a modified version of the CoSaMP algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of samples to achieve good quality in the reconstruction. This approach also allows more control over the ECG signal reconstruction, in particular, the QRS complex, which is typically distorted when prior information is not included in the recovery. The compression algorithm was tested upon records selected from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm leads to high compression ratios associated with low distortion levels relative to state-of-the-art compression algorithms.

  15. Greening of the Grand Canyon -- developing a sustainable design for the Grand Canyon National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.T.

    1995-11-01

    The Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is faced with increasing visitor demand that is threatening the natural and cultural resources of one of the most popular recreation sites in the United States. The National Park Service (NPS) developed a draft General Management Plan (GMP), which provides management objectives and visions for the entire park, with alternative plans for the park`s developed areas. With the GMP as a starting point, a Grand Canyon Sustainable Design Workshop was conducted to make the Grand Canyon National Park more environmentally and economically sustainable. The workshop, which used the Environmental Design Charrette process, addressed integrated environmental solutions and their implementation in three primary areas: Integrated Information, Visitor Experience, and Resource Efficiency. This paper describes the Environmental Design Charrette process and the efforts of the Resource Efficiency group.

  16. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  17. Compressive Sensing for Quantum Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Gregory A.

    This thesis describes the application of compressive sensing to several challenging problems in quantum imaging with practical and fundamental implications. Compressive sensing is a measurement technique that compresses a signal during measurement such that it can be dramatically undersampled. Compressive sensing has been shown to be an extremely efficient measurement technique for imaging, particularly when detector arrays are not available. The thesis first reviews compressive sensing through the lens of quantum imaging and quantum measurement. Four important applications and their corresponding experiments are then described in detail. The first application is a compressive sensing, photon-counting lidar system. A novel depth mapping technique that uses standard, linear compressive sensing is described. Depth maps up to 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution are recovered with depth resolution less than 2.54 cm. The first three-dimensional, photon counting video is recorded at 32 x 32 pixel resolution and 14 frames-per-second. The second application is the use of compressive sensing for complementary imaging---simultaneously imaging the transverse-position and transverse-momentum distributions of optical photons. This is accomplished by taking random, partial projections of position followed by imaging the momentum distribution on a cooled CCD camera. The projections are shown to not significantly perturb the photons' momenta while allowing high resolution position images to be reconstructed using compressive sensing. A variety of objects and their diffraction patterns are imaged including the double slit, triple slit, alphanumeric characters, and the University of Rochester logo. The third application is the use of compressive sensing to characterize spatial entanglement of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion. The technique gives a theoretical speedup N2/log N for N-dimensional entanglement over the standard raster scanning technique

  18. Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munski, Laura

    Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the

  19. The effect of sprung (suspended) floors on leg stiffness during grand jeté landings in ballet.

    PubMed

    Hackney, James; Brummel, Sara; Jungblut, Kara; Edge, Carissa

    2011-09-01

    This study compared stiffness of the landing leg in ballet dancers performing grand jeté on a sprung floor to leg stiffness during the same movement on a hard floor (wood on concrete). Leg stiffness was calculated as the ratio of vertical ground reaction force (in Newtons) to compression of the lower limb (in meters). Thirteen female dancers were measured for five repetitions each at the point of maximum leg compression while landing grand jeté on both of the surfaces, such that 20 milliseconds of data were represented for each trial. The stiffness of the landing leg at the point of maximum compression was decreased by a mean difference score of 6168.0 N/m ± 11,519.5 N/m on the hard floor compared to the sprung floor. Paired t-test yielded a one-tailed probability of p = 0.038. This effect was seen in 11 of the 13 participants. The finding of increased stiffness of the landing leg in the sprung floor condition suggests that some of the force of landing the leap was absorbed by the surface, and therefore did not need to be absorbed by the landing leg itself. This in turn implies that a sprung dance floor may help to prevent dance-related injuries.

  20. Compressed Submanifold Multifactor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luu, Khoa; Savvides, Marios; Bui, Tien; Suen, Ching

    2016-04-14

    Although widely used, Multilinear PCA (MPCA), one of the leading multilinear analysis methods, still suffers from four major drawbacks. First, it is very sensitive to outliers and noise. Second, it is unable to cope with missing values. Third, it is computationally expensive since MPCA deals with large multi-dimensional datasets. Finally, it is unable to maintain the local geometrical structures due to the averaging process. This paper proposes a novel approach named Compressed Submanifold Multifactor Analysis (CSMA) to solve the four problems mentioned above. Our approach can deal with the problem of missing values and outliers via SVD-L1. The Random Projection method is used to obtain the fast low-rank approximation of a given multifactor dataset. In addition, it is able to preserve the geometry of the original data. Our CSMA method can be used efficiently for multiple purposes, e.g. noise and outlier removal, estimation of missing values, biometric applications. We show that CSMA method can achieve good results and is very efficient in the inpainting problem as compared to [1], [2]. Our method also achieves higher face recognition rates compared to LRTC, SPMA, MPCA and some other methods, i.e. PCA, LDA and LPP, on three challenging face databases, i.e. CMU-MPIE, CMU-PIE and Extended YALE-B.

  1. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  2. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  3. Designing Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

  4. Space station contamination considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Ehlers, H.; Jacobs, S.

    1986-01-01

    The external induced environment generated by space station activity, or more specifically by gases, particles, and light background is discussed. These contaminant species must be controlled if sensitive systems, such as solar energy collectors or science experiments exposed to the external environment are to function properly. The requirements generally set limits on the level of gas species, matter deposited on surfaces and light background levels over various spectral regions. They also address environment monitoring and contamination controls during manufacturing. Limits on effluent release and system leakages are in turn derived from these requirements.

  5. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  6. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  7. Grand rounds for dental students: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, D J; Heys, D R; Holland, G R; Keerthy, Akshay; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-05-01

    Grand Rounds are widely used in medicine for educating students comprehensively about clinical issues. The aim of this study was to explore the value of Grand Rounds for introducing first- (D1) and second-year (D2) dental students to an interdisciplinary approach to dental care. The objectives were to explore how interested students were in various topics, which topics they would like to see addressed in future sessions, which aspects they liked/disliked, how they evaluated the program components, and how they evaluated the outcomes. Data were collected from D1s at the end of the Year 1 fall term and from D1s and D2s at the beginning and end of the Year 1 winter term and at the end of Year 2. Response rates for most of the groups ranged from 88% to 100%, but response rates for surveys at the end of the study period fell to 40% and 32%. The results showed that the students were most interested in clinical topics that were presented in an interdisciplinary way. Their suggested topics ranged from specialty-specific issues to treatment-related topics such as implants and cosmetic dentistry. The open-ended responses showed that students liked learning differing perspectives on these topics, but disliked the course-related assignments and the preparation work in small groups. The closed-ended responses showed that the students appreciated the in-class presentations by experts and evaluated the course as helpful in informing them about the complexity of issues and the importance of the interplay between basic and clinical sciences. Educating future dentists in a way in which they embrace interdisciplinary approaches is challenging. Using the Grand Rounds concept could be one approach to increasing students' awareness of the importance of interdisciplinary work.

  8. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Grande Ronde Basin. Because of low escapement the Snake River summer steelhead were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on 18 August, 1997. Co-managers have also discontinued off-station releases of juvenile Wallowa stock (non-endemic) hatchery summer steelhead into Catherine Creek in 1998 and the upper Grande Ronde River in 1999. Data are lacking on adult return numbers and the genetic make-up of populations that return to tributaries of the Grande Ronde River basin, Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River specifically. Adult fish weirs are in place on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River and data on summer steelhead populations in those areas are collected.

  9. 47 CFR 74.1281 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1281 Station records. (a) The licensee of a station...

  10. 47 CFR 74.1281 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1281 Station records. (a) The licensee of a station...

  11. Grand valley irrigation return flow case study

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, J.W.

    1981-06-01

    Irrigation water supply is furnished annually to about 71,500 acres of land in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Return flows from that irrigation contribute about 780,000 tpy of salt to the Colorado River, causing an increase of 77 mg/l in the salinity concentration at Imperial Dam. A case study of water quality in this region is focused on: water quality data for irrigation and return flows/ identification of regulations that affect irrigation and return flows/ and a proposed program for controlling salinity levels. (1 map, 9 references, 8 tables)

  12. SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. The periodicity of Grand Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The sunspot number is the most used index to quantify the solar activity. Nevertheless, the sunspot is a syn- thetic index and not a physical index. Therefore, we should be careful to use the sunspot number to quantify the low (high) solar activity. One of the major problems of using sunspot to quantify solar activity is that its minimum value is zero. This zero value hinders the reconstruction of the solar cycle during the Maunder minimum. All solar indexes can be used as analog signals, which can be easily converted into digital signals. In con- trast, the conversion of a digital signal into an analog signal is not in general a simple task. The sunspot number during the Maunder minimum can be studied as a digital signal of the solar activity In 1894, Maunder published a discovery that has maintained the Solar Physics in an impasse. In his fa- mous work on "A Prolonged Sunspot Minimum" Maunder wrote: "The sequence of maximum and minimum has, in fact, been unfailing during the present century [..] and yet there [..], the ordinary solar cycle was once interrupted, and one long period of almost unbroken quiescence prevailed". The search of new historical Grand solar minima has been one of the most important questions in Solar Physics. However, the possibility of estimating a new Grand solar minimum is even more valuable. Since solar activity is the result of electromagnetic processes; we propose to employ the power to quantify solar activity: this is a fundamental physics concept in electrodynamics. Total Solar Irradiance is the primary energy source of the Earth's climate system and therefore its variations can contribute to natural climate change. In this work, we propose to consider the fluctuations in the power of the Total Solar Irradiance as a physical measure of the energy released by the solar dynamo, which contributes to understanding the nature of "profound solar magnetic field in calm". Using a new reconstruction of the Total Solar Irradiance we found the

  14. Designing experiments through compressed sensing.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-06-01

    In the following paper, we discuss how to design an ensemble of experiments through the use of compressed sensing. Specifically, we show how to conduct a small number of physical experiments and then use compressed sensing to reconstruct a larger set of data. In order to accomplish this, we organize our results into four sections. We begin by extending the theory of compressed sensing to a finite product of Hilbert spaces. Then, we show how these results apply to experiment design. Next, we develop an efficient reconstruction algorithm that allows us to reconstruct experimental data projected onto a finite element basis. Finally, we verify our approach with two computational experiments.

  15. Context-Aware Image Compression

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jacky C. K.; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire L.; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    We describe a physics-based data compression method inspired by the photonic time stretch wherein information-rich portions of the data are dilated in a process that emulates the effect of group velocity dispersion on temporal signals. With this coding operation, the data can be downsampled at a lower rate than without it. In contrast to previous implementation of the warped stretch compression, here the decoding can be performed without the need of phase recovery. We present rate-distortion analysis and show improvement in PSNR compared to compression via uniform downsampling. PMID:27367904

  16. Wearable EEG via lossless compression.

    PubMed

    Dufort, Guillermo; Favaro, Federico; Lecumberry, Federico; Martin, Alvaro; Oliver, Juan P; Oreggioni, Julian; Ramirez, Ignacio; Seroussi, Gadiel; Steinfeld, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a wearable multi-channel EEG recording system featuring a lossless compression algorithm. The algorithm, based in a previously reported algorithm by the authors, exploits the existing temporal correlation between samples at different sampling times, and the spatial correlation between different electrodes across the scalp. The low-power platform is able to compress, by a factor between 2.3 and 3.6, up to 300sps from 64 channels with a power consumption of 176μW/ch. The performance of the algorithm compares favorably with the best compression rates reported up to date in the literature.

  17. Compressive phase-only filtering at extreme compression rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Calle, David; Pastuszczak, Anna; Mikołajczyk, Michał; Kotyński, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an efficient method for the reconstruction of the correlation between a compressively measured image and a phase-only filter. The proposed method is based on two properties of phase-only filtering: such filtering is a unitary circulant transform, and the correlation plane it produces is usually sparse. Thanks to these properties, phase-only filters are perfectly compatible with the framework of compressive sensing. Moreover, the lasso-based recovery algorithm is very fast when phase-only filtering is used as the compression matrix. The proposed method can be seen as a generalization of the correlation-based pattern recognition technique, which is hereby applied directly to non-adaptively acquired compressed data. At the time of measurement, any prior knowledge of the target object for which the data will be scanned is not required. We show that images measured at extremely high compression rates may still contain sufficient information for target classification and localization, even if the compression rate is high enough, that visual recognition of the target in the reconstructed image is no longer possible. The method has been applied by us to highly undersampled measurements obtained from a single-pixel camera, with sampling based on randomly chosen Walsh-Hadamard patterns.

  18. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  19. The Grand Duchy on the Grand Tour: A Historical Study of Student Migration in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohstock, Anne; Schreiber, Catherina

    2013-01-01

    Since Luxembourg became independent in 1839, practically the entire political, economic and intellectual elite of the country has been socialised abroad. It was only in 2003 that the Grand Duchy set up its own university; before then, young Luxembourgers had to study in foreign countries. Over the past 150 years, Luxembourg has thus experienced…

  20. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  1. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  2. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  3. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  4. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  5. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section...

  6. Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program PROJECT NUMBER 05-158 Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase II...Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Grand Bay-Banks Lake Desired Future Ecological Condition Workshop 2 Acknowledgements The Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership

  7. Gamma ray and neutrino detector facility (GRANDE), Task C

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, H.W.; Yodh, G.B.

    1991-08-01

    GRANDE is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. We proposed that the detector be constructed in phases, beginning with an active detector area of 31,000 m{sup 2} (GRANDE-I){sup 2} and expanding to a final size of 100,000--150,00 m{sup 2}. Some of the characteristics of GRANDE-I are discussed in this paper.

  8. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; De Souza, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. Objectives We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. Results The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Conclusions Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease. PMID:26964429

  9. Preprocessing of compressed digital video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, C. Andrew; Karunaratne, Passant V.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2000-12-01

    Pre-processing algorithms improve on the performance of a video compression system by removing spurious noise and insignificant features from the original images. This increases compression efficiency and attenuates coding artifacts. Unfortunately, determining the appropriate amount of pre-filtering is a difficult problem, as it depends on both the content of an image as well as the target bit-rate of compression algorithm. In this paper, we explore a pre- processing technique that is loosely coupled to the quantization decisions of a rate control mechanism. This technique results in a pre-processing system that operates directly on the Displaced Frame Difference (DFD) and is applicable to any standard-compatible compression system. Results explore the effect of several standard filters on the DFD. An adaptive technique is then considered.

  10. Efficient Decoding of Compressed Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiouni, Mostafa A.; Mukherjee, Amar

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the problem of enhancing the speed of Huffman decoding of compressed data. Topics addressed include the Huffman decoding tree; multibit decoding; binary string mapping problems; and algorithms for solving mapping problems. (22 references) (LRW)

  11. Imaging of venous compression syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Suvranu; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Gupta, Rajiv; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Venous compression syndromes are a unique group of disorders characterized by anatomical extrinsic venous compression, typically in young and otherwise healthy individuals. While uncommon, they may cause serious complications including pain, swelling, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. The major disease entities are May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), variant iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS)/Paget-Schroetter syndrome, nutcracker syndrome (NCS), and popliteal venous compression (PVC). In this article, we review the key clinical features, multimodality imaging findings, and treatment options of these disorders. Emphasis is placed on the growing role of noninvasive imaging options such as magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and tailored intervention. PMID:28123973

  12. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  13. Compression fractures of the back

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral compression fractures ... the most common cause of this type of fracture. Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become ... the spine, such as multiple myeloma Having many fractures of the vertebrae can lead to kyphosis . This ...

  14. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  15. Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This special report looks at the use of natural gas pipeline compressor stations on the interstate natural gas pipeline network that serves the lower 48 states. It examines the compression facilities added over the past 10 years and how the expansions have supported pipeline capacity growth intended to meet the increasing demand for natural gas.

  16. Grand Canyon, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen Canyon Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen Canyon, the Colorado enters the Grand Canyon, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand Canyon lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Extension in the Rio Grande rift.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordell, L.

    1982-01-01

    A positive gravity anomaly along the axis of the Rio Grande rift reflects a volume of anomalous mass added at the base of the crust and intruded into the crust. Part of this volume can be associated with vertical uplift of the crust. The remainder of this anomalous volume, plus the volume of surficial graben fill, can be associated with horizontal crustal extension. The volume of crustal uplift in the Rio Grande rift is unknown, but this term can be eliminated by means of an independent equation provided by assumption of generalized isostatic equilibrium. The volume and mass equations combined provide a solution for extension of the crust in terms of the following parameters: total anomalous mass deficiency in the mantle lithosphere, total anomalous mass excess in the crust and its density contrast, total anomalous mass deficiency of surficial graben fill and its density contrast, and the volume of material eroded from the uplift. Using standard density estimates and masses determined by equivalent-source modeling of gravity profiles, I obtained 1-km extension at 37oN (Colorado-New Mexico border), 13- km extension at 35oN (Albuquerque, New Mexico), and 24-km extension at 33oN in S New Mexico.-Author

  18. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    The transition to hydrogen as a fuel source presents several challenges. One of the major hurdles is the cost-effective production of hydrogen in small quantities (less than 1MMscf/month). In the early demonstration phase, hydrogen can be provided by bulk distribution of liquid or compressed gas from central production plants; however, the next phase to fostering the hydrogen economy will likely include onsite generation and extensive pipeline networks to help effect a pervasive infrastructure. Providing inexpensive hydrogen at a fleet operator’s garage or local fueling station is a key enabling technology for direct hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive, turnkey, stand-alone, commercial hydrogen fueling station for FCVs with state-of-the-art technology that is cost-competitive with current hydrocarbon fuels. Such a station would promote the advent of the hydrogen fuel economy for buses, fleet vehicles, and ultimately personal vehicles. Air Products, partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), The Pennsylvania State University, Harvest Energy Technology, and QuestAir, developed a turnkey hydrogen fueling station on the Penn State campus. Air Products aimed at designing a station that would have 65% overall station efficiency, 82% PSA (pressure swing adsorption) efficiency, and the capability of producing hydrogen at $3.00/kg (gge) H2 at mass production rates. Air Products designed a fueling station at Penn State from the ground up. This project was implemented in three phases. The first phase evaluated the various technologies available in hydrogen generation, compression, storage, and gas dispensing. In the second phase, Air Products designed the components chosen from the technologies examined. Finally, phase three entailed a several-month period of data collection, full-scale operation, maintenance of the station, and optimization of system reliability and performance. Based on field data

  19. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  20. Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

  1. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T.; Guo Xiao Yan

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  2. Local control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  3. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  4. Space station MMOD shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Nagy, Kornel; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Thomas G.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the International Space Station (ISS) micro-meteoroid orbital debris (MMOD) impact shielding including the requirements for protection as well as technical approaches to meeting the requirements. Current activities in providing MMOD protection for ISS are described, including efforts to augment MMOD protection by adding shields on-orbit. Another activity is to observe MMOD impact damage on ISS elements and returned hardware, and to compare the observed damage with predicted damage using Bumper code risk assessment software. A conclusion of this paper is that ISS will be protected adequately from MMOD impact after completing augmentation of ISS shielding for service module, and after improving MMOD protection for Soyuz and Progress vehicles. Another conclusion is that impact damage observed to the ISS mini-pressurized logistics module matches the distribution of impacts predicted by Bumper code.

  5. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  6. Students Learn About Station Robotics

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Robotics Systems Flight Controller Jason Dyer participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at East Stroudsber...

  7. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  8. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  9. Space Station Technology Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacabucci, R.; Evans, S.; Briley, G.; Delventhal, R. A.; Braunscheidel, E.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of the Space Station Propulsion Advanced Technology Programs established an in-depth data base for the baseline gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen thruster, the waste gas resistojet, and the associated system operations. These efforts included testing of a full end-to-end system at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in which oxygen and hydrogen were generated from water by electrolysis at 6.89 MPa (1,000 psia), stored and fired through the prototype thruster. Recent end-to-end system tests which generate the oxygen/hydrogen propellants by electrolysis of water at 20.67 MPa (3,000 psia) were completed on the Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). Resistojet testing has included 10,000 hours of life testing, plume characterization, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing. Extensive 25-lbf thruster testing was performed defining operating performance characteristics across the required mixture ratio and thrust level ranges. Life testing has accumulated 27 hours of operation on the prototype thruster. A total of seven injectors and five thrust chambers were fabricated to the same basic design. Five injectors and three thrust chambers designed to incorporate improved life, performance, and producibility characteristics are ready for testing. Five resistojets were fabricated and tested, with modifications made to improve producibility. The lessons learned in the area of producibility for both the O2/H2 thrusters and for the resistojet have resolved critical fabrication issues. The test results indicate that all major technology issues for long life and reliability for space station application were resolved.

  10. Integrated microfluidic probe station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, C. M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Anderson, K.; Kabakibo, Y.; Juncker, D.

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution—thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet—and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  11. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    PubMed

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  12. Expanding Window Compressed Sensing for Non-Uniform Compressible Signals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xuqi; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    Many practical compressible signals like image signals or the networked data in wireless sensor networks have non-uniform support distribution in their sparse representation domain. Utilizing this prior information, a novel compressed sensing (CS) scheme with unequal protection capability is proposed in this paper by introducing a windowing strategy called expanding window compressed sensing (EW-CS). According to the importance of different parts of the signal, the signal is divided into several nested subsets, i.e., the expanding windows. Each window generates its own measurements using a random sensing matrix. The more significant elements are contained by more windows, so they are captured by more measurements. This design makes the EW-CS scheme have more convenient implementation and better overall recovery quality for non-uniform compressible signals than ordinary CS schemes. These advantages are theoretically analyzed and experimentally confirmed. Moreover, the EW-CS scheme is applied to the compressed acquisition of image signals and networked data where it also has superior performance than ordinary CS and the existing unequal protection CS schemes. PMID:23201984

  13. 17 CFR 23.503 - Portfolio compression.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portfolio compression. 23.503... MAJOR SWAP PARTICIPANTS Swap Documentation § 23.503 Portfolio compression. (a) Portfolio compression... participant in a timely fashion, when appropriate. (2) Bilateral compression. Each swap dealer and major...

  14. 17 CFR 23.503 - Portfolio compression.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Portfolio compression. 23.503... MAJOR SWAP PARTICIPANTS Swap Documentation § 23.503 Portfolio compression. (a) Portfolio compression... participant in a timely fashion, when appropriate. (2) Bilateral compression. Each swap dealer and major...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  17. Compressive Imaging via Approximate Message Passing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-04

    We propose novel compressive imaging algorithms that employ approximate message passing (AMP), which is an iterative signal estimation algorithm that...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Compressive Imaging via Approximate Message Passing The views, opinions and/or findings...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 approximate message passing , compressive imaging, compressive sensing, hyperspectral imaging, signal reconstruction

  18. Lava Flows in the Grand Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Over vast expanses of time, natural processes like floods and volcanoes deposit layers of rock on the Earth's surface. To delve down through layers of rock is to explore our planet's history. Sometimes rock layers are exposed through human activity, such as drilling or excavation. Other times, rivers carve through the rock. One of the best, and most well-known, examples of a river exposing ancient rocks is Colorado River in Arizona's Grand Canyon. What fewer people know is that the Grand Canyon also has a history of relatively recent (on geologic time scales) volcanism. The evidence--hardened lava--spills down the canyon walls all the way to the river. On June 22, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the Grand Canyon, near 36.2 degrees north latitude and 113.2 degrees west longitude. ASTER detects light visible to human eyes as well as 'invisible' infrared light. Because different minerals reflect different portions of the light spectrum, ASTER can see varying mineral compositions of the rocks it observes, as well as detecting vegetation. In this three-dimensional visualization, lava fields appear brownish gray, darker than the layers of limestone, sandstone and other rock in the canyon. Vegetation appears green, and sparsely vegetated areas appear mustard. Water in the Colorado River is blue-purple. Geologists estimate that between 1.8 million and 400,000 years ago, lava flows actually dammed the Colorado River more than a dozen times. Some of the lava dams were as high as 600 meters (about 1,969 feet), forming immense reservoirs. Over time, enough water and sediment built up to push the river flow over the tops of these dams and eventually erode them away. Today, remnants of these lava dams remain throughout the area, along with the much older rock layers they cover. Among the most well known examples of these 'frozen' lava cascades is Lava Falls, which spills down to the

  19. La masa de los grandes impactores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Los planetas han sido formados fundamentalmente acretando masa a través de colisiones con planetesimales sólidos. La masa más grande de la distribución de planetesimales y las masas máxima y mínima de los impactores, han sido calculadas usando los valores actuales del período y de la inclinación de los planetas (Lissauer & Safronov 1991; Parisi & Brunini 1996). Recientes investigaciones han mostrado, que las órbitas de los planetas gigantes no han sufrido variaciones con el tiempo, siendo su movimiento regular durante su evolución a partir de la finalización de la etapa de acreción (Laskar 1990, 1994). Por lo tanto, la eccentricidad actual de los planetas gigantes se puede utilizar para imponer una cota máxima a las masas y velocidades orbitales de los grandes impactores. Mediante un simple modelo dinámico, y considerando lo arriba mencionado, obtenemos la cota superior para la masa del planetesimal más grande que impactó a cada planeta gigante al final de su etapa de acreción. El resultado más importante de este trabajo es la estimación de la masa máxima permitida para impactar a Júpiter, la cúal es ~ 1.136 × 10 -1, siendo en el caso de Neptuno ~ 3.99 × 10 -2 (expresada en unidades de la masa final de cada planeta). Además, fue posible obtener la velocidad orbital máxima permitida para los impactores como una función de su masa, para cada planeta. Las cotas obtenidas para la masa y velocidad de los impactores de Saturno y Urano (en unidades de la masa y velocidad final de cada planeta respectivamente) son casi las mismas que las obtenidas para Júpiter debido a que estos tres planetas poseen similar eccentricidad actual. Nuestros resultados están en buen acuerdo con los obtenidos por Lissauer & Safronov (1991). Estas cotas podrían ser utilizadas para obtener la distribución de planetesimales en el Sistema Solar primitivo.

  20. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  1. Perceptual Image Compression in Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Eckstein, Miguel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The next era of space exploration, especially the "Mission to Planet Earth" will generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery: in collection, pre-processing, transmission to earth, archiving, and distribution to scientists at remote locations. Expected requirements in most of these areas clearly exceed current technology. Part of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. For much of this imagery, the ultimate consumer is the human eye. In this case image compression should be designed to match the visual capacities of the human observer. We have developed three techniques for optimizing image compression for the human viewer. The first consists of a formula, developed jointly with IBM and based on psychophysical measurements, that computes a DCT quantization matrix for any specified combination of viewing distance, display resolution, and display brightness. This DCT quantization matrix is used in most recent standards for digital image compression (JPEG, MPEG, CCITT H.261). The second technique optimizes the DCT quantization matrix for each individual image, based on the contents of the image. This is accomplished by means of a model of visual sensitivity to compression artifacts. The third technique extends the first two techniques to the realm of wavelet compression. Together these two techniques will allow systematic perceptual optimization of image compression in NASA imaging systems. Many of the image management challenges faced by NASA are mirrored in the field of telemedicine. Here too there are severe demands for transmission and archiving of large image databases, and the imagery is ultimately used primarily by human observers, such as radiologists. In this presentation I will describe some of our preliminary explorations of the applications

  2. Steroids from Dysoxylum grande (Meliaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wah, Low Kok; Abas, Faridah; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Ito, Hideyuki; Ismail, Intan Safinar

    2013-02-01

    Seven new 23-oxo-cholestane derivatives named as grandol A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), and G (7) were isolated from Dysoxylum grande leaves alongside with a new 3,4-secodammar-4(28)-en-3-oic acid derivative (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data, and their relative configurations were established by NOESY 2D NMR data. All of the isolates were tested for anti-acetylcholinesterase activity using thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography with fast blue B salt. Only grandol A (1) and B (2) showed positive results, with clear discoloration at a concentration of 12.5 ppm. However, the obtained IC(50) values for grandol A and B, when using Ellman's method, were not significant (>200 μg/ml).

  3. The ten grand challenges of synthetic life.

    PubMed

    Porcar, Manuel; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Victor; Dos Santos, Vitor A; Krasnogor, Natalio; Rasmussen, Steen; Moya, Andrés

    2011-06-01

    The construction of artificial life is one of the main scientific challenges of the Synthetic Biology era. Advances in DNA synthesis and a better understanding of regulatory processes make the goal of constructing the first artificial cell a realistic possibility. This would be both a fundamental scientific milestone and a starting point of a vast range of applications, from biofuel production to drug design. However, several major issues might hamper the objective of achieving an artificial cell. From the bottom-up to the selection-based strategies, this work encompasses the ten grand challenges synthetic biologists will have to be aware of in order to cope with the task of creating life in the lab.

  4. Grand Challenges in Protoplanetary Disc Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Ilee, John D.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Facchini, Stefano; Price, Daniel J.; Boneberg, Dominika M.; Booth, Richard A.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Hutchison, Mark A.; Kamp, Inga; Laibe, Guillaume; Lyra, Wladimir; Meru, Farzana; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Panić, Olja; Rice, Ken; Suzuki, Takeru; Teague, Richard; Walsh, Catherine; Woitke, Peter; Community authors

    2016-10-01

    The Protoplanetary Discussions conference-held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th-11th-included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.

  5. Biological grand universality and its physical challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    1999-12-01

    Presented quantitative laws of metabolism, mortality and evolution are valid for animals from bacteria to mammals and demonstrate grand universality in biology. Its microscopic origin may be a physical and mathematical challenge. Natural evolution is accurately reduced to the continuous one, “weak” and “strong” Gould-Eldredge spurts. The discovery of writing, i.e. non-genetic, long range, collective information transfer from generation to generation with human rather than natural selection, leads to post-evolution. Technological post-evolution is exponentially rapid and may lead to the extinction of a civilization. This might resolve the Fermi-Hart paradox: if extra-terrestrial intelligence exists, why it cannot be contacted?

  6. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  7. The problem of the Grand Unification Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, H.-J.

    The evolution and fundamental questions of physical theories unifying the gravitational, electromagnetic, and quantum-mechanical interactions are explored, taking Pauli's aphorism as a motto: 'Let no man join what God has cast asunder.' The contributions of Faraday and Riemann, Lorentz, Einstein, and others are discussed, and the criterion of Pauli is applied to Grand Unification Theories (GUT) in general and to those seeking to link gravitation and electromagnetism in particular. Formal mathematical symmetry principles must be shown to have real physical relevance by predicting measurable phenomena not explainable without a GUT; these phenomena must be macroscopic because gravitational effects are to weak to be measured on the microscopic level. It is shown that empirical and theoretical studies of 'gravomagnetism', 'gravoelectricity', or possible links between gravoelectrity and the cosmic baryon assymmetry eventually lead back to basic questions which appear philosophical or purely mathematical but actually challenge physics to seek verifiable answers.

  8. Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Gu, Pei-Hong; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K.

    2009-10-01

    We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy (νDE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2)R breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1)R is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

  9. Grand Portage Reservation Environmental Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    There are seven types of aquatic resources on the Grand Portage Reservation. An ecological monitoring program was proposed for these resources. Some of the resources are pristine, while others have been affected by development. Each type of resource has physical (habitat, sediment, and hydrology), chemical, and biological (fish, invertebrates, and algae) characteristics that are monitored in a consistent manner so that change may be detected. Not all aspects of the physical, chemical, and biotic components are monitored at each resource type. Monitoring is focused on those aspects most susceptible to change. Replication and comparison with pristine components are a significant part of the program so that actual change can be determined from natural temporal and spatial variability.

  10. Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K.; Gu, P.-H.

    2009-10-01

    We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy ({nu}DE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2){sub R} breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1){sub R} is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

  11. Gauge-Higgs EW and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase 𝜃H in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for 𝜃H < 0.1, and predicts Z‧ bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  12. Gauge-Higgs EW and Grand Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unifiation scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase θH in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for θH < 0.1, and predicts Z' bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  13. Perspective view over the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand Canyon was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand Canyon Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel Canyon and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 5 km in foreground to 40 km Location: 36.3 degrees north latitude, 112 degrees west longitude Orientation: North-northeast at top Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters Dates Acquired: May 12, 2000

  14. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  15. "No. 64. View of Grand River looking along the axis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 64. View of Grand River looking along the axis of proposed diversion dam. H.T.C., Aug. 20, 1913." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  16. 29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (compare this photograph with AZ-17-15, taken at the same spot in 1937). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  18. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  19. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  20. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  1. 22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST FROM BELOW THE SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 REALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD RAILROAD CROSSING AND CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT LARGE WHITE BUILDING. THE CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT IS HIDDEN BY TREES TO RIGHT OF STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTH BANK NEAR SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). THE LARGE FOREGROUND PIPE CARRIED WATER ACROSS THE CANAL FROM THE SETTLING BASIN TO THE CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  5. 4. Photocopy of architectural blueprint (on file at La Grande ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of architectural blueprint (on file at La Grande District Office, La Grande, Oregon) USDA Forest Service, 1939 OIL AND GAS BUILDING - Union Ranger District Compound, Oil & Gas House, Fronting State Highway 203, at West edge of Union, Union, Union County, OR

  6. 24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  9. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  11. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  12. Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in generalized grand Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarkhadzhiev, Salaudin M.

    2014-12-01

    We obtain sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for the maximal operator to be bounded in the generalized grand Lebesgue space on an open set Ω ∈ Rn which is not necessarily bounded. The sufficient conditions coincide with necessary conditions for instance in the case where Ω is bounded and the standard definition of the grand space is used.

  13. THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. ACIDIC HOT SPRINGS HAVE REDUCED THE UNDERLYING LAVA TO A FINE CLAY, PRODUCING AN AREA OF BOILING MUD. THE ODOR OF ROTTEN EGGS IS FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  14. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  15. Laser Driven, Extreme Compression Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Jon

    2014-03-01

    Extreme-compression science is blessed by a number of new techniques and facilities that are shattering previous experimental limitations: static pressures above 600 GPa, equation of state (EOS) experiments on pulsed-power machines, picosecond-resolved x-ray diffraction on free-electron lasers, and many new experiments on high-energy lasers. Our goals, using high-energy lasers, have been to push the limits of high pressure accessible to measurement and to bridge the gap between static- and dynamic-compression experiments by exploring off-Hugoniot states. I will review laser techniques for both shock- and ramp-compression experiments, and discuss a variety of diagnostics. I will present recent results including: impedance-matching Hugoniot experiments, absolute-Hugoniot implosive-shock radiography, coupled radiometry and velocimetry, ramp-compression EOS, and in-situ x-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy into the TPa regime. As the National Ignition Facility (NIF) transitions to a laser user facility for basic and applied science, we are transferring many of these techniques. The unprecedented quality and variety of diagnostics available, coupled with exquisite pulse-shaping predictability and control make the NIF a premier facility for extreme-compression experiments.

  16. Laser Driven, Extreme Compression Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Jon

    2013-06-01

    Extreme-compression science is blessed by a number of new techniques and facilities that are shattering previous experimental limitations: static pressures above 600 GPa, equation of state (EOS) experiments on pulsed-power machines, picosecond-resolved x-ray diffraction on free-electron lasers, and many new experiments on high-energy lasers. Our goals, using high-energy lasers, have been to push the limits of high pressure accessible to measurement and to bridge the gap between static- and dynamic-compression experiments by exploring off-Hugoniot states. I will review laser techniques for both shock- and ramp-compression experiments, and discuss a variety of diagnostics. I will present recent results including: impedance-matching Hugoniot experiments, absolute-Hugoniot implosive-shock radiography, coupled radiometry and velocimetry, ramp-compression EOS, and in-situ x-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy into the TPa regime. As the National Ignition Facility (NIF) transitions to a laser user facility for basic and applied science, we are transferring many of these techniques. The unprecedented quality and variety of diagnostics available, coupled with exquisite pulse-shaping predictability and control make the NIF a premier facility for extreme-compression experiments.

  17. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  18. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  19. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  20. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  1. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  2. Reusing Railroad Stations. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Railroad stations are a unique American resource that should continue to serve public and private interests even though their original purpose may have passed. Large stations should be considered as prominent civic structures whose redevelopment could offer significant opportunities to influence the future character, economy, and operation of…

  3. The effects of ionized and nonionized compression garments on sprint and endurance cycling.

    PubMed

    Burden, Richard J; Glaister, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ionized and nonionized compression tights on sprint and endurance cycling performance. Using a randomized, blind, crossover design, 10 well-trained male athletes (age: 34.6 ± 6.8 years, height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 82.2 ± 10.4 kg, VO2max: 50.86 ± 6.81 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 3 sprint trials (30-second sprint at 150% of the power output required to elicit VO2max [pVO2max] + 3 minutes recovery at 40% pVO2max + 30-second Wingate test + 3 minutes recovery at 40% pVO2max) and 3 endurance trials (30 minutes at 60% pVO2max + 5 minutes stationary recovery + 10-km time trial) wearing nonionized compression tights, ionized compression tights, or standard running tights (control). There was no significant effect of garment type on key Wingate measures of peak power (grand mean: 1,164 ± 219 W, p = 0.812), mean power (grand mean: 716 ± 68 W, p = 0.800), or fatigue (grand mean: 66.5 ± 6.9%, p = 0.106). There was an effect of garment type on blood lactate in the sprint and the endurance trials (p < 0.05), although post hoc tests only detected a significant difference between the control and the nonionized conditions in the endurance trial (mean difference: 0.55 mmol·L(-1), 95% likely range: 0.1-1.1 mmol·L(-1)). Relative to control, oxygen uptake (p = 0.703), heart rate (p = 0.774), and time trial performance (grand mean: 14.77 ± 0.74 minutes, p = 0.790) were unaffected by either type of compression garment during endurance cycling. Despite widespread use in sport, neither ionized nor nonionized compression tights had any significant effect on sprint or endurance cycling performance.

  4. General Reevaluation and Supplement to Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes. Red and Red Lake Rivers at East Grand Forks, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    transmitted to citiy officials, newspapers, and radio and television stations in the basin. These media disseminate the information to residents of the...telephone to news media and community officials and law enforcement agencies. The Weather Service Office issues flash flood warnings as required for...activity, lower taxes, a military facility, passenger air and rail service, and more extensive media to emphasize the benefits of Grand Forks. The

  5. The seismic history of the Rio Grande Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, one of the major geologic structures of the Southwest, cuts through the center of New Mexico from north to south. The rift is also referred to as the Rio Grande Trench and as the Rio Grande Trough. It extends from the northern end of the San Luis Valley in Colorado southward 725 kilometres along the course of the Rio Grande River through New Mexico to near El Paso, Tex. The Rio Grande Rift is not a single trough but a series of north-trending basins arranged en echelon and separated by narrow constrictions or channels. The rift follows the western flank of the southern Rocky Mountains and apparently was formed at the same time as the moutains. 

  6. Canada's role on space station.

    PubMed

    Doetsch, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space.

  7. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  8. The effects of video compression on acceptability of images for monitoring life sciences experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Chuang, Sherry L.

    1992-01-01

    Future manned space operations for Space Station Freedom will call for a variety of carefully planned multimedia digital communications, including full-frame-rate color video, to support remote operations of scientific experiments. This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine if video compression is a viable solution to transmission bandwidth constraints. It reports on the impact of different levels of compression and associated calculational parameters on image acceptability to investigators in life-sciences research at ARC. Three nonhuman life-sciences disciplines (plant, rodent, and primate biology) were selected for this study. A total of 33 subjects viewed experimental scenes in their own scientific disciplines. Ten plant scientists viewed still images of wheat stalks at various stages of growth. Each image was compressed to four different compression levels using the Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) standard algorithm, and the images were presented in random order. Twelve and eleven staffmembers viewed 30-sec videotaped segments showing small rodents and a small primate, respectively. Each segment was repeated at four different compression levels in random order using an inverse cosine transform (ICT) algorithm. Each viewer made a series of subjective image-quality ratings. There was a significant difference in image ratings according to the type of scene viewed within disciplines; thus, ratings were scene dependent. Image (still and motion) acceptability does, in fact, vary according to compression level. The JPEG still-image-compression levels, even with the large range of 5:1 to 120:1 in this study, yielded equally high levels of acceptability. In contrast, the ICT algorithm for motion compression yielded a sharp decline in acceptability below 768 kb/sec. Therefore, if video compression is to be used as a solution for overcoming transmission bandwidth constraints, the effective management of the ratio and compression parameters

  9. Space station internal propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richie, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned with a wireless communication system in place for the transmission of information between crew members on board. The clarity of transmission is paramount to an effective system of communication. A short overview is presented of the system including the requirements of interest, and a statement of the problem. The theory used to solve the problem is explored. The results given are for the experiments performed on a mockup of the proposed structure at NASA-Marshall. The requirements on the signal level are that there is a 45 dB signal to noise ratio from end to end, and that coverage over 99 pct. of the volume be maintained. The Rice probability distribution function, a simple extension of the Rayleigh distribution, is used to estimate the field strength inside a volume, where a significant line of sight from the transmitter to the receiver exists. For the SSF, this distribution will correspond to the summation of a coherent line of sight path between the transmitter and the receiver and an incoherent portion. The incoherent portion is the sum of reflections from the walls and the equipment inside the SSF. The Rice distribution was found to be the optimal distribution from the results.

  10. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  11. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    STATION NAME BAHRAIN/KJS4ARR9AQ LoM4AIN pERlIOD: FEB 49-FES 81 9 STIN LYtS: 0111 MARCH 1982 LOCATION N26 17 EOS0 Z,7 ILEV 6 FT w gMo .; 325031 wwMoO. m A...MEAN (INS) 41. 29. 20. 3.1 a 0 0 0 0 8 6.0 21. 119 25 ALP 73 661 59 1 9 .49 58 S j . 7 .. . - MI NON (INS) .S V.J1.21 0 0 0 0 0 0 01 1.1 0 2S OCT 63 5...111 2 1 2 1 01 less t 0800 1 1 2 1 1 4 2 1 2 6 2000 fe0 10 ] 1 0 o - 8 -,,,d/o lm 2 - _12_ 1 1 A Co A87Y 10o0 2 17 03 o 97 1 6 2 ~15 -- 1 -AD -17 4

  12. Space station impact experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P.; Ahrens, T.; Alexander, W. M.; Cintala, M.; Gault, D.; Greeley, R.; Hawke, B. R.; Housen, K.; Schmidt, R.

    1986-01-01

    Four processes serve to illustrate potential areas of study and their implications for general problems in planetary science. First, accretional processes reflect the success of collisional aggregation over collisional destruction during the early history of the solar system. Second, both catastrophic and less severe effects of impacts on planetary bodies survivng from the time of the early solar system may be expressed by asteroid/planetary spin rates, spin orientations, asteroid size distributions, and perhaps the origin of the Moon. Third, the surfaces of planetary bodies directly record the effects of impacts in the form of craters; these records have wide-ranging implications. Fourth, regoliths evolution of asteroidal surfaces is a consequence of cumulative impacts, but the absence of a significant gravity term may profoundly affect the retention of shocked fractions and agglutinate build-up, thereby biasing the correct interpretations of spectral reflectance data. An impact facility on the Space Station would provide the controlled conditions necessary to explore such processes either through direct simulation of conditions or indirect simulation of certain parameters.

  13. Data compression using Chebyshev transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F. (Inventor); Hawkins, III, S. Edward (Inventor); Nguyen, Lillian (Inventor); Monaco, Christopher A. (Inventor); Seagrave, Gordon G. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention is a method, system, and computer program product for implementation of a capable, general purpose compression algorithm that can be engaged on the fly. This invention has particular practical application with time-series data, and more particularly, time-series data obtained form a spacecraft, or similar situations where cost, size and/or power limitations are prevalent, although it is not limited to such applications. It is also particularly applicable to the compression of serial data streams and works in one, two, or three dimensions. The original input data is approximated by Chebyshev polynomials, achieving very high compression ratios on serial data streams with minimal loss of scientific information.

  14. Premixed autoignition in compressible turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Krisman, Alexander; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Prediction of chemical ignition delay in an autoignition process is critical in combustion systems like compression ignition engines and gas turbines. Often, ignition delay times measured in simple homogeneous experiments or homogeneous calculations are not representative of actual autoignition processes in complex turbulent flows. This is due the presence of turbulent mixing which results in fluctuations in thermodynamic properties as well as chemical composition. In the present study the effect of fluctuations of thermodynamic variables on the ignition delay is quantified with direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence. A premixed syngas-air mixture is used to remove the effects of inhomogeneity in the chemical composition. Preliminary results show a significant spatial variation in the ignition delay time. We analyze the topology of autoignition kernels and identify the influence of extreme events resulting from compressibility and intermittency. The dependence of ignition delay time on Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers is also quantified. Supported by Basic Energy Sciences, Dept of Energy, United States.

  15. Compressive Sensing with Optical Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontani, D.; Choi, D.; Chang, C.-Y.; Locquet, A.; Citrin, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a technique to sample a sparse signal below the Nyquist-Shannon limit, yet still enabling its reconstruction. As such, CS permits an extremely parsimonious way to store and transmit large and important classes of signals and images that would be far more data intensive should they be sampled following the prescription of the Nyquist-Shannon theorem. CS has found applications as diverse as seismology and biomedical imaging. In this work, we use actual optical signals generated from temporal intensity chaos from external-cavity semiconductor lasers (ECSL) to construct the sensing matrix that is employed to compress a sparse signal. The chaotic time series produced having their relevant dynamics on the 100 ps timescale, our results open the way to ultrahigh-speed compression of sparse signals.

  16. Compressibility of zinc sulfide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.; Zhang, H.; Chen, B.; Banfield, J. F.; Kunz, M.; Huang, F.

    2006-09-15

    We describe a high-pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the compressibility of several samples of ZnS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized with a range of sizes and surface chemical treatments in order to identify the factors that determine nanoparticle compressibility. Refinement of the XRD data revealed that all ZnS nanoparticles in the nominally cubic (sphalerite) phase exhibited a previously unobserved structural distortion under ambient conditions that exhibited, in addition, a dependence on pressure. Our results show that the compressibility of ZnS nanoparticles increases substantially as the particle size decreases, and we propose an interpretation based upon the available mechanisms of structural compliance in nanoscale vs bulk materials.

  17. Experimental compressive phase space tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lei; Lee, Justin; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

    2012-01-01

    Phase space tomography estimates correlation functions entirely from snapshots in the evolution of the wave function along a time or space variable. In contrast, traditional interferometric methods require measurement of multiple two–point correlations. However, as in every tomographic formulation, undersampling poses a severe limitation. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, experimental demonstration of compressive reconstruction of the classical optical correlation function, i.e. the mutual intensity function. Our compressive algorithm makes explicit use of the physically justifiable assumption of a low–entropy source (or state.) Since the source was directly accessible in our classical experiment, we were able to compare the compressive estimate of the mutual intensity to an independent ground–truth estimate from the van Cittert–Zernike theorem and verify substantial quantitative improvements in the reconstruction. PMID:22513541

  18. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  19. Millimeter-wave compressive holography.

    PubMed

    Cull, Christy Fernandez; Wikner, David A; Mait, Joseph N; Mattheiss, Michael; Brady, David J

    2010-07-01

    We describe an active millimeter-wave holographic imaging system that uses compressive measurements for three-dimensional (3D) tomographic object estimation. Our system records a two-dimensional (2D) digitized Gabor hologram by translating a single pixel incoherent receiver. Two approaches for compressive measurement are undertaken: nonlinear inversion of a 2D Gabor hologram for 3D object estimation and nonlinear inversion of a randomly subsampled Gabor hologram for 3D object estimation. The object estimation algorithm minimizes a convex quadratic problem using total variation (TV) regularization for 3D object estimation. We compare object reconstructions using linear backpropagation and TV minimization, and we present simulated and experimental reconstructions from both compressive measurement strategies. In contrast with backpropagation, which estimates the 3D electromagnetic field, TV minimization estimates the 3D object that produces the field. Despite undersampling, range resolution is consistent with the extent of the 3D object band volume.

  20. Compressive Sensing with Optical Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Rontani, D.; Choi, D.; Chang, C.-Y.; Locquet, A.; Citrin, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a technique to sample a sparse signal below the Nyquist-Shannon limit, yet still enabling its reconstruction. As such, CS permits an extremely parsimonious way to store and transmit large and important classes of signals and images that would be far more data intensive should they be sampled following the prescription of the Nyquist-Shannon theorem. CS has found applications as diverse as seismology and biomedical imaging. In this work, we use actual optical signals generated from temporal intensity chaos from external-cavity semiconductor lasers (ECSL) to construct the sensing matrix that is employed to compress a sparse signal. The chaotic time series produced having their relevant dynamics on the 100 ps timescale, our results open the way to ultrahigh-speed compression of sparse signals. PMID:27910863

  1. Comparison of Open Source Compression Algorithms on Vhr Remote Sensing Images for Efficient Storage Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoguz, A.; Bozkurt, S.; Gozutok, A. A.; Alp, G.; Turan, E. G.; Bogaz, M.; Kent, S.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution level in satellite imagery came with its fundamental problem as big amount of telemetry data which is to be stored after the downlink operation. Moreover, later the post-processing and image enhancement steps after the image is acquired, the file sizes increase even more and then it gets a lot harder to store and consume much more time to transmit the data from one source to another; hence, it should be taken into account that to save even more space with file compression of the raw and various levels of processed data is a necessity for archiving stations to save more space. Lossless data compression algorithms that will be examined in this study aim to provide compression without any loss of data holding spectral information. Within this objective, well-known open source programs supporting related compression algorithms have been implemented on processed GeoTIFF images of Airbus Defence & Spaces SPOT 6 & 7 satellites having 1.5 m. of GSD, which were acquired and stored by ITU Center for Satellite Communications and Remote Sensing (ITU CSCRS), with the algorithms Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW), Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain Algorithm (LZMA & LZMA2), Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO), Deflate & Deflate 64, Prediction by Partial Matching (PPMd or PPM2), Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) in order to observe compression performances of these algorithms over sample datasets in terms of how much of the image data can be compressed by ensuring lossless compression.

  2. Distributed sensor data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, Barry; Lin, Freddie

    2006-04-01

    Theoretically it is possible for two sensors to reliably send data at rates smaller than the sum of the necessary data rates for sending the data independently, essentially taking advantage of the correlation of sensor readings to reduce the data rate. In 2001, Caltech researchers Michelle Effros and Qian Zhao developed new techniques for data compression code design for correlated sensor data, which were published in a paper at the 2001 Data Compression Conference (DCC 2001). These techniques take advantage of correlations between two or more closely positioned sensors in a distributed sensor network. Given two signals, X and Y, the X signal is sent using standard data compression. The goal is to design a partition tree for the Y signal. The Y signal is sent using a code based on the partition tree. At the receiving end, if ambiguity arises when using the partition tree to decode the Y signal, the X signal is used to resolve the ambiguity. We have extended this work to increase the efficiency of the code search algorithms. Our results have shown that development of a highly integrated sensor network protocol that takes advantage of a correlation in sensor readings can result in 20-30% sensor data transport cost savings. In contrast, the best possible compression using state-of-the-art compression techniques that did not take into account the correlation of the incoming data signals achieved only 9-10% compression at most. This work was sponsored by MDA, but has very widespread applicability to ad hoc sensor networks, hyperspectral imaging sensors and vehicle health monitoring sensors for space applications.

  3. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  4. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stations. (4) It is any type of radiopositioning or radar station authorized in a service other than the... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 90.425 Section 90.425... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.425 Station identification. Stations licensed...

  5. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  6. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  7. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  8. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  9. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  10. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  11. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  12. 46 CFR 108.633 - Fire stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire stations. 108.633 Section 108.633 Shipping COAST... Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.633 Fire stations. Each fire station must be identified by marking: “FIRE STATION NO. __;” next to the station in letters and numbers at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) high....

  13. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  14. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  15. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  16. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  17. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Code in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. If the station is employing either analog or... Safety Pool where the stations operate on frequencies below 450 MHz. Alternatively, a base station...) When a mobile station transmits on a different frequency than its associated base station, the...

  18. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Code in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. If the station is employing either analog or... Safety Pool where the stations operate on frequencies below 450 MHz. Alternatively, a base station...) When a mobile station transmits on a different frequency than its associated base station, the...

  19. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Code in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. If the station is employing either analog or... Safety Pool where the stations operate on frequencies below 450 MHz. Alternatively, a base station...) When a mobile station transmits on a different frequency than its associated base station, the...

  20. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...