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Sample records for grande river agriculture

  1. Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  2. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River.The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter.Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons.Water samples collected from selected sites within

  3. Early Agriculture in the Eastern Grand Canyon of Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.W.; Davis, M.E.; Lucchitta, I.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2000-01-01

    Abandoned fields in Colorado River alluvium in the eastern Grand Canyon show signs of primitive agriculture. Presence of maize pollen in association with buried soils near Comanche Creek suggests that farming began prior to 3130 yr B.P. Cotton pollen, identified in buried soils near Nankoweap Creek, dates to 1310 yr B.P., approximately 500 years earlier than previously reported anywhere on the Colorado Plateau. Farming spanned three millennia in this reach of the canyon. Entrenchment, starting approximately 700 yr B.P., making water diversion to fields infeasible, was likely responsible for field abandonment. ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the…

  5. 76 FR 43597 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, LA AGENCY: Coast... operation of the LA 77 bridge across the ] Lower Grand River, mile 47.0 (Alternate Route) at Grosse Tete..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The LA 77 bridge across the Lower Grand River, mile...

  6. Applying the World Water and Agriculture Model to Filling Scenarios for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Daniel L.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Passell, Howard D.; Roberts, Barry L.

    2016-11-01

    The World Water and Agriculture Model has been used to simulate water, hydropower, and food sector effects in Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia during the filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This unique capability allows tradeoffs to be made between filling policies for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This Nile River Basin study is presented to illustrate the capacity to use the World Water and Agriculture Model to simulate regional food security issues while keeping a global perspective. The study uses runoff data from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 and information from the literature in order to establish a reasonable set of hydrological initial conditions. Gross Domestic Product and population growth are modelled exogenously based on a composite projection of United Nations and World Bank data. The effects of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam under various percentages of water withheld are presented.

  7. "No. 64. View of Grand River looking along the axis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 64. View of Grand River looking along the axis of proposed diversion dam. H.T.C., Aug. 20, 1913." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  8. History and environmental setting of the Grand Calumet River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.; Gerovac, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The Grand Calumet River lies in an area of great ecological diversity, a result of the convergence of three biomes during glaciation. Over thousands of years the region and the river have changed ecologically due to ice retreat, lake level declines, settlement and industrialization. Settlement and industrialization have greatly accelerated the rate of change, and the Grand Calumet River and its basin are now subject to the added effects of years of direct pollution. For years, industries directly discharged into the waterway; and those contaminants remain locked in the sediment a century later. In order to preserve the remaining surrounding natural areas and to improve the Grand Calumet River, buried contaminants would have to be dredged from the river. Restoration needs to be implemented as part of the clean-up process, and recontamination should be prevented.

  9. A Miocene river in northern Arizona and its implications for the Colorado River and Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.; Holm, R.F.; Lucchitta, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    The southwesterly course of the pre–late Miocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona. It is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains. The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks, whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, possibly steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged twice, and the Four Corners region was lowered by erosion 1–2 km. The river provides constraints on the history of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon; its continuation into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river was probably across the Kaibab Arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon.

  10. Mutagenic potential of sediments from the Grand Calumet River

    SciTech Connect

    Maccubbin, A.E.; Ersing, N. )

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal is one of the International Joint Commission's Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC). Like many other AOCs, the Grand Calumet River is in a heavily industrialized area and has a history of chemical contamination. Many of the chemicals found in the industrial and municipal wastes that enter the waterway end up in sediment where they are concentrated to high levels. In order to assess the potential genotoxicity of sediments from the Grand Calumet River, the authors determined the mutagenic potential of organic extracts of sediments. The sediment extracts were assayed in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. In the Ames test, all ten sediment samples assayed were found to be mutagenic. In general, chemicals found in the sediments required metabolic activation before a positive mutagenic response was observed.

  11. Salinity in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, western Colorado, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; von Guerard, Paul B.

    1996-01-01

    Salinity, or the dissolved-solids concentration, is the measure of salts such as sodium chloride, calcium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate that are dissolved in water. About one-half of the salinity in the Colorado River Basin is from natural sources (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995), such as thermal springs in the Glenwood-Dotsero area, located about 90 miles upstream from Grand Junction (fig. 1). Effects of human activities, such as irrigation, reservoir evaporation, and transbasin diversions, have increased the levels of salinity in the Colorado River. High salinity can affect industrial and municipal water users by causing increased water-treatment costs, increased deterioration of plumbing and appliances, increased soap needs, and undesirable taste of drinking water. High salinity also can cause lower crop yields by reducing water and nutrient uptake by plants and can increase agricultural production costs because of higher leaching and drainage requirements. Agricultural losses might occur when salinity reaches about 700?850 milligrams per liter (U.S Department of the Interior, 1994). Figure 1. Irrigated area in the Grand Valley and locations of sampling sites for the 1994?95 salinity study of the Colorado River. The Colorado River is the major source of irrigation water to the Grand Valley (fig. 1) and also is one source of water for the Clifton Water District, which supplies domestic water to part of the eastern Grand Valley. During spring and early summer in 1994, the Colorado River in the Grand Valley had lower than average streamflow. There was concern by water users about the effect of this low streamflow on salinity in the river. In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study to evaluate salinity in the Colorado River. This fact sheet describes results of that study. The specific objectives of the fact sheet are to (1) compare salinity in the Colorado River among

  12. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87...

  13. 77 FR 58820 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The.... Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, Oklahoma......

  14. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  16. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  17. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Grand Calumet River, Indiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Science, p 37. 26 R31 Bright, Greg R. 1988. Recent Water Quality in the Grand Calumet River as Measured by Benthic Invertebrates . Proceedings of the...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The Water Quality...Management Plans. The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of bene- ficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc

  18. Monitoring the water quality of the Nation's large rivers: Rio Grande NASQAN Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored the water quality in the Rio Grande Basin as part of the redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) since 1995 (Hooper and others, 1997). The NASQAN program was designed to characterize the concentrations and transport of sediment and selected chemical constituents found in the Nation's large rivers-including the Mississippi, Colorado, and Columbia in addition to the Rio Grande. In these four basins, the USGS currently (1998) operates a network of 40 NASQAN sites, with an emphasis on quantifying the mass flux for each constituent (the amount of material moving past the site, expressed in tons per day). By applying a consistent flux-based approach in the Rio Grande Basin, the NASQAN program is generating the information needed to identify regional sources for a variety of constituents, including agricultural chemicals and trace elements, in the basin. The effect of the large reservoirs on the Rio Grande can be observed as constituent fluxes are routed downstream. The analysis of constituent fluxes on a basin-wide scale will provide the means to assess the influence of human activity on water-quality conditions in the Rio Grande.

  19. 76 FR 9341 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ..., 2011. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA). e. Name of Project: Pensacola Project. f... Ketchum Cove on Grand Lake 0' the Cherokees, Mayes County. The additional slips require waivers of...

  20. Effects of Reservoirs on O2 and N Dynamics in the Grand River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baets, B.; Taylor, W.; Schiff, S.

    2009-05-01

    The Grand River watershed, located in southern Ontario, is currently home to 925,000 people. It is an area of increasing population, expected to reach over 1,000,000 within the next decade. There are over 100 dams located on the river either municipally or privately owned; and an additional 32 which are owned and operated specifically by the Grand River Conservation Authority (GRCA). The GRCA-run dams are currently used for flood control, low-flow augmentation and hydro-electricity production. Though dams in the watershed are necessary, questions of river impacts arise. Some dams are bottom draw, which release cold and potentially low oxygenated water into the downstream systems. Also of potential concern is nitrogen loading into the reservoirs from upstream sources. Three of the GRCA-run dams and their associated reservoirs were part of a preliminary study that took place in the late summer and early fall of 2008. Samples were taken at locations above and in the reservoirs as well as below the dams and downstream of the dams. A drop in oxygen concentration was observed below bottom- draw dams. Preliminary work indicates downstream oxygen recovery is slow. NO3- concentrations were generally distinct between upstream, downstream and reservoir sites, indicating unique N cycling in reservoirs. The reservoir with the largest agricultural influence had the highest NO3- concentrations.

  1. Origin of the Colorado River experimental flood in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.; Pizzi, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most highly regulated and extensively utilized rivers in the world. Total reservoir storage is approximately four times the mean annual runoff of ~17 x 109 m3 year -1. Reservoir storage and regulation have decreased annual peak discharges and hydroelectric power generation has increased daily flow variability. In recent years, the incidental impacts of this development have become apparent especially along the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park downstream from Glen Canyon Dam and caused widespread concern. Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, the number and size of sand bars, which are used by recreational river runners and form the habitat for native fishes, have decreased substantially. Following an extensive hydrological and geomorphic investigation, an experimental flood release from the Glen Canyon Dam was proposed to determine whether sand bars would be rebuilt by a relatively brief period of flow substantially greater than the normal operating regime. This proposed release, however, was constrained by the Law of the River, the body of law developed over 70 years to control and distribute Colorado River water, the needs of hydropower users and those dependent upon hydropower revenues, and the physical constraints of the dam itself. A compromise was reached following often difficult negotiations and an experimental flood to rebuild sand bars was released in 1996. This flood, and the process by which it came about, gives hope to resolving the difficult and pervasive problem of allocation of water resources among competing interests.The Colorado River is one of the most highly regulated and extensively utilized rivers in the world. Total reservoir storage is approximately four times the mean annual runoff of approximately 17??109 m3 year-1. Reservoir storage and regulation have decreased annual peak discharges and hydroelectric power generation has increased daily flow variability. In recent years, the

  2. 75 FR 18055 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mermentau River, Grand Chenier, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... of the SR 82 swing span bridge across the Mermentau River, mile 7.1, at Grand Chenier, Cameron Parish... span drive assembly and system components. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to... operating schedule of the swing span bridge across the Mermentau River at mile 7.1 in Grand Chenier,...

  3. Tracing Anthropogenic Salinity Inputs to the Semi-arid Rio Grande River: A Multi-isotope Tracer (U, S, B and Sr) Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.; Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Szynkiewicz, A.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High salinity in the Rio Grande has led to severe reductions in crop productivity and accumulation of salts in soils. These pressing issues exist for other arid rivers worldwide. Salinity contributions to the Rio Grande have not been adequately quantified, especially from agriculture, urban activities, and geological sources. Here, we use major element concentrations and U, S, B, Sr isotopic signatures to fingerprint the salinity sources. Our study area focuses on a 200 km long stretch of the Rio Grande from Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM to El Paso, TX. River samples were collected monthly from 2014 to 2015. Irrigation drains, groundwater wells, city drains and wastewater effluents were sampled as possible anthropogenic salinity end-members. Major element chemistry, U, S and Sr isotope ratios in the Rio Grande waters suggest multiple salinity inputs from geological, agricultural, and urban sources. Natural upwelling of groundwater is significant for the Rio Grande near Elephant Butte, as suggested by high TDS values and high (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S ratios. Agricultural activities (e.g. flood irrigation, groundwater pumping, fertilizer use) are extensive in the Mesilla Valley. Rio Grande waters from this region have characteristic lower (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S ratios, with possible agricultural sources from use of fertilizers and gypsum. Agricultural practices during flood irrigation also intensify evaporation of Rio Grande surface water and considerably increase water salinity. Shallow groundwater signatures were also identified at several river locations, possibly due to the artificial pumping of local groundwater for irrigation. Impacts of urban activities to river chemistry (high NO3 and B concentrations) were evident for locations downstream to Las Cruces and El Paso wastewater treatment plants, supporting the use of the B isotope as an urban salinity tracer. This study improves our understanding of human impacts on water quality and elemental

  4. 75 FR 4363 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License..., 2009. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Hydroelectric Project... Contact: D. Casey Davis, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, 226 West Dwain Willis Avenue,......

  5. 76 FR 4649 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: In Mayes..., and Mr. Charles Atkins, Superintendent of Hydro Operations, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box...

  6. 78 FR 76604 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With.... Date Filed: November 27, 2013. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina... Lake Hudson (the lower reservoir), which is the reservoir for the Grand River Dam Authority's......

  7. 76 FR 7831 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Project. f. Location: The project is..., Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 73401-0409. Tel: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC...

  8. Implications of the miocene(?) crooked ridge river of northern arizona for the evolution of the colorado river and grand canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, Ivo; Holm, Richard F.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    2013-01-01

    The southwesterly course of the probably pre–early Miocene and possibly Oligocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona (United States). The course is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains (Colorado). The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, probably steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged three times, and the nearby Four Corners region was lowered 1–2 km by erosion. The river provides constraints on the early evolution of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon. Continuation of this river into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river probably was across the Kaibab arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon. Beyond this point, the course may have continued to the drainage basin of the Sacramento River, or to the proto–Snake River drainage. Crooked Ridge River was beheaded by the developing San Juan River, which pirated its waters and probably was tributary to a proto–Colorado River, flowing roughly along its present course west of the Monument upwarp.

  9. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    This project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Folk John Day and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years.

  10. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  11. Long-term change along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (1889-2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Belnap, J.; Scott, M. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Esque, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado River and its riverine resources have undergone profound changes since completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, as every river runner with any history in Grand Canyon will attest. Long-term monitoring data are difficult to obtain for high-value resource areas (Webb et al. 2009), particularly in remote parts of national parks, yet these data are important to determining appropriate actions for restoration of resources and (or) potential modifications of flow releases on regulated rivers. The river corridor through the bottom of Grand Canyon creates a challenging environment for change-detection monitoring techniques (Belnap et al. 2008).

  12. 75 FR 61458 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: May 27, 2010, supplemented on August 12 and August 16, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: Grand Lake in Ottawa...

  13. 75 FR 16090 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: March 11, 2010, supplemented on March 17, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e.... 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Ms. Tamara E. Jahnke, Assistant General Council, Grand Dam...

  14. Structural control of the rapids and pools of the colorado river in the grand canyon.

    PubMed

    Dolan, R; Howard, A; Trimble, D

    1978-11-10

    Most of the major rapids along the 450-kilometer course of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon are within fracture zones that run perpendicular to the river. Steep tributaries flowing within the zones of bedrock weakness move large debris to the Colorado, forming the rapids. Accelerated flow through the rapids scours the deep pools that are located below them.

  15. 76 FR 40903 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: The project... River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 73401-0409. Tel: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC Contact:...

  16. Vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian dune fields in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Arizona, in Grand Canyon National Park. Characterizing these parameters provides a basis from which to assess future changes in this ecosystem, including the spread of nonnative plant species. Differences are apparent between aeolian dune fields that are downwind of where modern controlled flooding deposits new sandbars (modern-fluvial-sourced dune fields) and those that have received little or no new windblown sand since river regulation began in the 1960s (relict-fluvial-sourced dune fields). The most substantial difference between modern- and relict-fluvial-sourced aeolian dune fields is the greater abundance of biologic soil crust in relict dune fields. These findings can be used with similar investigations in other geomorphic settings in Grand Canyon and elsewhere in the Colorado River corridor to evaluate the health of the Colorado River ecosystem over time.

  17. An experiment to control nonnative fish in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered native fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. In Grand Canyon, most humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River and its confluence with the Colorado River. For decades, however, nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), which prey on and compete with native fish, have dominated the Grand Canyon fish community. Between 2003 and 2006, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and Arizona Game and Fish Department experimentally removed 23,266 nonnative fish from a 9.4-mile-long reach of the Colorado River near where it joins the Little Colorado River. During the experiment, rainbow trout were reduced by as much as 90% and native fish abundance apparently increased in the reach. Concurrent environmental changes and a decrease in rainbow trout throughout the river make it difficult to determine if the apparent increase in native fish was the result of the experiment.

  18. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  19. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  20. Effects of tributary debris on the longitudinal profile of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, T.C.; Webb, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Colorado River in Grand Canyon has long been known as a "rapids-and-pools" river, with the rapids owing their existence primarily to tributary debris flows. The debris flows deposit subaerial debris fans that constrict the channel laterally and, when they enter the river, raise the bed elevation. The rapids are short-wavelength (???0.1 to ???1 km), small-amplitude (??????5 m) convexities in the river's longitudinal profile, arising from the shallow gradient in the upstream pool and the steep gradient through the rapid itself. Analysis of the entire longitudinal profile through Grand Canyon reveals two long-wavelength (???100 km), large-amplitude (15-30 m) river profile convexities: the eastern canyon convexity between river mile (RM) 30 and RM 80 and the western canyon convexity between RM 150 and RM 250. Convexities of intermediate scale are also identified in the longitudinal profile. These longer-wavelength, larger-amplitude convexities have strong spatial correlations with high rates of debris flow occurrence, high densities of Holocene debris fans, the largest debris fans along the river, and alluvial thicknesses of 10 m or more. River profile convexities are unstable and require an active and powerful geologic process to maintain them, in this case the abundant, frequent, and voluminous Holocene debris flow activity in Grand Canyon. At all wavelengths the most likely cause for these river profile convexities is Holocene aggradation of the riverbed beneath them, driven by the coarse particles of tributary debris flows. Large enough debris flows will slow river flow for kilometers upstream, causing it to drop much of its suspended load. Integrated over time and all of the tributary point source contributions, this process will build short-wavelength convexities into long-wavelength convexities. For most if not all of the Holocene the Colorado River has been dissipating most of its energy in the rapids and expending the remainder in transporting fine

  1. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  2. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Purser, Michael D.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.

    1999-01-01

    Fine sediment levels in spawning substrate have a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Assessments have consistently concluded that fine sediment is a major problem for salmon in the Grande Ronde and, to a lesser extent, the John Day rivers. It is likely that fine sediment levels in these rivers must be reduced if salmon survival from egg to smolt is to be increased.

  3. Side-scan sonar imaging of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anima, Roberto; Wong, Florence L.; Hogg, David; Galanis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents data collection methods and side-scan sonar data collected along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in August and September of 2000. The purpose of the data collection effort was to image the distribution of sand between Glen Canyon Dam and river mile 87.4 before and after the 31,600 cfs flow of September 6-8. The side-scan sonar imaging focused on pools between rapids but included smaller rapids where possible.

  4. Paleohydraulic interpretation and morphologic reconstruction of the northern Rio Grande River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Muriceak, D.R. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A flight of unpaired late Quaternary terraces comprised of fluvio-glacial deposits flanks the northern Rio Grande River for nearly ten miles along the upper Rio Grande valley. These terraces, which occur at decreasing heights due to progressive valley incision, are comprised of sediments that represent aggradation by braided streams flowing from the terminus of valley glaciers that flowed down the upper Rio Grande at least twice during late Quaternary time. Terminal moraines that are equivalent to Pinedale and Bull Lake stages of ice advance occur at the upstream origin of the terraces. Incision of the Rio Grande river since Pinedale time has resulted in at least three cut terraces that converge downstream. The purpose of this report is to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Rio Grande river valley during its transition from full glacial to interglacial conditions. A total geodetic station provided coordinate and elevation data to correlate the terraces, extrapolate channel geometry through cross sections, and construct longitudinal profiles of the individual terrace surfaces. Measurements of the B-axis length of boulders on both terrace tread surfaces and surfaces within the terrace deposits were used to reconstruct paleoflow hydrology. The coarsest channel morphological features, too large to be deposited by normal glacial outwash, were deposited during a catastrophic outburst flood (after the failure of an ice dammed lake) that produced high discharge.

  5. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, B.; Lopes, A. V.; Pante, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve) in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability) and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems' performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June). The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  6. 76 FR 18547 - Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed... Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  7. 76 FR 17541 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mermentau River, Grand Chenier, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... of the SR 82 swing span bridge across the Mermentau River, mile 7.1, at Grand Chenier, Cameron Parish... span and components. ] This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to navigation for... requested a temporary deviation from the operating schedule of the swing span bridge across the...

  8. 76 FR 20654 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ..., 2010, the Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA; licensee) filed an application for non-project use of project lands and waters. On behalf of Ketchum Public Works Authority (Ketchum), GRDA requests... calculated withdrawal rates provided by GRDA, the maximum possible withdrawal rate would approach...

  9. Estimating water use by giant reed along the Rio Grande River using a large aperture scintillometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a bamboo-like perennial invasive weed from Eurasia presenting a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande River Basin. It is known to consume excessive amounts of water to support its rapid vegetative growth rat...

  10. Biological responses to contaminants in darters (Etheostoma spp.) collected from rural and urban regions of the Grand River, ON, Canada.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sam R; Sultana, Tamanna; Servos, Mark R; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-09-01

    Urban and agricultural activities may introduce chemical stressors, including contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and current use pesticides (CUPs) into riverine systems. The objective of this study was to determine if fish collected from various sites in the Grand River, ON, Canada show biomarkers of exposure to these classes of contaminants, and if the biomarker patterns vary in fish collected from urbanized and agricultural sites. Female rainbow darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) and female fantail darters (Etheostoma flabellare) were collected from the Grand River in June, 2014 for biomarker analysis from two urbanized sites and three agricultural sites. Over the same period of time, Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were deployed for 2weeks at each site to monitor for the presence of CUPs and CECs. Data on the liver somatic index for darters indicate site-specific differences in this condition factor (p<0.05). Significant differences in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in gill tissue (p<0.05) of darters collected from the various sites indicate site-specific differences in oxidative stress. The activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in the liver tissue of rainbow darters were significantly different between sites (p<0.05), indicating differences in exposure to chemicals that induce or inhibit CYP450 1A metabolic activity. Finally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain tissue was significantly different between rainbow darters collected from rural and urban sites (p<0.05). These data showing different impacts from chemical inputs related to land uses in the watershed may be useful in developing mitigation strategies to reduce impacts on fish and other aquatic organisms in receiving environments.

  11. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  12. Southwestern riparian plant trait matrix, Colorado River, Grand Canyon, 2014 to 2016 - Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Sarr, Daniel; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Scott, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset contains information on the physical traits and environmental tolerances of plant species occurring along the lower Colorado River through Grand Canyon. Due to the unique combination of plant species within the Grand Canyon, this flora shares species with many riparian areas in the western U.S.A. and represents obligate wetland to obligate upland plant species. Data for the matrix were compiled from published scientific papers, unpublished reports, plant fact sheets, existing trait databases, regional floras, and plant guides. Categorical, ordinal, and continuous data are included in this dataset. This dataset does not contain sensitive or classified data.

  13. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: Five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  14. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  15. Stable Isotopes of N2O in a Large Canadian River Impacted by Agricultural and Urban Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuss, S. J.; Rosamond, M. S.; Schiff, S.; Venkiteswaran, J. J.; Elgood, R. J.

    2009-05-01

    N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. Although denitrification is an important process in the global N cycle, N2O flux measurements from rivers worldwide are scarce. The two main processes producing N2O in rivers -- nitrification and denitrification -- result in N2O that is widely separated in isotopic signature. However, studies on the stable isotopes of N2O in rivers are almost non-existent. Here, we report the N2O fluxes and isotopic signatures in the Grand River, a large, heavily impacted river in southern Ontario. Land use in the basin is predominately agricultural and the river receives effluent from 26 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). River samples were collected over a 28 hour period to capture diel variation, along the entire length of the river to capture changing land use and throughout the year to capture the seasonal variability. A dynamic model was used to correct the measured N2O values for the effects of atmospheric exchange. Isotopic analysis of both the NH4+ and the NO3- end members in the WWTP effluent and in the river allowed the determination of N2O production pathways. N2O is produced along the entire length of the river but N2O from denitrification increases dramatically in the river below WWTPs at night when dissolved oxygen is low and nitrification of NH4+ decreases.

  16. Sediment delivery by ungaged tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Melis, Theodre S.; Hartley, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment input to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, is a valuable resource required to sustain both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A total of 768 ungaged tributaries deliver sediment to the river between Glen Canyon Dam and the Grand Wash Cliffs (river miles -15 to 276). The 32 tributaries between the dam and Lee's Ferry produce only streamflow floods, whereas 736 tributaries in Grand Canyon produce streamflow floods and debris flows. We used three techniques to estimate annual streamflow sediment yield from ungaged tributaries to the Colorado River. For the Glen Canyon and Marble Canyon reaches (river miles -15 to 61.5), respectively, these techniques indicate that 0.065.106 and 0.610.106 Mg/yr (0.68.106 Mg/yr of total sediment) enters the river. This amount is 20 percent of the sediment yield of the Paria River, the only gaged tributary in this reach and a major sediment contributor to the Colorado River. The amount of sand delivered ranges from 0.10.106 to 0.51.106 Mg/yr, depending on the sand content of streamflow sediment. Sand delivered in Glen Canyon is notably coarser (D50 = 0.24 mm) than sand in other reaches (D50 = 0.15 mm). A relation is given for possible variation of this sediment delivery with climate. Debris flows transport poorly-sorted sediment onto debris fans in the Colorado River. In the pre-dam era, debris fans were completely reworked during Colorado River floods, liberating all fine-grained sediment to the river; in the post-dam river on average only 25 percent of debris-fan volume is reworked, leading to storage of sand in the matrix of debris fans. We develop a sediment-yield model for debris flows that uses a logistic-regression model of debris-flow frequency in Grand Canyon, a regression model of debris-flow volumes, particle- size distributions of intact debris-flow deposits, and debris-fan reworking. On average, debris flows deliver between 0.14.106 and 0.30.106 Mg/yr of sediment to debris fans throughout Grand Canyon

  17. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri and Iowa, USA, in support of integrated conservation practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of agricultural conservation programmes to adequately reduce nutrient exports to receiving streams and to help limit downstream hypoxia issues remains a concern. Quantifying programme success can be difficult given that short-term basin changes may be masked by long-term water-quality shifts. We evaluated nutrient export at stream sites in the 44 months that followed a period of increased, integrated conservation implementation within the Lower Grand River Basin. These short-term responses were then compared with export that occurred in the main stem and adjacent rivers in northern Missouri over a 22-year period to better contextualize any recent changes. Results indicate that short-term (October 2010 through May 2014) total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Grand River were 20% less than the long-term average, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 23% less. Nutrient reductions in the short term were primarily the result of the less-than-average precipitation and, consequently, streamflow that was 36% below normal. Therefore, nutrient concentrations measured in tributary streams were likely less than normal during the implementation period. Northern Missouri streamflow-normalized TN concentrations remained relatively flat or declined over the period 1991 through 2013 likely because available sources of nitrogen, determined as the sum of commercial fertilizers, available animal manures and atmospheric inputs, were typically less than crop requirement for much of that time frame. Conversely, flow-normalized stream TP concentrations increased over the past 22 years in northern Missouri streams, likely in response to many years of phosphorus inputs in excess of crop requirements. Stream nutrient changes were most pronounced during periods that coincided with the major tillage, planting and growth phases of row crops and increased streamflow. Nutrient reduction strategies targeted at the period February through June would likely have the

  18. Recreational water quality analyses of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K

    1984-11-01

    We intensively examined the recreational water quality of the Colorado River and 26 tributaries in Grand Canyon National Park over four consecutive summers. Highly ephemeral precipitation cycles and arid watershed hydrologies were the principal factors influencing water quality. Fecal coliforms (FC) in the river and in most tributaries were less than or equal to 10 FC 100 ml-1 and less than or equal to 20 FC 100 ml-1, respectively, during drought cycles. During rainfall cycles, FC densities were highly variable and often exceeded recreational contact standards. FC were not found to vary significantly in response to diurnal fluctuations in river stage height which resulted from hydroelectric stream flow regulation. River and tributary bottom sediments harbored FC in densities averaging 10 to 100 times those in the overlying waters. Sediment FC densities were not found to be reliable indicators of overlying water quality when storm flow and nonstorm flow periods were compared.

  19. Recreational water quality analyses of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed Central

    Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K

    1984-01-01

    We intensively examined the recreational water quality of the Colorado River and 26 tributaries in Grand Canyon National Park over four consecutive summers. Highly ephemeral precipitation cycles and arid watershed hydrologies were the principal factors influencing water quality. Fecal coliforms (FC) in the river and in most tributaries were less than or equal to 10 FC 100 ml-1 and less than or equal to 20 FC 100 ml-1, respectively, during drought cycles. During rainfall cycles, FC densities were highly variable and often exceeded recreational contact standards. FC were not found to vary significantly in response to diurnal fluctuations in river stage height which resulted from hydroelectric stream flow regulation. River and tributary bottom sediments harbored FC in densities averaging 10 to 100 times those in the overlying waters. Sediment FC densities were not found to be reliable indicators of overlying water quality when storm flow and nonstorm flow periods were compared. PMID:6508305

  20. Lava Falls Rapid in Grand Canyon; effects of late Holocene debris flows on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Elliott, John G.; Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.; Wise, Thomas W.; Pizzuto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Lava Falls Rapid is the most formidable reach of whitewater on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is one of the most famous rapids in the world. Debris flows in 1939, 1954, 1955, 1966, and 1995, as well as prehistoric events, completely changed flow through the rapid. Floods cleared out much of the increased constrictions, but releases from Glen Canyon Dam, including the 1996 controlled flood, are now required to remove the boulders deposited by the debris flows.

  1. Using stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen for the determination of gas exchange in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Terra S; Schiff, Sherry L; Taylor, William D

    2013-02-01

    Gas exchange can be a key component of the dissolved oxygen (DO) mass balance in aquatic ecosystems. Quantification of gas transfer rates is essential for the estimation of DO production and consumption rates, and determination of assimilation capacities of systems receiving organic inputs. Currently, the accurate determination of gas transfer rate is a topic of debate in DO modeling, and there are a wide variety of approaches that have been proposed in the literature. The current study investigates the use of repeated measures of stable isotopes of O₂ and DO and a dynamic dual mass-balance model to quantify gas transfer coefficients (k) in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Measurements were conducted over a longitudinal gradient that reflected watershed changes from agricultural to urban. Values of k in the Grand River ranged from 3.6 to 8.6 day⁻¹, over discharges ranging from 5.6 to 22.4 m³ s⁻¹, with one high-flow event of 73.1 m³ s⁻¹. The k values were relatively constant over the range of discharge conditions studied. The range in discharge observed in this study is generally representative of non-storm and summer low-flow events; a greater range in k might be observed under a wider range of hydrologic conditions. Overall, k values obtained with the dual model for the Grand River were found to be lower than predicted by the traditional approaches evaluated, highlighting the importance of determining site-specific values of k. The dual mass balance approach provides a more constrained estimate of k than using DO only, and is applicable to large rivers where other approaches would be difficult to use. The addition of an isotopic mass balance provides for a corroboration of the input parameter estimates between the two balances. Constraining the range of potential input values allows for a direct estimate of k in large, productive systems where other k-estimation approaches may be uncertain or logistically infeasible.

  2. Debris flows from tributaries of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Pringle, P.T.; Rink, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A reconnaissance of 36 tributaries of the Colorado River indicates that debris flows are a major process by which sediment is transported to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Debris flows are slurries of sediment and water that have a water content < 40% by volume. Debris flows occur frequently in arid and semiarid regions. Slope failures commonly trigger debris flows, which can originate from any rock formation in the Grand Canyon. The largest and most frequent flows originate from the Permian Hermit Shale, the underlying Esplanade Sandstone of the Supai Group, and other formations of the Permian and Pennsylvanian Supai Group. Debris flows have reached the Colorado River on an average of once every 20 to 30 yr in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage since about 1916. Two debris flows have reached the Colorado River in the last 25 yr in Monument Creek. The Crystal Creek drainage has had an average of one debris flow reaching the Colorado River every 50 yr, although the debris flow of 1966 has been the only flow that reached the Colorado River since 1900. Debris flows may actually reach the Colorado River more frequently in these drainages because evidence for all debris flows may not have been preserved in the channel-margin stratigraphy. Discharges were estimated for the peak flow of three debris flows that reached the Colorado River. The debris flow of 1966 in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage had an estimated discharge of 4,000 cu ft/sec. The debris flow of 1984 in the Monument Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 3,600 and 4,200 cu ft/sec. The debris flow of 1966 in the Crystal Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 9,200 and 14,000 cu ft/sec. Debris flows in the Grand Canyon generally are composed of 10 to 40% sand by weight and may represent a significant source of beach-building sand along the Colorado River. The particle size distributions are very poorly sorted and the largest transported boulders were in the Crystal Creek

  3. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2002–14 humpback chub aggregations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Van Haverbeke, David R.; Dodrill, Michael J.

    2017-01-31

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered cyprinid species endemic to the Colorado River. The largest remaining population of the species spawns and rears in the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has altered the main-stem Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Cold, clear water releases from the dam result in a river that is generally unsuitable for successful humpback chub reproduction. During the early 1990s, nine locations within the main-stem Colorado River were identified as humpback chub aggregations—areas with a consistent and disjunct group of fish with no significant exchange of individuals with other aggregations. We monitored main-stem Colorado River aggregations of humpback chub in Grand Canyon during 2010 to 2014 and compared our results to previous investigations. Relative abundance, as described by catch per unit effort (fish per hour) of adult humpback chub at most main-stem aggregations, generally increased from the 1990s to 2014. In addition, distribution of humpback chub in the main-stem Colorado River has increased since the 1990s. Movement of humpback chub between the Little Colorado River and other aggregations likely adds fish to those aggregations. There is clear evidence of reproduction near the 30-Mile aggregation, and reproduction at Middle Granite Gorge and downstream seems likely based on catches of gravid fish and captures of very young fish, especially during relatively warm water releases from Glen Canyon Dam, 2004 to 2011. Humpback chub relative abundance at Shinumo and Havasu Creek inflows increased following translocations of young humpback chub starting in 2009. In light of this information, we modify the original nine aggregations, combining two previously separate aggregations and dropping two locations to form six distinct aggregations of humpback chub. Trends in humpback chub abundance at main-stem aggregations, relative to management actions (for example

  4. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  5. Channel mapping river miles 29–62 of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joseph E.; Grams, Paul E.; Kohl, Keith; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Tusso, Robert B.

    2017-03-23

    Bathymetric, topographic, and grain-size data were collected in May 2009 along a 33-mi reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The study reach is located from river miles 29 to 62 at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers. Channel bathymetry was mapped using multibeam and singlebeam echosounders, subaerial topography was mapped using ground-based total-stations, and bed-sediment grain-size data were collected using an underwater digital microscope system. These data were combined to produce digital elevation models, spatially variable estimates of digital elevation model uncertainty, georeferenced grain-size data, and bed-sediment distribution maps. This project is a component of a larger effort to monitor the status and trends of sand storage along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. This report documents the survey methods and post-processing procedures, digital elevation model production and uncertainty assessment, and procedures for bed-sediment classification, and presents the datasets resulting from this study.

  6. Development of Semi-distributed ecohydrological model in the Rio Grande De Manati River Basin, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Ortiz, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Guild, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are limited studies in Puerto Rico that shows the water resources availability and variability with respect to changing climates and land use. The main goal of the HICE-PR (Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): the Río Loco Watershed (southwest coast PR) project which was funded by NASA is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) in two priority watersheds in Puerto Rico (Manatí and Guánica).The main objective of this study is to set up a physically based spatially distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the analysis of hydrological processes in the Rio Grande de Manati river basin. SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) is a spatially distributed watershed model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in large complex watersheds. For efficient use of distributed models for hydrological and scenario analysis, it is important that these models pass through a careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. The model was calibrated and validated using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) calibration and uncertainty analysis algorithms. The model evaluation statistics for streamflows prediction shows that there is a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows that was verified by coefficients of determination and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.5. Keywords: Hydrological Modeling; SWAT; SUFI-2; Rio Grande De Manati; Puerto Rico

  7. Effects of River Regulation on Aeolian Landscapes, Grand Canyon National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment deposits in the Colorado River corridor include fluvial sandbars and aeolian dune fields, and the fluvial deposits are the primary sediment source for sand in the aeolian dunes. This 7-year study examined the effects of river regulation at Glen Canyon Dam (alteration of flow regime, sediment-supply reduction, and consequent loss of fluvial sandbars) on aeolian landscapes downstream in Grand Canyon National Park. A comparative study was developed between aeolian landscapes in Grand Canyon, Arizona, and Cataract Canyon, Utah, upstream of Glen Canyon Dam and its reservoir (Lake Powell), where hydrology and sediment supply of the Colorado River are affected substantially less by artificial river regulation than occurs in Grand Canyon. Before closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, sediment-rich floods (mean annual peak 2400 m3/s) formed sandbars from which wind moved sand inland to form aeolian dunes. After dam operations reduced the amplitude and frequency of high flows, and eliminated the mainstream fluvial sediment supply, Grand Canyon’s fluvial sandbars lost open sand area owing to erosion by river flows and the spread of riparian vegetation. Two types of aeolian landscapes now occur in Grand Canyon: (1) modern fluvial sourced, those downwind of post-dam sandbars; and (2) relict fluvial sourced, whose primary sediment source was deposits from pre-dam floods that were larger than any post-dam flows have been. Sediment supply has been reduced to type (1) dune fields because post-dam sandbars are smaller than in the pre-dam era; new sediment supply to type (2) dune fields essentially has been eliminated. Type 1 aeolian landscapes can receive new windblown sand from sandbars formed by controlled floods (1160 m3/s), which occurred in 1996, 2004, and 2008. Type 1 dune fields, being downwind and within 100 m of controlled-flood sandbars, have significantly higher aeolian sand-transport rates, more open sand, and less biologic soil crust than relict type 2 dune

  8. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  9. Debris flows from tributaries of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Pringle, Patrick T.; Rink, Glenn R.

    1989-01-01

    A reconnaissance of 36 tributaries of the Colorado River indicates that debris flows are a major process by which sediment is transported to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Debris flows are slurries of sediment and water that have a water content of less than about 40 percent by volume. Debris flows occur frequently in arid and semiarid regions. Slope failures commonly trigger debris flows, which can originate from any rock formation in the Grand Canyon. The largest and most frequent flows originate from the Permian Hermit Shale, the underlying Esplanade Sandstone of the Supai Group, and other formations of the Permian and Pennsylvanian Supai Group. Debris flows also occur in the Cambrian Muav Limestone and underlying Bright Angel Shale and the Quaternary basalts in the western Grand Canyon. Debris-flow frequency and magnitude were studied in detail in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage at Colorado River mile 65.5; in the Monument Creek drainage at mile 93.5; and in the Crystal Creek drainage at mile 98.2. Debris flows have reached the Colorado River on an average of once every 20 to 30 years in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage since about 1916. Two debris flows have reached the Colorado River in the last 25 years in Monument Creek. The Crystal Creek drainage has had an average of one debris flow reaching the Colorado River every 50 years, although the debris flow of 1966 has been the only flow that reached the Colorado River since 1900. Debris flows may actually reach the Colorado River more frequently in these drainages because evidence for all debris flows may not have been preserved in the channel-margin stratigraphy. Discharges were estimated for the peak flow of three debris flows that reached the Colorado River. The debris flow of 1966 in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage had an estimated discharge of 4,000 cubic feet per second. The debris flow of 1984 in the Monument Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 3,600 and 4,200 cubic feet per

  10. Debris flow deposition and reworking by the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanites, B.J.; Webb, R.H.; Griffiths, P.G.; Magirl, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Flow regulation by large dams affects downstream flow competence and channel maintenance. Debris flows from 740 tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona, transport coarse-grained sediment onto debris fans adjacent to the Colorado River. These debris fans constrict the river to form rapids and are reworked during river flows that entrain particles and transport them downstream. Beginning in 1963, flood control operations of Glen Canyon Dam limited the potential for reworking of aggraded debris fans. We analyzed change in debris fans at the mouths of 75-Mile and Monument Creeks using photogrammetry of aerial photography taken from 1965 to 2000 and supplemented with ground surveys performed from 1987 to 2005. Our results quantify the debris fan aggradation that resulted from debris flows from 1984 to 2003. Volume, area, and river constriction increased at both debris fans. Profiles of the two debris fans show that net aggradation occurred in the middle of debris fans at stages above maximum dam releases, and surface shape shifted from concave to convex. Dam releases above power plant capacity partially reworked both debris fans, although reworking removed much less sediment than what was added by debris flow deposition. Large dam releases would be required to create additional reworking to limit the rate of debris fan aggradation in Grand Canyon.

  11. Debris flow deposition and reworking by the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanites, Brian J.; Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2006-11-01

    Flow regulation by large dams affects downstream flow competence and channel maintenance. Debris flows from 740 tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona, transport coarse-grained sediment onto debris fans adjacent to the Colorado River. These debris fans constrict the river to form rapids and are reworked during river flows that entrain particles and transport them downstream. Beginning in 1963, flood control operations of Glen Canyon Dam limited the potential for reworking of aggraded debris fans. We analyzed change in debris fans at the mouths of 75-Mile and Monument Creeks using photogrammetry of aerial photography taken from 1965 to 2000 and supplemented with ground surveys performed from 1987 to 2005. Our results quantify the debris fan aggradation that resulted from debris flows from 1984 to 2003. Volume, area, and river constriction increased at both debris fans. Profiles of the two debris fans show that net aggradation occurred in the middle of debris fans at stages above maximum dam releases, and surface shape shifted from concave to convex. Dam releases above power plant capacity partially reworked both debris fans, although reworking removed much less sediment than what was added by debris flow deposition. Large dam releases would be required to create additional reworking to limit the rate of debris fan aggradation in Grand Canyon.

  12. Reproductive seasonality of fishes from a lotic stretch of the Grande River, high Paraná river basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We searched for correlations between water level, rainfall, temperature, and reproductive activity of fishes in a lotic stretch of the Grande River below the Volta Grande Dam. Gillnets were used to catch the fish on six field journeys made bimonthly between April 1998 and February 1999. Fish gonads were classified according to maturation grade and the amount of mature or spent gonads was correlated with rainfall and air temperature. Most fish species showed seasonal reproduction (between October and February). The relative frequency of fully mature and spent gonads significantly correlated with rainfall (Spearman r = 0.94, p = 0.005) and air temperature (r = 0.84, p = 0.036), showing the importance of these factors in regulating the reproductive cycle of fishes in this location. Nevertheless, dam operation resulted in minimal water level variation that did not significantly correlate with reproductive activity (r = -0.43, p = 0.396).

  13. Turbidity, light, temperature, and hydropeaking control primary productivity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Robert O.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Yard, Michael D.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Voichick, Nicholas; Behn, Kathrine E.

    2015-01-01

    Dams and river regulation greatly alter the downstream environment for gross primary production (GPP) because of changes in water clarity, flow, and temperature regimes. We estimated reach-scale GPP in five locations of the regulated Colorado River in Grand Canyon using an open channel model of dissolved oxygen. Benthic GPP dominates in Grand Canyon due to fast transport times and low pelagic algal biomass. In one location, we used a 738 days time series of GPP to identify the relative contribution of different physical controls of GPP. We developed both linear and semimechanistic time series models that account for unmeasured temporal covariance due to factors such as algal biomass dynamics. GPP varied from 0 g O2 m−2 d−1 to 3.0 g O2 m−2 d−1 with a relatively low annual average of 0.8 g O2 m−2d−1. Semimechanistic models fit the data better than linear models and demonstrated that variation in turbidity primarily controlled GPP. Lower solar insolation during winter and from cloud cover lowered GPP much further. Hydropeaking lowered GPP but only during turbid conditions. Using the best model and parameter values, the model accurately predicted seasonal estimates of GPP at 3 of 4 upriver sites and outperformed the linear model at all sites; discrepancies were likely from higher algal biomass at upstream sites. This modeling approach can predict how changes in physical controls will affect relative rates of GPP throughout the 385 km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and can be easily applied to other streams and rivers.

  14. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  15. 77 FR 62442 - Safety Zone; Oregon City Bridge Grand Opening Fireworks Display; Willamette River, Oregon City, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Oregon City Bridge Grand Opening Fireworks Display; Willamette River, Oregon City, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone on the Willamette River between the Oregon City...

  16. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  17. 2007 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Weather data constitute an integral part of ecosystem monitoring in the Colorado River corridor and are particularly valuable for understanding processes of landscape change that contribute to the stability of archeological sites. Data collected in 2007 are reported from nine weather stations in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The stations were deployed in February and March 2007 to measure wind speed and direction, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Sand traps near each weather station collect windblown sand, from which daily aeolian sand-transport rates are calculated. The data reported here were collected as part of an ongoing study to test and evaluate methods for quantifying processes that affect the physical integrity of archeological sites along the river corridor; as such, these data can be used to identify rainfall events capable of causing gully incision and to predict likely transport pathways for aeolian sand, two landscape processes integral to the preservation of archeological sites. Weather data also have widespread applications to other studies of physical, cultural, and biological resources in Grand Canyon. Aeolian sand-transport data reported here, collected in the year before the March 2008 High-Flow Experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam, represent baseline data against which the effects of the 2008 HFE on windblown sand will be compared in future reports.

  18. Mercury and selenium accumulation in the Colorado River food web, Grand Canyon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, David M.; E.J. Rosi-Marshall,; Kennedy, Theodore A.; W.F. Cross,; C.V. Baxter,

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are toxic to fish and wildlife. The authors measured Hg and Se in organic matter, invertebrates, and fishes in the Colorado River food web at sites spanning 387 river km downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (AZ, USA). Concentrations were relatively high among sites compared with other large rivers (mean wet wt for 6 fishes was 0.17–1.59 μg g–1 Hg and 1.35–2.65 μg g–1 Se), but consistent longitudinal patterns in Hg or Se concentrations relative to the dam were lacking. Mercury increased (slope = 0.147) with δ15N, a metric of trophic position, indicating biomagnification similar to that observed in other freshwater systems. Organisms regularly exceeded exposure risk thresholds for wildlife and humans (6–100% and 56–100% of samples for Hg and Se, respectfully, among risk thresholds). In the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Hg and Se concentrations pose exposure risks for fish, wildlife, and humans, and the findings of the present study add to a growing body of evidence showing that remote ecosystems are vulnerable to long-range transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants. Management of exposure risks in Grand Canyon will remain a challenge, as sources and transport mechanisms of Hg and Se extend far beyond park boundaries. Environ Toxicol Chem2015;9999:1–10

  19. Mercury and selenium accumulation in the Colorado River food web, Grand Canyon, USA.

    PubMed

    Walters, David M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Kennedy, Theodore A; Cross, Wyatt F; Baxter, Colden V

    2015-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are toxic to fish and wildlife. The authors measured Hg and Se in organic matter, invertebrates, and fishes in the Colorado River food web at sites spanning 387 river km downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (AZ, USA). Concentrations were relatively high among sites compared with other large rivers (mean wet wt for 6 fishes was 0.17-1.59 μg g(-1) Hg and 1.35-2.65 μg g(-1) Se), but consistent longitudinal patterns in Hg or Se concentrations relative to the dam were lacking. Mercury increased (slope = 0.147) with δ(15) N, a metric of trophic position, indicating biomagnification similar to that observed in other freshwater systems. Organisms regularly exceeded exposure risk thresholds for wildlife and humans (6-100% and 56-100% of samples for Hg and Se, respectfully, among risk thresholds). In the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Hg and Se concentrations pose exposure risks for fish, wildlife, and humans, and the findings of the present study add to a growing body of evidence showing that remote ecosystems are vulnerable to long-range transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants. Management of exposure risks in Grand Canyon will remain a challenge, as sources and transport mechanisms of Hg and Se extend far beyond park boundaries.

  20. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2000 to 2009 summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Makinster, Andrew S.; Persons, William R.; Avery, Luke A.; Bunch, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term fish monitoring in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is an essential component of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). The GCDAMP is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam is met. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is responsible for the program's long-term fish monitoring, which is implemented in cooperation with the Arizona Game and Fish Department, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SWCA Environmental Consultants, and others. Electrofishing and tagging protocols have been developed and implemented for standardized annual monitoring of Colorado River fishes since 2000. In 2009, sampling occurred throughout the river between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead for 38 nights over two trips. During the two trips, scientists captured 6,826 fish representing 11 species. Based on catch-per-unit-effort, salmonids (for example, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)) increased eightfold between 2006 and 2009. Flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) catch rates were twice as high in 2009 as in 2006. Humpback chub (Gila cypha) catches were low throughout the 10-year sampling period.

  1. The Hydrothermal System at the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River: Exposed and Hidden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H. P.; Susong, D. D.; Neale, C. M.; Sivarajan, S.; Masih, A.

    2012-12-01

    Combining calibrated and corrected night-time, airborne thermal infrared imaging with field information from the 2008 drilling of the Canyon borehole strainmeter (B206) in Yellowstone National Park emphasizes the extensive nature of Yellowstone's hydrothermal system. Both studies contributed to an understanding of the vertical and horizontal flow of heat and fluids through the bedrock in this area. Night-time, airborne thermal infrared imagery, corrected for emissivity and atmosphere clearly shows north-trending faults and fractures transmitting heat and fluids through the rhyolitic bedrock and into the overlying glacial sediments near the Canyon borehole. Along the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Clear Lake hydrothermal area is an example of hydrothermal alteration at the ground surface. The numerous hydrothermal features exposed in the nearby Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River and its hydrothermally altered walls are clear evidence of the exposed hydrothermal system. The bedrock geology, geologic processes, and hydrothermal activity combined to form the dramatic Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. The night-time thermal infrared imagery provides a new view of this exposed hydrothermal system for scientists and visitors. Scientists and Yellowstone Park managers carefully sited the Canyon borehole strainmeter in a green, grassy meadow to insure successful completion of the borehole in a non-hydrothermal area. The closest hydrothermal feature to the drilling site was about 2.5 km to the east. Although excellent exposures of hydrothermal altered bedrock are present about 1.5 km east at the Lower Falls and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, the connection between exposed hydrothermal areas and the borehole site was not obvious. After drilling through 9 m of brown-gray muds and 113 m of rock, a bottom hole temperature of 81.2 degrees Celsius precluded drilling the hole any deeper than 122 m. The post-drilling data collected from B206 and the airborne

  2. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future.

  3. Wastewater Effluent Impacts Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes of the Grand River, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Cejudo, Eduardo; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand River (Ontario, Canada) is impacted by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release ammonia (NH3 and NH4+) into the river. In-river microbial communities help transform this ammonia into more oxidized compounds (e.g., NO3− or N2), although the spatial distribution and relative abundance of freshwater autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOP) are not well characterized. This study investigated freshwater N cycling within the Grand River, focusing on sediment and water columns, both inside and outside a WWTP effluent plume. The diversity, relative abundance, and nitrification activity of AOP were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and reverse transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR), targeting both 16S rRNA and functional genes, together with activity assays. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fingerprints showed that the WWTP effluent strongly affected autochthonous bacterial patterns in the water column but not those associated with sediment nucleic acids. Molecular and activity data demonstrated that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were numerically and metabolically dominant in samples taken from outside the WWTP plume, whereas ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) dominated numerically within the WWTP effluent plume. Potential nitrification rate measurements supported the dominance of AOB activity in downstream sediment. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were detected primarily in sediment nucleic acids. In-river AOA patterns were completely distinct from effluent AOA patterns. This study demonstrates the importance of combined molecular and activity-based studies for disentangling molecular signatures of wastewater effluent from autochthonous prokaryotic communities. PMID:24056472

  4. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  5. Influence of dams and habitat condition on the distribution of redhorse (Moxostoma) species in the Grand River watershed, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, S.M.; Mandrak, N.E.; Carl, L.M.; Wilson, C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Redhorse, Moxostoma spp., are considered to be negatively affected by dams although this assertion is untested for Canadian populations. One hundred and fifty-one sites in the Grand River watershed were sampled to identify factors influencing the distribution of redhorse species. Individual species of redhorse were captured from 3 to 32% of sites. The most widespread species were golden redhorse, M. erythrurum (30%) and greater redhorse, M. valenciennesi (32%), while river redhorse, M. carinatum, was only found along the lower Grand River. Redhorse were absent from the highly fragmented Speed River sub-watershed and upper reaches of the Conestogo River and the Grand River. Redhorse species richness was positively correlated to river fragment size and upstream drainage area. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were applied to evaluate the influence of river fragment length, connectivity and habitat on species distribution. Principal component analysis reduced habitat data to three axes representing: channel structure, substrate, and pool, riffle and run habitats (PC1); gradient and drainage area (PC2); and cover (PC3). GAMs indicate that PC2 was important for predicting black redhorse and greater redhorse site occupancy and PC1 was important for golden redhorse. River fragment length was important for predicting site occupancy for shorthead redhorse, but not other species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  6. Three cases of severe hyponatremia during a river run in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Emily A; Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-06-01

    We present 3 cases of severe hyponatremia occurring on a commercially guided river rafting trip on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. All 3 women appeared to have been overhydrating because of concern about dehydration and required evacuation within 24 hours of each other after the staggered onset of symptoms, which included fatigue and emesis progressing to disorientation or seizure. Each was initially transferred to the nearest hospital and ultimately required intensive care. Imaging and laboratory data indicated all 3 patients had hypervolemic hyponatremia. Unlike the well-documented exercise-associated hyponatremia cases commonly occurring in prolonged endurance athletic events, these 3 unique cases of acute hyponatremia were not associated with significant exercise. The cases illustrate the diagnostic and treatment challenges related to acute hyponatremia in an austere setting, and underscore the importance of preventive measures focused on avoidance of overhydration out of concern for dehydration.

  7. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation on Water Resources and Agricultural Diversity of the Upper Rio Grande Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi Rad, M.; Hurd, B. H.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change can alter the balance of the water resources systems. It can both change the amount and the timing of the streamflow available in a basin and the amount of water consumed at the end point due to higher temperatures. These changes in the supply and demand sides can result in a different allocation of water and different price for water in basin scale based on economic principles. In a previous study Hurd and Coonrod (2012) modeled the impacts of climate change on the water related economic activities of the Rio Grande. In their study they assumed an aggregated benefit function for the agricultural sector. In another study on the Rio Grande Brinegar and Ward (2009) modeled the agricultural diversity of the Rio Grande within the framework of a hydro-economic model. This study builds upon and extends the previous studies by developing a model that can more carefully assess the role of adaptation in agriculture. Specially, the current study adds quadratic production functions for each crop. These production functions add a major benefit to the modeling of the hydro-economic system, namely that of adding diversity and expanded resolution to the agricultural sector. Using this production function the model includes both land and water as independent variables in the agricultural sector and, therefore this extension of the model has more flexibility to represent adaptive responses to climatic changes by including the capacity to change the crop mix and acreages as well as the water applied i.e. the capacity to deficit irrigate. The results of this study show that the agricultural sector can lose nearly a third of its water and more than 30% of its net economic benefits as a result of possible climate changes. It also shows as the climate become drier and population grows then economic forces will encourage agriculture to move towards more beneficial crops and reduce total acreage and in some cases applied water.

  8. Colorado River campsite monitoring, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1998-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joe; Parnell, Rod; Hadley, Daniel R.; Grams, Paul

    2014-01-01

    River rafting trips and hikers use sandbars along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons as campsites. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on campsite areas on sandbars along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Campsite area was measured annually from 1998 to 2012 at 37 study sites between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona. The primary purpose of this report is to present the methods and results of the project. Campsite area surveys were conducted using total station survey methods to outline the perimeter of camping area at each study site. Campsite area is defined as any region of smooth substrate (most commonly sand) with no more than an 8 degree slope and little or no vegetation. We used this definition, but relaxed the slope criteria to include steeper areas near boat mooring locations where campers typically establish their kitchens. The results show that campsite area decreased over the course of the study period, but at a rate that varied by elevation zone and by survey period. Time-series plots show that from 1998 to 2012, high stage-elevation (greater than the 25,000 ft3/s stage-elevation) campsite area decreased significantly, although there was no significant trend in low stage-elevation (15,000–20,000 ft3/s) campsite area. High stage-elevation campsite area increased after the 2004 and 2008 high flows, but decreased in the intervals between high flows. Although no overall trend was detected for low stage-elevation campsite areas, they did increase after high-volume dam releases equal to or greater than about 20,000 ft3/s. We conclude that dam operations have not met the management objectives of the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management program to increase the size of camping beaches in critical and non-critical reaches of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead.

  9. Modeling Water-Surface Elevations and Virtual Shorelines for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Breedlove, Michael J.; Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    Using widely-available software intended for modeling rivers, a new one-dimensional hydraulic model was developed for the Colorado River through Grand Canyon from Lees Ferry to Diamond Creek. Solving one-dimensional equations of energy and continuity, the model predicts stage for a known steady-state discharge at specific locations, or cross sections, along the river corridor. This model uses 2,680 cross sections built with high-resolution digital topography of ground locations away from the river flowing at a discharge of 227 m3/s; synthetic bathymetry was created for topography submerged below the 227 m3/s water surface. The synthetic bathymetry was created by adjusting the water depth at each cross section up or down until the model?s predicted water-surface elevation closely matched a known water surface. This approach is unorthodox and offers a technique to construct one-dimensional hydraulic models of bedrock-controlled rivers where bathymetric data have not been collected. An analysis of this modeling approach shows that while effective in enabling a useful model, the synthetic bathymetry can differ from the actual bathymetry. The known water-surface profile was measured using elevation data collected in 2000 and 2002, and the model can simulate discharges up to 5,900 m3/s. In addition to the hydraulic model, GIS-based techniques were used to estimate virtual shorelines and construct inundation maps. The error of the hydraulic model in predicting stage is within 0.4 m for discharges less than 1,300 m3/s. Between 1,300-2,500 m3/s, the model accuracy is about 1.0 m, and for discharges between 2,500-5,900 m3/s, the model accuracy is on the order of 1.5 m. In the absence of large floods on the flow-regulated Colorado River in Grand Canyon, the new hydraulic model and the accompanying inundation maps are a useful resource for researchers interested in water depths, shorelines, and stage-discharge curves for flows within the river corridor with 2002 topographic

  10. Sand Deposition in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Flooding of the Little Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiele, S. M.; Graf, J. B.; Smith, J. D.

    1996-12-01

    Methods for computing the volume of sand deposited in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by floods in major tributaries and for determining redistribution of that sand by main-channel flows are required for successful management of sand-dependent riparian resources. We have derived flow, sediment transport, and bed evolution models based on a gridded topography developed from measured channel topography and used these models to compute deposition in a short reach of the river just downstream from the Little Colorado River, the largest tributary in the park. Model computations of deposition from a Little Colorado River flood in January 1993 were compared to bed changes measured at 15 cross sections. The total difference between changes in cross-sectional area due to deposition computed by the model and the measured changes was 6%. A wide reach with large areas of recirculating flow and large depressions in the main channel accumulated the most sand, whereas a reach with similar planimetric area but a long, narrow shape and relatively small areas of recirculating flow and small depressions in the main channel accumulated only about a seventh as much sand. About 32% of the total deposition was in recirculation zones, 65% was in the main channel, and 3% was deposited along the channel margin away from the recirculation zone. Overall, about 15% of the total input of sand from this Little Colorado River flood was deposited in the first 3 km below the confluence, suggesting that deposition of the flood-derived material extended for only several tens of kilometers downstream from the confluence.

  11. Sand deposition in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from flooding of the Little Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, S.M.; Graf, J.B.; Smith, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for computing the volume of sand deposited in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by floods in major tributaries and for determining redistribution of that sand by main-channel flows are required for successful management of sand-dependent riparian resources. We have derived flow, sediment transport, and bed evolution models based on a gridded topography developed from measured channel topography and used these models to compute deposition in a short reach of the river just downstream from the Little Colorado River, the largest tributary in the park. Model computations of deposition from a Little Colorado River flood in January 1993 were compared to bed changes measured at 15 cross sections. The total difference between changes in cross-sectional area due to deposition computed by the model and the measured changes was 6%. A wide reach with large areas of recirculating flow and large depressions in the main channel accumulated the most sand, whereas a reach with similar planimetric area but a long, narrow shape and relatively small areas of recirculating flow and small depressions in the main channel accumulated only about a seventh as much sand. About 32% of the total deposition was in recirculation zones, 65% was in the main channel, and 3% was deposited along the channel margin away from the recirculation zone. Overall, about 15% of the total input of sand from this Little Colorado River flood was deposited in the first 3 km below the confluence, suggesting that deposition of the flood-derived material extended for only several tens of kilometers downstream from the confluence.

  12. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  13. a Microgravity Survey to Determine the Extent of AN Andesitic Sill that Intrudes across the Rio Grande River Basin, Rio Grande Rift Valley, Sunland Park, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, L. A.; Shinagel, S.; Villalobos, J. I.; Avila, V.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.

    2012-12-01

    In Sunland Park, NM, there is an andesite outcrop near the bank of the Rio Grande (called the River Andesite) which does not match the surrounding sedimentary deposition. Studies of the River Andesite by Garcia (1970) indicate the outcrop is petrologically similar to the Muleros Andesite of Mt. Cristo Rey located several km to the south. A limited GPR and magnetic survey conducted by UTEP students in 2008 suggested the River Andesite was part of a dike, although Garcia mapped smaller outcrops of andesite ~300 m west of the river that may be part of the same body. We have recently (June 2012) found large andesite boulders that may be the outcrops Garcia mapped, although it is uncertain whether these boulders are in-situ. We initially collected microgravity and magnetic data in a small region near the river outcrop in December 2011 to determine the extent of the outcrop. Our preliminary modeling of these data showed the river outcrop appeared to merge with a more extensive igneous body at depth. Ground conductivity data collected near the river outcrop in March 2012 suggested that the outcrop impacts groundwater flow and sediment deposition adjacent to the river. From May through July 2012 we have been collecting additional microgravity data on a grid with 100-200 m spacing extending ~ 500 m from both sides of the river outcrop to better determine the extent of the buried andesite body. We also plan to conduct GPR and magnetic surveys near the recently discovered andesite boulders to determine if these are truly in-situ and part of the same igneous body as the river outcrop. Our eventual goal is to determine how extensive the andesite unit is and how it may impact groundwater flow and flooding in this area of growing urbanization.

  14. Landscape level influence: aquatic primary production in the Colorado River of Glen and Grand canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yard, M. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.; Bennett, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Irregular features common to canyon-bound regions intercept solar incidence (photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD: μmol m-2 s-1]) and can affect ecosystem energetics. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is topographically complex, typical of most streams and rivers in the arid southwest. Dam-regulated systems like the Colorado River have reduced sediment loads, and consequently increased water transparency relative to unimpounded rivers; however, sediment supply from tributaries and flow regulation that affects erosion and subsequent sediment transport, interact to create spatial and temporal variation in optical conditions in this river network. Solar incidence and suspended sediment loads regulate the amount of underwater light available for aquatic photosynthesis in this regulated river. Since light availability is depth dependent (Beer's law), benthic algae is often exposed to varying levels of desiccation or reduced light conditions due to daily flow regulation, additional factors that further constrain aquatic primary production. Considerable evidence suggests that the Colorado River food web is now energetically dependent on autotrophic production, an unusual condition since large river foodwebs are typically supported by allochthonous carbon synthesized and transported from terrestrial environments. We developed a mechanistic model to account for these regulating factors to predict how primary production might be affected by observed and alternative flow regimes proposed as part of ongoing adaptive management experimentation. Inputs to our model include empirical data (suspended sediment and temperature), and predictive relationships: 1) solar incidence reaching the water surface (topographic complexity), 2) suspended sediment-light extinction relationships (optical properties), 3) unsteady flow routing model (stage-depth relationship), 4) channel morphology (photosynthetic area), and 5) photosynthetic-irradiant response for dominant algae (Cladophora

  15. Erosion properties of cohesive sediments in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M.W.; Topping, D.J.; Melis, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cohesive sediment deposits characterized by a high fraction of mud (silt plus clay) significantly affect the morphology and ecosystem of rivers. Potentially cohesive sediment samples were collected from deposits in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons. The erosion velocities of these samples were measured in a laboratory flume under varying boundary shear stresses. The non-dimensional boundary shear stress at which erosion commenced showed a systematic deviation from that of non-cohesive sediments at mud fractions greater than 0.2. An empirical relation for the boundary shear stress threshold of erosion as a function of mud fraction was proposed. The mass erosion rate was modelled using the Ariathurai-Partheniades equation. The erosion rate parameter of this equation was found to be a strong function of mud fraction. Under similar boundary shear stress and sediment supply conditions in the Colorado River, cohesive lateral eddy deposits formed of mud fractions in excess of 0.2 will erode less rapidly than non-cohesive deposits. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  17. External threats: the dilemma of resource management on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Roy; Carothers, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Congress established Grand Canyon National Park in 1919 to preserve for posterity the outstanding natural attributes of the canyon cut by the Colorado River. In some cases National Park Service attempts to maintain Grand Canyon's natural environment have been thwarted by activities outside the park. One of the most obvious external threats is Glen Canyon Dam, only 26 km upstream from the park boundary. Constructed in 1963, this gigantic dam has greatly altered the physicochemical and biological characteristics of 446 km of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The river's aquatic ecosystem has been greatly modified through the loss of indigenous species and the addition of numerous exotics. We consider this an exotic ecosystem. The riparian ecosystem has been less modified, with addition of a few exotics and no loss of natives—this we consider a naturalized ecosystem. The great dilemma now faced by park managers is that, after 20 years of managing resources along a river controlled by Glen Canyon Dam, the Bureau of Reclamation has proposed major changes in operational procedures for the dam. Scientists and managers from the National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and cooperating federal and state resource management agencies are using a systems analysis approach to examine the impacts of various Colorado River flow regimes on aquatic, riparian, and recreational parameters in the park. This approach will help in the development of management alternatives designed to permit the most efficient use of that river's natural resources without their destruction.

  18. The State of the Colorado River Ecosystem in Grand Canyon: A Report of the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center 1991-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloss, Steven P.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2005-01-01

    This report is an important milestone in the effort by the Secretary of the Interior to implement the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 (GCPA; title XVIII, secs. 1801-1809, of Public Law 102-575), the most recent authorizing legislation for Federal efforts to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. The chapters that follow are intended to provide decision makers and the American public with relevant scientific information about the status and recent trends of the natural, cultural, and recreational resources of those portions of Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations. Glen Canyon Dam is one of the last major dams that was built on the Colorado River and is located just south of the Arizona-Utah border in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, approximately 15 mi (24 km) upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). The information presented here is a product of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey`s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) has responsibility for the scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program, including the preparation of reports such as this one.

  19. Trend analysis of selected water-quality data associated with salinity-control projects in the Grand Valley, in the lower Gunnison River basin, and at Meeker Dome, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    To decrease salt loading to the Colorado River from irrigated agriculture, salinity-control projects have been under construction since 1979 by the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the Grand Valley and since 1988 in the lower Gunnison River Basin of western Colorado. In 1980, a salinity-control project was initiated at Meeker Dome, which involved plugging three abandoned oil wells that were discharging saline water to the White River. Trend analysis was used to determine if the salinity-control projects had affected salinity in the Colorado and White Rivers. The mean annual dissolved-solids load in the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line for water years 1970-93 was about 3.32 million tons. About 46 percent of that load was from the Colorado River upstream from the Grand Valley and about 38 percent was from the Gunnison River. About 16 percent of the dissolved-solids load in the Colorado River near the State line was discharged from the Grand Valley, and most of the Grand Valley dissolved-solids load was from irrigation-induced sources. Monotonic trend analysis of dissolved-solids and major-ion data for the Colorado and Gunnison Rivers was used for determining if salinity-control projects had affected salinity (dissolved solids) in the Colorado River. Data collected in water years 1970-93 at gaging stations on the Colorado River-one near Cameo and the other near the Colorado-Utah State line, and at the station on the Gunnison River near Grand Junction-were analyzed for trends. A computerized procedure developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that uses the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test with adjustment for streamflow was used for trend analysis of periodic and monthly data, and linear regression was used for trend analysis of annual data. Three time periods were tested, including periods that were concurrent with work on salinity-control projects. Many of the trends in unadjusted concentration and load data were not

  20. 2010 weather and aeolian sand-transport data from the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dealy, Timothy P.; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of weather parameters and aeolian sand transport were made in 2010 near selected archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Arizona. Data collected in 2010 indicate event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Differences in weather patterns between 2009 and 2010 included a slightly later spring windy season, greater spring precipitation and annual rainfall totals, and a later onset and length of the reduced diurnal barometric-pressure fluctuations commonly associated with summer monsoon conditions. The increase in spring precipitation was consistent with the 2010 spring El Niño conditions compared to the 2009 spring La Niña conditions, whereas the subsequent transition to an El Niño-Southern Oscillation neutral phase appeared to delay the reduction in diurnal barometric fluctuations.

  1. Changes in community-level riparian plant traits over inundation gradients, Colorado River, Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy-Sulentic, Miles; Kolb, Thomas; Merritt, David; Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Sarr, Daniel; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons of community-level functional traits across environmental gradients have potential for identifying links among plant characteristics, adaptations to stress and disturbance, and community assembly. We investigated community-level variation in specific leaf area (SLA), plant mature height, seed mass, stem specific gravity (SSG), relative cover of C4 species, and total plant cover over hydrologic zones and gradients in years 2013 and 2014 in the riparian plant community along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Vegetation cover was lowest in the frequently inundated active channel zone, indicating constraints on plant establishment and production by flood disturbance and anaerobic stress. Changes in trait values over hydrologic zones and inundation gradients indicate that frequently inundated plots exhibit a community-level ruderal strategy with adaptation to submergence (high SLA and low SSG, height, seed mass, C4 relative cover), whereas less frequently inundated plots exhibit adaptation to drought and infrequent flood disturbance (low SLA and high SSG, height, seed mass, C4 relative cover). Variation in traits not associated with inundation suggests niche differentiation and multiple modes of community assembly. The results enhance understanding of future responses of riparian communities of the Grand Canyon to anticipated drying and changes in hydrologic regime.

  2. 77 FR 59395 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 188 (Thursday, September 27, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 59395-59396] [FR Doc No: 2012-23804] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2524-018--Oklahoma Salina Pumped Storage Project] Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of...

  3. 78 FR 1210 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Telephone Meeting To Discuss the Salina Pumped Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Pumped Storage Project Water Quality Study Results a. Date and Time of Meeting: Wednesday, January 16...) Oklahoma Water Resources Control Board (OWRB): Water quality study results at the conclusion of fieldwork... Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA) is holding a technical meeting to discuss the results of the...

  4. 75 FR 74700 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ..., Oklahoma 74301-0409, (918) 256-5545 or by e-mail: tjahnke@grda.com . i. FERC Contact: Any questions on this... the end of your comments. ] k. Description of the Application: The Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA... grant an easement on GRDA property within the project boundary to permit the Town of Adair, Oklahoma,...

  5. River management impacts on riparian forest vegetation along the Middle Rio Grande: 1935-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Roy E.

    Riparian ecosystems of the southwestern United States are highly valuable to both the ecological and human communities which surround them. Over the past century, they have been subject to shifting management practices to maximize human use, control, ecosystem service, and conservation. This creates a complex relationship between water policy, management, and the natural ecosystem necessitating research on spatial and temporal dynamics of riparian vegetation. The San Acacia Reach of the Middle Rio Grande, a 60 mile stretch from the San Acacia Diversion Dam to San Marcial, has experienced multiple management and river flow fluctuations over the past 80 years, resulting in threats to riparian and aquatic ecosystems. This research was completed through the use and analysis of multi-source remote sensing data, GIS, and a review of the on-the-ground management decisions to better understand how the location and composition of the riparian vegetation has been affected by these shifting practices. This research focused on four phases, each highlighting different management practices and river flow patterns during the last 80-years. Each of these periods provides a unique opportunity to observe a direct relationship between river management and riparian land cover response and change. Overall, management practices reduced surface river flows and limited overbank flooding and resulted in changes in the composition, density, and spatial patterns of the vegetation, including increased non-native vegetation growth. Restoration efforts over the past few decades have begun to reduce the presence of non-native species. Despite these changes, this ecosystem was shown to be extremely resilient in maintaining its function/service throughout the entire study time frame.

  6. Trout piscivory in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon: Effects of turbidity, temperature, and fish prey availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, Michael D.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Baxter, Colden V.; Bennett, Glenn E.; Korman, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative salmonids, such as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta, have affected native fishes worldwide in unforeseen and undesirable ways. Predation and other interactions with nonnative rainbow trout and brown trout have been hypothesized as contributing to the decline of native fishes (including the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. A multiyear study was conducted to remove nonnative fish from a 15-km segment of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence. We evaluated how sediment, temperature, fish prey availability, and predator abundance influenced the incidence of piscivory (IP) by nonnative salmonids. Study objectives were addressed through spatial (upstream and downstream of the Little Colorado River confluence) and temporal (seasonal and annual) comparisons of prey availability and predator abundance. Data were then evaluated by modeling the quantity of fish prey ingested by trout during the first 2 years (2003–2004) of the mechanical removal period. Field effort resulted in the capture of 20,000 nonnative fish, of which 90% were salmonids. Results indicated that the brown trout IP was higher (8–70%) than the rainbow trout IP (0.5–3.3%); however, rainbow trout were 50 times more abundant than brown trout in the study area. We estimated that during the study period, over 30,000 fish (native and nonnative species combined) were consumed by rainbow trout (21,641 fish) and brown trout (11,797 fish). On average, rainbow trout and brown trout ingested 85% more native fish than nonnative fish in spite of the fact that native fish constituted less than 30% of the small fish available in the study area. Turbidity may mediate piscivory directly by reducing prey detection, but this effect was not apparent in our data, as rainbow trout IP was greater when suspended sediment levels (range = 5.9–20,000 mg/L) were higher.

  7. Using GIS and logistic regression to estimate agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers of the midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, other pesticides and fertilizers) in surface water may constitute a human health risk. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1-4 months following application in spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during the fall, winter and spring. Natural and anthropogenic variables of river drainage basins, such as soil permeability, the amount of agricultural chemicals applied or percentage of land planted in corn, affect agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers. Logistic regression (LGR) models are used to investigate relations between various drainage basin variables and the concentration of selected agricultural chemicals in rivers. The method is successful in contributing to the understanding of agricultural chemical concentration in rivers. Overall accuracies of the best LGR models, defined as the number of correct classifications divided by the number of attempted classifications, averaged about 66%.

  8. An Estimate of Chemical Loads from Ground Water to the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal, Northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willoughby, Timothy C.; Siddeeq, Qaadir A.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical loads from ground water to the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal in northwestern Indiana were estimated to aid in determining the total maximum daily load. Data from two previous studies, completed in 1987 and 1993, were used to compute loads. The first study included a ground-water-flow model. Results from this model were used to determine ground-water fluxes to eight distinct reaches of the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal at assumed horizontal hydraulic conductivities of 50 and 100 feet per day. In addition, water quality data collected during the first study and a second study that further described the quality of water from wells screened in the Calumet aquifer, were used with the ground-water fluxes to compute estimates of chemical loads for selected constituents contributing to the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal. Constituents included trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and selected general chemistry properties. Total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved ammonia as nitrogen had the largest estimated loads to the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal for any river reach. The estimated loads for total dissolved solids ranged from 239 to 12,800 kilograms per day. Dissolved iron had the largest estimated load for the trace elements and exceeded 1 kilogram per day for all river reaches for which data were available. The majority of ground-water concentrations for polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were reported as less than the method reporting limit, resulting in small computed loads to the river and canal.

  9. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Sterner, Mauritz C.; Linder, Chad; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger

    2012-01-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n=14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n=12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  10. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  11. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  12. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  13. Predictive Tools for Evaluating Aeolian Sediment Redistribution After Experimental Floods: Monitoring Studies in the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Rubin, D. M.; Fairley, H. C.; Melis, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    The Colorado River through Grand Canyon is subject to complex river management protocols and multi-faceted geomorphic research through the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Predicting aeolian redistribution of sediment following experimental floods is important for assessing the potential of controlled flooding to help preserve archaeological sites by replenishing sediment deposits above the flood-stage elevation. We present initial results of an ongoing instrumentation program supported by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center in which aeolian sediment transport rates, wind magnitude and direction, and precipitation are measured at multiple locations along the river corridor. These data allow resolution of seasonal and regional variability in wind intensity and direction, and resultant aeolian sediment transport, as well as precipitation patterns. Data collected since Fall 2003 indicate that wind velocities and sand transport were greatest during April and May 2004 at all locations studied (with winds locally >25 m/s, and transport rates locally >9 kg/m/day). Dominant wind direction during strong wind intervals varies with location, but during the April-May windy season the greatest transport potential was directed upstream in Marble Canyon (upper Grand Canyon). Such information can be used to evaluate the potential for aeolian reworking of new fluvial sand deposits, and restoration of higher-elevation aeolian deposits, following experimental beach/habitat building flows. These aeolian deposits, many of which contain and preserve archaeological material, comprise a critical part of the Grand Canyon ecosystem.

  14. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  15. Cenozoic incision history of the Little Colorado River and its role in carving Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-stage incision/denudation history for the southwestern Colorado Plateau involved: carving of 70-30 Ma Laramide paleotopography controlled by strike valleys at the base of retreating cliffs, 25-15 Ma incision of an East Kaibab paleovalley that cut to about half the modern depth of eastern Grand Canyon, and 5-6 Ma integration of the Colorado River (CR) through Grand Canyon. A synthesis of Little Colorado River (LCR) incision history informs aspects of each episode. Refined evidence for the first two episodes is from new thermochronology modeling that shows post-Laramide NE cliff retreat and a 35-25 Ma LCR paleovalley that flowed NW across the Kaibab uplift. Next was 16-14 Ma playa/ marsh deposition of Lower Bidahochi Formation, 13-8 Ma non-deposition, and 6-8 fluvial upper Bidahochi Formation with base level defined by Hopi Buttes maars. Little denudation in the LCR valley from 16 to 6 Ma is documented by similar elevations of 16 and 6 Ma paleo baselevels. The third pulse of regional incision/denudation was associated with integration of the CR across the Vermillion Cliffs after 5-6 Ma. Earliest integration reoccupied the East Kaibab paleocanyon, inferred from thermochronology to have been at ~1500-1700 m elevation at 15 Ma. Topographically inverted dated basalt mesas in the LCR headwater region show steady incision of 43 m/Ma since 6 Ma. New 2 Ma sanidine ages for Crooked Ridge and Blue Point ash show ~100 m/Ma differential incision across the LCR knickpoint over the last ~ 2 Ma: ~400 m (~200 m/Ma) at the confluence, 400-500 m (200-250 m/Ma) at the projected confluence of Crooked Ridge and the LCR, 220 m (110 m/Ma) for topographically inverted basalt mesas in LCR tributaries in the central reaches, and 116-204 m (61-43 m/Ma) in the headwaters. Headwater uplift of the Rocky Mountains likely facilitated CR integration; post-2 Ma differential incision in the LCR may reflect a combination of regional mantle-driven epeirogenic uplift and additional mantle

  16. Influence of topographic complexity on solar insolation estimates for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, M.D.; Bennett, G.E.; Mietz, S.N.; Coggins, L.G.; Stevens, L.E.; Hueftle, S.; Blinn, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rugged topography along the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons, exemplifies features common to canyon-bound streams and rivers of the arid southwest. Physical relief influences regulated river systems, especially those that are altered, and have become partially reliant on aquatic primary production. We measured and modeled instantaneous solar flux in a topographically complex environment to determine where differences in daily, seasonal and annual solar insolation occurred in this river system. At a system-wide scale, topographic complexity generates a spatial and temporal mosaic of varying solar insolation. This solar variation is a predictable consequence of channel orientation, geomorphology, elevation angles and viewshed. Modeled estimates for clear conditions corresponded closely with observed measurements for both instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: ??mol m-2 s-1) and daily insolation levels (relative error 2.3%, CI ??0.45, S.D. 0.3, n = 29,813). Mean annual daily insolation levels system-wide were estimated to be 36 mol m-2 d -1 (17.5 S.D.), and seasonally varied on average from 13.4-57.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. In comparison to identical areas lacking topographic effect (idealized plane), mean daily insolation levels were reduced by 22% during summer, and as much as 53% during winter. Depending on outlying topography, canyon bound regions having east-west (EW) orientations had higher seasonal variation, averaging from 8.1 to 61.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. For EW orientations, 70% of mid-channel sites were obscured from direct incidence during part of the year; and of these sites, average diffuse light conditions persisted for 19.3% of the year (70.5 days), and extended upwards to 194 days. This predictive model has provided an initial quantitative step to estimate and determine the importance of autotrophic production for this ecosystem, as well as a broader application for other

  17. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Cole, Rebecca A

    2004-10-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  18. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  19. Salinity of the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon confers anti-parasitic properties on a native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the Little Colorado River within Grand Canyon is naturally high in salt (NaCl), which is known to prohibit development of external fish parasites such as Ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). The naturally high salinity (>0.3%) of the Little Colorado River at baseflow may be one factor allowing survival and persistence of larval and juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fishes in Grand Canyon. We compared salinity readings from the Little Colorado River to those reported in the literature as being effective at removing protozoan parasites from fish. In laboratory tests, 10 juvenile roundtail chub (Gila robusta; 61–90 mm TL) were randomly placed into each of 12, 37-L aquaria filled with freshwater, water obtained from the Little Colorado River (0.3% salinity), or freshwater with table salt added until the salinity reached 0.3%. Roundtail chub was used as a surrogate for humpback chub in this study because the species is not listed as endangered but is morphologically and ecologically similar to humpback chub. All roundtail chub infected with Ich recovered and survived when placed in water from the Little Colorado River or water with 0.3% salinity, but all experimental fish placed in freshwater died because of Ich infection. The naturally high salinity of the Little Colorado River at baseflow (0.22%–0.36%), appears sufficiently high to interrupt the life cycle of Ich and may allow increased survival of larval and juvenile humpback chub relative to other areas within Grand Canyon.

  20. The internal structure of sand bars on the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as determined by ground-penetrating radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, Walter A.; Kayen, Robert; Rubin, David; Minasian, Diane L.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution, subsurface imagery from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has revealed the internal structure of sand bars at seven sites on the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. Based on reconnaissance-level surveys, we recognized three stratigraphic units and several intervening unconformities. Unit A, which exhibits hyperbolic reflections and always occurs at the base of the section, is interpreted as bedrock and/or talus. Unit B is a commonly observed sand deposit that overlies unit A and is characterized by reflections that gently dip down toward the river axis. Unit C is a sand deposit up to 2 m thick that always occurs at the top of the section and may represent a flood deposit from 1983. This study demonstrates the utility of GPR for non-destructive investigation of sand-bar thickness and the stratigraphic record of flood events in the Grand Canyon.

  1. Movement patterns of wintering lesser scaup in Grand Calumet River - Indiana Harbor Canal, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Hines, Randy K.; Kochanny, C.O.

    1996-01-01

    Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) winter in the Grand Calumet River-Indiana Harbor Canal (GCR-IHC) drainage into southern Lake Michigan, a polluted oasis in the highly urban and industrial corridor of northern Illinois and Indiana. The GCR-IHC is an important wintering area for lesser scaup in northwestern Indiana, especially after Lake Michigan freezes, because of the lack of other wildlife habitat in the area. We investigated the feeding and movement patterns of these wintering lesser scaup to better understand the ecological significance of this area to wintering waterfowl and to interpret contaminant levels in these lesser scaup. We implanted radio transmitters in 20 individuals in January 1994 and tracked them until early March 1994. Four lesser scaup disappeared and four died within the first 2 weeks after implantation; 12 lesser scaup remained in the GCR-IHC for the next 6-7 weeks. Individual radio-marked scaup (n = 12) were located in the GCR-IHC on an average of 62.2% (extreme values = 25-87%) of the searches. No radio-marked lesser scaup were located outside the GCR-IHC. Lesser scaup were feeding during 23% of the radio fixes.

  2. Diets of insectivorous birds along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, H.K.; van Riper, Charles; Brown, B.T.; Kearsley, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined diets of six insectivorous bird species (n = 202 individuals) from two vegetation zones along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1994. All bird species consumed similar quantities of caterpillars and beetles, but use of other prey taxa varied. Non-native leafhoppers (Opsius stactagolus) specific to non-native tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis) substantially augmented Lucy's Warbler (Vermivora luciae) diets (49%), while ants comprised 82% of Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) diets. Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) diets were composed of 45% aquatic midges. All bird species consumed the non-native leafhopper specific to tamarisk. Comparison of bird diets with availability of arthropod prey from aquatic and terrestrial origins showed terrestrial insects comprised 91% of all avian diets compared to 9% of prey from aquatic origin. Seasonal shifts in arthropod prey occurred in diets of three bird species, although no seasonal shifts were detected in arthropods sampled in vegetation indicating that at least three bird species were not selecting prey in proportion to its abundance. All bird species had higher prey overlap with arthropods collected in the native, mesquite-acacia vegetation zone which contained higher arthropod diversity and better prey items (i.e., Lepidoptera). Lucy's Warbler and Yellow Warbler consumed high proportions of prey items found in greatest abundance in the tamarisk-dominated vegetation zone that has been established since the construction of Glen Canyon Dam. These species appeared to exhibit ecological plasticity in response to an anthropogenic increase in prey resources.

  3. Functional traits and ecological affinities of riparian plants along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Sarr. Daniel,; Merritt, David; Shafroth, Patrick B; Scott, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Trait-based approaches to vegetation analyses are becoming more prevalent in studies of riparian vegetation dynamics, including responses to flow regulation, groundwater pumping, and climate change. These analyses require species trait data compiled from the literature and floras or original field measurements. Gathering such data makes trait-based research time intensive at best and impracticable in some cases. To support trait-based analysis of vegetation along the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, a data set of 20 biological traits and ecological affinities for 179 species occurring in that study area was compiled. This diverse flora shares species with many riparian areas in the western USA and includes species that occur across a wide moisture gradient. Data were compiled from published scientific papers, unpublished reports, plant fact sheets, existing trait databases, regional floras, and plant guides. Data for ordinal environmental tolerances were more readily available than were quantitative traits. More publicly available data are needed for traits of both common and rare southwestern U.S. plant species to facilitate comprehensive, trait-based research. The trait data set is free to use and can be downloaded from ScienceBase: https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/58af41dee4b01ccd54f9f2ff and https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7QV3JN1

  4. Implementation of a New Isotopic Tool (18O/16O in dissolved O2) for the Management of Oxygen in the Grand River, an Impacted Watershed in S. Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, T. S.; Schiff, S. L.; Taylor, W. D.

    2004-05-01

    Oxygen (O2) is essential for supporting life in aquatic ecosystems, and mediates the geochemistry of the aquatic environment. Recent analytical development now permits rapid analysis of the 18O/16O ratio of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water. The 18O/16O ratio provides insight into the main processes controlling DO concentrations in rivers: gas exchange, photosynthesis and respiration. Previously, this information was only available using indirect methods that involved laborious point scale measurements that are not amenable to routine sampling. The focus of this study is the Grand River, a Canadian Heritage River that drains into Lake Erie. The receives organic and nutrient inputs from sewage treatment plants, non-point agricultural sources, and serves as a source of drinking water and supports a significant recreational fishery. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Grand River can cycle from 2 mg/l to 14 mg/l in the summer during a 24 hour period. The concurrent shift in 18O/16O is greater than 10 permil on a diel basis. Rigorous sampling regimes are needed in dynamic systems that experience large fluxes in O2. Diurnal curves were analyzed for DO and 18O/16O in DO during different seasons. Gas exchange is an important constraint on the diurnal flux of DO. Currently, gas exchange coefficients for the Grand River are typically obtained using empirical estimates based on results from other rivers. Analysis of 18O/16O offers a new method to allow for the direct determination of the gas exchange coefficient for DO in rivers with diurnal cycles.

  5. Effects of a test flood on fishes of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, R.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; McIvor, C.C.; McKinney, T.; Leibfried, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    A beach/habitat-building flow (i.e., test flood) of 1274 m3/s, released from Glen Canyon Dam down the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, had little effect on distribution, abundance, or movement of native fishes, and only short-term effects on densities of some nonnative species Shoreline and backwater catch rates of native fishes, including juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha), flannelmouth suckers (Catostomus latipinnis), and bluehead suckers (C. discobolus), and all ages of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus), were not significantly different before and after the flood. Annual spring spawning migrations of flannelmouth suckers into the Paria River and endangered humpback chub into the Little Colorado River (LCR) took place during and after the flood, indicating no impediment to fish migrations. Pre-spawning adults staged in large slack water pools formed at the mouths of these tributaries during the flood. Net movement and habitat used by nine radio-tagged adult humpback chub during the flood were not significantly different from prior observations. Diet composition of adult humpback chub varied, but total biomass did not differ significantly before, during, and after the flood, indicating opportunistic feeding for a larger array of available food items displaced by the flood. Numbers of nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) <152 mm total length decreased by ???8% in electrofishing samples from the dam tailwaters (0-25 km downstream of the dam) during the flood. Increased catch rates in the vicinity of the LCR (125 km downstream of the dam) and Hell's Hollow (314 km downstream of the dam) suggest that these young trout were displaced downstream by the flood, although displacement distance was unknown since some fish could have originated from local populations associated with intervening tributaries. Abundance, catch rate, body condition, and diet of adult rainbow trout in the dam tailwaters were not significantly affected by the flood, and the flood

  6. Climate-Related Flood and Sediment Transport From the Paria River to Grand Canyon: The Role of Multiple Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    Since the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the sole major supplier of sand to the Colorado River in the upper portion of Grand Canyon is the Paria River, which supplies about 6% of the pre-dam supply of sand at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park. Sand is delivered by the Paria River during short-duration (< 24 hours), large magnitude (up to 300 m3s-1) floods that occur primarily during the warm season (July-October). The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of the tributary supplied sediment, endangered species recovery, and cultural resources. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the AMP, related to the timing and volume of sediment input into Grand Canyon. Adequate sediment inputs into the Canyon combined with active management of the timed releases from Glen Canyon Dam support the restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. For the Paria River, we relate the climatic drivers of episodic to interdecadal variations to the observed changes in the flood magnitude, timing and spatial scales as they affect the sediment inputs to the Colorado River. Variability in regional precipitation distribution on multiple time scales is diagnosed with emphasis on understanding the relative role of East Pacific tropical storms, North Pacific sea surface temperatures, and subtropical moisture sources. Better understanding of the coupled climate-hydrologic variations on multiple time scales is increasingly recognized as critical input for adaptive management (both passive and active). In collaboration with the AMP, this work deliberately identifies the entry-points for predictive hydroclimatic information at appropriate lead times. From the standpoint of this active adaptive management program, lead climate information allows

  7. Demographics and chronology of a spawning aggregation of blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) in the Grand River, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, Jason C.; Guerrant, Travis L.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) was sampled as individuals arrived, spawned, and departed from a spawning rime in the Grand River of northcentral Missouri, USA. The Grand River basin was not known to support blue sucker reproduction with few individuals ever recorded. The spawning site is unique in character for the lower river. Individuals began arriving in early April when water temperatures reached 10–12°C. Females with freely-flowing roe were sampled in late April after a large rise in river stage and concurrent lowering of the water temperature 4–5 degrees to 16.5°C. The spawning aggregation had a mean age of 15 y and ranged from 9 to 22 y based on scales that probably underestimated true ages. Males outnumbered females 5.5:1. Mean length was 659 mm for males and 721 mm for females. Females were longer at age than males and no significant age-length relationship was evident.

  8. Streamwater quality at selected sites in the Fraser River basin, Grand County, Colorado, water years 1991-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of population growth on streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey did a study in cooperation with the Grand County Commissioners and the East Grand County Water Quality Board. During water years 1991 through 2000, the study determined that concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate in the streamwater of the basin are within Colorado State streamwater?quality standards. The study also found that concentrations of chloride are largest at the headwaters and decrease downstream; however, chloride loading in the stream has the opposite relation. Most nutrient loading to the Fraser River happens January through May. Concentrations of ammonia at Fraser River downstream from Vasquez Creek at Winter Park had a downward trend through the period of the study. Nitrite plus nitrate had upward and downward trends at different sites and over different time spans. Orthophosphorus concentrations had upward trends at two sites. In general, the streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin is good and is not out of compliance with State standards.

  9. Agricultural Employment and Economic Growth in the Lower Rio Grande Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Conrad F.

    Using the basic input-output model developed by the Texas Input-Output Project for a 19 county South Texas Region, income transfer effects from the extension of unemployment insurance to the agricultural sector were derived. Total income transferred would have ranged from $1.5 million to $2.3 million depending upon coverage provisions. About…

  10. 2008 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Sondossi, Hoda A.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.; Vanaman, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents measurements of weather parameters and aeolian (windblown) sand transport made in 2008 near selected archaeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The quantitative methods and data discussed here form a basis for monitoring ecosystem processes that affect archeological-site stability. Combined with forthcoming work to evaluate landscape evolution at nearby archaeological sites, these data can be used to document the relationship between physical processes, including weather and aeolian sand transport, and their effects on the physical integrity of archaeological sites. Data collected in 2008 reveal event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Broad seasonal changes in aeolian sediment flux are also apparent at most study sites. The continuation of monitoring that began in 2007, and installation of equipment at several new sites in early 2008, allowed evaluation of the effects of the March 2008 high-flow experiment (HFE) on aeolian sand transport. At two of the nine sites studied, spring and summer winds reworked 2008 HFE sandbars to form new aeolian dunes, at which sand moved inland toward larger, well-established dune fields. At the other seven study sites, neither dune formation nor enhanced sand transport after the HFE were observed. At several of those sites, dominant wind directions in spring 2008 were not oriented such that much HFE sand would have moved inland; at other sites, lack of increased inland sand flux is attributable to lack of sandbar enlargement near the study sites or to inhibition of sand movement by vegetation or local topography.

  11. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  12. River eutrophication: irrigated vs. non-irrigated agriculture through different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Laura; Moreno, José Luis; Picazo, Félix

    2012-05-15

    The main objective of this study was to determine how spatial scale may affect the results when relating land use to nutrient enrichment of rivers and, secondly, to investigate which agricultural practices are more responsible for river eutrophication in the study area. Agriculture was split into three subclasses (irrigated, non-irrigated and low-impact agriculture) which were correlated to stream nutrient concentration on four spatial scales: large scale (drainage area of total subcatchment and 100 m wide subcatchment corridors) and local scale (5 and 1 km radius buffers). Nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations and land use composition (agriculture, urban and forest) were measured at 130 river reaches in south-central Spain during the 2001-2009 period. Results suggested that different spatial scales may lead to different conclusions. Spatial autocorrelation and the inadequate representation of some land uses produced unreal results on large scales. Conversely, local scales did not show data autocorrelation and agriculture subclasses were well represented. The local scale of 1 km buffer was the most appropriate to detect river eutrophication in central Spanish rivers, with irrigated cropland as the main cause of river pollution by nitrate. As regards river management, a threshold of 50% irrigated cropland within a 1 km radius buffer has been obtained using breakpoint regression analysis. This means that no more than 50% of irrigation croplands should be allowed near river banks in order to avoid river eutrophication. Finally, a methodological approach is proposed to choose the appropriate spatial scale when studying river eutrophication caused by diffuse pollution like agriculture.

  13. Spatial information technologies for climate change impact on ecosystems: detecting and mapping invasive weeds in the Rio Grande River system of south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetlands and aquatic ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change. Exotic invasive weeds are a serious problem in the Rio Grande River system of Texas. The river extends 3,040 km from its source in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado to the mouth at the Gulf of Mexico on the United States-Mexico borde...

  14. Impact of the biological control agent, Tetramesa romana (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) on Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) along the Rio Grande River in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five years post release of 1.2 million arundo wasps, Tetramesa romana, into the riparian habitats of the lower Rio Grande River; changes in the health the invasive weed, Arundo donax, giant reed have been documented. These changes in plant attributes are fairly consistent along the 558 river miles b...

  15. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.

  16. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  17. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  18. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  19. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  20. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., San Bernard River, Cedar Lakes, Brown Cedar Cut, Colorado River, Matagorda Bay, Cedar Bayou, Corpus... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.850 Brazos River,...

  1. Achieving Long-Term Protection of Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Through Implementation of Conservation Practices and Control of Phosphorus Input from Agricultural Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), a 13,000 acre lake in northwestern Ohio, is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting primarily from phosphorus input from agricultural runoff. The algal blooms are so severe that the Ohio Department of Natural Resources advised against any...

  2. O, H and S Isotopes as Tracers of Groundwater Discharge Into the Rio Grande and the Gila River, Southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, C. J.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J. F.; Harris, R. C.

    2004-05-01

    In the semi-arid Basin-and-Range province, large rivers commonly enter and exit basins through hard-rock barriers impermeable to groundwater. Isotopic contrasts characteristically exist between river water entering a basin and locally-derived groundwater in basin-fill sediment. Basin aquifers must discharge to the river near the river exit point, and may contribute significantly to river water and solute load. O, H and S isotopes can potentially indicate the location of discharge zones. At times of low river flow, the Gila River enters Safford Basin with isotope delta values, here presented as [d18O‰ , dD‰ , d34S‰ ], of [-8.5, -65, +4.5]. Deep basin water has values [-11.5, -85, +11], the d34S reflecting gypsum evaporite. Values in river water change by km 50 to [-7.5, -60, +4.5] and between km 50 and 80 to [-8.5, -65, +7.5]. The increase in d18O and dD from 0-50 km indicates irrigation water discharge; the change from 50-80 km is accompanied by doubling of sulfate content and requires addition of deep basin water. The Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson with isotope composition [-6.5 to -8.5, -65 to -75, +2 to +4], the d18O and dD values defining an evaporation line (RGEL) resulting from passage of water through upstream reservoirs. Basin groundwater is sulfate-rich and has variable isotope composition: [-9 to -11, -66 to -76, +5 to +10]; it includes both evaporated and non-evaporated types. Groundwater discharge is generally insufficient to shift water away from the RGEL, but d34S values in river water increase to +5 to +9‰ with increasing sulfate content downstream of Fabens, TX, indicating discharge of high-d34S groundwater. Variable sewage discharge from Ciudad Juàrez limits the possibility of detecting isotope shifts in Rio Grande water.

  3. Large-scale bedforms in the Platte River downstream from Grand Island, Nebraska; structure, process, and relationship to channel narrowing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Platte River channel in Nebraska, especially downstream from Grand Island, is characterized by large, periodic, and geometrically distinct bedforms called macroforms. Macroforms have dimensions commensurate with the width and depth of the channel and are emergent at all but the highest flow stages. The encroachment of vegetation on macroforms and their consequent stabilization since the large-scale development of irrigation in the Platte River basin is the major cause of the reduction in channel width upstream from Grand Island. From simple geometrical considerations of macroform shape, an equation is developed to predict the depth and duration of flow required to erode the stoss sides of the macroforms to remove new vegetal growth each year. The methods developed in this report to eliminate vegetal growth on macroforms may provide a useful management tool for controlling width of the Platte River channels. Although further testing is required to establish the validity of these methods at actual stream sites, a sample calculation for the Silver Creek reach shows good agreement between the flow conditions predicted by the methods developed in this report and actual flow conditions. (USGS)

  4. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  5. Colorado River Vegetation, and Climate: Five Decades of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Grand Canyon in Response to River Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, B. E.; Sankey, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent analysis of remotely sensed imagery of 400 km of the Colorado River confirms a net increase in vegetated area has occurred since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. The rates and magnitude of vegetation change appear to be river stage-dependent. Riparian vegetation expansion on geomorphic surfaces at lower elevations relative to the river was greater for decades with lower peak and average discharges. Vegetation change at higher elevation relative to the river indicate that increases and decreases in vegetated area reflect regional precipitation patterns, and respectively coincide with regionally significant wet and dry periods that include the current early 21st century drought. The objective of this work was to examine the temporal persistence, and changes, in the spatial distribution of riparian vegetation relative to geomorphic characteristics of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, dam and reservoir management, and regional climate over the 5-decade period from the mid-1960s to present. We employed archived riparian vegetation classifications that used aerial imagery from 1965, 1973, 1984, 1992, 2002, and 2009 coupled with flow regime data that is primarily related to operations of Glen Canyon Dam, field-measured rating relations, predictions of rating relations based on 1-D modeling, and detailed, geomorphic field mapping. Documentation of the effects of river regulation on riparian habitats in the SW USA has traditionally been limited to either small segments of river channels (e.g., 0.1-10km), or focused on specific plant species. The smaller geographic scale approach evaluates local hydrology, river channel changes, and serial recruitment events of riparian plants. The species-specific plant response informs larger scale patterns of riparian plant distributions across the landscape, but is less sensitive to differences of climate and hydrology among rivers. Our study is unique in that it employs datasets that allow both large-scale change

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  7. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  8. Multiple constraints on the age of a Pleistocene lava dam across the Little Colorado River at Grand Falls, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.; Riggs, N.; Kaufman, D.; Champion, D.; Fenton, C.; Forman, S.; McIntosh, W.; Hereford, R.; Plescia, J.; Ort, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Grand Falls basalt lava flow in northern Arizona was emplaced in late Pleistocene time. It flowed 10 km from its vent area to the Little Colorado River, where it cascaded into and filled a 65-m-deep canyon to form the Grand Falls lava dam. Lava continued ???25 km downstream and ???1 km onto the far rim beyond where the canyon was filled. Subsequent fluvial sedimentation filled the reservoir behind the dam, and eventually the river established a channel along the margin of the lava flow to the site where water falls back into the pre-eruption canyon. The ca. 150 ka age of the Grand Falls flow provided by whole-rock K-Ar analysis in the 1970s is inconsistent with the preservation of centimeter-scale flow-top features on the surface of the flow and the near absence of physical and chemical weathering on the flow downstream of the falls. The buried Little Colorado River channel and the present-day channel are at nearly the same elevation, indicating that very little, if any, regional downcutting has occurred since emplacement of the flow. Newly applied dating techniques better define the age of the lava dam. Infrared-stimulated luminescence dating of silty mudstone baked by the lava yielded an age of 19.6 ?? 1.2 ka. Samples from three noneroded or slightly eroded outcrops at the top of the lava flow yielded 3He cosmogenic ages of 16 ?? 1 ka, 17 ?? 1 ka, and 20 ?? 1 ka. A mean age of 8 ?? 19 ka was obtained from averaging four samples using the 40Ar/39Ar step-heating method. Finally, paleomagnetic directions in lava samples from two sites at Grand Falls and one at the vent area are nearly identical and match the curve of magnetic secular variation at ca. 15 ka, 19 ka, 23 ka, and 28 ka. We conclude that the Grand Falls flow was emplaced at ca. 20 ka. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  9. Deciphering Paria and Little Colorado River flood regimes and their significance in multi-objective adaptive management strategies for Colorado River resources in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, sandbars, recreational trout angling, endangered native fish, whitewater rafting, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on warm-season Paria River floods (JUL-OCT, at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars below Glen Canyon Dam; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of warm season tributary sand input from the Paria River into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The Little Colorado River is an important secondary source of sand inputs to Grand Canyon, but its lower segment is also critical spawning habitat for the endangered humpback chub. Fish biologists have reported increased abundance of chub juveniles in this key tributary in summers following cool-season flooding (DEC-FEB), but little is known about chub spawning substrates and behavior or the role that flood frequency in this tributary may play in native fish population dynamics in Grand Canyon. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm- and cool-season floods from these two important tributaries of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. Coupled variations of floods (magnitude and timing) from these rivers are also

  10. 2009 weather and aeolian sand-transport data from the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Sondossi, Hoda A.; Dealy, Timothy P.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents measurements of weather parameters and aeolian sand transport made in 2009 near selected archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The quantitative methods and data discussed here form a basis for monitoring ecosystem processes that affect archeological-site stability. Combined with forthcoming work to evaluate landscape evolution at nearby archeological sites, these data can be used to document the relation between physical processes, including weather and aeolian sand transport, and their effects on the physical integrity of archeological sites. Data collected in 2009 reveal event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Broad seasonal changes in aeolian sediment flux are also apparent at most study sites. Differences in weather patterns between 2008 and 2009 included an earlier spring windy season, greater spring precipitation even though 2009 annual rainfall totals were in general substantially lower than in 2008, and earlier onset of the reduced diurnal barometric-pressure fluctuations commonly associated with summer monsoon conditions. Weather patterns in middle to late 2009 were apparently affected by a transition of the ENSO cycle from a neutral phase to the El Ni?o phase. The continuation of monitoring that began in 2007, and installation of additional equipment at several new sites in early 2008, allowed evaluation of the effects of the March 2008 high-flow experiment (HFE) on aeolian sand transport. As reported earlier, at 2 of the 9 sites studied, spring and summer winds in 2008 reworked the HFE sandbars to form new aeolian dunes, where sand moved inland toward larger, well-established dune fields. Observations in 2009 showed that farther inland migration of the dune at one of those two sites is likely inhibited by vegetation. At the other location, the new aeolian dune form was found to have moved 10 m inland toward older, well

  11. Effects of Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River and its floodplain, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Richard A.; Mills, John D.; Wrazien, David R.; Bassett, Beau; Splinter, Dale K.

    2005-10-01

    In 1906, the Bureau of Reclamation created Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River in what later became Grand Teton National Park. The geomorphic, hydrologic and vegetation adjustments downstream of the dam have yet to be documented. After a larger reservoir was completed further downstream in 1957, the reservoir release schedule from Jackson Lake Dam was changed in a manner that lowered the magnitude and frequency of floods. The stability of the Snake River exhibited a complex response to the change in flow regime. Close to major tributaries, the Snake River increased in total sinuosity and rates of lateral channel migration. Away from the influence of tributaries, the river experienced fewer avulsions and a decrease in sinuosity. Vegetation maps were constructed from 1945 and 1989 aerial photography and field surveys. Using these data, we determined how vegetation is directly related to the number of years since each portion of the floodplain was last occupied by the channel. The vegetation has changed from a flood-pulse dominated mosaic to a more terrestrial-like pattern of succession. Changes in the Snake River and its floodplain have direct implications on bald eagle habitat, moose habitat, fish habitat, safety of rafting and canoeing, and biodiversity at the community and species levels.

  12. Sewage-effluent phosphorus: a greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus?

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Helen P; Neal, Colin; Withers, Paul J A

    2006-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide the most significant risk for river eutrophication, even in rural areas with high agricultural phosphorus losses. Traditionally, the relative importance of point and diffuse sources has been assessed from annual P flux budgets, which are often dominated by diffuse inputs in storm runoff from intensively managed agricultural land. However, the ecological risk associated with nuisance algal growth in rivers is largely linked to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations during times of ecological sensitivity (spring/summer low-flow periods), when biological activity is at its highest. The relationships between SRP and total phosphorus (TP; total dissolved P+suspended particulate P) concentrations within UK rivers are evaluated in relation to flow and boron (B; a tracer of sewage effluent). SRP is the dominant P fraction (average 67% of TP) in all of the rivers monitored, with higher percentages at low flows. In most of the rivers the highest SRP concentrations occur under low-flow conditions and SRP concentrations are diluted as flows increase, which is indicative of point, rather than diffuse, sources. Strong positive correlations between SRP and B (also TP and B) across all the 54 river monitoring sites also confirm the primary importance of point source controls of phosphorus concentrations in these rivers, particularly during spring and summer low flows, which are times of greatest eutrophication risk. Particulate phosphorus (PP) may form a significant proportion of the phosphorus load to rivers, particularly during winter storm events, but this is of questionable relevance for river eutrophication

  13. Streamflow and water quality of the Grand Calumet River, Lake County, Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois, October 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wangsness, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A diel (24-hour) water-quality survey was done to investigate the sources of dry-weather waste inputs attributable to other than permitted point-source effluent and to evaluate the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Grand Calumet River, Lake County, Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois, in October 1984. Flow in the Grand Calumet River consists almost entirely of municipal and industrial effluents which comprised more than 90% of the 500 cu ft/sec flow observed at the confluence of the East Branch Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal during the study. At the time of the study, virtually all of the flow in the West Branch Grand Calumet River was municipal effluent. Diel variations in streamflow of as much as 300 cu ft/sec were observed in the East Branch near the ship canal. The diel variation diminished at the upstream sampling sites in the East Branch. In the West Branch, the diel variation in flow was quite drastic; complete reversals of flow were observed at sampling stations near the ship canal. Average dissolved-oxygen concentrations at stations in the East Branch ranged from 5.7 to 8.2 mg/L and at stations in the West Branch from 0.8 to 6.6 mg/L. Concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, biochemical-oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphorus were substantially higher in the West Branch than in the East Branch. In the East Branch, only the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board water-quality standards for total phosphorus and phenol were exceeded. In the West Branch, water-quality standards for total ammonia, chloride, cyanide, dissolved solids, fluoride, total phosphorus, mercury, and phenol were exceeded and dissolved oxygen was less than the minimum allowable. Three areas of significant differences between cumulative effluent and instream chemical-mass discharges were identified in the East Branch and one in the West Branch. The presence of unidentified waste inputs in the East Branch were indicated by

  14. Modeling the transfer of land and water from agricultural to urban uses in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Jarratt, Janet; Passell, Howard David; Kelly, Susan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Chermak, Janie; Van Bloeman Waanders, Paul; McNamara, Laura A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Pallachula, Kiran; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Newman, Gretchen Carr

    2004-11-01

    Social and ecological scientists emphasize that effective natural resource management depends in part on understanding the dynamic relationship between the physical and non-physical process associated with resource consumption. In this case, the physical processes include hydrological, climatological and ecological dynamics, and the non-physical process include social, economic and cultural dynamics among humans who do the resource consumption. This project represents a case study aimed at modeling coupled social and physical processes in a single decision support system. In central New Mexico, individual land use decisions over the past five decades have resulted in the gradual transformation of the Middle Rio Grande Valley from a primarily rural agricultural landscape to a largely urban one. In the arid southwestern U.S., the aggregate impact of individual decisions about land use is uniquely important to understand, because scarce hydrological resources will likely limit the viability of resulting growth and development trajectories. This decision support tool is intended to help planners in the area look forward in their efforts to create a collectively defined 'desired' social landscape in the Middle Rio Grande. Our research question explored the ways in which socio-cultural values impact decisions regarding that landscape and associated land use. Because of the constraints hydrological resources place on land use, we first assumed that water use, as embodied in water rights, was a reasonable surrogate for land use. We thought that modeling the movement of water rights over time and across water source types (surface and ground) would provide planners with insight into the possibilities for certain types of decisions regarding social landscapes, and the impact those same decisions would have on those landscapes. We found that water rights transfer data in New Mexico is too incomplete and inaccurate to use as the basis for the model. Furthermore, because of its

  15. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  16. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffnagle, T.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (<150 mm total length) humpback chub from the LCR and those from the Colorado River during 1996a??1999. Both K and AFI were lower and L. cyprinacea prevalence and B. acheilognathi prevalence were higher in LCR fish than in Colorado River fish for all years. Mean K and AFI were 0.622 and 0.48, respectively, in the LCR and 0.735 and 2.02, respectively, in the Colorado River, indicating that fish in the Colorado River were more robust. Mean prevalence of L. cyprinacea was 23.9% and mean intensity was 1.73 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 3.2% and intensity was 1.0 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the Colorado River. Mean prevalence of B. acheilognathi was 51.0% and mean intensity was 25.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 15.8% and intensity was 12.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the Colorado River. Increased parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

  17. A Comparison of Techniques for Mapping the Distribution of Sediment on the Bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, E.; Kaplinski, M.; Rubin, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is charged with establishing and implementing monitoring projects to provide scientific information to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) on the effects of operating Glen Canyon Dam on the downstream resources of the Colorado River ecosystem. One primary resource of concern to the GCDAMP is fine-grained sediment. Glen Canyon Dam traps approximately 94% of the pre-dam sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, resulting in a decline in the size of eddy sand bars (25% decline in surface area over the past 15 years). Sand bars are an important resource because they provide habitat for endangered native fish, protect archeological sites, provide substrate for vegetation, are used as campsites and are a distinctive feature of the pre-dam environment. A combination of traditional survey techniques and multi-beam bathymetry has been used to determine the size and elevation of sandbars and to obtain topographic maps of the riverbed. These techniques have proven useful in evaluating the spatial changes and channel morphology along the Colorado River ecosystem. While previous studies have been very effective in measuring volumetric and spatial changes, a method is needed map the distribution of sediment along the submerged portion of the river channel. The distribution of fine-grained sediment is needed to evaluate the potential for deposition onto high elevation sand bars during proposed experimental high flows. This study used high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter and underwater video images collected on expeditions in 2002 and 2004 to evaluate the different methodologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible technologies to be used in determining the distribution of sediment along the bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. These technologies include: 1) visual interpretation of shaded relief images produced from multibeam bathymetry; 2) visual

  18. Expansion of agricultural oasis in the Heihe River Basin of China: Patterns, reasons and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. An agricultural oasis is a typical landscape in arid regions providing precious fertile soil, living space and ecological services. The agricultural oasis change has been one of the key issues in sustainable development in recent decades. In this paper, we examined the changes in the agricultural oasis in HRB and analyzed the socio-economic and climatic driving forces behind them. It was found that the agricultural oasis in HRB expanded by 25.11% and 14.82% during the periods of 1986-2000 and 2000-2011, respectively. Most of the newly added agricultural oases in HRB were converted from grassland (40.94%) and unused land (40.22%). The expansion in the agricultural oasis mainly occurred in the middle reaches of HRB, particularly in the counties of Shandan, Minle, Jinta and Jiuquan city. Changes in the rural labor force, annual temperature and precipitation have significant positive effects on agricultural oasis changes, while the ratio of irrigated agricultural oases has significant negative effects on agricultural oasis changes. The agricultural oasis expansion in HRB is the combined effect of human activity and climate change.

  19. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    PubMed

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  20. A tale of two rivers: channel adjustments to restorative floods in the Green River in Dinosaur N.M. as compared to those in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon N.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. S.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    Sediment mass balance is a critical system attribute in assessing the potential for restoration of dam-impacted rivers. We compared channel response to large floods on the Green River in Lodore Canyon to similar changes measured along the Colorado River in part of Grand Canyon National Park, a reach with similar geomorphic organization, regulatory constraints, and habitat management goals. The post-dam sediment mass balance of the Green River is indeterminate or in surplus, but the mass balance of the Colorado River is in deficit. Analysis of repeat measurements at 36 cross sections along a 20 km reach of Lodore Canyon show that the sand storage condition in 2006 was no different than the condition observed in 1994, despite an increased frequency of high magnitude floods. Four high magnitude floods occurred in 1997, 1999, 2005, and 2006, but only one, the 1999 flow, triggered channel adjustments to the bed and banks that were significantly different than those of the post- dam 2-year return flood. This condition of relative equilibrium contrasts the sand storage condition of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, where sand bar area and volume have declined despite specific dam releases intended to rebuild sand bars. The contrasting patterns of channel adjustment in these rivers indicate that the opportunities and cost of restoration are likely to differ in relation to the sediment supply available for channel restoration.

  1. Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-value<0.001), where concentrations in 43 samples ranged from 62 to 240 milligrams per liter, compared to the downstream site where concentrations in 33 samples ranged from 77 to 141 milligrams per liter. Major-ion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National

  2. Herbicide levels in rivers draining two prairie agricultural watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Grift, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    A monitoring survey was conducted during 1984 on the Ochre and Turtle Rivers, which flow into Dauphin Lake in western Manitoba, Canada, to determine levels of the herbicides MCPA, diclofop-methyl, dicamba, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, triallate and trifluralin which were widely used in each watershed. Triallate concentrations exceeded 4 ng/L in 50% and 10% of the 21 samples taken from each of the Turtle and Ochre River, respectively, during the period March to October 1984. Trifluralin concentrations exceeded 3 ng/L in 14% and 10% of the samples from the respective rivers. Maximum concentrations did not exceed 25 ng/L and were unrelated to changes in river flow. Bromoxynil and diclofop were detected in the Turtle River, at concentrations of 113 and 476 ng/L, respectively, following a major high water event in late June, but were undetectable (<2 and 12 ng/L, respectively) at other sampling times. Dicamba and 2,4-D were detectable.

  3. Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine in a large agricultural river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schottler, S.P.; Eisenreich, Steven J.; Capel, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine exhibited maximum concentrations of about 1000-6000 ng/L in the Minnesota River in 1990 and 1991, resulting from precipitation and runoff following the application period. Transport of these herbicides to the river occurs via overland flow or by infiltration to tile drainage networks. Suspended sediment, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations were used as indicators of transport mechanisms. The atrazine metabolite, DEA, was present in the river throughout the year. The ratio of DEA to atrazine concentration was used to calculate an apparent first-order soil conversion rate of atrazine to DEA. Half lives of 21-58 d were calculated for 1990 and 1991, respectively. The longer conversion rate in 1991 results from rapid flushing from the soil and minimum exposure to soil microorganisms. Total flux of herbicide to the river was 1-6.5 t, with over 60% of this loading occurring during the month of June. Loading to the river accounts for less than 1.5% of applied herbicide. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  4. Impacts of future climate change on river discharge based on hydrological inference: A case study of the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Han, Jingcheng; Fan, Yurui

    2016-04-01

    Over the recent years, climate change impacts have been increasingly studied at the watershed scale. However, the impact assessment is strongly dependent upon the performance of the climatic and hydrological models. This study developed a two-step method to assess climate change impacts on water resources based on the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and a Hydrological Inference Model (HIM). PRECIS runs provided future temperature and precipitation projections for the watershed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The HIM based on stepwise cluster analysis is developed to imitate the complex nonlinear relationships between climate input variables and targeted hydrological variables. Its robust mathematical structure and flexibility in predictor selection makes it a desirable tool for fully utilizing various climate modeling outputs. Although PRECIS and HIM cannot fully cover the uncertainties in hydro-climate modeling, they could provide efficient decision support for investigating the impacts of climate change on water resources. The proposed method is applied to the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. The model performance is demonstrated with comparison to observation data from the watershed during the period 1972-2006. Future river discharge intervals that accommodate uncertainties in hydro-climatic modeling are presented and future river discharge variations are analyzed. The results indicate that even though the total annual precipitation would not change significantly in the future, the inter-annual distribution is very likely to be altered. The water availability is expected to increase in Winter while it is very likely to decrease in Summer over the Grand River Watershed, and adaptation strategies would be necessary.

  5. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer is a major source of public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The aquifer outcrop trends northwest - southeast across Mississippi and Alabama. A relatively thin shallow aquifer overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer in the flood plains and terraces of the Alabama, Coosa, Black Warrior, and Tallapoosa Rivers. Ground water in the shallow aquifer and the Black Warrior River aquifer is susceptible to contamination due to the effects of land use. Ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer and the shallow subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer, underlying an agricultural and an urban area, is described and compared. The agricultural and urban areas are located in central Alabama in Autauga, Elmore, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa Counties. Row cropping in the Mobile River Basin is concentrated within the flood plains of major rivers and their tributaries, and has been practiced in some of the fields for nearly 100 years. Major crops are cotton, corn, and beans. Crop rotation and no-till planting are practiced, and a variety of crops are grown on about one-third of the farms. Row cropping is interspersed with pasture and forested areas. In 1997, the average farm size in the agricultural area ranged from 196 to 524 acres. The urban area is located in eastern Montgomery, Alabama, where residential and commercial development overlies the shallow aquifer and subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer. Development of the urban area began about 1965 and continued in some areas through 1995. The average home is built on a 1/8 - to 1/4 - acre lot. Ground-water samples were collected from 29 wells in the agricultural area, 30 wells in the urban area, and a reference well located in a predominately forested area. The median depth to the screens of the agricultural and urban wells was 22.5 and 29 feet, respectively. Ground-water samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and pesticides

  6. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, Annual Reports 1993, 1994, 1995 : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Timothy R.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This reports on the second, third, and fourth years of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally produced spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulational and interannual variation in several early life history parameters of naturally produced spring and summer chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project will provide information to assist chinook salmon population recovery efforts. Specific populations included in the study are: (1) Catherine Creek; (2) Upper Grande Ronde River; (3) Lostine River; (4) Imnaha River; (5) Wenaha River; and (6) Minam River. In this document, the authors present findings and activities from research completed in 1993, 1994, and 1995.

  7. High diet overlap between native small-bodied fishes and nonnative fathead minnow in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seegert, Sarah E. Zahn; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Baxter, Colden V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.

    2014-01-01

    River regulation may mediate the interactions among native and nonnative species, potentially favoring nonnative species and contributing to the decline of native populations. We examined food resource use and diet overlap among small-bodied fishes in the Grand Canyon section of the Colorado River as a first step in evaluating potential resource competition. We compared the diets of the predominant small-bodied fishes (native Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus, juvenile Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis, and juvenile Bluehead Sucker C. discobolus, and nonnative Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas) across seasons at four sites downstream of Glen Canyon Dam using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and Schoener's similarity index. The diets of these fishes included diatoms, amorphous detritus, aquatic invertebrates (especially simuliid and chironomid larvae), terrestrial invertebrates, and terrestrial vegetation. Diets varied with season and were affected by high turbidity. Fish consumed more amorphous detritus and terrestrial vegetation during the summer monsoon season (July–September), when turbidity was higher. The diets of all species overlapped, but there was large variation in the degree of overlap. The diets of juvenile suckers and Fathead Minnows were most similar, while Speckled Dace had relatively distinct diets. The differences took the form of higher proportions of diatoms and amorphous detritus in the diets of Bluehead Suckers and Fathead Minnows and higher proportions of simuliids and chironomids in those of Speckled Dace. If food resources are or become limiting, diet overlap suggests that competition may occur among native and nonnative species, which could have implications for the population dynamics of these fishes and for the management of the Colorado River ecosystem in Grand Canyon.

  8. 78 FR 40081 - Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... or email LT Christopher Mercurio, Chief of Waterway Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing or... near the Buffalo Launch Club in Grand Island, NY. Typically, the event takes place on the first...

  9. 77 FR 49730 - Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Mercurio, Chief of Waterway Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing or submitting material to the... Grand Island, NY. ] The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that hydroplane racing...

  10. Inventory of wetlands and agricultural land cover in the upper Sevier River Basin, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Clark, L. D., Jr.; Landgraf, K. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of color infrared aerial photography in the mapping of agricultural land use and wetlands in the Sevier River Basin of south central utah is described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of utilizing LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital data to augment photographic interpretations are discussed. Transparent overlays for 27 quadrangles showing delineations of wetlands and agricultural land cover were produced. A table summarizing the acreage represented by each class on each quadrangle overlay is provided.

  11. Fish Research Project Oregon; Aspects of Life History and Production of Juvenile Oncorhynchus Mykiss in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Northeast Oregon, 1995-1999 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Erick S.; Jonnasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2001-07-01

    Rotary screw traps, located at four sites in the Grande Ronde River basin, were used to characterize aspects of early life history exhibited by juvenile Onchorhychus mykiss during migration years 1995-99. The Lostine, Catherine Creek and upper Grande Ronde traps captured fish as they migrated out of spawning areas into valley rearing habitats. The Grande Ronde Valley trap captured fish as they left valley habitats downstream of Catherine Creek and upper Grande Ronde River rearing habitats. Dispersal downstream of spawning areas was most evident in fall and spring, but movement occurred during all seasons that the traps were fished. Seaward migration occurred primarily in spring when O. mykiss smolts left overwintering area located in both spawning area and valley habitats. Migration patterns exhibited by O. mykiss suggest that Grande Ronde Valley habitats are used for overwintering and should be considered critical rearing habitat. We were unable to positively differentiate anadromous and resident forms of O. mykiss in the Grande Ronde River basin because both forms occur in our study area. The Grande Ronde Valley trap provided the best information on steelhead production in the basin because it fished below valley habitats where O. mykiss overwinter. Length frequency histograms of O. mykiss captured below upper spawning and rearing habitats showed a bimodal distribution regardless of the season of capture. Scale analyses suggested that each mode represents a different brood year. Length frequency histograms of O. mykiss captured in the Grande Ronde Valley trap were not bimodal, and primarily represented a size range consistent with other researchers' accounts of anadromous smolts.

  12. Hydrogeology and deformation of sandbars in response to fluctuations in flow of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, M.C.; Carruth, R.L.; Fink, J.B.; Boling, J.K.; Cluer, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring develop on seepage faces of many sandbars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. These processes, observed at low river stage, are a response to residual head gradients in the sandbars caused by the river-stage fluctuation. Three sandbars were instrumented with sensors for continual monitoring of pore pressure and ground-water temperature within the sandbars and river stage. Two of the sandbars also had tilt sensors to aid in determining the relation between ground-water flow within and out of the sandbars and sandbar deformation. Tilting at sandbar 43.1L occurred on the downward limb of the hydrograph in the absence of scour, indicating slumping or a slump-creep sequence. The deformation was caused by outward-flowing bank storage, oversteepening of the lower part of the slope in the zone of fluctuating river stage by filling, and increased effective stress. At sandbar 172.3L, tilts were probably all related to scour and occurred on the rising limb of a hydrograph. Tilt occurred on April 17, May 7, May 13, June 18, and September 1, 1991. On September 1, the entire face of sandbar 172.3L was scoured. Rill erosion and slumping accompanied by measured tilts continued in reduced magnitude on sandbar 43.1L during interim flows. Thus, reduction in the range of discharge does not eliminate degradation caused by rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring. The importance of the ground-water processes is that they occur on every sandbar and become increasingly important on all sandbars in the absence of sandbar-building flows.

  13. Alarming nutrient pollution of Chinese rivers as a result of agricultural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokal, Maryna; Ma, Lin; Bai, Zhaohai; Luan, Shengji; Kroeze, Carolien; Oenema, Oene; Velthof, Gerard; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-02-01

    Transitions in Chinese agriculture resulted in industrial animal production systems, disconnected from crop production. We analyzed side-effects of these transitions on total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and phosphorus (TDP) inputs to rivers. In 2000, when transitions were ongoing, 30%-70% of the manure was directly discharged to rivers (range for sub-basins). Before the transition (1970) this was only 5%. Meanwhile, animal numbers more than doubled. As a result, TDN and TDP inputs to rivers increased 2- to 45-fold (range for sub-basins) during 1970-2000. Direct manure discharge accounts for over two-thirds of nutrients in the northern rivers and for 20%-95% of nutrients in the central and southern rivers. Environmental concern is growing in China. However, in the future, direct manure inputs may increase. Animal production is the largest cause of aquatic eutrophication. Our study is a warning signal and an urgent call for action to recycle animal manure in arable farming.

  14. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins: effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Kronvang, B; Bechmann, M; Lundekvam, H; Behrendt, H; Rubaek, G H; Schoumans, O F; Syversen, N; Andersen, H E; Hoffmann, C C

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river basins and demonstrate the importance of P pathways, linking agricultural source areas to surface water at different scales. Agricultural P losses are increasingly important for the P concentration in most European rivers, lakes, and estuaries, even though the quantity of P lost from agricultural areas in European catchments varies at least one order of magnitude (<0.2 kg P ha(-1) to >2.1 kg P ha(-1)). We focus on the importance of P for the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and discuss the benefits, uncertainties, and side effects of the different targeted mitigation measures that can be adopted to combat P losses from agricultural areas in river basins. Experimental evidence of the effects of some of the main targeted mitigation measures hitherto implemented is demonstrated, including: (i) soil tillage changes, (ii) treatment of soils near ditches and streams with iron to reduce P transport from source areas to surface waters, (iii) establishment of buffer zones for retaining P from surface runoff, (iv) restoration of river-floodplain systems to allow natural inundation of riparian areas and deposition of P, and (v) inundation of riparian areas with tile drainage water for P retention. Furthermore, we show how river basin managers can map and analyze the extent and importance of P risk areas, exemplified by four catchments differing in size in Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Finally, we discuss the factors and mechanisms that may delay and/or counteract the responses of mitigation measures for combating P losses from agricultural areas when monitored at the catchment scale.

  15. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  16. [Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

  17. Erosion characteristics of fine-grained, beach-building sediment along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M. W.; Topping, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    In the Grand Canyon segment of the Colorado River, eddy sandbars, which form in lateral recirculation eddies, are important for endangered fish habitat, riparian habitat, protection of archeological sites, and recreation. By virtue of the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, sediment (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) supply to the Colorado River at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park has been reduced to about 5% of the pre-dam supply. This has caused substantial reduction in the size of eddy sandbars. The major supplier of sediment in the first 123 km downstream from Glen Canyon Dam is the Paria River, and its sediment consists mainly of clay, silt, and finer sand. During large floods on the Paria River, about 50% of the load is silt and clay, and the median size of the sand is about 0.11-0.12 mm. In order to restore the eroded eddy sandbars in the upper portion of Grand Canyon, an experimental controlled flood, i.e., Beach Habitat Building Flow (BHBF), has been proposed following enrichment of the sediment supply by flooding on the Paria River. Deposits produced by this BHBF should be fine-grained and cohesive. Understanding the sediment-transport behavior of this cohesive sediment is essential for the prediction and evaluation of the influence of the BHBF on rebuilding bars and increasing turbidity in the main channel. In this study, cohesive sediment samples of beach bars were collected from bars in the Colorado River in the Lake Mead delta. Laboratory experiments have tested the bulk density, erosion rate, and critical shear stress of these collected samples. The erosion rate of each sample was tested several times at different boundary shear stresses in a laboratory flume, allowing for estimation of the critical shear stress. Samples were placed in a 10-cm diameter cylinder below the flume. The sample was pushed out of the cylinder as it was eroded, such that the sample surface remained at the same height as the flume floor. Boundary shear stresses were

  18. Evolution of antibiotic occurrence in a river through pristine, urban and agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shinwoo; Carlson, Kenneth

    2003-11-01

    A river along the semi-arid Front Range of Colorado was monitored for antibiotics including five tetracycline and six sulfonamide compounds. Existing analytical methods were adapted to measure these compounds in a surface water matrix at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.05 microg/L). Natural organic matter present in surface waters was confirmed to significantly impact the low-level analysis of tetracyclines (TCs) necessitating the use of standard addition quantification techniques. Five sites along the Cache la Poudre River were monitored for antibiotics encompassing pristine areas without anthropogenic influence, urban areas impacted by wastewater discharges and agricultural areas susceptible to non-point source contaminant runoff. The only site at which no antibiotics were detected was the pristine site in the mountains before the river had encountered urban or agricultural landscapes. By the time the river had exited the urban area, 6 of the 11 antibiotic compounds that were monitored were found in the samples. At Site 5, which had both urban and agricultural influences all five of the TCs monitored were detected indicating both urban and agricultural influences. The concentration of TCs at Site 5 ranged from 0.08 to 0.30 microg/L.

  19. Stressor Identification in An Agricultural Watershed: Little Floyd River, Iowa (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Stressor Identification in An Agricultural Watershed: Little Floyd River, Iowa. This assessment demonstrates that, even when there are many candidate causes and uncertainties are substantial, the probable causes of bio...

  20. Agriculture in the Mississippi River Basin; effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and watershed conservation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture has been identified as a potential leading source of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediment enrichment of water bodies within the Mississippi River basin (MRB) and contributes to impaired water quality and biological resources in the MRB and the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). T...

  1. Application of sedimentary-structure interpretation to geoarchaeological investigations in the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, A.E.; Rubin, D.M.; Dierker, J.L.; Fairley, H.C.; Griffiths, R.E.; Hazel, J.E.; Hunter, R.E.; Kohl, K.; Leap, L.M.; Nials, F.L.; Topping, D.J.; Yeatts, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed geoarchaeological study of landscape processes that affected prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites in three areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. The methods used in this case study can be applied to any locality containing unaltered, non-pedogenic sediments and, thus, are particularly relevant to geoarchaeology in arid regions. Resolving the interaction of fluvial, aeolian, and local runoff processes in an arid-land river corridor is important because the archaeological record in arid lands tends to be concentrated along river corridors. This study uses sedimentary structures and particle-size distributions to interpret landscape processes; these methods are commonplace in sedimentology but prove also to be valuable, though less utilized, in geoarchaeology and geomorphology. In this bedrock canyon, the proportion of fluvial sediment generally decreases with distance away from the river as aeolian, slope-wash, colluvial, and debris-flow sediments become more dominant. We describe a new facies consisting of 'flood couplets' that include a lower, fine-grained fluvial component and an upper, coarser, unit that reflects subaerial reworking at the land surface between flood events. Grain-size distributions of strata that lack original sedimentary structures are useful within this river corridor to distinguish aeolian deposits from finer-grained fluvial deposits that pre-date the influence of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. Identification of past geomorphic settings is critical for understanding the history and preservation of archaeologically significant areas, and for determining the sensitivity of archaeological sites to dam operations. Most archaeological sites in the areas studied were formed on fluvial deposits, with aeolian deposition acting as an important preservation agent during the past millennium. Therefore, the absence of sediment-rich floods in this

  2. Application of sedimentary-structure interpretation to geoarchaeological investigations in the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2008-10-01

    We present a detailed geoarchaeological study of landscape processes that affected prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites in three areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. The methods used in this case study can be applied to any locality containing unaltered, non-pedogenic sediments and, thus, are particularly relevant to geoarchaeology in arid regions. Resolving the interaction of fluvial, aeolian, and local runoff processes in an arid-land river corridor is important because the archaeological record in arid lands tends to be concentrated along river corridors. This study uses sedimentary structures and particle-size distributions to interpret landscape processes; these methods are commonplace in sedimentology but prove also to be valuable, though less utilized, in geoarchaeology and geomorphology. In this bedrock canyon, the proportion of fluvial sediment generally decreases with distance away from the river as aeolian, slope-wash, colluvial, and debris-flow sediments become more dominant. We describe a new facies consisting of 'flood couplets' that include a lower, fine-grained fluvial component and an upper, coarser, unit that reflects subaerial reworking at the land surface between flood events. Grain-size distributions of strata that lack original sedimentary structures are useful within this river corridor to distinguish aeolian deposits from finer-grained fluvial deposits that pre-date the influence of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. Identification of past geomorphic settings is critical for understanding the history and preservation of archaeologically significant areas, and for determining the sensitivity of archaeological sites to dam operations. Most archaeological sites in the areas studied were formed on fluvial deposits, with aeolian deposition acting as an important preservation agent during the past millennium. Therefore, the absence of sediment-rich floods in this

  3. Modeling the Fate and Transport of Bacteriophage PRD-1 in a Large Surface Water System: The Grand River Watershed, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, M. S.; Shen, C.; Fong, T. T.; Rose, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the transport of biological agents that mimic the movement of pathogenic microorganisms in surface waters is important from the point of human health as well as risk assessment. In May 2006, we conducted a field experiment on the Grand River, Michigan using a conservative tracer (Rhodamine-WT) and the bacteriophage PRD-1, a surrogate for human viruses. Observed concentrations of the chemical and biological tracers were described using a transport model that included the effects of transient storage in addition to virus sorption and inactivation. Linkages between watershed-scale processes and in-stream processes were an important aspect of the modeling. Here we describe the similarities and differences between the two tracers (e.g., travel times and recovery factors) as well as environmental factors that influence virus transport and inactivation in the surface water system.

  4. Application of scintillometry to estimate water use by giant reed (Arndo Donax L.)- A perennial invasive weed along the Rio Grande River near Laredo, Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a bamboo-like perennial invasive weed from Eurasia presenting a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande River Basin. It is spreading rapidly by displacing native vegetation. Giant reeds are expected to consume...

  5. Geohydrology and water quality of the Calumet aquifer, in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal, northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, J.M.; Watson, Lee R.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of primarily inorganic-constituent data from the five land-use groups to inorganic-constituent data from sites known to be contaminated shows that constituent concentrations in ground waters from wells in the land-use areas generally are lower than those in ground water from contaminated areas. Abstract 1 Likewise, a comparison of inorganic-constituent data from the land-use groups to inorganic-constituent data from areas relatively unaffected by human presence shows that constituent concentrations in ground water from wells in the land-use areas generally are greater than those in ground water from the unaffected areas. Some documented but unaccounted for chemical loads in the Grand Calumet River are from ground water. Ground water probably contributes more than 10 percent of the total chemical load of ammonia, chromium, and cyanide to the Grand Calumet River. In comparison, about 1 to 3 percent of the total streamflow in the Grand Calumet River is from ground water. Of the four major groundwater sinks in the aquifer, the east branch of the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal generally receive the greatest chemical loads from ground water, whereas Lake Michigan generally receives the smallest loads.

  6. Postdam evolution of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Collins, B. D.; Fairley, H. C.; Rubin, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Sediment deposits within the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, USA, include fluvial sandbars and aeolian dune fields; fluvial deposits are the primary sediment source for the dune fields. We present a conceptual model describing evolution of aeolian landscapes in Grand Canyon, based upon field measurements of wind and sand transport and on surveys of vegetation and substrate properties. The data indicate that Glen Canyon Dam operations can affect geomorphic evolution above the elevation reached by river flows because of the link between fluvial deposition and aeolian transport of sediment. Evolution of aeolian landscapes, in turn, can affect the stability and preservation of archaeological material that occurs in numerous dune fields. Before closure of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in 1963, sediment-rich floods (mean annual flood 2400 m3/s) formed sandbars from which wind moved sand inland to form aeolian dunes. After dam operations reduced the amplitude and frequency of high flows, and eliminated the mainstream fluvial sediment supply, fluvial sandbars lost open sand area owing to erosion by river flows and the spread of riparian vegetation. Two types of aeolian landscapes now occur: (1) modern fluvial sourced, those downwind of postdam sandbars; and (2) relict fluvial sourced, which are not downwind of postdam sandbars and whose primary sediment source was deposits from predam floods that were larger than any postdam flows have been. Sediment supply has been reduced to type (1) dune fields because postdam sandbars are smaller than in the predam era; new sediment supply to type (2) dune fields has been essentially eliminated. Decreased aeolian sediment supply leads to increased vegetation and biologic soil crust in dune fields, and can result in greater susceptibility to gully formation during rainfall due to lack of infilling aeolian sand. Modern-fluvial-sourced dunes can receive new windblown sand from sandbars formed by controlled

  7. Constructing a morphologic sediment budget, with uncertainties, for a 50-km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinski, M. A.; Hazel, J. E.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; Hadley, D.; Kohl, K.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial sediment budgets may be computed by measurement of sediment flux, measurement of channel morphologic change, or by a combination of both methods. Because the uncertainty associated with flux-based sediment budgets accumulates over time, it may be difficult or impossible to use this type of budget to predict or monitor long-term changes in sediment storage and channel morphology. Uncertainty in morphologically-based sediment budgets is not time-dependent and provides an attractive complement or alternative to sediment budgets based on measurements of flux. However, computation of a morphologically based sediment budget for long (~50 km) river segments does require thorough consideration of the suite of uncertainties (i.e. measurement error, interpolation error, and error associated with variability in bed surface texture, among others) that contribute to the sediment budget uncertainty. We report on repeat measurements of morphology and associated uncertainties for a 50-km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Topographic (total station) surveys, bathymetric (multibeam and singlebeam) surveys, and underwater microscope grain-size measurements were conducted in 2009 and 2012 for the same river segment. Multibeam sonar surveys also incorporate backscatter information used to define the distribution of bed sediment. One meter DEM's of the study reach were interpolated from TIN models constructed from the combined topographic and bathymetric datasets and differenced to determine the sediment budget. Uncertainties were estimated for each input dataset, as well as the interpolation methods used to construct each DEM. This results in a spatially variable 1 meter model of surface uncertainty, which is used to determine the total uncertainty of the sediment budget calculated by DEM differencing. Sediment flux measurements are also measured for the study segment over the same time period. Together, these datasets provide a unique opportunity to compare

  8. Assessment of the natural flow regime in a Mediterranean river impacted from irrigated agriculture.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Psomas, Alexandros; Mimikou, Maria

    2016-12-15

    Over the last few decades, the natural flow regime of most rivers has been significantly altered influencing the ecological integrity and functioning of river ecosystems. Especially in the Mediterranean region, irrigated agriculture is considered one of the most important drivers of hydro-morphological modifications in river systems. In this study we employ the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology for the Pinios River and its tributaries, located in a Mediterranean catchment in central Greece, with the purpose to assess the natural flow regime under a simulated no-agriculture scenario and compare with the current situation. The work is based on the use of the SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model for the simulation of long time series of daily stream flows, which were analyzed under the actual conditions (baseline), and the hypothetical scenario. The key characteristics of the flow regime projected under each model run were assessed through the implementation of the IHA methodology that utilizes a number of indicators to characterize the intra- and inter-annual variability in the hydrologic conditions. The results of this study revealed that without agricultural activities in the catchment, annual and monthly flows would increase, with significant alterations in the flow characteristics of the winter months, and much smaller in summer. However, the analysis showed that the frequency of droughts and low flow summer events would be smaller. The article provides a comprehensive and easy-to-implement methodology that can facilitate the impact assessment of agricultural human activities on river flow variability under the typical Mediterranean conditions, allowing experimentation on setting river flow thresholds required for a good ecological status within the context of the European Water Framework Directive.

  9. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Influences such as weather, flow controls and lag time play an important role in the processes influencing the water quality of agricultural catchments. In particular weather signals need to be clearly considered when interpreting the effectiveness of current measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. In north-western Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Gulf Stream, the latter expressed as the Gulf Stream North Wall index (GSNW index). Here we present five years of monthly data of nitrate-N concentration in stream water and groundwater (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring in the stream outlet and monthly sampling in multilevel monitoring wells) from four agricultural catchments (ca. 10 km2) together with monitored weather parameters, long-term weather data and the GSNW index. The catchments are situated in Ireland on the Atlantic seaboard and are susceptible to sudden and seasonal shifts in oceanic climate patterns. Rain anomalies and soil moisture deficit dynamics were similar to the dynamics of the GSNW index. There were monitored changes in nitrate-N concentration in both groundwater and surface water with no apparent connection to agricultural management; instead such changes also appeared to follow the GSNW index. For example, in catchments with poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' there were seasonal dynamics in nitrate-N concentration that correlated with the seasonal dynamics of the GSNW index. In a groundwater driven catchment there was a consistent increase in nitrate-N concentration over the monitored period which may be the result of increasingly more recharge in summer and autumn (as indicated by more flux in the GSNW index). The results highlight that the position of the Gulf Stream may influence the nitrate-N concentration in groundwater and stream water and there is a risk

  10. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  11. Strategies and Techniques Measuring Historical Channel Change by Integrating Spatially-Robust Data with Detailed Site Measurements, Green River and Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Analysis of river channel change and calculation of sediment budgets demands integration of detailed but spatially-limited topographic and stratigraphic data with spatially-robust, but temporally-limited, aerial photograph data. Geomorphologists typically rely on analysis of aerial photographs to assess channel change, because photos are widely available and provide spatially rich data. But air photos present several challenges: (1) aerial photos provide limited detail relative to ground-based measurements and historical aerial photos can be even more difficult to use, having shadows or poor resolution; (2) photos have poor temporal resolution and historical data are often limited to one flight per decade; and (3) long-term trends can be difficult to identify if there is high within-reach variability. We present several methods that we have used to integrate spatially-robust mapping from aerial photos with detailed site measurements and observations to develop robust analyses of channel change for over 400 km of the Green River in Utah and Colorado and for approximately 100 km of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. We improve the precision of our analyses by integrating aerial photo-based mapping with ground surveys, channel cross-section measurements, and historical oblique photos. We improve our temporal resolution by integrating aerial photo-based mapping with USGS gage station records. In the case of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, we address the problems of variability by applying analyses and statistical methods that take advantage of the unique characteristics of eddy sand bars. Because sand bars do not migrate in reaches with fan-eddy complexes, the total extent of possible sediment storage in eddies can be objectively defined, allowing the derivation of metrics that describe the reach-average sediment storage condition for comparison with other reaches and other times. In alluvial reaches, we rely on analysis of temporally

  12. Assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin.

    PubMed

    Abah, Roland Clement; Petja, Brilliant Mareme

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days. The average discharge at Makurdi hydrological station was 3468.24 cubic metres per second (m(3) s(-1)), and the highest peak flow discharge was 16,400 m(3) s(-1). The daily maximum temperature and annual temperature averages for the study area are gradually rising leading to increased heat stress. Physical and chemical analyses showed that the soils are moderately fertile but require effective application of inorganic and organic fertilisers. The main occupational activities in the study area are agricultural based. The identified potential impacts of climate change on agriculture were categorised under atmospheric carbon dioxides and oxides, rainfall intensity, frequency of floods and droughts, temperature intensity and variation, heat stress, surface water trends, and soil quality and fertility. The identified potential impacts related to population dynamics on agriculture were categorised under population growth, rural-urban migration, household income and infectious diseases and HIV and AIDS. Community-level mitigation strategies were proffered. Policy makers are advised to promote irrigation farming, support farmers with farm inputs and credit facilities and establish active agricultural extension services to support the sustainable development of agriculture.

  13. A method for characterizing late-season low-flow regime in the upper Grand Ronde River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Valerie J.; White, Seth

    2016-04-19

    This report describes a method for estimating ecologically relevant low-flow metrics that quantify late‑season streamflow regime for ungaged sites in the upper Grande Ronde River Basin, Oregon. The analysis presented here focuses on sites sampled by the Columbia River Inter‑Tribal Fish Commission as part of their efforts to monitor habitat restoration to benefit spring Chinook salmon recovery in the basin. Streamflow data were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Water Resources Department. Specific guidance was provided for selection of streamgages, development of probabilistic frequency distributions for annual 7-day low-flow events, and regionalization of the frequency curves based on multivariate analysis of watershed characteristics. Evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the various components of this protocol indicates that the results are reliable for the intended purpose of hydrologic classification to support ecological analysis of factors contributing to juvenile salmon success. They should not be considered suitable for more standard water-resource evaluations that require greater precision, especially those focused on management and forecasting of extreme low-flow conditions.

  14. Seasonal and spatial patterns of growth of rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, Micheal D.; Korman, Josh; Walters, Carl J.; Kennedy, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been purposely introduced in many regulated rivers, with inadvertent consequences on native fishes. We describe how trout growth rates and condition could be influencing trout population dynamics in a 130 km section of the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam based on a large-scale mark–recapture program where ∼8000 rainbow trout were recaptured over a 3-year period (2012–2014). There were strong temporal and spatial variations in growth in both length and weight as predicted from von Bertalanffy and bioenergetic models, respectively. There was more evidence for seasonal variation in the growth coefficient and annual variation in the asymptotic length. Bioenergetic models showed more variability for growth in weight across seasons and years than across reaches. These patterns were consistent with strong seasonal variation in invertebrate drift and effects of turbidity on foraging efficiency. Highest growth rates and relative condition occurred in downstream reaches with lower trout densities. Results indicate that reduction in rainbow trout abundance in Glen Canyon will likely increase trout size in the tailwater fishery and may reduce downstream dispersal into Grand Canyon.

  15. Long-term change in perennial vegetation along the Colorado river in Grand Canyon national park (1889-2010)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Belnap, J.; Scott, M.L.; Esque, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring data are difficult to obtain for high-value resource areas, particularly in remote parts of national parks. One long-used method for evaluating change uses ground-based repeat photography to match historical images of landscapes. River expeditions that documented a proposed railroad route through Grand Canyon with large-format photographs occurred in 1889 and 1890. A total of 452 images from those expeditions are still in existence, and these were matched as closely as possible from December 1989 through March 1992. In 2010 and 2011, we are repeating these matches 120 years after the originals and 20 years after the first matches. This repeat photography provides visual information that can be interpreted for changes in terrestrial and riparian ecosystems along the river corridor, including change in the desert plant assemblages related to increasing winter low temperatures and severe drought. The riparian ecosystem, which originally consisted of native species established along the stage of frequent floods, has increased in area, density, and biomass as both nonnative and native species have become established following flow regulation by Glen Canyon Dam. The original and matched images provide the basis for one element of a robust monitoring program for the effects of climate change on ecosystem resources.

  16. Revealing fate of CO2 leakage pathways in the Little Grand Wash Fault, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K.; Han, W. S.; Watson, Z. T.; Guyant, E.; Park, E.

    2015-12-01

    To assure long-term security of geologic carbon sequestration site, evaluation of natural CO2 leakage should be preceded before actual construction of the CO2 facility by comparing natural and artificial reservoir systems. The Little Grand Wash fault is located at the northwestern margin of the Paradox Basin and roles on a bypass of deep subsurface CO2 and brine water onto the surface, e.g., cold water geyser, CO2 spring, and surface travertine deposits. CO2 degassed out from brine at the Little Grand Wash fault zone may react with formation water and minerals while migrating through the fault conduit. Leakage observed by soil CO2 flux on the fault trace shows this ongoing transition of CO2, from supersaturated condition in deep subsurface to shallow surface equilibria. The present study aims to investigate the reactions induced by changes in hydrological and mineralogical factors inside of the fault zone. The methodology to develop site-specific geochemical model of the Little Grand Wash Fault combines calculated mechanical movements of each fluid end-member, along with chemical reactions among fluid, free CO2 gas and rock formations. Reactive transport modeling was conducted to simulate these property changes inside of the fault zone, using chemistry dataset based on 86 effluent samples of CO2 geysers, springs and in situ formation water from Entrada, Carmel, and Navajo Sandstone. Meanwhile, one- and two-dimensional models were separately developed to delineate features mentioned above. The results from the 3000-year simulation showed an appearance of self-sealing processes near the surface of the fault conduit. By tracking physicochemical changes at the depth of 15 m on the 2-dimensional model, significant changes induced by fluid mixing were indicated. Calculated rates of precipitation for calcite, illite, and pyrite showed increase in 2.6 x 10-4, 2.25 x 10-5, and 3.0 x 10-6 in mineral volume fraction at the depth of 15m, respectively. Concurrently

  17. Development of a bioenergetics model for humpback chub and evaluation of water temperature changes in the Grand Canyon, Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Paukert, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    The construction of Glen Canyon Dam above the Grand Canyon (Arizona) has reduced the water temperature in the Colorado River and altered the growth rate and feeding patterns of the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. A bioenergetics model for humpback chub was developed and used to examine how warmer water temperatures in the lower Colorado River (achieved through a temperature control device [TCD] at Glen Canyon Dam) might influence their growth rate and food requirements. Parameter values for humpback chub were developed by Monte Carlo filtering and fitting to laboratory growth. Parameter bounds were established from the literature for Gila species, random parameter sets were selected within these bounds, and the growth of modeled humpback chub was compared with criteria from a laboratory growth experiment at 24??C. This method of parameter estimation could be applied to other imperiled fishes where physiological studies are impractical. Final parameter values were corroborated by comparison with the growth rates of humpback chub from independent field and laboratory studies. Simulations indicated that increasing water temperatures from approximately 9??C to 16??C during summer and fall, the change expected from the TCD, may have a minimal effect on humpback chub growth rate unless food availability also increases with temperature. To evaluate the effects of increased temperatures on humpback chub in the lower Colorado River, it will be essential to monitor their growth rate, the invertebrate community, and the predators of humpback chub, which are also influenced by temperature changes. Bioenergetics models for humpback chub and their predators should be helpful tools for identifying potential scenarios and evaluating the complex interactions resulting from a TCD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  18. Detection of Manure-Derived Organic Compounds in Rivers Draining Agricultural Areas of Intensive Manure Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardé, E.; Gruau, G.

    2006-12-01

    This study presents the potentiality of organic markers to trace the impact of animal manure in soils and rivers draining agricultural watersheds. As described by Gruau et al. (in this session), the analysis of long term records of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five watersheds in Brittany (western of France) shows divergent trends which can not be explained solely by global changes. One alternative explanation could be that long- term records of DOM in rivers are controlled by human activities, and notably by agricultural practices. In Brittany, the agricultural intensification led to an over-application of animal manures to soils. This practice can strongly increase the amount of soil-water extractable organic matter, thereby leading to an increase of organic matter fluxes in agricultural landscapes and then to a contamination of river waters. Such an hypothesis deserves consideration in view of the massive manure fluxes that are disposed on agricultural land in many parts of the world. In this goal, our study aimed at determining potential sources of organic matter and molecular markers or specific distributions in rivers draining agricultural watersheds. In this study we focused on the analysis of pig slurries because of the importance of pig production in Brittany. The analysis of pig slurry evidenced the presence of coprostanol (5β) as a specific marker, originating from the bio- hydrogenation of cholesterol by anaerobic bacteria. The difference with other animal or human wastes has been evidenced by two ratios: 5β/C27 and C29/C27. After the validation of the ability of coprostanol to be a molecular marker of pig slurry, our analysis has been focused on the OM of watersheds in Brittany showing divergent evolutions. The results show a systematic relation between the C29/C27 and 5β/C27 ratios and the type of animal breeding in each watershed. This study allows us to evidence the impact of animal breeding activities in the analysed rivers. Such a study

  19. Tributary debris fans and the late Holocene alluvial chronology of the Colorado River, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.; Thompson, K.S.; Burke, K.J.; Fairley, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    Bouldery debris fans and sandy alluvial terraces of the Colorado River developed contemporaneously during the late Holocene at the mouths of nine major tributaries in eastern Grand Canyon. The age of the debris fans and alluvial terraces contributes to understanding river hydraulics and to the history of human activity along the river, which has been concentrated on these surfaces for at least two to three millennia. Poorly sorted, coarse-grained debris-flow deposits of several ages are interbedded with, overlie, or are overlapped by three terrace-forming alluviums. The alluvial deposits are of three age groups: the striped alluvium, deposited from before 770 B.C. to about A.D. 300; the alluvium of Pueblo II age deposited from about A.D. 700 to 1200; and the alluvium of the upper mesquite terrace, deposited from about A.D. 1400 to 1880. Two elements define the geomorphology of a typical debris fan: the large, inactive surface of the fan and a smaller, entrenched, active debris-flow channel and fan that is about one-sixth the area of the inactive fan. The inactive fan is segmented into at least three surfaces with distinctive weathering characteristics. These surfaces are conformable with underlying debris-flow deposits that date from before 770 B.C. to around A.D. 660, A.D. 660 to before A.D. 1200, and from A.D. 1200 to slightly before 1890, respectively, based on late-19th-century photographs, radiocarbon and archaeologic dating of the three stratigraphically related alluviums, and radiocarbon dating of fine-grained debris-flow deposits. These debris flows aggraded the fans in at least three stages beginning about 2.8 ka, if not earlier in the late Holocene. Several main-stem floods eroded the margin of the segmented fans, reducing fan symmetry. The entrenched, active debris-flow channels contain deposits <100 yr old, which form debris fans at the mouth of the channel adjacent to the river. Early and middle Holocene debris-flow and alluvial deposits have not been

  20. Agricultural chemical interchange between ground water and surface water, Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota; a study description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the data collected in the Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota, indicates that atrazine is consistently detected in the main-stem river at concentrations greater than 0.10 microgram per liter even during periods of extended base flow. The primary source of atrazine in the river during these periods of base flow is not known. This study is designed to determine how atrazine and other agricultural chemicals move between ground water and surface water in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to a river. A site has been selected in an unfarmed area adjacent to the Cedar River near Bertram, Iowa, to determine how the concentrations of agricultural chemicals in the alluvial aquifer change as a result of bank storage of surface water. Research also is planned to determine the contribution of agricultural chemicals discharged by the alluvial aquifer into the river during base flow.

  1. Sediment delivery from agricultural land to rivers via subsurface drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, A. S.; Foster, I. D. L.; Lees, J. A.; Hodgkinson, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    Diffuse sources of sediment and sediment-associated nutrients are of increasing environmental concern because of their impacts on receiving water courses. The aim of the research reported here was to monitor the outflow from four field (land) drains at two farms in the English Midlands in order to estimate the quantity of sediment delivered to the local rivers and the most likely sources and processes involved. A multiparameter sediment unmixing model was employed, using environmental magnetic, geochemical and radionuclide tracers in order to determine the most likely origin of sediments transported through the drains. Results demonstrated that there was a generally linear relationship between drainflow sediment loss and drainflow volume and that the majority (>70%) of the sediment exported from the drains was derived from topsoil. Macropore flow through heavily cracked soils is supported by the data to be the most likely means of sediment delivery to the drains. In one catchment, drains contributed over 50% of the annual sediment budget. Spatial and temporal variations in the sources of sediment reaching one drain outlet were investigated in detail. A link between soil moisture deficit (SMD) and the frequency of high-intensity rainfall events was used to explain the appearance and persistence of a new sediment source in this drain after October 1998. It is concluded that field drains have the potential to be significant conduits of sediment and agrochemicals in a wide variety of environments in the UK. It is also suggested that this potential may increase if projected climate change leads to more intense rainfall events and increases in SMD across a greater area of the UK.

  2. Modeling of flood-deposited sand distributions in a reach of the Colorado River below the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    A release from Glen Canyon Dam during March-April 1996 was designed to test the effectiveness with which the riparian environment could be renewed with discharges greatly in excess of the normal powerplant-restricted maximum. Of primary concern was the rebuilding of sand deposits along the channel sides that are important to the flora and fauna along the river corridor and that provide the only camp sites for riverside visitors to the Grand Canyon National Park. Analysis of the depositional processes with a model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution shows that the sand deposits formed along the channel sides early during the high flow were affected only slightly by the decline in suspended-sand concentrations over the course of the controlled flood. Modeling results suggest that the removal of a large sand deposit over several hours was not a response to declining suspended-sand concentrations. Comparisons of the controlled-flood deposits with deposits formed during a flood in January 1993 on the Little Colorado River that contributed sufficient sand to raise the suspended-sand concentrations to predam levels in the main stem show that the depositional pattern as well as the magnitude is strongly influenced by the suspended-sand concentrations.

  3. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  4. Interpreting Hydraulic Conditions from Morphology, Sedimentology, and Grain Size of Sand Bars in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D. M.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; East, A. E.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    During three decades of research on sand bars and sediment transport in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, we have collected unprecedented quantities of data on bar morphology, sedimentary structures, grain size of sand on the riverbed (~40,000 measurements), grain size of sand in flood deposits (dozens of vertical grain-size profiles), and time series of suspended sediment concentration and grain size (more than 3 million measurements using acoustic and laser-diffraction instruments sampling every 15 minutes at several locations). These data, which include measurements of flow and suspended sediment as well as sediment within the deposits, show that grain size within flood deposits generally coarsens or fines proportionally to the grain size of sediment that was in suspension when the beds were deposited. The inverse problem of calculating changing flow conditions from a vertical profile of grain size within a deposit is difficult because at least two processes can cause similar changes. For example, upward coarsening in a deposit can result from either an increase in discharge of the flow (causing coarser sand to be transported to the depositional site), or from winnowing of the upstream supply of sand (causing suspended sand to coarsen because a greater proportion of the bed that is supplying sediment is covered with coarse grains). These two processes can be easy to distinguish where suspended-sediment observations are available: flow-regulated changes cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be positively correlated, whereas changes in supply can cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be negatively correlated. The latter case (supply regulation) is more typical of flood deposits in Grand Canyon.

  5. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  6. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a cloudless sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  7. Simulating The Change In Agricultural Fruit Patterns In The Context of River Basin Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloecking, B.; Laue, K.; Stroebl, B.

    A new concept has been developed for the integrated analysis of impacts of Global Change and direct human activities on the environment and the society in mesoscale river basins. The main steps of this approach are: (1) Developing a set of regional scenarios of change considering expected changes in climate, economic, demographic and social development, (2) Identification of indicators of sustainability for the impact assessment, (3) Impact analysis of the defined scenarios of development, (4) Evalu- ation of the different scenarios on the basis of the impact analysis to elaborate new stategies in regional development. All steps include consultations with actors and stakeholders. The concept is applied in the western part of Thuringia (7.500 km2), covering the basin of the Unstrut river. This part of the German Elbe river basin is highly suited for food production under the present conditions. Therefore it is a good site for vulnerability studies focused on agriculture. The development of agricultural land-use scenarios for the Unstrut region will be done in form of a bottom-up approach based on adaptation reactions of example farms within the expected boundary condi- tions such as the global food markets and other global economic trends as well as in- ternational agreements. Representing the present conditions in Thuringia, a referential land-use scenario was developed, assuming a complete realisation of the AGENDA 2000 resolutions. Impacts of changed land use in combination with climate change scenarios on plant production and on availability and quality of water are been inves- tigated with the help of a spatial distributed river basin model. A GIS-based approach was developed to locate the spatially not explicit land use scenarios. This approach allows to reproduce the agricultural fruit patterns of a region in a river basin model without taking into account the real field boundaries. First simulation results for the referential climate and land-use scenario

  8. Comparison of turbidity to multi-frequency sideways-looking acoustic-Doppler data and suspended-sediment data in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Water clarity is important to biologists when studying fish and other fluvial fauna and flora. Turbidity is an indicator of the cloudiness of water, or reduced water clarity, and is commonly measured using nephelometric sensors that record the scattering and absorption of light by particles in the water. Unfortunately, nephelometric sensors only operate over a narrow range of the conditions typically encountered in rivers dominated by suspended-sediment transport. For example, sediment inputs into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon caused by tributary floods often result in turbidity levels that exceed the maximum recording level of nephelometric turbidity sensors. The limited range of these sensors is one reason why acoustic Doppler profiler instrument data, not turbidity, has been used as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration and load of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. However, in addition to being an important water-quality parameter to biologists, turbidity of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has been used to strengthen the suspended-sediment record through the process of turbidity-threshold sampling; high turbidity values trigger a pump sampler to collect samples of the river at critical times for gathering suspended-sediment data. Turbidity depends on several characteristics of suspended sediment including concentration, particle size, particle shape, color, and the refractive index of particles. In this paper, turbidity is compared with other parameters coupled to suspended sediment, namely suspended-silt and clay concentration and multifrequency acoustic attenuation. These data have been collected since 2005 at four stations with different sediment-supply characteristics on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. These comparisons reveal that acoustic attenuation is a particularly useful parameter, because it is strongly related to turbidity and it can be measured by instruments that experience minimal fouling and record over the entire range

  9. [Relationship Between Agricultural Land and Water Quality of Inflow River in Erhai Lake Basin].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yan; Xiang, Song; Chu, Zhao-sheng; Xue, Li-qiang; Ye, Bi-bi

    2015-11-01

    We studied the relationship between agricultural land and water quality of inflow river in Erhai Lake Basin, by means of spatial and statistical analysis, from the perspective of comprehensive agricultural land and the area percentage of different types of agricultural land. The obtained results indicated that inflow water quality showed a significant spatial difference, the inflow TP pollution in the western inflow rivers of Erhai Basin was serious. The major pollution indicators in the northern and southern inflow rivers (except for D3) were organic matter and nitrogen. The area percentage of agricultural land had a significantly indicative effect on the water quality of inflow river. The area percentage of comprehensive agricultural land negatively correlated with permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TN and TP contents in wet season, the correlation coefficients were - 0.859, - 0.565, - 0.693, - 0.181. It negatively correlated with permanganate index and NH4(+) -N content in dry season, the correlation coefficients were - 0.384, - 0.328. It had positive relationships with and TN, TP content in dry season, the correlation coefficients were 0.221 and 0.146. The area percentage of different types of agricultural land had an obviously indicative effect on the inflow water quality. Farmland positively correlated with TN and TP contents both in wet and dry seasons. The correlation coefficients between farmland and TN, TP were 0.252, 0.581 in rainy season and were 0.149, 0.511 in dry season. It had positive and negative relationships with permanganate index, NH4(+) -N content in wet season and dry season, respectively. The correlation coefficients between farmland and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N were 0.388, 0.053 in rainy season and were -0.137, -0.147 in dry season. Forest land exhibited an opposite performance to that of farmland. The correlation coefficients between forest land and TN, TP, permanganate index, NH4(+) -N were - 0.526, - 0.275, - 0.469, -0.155 in rainy

  10. Water-quality characteristics and ground water quantity of the Fraser River Watershed, Grand County, Colorado, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand County Board of County Commissioners, conducted a 4-year study to assess ground- and surface-water-quality conditions and ground-water quantity in the 302-square-mile Fraser River watershed in north-central Colorado. The Fraser River flows north about 28 miles from the headwaters near the Continental Divide, through the towns of Winter Park, Fraser, Tabernash, and Granby, and is one of the major tributaries to the Upper Colorado River. Increasing urban development, as well as the seasonal influx of tourists, is placing more demands on the water resources in the Fraser River watershed. A ground-water sampling network of 11 wells was established to represent different aquifer systems (alluvial, Troublesome Formation, Precambrian granite), land uses (urban, nonurban), and areas with or without individual septic disposal system use. The well network was sampled for ground-water quality on a semiannual basis from August 1998 through September 2001. The sampling included field properties and the collection of water samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, bacteria, methylene blue active substances, and radon-222. One surface-water site, on the Fraser River just downstream from the town of Tabernash, Colorado, was sampled bimonthly from August 1998 through September 2001 to assess the cumulative effects of natural and human processes on water quality in the upper part of the Fraser River watershed. Surface-water-quality sampling included field properties and the collection of water-quality samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, organic carbon, and bacteria. Ground water was a calcium-bicarbonate type water and is suitable as a drinking-water, domestic, municipal, industrial, and irrigation source. In general, no widespread ground-water-quality problems were indicated. All pH values and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, fluoride

  11. From agricultural intensification to conservation: Sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 1916-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.S.; Schilling, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fluvial sediment is a ubiquitous pollutant that negatively aff ects surface water quality and municipal water supply treatment. As part of its routine water supply monitoring, the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) has been measuring turbidity daily in the Raccoon River since 1916. For this study, we calibrated daily turbidity readings to modern total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations to develop an estimation of daily sediment concentrations in the river from 1916 to 2009. Our objectives were to evaluate longterm TSS patterns and trends, and relate these to changes in climate, land use, and agricultural practices that occurred during the 93-yr monitoring period. Results showed that while TSS concentrations and estimated sediment loads varied greatly from year to year, TSS concentrations were much greater in the early 20th century despite drier conditions and less discharge, and declined throughout the century. Against a backdrop of increasing discharge in the Raccoon River and widespread agricultural adaptations by farmers, sediment loads increased and peaked in the early 1970s, and then have slowly declined or remained steady throughout the 1980s to present. With annual sediment load concentrated during extreme events in the spring and early summer, continued sediment reductions in the Raccoon River watershed should be focused on conservation practices to reduce rainfall impacts and sediment mobilization. Overall, results from this study suggest that eff orts to reduce sediment load from the watershed appear to be working. ?? 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  12. Nonnative fish control in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: An effective program or serendipitous timing?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.; Pine, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River within Grand Canyon is currently the focus of a multiyear program of ecosystem-level experimentation designed to improve native fish survival and promote population recovery as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. A key element of this experiment was a 4-year effort to remove nonnative fishes from critical humpback chub habitat, thereby reducing potentially negative interactions between native and nonnative fishes. Over 36,500 fish from 15 species were captured in the mechanical removal reach during 2003–2006. The majority (64%) of the catch consisted of nonnative fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (19,020), fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (2,569), common carp Cyprinus carpio (802), and brown trout Salmo trutta (479). Native fish (13,268) constituted 36% of the total catch and included flannelmouth suckers Catostomus latipinnis (7,347), humpback chub (2,606), bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus (2,243), and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (1,072). The contribution of rainbow trout to the overall species composition fell steadily throughout the study period from a high of approximately 90% in January 2003 to less than 10% in August 2006. Overall, the catch of nonnative fish exceeded 95% in January 2003 and fell to less than 50% after July 2005. Our results suggest that removal efforts were successful in rapidly shifting the fish community from one dominated numerically by nonnative species to one dominated by native species. Additionally, increases in juvenile native fish abundance within the removal reach suggest that removal efforts may have promoted greater survival and recruitment. However, drought-induced increases in river water temperature and a systemwide decrease in rainbow trout abundance concurrent with our experiment made it difficult to determine the cause of the apparent increase in juvenile native fish survival and recruitment

  13. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM.

  14. Origin, structure, and evolution of a reattachment bar, Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Schmidt, John C.; Moore, Johnnie N.

    1990-01-01

    In a channel expansion, flow can separate from the bank, creating a zone of relatively weak recirculating current. Bars that accumulate in this weak flow near the point where flow reattaches to the bank are called reattachment bars. As a reattachment bar evolves, the recirculation zone may fill with sediment and restrict flow from the main channel. The increasingly restricted flow over the bar causes ripples to replace dunes and causes the sediment size to fine; the resulting vertical sequence resembles that of point bars. Seasonal and daily flow fluctuations in the Grand Canyon complicate this idealized sequence. Changes in discharge alter the geometry of recirculation zones, flow within the recirculation zones, the location of depositional and erosional sites, the kind of bedform and migration direction of bedforms on the bar, and the transported sediment size. Dunes and ripples within a recirculation zone migrate in a rotary pattern in response to the recirculating flow. Ripples near the reattachment point often resemble oscillation ripples in morphology and dynamics. The reversing flow that creates these ripples is caused by fluctuations in location of the reattachment point. These fluctuations cause flow near the reattachment point to reverse in an upstream-downstream direction, thereby producing symmetrical, reversing ripples with crests that trend normal to the bank. Low rates of ripple migration in the reversing flow, accompanied by rapid deposition, cause these ripples to climb at a high angle. At increasing distances from the reattachment point, the reversing flow is less balanced, and the ripples climb at lower angles as they migrate upstream and downstream. Although these observations were made in a bedrock canyon, the same processes operate in alluvial and tidal channels and are important in adjusting the shape of channels on point bars and concave benches and behind bedforms that become emergent at low stage. Reattachment bars can be recognized by the

  15. Probable effects of the proposed Sulphur Gulch Reservoir on Colorado River quantity and quality near Grand Junction, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A 16,000 acre-foot reservoir is proposed to be located about 25 miles east of Grand Junction, Colorado, on a tributary of the Colorado River that drains the Sulphur Gulch watershed between De Beque and Cameo, Colorado. The Sulphur Gulch Reservoir, which would be filled by pumping water from the Colorado River, is intended to provide the Colorado River with at least 5,412.5 acre-feet of water during low-flow conditions to meet the East Slopes portion of the 10,825 acre-feet of water required under the December 20, 1999, Final Programmatic Biological Opinion for the Upper Colorado River. The reservoir also may provide additional water in the low-flow period and as much as 10,000 acre-feet of water to supplement peak flows when flows in the Colorado River are between 12,900 and 26,600 cubic feet per second. For this study, an annual stochastic mixing model with a daily time step and 1,500 Monte Carlo trials were used to evaluate the probable effect that reservoir operations may have on water quality in the Colorado River at the Government Highline Canal and the Grand Valley Irrigation Canal. Simulations of the divertible flow (ambient background streamflow), after taking into account demands of downstream water rights, indicate that divertible flow will range from 621,860 acre-feet of water in the driest year to 4,822,732 acrefeet of water in the wettest year. Because of pumping limitations, pumpable flow (amount of streamflow available after considering divertible flow and subsequent pumping constraints) will be less than divertible flow. Assuming a pumping capacity of 150 cubic feet per second and year round pumping, except during reservoir release periods, the simulations indicate that there is sufficient streamflow to fill a 16,000 acre-feet reservoir 100 percent of the time. Simulated pumpable flows in the driest year are 91,669 acre-feet and 109,500 acre-feet in the wettest year. Simulations of carryover storage together with year-round pumping indicate that

  16. Elbe river flood peaks and postwar agricultural land use in East Germany.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, R R; Schweigert, P

    2001-12-01

    Collectivization of farmland since the 1950s has changed the agricultural land use in former East Germany. Single fields on the collective farms became increasingly large and were cultivated with increasingly heavy farm equipment. This led to large-scale physical degradation of arable soils, enhancing the formation of surface runoff in periods with prolonged and excessive precipitation. The extent to which this development may have affected the discharge behavior of the main East German river, the Elbe, has so far not been studied. We analyzed the flood peaks of the Elbe during the past century (1900-2000). The flood discharge behavior of the Elbe has apparently changed significantly since the 1950s. Although climate changes may be involved, we conclude that the Elbe flood peaks, recorded since 1950, are related to the changes in postwar agricultural land use in former East Germany. To restore the degraded farmland soils, a change in agricultural land use may be necessary.

  17. Apcocynum Pictum and Sustainable Agriculture Along the Tarim River In Arid Northwest, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihemaitijiang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity and population increase have been a major limiting factor in oasis development along the Tarim River in Xinjiang, Northwest China which has very continental and dry climate, and all the agriculture and livelihoods depend on glacier melt water from Tarim River. Due to vast land reclamation along the Tarim River to grow cotton, native plant species are facing a severe competition for water, which is essential for their survival. Decreasing river runoff and inefficient water use practices by agriculture and industry has exacerbated already serious situation even worse. In addition, a large influx of migrant famers from Eastern China is being settled in this region to cultivate new agricultural lands that consumed even more water. Under those conditions, the natural riparian vegetation and the irrigation agriculture, especially along the lower reaches, suffers water shortage leading the degradation and economic losses, respectively. Along with the enlargement of irrigation area and periods of water shortage, soil salinization has become a major concern for farmers in the area. Alternative cash crops are much needed to reduce water use, so both native vegetation and human demand for water would be fulfilled. We hypothesized Apocynum Pictum, perennial herb species with multiple uses as potential substitute. Multidisciplinary approach is being used in this study to investigate three related issues to offer a basis for Apocynum's role in sustainable agriculture, such as Biomass production of Apocynum; Water budget of Apocynum; and Economic utilization of Apocynum. A.Pictum is perennial plant distributed in Central Asia and China, which its roots are perennial, while the stems die every year. Thus, A.pictum grow under the arid climate of Central Asia and provide utilization options without irrigation. We initially estimate water requirement for this plant is much less than cotton. In order to validate our hypothesis, we have measured water consumption of the

  18. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins of Eastern Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Beschta, Robert L.; Platts, William S.; Kauffman, J. Boone

    1991-10-01

    The restoration of vegetation adapted to riparian environments and the natural succession of riparian plant communities is necessary to recreate sustainable salmonid habitat and should be the focal point for fish habitat improvement programs. In mid-August of 1991, a field review of 16 Salmon habitat improvement sites in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins in Eastern Oregon was undertaken. The review team visited various types of fish habitat improvements associated with a wide range of reach types, geology, channel gradients, stream sizes, and vegetation communities. Enhancement objectives, limiting factors, landuse history, and other factors were discussed at each site. This information, in conjunction with the reviewer's field inspection of portions of a particular habitat improvement project, provided the basis for the following report. This report that follows is divided into four sections: (1) Recommendations, (2) Objectives, (3) Discussion and Conclusions, and (4) Site Comments. The first section represents a synthesis of major recommendations that were developed during this review. The remaining sections provide more detailed information and comments related to specific aspects of the field review.

  19. Trends in concentrations and use of agricultural herbicides for Corn Belt rivers, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V.; Gilliom, R.J.; Sullivan, D.J.; Lorenz, D.L.; Martin, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the concentrations and agricultural use of four herbicides (atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and alachlor) were evaluated for major rivers of the Corn Belt for two partially overlapping time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Trends were analyzed for 11 sites on the mainstems and selected tributaries in the Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Missouri River Basins. Concentration trends were determined using a parametric regression model designed for analyzing seasonal variability, flow-related variability, and trends in pesticide concentrations(SEAWAVE-Q).TheSEAWAVE-Qmodel accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic conditions from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. Most of the trends in atrazine and acetochlor concentrations for both time periods were relatively small and nonsignificant, but metolachlor and alachlor were dominated by varying magnitudes of concentration downtrends. Overall, with trends expressed as a percent change per year, trends in herbicide concentrations were consistent with trends in agricultural use; 84 of 88 comparisons for different sites, herbicides, and time periods showed no significant difference between concentration trends and agricultural use trends. Results indicate that decreasing use appears to have been the primary cause for the concentration downtrends during 1996-2006 and that, while there is some evidence that nonuse management factors may have reduced concentrations in some rivers, reliably evaluating the influence of these factors on pesticides in large streams and rivers will require improved, basin-specific information on both management practices and use over time. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Environmental effects of agricultural conservation: A framework for research in two watersheds in Oklahoma's Upper Washita River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Upper Washita River Basin represents mixed crop-livestock systems of the Southern Plains. Research was established in two sub-watersheds, the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed and the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed, to quantify interactive effects of variable...

  1. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  2. Distribution and speciation of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils near a stream upriver from the Pearl River, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Silin; Zhou, Dequn; Yu, Huayong; Wei, Rong; Pan, Bo

    2013-06-01

    The distribution and chemical speciation of typical metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils were investigated in the area of Nanpan River, upstream of the Pearl River. The investigated four metals showed higher concentrations in agricultural soils than in non-agricultural soils, and the site located in factory district contained metals much higher than the other sampling sites. These observations suggested that human activities, such as water irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide applications might have a major impact on the distribution of metals. Metal speciation analysis presented that Cu, Zn and Cd were dominated by the residual fraction, while Pb was dominated by the reducible fraction. Because of the low mobility of the metals in the investigated area, no remarkable difference could be observed between upstream and downstream separated by the factory site.

  3. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  4. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity.

  5. Transport of particle-associated elements in two agriculture-dominated boreal river systems.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Hannu; Saarinen, Tuomas; Celebi, Ahmet; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-09-01

    Transport of particulate pollutants in fluvial systems can contribute greatly to total loads. Understanding transport mechanics under different hydrological conditions is key in successful load estimation. This study analysed trace elements and physico-chemical parameters in time-integrated suspended sediment samples, together with dissolved and total concentrations of pollutants, along two agriculture- and peatland-dominated boreal river systems. The samples were taken in a spatially and temporally comprehensive sampling programme during the ice-free seasons of 2010 and 2011. The hydrochemistry and transport of particle-bound elements in the rivers were strongly linked to intense land use and acid sulphate soils in the catchment area, with arable, pasture and peat areas in particular being main diffuse sources. There were significant seasonal and temporal variations in dissolved and particulate fluxes, but spatial variations were small. Continuous measurements of EC, turbidity and discharge proved to be an accurate indicator of dissolved and particulate fluxes. Overall, the results show that transport of particle-bound elements makes a major contribution to total transport fluxes in agriculture-dominated boreal rivers.

  6. Compounding Effects of Agricultural Land Use and Water Use in Free-Flowing Rivers: Confounding Issues for Environmental Flows.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Scott A; Bobbi, Chris J

    2017-03-03

    Defining the ecological impacts of water extraction from free-flowing river systems in altered landscapes is challenging as multiple stressors (e.g., flow regime alteration, increased sedimentation) may have simultaneous effects and attributing causality is problematic. This multiple-stressor context has been acknowledged in environmental flows science, but is often neglected when it comes to examining flow-ecology relationships, and setting and implementing environmental flows. We examined the impacts of land and water use on rivers in the upper Ringarooma River catchment in Tasmania (south-east Australia), which contains intensively irrigated agriculture, to support implementation of a water management plan. Temporal and spatial and trends in river condition were assessed using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Relationships between macroinvertebrate community structure and environmental variables were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses, focusing on the impacts of agricultural land use and water use. Structural changes in macroinvertebrate communities in rivers in the catchment indicated temporal and spatial declines in the ecological condition of some stretches of river associated with agricultural land and water use. Moreover, water extraction appeared to exacerbate impairment associated with agricultural land use (e.g., reduced macroinvertebrate density, more flow-avoiding taxa). The findings of our catchment-specific bioassessments will underpin decision-making during the implementation of the Ringarooma water management plan, and highlight the need to consider compounding impacts of land and water use in environmental flows and water planning in agricultural landscapes.

  7. An integrated analysis of agricultural water-use efficiency: A case study in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guofeng; Chen, Jiancheng; Wu, Feng; Li, Zhihui

    The water-use efficiency has direct impacts on the water consumption of agriculture production and is vital to water conservation at both local and regional extent. The agricultural water-use efficiency is a critical indicator that reflects the effective water allocation and water productivity improvement among different agricultural sectors. Taking the Heihe River Basin as the case study area, this study explores the changing trajectories of agricultural water use based on the input-output data of 2003-2012, and estimates the water-use efficiency with Data Envelopment Analysis, Malmquist Total Productivity Index and the decomposition of total factor productivity. Further, the influence of driving factors on the water-use efficiency is analyzed with the Tobit model. The research results indicate that the average agricultural water-use efficiency in different counties is all lower than 1 during 2003-2012, indicating that there is still improvement space in the agricultural water-use efficiency. In addition, there is obvious heterogeneity in the agricultural water-use efficiency among different counties, especially prior to 2009. The research results from the Tobit model indicate that agricultural investment and production, economic growth, industrial restructuring and agricultural plants structural adjustment have significant influence on the agricultural water-use efficiency. The research results can provide significant references for agricultural water-use management in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and other similar regions in Northwest China.

  8. Pesticides in wells in agricultural and urban areas of the Hudson River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Ryan, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water samples from four monitoring well networks in the Hudson River basin were analyzed for pesticides (detection limits from 0.001 to 0.018 ??g/L). The most frequent detections were in samples from shallow depths beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations of pesticides in samples from all four networks were generally below 0.10 ??g/L, and the concentration of only one (cyanazine) exceeded any maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The well networks represented two land-use and two well-depth categories as follows: 1. agricultural shallow wells - two springs and 14 wells finished less than 15 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath agricultural land, 2. agricultural water-supply-wells - 31 wells finished 1.8 to 120 m below land surface in unconsolidated unconfined aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath agricultural land 3. urban/residential shallow-wells - 17 wells finished less than 16 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath urban or residential land; and 4. urban/residential water-supply-wells - 25 water-supply or observation wells finished 5 to 113 m below land surface in unconfined, unconsolidated aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath urban or residential land. Pesticides were detected in 69 percent of the samples from the agricultural shallow wells, in 29 percent of the samples from the agricultural water-supply wells, in no samples from the urban/residential shallow wells, and in 16 percent of the samples from the urban/residential water-supply wells. At least half of the samples from the agricultural shallow-well network contained two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine); other pesticides detected in samples from this network included metribuzin, cyanazine, EPTC, and pendimethalin. Samples from the agricultural water-supply wells contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), two

  9. Distribution of Hydrothermal Mineral Assemblages in the Sevenmile Hole Area, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A.; Larson, P.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pauley, B.; Manion, J.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.

    2007-12-01

    Incision of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River in Yellowstone National Park has exposed approximately 350 vertical meters of hydrothermally altered rhyolites. This older alteration formed in the shallow portion of a hydrothermal system that was most likely similar to the modern Yellowstone hydrothermal environment. Hydrothermal fluid circulation is related to the ongoing rhyolitic magmatism that produced the Yellowstone caldera at 640 ka. The rhyolitic magmatism and hydrothermal system are shallow expressions of deeper mantle- derived basalts. The older alteration is well exposed in the Sevenmile Hole area, near the northeastern margin of the caldera. Here, the alteration protolith is the high silica, low-18O, rhyolitic Tuff of Sulfur Creek. The tuff erupted at about 480 ka after resurgent doming associated with the third cycle collapse of the Yellowstone caldera. The tuff is a rheomorphically deformed densely welded agglutinate fallout ash that was deposited along the caldera wall. It contains phenocrysts of quartz, sodic plagioclase, and potassium feldspar. The tuff is exposed from the rim of the canyon, which is very close to the pre-alteration paleosurface, to the river bottom where it is covered by detrital sediments and actively forming hot spring deposits. Rocks exposed within the field area are pervasively hydrothermally altered. Mineral phases in approximately 90 samples were determined in the field using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyser (PIMA). Subsequently, more precise mineral determinations were made using standard petrographic and powder XRD techniques. The alteration mineralogy consists of variable assemblages that include zones of kaolinite + opal; kaolinite + alunite with local dickite and typically high opal and/or quartz concentrations; highly silicified zones containing illite with or without smectite; and weakly silicified zones containing mostly illite. Minor (less than 1 percent) fine-grained disseminated pyrite is ubiquitous. The

  10. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, P.B.; Phillips, A.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.; Manion, J.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640??ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480??ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300??m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ?? alunite ?? dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ?? adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100??m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170????C. An 40Ar/39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ?? 16,000??years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sandbar Response in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona, Following the 2008 High-Flow Experiment on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2010-01-01

    A 60-hour release of water at 1,203 cubic meters per second (m3/s) from Glen Canyon Dam in March 2008 provided an opportunity to analyze channel-margin response at discharge levels above the normal, diurnally fluctuating releases for hydropower plant operations. We compare measurements at sandbars and associated campsites along the mainstem Colorado River, downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, at 57 locations in Marble and Grand Canyons. Sandbar and main-channel response to the 2008 high-flow experiment (2008 HFE) was documented by measuring bar and bed topography at the study sites before and after the controlled flood and twice more in the following 6 months to examine the persistence of flood-formed deposits. The 2008 HFE caused widespread deposition at elevations above the stage equivalent to a flow rate of 227 m3/s and caused an increase in the area and volume of the high-elevation parts of sandbars, thereby increasing the size of campsite areas. In this study, we differentiate between four response styles, depending on how sediment was distributed throughout each study site. Then, we present the longitudinal pattern relevant to the different response styles and place the site responses in context with two previous high-release experiments conducted in 1996 and 2004. We find that (1) nearly every measured sandbar aggraded above the 227-m3/s water-surface elevation, resulting in sandbars as large or larger than occurred following previous high flows; (2) reaches closest to Glen Canyon Dam were characterized by a greater percentage of sites that incurred net erosion, although the total sand volume in all sediment-flux monitoring reaches was greater following the 2008 HFE than following previous high flows; and (3) longitudinal differences in topographic response in eddies and in the channel suggest a greater and more evenly distributed sediment supply than existed during previous controlled floods from Glen Canyon Dam.

  12. Quality of wet deposition in the Grand Calumet River watershed, northwestern Indiana, June 30, 1992-August 31, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willoughby, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Northwestern Indiana is one of the most heavily industrialized and largest steel-producing areas in the United States. High temperature processes, such as fossil-fuel combustion and steel production, release contaminants to the atmosphere that may result in wet deposition being a major contributor to major ion and trace-metal loadings in north- western Indiana and Lake Michigan. A wet-deposition collection site was established at the Gary (Indiana) Regional Airport in June 1992 to monitor the chemical quality of wet deposition. Weekly samples were collected at this site from June 30, 1992, through August 31, 1993, and were analyzed for pH, specific conductance, and selected major ions and trace metals. Forty-eight samples collected during the study were of sufficient volumes for some of the determinations to be performed. Median constituent concentrations were determined for samples collected during warm weather and cold weather (November 1 through March 31). Median concentrations were substituted for missing values from samples with insufficient volumes for analysis of all the constituents of interest. Constituent concentrations were converted to weekly loadings. Two values were calculated to provide a range for the weekly loading for samples with measured concentrations of constituents less than the method reporting limit. The minimum weekly loading was computed by substituting zero for the constituent concentration; the maximum weekly loading was computed by substituting the method reporting limit for the concentration. If all of the sample concentrations measured were greater than the method reporting limit, an annual loading value was computed. The annual loadings could be used to assist in estimating the contribution of wet deposition to the total annual constituent loadings in the Grand Calumet River in northwestern Indiana.

  13. Aggradation and degradation of alluvial sand deposits, 1965 to 1986, Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.C.; Graf, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Alluvial sand deposits along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park are used as campsites and are substrate for vegetation. During high flows, both separation and reattachment deposits are initially scoured but are subsequently redeposited during flow recession. Sand is also exchanged between the main channel and recirculation zones. The rate of recession of high flows can affect the elevation of alluvial deposits that are left exposed after a flood has passed. Fluctuating flows that follow a period of steady discharge cause initial erosion of separation and reattachment deposits. A part of this eroded sand is transported to the main channel. Therefore, sand is exchanged between the main channel and recirculation zones and redistributed within recirculation zones over a broad range of discharges. Comparison of aerial photographs and reinterpretation of published data concerning changes of alluvial sand deposits following recession of high flows in 1983 and 1984 indicate that sand was eroded from recirculation zones in narrow reaches. In wide reaches, however, aggradation in recirculation zones may have occurred. In all reaches, the percentage of separation deposits that maintained a constant area was greater than for other deposits. Separation deposits, therefore, appear to be the most stable of the deposit types. Fluctuating flows between October 1985 and January 1986, which followed the higher and steadier flows of 1983 to 1985, caused erosion throughout the park. For separation deposits, erosion was greatest at those sites where deposition from the 1983 high flows had been greatest. The existing pattern of low campsite availability in narrow reaches and high campsite availability in wide reaches was thus accentuated by the sequence of flows between 1983 and 1985.

  14. PCB, PAH and trace element exposure in barn swallows nesting on the Grand Calumet River, IN, watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W. |

    1995-12-31

    The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal (GCR/IHC) is an International Joint Commission Area of Concern (AOC) and is heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements. Barn swallow hatchlings and nestlings were collected from four bridges which span the GCR/IHC and a reference location. PCB and PAH concentrations in hatchlings and nestlings were significantly higher in colonies along the GCR/IHC than the reference colony. For example, mean PCB concentrations in hatchlings and nestlings were significantly higher in colonies along the GCR/IHC than the reference colony. For example, mean PCB concentrations in hatchlings were 0.04 {micro}g/g wet weight at the reference colony and 20.42 {micro}g/g at one colony on the GCR/IHC; mean concentrations of PAHs were 0.05 {micro}g/g at the reference colony and 0.15 {micro}g/g at one colony on the GCR/IHC. PCBs accumulated in nestlings at a rate of 18.2 {micro}g/day at one colony on the GCR/IHC compared to 0.03 {micro}g/day at the reference colony. These data suggest that contaminants in the water and sediment of the GCR/IHC are being incorporated into the vertebrate food chain via aquatic insects. Because the contaminant data in the barn swallow hatchlings and nestlings seem to reflect the sediment chemistry nearby the colony, this study suggests that barn swallows are a useful biomonitoring species for this AOC.

  15. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  16. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  17. Water temperatures in select nearshore environments of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, during the Low Steady Summer Flow experiment of 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vernieu, William S.; Anderson, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Water releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, are the primary determinant of streamflow, sediment transport, water quality, and aquatic and riparian habitat availability in the Colorado River downstream of the dam in Grand Canyon. The presence and operation of the dam have transformed the seasonally warm Colorado River into a consistently cold river because of hypolimnetic, or deep-water, releases from the penstock withdrawal structures on the dam. These releases have substantially altered the thermal regime of the downstream riverine environment. This, in turn, has affected the biota of the river corridor, particularly native and nonnative fish communities and the aquatic food web. In the spring and summer of 2000, a Low Steady Summer Flow experiment was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effects of the experimental flow on physical and biological resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead on the Arizona-Nevada border. This report describes the water temperatures collected during the experimental flow from 14 nearshore sites in the river corridor in Grand Canyon to assess the effects of steady releases on the thermal dynamics of nearshore environments. These nearshore areas are characterized by low-velocity flows with some degree of isolation from the higher velocity flows in the main channel and are hypothesized to be important rearing environments for young native fish. Water-temperature measurements were made at 14 sites, ranging from backwater to open-channel environments. Warming during daylight hours, relative to main-channel temperatures, was measured at all sites in relation to the amount of isolation from the main-channel current. Boat traffic, amount of direct solar radiation, and degree of isolation from the main-channel current appear to be the primary factors affecting the differential warming of the nearshore environment.

  18. Explaining streamflow variability of the Gila and Rio Grande rivers : Pacific teleconnections and catchment-scale interaction of the hydrological cycle with vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascolini-Campbell, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    The streamflows of the Gila River, N.M. and the upper Rio Grande, with headwaters in Colorado are influenced by a range of drivers including the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and, for the Gila, the North American Monsoon. At the catchment scale, runoff to the river is modulated by the interaction of snowmelt, rainfall, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and vegetation. A simple eco-hydological model is used to explain the seasonal cycles of flow of the Gila (strong spring peak, weak summer peak) and upper Rio Grande (single spring peak) in terms of precipitation, snowpack, and evapotranspiration. We then examine the drivers of streamflow variability using USGS gages located upstream of human extraction, precipitation and temperature data from PRISM, and SST data from ERSST. High spring streamflow tends to occur in response to prior winter El Nino but not all high and low streamflow events can be explained by the Pacific teleconnection. Decadal variations, including low flows in the Gila and upper Rio Grande since the mid 1990s, are explained in terms of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean decadal variability.

  19. Occurrence of metolachlor and trifluralin losses in the Save river agricultural catchment during floods.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Sauvage, Sabine; Taghavi, Lobat; Merlina, Georges; Probst, Jean-Luc; Pérez, José Miguel Sánchez

    2011-11-30

    Rising pesticide levels in streams draining intensively managed agricultural land have a detrimental effect on aquatic ecosystems and render water unfit for human consumption. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate daily pesticide transfer at the outlet from an agriculturally intensive catchment of 1110 km(2) (Save river, south-western France). SWAT reliably simulated both dissolved and sorbed metolachlor and trifluralin loads and concentrations at the catchment outlet from 1998 to 2009. On average, 17 kg of metolachlor and 1 kg of trifluralin were exported at outlet each year, with annual rainfall variations considered. Surface runoff was identified as the preferred pathway for pesticide transfer, related to the good correlation between suspended sediment exportation and pesticide, in both soluble and sorbed phases. Pesticide exportation rates at catchment outlet were less than 0.1% of the applied amount. At outlet, SWAT hindcasted that (i) 61% of metolachlor and 52% of trifluralin were exported during high flows and (ii) metolachlor and trifluralin concentrations exceeded European drinking water standards of 0.1 μg L(-1) for individual pesticides during 149 (3.6%) and 17 (0.4%) days of the 1998-2009 period respectively. SWAT was shown to be a promising tool for assessing large catchment river network pesticide contamination in the event of floods but further useful developments of pesticide transfers and partition coefficient processes would need to be investigated.

  20. The role of aeolian sediment in the preservation of archaeological sites in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona: final report on research activities, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes a three-year study of aeolian sedimentary processes in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, and discusses the relevance of those processes to the preservation of archaeological sites. Findings are based upon detailed sedimentary and geomorphic investigations conducted in three areas of the river corridor, continuous measurements of wind, precipitation, and aeolian sediment transport at six locations for up to 26 months, short-term field study at 35 other sites, examination of historical aerial photographs, and review of data collected and analyzed by previous studies. Detailed results of this study, which involved collaboration with scientists at the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, National Park Service, Northern Arizona University, the Hopi Tribe, and GeoArch, Inc., have been published previously in topical USGS Open-File Reports (Draut and Rubin, 2005, 2006), a USGS Scientific Investigations Report (Draut and others, 2005), and will be discussed in two forthcoming journal articles. This report serves as an overview of the results and contains new conclusions regarding aeolian sedimentary processes in the Colorado River Ecosystem and their relevance to many archaeological sites.

  1. Aggradation and degradation of alluvial sand deposits, 1965 to 1986, Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, John C.; Graf, Julia B.

    1990-01-01

    Alluvial sand deposits along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park are used as campsites and are substrate for vegetation. The largest and most numerous of these deposits are formed in zones of recirculating current that are created downstream from where the channel is constricted by debris fans at tributary mouths. Alluvial sand deposits are classified by location and form. Separation and reattachment deposits are downstream from constrictions within recirculation zones. Separation deposits are near the point of flow separation and typically mantle large debris fans. Reattachment deposits are near the point of flow reattachment and project upstream beneath much of the zone of recirculating current. Upper-pool deposits are upstream from a constriction and are associated with backwaters. Channel-margin deposits line the channel and have the form of terraces. Some are created in small recirculation zones. Reattachment and channel-margin deposits are largest and most numerous in wide reaches, although small channel-margin deposits are used as campsites in the narrow Muav Gorge. Separation deposits are more uniformly distributed throughout Grand Canyon National Park than are other types of deposits. In some narrow reaches where the number of alluvial sand deposits used as campsites is small, separation deposits are a high percentage of the total. During high flows, both separation and reattachment deposits are initially scoured but are subsequently redeposited during flow recession. Sand is also exchanged between the main channel and recirculation zones. The rate of recession of high flows can affect the elevation of alluvial deposits that are left exposed after a flood has passed. Fluctuating flows that follow a period of steady discharge cause initial erosion of separation and reattachment deposits. A part of this eroded sand is transported to the main channel. Therefore, sand is exchanged between the main channel and recirculation zones and redistributed

  2. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, S. K.; Lyons, W. B.; Carey, A. E.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Welch, S. A.; Welch, K. A.

    2012-03-01

    Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi), Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.0065 to 0.383 km2) gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ year stand), mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture), an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (<3 yr) converted no-till corn field. The first three watersheds had perennial streams, but the two corn watersheds only produced runoff during storms and snowmelt. For the perennial streams, total discharge was an important control of dissolved silicate transport. Median DSi yields (2210-3080 kg km-2 yr-1) were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979-2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (2560 kg km-2 yr-1). Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (<530 kg km-2 yr-1) than the perennial-flow watersheds. The lack of contributions from Si-enriched groundwater largely explained their much lower DSi yields with respect to sites having baseflow. A significant positive correlation between the molar ratio of (Ca2++Mg2+)/alkalinity to DSi in the tilled corn and the forested site suggested, however, that silicate minerals weathered as alkalinity was lost via enhanced nitrification resulting from fertilizer

  3. Use of Composite Fingerprinting Technique to Determine Contribution of Paria River Sediments to Dam-Release Flood Deposits in Marble Canyon, Grand Canyon, Az

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, K.; Parnell, R. A.; Smith, M. E.; Grams, P. E.; Mueller, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam drastically reduced the downstream sediment supply and altered daily flow regimes of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, resulting in significant sandbar erosion downstream of the dam. Dam-release floods, known as High Flow Experiments (HFEs), have occurred six times since 1996 and are intended to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars using tributary-supplied sediment. In Marble Canyon (first 100 km of Grand Canyon) the targeted tributary is the Paria River which supplies approximately 90% of the annual suspended sediment flux through Marble Canyon; the same input contributed less than 6% prior to the dam. Annual topographic surveys have established that HFEs are effective at rebuilding sandbars. However, the long-term viability of using HFEs for sandbar maintenance is dependent on a sustainable source of sediments comprising HFE deposits. Significant use of non-tributary, main-stem sediments (i.e. pre-dam sand stored in eddies or the channel bed) in HFE deposits would indicate reliance on a limited resource, and diminishing returns in the ability of HFEs to rebuild sandbars. In this study, we sampled vertically throughout 12 bars in Marble Canyon to document temporal and downstream changes in the proportion of sediment sourced from the Paria River during the 2013 and 2014 HFEs. Preliminary data suggest that heavy mineral compositions and concentrations of Ti, S, Cr and Rb, all of which are influenced by grainsize, could be sufficiently capable of differentiating Paria-derived and main-stem sediments when combined into a composite fingerprint (CF). A multivariate mixing model using these CFs quantitatively determines the contribution of Paria-derived sediment in each HFE deposit sample. Mixing model endmembers for non-Paria sand include pre-dam flood deposits in Glen and Marble Canyons, and Marble Canyon dredge samples. These results elucidate the role of contemporary versus legacy sediment in long-term sandbar maintenance.

  4. Assessment of injury to fish and wildlife resources in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Smorong, D.E.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Sparks, D.W.; Smith, J.R.; Simon, T.P.; Hanacek, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of three that describes the results of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) conducted in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern (IHAOC). The assessment area is located in northwest Indiana and was divided into nine reaches to facilitate the assessment. This component of the NRDA was undertaken to determine if fish and wildlife resources have been injured due to exposure to contaminants that are associated with discharges of oil or releases of other hazardous substances. To support this assessment, information was compiled on the chemical composition of sediment and tissues; on the toxicity of whole sediments, pore water, and elutriates to fish; on the status of fish communities; and on fish health. The data on each of these indicators were compared to regionally relevant benchmarks to assess the presence and extent of injury to fish and wildlife resources. The results of this assessment indicate that injury to fish and wildlife resources has occurred throughout the assessment area, with up to five distinct lines of evidence demonstrating injury within the various reaches. Based on the frequency of exceedance of the benchmarks for assessing sediment and tissue chemistry data, total polychlorinated biphenyls is the primary bioaccumulative contaminant of concern in the assessment area. It is important to note, however, that this assessment was restricted by the availability of published bioaccumulation-based sediment quality guidelines, tissue residue guidelines, and other benchmarks of sediment quality conditions. The availability of chemistry data for tissues also restricted this assessment in certain reaches of the assessment area. Furthermore, insufficient information was located to facilitate identification of the substances that are causing or substantially contributing to effects on fish (i.e., sediment toxicity, impaired fish health, or impaired fish community structure). Therefore, substances

  5. Quality of wet deposition in the Grand Calumet River watershed, northwestern Indiana, April 29, 1997-April 28, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willoughby, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Calumet River, in northwestern Indiana, drains a heavily industrialized area along the southern shore of Lake Michigan. Steel production and petroleum refining are two of the area?s predominant industries. High-temperature processes, such as fossilfuel combustion and steel production, release contaminants to the atmosphere that may result in wet deposition being a major contributor to major-ion and trace-metal loadings in northwestern Indiana and Lake Michigan. A wet-deposition collection site was established at the Gary (Indiana) Regional Airport to monitor the quantity and chemical quality of wet deposition. During a first phase of sampling, 48 wet-deposition samples were collected weekly between June 30, 1992, and August 31, 1993. During a second phase of sampling, 40 wet-deposition samples were collected between October 17, 1995, and November 12, 1996. Forty-two wet-deposition samples were collected during a third phase of sampling, which began April 29, 1997, and was completed April 28, 1998. Wetdeposition samples were analyzed for pH, specific conductance, and selected major ions and trace metals. This report describes the quantity and quality of wet-deposition samples collected during the third sampling phase and compares these findings to the results of the first and second sampling phases. All of the samples collected during the third phase of sampling were of sufficient volumes for at least some of the analyses to be performed. Constituent concentrations from the third sampling phase were not significantly different (at the 5-percent significance level) from those for the second sampling phase. Significant increases, however, were observed in the concentrations of potassium, iron, lead, and zinc when compared to the concentrations observed in the first sampling phase. Weekly loadings were estimated for each constituent measured during the third sampling phase. If constituent concentrations were reported less than the method reporting limit, a

  6. Observations of Sand Dune Migration on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinski, M. A.; Buscmobe, D.; Ashley, T.; Tusso, R.; Grams, P. E.; McElroy, B. J.; Mueller, E. R.; Hamill, D.

    2015-12-01

    Repeat, high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys were conducted in March and July 2015 along a reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon near the Diamond Creek gage (362 km downstream of Lees Ferry, AZ) to characterize the migration of sand dunes. The surveys were collected as part of a study designed to quantify the relative importance of bedload and suspended sediment transport and develop a predictive relationship for bedload transport. Concurrent measurements of suspended-sediment concentrations, bed-sediment grain size, and water velocity were also collected. The study site is approximately 350 m long and 50 m wide; water depths are 7 to 10 m during normal flows; and a field of sand dunes form along its entire length with negligible coarse material at the bed surface. Full swath coverage of the site required about 6 to 10 minutes to complete with two passes of the survey vessel. Mapping occurred continuously during several survey periods. For each survey period, time-series of bathymetric maps were constructed from each pair of survey lines. In March, surveys were collected over durations of 2, 3, 9, and 11 hours, at discharges of 339 to 382 m3/s. In July, surveys were collected over durations of 4, 4, and 13 hours, at discharges ranging from 481 to 595 ft3/s. These surveys capture the migration of sand dunes over a wide range of discharge with an unprecedented temporal resolution. The dunes in March were between 30 and 50 cm in height, 5 m in length, and migrating downstream at about 1 m per hour. In July, dunes were between 75 and 130 cm in height and 10-15 m in length, and were migrating downstream at rates of 5 to 2 m per hour. The surveys also reveal that the dune migration is spatially and temporally variable, with fast-migrating small dunes variably superimposed on slower-moving larger dunes. The dunes also refract around shoreline talus piles and other flow constrictions collectively causing a large degree of dune deformation as they migrate.

  7. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  8. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Basin Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    1999-07-01

    This Annual Report provides a detailed overview of watershed restoration accomplishments achieved by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and project partners in the Upper Grande Ronde River Basin under contract with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) during the period July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998. The Contract Agreement entitled McCoy Meadows Watershed Restoration Project (Project No.96-83-01) includes habitat restoration planning, design, and implementation in two project areas--the McCoy Meadows Ranch located in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek subbasins on private land and the Mainstem Grande Ronde River Habitat Enhancement Project located on private and National Forest System lands near Bird Tract Springs along the Grande Ronde River. During the contract period, the CTUIR and partners (Mark and Lorna Tipperman, landowners), Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) initiated phase 1 construction of the McCoy Meadows Restoration Project. Phase 1 involved reintroduction of a segment of McCoy Creek from its existing channelized configuration into a historic meander channel. Project efforts included bioengineering and tree/shrub planting and protection, transporting salvaged cottonwood tree boles and limbs from offsite source to the project area for utilization by resident beaver populations for forage and dam construction materials, relocation of existing BPA/ODFW riparian corridor fencing to outer edges of meadow floodplain, establishment of pre-project photo points, and coordination of other monitoring and evaluation efforts being led by other project partners including groundwater monitoring wells, channel cross sections, water quality monitoring stations, juvenile population sampling index sites, redd surveys, and habitat surveys. Project activities also included

  9. Urban and agricultural inputs of antibiotics in the Seine River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamtam, F.; Le Bot, B.; Dinh, T.; Mercier, F.; Eurin, J.; Chevreuil, M.

    2009-04-01

    The fate and effects of antibiotics are emerging issues since trace levels have been detected in environmental samples. Despite increasing concern on the effects of these active contaminants, researches on their origins, occurrence and environmental fate are rather scarce, especially in France. In order to have a better knowledge of the fate of these contaminants in the receiving waters, a large scale survey was performed in the Seine River basin, where surface waters were sampled at different locations, in rural or urban area, or near aquaculture facilities at different periods. Samples were analysed for 17 antibiotics, including quinolones and sulfonamides, with a few compounds used in human or veterinary medicine exclusively. This survey showed that different compounds occurred at individual concentrations reaching 544 ng/L (sulfamethoxazole). All 17 compounds were detected at least once in the survey. Sulfamethoxazole was the most ubiquitous compound, and showed the highest concentrations. Norfloxacin and flumequine were found to be the most frequently detected quinolones. Investigations into the origins of this contamination were made by the means of a profile along the Seine River between Paris and Poses. It showed large inputs of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole from wastewater treatment plants. Punctual appearances of veterinary fluoroquinolones rapidly dissipated indicate that non point sources e.g., surface runoff or leaching, may contribute to the river contamination. Analysis of river water from agricultural area showed a greater proportion of veterinary antibiotics in such watershed, and a notable impact of aquaculture facilities as a source of antibiotics to the surface waters was highlighted.

  10. Impact of land-use induced changes on agricultural productivity in the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gui; Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhan; Chu, Xi; Li, Zhihui

    The water resource allocation is greatly influenced by the land use, agricultural productivity and farmers' income. Therefore analyzing the impacts of land use changes on agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income is an important basis of the further study on the management mechanism and optimal water resource allocation. Taking the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin as the study area, this study examined the impacts of conversion from cultivated land to built-up land from 2000-2005 and 2005-2008. Then the agricultural productivity was estimated with the Estimation System for Agricultural Productivity model, and the changes in agricultural productivity caused by land conversion were analyzed. Thereafter, Simultaneous Equations Model was used to analyze the impacts of the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land on the agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income. The results showed that: (1) The agricultural productivity was stable during the whole period, reaching about 2.84 ton/ha, 3.09 ton/ha and 2.80 ton/ha on average in 2000, 2005 and 2008, respectively, but the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had important influence on the spatial pattern of agricultural productivity. (2) The land productivity, total power of agricultural machinery and the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had an overall positive effect on the agricultural productivity. (3) The agricultural productivity and gross domestic product had positive influence on the farmers' income, while the cultivated land area per capita and percentage of farming employee had negative influence, indicating that the farmer's income was mainly contributed by non-agricultural income. These results in this study showed that optimal land use management can play an important role in promoting virtuous ecosystem cycle and sustainable socioeconomic development, which can also lay an important foundation for further research on the optimal

  11. Decades of Change on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta; Rivers, Coastlines, Agriculture and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is formed by the convergence of two great rivers, superlative in both size and geologic activity. The GBD is home to > 150 million people with a mean population density of more than 1000 people/km2. The fertile soils, abundant water and favorable climate also make the delta one of the most agriculturally diverse and productive areas on Earth. We seek to better understand the coupled natural and anthropogenic dynamics of the delta through a number of cross-disciplinary field studies of the contributing geophysical, biophysical and anthropogenic processes. To provide a synoptic multitemporal perspective for these studies, we use a variety of remotely sensed observations collected over the delta since 1988. In this overview we provide a synthesis of recent results from studies of 4 interrelated processes; river channel migration, coastal erosion and deposition, co-evolution of agriculture and aquaculture, and economic development. In each study we use multi-sensor spatiotemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery spanning more than 2 decades to observe and quantify a variety of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites provide 16 day temporal and 250m spatial resolution of the entire delta from 2000 to present. This image time series captures not only agricultural phenology over the entire delta but also the development of aquaculture on the lower delta and interannual fluvial dynamics on both the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI allow us to represent land cover as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrate, vegetation and dark surfaces (water and shadow) throughout the delta since 1988. Despite its irregular temporal sampling, Landsat's 30 m pixels better resolve both natural and anthropogenic land cover units and its longer time series extends retrospective analyses back to 1988. More recent sensors like Ikonos, Quickbird, GeoEye and World

  12. Data from synoptic water-quality studies on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, November 1990 and June 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, H.E.; Peart, D.B.; Antweiler, R.C.; Brinton, T.I.; Campbell, W.L.; Barbarino, J.R.; Roth, D.A.; Hart, R.J.; Averett, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Two water-quality synoptic studies were made on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Field measurements and the collection of water samples for laboratory analysis were made at 10 mainstem and 6 tributary sites every 6 hours for a 48-hour period on November 5-6, 1990, and again on June 18-20, 1991. Field measurements included discharge, alkalinity, water temperature, light penetration, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Water samples were collected for the laboratory analysis of major and minor ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, strontium, chloride, sulfate, silica as SiO2), trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium and zinc), and nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon). Biological measurements included drift (benthic invertebrates and detrital material), and benthic invertebrates from the river bottom.

  13. Simulating the Effects of Drainage and Agriculture on Hydrology and Sediment in the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Banitt, A. M.; Eggers, G.; Pickett, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Midwest region of the United States, slopes are relatively flat, soils tend to have low permeability, and local water tables are high. In order to make the region suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. Within the watershed, tiles have outlets to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are explicitly simulating the tile and drainage systems in the watershed at multiple scales using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis). The tile drainage system is simulated as a network of pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, testing of the methods on smaller basins shows the ability of the model to simulate tile flow, however, application at the larger scale is hampered by the computational burden of simulating the flow in the complex tile drain networks that drain the agricultural fields. Modeling indicates the subsurface drains account for approximately 40% of the stream flow in the Seven Mile Creek sub-basin account in the late spring and early summer when the tile is flowing. Preliminary results indicate that agricultural tile drains increase overland erosion in the Seven Mile Creek watershed.

  14. Runoff-related agricultural impact in relation to macroinvertebrate communities of the Lourens River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thiere, Geraldine; Schulz, Ralf

    2004-07-01

    A field study at the Lourens River, South Africa, was undertaken during the pesticide application period between November 2001 and January 2002 in order to investigate the potential relation of agricultural pollution to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna. The upper regions of the Lourens River were free of contamination (LR1), whereas subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area (LR2) received transient insecticide peaks. Continuously operating suspended-particle samplers as well as flood samplers operating during runoff events were used to measure pesticide contamination. In addition, various physicochemical and morphological parameters were examined. A survey of the macroinvertebrate communities associated with the rocky substrates was carried out every three weeks. Community indices were calculated using the South African Scoring System (SASS 5) for bioassessment of water quality in rivers. The two sites differed in pesticide pollution as well as in average turbidity levels (LR1 5.5 mg/L; LR2 64.3 mg/L), but were similar in bottom substrate composition and most other abiotic factors. At the downstream site (LR2), pesticide values of 0.05 microg/L azinphos-methyl in water as well as 49 microg/kg azinphos-methyl, 94 microg/kg chlorpyrifos and 122 microg/kg total endosulfan in suspended particles were found during runoff conditions. The macroinvertebrate communities of the two sampling sites were similar in terms of number of total individuals, but differed significantly (ANOVA) in average number of taxa (LR1 11.7, LR2 8.9). Seven out of 17 investigated taxa occurred in significantly reduced numbers or were even absent at the downstream site LR2. The community characteristics determined by SASS 5 showed a significantly less sensitive community structure at the downstream site (TS 41; ASPT 4.6), indicating continuously lower water quality compared to site LR1 (TS 80; ASPT 6.9). It is concluded that the Lourens River macroinvertebrate communities are

  15. Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam: Two Decades of Large Scale Experimental Treatments Intended to Benefit Resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Theodore

    2010-05-01

    Glen Canyon Dam was closed in 1963, primarily to store water for the rapidly developing southwestern United States. The dam's hydropower plant, with a generating capacity of up to 1,300 megawatts of electrical energy, was initially operated without daily peaking constraints from 1966 to 1990, resulting in daily tides on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park of up to 4 meters. The influences of Glen Canyon Dam's peaking operations on downstream river resources through Grand Canyon have been intensively studied for nearly four decades. Following experimental reoperation of the dam in summer 1990, and five years of studies associated with a major environmental impact statement, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program was created in 1997, to evaluate whether a new experimental flow regime, combined with other non-flow treatments, can mitigate the detrimental effects of the former hydropeaking flow regime. Experimental flow treatments associated with the program over the last two decades have included the adoption of hourly and daily operating rules that now govern and constrain hydropeaking, periodic release of experimental controlled floods to rebuild sandbar habitats along shorelines and occasional steady flow tests intended to benefit the river's endangered humpback chub; one of the endemic fish of the Colorado River basin that experienced a population decline following dam closure. Other non-flow experimental treatments being evaluated by the program include removal of nonnative fish species, such as rainbow trout and other exotic fish, as well as translocation of humpback chub into other habitats below the dam where they might successfully spawn. Since 1995, three controlled flood experiments have been released from the dam to determine whether the remaining sand supplies that enter the Colorado River below the dam (about 6 to 16 percent of the predam sand supply) can be managed to create and maintain sandbar habitats used by humpback chub

  16. 17. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids Michigan City Library, Michigan Room) circa 1908, photographer unknown. VIEW NORTH - NORTHEAST, SOUTHSIDE, GENERAL VIEW. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI

  17. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using rotary screw traps on four streams in the Grande Ronde River basin during the 2001 migratory year (MY 2001) from 1 July 2000 through 30 June 2001. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O. mykiss could be distinguished. An 'early' migrant group left upper rearing areas from 1 July 2000 through 29 January 2001 with a peak in the fall. A 'late' migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from 30 January 2001 through 30 June 2001 with a peak in the spring. The migrant population of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River in MY 2001 was very low in comparison to previous migratory years. We estimated 51 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 12% of the migrant population leaving as early migrants to overwinter downstream. In the same migratory year, we estimated 16,067 O. mykiss migrants left upper rearing areas with approximately 4% of these fish descending the upper Grande Ronde River as early migrants. At the Catherine Creek trap, we estimated 21,937 juvenile spring chinook migrants in MY 2001. Of these migrants, 87% left upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. We also estimated 20,586 O. mykiss migrants in Catherine Creek with 44% leaving upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. At the Lostine River trap, we estimated 13,610 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 77% migrating early. We estimated 16,690 O. mykiss migrated out of the Lostine River with approximately 46% descending the river as early migrants. At the Minam River trap, we estimated 28,209 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of the river with 36% migrating early. During the same period, we estimated 28,113 O. mykiss with approximately 14

  18. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  19. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center's Role in Colorado River Ecosystem Science Below Glen Canyon Dam: An Overview on Science-Based River Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenn, D. B.; Melis, T. S.

    2002-12-01

    Impacts of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations on downstream resources have been intensively studied by scientists and engineers since the early 1970s. In 1989, the Secretary of the Interior directed the Bureau of Reclamation to conduct the first-ever retroactive environmental compliance on operations of a large dam. Studies focused on linkages between flows and depletion of sand bars, endangered species conservation, including the humpback chub (Gila cypha), recreation and economic resources, as well as archeological sites preserved in fluvial deposits. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) was established in 1995, following completion of this major environmental impact statement (EIS). The EIS preferred alternative, was incorporated into the Secretary of the Interior's Record-of-Decision (ROD) in 1996, following successful completion of a large-scale flow experiment. The modified-low-fluctuating-flow operating strategy at Glen Canyon Dam allows for continued diurnal fluctuations to meet power demand, but restricts up-ramp and down-ramp rates and total daily range of fluctuations. In 1997, the Secretary established the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Workgroup (AMP) as a Federal advisory committee. The purpose of the committee is to provide recommendations to the Secretary on the effectiveness of the ROD, as well as to identify and recommend science-based adjustments to the ROD that might better achieve restoration and maintenance of downstream resources. Adaptive management is based on the premise that ecosystem responses to management actions are often unpredictable. However, if such actions are undertaken as scientific experiments, then outcomes can provide new information to managers on the range of possibilities that exist for achieving restoration objectives. Large-scale flow experiments at Glen Canyon Dam, as well as ongoing monitoring and research since 1995, have refuted some of the original EIS hypotheses. Some resource trends under the

  20. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, S. K.; Lyons, W. B.; Carey, A. E.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Welch, S. A.; Welch, K. A.

    2011-09-01

    Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi), Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.65 to 38.3 ha) gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ yr stand), mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture), an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (<3 yr) converted no-till corn field. The first three watersheds had perennial streams, but the two corn watersheds only produced runoff during storms and snowmelt. For the perennial streams, total discharge was an important control of dissolved silicate transport. Median DSi yields (22.1-30.8 kg ha-1 a-1) were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979-2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (25.6 kg ha-1 a-1). Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (<5.3 kg ha-1 a-1) than the perennial-flow watersheds. The lack of contributions from Si-enriched groundwater largely explained their much lower DSi yields with respect to sites having baseflow. A significant positive correlation between the molar ratio of (Ca2+ + Mg2)/alkalinity to DSi in the tilled corn and the forested site suggested, however, that silicate minerals weathered as alkalinity was lost via enhanced nitrification resulting from fertilizer additions

  1. Agricultural land use and water quality in the upper St. Joseph River basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T. Ray

    1978-01-01

    Land use in the upper St. Joseph River basin of south-central Michigan is primarily agricultural. In the 144-square-mile area, the chemical and physical characteristics of water are determined by the climate and soils, as well as by land conservation practices. Municipal waste discharges affect water quality at some locations, as do the larger lakes and ponds. Data indicate that mean discharge from the basin is 135 cubic feet per second. About half this flow is contributed to the St. Joseph River by three major tributaries: Beebe Creek (36 cubic feet per second); Sand Creek (24 cubic feet per second); and Soap Creek (13 cubic feet per second). Runoff from 21 drainage areas delineated for the investigation ranged from 0.22 to 4.07 cubic feet per second per square mile; both the higher and lower values are largely the result of naturally occurring inter- and intrabasin transfers of water.Suspended-sediment concentrations are low throughout the basin, rarely exceeding 100 milligrams per liter. Mean concentrations at four daily sampling stations on the major tributaries and on the St. Joseph River ranged from 9.7 milligrams per liter to 38 milligrams per liter. The maximum sediment yield was 182 pounds per acre per year. Deposition of sediment in five of the 21 areas resulted in a net loss of sediment transported, and thus “negative” yields.Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations do not vary greatly from site to site. Mean concentrations of total nitrogen at downstream sites on Beebe, Sand, and Soap Creeks, and on the St. Joseph River ranged from 1.5 to 1.8 milligrams per liter. About 90 percent of all nitrogen, and 66 percent of all phosphorus, is transported in solution. Land used principally for agriculture has a mean total nitrogen yield of 4.9 pounds per acre per year and a mean total phosphorus yield of 0.13 pounds per year. A comparison of total nitrogen and total phosphorus yields with type of agricultural use showed few relationships; nitrogen yield

  2. Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarty, Gregory W.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Rice, Clifford P.; Hively, W. Dean; McConnell, Laura L.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Lang, Megan W.; Whitall, David R.; Bialek, Krystyna; Downey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over 50% of streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have been rated as poor or very poor based on the index of biological integrity. The Choptank River estuary, a Bay tributary on the eastern shore, is one such waterway, where corn and soybean production in upland areas of the watershed contribute significant loads of nutrients and sediment to streams. We adopted a novel approach utilizing the relationship between the concentration of nitrate-N and the stable, water-soluble herbicide degradation product MESA {2-[2-ethyl-N-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-6-methylanilino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid} to distinguish between dilution and denitrification effects on the stream concentration of nitrate-N in agricultural subwatersheds. The ratio of mean nitrate-N concentration/(mean MESA concentration * 1000) for 15 subwatersheds was examined as a function of percent cropland on hydric soil. This inverse relationship (R2 = 0.65, p 2 ≤ 0.99) for all eight sampling dates except one where R2 = 0.90. This very strong correlation indicates that nitrate-N was conserved in much of the Choptank River estuary, that dilution alone is responsible for the changes in nitrate-N and MESA concentrations, and more importantly nitrate-N loads are not reduced in the estuary prior to entering the Chesapeake Bay. Thus, a critical need exists to minimize nutrient export from agricultural production fields and to identify specific conservation practices to address the hydrologic conditions within each subwatershed. In well drained areas, removal of residual N within the cropland is most critical, and practices such as cover crops which sequester the residual N should be strongly encouraged. In poorly drained areas where denitrification can occur, wetland restoration and controlled drained structures that minimize ditch flow should be used to maximize denitrification.

  3. Spatial distribution of electrical conductivity and stable isotopes in groundwater in large catchments: a geostatistical approach in the Quequén Grande River catchment, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Hector Enrique; Londoño Ciro, Libardo Antonio; Dapeña, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes and electrical conductivity in groundwater were used as natural tracers to adjust the hydrogeological conceptual model in one of the largest catchments within the inter-mountainous Pampa plain, Argentina. Geostatistical tools were used to define the model that best fitted the spatial distribution of each tracer, and information was obtained in areas where there was a lack of data. The conventional isotopic analysis allowed the identification of three groundwater groups with different isotopic fingerprints. One group containing 56% of the total groundwater samples suggested a well-mixed system and soil infiltration precipitation as the main recharge source to the aquifer. The other two groups included samples with depleted (25.5%) and enriched (18.5%) isotopic compositions, respectively. The combination of δ(18)O, δ(2)H and electrical conductivities maps suggested ascending regional flows and water transfer from the Quequén Grande River catchment to the Moro creek. The spatial interpretation of these tracers modified the conceptual hydrogeological model of the Quequén Grande River.

  4. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  5. Estimating the effects of agricultural conservation practices on phosphorus loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin (MARB) is important in terms of both the national economy and the nutrients discharged to the basin and the Gulf of Mexico. Conservation practices are installed on cropland to reduce the nutrient losses. A recent study by the Conservation Effec...

  6. Influence of agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic stresses on the distribution and diversity of macroinvertebrates in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2011-07-01

    Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated rivers (ANOVA, P<0.05). The WQI classified CTKR, PR, and JR into class III (slightly polluted). However, PRR and KUR fell into class IV (polluted). High diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, especially the intolerant taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were observed in the least polluted river, CTKR. Decreasing abundance of macroinvertebrates followed the deterioration of river water quality with the least number of the most tolerant taxa collected from PR. On the basis of composition and sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to pollutants in each river, the highest Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index score of 93 was reported in CTKR (good water quality). BMWP scores in PRR and JR were 38.7 and 20.1, respectively, classifying both of them into "moderate water quality" category. Poor water quality was reported in PR and KUR. The outcome of the multivariate analysis (CCA) was highly satisfactory, explaining 43.32% of the variance for the assemblages of macroinvertebrates as influenced by 19 physical and chemical variables. According to the CCA model, we assert that there were three levels of stresses on macroinvertebrate communities in the investigated rivers: Level 1, characterized of undisturbed or slightly polluted as in the case of CTKR; Level 2, characterized by a lower habitat quality (the JR) compared to the CTKR; and Level 3 showed severe environmental stresses (PRR, PR, and KUR) primarily contributed by agricultural, industrial, and municipal discharges.

  7. Contaminant exposure of willets feeding in agricultural drainages of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Mitchell, C A

    1991-02-01

    Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) were collected in June and August 1986 at the outlets of two agricultural drainages into the Lower Laguna Madre of South Texas and at two other Texas coastal sites. Mean liver concentration of arsenic was higher in August than June. Over 20% of the livers had arsenic concentrations elevated above a suggested background level of 5.0 ppm dry weight (DW), but concentrations (maximum 15 ppm) were below those associated with acute toxicity. Selenium concentration in livers varied from 2.3 to 8.3 ppm DW for all locations and represented background levels. Mercury concentrations in livers for all locations (means = 2.0 to 3.4, maximum 17 ppm DW) were below those associated with avian mortality and similar to levels found in other estuarine/marine birds. DDE in carcasses was higher in adults (mean = 1.0 ppm wet weight) than juveniles (0.2 ppm), and higher in August (1.0 ppm) than June (0.5 ppm); however, DDE concentrations were generally at background levels. Based on brain cholinesterase activity, willets were not recently exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

  8. Contaminant exposure of willets feeding in agricultural drainages of the lower Rio Grande valley of south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) were collected in June and August 1986 at the outlets of two agricultural drainages into the Lower Laguna Madre of South Texas and at two other Texas coastal sites. Mean liver concentration of arsenic was higher in August than June. Over 20% of the livers had arsenic concentrations elevated above a suggested background level of 5.0 ppm dry weight (DW), but concentrations (maximum 15 ppm) were below those associated with acute toxicity. Selenium concentration in livers varied from 2.3 to 8.3 ppm DW for all locations and represented background levels. Mercury concentrations in livers for all locations (means = 2.0 to 3.4, maximum 17 ppm DW) were below those associated with avian mortality and similar to levels found in other estuarine/marine birds. DDE in carcasses was higher in adults (mean = 1.0 ppm wet weight) than juveniles (0.2 ppm), and higher in August (1.0 ppm) than June (0.5 ppm); however, DDE concentrations were generally at background levels. Based on brain cholinesterase activity, willets were not recently exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

  9. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  10. 21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE WIDE DRY BED OF THE SALT RIVER SPANS THE BACKGROUND. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Validation of a land data assimilation system using river discharge and agricultural yield observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Barbu, Alina; Fairbairn, David; Gelati, Emiliano

    2015-04-01

    Meteo-France develops the ISBA-A-gs generic Land Surface Model (LSM) able to represent the diurnal cycle of the surface fluxes together with the seasonal, interannual and decadal variability of the vegetation biomass. The LSM is embedded in the SURFEX modeling platform together with a simplified extended Kalman filter. These tools form a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS). The current version of the LDAS assimilates SPOT-VGT LAI and ASCAT surface soil moisture (SSM) products over France (8km x 8km), and a passive monitoring of albedo, FAPAR and Land Surface temperature (LST) is performed (i.e., the simulated values are compared with the satellite products). The vegetation biomass is analysed together with the root-zone soil moisture. The LDAS was coupled to the MODCOU hydrological model, and this allowed the use of in situ river discharge observations for the validation of the whole system. Moreover, open-loop (i.e. without integrationg satellite observations into the model) simulations of the above-ground biomass of straw cereals were compared with the analyzed values (i.e. after integration of satellite observations into the model), and with agricultural yield observations. It is shown that the assimilation of satellite observations sharply enhances the overall correlation of the simulated above-ground biomass with the agricultural yield observations.

  13. Toxicity assessment of sediments from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal in northwestern Indiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; MacDonald, D.D.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Johnson, B.T.; Kemble, N.E.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Wang, N.; Smith, J.R.; Sparks, D.W.; Ireland, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal located in northwestern Indiana, USA. Toxicity tests used in this assessment included 10-day sediment exposures with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, 31-day sediment exposures with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, and the Microtox® Solid-Phase Sediment Toxicity Test. A total of 30 sampling stations were selected in locations that had limited historic matching toxicity and chemistry data. Toxic effects on amphipod survival were observed in 60% of the samples from the assessment area. Results of a toxicity test with oligochaetes indicated that sediments from the assessment area were too toxic to be used in proposed bioaccumulation testing. Measurement of amphipod length after the 10-day exposures did not provide useful information beyond that provided by the survival endpoint. Seven of the 15 samples that were identified as toxic in the amphipod tests were not identified as toxic in the Microtox test, indicating that the 10-day H. azteca test was more sensitive than the Microtox test. Samples that were toxic tended to have the highest concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The toxic samples often had an excess of simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) relative to acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and had multiple exceedances of probable effect concentrations (PECs). Metals may have contributed to the toxicity of samples that had both an excess molar concentration of SEM relative to AVS and elevated concentrations of metals in pore water. However, of the samples that had an excess of SEM relative to AVS, only 38% of these samples had elevated concentration of metals in pore water. The lack of correspondence between SEM-AVS and pore water metals indicates that there are variables in addition to AVS controlling the concentrations of metals in pore water. A mean PEC quotient of 3

  14. Using large-scale flow experiments to rehabilitate Colorado River ecosystem function in Grand Canyon: Basis for an adaptive climate-resilient strategy: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Miller, Kathleen; Hamlet, Alan F.; Kenney, Douglas S.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management of Glen Canyon Dam is improving downstream resources of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP), a federal advisory committee of 25 members with diverse special interests tasked to advise the U.S. Department of the Interior), was established in 1997 in response to the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act. Adaptive management assumes that ecosystem responses to management policies are inherently complex and unpredictable, but that understanding and management can be improved through monitoring. Best known for its high-flow experiments intended to benefit physical and biological resources by simulating one aspect of pre-dam conditions—floods, the AMP promotes collaboration among tribal, recreation, hydropower, environmental, water and other natural resource management interests. Monitoring has shown that high flow experiments move limited new tributary sand inputs below the dam from the bottom of the Colorado River to shorelines; rebuilding eroded sandbars that support camping areas and other natural and cultural resources. Spring-timed high flows have also been shown to stimulate aquatic productivity by disturbing the river bed below the dam in Glen Canyon. Understanding about how nonnative tailwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and downstream endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) respond to dam operations has also increased, but this learning has mostly posed “surprise” adaptation opportunities to managers. Since reoperation of the dam to Modified Low Fluctuating Flows in 1996, rainbow trout now benefit from more stable daily flows and high spring releases, but possibly at a risk to humpback chub and other native fishes downstream. In contrast, humpback chub have so far proven robust to all flows, and native fish have increased under the combination of warmer river temperatures associated with reduced storage in Lake Powell, and a

  15. Climate Change and Adaptation in Irrigated Agriculture-A Case Study of the Yakima River

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Vail, Lance W; Stockle, Claudio O; Kemanian, Armen

    2004-07-22

    Using a case study of the Yakima River Valley in Washington State, we show that relatively simple tools originally developed to forecast the impact of the El Nino phenomenon on water supplies to irrigated agriculture also can be used to estimate the significantly shifted probability distribution of water shortages in irrigated agriculture during climate change, and that these shifted probabilities can be used to estimate the impact on agriculture in a region. The more permanent nature of changes in the temperature and precipitation regime associated with climate change means that risk management options also take a more permanent form (such as changes in crops and cultivars, and adding storage). A number of storage options have been proposed to deal with El Nino-associated drought, and would be more valuable under climate change. The most ambitious of the proposed storage projects is Black Rock, which would add about 500,00 acre-feet of water to supplement the Yakima's current 1.1 million acre-feet, at a cost currently estimated at $1.9 billion. For perspective, economic losses in the Yakima Valley reportedly have been about $100 million in a drought year such as 2001. Under current circumstances, the expected annual fisheries and periodic drought relief benefits may be large enough to justify the expenditure, but since drought has been occasional, environmental consequences of new projects uncertain, and the price tag beyond the reach of all but the Federal government, no projects have been built. The benefits become more certain with warming. Analysis shows that adding 500,000 acre-feet to TWSA would offset El Nino and the effects of 2 C warming.

  16. Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

  17. Evaluation of a Laser-Acoustic System for Continuously Monitoring Suspended-Sediment Concentration and Grain Size in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.; Rubin, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Sandbars and other sandy deposits in and along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) were an integral part of the pre-dam riverscape, and are important for habitat, protecting archeological sites, and recreation. These deposits have eroded substantially following the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam that reduced the supply of sand at the upstream boundary of GCNP by about 94%; sandbars in the upstream portion of Grand Canyon have decreased in size by about 25% during only the last 15 years. Recent work has shown that sand transport in the post-dam river is supply limited, and is equally regulated by the discharge of water and short-term changes in the grain size of sand available for transport. During and following tributary floods, fine sand supplied to the Colorado River travels downstream as an elongating sediment wave. As the front of a sediment wave passes a given location, sand on the bed first fines and sand-transport rates increase independently of the discharge of water. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed and sand-transport rates decrease independently of discharge. By virtue of this process, sand supplied by tributaries is typically exported from the upstream portion of Grand Canyon within months under normal dam releases. Thus, newly input sand may be available to rebuild sandbars during controlled floods conducted only following large tributary floods. Accurate monitoring of sand transport in such a river requires frequent measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size, and cannot be accomplished by using stable sediment-rating curves constructed from a sparser dataset of suspended-sediment measurements. To monitor sediment transport in the Colorado River, we have designed and are evaluating a laser-acoustic system for measuring the concentration and grain size of suspended sediment every 15 minutes. This system consists of (1) a subaqueously deployed laser-diffraction instrument (either a LISST 100 or a LISST 25X

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin.

  19. Chemical Contamination of the Lower Rio Grande near Laredo, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, B.; Ren, J.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Belzer, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Rio Grande River stretches over 2000 miles from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado to the tip of Texas where the Rio Grande meets the Gulf of Mexico. It is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX, to Brownsville, TX. The communities along the border heavily rely upon the Rio Grande as a primary source of water for consumption, agricultural uses, supporting wildlife and recreation. For many years the Rio Grande has been polluted with municipal, industrial, agricultural and farming contaminants from both sides of the border. This pollution has led to the extinction or reduction of certain wildlife species as well as affecting the health of the residences along the border. Even though great strides have been made in monitoring the Rio Grande, there has been a lack of intense monitoring data collection for pollutants such as pesticides. Three sampling sites including Manadas Creek, the Rio Grande River at International Bridge I, and USGS monitoring site 08459200 off of Highway 83 were chosen. The water quality parameters focused include temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total dissolved solids, nutrients, metals and pesticides. Preliminary results have shown elevated concentration of total phosphorus and ortho-phosphorus in the Manadas Creek site. Organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor and 4, 4 DDE were detected at various concentrations at all sites and endrin aldehyde was found at Manadas Creek site. This research has provided more information on the current chemical contamination level of the Rio Grande in the Laredo area.

  20. Quantitative drought monitoring in a typical cold river basin over Tibetan Plateau: An integration of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makokha, Godfrey Ouma; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Li, Xiuping; Wang, Aihui; Wang, Guangpeng; Kuria, David

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a Rainfall, Snow and Glacier melt (RSG) standardized anomaly (SA) index to reflect water availability in cold river basins by taking into account snow and glacier melt that influence seasonal water availability. The study takes advantage of a high-resolution Water and Energy Budget-Based Hydrological Distributed Model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) at a grid size of 5 km to quantify hydrological regimes in a typical cold river basin in the Tibetan Plateau (Lhasa River basin as a demonstration site) from 1983 to 2012. Standardized anomaly index was utilized as drought Indicator whereby each meteo-hydrological parameter involved in drought quantification was fitted to a distribution pattern on a monthly basis. Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion were used as selection criteria. Drought indices were computed from the model inputs and outputs, which included RSG for meteorological drought, soil moisture (surface and root-zone) for agricultural drought and discharge and groundwater level for hydrological drought. From spatial and temporal analyses, drought occurred in 1984, 1988, 1995, 1997, 2009 and 2010, with the highest severity in August, September, July, August, June and June, respectively. This study addresses the glacierized cold river basin's dryness by considering the contribution of snow and glacier in drought quantification, an integration of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological was performed to highlight drought hotspots in the Lhasa River Basin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first drought study in Lhasa River Basin.

  1. Genetic Analysis of Norovirus Strains that Caused Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Among River Rafters in the Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Iker, Brandon C; Magill-Collins, Anne; Gaither, Marlene; Stoehr, James D; Gerba, Charles P

    2017-02-08

    Toilet solid waste samples collected from five outbreaks among rafters in the Grand Canyon were subjected to sequencing analysis of norovirus partial capsid gene. The results revealed that a GI.3 strain was associated with one outbreak, whereas the other outbreaks were caused by GII.5 whose sequences shared >98.9% homology.

  2. Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE

  3. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  4. View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  5. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  6. Topographic Change Detection Monitoring Using Terrestrial Lidar at Archaeological Sites in the Colorado River Corridor of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    Erosion of archaeological sites within the Colorado River corridor of Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a subject of continuing interest to the National Park Service, and currently supports an ongoing debate about whether and to what degree controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of GCNP and completed in 1963, are affecting the physical integrity of archaeological sites. Long-term topographic change due to a variety of natural sources is typical in the Grand Canyon region. However, continuing erosion of archaeological sites, which may be related in-part to anthropogenic factors, threatens both the future preservation of archaeological sites and as well as our future ability to study evidence of past human habitation along the Colorado River. As a part of the directive to the U.S. Geological Survey, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, through participation in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, studies have been initiated to quantitatively identify changes to archaeological sites in the Colorado River corridor with an ultimate goal of ascertaining cause and effect relationships. Here we present the results of one component of this ongoing research project: an analysis of terrestrial-lidar-derived topographic datasets collected at nine archaeological sites in this region over two summer monsoon seasons (2006 and 2007). The data are used to identify high- resolution vertical change (with lower bound detection limits of 8 cm) over large-scale (hundreds to thousands of square meters) landscapes. The results show that areas of both deposition and erosion have occurred at many of the sites and that their cause can be positively linked in most cases to one or more geomorphologic factors (aeolian deposition, overland flow erosion, concentrated gullying, etc.). In addition, we show that care must be taken with the filtering of the processed data point clouds, with determining the proper error budget for both data

  7. Development of a regionally consistent geospatial dataset of agricultural lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2007-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buto, Susan G.; Gold, Brittany L.; Jones, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation in arid environments can alter the natural rate at which salts are dissolved and transported to streams. Irrigated agricultural lands are the major anthropogenic source of dissolved solids in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Understanding the location, spatial distribution, and irrigation status of agricultural lands and the method used to deliver water to agricultural lands are important to help improve the understanding of agriculturally derived dissolved-solids loading to surface water in the UCRB. Irrigation status is the presence or absence of irrigation on an agricultural field during the selected growing season or seasons. Irrigation method is the system used to irrigate a field. Irrigation method can broadly be grouped into sprinkler or flood methods, although other techniques such as drip irrigation are used in the UCRB. Flood irrigation generally causes greater dissolved-solids loading to streams than sprinkler irrigation. Agricultural lands in the UCRB mapped by state agencies at varying spatial and temporal resolutions were assembled and edited to represent conditions in the UCRB between 2007 and 2010. Edits were based on examination of 1-meter resolution aerial imagery collected between 2009 and 2011. Remote sensing classification techniques were used to classify irrigation status for the June to September growing seasons between 2007 and 2010. The final dataset contains polygons representing approximately 1,759,900 acres of agricultural lands in the UCRB. Approximately 66 percent of the mapped agricultural lands were likely irrigated during the study period.

  8. Regulation leads to increases in riparian vegetation, but not direct allochthonous inputs, along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, T.A.; Ralston, B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Dams and associated river regulation have led to the expansion of riparian vegetation, especially nonnative species, along downstream ecosystems. Nonnative saltcedar is one of the dominant riparian plants along virtually every major river system in the arid western United States, but allochthonous inputs have never been quantified along a segment of a large river that is dominated by saltcedar. We developed a novel method for estimating direct allochthonous inputs along the 387km-long reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam that utilized a GIS vegetation map developed from aerial photographs, empirical and literature-derived litter production data for the dominant vegetation types, and virtual shorelines of annual peak discharge (566m 3s -1 stage elevation). Using this method, we estimate that direct allochthonous inputs from riparian vegetation for the entire reach studied total 186metric tonsyear -1, which represents mean inputs of 470gAFDMm -1year -1 of shoreline or 5.17gAFDMm -2year -1 of river surface. These values are comparable to allochthonous inputs for other large rivers and systems that also have sparse riparian vegetation. Nonnative saltcedar represents a significant component of annual allochthonous inputs (36% of total direct inputs) in the Colorado River. We also estimated direct allochthonous inputs for 46.8km of the Colorado River prior to closure of Glen Canyon Dam using a vegetation map that was developed from historical photographs. Regulation has led to significant increases in riparian vegetation (270-319% increase in cover, depending on stage elevation), but annual allochthonous inputs appear unaffected by regulation because of the lower flood peaks on the post-dam river. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Soltani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds.

  10. Risk assessment of agricultural pesticides in water, sediment, and fish from Owan River, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of pesticides in water, sediments, Clarias gariepinus, and Tilapia zilli from the Owan River was investigated to evaluate the pollution status and potential hazard in the river system. A total of 16 pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The concentration of pesticide residues ranged from ND to 0.43 μg/l for water samples, 0.82 to 2.14 μg/kg/dw for sediment, 0.04 to 2.34 μg/kg/ww for C. gariepinus, and 0.02 to 1.73 μg/kg/ww for T. zilli. High concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, specifically benzenehexachloride (α-BHC, γ-BHC, and β-BHC) observed in all environmental media, are an indication of the current illegal use of banned pesticides for agricultural activities in the region. Analysis of data showed a strong correlation (r (2) = 0.7) between total organic carbon (TOC) and total pesticide residues in sediment samples. Meanwhile, risk quotient estimates for heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan aldehyde, and phosphomethylglycine showed potential risk to aquatic organism under observed mean concentrations (risk quotient (RQ) ≥ 1). Estimated average daily intake (EADI) for organochlorine pesticides (γ-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) was above their respective acceptable average daily intake (ADI), while hazard quotient for each of these pesticides was above the unity value (1). This indicates that there is a potential cancer risk for the local residents with life time consumption of pesticide-contaminated fish.

  11. 2008 High-Flow Experiment at Glen Canyon Dam Benefits Colorado River Resources in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Grams, Paul E.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.; Draut, Amy E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Korman, Josh; Hilwig, Kara D.; Schmit, Lara M.

    2010-01-01

    On March 5, 2008, the Department of the Interior began a 60-hour high-flow experiment at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, to determine if water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding could be used to improve downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and their cooperators undertook a wide range of physical and biological resource monitoring and research activities before, during, and after the release. Scientists sought to determine whether or not high flows could be used to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars, create nearshore habitat for the endangered humpback chub, and benefit other resources such as archaeological sites, rainbow trout, aquatic food availability, and riverside vegetation. This fact sheet summarizes research completed by January 2010.

  12. Measurements of wind, aeolian sand transport, and precipitation in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona; January 2005 to January 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents measurements of aeolian sediment-transport rates, wind speed and direction, and precipitation records from six locations that contain aeolian deposits in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. Aeolian deposits, many of which contain and preserve archaeological material, are an important part of the Grand Canyon ecosystem. This report contains data collected between January 2005 and January 2006, and is the second in a series; the first contained data that were collected between November 2003 and December 2004 (Draut and Rubin, 2005; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1309/). Analysis of data collected in 2005 shows great spatial and seasonal variation in wind and precipitation patterns. Total annual rainfall can vary by more than a factor of two over distances ~ 10 km. Western Grand Canyon received substantially more precipitation than the eastern canyon during the abnormally wet winter of 2005. Great spatial variability in precipitation indicates that future sedimentary and geomorphic studies would benefit substantially from continued or expanded data collection at multiple locations along the river corridor, because rainfall records collected by NPS at Phantom Ranch (near river-mile 88) cannot be assumed to apply to other areas of the canyon. Wind velocities and sand transport in 2005 were greatest during May and June, with maximum winds locally as high as ~25 m s-1, and transport rates locally >100 g cm-1 d-1. This represents a later peak in seasonal aeolian sand transport compared to the previous year, in which transport rates were greatest in April and May 2004. Dominant wind direction varies with location, but during the spring windy season the greatest transport potential was directed upstream in Marble Canyon (eastern Grand Canyon). At all locations, rates of sand transport during the spring windy season were 5–15 times higher than at other times of year. This information has been used to

  13. Occurrence and fate of organochlorinated pesticides and PAH in agricultural soils from the Ebro River basin.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Alain; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the presence and fate of 22 organochlorinated pesticides (OCHs) and their degradation products and 16 Environmental Protection Agency-priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) during a 3-year period. The study site is characterized by a long and active agricultural history where pesticides have largely been used. Soils were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This procedure was optimized in terms of multiresidue analysis and effective cleanup and proved to have excellent analytical performance (recoveries ranging between 71% and 133%, standard deviation <14%, and a method detection limit from 0.19 to 7.38 microg/kg). Soils form the Ebro basin showed a prevalence of 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE, found in 53% and 88% of the soil samples between 0.13 and 58.17 microg/kg-dw (dry weight), respectively, indicating a slight decreasing trend of DDT within time. PAHs were detected in all soil samples at concentrations up to 465 microg/kg-dw, and the phenanthrene/anthracene (<10) and fluoranthene/pyrene (>1) ratios indicated combustion processes as the main source attributing to the burning of weeds and vegetable wastes after harvesting. No traces of any of the OCHs and PAHs were detected in groundwater, indicating that leaching for agricultural fields is not an important process of transport for these compounds. Overall, we propose the need to perform a monitoring program to evaluate the temporal tendencies and potential impact of pesticides and PAH in soils.

  14. Atrazine contamination in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, J T; Pan, L L; Zhan, Yu; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhu, L Z; Li, X D

    2017-04-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely applied and persistent herbicides in the world. In view of limited information on the regional contamination of atrazine in soils in China, this study investigated the spatial distribution and environmental impacts of atrazine in agricultural soils collected from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) as an illustrative analysis of rapidly developing regions in the country. The results showed that the concentrations of atrazine in the YRD agricultural soils ranged from <1.0 to 113 ng/g dry weight, with a mean of 5.7 ng/g, and a detection rate of 57.7 % in soils. Pesticide factory might be a major source for the elevated levels of atrazine in Zhejiang Province. The contamination of atrazine was closely associated with land use types. The concentrations and detection rates of atrazine were higher in corn fields and mulberry fields than in rice paddy fields. There was no significant difference in compositions of soil microbial phospholipids fatty acids among the areas with different atrazine levels. Positive relationship (R = 0.417, p < 0.05, n = 30) was observed between atrazine and total microbial biomass. However, other factors, such as soil type and land management practice, might have stronger influences on soil microbial communities. Human health risks via exposure to atrazine in soils were estimated according to the methods recommended by the US EPA. Atrazine by itself in all the soil samples imposed very low carcinogenic risks (<10(-6)) and minimal non-cancer risks (hazard index <1) to adults and children.

  15. Amazon river flow regime and flood recessional agriculture: Flood stage reversals and risk of annual crop loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Lapointe, Michel; Templeton, Michael; List, Geneva

    2016-08-01

    The annual flood cycle is an important driver of ecosystem structure and function in large tropical rivers such as the Amazon. Riparian peasant communities rely on river fishing and annual floodplain agriculture, closely adapted to the recession phase of the flood pulse. This article reports on a poorly documented but important challenge facing farmers practicing flood recessional agriculture along the Amazon river: frequent, unpredictable stage reversals (repiquetes) which threaten to ruin crops growing on channel bars. We assess the severity of stage reversals for rice production on exposed river mud bars (barreales) near Iquitos, Peru. Crop loss risk is estimated based on a quantitative analysis of 45 years of daily Amazon stage data and field data from floodplain communities nearby in the Muyuy archipelago, upstream of Iquitos. Rice varieties selected, elevations of silt rich bars where rice is sown, as well as planting and harvest dates are analyzed in the light of the timing, frequencies and amplitudes of observed stage reversals that have the potential to destroy growing rice. We find that unpredictable stage reversals can produce substantial crop losses and shorten significantly the length of average growing seasons on lower elevation river bars. The data reveal that local famers extend planting down to lower bar elevations where the mean probabilities of re-submergence before rice maturity (due to reversals) approach 50%, below which they implicitly consider that the risk of crop loss outweighs the potential reward of planting.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, spatial distribution and origin in agricultural soils along the Sinú River Basin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-04-01

    The presence of metals in agricultural soils from anthropogenic activities such as mining and agricultural use of metals and metal-containing compounds is a potential threat for human health through the food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals in 83 agricultural soils irrigated by the Sinú River, in northern Colombia, affected by mining areas upstream and inundated during seasonal floods events were determined to evaluate their sources and levels of pollution. The average concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg and Zn were 1149, 661, 0.071, 0.040, 0.159 and 1365mg/kg respectively and exceeded the world normal averages, with the exception of Pb and Cd. Moreover, all values surpassed the background levels of soils in the same region. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and a risk assessment code (RAC). According to these indexes, the soils show a high degree of pollution of Ni and a moderate to high contamination of Zn and Cu; whereas, Pb, Cd and Hg present moderate pollution. However, based on the RAC index, a low environmental risk is found for all the analysed heavy metals. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that soil contamination was mainly derived from agricultural practices, except for Hg, which was caused probably by atmospheric and river flow transport from upstream gold mining. Finally, high concentrations of Ni indicate a mixed pollution source from agricultural and ferronickel mining activities.

  17. Preliminary analysis of the shallow ground-water system in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal, northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Lee R.; Shedlock, R.J.; Banaszak, K.J.; Arihood, L.D.; Doss, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River-Indiana Harbor Canal, Indiana was analyzed from June 1985 to May 1986. This analysis was done to obtain detailed information about the physical characteristics of the Calumet aquifer and the shallow groundwater flow system. 36 shallow wells were installed and sediment samples were collected at 26 sites. Water level measurements were made in 45 wells. Data indicate that the aquifer consists of fine-grained to medium-grained sand, locally overlain by slag fill. Aquifer thickness is 0 to 65 ft. This aquifer is underlain by about 100 ft of glacial till and lacustrine clay that overlies carbonate bedrock of Silurian age. Broad, low-relief water table mounds occur between the major surface water drains. The crests of these mounds form major east-west-trending water table divides. Northwest of the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC), a narrow water table ridge parallels the Lake Michigan shoreline and connects to a somewhat circular, low mound northwest of the IHC. Shallow groundwater generally flows from these water table mounds to the major streams or to Lake Michigan. Groundwater also flows to small ditches, wetlands, and sewer lines. Stream/aquifer relations along the Grand Calumet River/IHC were quite complex. Digital model simulations of a conceptual north-south section near the middle of the study area indicate that discharge of groundwater to small ditches and leaky sewer lines has lowered the water table by several ft from predevelopment levels. Simulations also indicate that downward leakage to the bedrock may have contributed to the decline in the water table. (USGS)

  18. Investigating Effects of the November 2004 High-Flow Release From Glen Canyon Dam on Aeolian Sand-Transport Rates in the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Rubin, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    In November, 2004, a 60-hour experimental flood release from Glen Canyon Dam held the Colorado River flow through Grand Canyon, Arizona, above 1,160 m3 s-1 (41,000 ft3 s-1). This high-flow experiment was designed to rebuild fluvial sand deposits, restoring a component of the ecosystem that had declined since closure of the dam in 1963. Transport and deposition of aeolian sand has important implications for archaeological resources in the river corridor, many of which are located in and covered by aeolian deposits. This study presents aeolian sediment-transport data collected in the river corridor during the year before and in the months after the flood experiment. At each of the six study locations, substantial new deposition of fluvial sand occurred as a result of the 2004 flood, which temporarily increased the amount of sand available for aeolian entrainment. However, high daily fluctuations (142 to 566 m3 s-1; 5,000 to 20,000 ft3 s-1) of the river flow from January to March 2005 removed much of the new sand before the start of the 2005 windy season. The greatest potential for aeolian re-distribution of flood-deposited sand occurred during the April-May windy season, during which the highest measured winds can locally exceed 25 m s-1, with sand-transport rates ~5 kg cm-1 day-1. These data may be used to guide decisions regarding future experimental floods and subsequent flow schedules, if maximizing sand redistribution by wind is a management objective.

  19. Assessment of trace element impacts on agricultural use of water from the Dan River following the Eden coal ash release.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Dean; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Crozier, Carl; Austin, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    Catastrophic events require rapid, scientifically sound decision making to mitigate impacts on human welfare and the environment. The objective of this study was to analyze potential impacts of coal ash-derived trace elements on agriculture following a 35,000-tonne release of coal ash into the Dan River at the Duke Energy Steam Station in Eden, North Carolina. We performed scenario calculations to assess the potential for excessive trace element loading to soils via irrigation and flooding with Dan River water, uptake of trace elements by crops, and livestock consumption of trace elements via drinking water. Concentrations of 13 trace elements measured in Dan River water samples within 4 km of the release site declined sharply after the release and were equivalent within 5 d to measurements taken upriver. Mass-balance calculations based on estimates of soil trace-element concentrations and the nominal river water concentrations indicated that irrigation or flooding with 25 cm of Dan River water would increase soil concentrations of all trace elements by less than 0.5%. Calculations of potential increases of trace elements in corn grain and silage, fescue, and tobacco leaves suggested that As, Cr, Se, Sr, and V were elements of most concern. Concentrations of trace elements measured in river water following the ash release never exceeded adopted standards for livestock drinking water. Based on our analyses, we present guidelines for safe usage of Dan River water to diminish negative impacts of trace elements on soils and crop production. In general, the approach we describe here may serve as a basis for rapid assessment of environmental and agricultural risks associated with any similar types of releases that arise in the future.

  20. Influence of atmospheric correction on image classification for irrigated agriculture in the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric correction is essential for accurate quantitative information retrieval from satellite imagery. In this paper, we applied the atmospheric correction algorithm, Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code, to retrieve surface reflectance from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery for the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) within the lower Colorado River basin. The 6S code was implemented with the input data of visibility, aerosol optical depth, pressure, temperature, water vapour, and ozone from local measurements. The 6S corrected image of PVID was classified into the irrigated agriculture of alfalfa, cotton, melons, corn, grass, and vegetables. We performed multiple classification methods of maximum likelihood, fuzzy means, and object-oriented classification methods. Using field crop type data, we conducted accuracy assessment for the results from 6S corrected image and uncorrected image and found a consistent improvement of classification accuracy for 6S corrected image. The study proves that 6S code is a robust atmospheric correction method in providing a better simulation of surface reflectance and improving image classification accuracy.;

  1. Escherichia coli Reduction by Bivalves in an Impaired River Impacted by Agricultural Land Use.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Niveen S; Tommerdahl, Jake P; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-10-18

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are leading causes of impaired surface waters. Innovative and environmentally appropriate best management practices are needed to reduce FIB concentrations and associated risk. This study examines the ability of the native freshwater mussel Anodonta californiensis and an invasive freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea to reduce concentrations of the FIB Escherichia coli in natural waters. Laboratory batch experiments were used to show bivalve species-specific E. coli removal capabilities and to develop a relationship between bivalve size and clearance rates. A field survey within an impaired coastal river containing both species of bivalves in an agricultural- and grazing-dominated area of the central coast of California showed a significant inverse correlation between E. coli concentration and bivalve density. An in situ field spiking and sampling study showed filtration by freshwater bivalves resulting in 1-1.5 log10 reduction of E. coli over 24 h, and calculated clearance rates ranged from 1.2 to 7.4 L hr(-1) bivalve(-1). Results of this study show the importance of freshwater bivalves for improving water quality through the removal of E. coli. While both native and invasive bivalves can reduce E. coli levels, the use of native bivalves through integration into best management practices is recommended as a way to improve water quality and protect and encourage re-establishment of native bivalve species that are in decline.

  2. Hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of river subsurface solutes under agriculturally enhanced ground water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildman, R.A.; Domagalski, J.L.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The relative influences of hydrologic processes and biogeochemistry on the transport and retention of minor solutes were compared in the riverbed of the lower Merced River (California, USA). The subsurface of this reach receives ground water discharge and surface water infiltration due to an altered hydraulic setting resulting from agricultural irrigation. Filtered ground water samples were collected from 30 drive point locations in March, June, and October 2004. Hydrologic processes, described previously, were verified by observations of bromine concentrations; manganese was used to indicate redox conditions. The separate responses of the minor solutes strontium, barium, uranium, and phosphorus to these influences were examined. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that hydrologic processes dominate the distribution of trace elements in the ground water. Redox conditions appear to be independent of hydrologic processes and account for most of the remaining data variability. With some variability, major processes are consistent in two sampling transects separated by 100 m. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of agricultural land-use and pesticides on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an agricultural river basin in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Egler, M; Buss, D F; Moreira, J C; Baptista, D F

    2012-08-01

    Land-use alterations and pesticide run-offs are among the main causes for impairment in agricultural areas. We evaluated the influence of different land-uses (forest, pasture and intensive agriculture) on the water quality and on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages on three occasions: in the dry season, wet season and at the end of the wet season. Macroinvertebrates responded to this gradient of impairment: agricultural sites had significantly lower richness numbers than forested and pasture sites, and all major invertebrate groups were significantly affected. Most taxa found in forested sites were found in pasture sites, but often with lower densities. In this case, the loss of habitats due to sedimentation and the lower complexity of substrates seem to be the disruptive force for the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  4. Stage-Discharge Relations for the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Rod; Kohl, Keith; Topping, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents stage-discharge relations for 47 discrete locations along the Colorado River, downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. Predicting the river stage that results from changes in flow regime is important for many studies investigating the effects of dam operations on resources in and along the Colorado River. The empirically based stage-discharge relations were developed from water-surface elevation data surveyed at known discharges at all 47 locations. The rating curves accurately predict stage at each location for discharges between 141 cubic meters per second and 1,274 cubic meters per second. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the fit to the data ranged from 0.993 to 1.00. Given the various contributing errors to the method, a conservative error estimate of ?0.05 m was assigned to the rating curves.

  5. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Steve M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  6. Analysis of Agricultural Land Use Change in the Middle Reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Lanhui; He, Chansheng

    2014-01-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in arid Northwest China. The expanding agricultural irrigation, growing industrialization, and increasing urban development in the middle reach have depleted much of the river flow to the lower reach, degrading the corresponding ecosystems. Since the enactment of the State Council of China’s new HRB water allocation policy in 2000 tremendous land use and land cover (LULC) changes have taken place to reduce water consumption in the middle reach and deliver more water downstream. This paper analyzes LULC changes during the period of 2000–2009 to understand how the changing land use patterns have altered water resource dynamics in the region. Results, while yet to be further verified in the field, show that from 2000 to 2009, urban, agricultural land, rangeland, and forest areas have increased, and barren area has decreased. Within the cropland, rice (a high water consumption crop) planting area decreased, while corn and wheat (relatively lower water consumption crops) planting areas increased. These changes in land use patterns, especially in the agricultural zones, have ensured the discharge of the required amount of water to the lower reach. PMID:24599043

  7. Trace Element Distribution in Stream Bed Sediments Within AN Agricultural Catchment of the Broadkill River Watershed, Delaware, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyewumi, O.; Schreiber, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    This project examined the impact of long-term litter application on the chemical signatures of trace metals (As, Cu, Zn,) and nutrient (P) in river sediments of the Broadkill River watershed within the Delmarva Peninsula, a region of intense poultry production. Twenty-seven (27) sediment samples were collected from Broadkill River drainage systems and analyzed for acid and soluble extractable elements as well as basic soil parameters such as particle size, organic matter and soluble salts. Results showed that concentrations of the trace elements in stream sediments are approximately log-normally distributed, with concentrations increasing from upstream headwaters to downstream reaches draining predominantly agricultural areas. Using GIS maps with overlays of hydrology and land use activity, correlations between the concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and P and agricultural activities within the watershed were examined. Results indicate positive correlation between the trace elements but the connection to specific regions of agricultural land use is not clearly defined. Trace elements were also positively correlated with percent of clay and silt particles, indicating partitioning of these elements to finer grain sizes. Calculations of element enrichment factors and the geoaccumulation index revealed that most of the sediment samples were not enriched in trace elements with respect to our reference samples. However, trace element concentrations in sediments increased downgradient, suggesting that they may be influenced by anthropogenic activities within the watershed.

  8. The rapids and the pools - Grand Canyon: Chapter D in The Colorado River region and John Wesley Powell (Professional Paper 669)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1969-01-01

    Through the Grand Canyon the Colorado drops in elevation about 2,200 feet in 280 miles; most of this drop occurs in rapids that account for only 10 percent of the distance. Despite the importance of rapids, there are no waterfalls. Depth measurements made at 1/10-mile intervals show that the bed profile is highly irregular, but the apparent randomness masks an organized alternation of deeps and shallows. Measurement of the age of a lava flow that once blocked the canyon near Toroweap shows that no appreciable deepening of the canyon has taken place during the last million years. It is reasoned that the river has had both the time and the ability to eliminate the rapids. The long-continued existence and the relative straightness of the longitudinal profile indicate that the river maintains a state of quasi-equilibrium which provides the hydraulic requirements for carrying the debris load brought in from upstream without continued erosion of the canyon bed. The maintenance of the alternating pools and rapids seems to be a necessary part of this poised or equilibrium condition.

  9. Factors controlling the abundance of rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in a reach utilized by endangered humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the abundance, survival, movement, and recruitment of non-native rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon to determine what controls their abundance near the Little Colorado River (LCR) confluence where endangered humpback chub rear. Over a 3-year period, we tagged more than 70,000 trout and recovered over 8,200 tagged fish. Trout density was highest (10,000-25,000 fish/km) in the reach closest to Glen Canyon Dam where the majority of trout recruitment occurs, and was 30-50-fold lower (200-800 fish/km) in reaches near the LCR confluence ~100 km downstream. The extent of rainbow trout movement was limited with less than 1% of recaptures making movements greater than 20 km. However, due to high trout densities in upstream source areas, this small dispersal rate was sufficient to explain the 3-fold increase in the relatively small population near the LCR. Reducing dispersal rates of trout from upstream sources is the most feasible solution to maintain low densities near the LCR to minimize negative effects of competition and predation on humpback chub.

  10. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved selenium load and concentration in the Gunnison and Colorado Rivers near Grand Junction, Colorado, water years 1986--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of elevated selenium concentrations, many western Colorado rivers and streams are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Colorado 303(d) list, including the main stem of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah border. Selenium is a trace metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other adverse impacts in birds and fish, including several threatened and endangered fish species. Salinity in the upper Colorado River has been the focus of source-control efforts for many years. Although salinity loads and concentrations have been previously characterized at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo., and at the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line, trends in selenium load and concentration at these two stations have not been studied. The USGS, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Water Conservation District, evaluated dissolved selenium (herein referred to as "selenium") load and concentration trends at these two sites to inform decision makers on the status and trends of selenium. This report presents results of the evaluation of trends in selenium load and concentration for two USGS streamflow-gaging stations: the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo. ("Gunnison River site"), USGS site 09152500, and the Colorado River near Colorado-Utah State line ("Colorado River site"), USGS site 09163500. Flow-adjusted selenium loads were estimated for the beginning water year (WY) of the study, 1986, and the ending WY of the study, 2008. The difference between flow-adjusted selenium loads for WY 1986 and WY 2008 was selected as the method of analysis because flow adjustment removes the natural variations in load caused by changes in mean-daily streamflow, emphasizing human-caused changes in selenium load and concentration. Overall changes in human-caused effects

  11. Towards a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity and economics in the Walker River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. J.; Boyle, D. P.; Garner, C.; Bassett, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant decrease in seasonal precipitation and a general increase in air temperature over the last three years have resulted in extreme to exceptional drought conditions in much of the southwestern U.S., where water resources are becoming scarcer. In many cases, the impacts of the drought on the agricultural productivity has been severe, as farmers have struggled to maintain the crop water requirements with limited resources available from surface water deliveries and groundwater pumping. In this study, we aim to identify the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity in the Walker River Basin. In order to develop a better understand of the regional agricultural economic impacts and potential mitigation strategies, we quantify the value of surface water along with supplemental groundwater pumping. Specifically, we analyze changes in potential crop production (both quantity and revenue) and the associated conjunctive use of available surface water and groundwater in both dry and warm climates.

  12. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  13. Environmental studies on river water quality with reference to suitability for agricultural purposes: Mahanadi river estuarine system, India--a case study.

    PubMed

    Sundaray, Sanjay Kumar; Nayak, Binod Bihari; Bhatta, Dinabandhu

    2009-08-01

    Hydrochemistry of surface water (pH, specific conductance, total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) in the Mahanadi river estuarine system, India was used to assess the quality of water for agricultural purposes. The samples were studied for 31 different stations during six different seasons in the years 2001-2003. Chemical data were used for mathematical calculations (SAR, Na%, RSC, potential salinity, permeability index, Kelly's index, magnesium hazard, osmotic pressure and salt index) for better understanding the suitability river water quality for agricultural purposes. The river water is free from nitrate-nitrogen hazard and has much less osmotic pressure and RSC values. Further there is no complete precipitation of calcium and magnesium in the study area. The results revealed that waters of some polluted stations like Sambalpur down (D/s of Sambalpur town) and Kathjodi (Cuttack) down (D/s of Cuttack town) are unsuitable up to some extent, where as it is quite unsuitable in case of estuarine samples during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The results were verified by USSL and Wilcox diagrams, which show all the fresh water zone samples (low-medium salinity with low sodium) of the study area are in the 'Excellent to good' category and are suitable to irrigate all soils for semi-tolerant and tolerant as well as sensitive crops.

  14. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  15. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  16. Whole organism responses and intersex severity in rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) following exposures to municipal wastewater in the Grand River basin, ON, Canada. Part A.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, P A; Fuzzen, M L; Bennett, C J; Tetreault, G R; McMaster, M E; Servos, M R; Martyniuk, C J; Munkittrick, K R

    2015-02-01

    Municipal wastewater effluents (MWWEs) contain anthropogenic substances that can exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity. These complex mixtures have been observed to exert adverse effects on fish. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum, RBD) is a small benthic fish that is widespread throughout the Grand River, Ontario, Canada, and has been previously shown to be adversely affected by MWWE exposure in this watershed. The objectives of this study were to quantify biological responses in this sentinel species and intersex severity in male fish, in relation to the area of urbanization. It focused on RBD populations adjacent to wastewater outfalls in the Grand River watershed. In May 2011, nine sites across the urban gradient were selected to evaluate the impact of MWWEs. Endpoints for energy storage (i.e. condition factor, k; liversomatic index, LSI) as well as reproductive endpoints (i.e. gonadosomatic index, GSI; gonad development, hormone production), and intersex were assessed in the fish. Rainbow darter showed a high incidence of intersex downstream of the wastewater outfalls, especially below the largest treatment plant outfall at Kitchener (∼85%). We applied an intersex index (score from 0 to 7) that considers the number of eggs within the testis and the stage of maturation of the egg. RBD exposed downstream of the largest wastewater outfall at Kitchener had a score of 3.81±0.37 compared to upstream to the urban areas where there were no intersex males found other than a single individual with a score 1 (average intersex score of site 0.06±0.06). In addition, several fish associated with the Kitchener outfall had macroscopic vitellogenic eggs in the testes (intersex scores 5 and 6). The sub-population of fish located at the wastewater outfall also showed a tendency towards skewed sex ratios (greater proportion of females to male fish) compared to the population at the reference sites. Male fish inhabiting the urbanized area of the Grand River also showed

  17. Formation of Pedogenic Carbonates in the Semi-arid Rio Grande Valley: Insights from Carbon, Major elements, and U-series isotopes in Natural and Agricultural Soils of Southern New Mexico and Western Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation of pedogenic carbonates in arid and semi-arid soils affects soil porosity, water infiltration, and global carbon cycle. We investigate formation rates of these carbonates under different land uses in the semi-arid Rio Grande valley using mineralogy, concentrations of major elements (including C), and U-series isotopes. Our study sites include one alfalfa farm (Alfalfa) at El Paso, TX under frequent irrigation with saline water from the Rio Grande River, and one natural shrub field under natural rainfall conditions at the USDA Jornada Experimental Range (Jornada) in NM. Major minerals observed at Alfalfa and Jornada are calcite, quartz, and feldspars. Calcite/quartz ratios increase upward in the profile at Alfalfa, suggesting formation of carbonates in shallow soils. Consistently, total carbon increases toward the soil surface at Alfalfa, contributed by both soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon (pedogenic carbonates). Concentrations of major elements (e.g Ca, Mg, and Sr) also increase toward the surface at Alfalfa, suggesting surface addition. Alternating trends of enrichment and depletion are observed throughout the soil profiles. In contrast, calcite/quartz ratios decrease toward the surface at Jornada, indicative of leaching at shallow soils and redeposition of calcite at depth. This is in agreement with high soil inorganic carbon contents measured at depth. At Jornada however, the Ca, Mg and Sr concentrations decrease toward the surface, showing typical depletion profiles. (234U/238U) activity ratios in bulk soils increase upward at Alfalfa while at Jornada (234U/238U) ratios decrease toward the surface. (234U/238U) ratios at Alfalfa suggest surface addition of U onto shallow soils probably from irrigation water, which is known to have high (234U/238U) ratios. Jornada shows preferential loss of 234U upward. U-series disequilibrium in pedogenic carbonates enables calculation of their formation ages. At Alfalfa, carbonate ages range from 2

  18. Molecular pathways associated with the intersex condition in rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) following exposures to municipal wastewater in the Grand River basin, ON, Canada. Part B.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, P A; McMaster, M E; Servos, M R; Martyniuk, C J; Munkittrick, K R

    2015-02-01

    Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum; RBD) is a small benthic fish found in North America. This species is sensitive to sewage effluent, and intersex is found in up to 80% of males in near-field areas in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. To learn more about the molecular signaling cascades associated with intersex, a developed customized oligonucleotide microarray (4×180 K) using next generation sequencing was developed to characterize the transcriptome in the gonad of male and female RBD. Gene expression profiling was performed in males and females from both a reference site and a polluted site. Males with and without intersex condition from the areas closest to effluent outfalls were compared to males and females from a reference site. Microarray analysis revealed that there was increased mRNA abundance for genes associated with oogenesis in intersex males (i.e. the presence of eggs within the testis), and a decrease in mRNA abundance for genes associated with spermatid development. In females exposed to effluent, cell processes related with hatching and ovulation were down-regulated, and genes involved in immune responses were increased in abundance. In the non-intersex males exposed to effluent, cell processes such as sperm cell adhesion were decreased at the transcript level relative to males from the reference site. Microarray analysis revealed that heat shock proteins (HSP) were significantly increased in non-intersex males exposed to effluent; however, HSPs were not differentially expressed in intersex males exposed to the effluent. Genes involved in sex differentiation (sox9, foxl2 and dmrt1) and reproduction (esr1, esrb, ar, vtg, cyp19a1 and cyp11a) were measured in males, females, and intersex individuals. Consistent with the intersex condition, many transcripts showed an intermediate expression level in intersex males when compared to phenotypic males and females. This study improves our knowledge regarding the molecular pathways that underlie the

  19. Measurements of bed load transport on Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork and The Snake River in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Dams disrupt the flow of both of water and sediment through a watershed. Channel morphology is a function of discharge and sediment load, and perturbations caused by dams often alter channel form, causing significant geomorphic and, potentially, ecological changes (e.g. Petts and Gurnell, 2005). At the first order, dams often produce a flow regime that is profoundly altered in the timing, magnitude, and frequency of flows (Magilligan and Nislow, 2005). Yet, the nature of channel adjustments will be specific to both the physical setting, size of the river, dam characteristics, and nature and severity of the flow regulation (Church 1995; Knighton, 1998).

  20. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-07-28

    The irrigated acreage that was field verified in 2015 for the 13 counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District (113,134 acres) is about 6 percent higher than the estimated acreage published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (107,217 acres) for 2012; however, this 2012 value represents acreage for the entire portion of all 13 counties, not just the Suwannee River Water Management District portion. Differences between the 2015 field-verified acreage totals and those published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for 2012 may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 3-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) calculated field-verified irrigated acreage may be an overestimate because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.

  1. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Umatilla, Tucannon, Asotin, and Grande Ronde River Basins, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Umatilla and Grande Ronde River basins, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries contained in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be used to assess pool and substrate conditions. This data is available from the Bonneville Power

  2. Streamflow and sediment-transport data, Colorado River and three tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1983 and 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, W.B.; van de Vanter, E.K.; Graf, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected streamflow and sediment-transport data at 5 streamflow-gaging stations on the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead as a part of an interagency environmental study. The data were collected for about 6 mo in 1983 and about 4 mo in 1985-86; data also were collected at 3 sites on tributary streams in 1983. The data were used for development of unsteady flow-routing and sediment-transport models, sand-load rating curves, and evaluation of channel changes. For the 1983 sampling period, 1,076 composite cross-section suspended-sediment samples were analyzed; 809 of these samples were collected on the main stem of the Colorado River and 267 samples were from the tributaries. Bed-material samples were obtained at 1,988 verticals; 161 samples of material in transport near the bed (bedload) were collected to define the location of sand, gravel, and bed rock in the channel cross section; and 664 discharge measurements were made. For the 1985-86 sampling period, 765 composite cross-section suspended-sediment samples and 887 individual vertical samples from cross sections were analyzed. Bed-material samples were obtained at 531 verticals, 159 samples of bedload were collected, and 218 discharge measurements were made. All data are presented in tabular form. Some types of data also are presented in graphs to better show trends or variations. (USGS)

  3. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a partially cloudy sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  4. Holocene climate-dynamics of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon-a record built by centennial paleoflood variations superimposed upon millennial cycles of grade change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    How do climate variations build an alluvial stratigraphic record versus destroy it? How do we reconcile the paradigms of paleoflood hydrology versus cyclic aggradation and degradation? Intensive research in Grand Canyon reveals a record spanning the entire Holocene that addresses these and other issues of the dynamic response of continental-scale rivers to climate. The Colorado River integrates sediment from the rapidly eroding Colorado Plateau with a hydrology controlled by snowmelt in its Rocky Mountain headwaters. Thus geomorphic responses may be driven by climate in both regions, and the influence of both variable flooding and sediment supply must be resolved. Recent chronostratigraphic investigations at archaeological sites spanning the Colorado River corridor have involved scores of exposures constrained by 104 OSL and 14C dates. Results indicate a correlatable Holocene stratigraphy exists across the canyon, assigned to packages I-V based upon field observations of bounding unconformities and hiatuses in deposition. A sharp character distinction exists between the thinly interbedded, diverse canyon-bottom facies of millennial-scale packages I, II, and III, versus the thickly bedded, purer mainstem flood deposits of younger, century-scale packages IV and V. These distinct packages are borne out by peaks in the probability distribution of all stratigraphic ages. Packages I, II, and III are evenly spaced over the entire Holocene, suggesting a cyclical driver, and the last episode of aggradation from 3500-1500 yrs bp. Spikes of depositional ages within these reflect field evidence that century-scale oscillations built the millennial packages in pulses. Packages IV and V are likewise interpreted as peaks in flood magnitude, and their inset stratigraphic position is consistent with overall lowering of grade over the last several hundred years. This new stratigraphic model can be conceptualized as two sine curves, with a longer millennial wavelength dictating the

  5. Vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest in the Sinos River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: richness, floristic composition and community structure.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M D; Becker, D F P; Cunha, S; Droste, A; Schmitt, J L

    2015-05-01

    The Atlantic Forest, which has a vast epiphytic richness, is a priority area for preservation, listed as one of the five most important world hotspots. Vascular epiphyte richness, composition and community structure were studied in two fragments, one of the ombrophilous (29º43'42"S and 50º22'00"W) and the other of the seasonal (29º40'54"S and 51º06'56"W) forest, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest biome in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each fragment, 40 trees, divided into four ecological zones, were analyzed. In each zone, the occurrence of the species was recorded, and the importance value of each species was calculated according to the frequency of phorophytes and intervals, and cover scores. The Shannon index was calculated for the two communities. In the fragment of the ombrophilous forest (F1), 30 epiphytic species were recorded, and in the seasonal forest (F2), 25. The highest importance value was found for Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota in both fragments. The diversity indexes for F1 (H'=2.72) and F2 (H'=2.55) were similar and reflected the subtropical location of the areas. The decrease in mean richness in both fragments in zone 3 (internal crown) to zone 4 (external crown) may be associated with time and space availability for epiphyte occupation and microclimate variations. Exclusive species were found in the areas, which suggest that a greater number of preserved fragments may result in a greater number of preserved epiphytic species in the Sinos River basin.

  6. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the <0.45μm filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1μg/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48μg/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7μg/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (>1kDa i.e. >c. 1-2nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux.

  7. They had me in stitches: a Grand Canyon river guide's case report and a review of wilderness wound management literature.

    PubMed

    Spano, Susanne J; Dimock, Brad

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of failed conservative management of a traumatic wound sustained in a wilderness setting. The patient was initially treated with a povidone-iodine scrub, suture closure, and expectant management by 2 physicians who were paying clients on a multiday river rafting expedition. Empiric antibiotic coverage and irrigation of the dehisced wound were initiated several days after initial treatment. The patient arranged his own evacuation 8 days after injury. Hospitalization, intravenous (IV) antibiotics, and surgical debridement with wound vacuum placement led to a full recovery. This case presents several common wound care pitfalls. The sequelae to these pitfalls are more dramatic in a wilderness setting and underscore the importance of early aggressive management and considering prompt evacuation when treating wounds sustained in the wilderness.

  8. Developing unique tracers to distinguish nutrient contributions from agriculture and wastewater sources in the Choptank River and Anacostia River watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eutrophication is a major problem for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The efficacy of the restoration efforts implemented is restricted by the inability to differentiate nutrient sources. This study assessed the use of stable tracers in order to discriminate between urban and agricultural nutrient sou...

  9. Evaluation of Streamflow Losses Along the Gunnison River from Whitewater Downstream to the Redlands Canal Diversion Dam, near Grand Junction, Colorado, Water Years 1995-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Williams, Cory A.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Colorado Division of Water Resources, and Bureau of Reclamation, initiated a study to characterize streamflow losses along a reach of the Gunnison River from the town of Whitewater downstream to the Redlands Canal diversion dam. This describes the methods and results of the study that include: (1) a detailed mass-balance analysis of historical discharge records that were available for the three streamflow-gaging stations along the study reach; and (2) two sets of discharge measurements that were made at the three stations and at four additional locations. Data for these existing streamflow-gaging stations were compiled and analyzed: (1) Gunnison River near Grand Junction (Whitewater station); (2) Gunnison River below Redlands Canal diversion dam (below-Redlands-dam station); and (3) Redlands Canal near Grand Junction (Redlands-Canal station). Data for water years 1995-2003 were used for the mass-balance analysis. Four intermediate sites (M1, M2, M3, and M4) were selected for discharge measurements in addition to the existing stations. The study reach is the approximate 12-mile reach of the Gunnison River from the Whitewater station downstream to the Redlands Canal diversion dam, which is about 3 miles upstream from the confluence with the Colorado River. For the mass-balance analysis, differences between the sum of the annual cumulative daily mean discharge at the two downstream stations and the annual cumulative daily mean discharges at the upstream station ranged from about -8,700 to -69,800 acre-feet (about -.8 to -1.1 percent), indicating that the downstream discharges generally were less than the upstream discharges. Moving 3-day daily mean discharge averages also were computed for each of the three stations to smooth out some of the abrupt differences between the

  10. River water quality of the River Cherwell: an agricultural clay-dominated catchment in the upper Thames Basin, southeastern England.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Neal, Margaret; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

    2006-05-01

    The water quality of the River Cherwell and a tributary of it, the Ray, are described in terms of point and diffuse sources of pollution, for this rural area of the upper Thames Basin. Point sources of pollution dominate at the critical ecological low flow periods of high biological activity. Although the surface geology is predominantly clay, base flow is partly supplied from springs in underlying carbonate-bearing strata, which influences the water quality particularly with regards to calcium and alkalinity. The hydrogeochemistry of the river is outlined and the overall importance of urban point sources even in what would normally be considered to be rural catchments is stressed in relation to the European Unions Water Framework Directive. Issues of phosphorus stripping at sewage treatment works are also considered: such stripping on the Cherwell has reduced phosphorus concentrations by about a factor of two, but this is insufficient for the needs of the Water Framework Directive.

  11. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and <1.0-382 ng/g, respectively. The OCPs residuals originated from both historical usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security.

  12. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on oxbow lake watersheds in the Mississippi River alluvial plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, agricultural lands are considered to major sources of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients in the United States. While conservation practices have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing agricultural related pollutants on test plot scales, they typ...

  13. Initial-phase investigation of multi-dimensional streamflow simulations in the Colorado River, Moab Valley, Grand County, Utah, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to aid in the assessment of the potential hazard posed to the uranium mill tailings near Moab, Utah, by flooding in the Colorado River as it flows through Moab Valley. Discharge estimates for the 100- and 500-year recurrence interval and for the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) were evaluated with the model for the existing channel geometry. These discharges also were modeled for three other channel-deepening configurations representing hypothetical scour of the channel at the downstream portal of Moab Valley. Water-surface elevation, velocity distribution, and shear-stress distribution were predicted for each simulation.The hydrodynamic model was developed from measured channel topography and over-bank topographic data acquired from several sources. A limited calibration of the hydrodynamic model was conducted. The extensive presence of tamarisk or salt cedar in the over-bank regions of the study reach presented challenges for determining roughness coefficients.Predicted water-surface elevations for the current channel geometry indicated that the toe of the tailings pile would be inundated by about 4 feet by the 100-year discharge and 25 feet by the PMF discharge. A small area at the toe of the tailings pile was characterized by velocities of about 1 to 2 feet per second for the 100-year discharge. Predicted velocities near the toe for the PMF discharge increased to between 2 and 4 feet per second over a somewhat larger area. The manner to which velocities progress from the 100-year discharge to the PMF discharge in the area of the tailings pile indicates that the tailings pile obstructs the over-bank flow of flood discharges. The predicted path of flow for all simulations along the existing Colorado River channel indicates that the current distribution of tamarisk in the over-bank region affects how flood-flow velocities are spatially distributed. Shear-stress distributions were predicted throughout the study reach

  14. 26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT 30TH STREET IN PHOENIX, LOOKING WEST, Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 31. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING ALONG GRAND CANAL. THE DRAGLINE SCOOPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING ALONG GRAND CANAL. THE DRAGLINE SCOOPS UP AQUATIC WEEDS AND DEPOSITS THEM IN A DUMP TRUCK. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  17. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  18. Identification and evaluation of scientific uncertainties related to fish and aquatic resources in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon - summary and interpretation of an expert-elicitation questionnaire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying areas of scientific uncertainty is a critical step in the adaptive management process (Walters, 1986; Runge, Converse, and Lyons, 2011). To identify key areas of scientific uncertainty regarding biologic resources of importance to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) convened Knowledge Assessment Workshops in May and July 2005. One of the products of these workshops was a set of strategic science questions that highlighted key areas of scientific uncertainty. These questions were intended to frame and guide the research and monitoring activities conducted by the GCMRC in subsequent years. Questions were developed collaboratively by scientists and managers. The questions were not all of equal importance or merit—some questions were large scale and others were small scale. Nevertheless, these questions were adopted and have guided the research and monitoring efforts conducted by the GCMRC since 2005. A new round of Knowledge Assessment Workshops was convened by the GCMRC in June and October 2011 and January 2012 to determine whether the research and monitoring activities conducted since 2005 had successfully answered some of the strategic science questions. Oral presentations by scientists highlighting research findings were a centerpiece of all three of the 2011–12 workshops. Each presenter was also asked to provide an answer to the strategic science questions that were specific to the presenter’s research area. One limitation of this approach is that these answers represented the views of the handful of scientists who developed the presentations, and, as such, they did not incorporate other perspectives. Thus, the answers provided by presenters at the Knowledge Assessment Workshops may not have accurately captured the sentiments of the broader group of scientists involved in research and monitoring of the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Yet a fundamental ingredient of

  19. Managing stakeholders' conflicts for water reallocation from agriculture to industry in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun; Zhou, Dingyang; Zhang, Zhuoying

    2015-02-01

    Along with the accelerating process of industrialization and urbanization, water reallocation from agriculture to industry will be an inevitable trend in most developing countries. In the inland river basin, inter-sectoral water transfer is likely to result in reallocation of water resources between upstream and downstream regions, and further triggers frictions and conflicts between regions. Designing effective policy measures to coordinate these conflicts among stakeholders is crucial for the successful implementation of water reallocation. This study established a participatory multi-attribute decision support model to seek a widely acceptable water allocation alternative in the Heihe River Basin, an arid region in Northwest China. The results indicate that: (1) intense conflicts arise not only among stakeholder groups but also between upstream and downstream regions in the process of water reallocation from agriculture to industry; (2) among the options which respectively emphasize on equity, efficiency, and sustainability, the combination of equity and efficiency is the least controversial alternative for the majority of stakeholder groups, although it is not the most desirable one in the performance of all sub-objectives; (3) the multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) approach is a useful technique to elicit stakeholder values and to evaluate water reallocation options. The technique can improve the transparency and credibility of decision making in the water management process.

  20. Agricultural management change effects on river nutrient yields in a catchment of Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling efforts are strongly recommended nowadays by European legislation for investigating non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution on catchment scale. Agricultural diffuse pollution is considered to be the main responsible human activity for the Eutrophication of inland waters with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The physically-based water quality model SWAT is implemented in an agricultural medium-size agricultural catchment of Central Greece with the purpose to simulate the baseline situation and subsequently to predict the effects that realistic non-structural interventions, applied on the agricultural land, have on water quality and crop yields. SWAT was successfully calibrated according to measured flows and water quality data and subsequently scenarios were developed by changing chemical fertilizer application rates and timing on corn, cotton and wheat cultivations. All scenarios resulted in a decrease of nutrient emissions to surface waters but with a simultaneous small decrease in crop yields. The model predicted explicitly the consequences of non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution sustaining that the understanding of land management changes in relation to its driving factors provides essential information for sustainable management of the agricultural sector in an agricultural country like Greece.

  1. Low ratios of silica to dissolved nitrogen supplied to rivers arise from agriculture not reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Downing, John A; Cherrier, Christine T; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2016-12-01

    Coastal marine systems are greatly altered by toxic marine algae, eutrophication and hypoxia. These problems have been linked to decreased ratios of dissolved silica to inorganic nitrogen (Si : DIN) delivered from land. Two mechanisms for this decline under consideration are enhanced nitrogen (N) fertiliser losses from agricultural lands or Si sequestration in reservoirs. Here we examine these mechanisms via nutrient concentrations in impoundments receiving water from 130 watersheds in a landscape representative of the agriculture that often dominates coastal nutrient inputs. Decreased Si : DIN was correlated with agriculture, not impoundment. Watersheds with > 60% agricultural land yielded highest DIN, whereas Si was uncorrelated with agricultural intensity. Furthermore, eutrophic lakes were dominated by Cyanobacteria that use little Si, so reservoirs did not diminish Si : DIN. Instead, Si : DIN increased slightly as reservoir residence time increased. These data suggest that impoundments in agricultural watersheds may enhance the water quality of coastal ecosystems, whereas fertiliser losses are detrimental.

  2. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  3. Nitrogen Legacies in Agricultural Landscapes: A 150-year Longitudinal Study of the Susquehanna and Mississippi River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Van Cappellen, P.; Basu, N. B.

    2015-12-01

    Global flows of reactive nitrogen (N) have increased significantly over the last century in response to land-use change, agricultural intensification and elevated levels of atmospheric N. Although the use of commercial N fertilizers began to plateau in developed countries in the mid-1980s and despite widespread implementation of a range of conservation measures to mitigate the impacts of N-intensive agriculture, N concentrations in surface waters are in many cases remaining steady or continuing to increase. This lack of correlation between N inputs and outputs is increasingly being attributed to the presence of legacy N stores in subsurface reservoirs, with present-day concentrations being a function of inputs that are many decades old. It has remained unclear, however, what the magnitudes of such stores might be, and how they are partitioned between soil and groundwater reservoirs. In the present work, we have synthesized agricultural, population, and land-use data to develop a comprehensive, 150-year dataset of N inputs to the land surface of the continental United States. We have concurrently developed a parsimonious, process-based model that utilizes this N input trajectory to simulate biogeochemical transformations of N along subsurface pathways. Model results allow us predict the magnitudes of legacy N in soil and groundwater pools and to predict long-term stream N concentration trajectories over the last century and into the future. We have applied this modeling approach to two U.S. watersheds, the Mississippi River and Susquehanna River Basins, which are major sources of nutrient contamination to the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay, respectively. Our results show significant stream N loading above baseline levels in both watersheds before the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers, largely due to 19th-century conversion of natural forest and grassland areas to row-crop agriculture. However, the temporal patterns of this loading differ between the two

  4. The significance of discharge in the replenishment of sand bar deposits along the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiele, S.; Hazel, J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Melis, T.

    2002-12-01

    evolution were modeled for conditions that occurred during PPC flows and at higher discharges, such as those that occurred in 1996. Modeling results show that discharges greater than PPC form larger, higher-elevation deposits than are possible at discharges less than PPC. A key requirement for substantial deposition of new sand along the sides of this narrow, deeply incised river is the availability of depositional sites. PPC flows fail to increase stage sufficiently to create space to accommodate new deposits. The inefficiency of PPC releases at building substantial sandbars is compounded by the efficiency with which channel-bed sand is exported during PPC flows, as shown by sand-transport data collected from 1997-2000. Results to date indicate that restoration and maintenance of sand bars will likely require releases greater than PPC more frequently and of shorter duration than anticipated in the past.

  5. [Identification of critical area of phosphorus loss in agricultural areas of Guishui River watershed by phosphorus loss risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Li-Ding; Qi, Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Ma, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural non-point sources pollution is one of severe problems for water environment of agricultural areas in China. Because of the big difficulties, identifying the critical source areas for phosphorus loss becomes the focal point of the non-point sources pollution control. A modified catchment scale phosphorus ranking scheme was developed for agricultural areas in Guishui River watershed. The new scheme included eight assessment factors, which had three phosphorus loss risk ranks respectively and selected quantitative analysis method. The result shows that the phosphorus fertilizer management of the vegetable fields is the most unfit method and has high phosphorus loss probabilities. Most study areas have high soil available phosphorus content and low soil erosion degree. The figure of the assessment result shows that the areas that are categorized as "low" phosphorus loss risk are small. Based on the figure of the result, the critical source areas were confirmed and the management strategies were brought forward according to the analysis on the distribute characteristics of the critical source areas. The result shows that the modified catchment scale phosphorus ranking scheme has operability and practicability to a certain extent.

  6. An agricultural drought index to incorporate the irrigation process and reservoir operations: A case study in the Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehua; Hao, Zhenchun; Shi, Xiaogang; Déry, Stephen J.; Li, Jieyou; Chen, Sichun; Li, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    To help the decision making process and reduce climate change impacts, hydrologically-based drought indices have been used to determine drought severity in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) over the past decades. As the major components of the surface water balance, however, the irrigation process and reservoir operations have not been incorporated into drought indices in previous studies. Therefore, efforts are needed to develop a new agricultural drought index, which is based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module. The new drought index was derived from the simulated soil moisture data from a retrospective VIC simulation from 1961 to 2007 over the irrigated area in the TRB. The physical processes in the coupled VIC model allow the new agricultural drought index to take into account a wide range of hydrologic processes including the irrigation process and reservoir operations. Notably, the irrigation process was found to dominate the surface water balance and drought evolution in the TRB. Furthermore, the drought conditions identified by the new agricultural drought index presented a good agreement with the historical drought events that occurred in 1993-94, 2004, and 2006-07, respectively. Moreover, the spatial distribution of coupled VIC model outputs using the new drought index provided detailed information about where and to what extent droughts occurred.

  7. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  8. Geologic Mapping and Paired Geochemical-Paleomagnetic Sampling of Reference Sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt: An Example from the Bingen Section, Columbia River Gorge, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawlan, M.; Hagstrum, J. T.; Wells, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have completed comprehensive geochemical (GC) and paleomagnetic (PM) sampling of individual lava flows from eight reference stratigraphic sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB), Columbia River Basalt Group [Hagstrum et al., 2009, GSA Ann. Mtg, Portland (abst); Hagstrum et al., 2010, AGU Fall Mtg, San Francisco (abst)]. These sections, distributed across the Columbia Plateau and eastern Columbia River Gorge, contain as many as 30 flows, are up to 670 m thick, span upper magneto-stratigraphic zones R2 and N2, and, in some locations, also contain one or more N1 flows. In concert with GC and PM sampling, we have carried out detailed geologic mapping of these sections, typically at a scale of 1:3,000 to 1:5,000, using GPS, digital imagery from the National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP), and compilation in GIS. GRB member and informal unit names of Reidel et al. [1989, GSA Sp. Paper 239] generally have been adopted, although two new units are identified and named within the N2 zone. Notably, a distinctive PM direction for intercalated lavas of several lower N2 units indicates coeval eruption of compositionally distinct units; this result contrasts with the scenario of serial stratigraphic succession of GRB units proposed by Reidel et al. [1989]. Our objectives in the mapping include: Confirming the integrity of the stratigraphic sequences by documenting flow contacts and intraflow horizons (changes in joint patterns or vesicularity); assessing fault displacements; and, establishing precisely located samples in geologic context such that selected sites can be unambiguously reoccupied. A geologic map and GC-PM data for the Bingen section, along the north side of the Columbia River, are presented as an example of our GRB reference section mapping and sampling. One of our thicker sections (670 m) along which 30 flows are mapped, the Bingen section spans 7 km along WA State Hwy 14, from near the Hood River Bridge ESE to Locke Lake. This section cuts obliquely through a

  9. Topographic and Acoustic Estimates of Grain-Scale Roughness from High-Resolution Multibeam Echo-Sounder: Examples from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency (several hundred kilohertz) multibeam echo-sounder (MBES) systems have the potential to provide complete coverage of large areas (km2) of the bed, rapidly (mins to hrs), at high resolution (cm2), and with high positional accuracy (cm). Here, we explore the use of MBES data to estimate grain-scale roughness of submerged riverbed sediment. There are two broad approaches: 1) using digital elevation models constructed from depth soundings, and 2) using acoustic backscatter. We discuss the relative merits of both approaches using examples from data collected on the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona, USA. The primary advantage of acoustic backscatter over topography from soundings, for the purposes of sediment classification, is the potential to distinguish between sediment at a higher resolution. This is because soundings are point measurements, whereas a recorded backscatter magnitude is the integral of backscattered sound from all scatterers in the insonified area. In addition, this acoustic return contains information about both the roughness and the hardness/impedance of the sediment. The statistics of backscatter magnitudes alone are found to be a poor discriminator between sediment types perhaps because, using our 400 kHz system, the scattering regime changes from Rayleigh (sound scattering by particles smaller than the sound wavelength) for fine sand, to geometric (scattering by larger-than-sound-wavelength particles) for substrates coarser than sand. However, simple measures derived from backscatter power spectra (namely, the variance, integral lengthscale, and the intercept and slope from a power-law form - see Figure) are found to distinguish between patches of sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. Using this dependence, we present a new data-driven approach to classify grain-scale roughness, developed by comparing the spectral properties of backscatter with bed-sediment observations using geo-referenced underwater video.

  10. Distribution of trace element contamination in sediments and riverine agricultural soils of the Zhongxin River, South China, and evaluation of local plants for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Yuan, Jiangang; Wu, Shanshan; Lin, Biyun; Yang, Zhongyi

    2012-10-26

    Contents of trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) in sediments of river bed and bankside and adjacent agricultural soils along the Zhongxin River, Guangdong, China, were determined to investigate the metal distribution and assess ecological risk of trace element contamination. The results show that Cd and Zn are the two major metal elements contaminating the sediments and riverine farmlands. Geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) also revealed that the river sediments were polluted by Cd at levels from moderate to extreme, and by Zn at levels from moderate to high in most cases. Agricultural soils were generally moderately or highly polluted by Cd, and were unpolluted by Zn in most cases. The trace element contents of the river sediments in the upper and middle reaches of the river were much higher than in the downstream reaches. Agricultural soils in site S3 at Zhongxin Town had the highest amount of all the tested trace elements. Although the contents of the trace elements generally decreased from the upper and middle reaches to the downstream river, there was no obvious trend found for agricultural soils. The trace element contents were less influenced by pH and TOC in the sediments as well as in the soils. Storage in river alluvium and dilution by downstream clean sediments were the main mechanisms responsible for the decrease of the metal contents in the river sediments. The linear fit model depicts the risk of transportation of polluted sediments to Xinfengjiang Reservoir, the largest protection zone for sources of drinking water in Guangdong Province. Torpedo grass and rice plant showed the potential to be used in biomonitoring of metal contamination, however, further investigations are needed before using them in practice.

  11. Effects of hydrology, watershed size, and agricultural practices on sediment yields in two river basins in Iowa and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Welch, Heather L.; Tomer, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The specific sediment yield (SSY) from watersheds is the result of the balance between natural, scale-dependent erosion and deposition processes, but can be greatly altered by human activities. In general, the SSY decreases along the course of a river as sediments are trapped in alluvial plains and other sinks. However, this relation between SSY and basin area can actually be an increasing one when there is a predominance of channel erosion relative to hillslope erosion. The US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of suspended sediment in the Iowa River basin (IRB), Iowa, and the Yazoo River basin (YRB), Mississippi, from 2006 through 2008. Within each river basin, the SSY from four largely agricultural watersheds of various sizes (2.3 to 35,000 km2 [0.9 to 13,513 mi2]) was investigated. In the smallest watersheds, YRB sites had greater SSY compared to IRB sites due to higher rain erosivity, more erodible soils, more overland flow, and fluvial geomorphological differences. Watersheds in the YRB showed a steady decrease in SSY with increasing drainage basin area, whereas in the IRB, the maximum SSY occurred at the 30 to 500 km2 (11.6 to 193 mi2) scale. Subsurface tile drainage and limits to channel downcutting restrict the upstream migration of sediment sources in the IRB. Nevertheless, by comparing the SSY-basin size scaling relationships with estimated rates of field erosion under conservation and conventional tillage treatments reported in previous literature, we show evidence that the SSY-basin size relationship in both the IRB and YRB remain impacted by historical erosion rates that occurred prior to conservation efforts.

  12. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-05

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  13. Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, Jacob; And Others

    In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

  14. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to inves...

  15. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  16. A complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss rivers with agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Simon; Comte, Rahel; Doppler, Tobias; Wittmer, Irene; Moschet, Christoph; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Kunz, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in surface waters at concentration levels that raise ecotoxicological concerns. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides in agricultural watersheds, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive overview of the actual pollution level. This collaborative project between research and Swiss federal and cantonal authorities aimed for a comprehensive analysis of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to address this knowledge gap. The five rivers are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops, such as grains, vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Urban activities and influences are low. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August with automatic sampling devices, resulting in 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap technology), involved a target screening of 248 pesticides including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, as well as important transformation products. Data on the total number and distribution of pesticides, their detection frequency, crop specific applications and concentration time profiles will be presented. Preliminary results indicate substantial pesticide exposure since at least 20 different compounds were detected in all samples. One sample even contained a mixture of 80 pesticides. The majority of concentrations were in the low ng/L range but concentrations of a few compounds were very high (several micrograms/L) during discharge events as well as during low flow conditions

  17. Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand

  18. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on N loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalya River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modeling framework consisting of a farm-scale model, Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX); a watershedscale model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); and databases was used in the Conservation Effects Assessment Project to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practi...

  19. Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen from agricultural activities contributes to the hypoxic zones and severe declines in water quality in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. The Federal Clean Water Act requires nitrogen load reductions to restore the integrity of these important waterways. Tools are needed to track t...

  20. Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia: National Institute of Food and Agriculture - Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2007, USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), now the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) jointly funded two integrated research and outreach grants to conduct a synthesis of resul...

  1. Modeling of fluvial geomorphic processes in river channels impacted by agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediment in water resources has been found to be a major contributor to water quality degradation. Fine-grained sediment emanating from agricultural watersheds is a concern for protecting water resources and environment. A large portion of the sediments may be contributed by channel erosion processe...

  2. Geochemical characterization and biomonitoring of reclaimed soils in the Po River Delta (Northern Italy): implications for the agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Martucci, Annalisa; Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    This geochemical study is focused on the easternmost part of the Po River alluvial plain in Northern Italy, which is interested by widespread agricultural activities, investigating a reclaimed sector of the Province of Ferrara, known as "Valle del Mezzano" (Mezzano Low Land, hereafter reported as MLL) characterized by peat-rich soils. The chemical-mineralogical characterization of these reclaimed soils is important to compare the local geochemical backgrounds with those recorded in other sectors of the River Po plain and to monitor if the observed concentration exceeds critical thresholds. The reported analyses include (a) measurement of the soil salinity, (b) nutrient evaluation, (c) major and trace element concentrations carried out on bulk soils, (d) tests of metal extraction with both aqua regia and EDTA to highlight the distinct elemental mobility and (e) phyto-toxicological measurement of heavy metal concentrations in plants (Lactuca sativa acephala) grown on the studied soils. The results indicate (1) high soil salinity, often with drastic increase of sodium and chloride along the soil profiles, (2) high nitrogen content (in part related to anthropogenic activities) on superficial horizons and nitrate decrease along the soil profiles and (3) comparative enrichments in heavy metals with respect to other soils of the province, which indicate that peat deposits are effective in trapping metals from anthropogenic sources. This, in turn, implies potential geochemical risks for the agricultural activities. In this regard, specific concerns are related to the high nickel and arsenic content of MLL soils due to the mobility of these elements and their attitude to be taken up by plants.

  3. Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

  4. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  5. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Yields and Water Resources in the Maumee River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkirk, R. L.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will likely have considerable effects on agriculture in the Midwestern United States. Under current climate projections, end-of-century temperatures rise by approximately 4 C, while precipitation stays relatively unchanged despite a potential increase in heavy rainfall events. These trends have already been observed over the last century: rising temperatures have extended the growing season two days per decade and heavy rainfall events have become twice as common. In an effort to understand the likely effects of climate change on agriculture, maize and soybean yields in the Maumee River Watershed were simulated using the Systems Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) crop model. SALUS calculates daily crop growth in response to changing climate, soil, and management conditions. We test the hypotheses that 1) despite any positive effects of CO2 fertilization and allowing for higher yielding varieties, longer and warmer growing seasons will lead to excessive water- and heat-stress, lowering yields under current management practices, and 2) that double-cropping maize and soybeans successively in the same season to offset these losses may become feasible if sufficient late-season soil moisture is made available. Outputs of daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and root mass from a range of SALUS models are then distributed spatially to drive regional hydrologic simulations using the Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model (ILHM). These coupled simulations demonstrate the response of streamflow and groundwater levels to different management strategies.

  6. Calculation of Agricultural Nitrogen Quantity for EU15, spatialisation of the results to river basins using CORINE Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campling, P.; Terres, J. M.; Vandewalle, S.; Crouzet, P.

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the study was the implementation of the OECD/Eurostat Soil Surface balance method to calculate nitrogen balances from agricultural sources for the whole European Union (EU) at administrative or river basins level. This methodology combines the use of statistics on crops area, number of animals together with agronomic technical coefficients and Corine Land Cover data to spatialise agricultural nitrogen quantity through spatial modelling. Results on catchments show an EU average surplus level of 60 kg N/ha. The distribution of the balances shows high surplus amounts in regions of intensive livestock farming (Flanders (B), the Netherlands, Brittany (FR)), and low or deficit values in the central areas of Spain, France and Italy. The effect of the Corine Land Cover in nitrogen balance calculations was also examined through scenario analysis. These simulations indicated a slight improvement in estimation when the Corine Land Cover was used to spatialise the results of the Soil surface balance model. A sensitivity analysis of the technical coefficients was also carried out and showed a higher sensitivity of the model to crop related coefficients than manure coefficients. The overall sensitivity analysis revealed the need to improve the quality of the technical coefficients, requiring more consistency and harmonisation and moreover reflecting regional differences.

  7. [Impacts of landscape patterns on heavy metal contamination of agricultural top soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Li, Fang-bai; Wu, Zhi-feng; Cheng, Jiong

    2015-04-01

    Landscape patterns are known to influence many ecological processes, but the relationship between landscape patterns and soil pollution processes is not well understood. Based on 300 top soil samples, land use and cover map for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of 2005, this study explored the characteristics and spatial pattern of heavy metal contamination of agricultural top soils and examined the impacts of landscape patterns on the heavy metal contamination in the buffers of soil samples. Research methods included geostatistical analysis, landscape pattern analysis, single-factor pollution indices, and Pearson correlation analysis. We found that: 1) out of the 235 agricultural soil samples, 3.8%, 0.4%, 17.0% and 9.4% samples exceeded the Grade II national standard for As, Pb, Cd and Ni concentrations respectively. High pollution levels were found in three cities, Guangzhou, Foshan and Zhongshan; 2) soils in the farmland were more polluted than those in the forest and orchard land, and there were no differences among different agricultural land use types in contamination level of each heavy metal (except Cd); and 3) the proportion, mean patch area as well as the degree of landscape fragmentation, landscape-level structural complexity and aggregation/connectivity of water at the buffer zone were significantly positively correlated with the contamination level of each of the four heavy metals in agricultural top soils. Part of the landscape pattern of urban land in the buffer zone also positively correlated with Pb and Cd levels (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the proportion, mean patch area and aggregation degree of forest land negatively correlated with soil Pb and Ni levels (P < 0.05); and 4) the closer to the industry land were the soil samples, the more polluted the soils were for Pb, Cd and Ni. Only landscape diversity was found to be positively correlated with soil Cd contamination. The study results provide new information and scientific basis for heavy metal

  8. Red River of the North Main Stem: Technical Information Report (with Special Emphasis on Agricultural Levees).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    18 DISCHARGE-SETBACK CURVE 129 19 DISCHARGE VS. LEVEE HEIGHT CURVE 130 20 SETBACK VS. LEVEE HEIGHT CURVE 131 21 ROTATIONAL LANDSLIDE 135 22 POTENTIAL...ftOO G% F0 OSO -64NDFOK 29L C _z __W- -m-C C -- - -- - - - - :7__ _ __ __ ---- ---- sew -0 n DRY - SL Ir - LV-RA00 3z’ 33~. T-^ = Fiure 2a Naxziumare...bottom and very low river elevation). Landslides of the type in question are usually deep-seated. When the failing earth mass breaks away from the lake

  9. The Role of Sediment Budgets in the Implementation and Evaluation of Controlled Floods to Restore Sandbars along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The measurement and prediction of the fine sediment budget for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has been of strong scientific and management interest since erosion of sandbars was first reported in the early 1970s, about 10 years after Glen Canyon Dam began regulating streamflow and eliminated the upstream sediment supply. Efforts to rebuild eroded sandbars have consisted largely of the experimental release of controlled floods, during which sand is redistributed from the bed to eddy sandbars along the channel margin. Flood-aggraded sandbars are, however, inherently unstable and inevitably erode between floods. Thus, sandbars cannot be "preserved," but are dynamic landforms that require periodic rebuilding by recurring floods. Such a strategy, with the goal of achieving a long-term increase in the size and number of sandbars, was recently implemented as a policy initiative of the U.S. Department of the Interior. This High Flow Experiment Protocol is being implemented by a unique collaboration of scientists, engineers, and policy makers and provides a rare example of a case in which management decisions are fully integrated with scientific monitoring. Controlled floods are scheduled based on real-time monitoring of sediment flux, computations of sediment budgets, and use of flow and sediment models. Floods are scheduled to occur within a few weeks of measurement results becoming available, assuming that threshold triggers for sediment accumulation are met. Sandbar building results are evaluated within weeks to months using remotely deployed time-lapse cameras. The protocol has been implemented in fall 2013 and fall 2014. Preliminary results suggest that the program may be resulting in the desired effect of cumulative increases in sandbar size. These results are tentative, because recent years have been relatively favorable, with large fine-sediment inputs and low annual dam-release volumes. Successive years with low fine-sediment supply or above-average dam

  10. A system dynamics simulation model for sustainable water resources management and agricultural development in the Volta River Basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kotir, Julius H; Smith, Carl; Brown, Greg; Marshall, Nadine; Johnstone, Ron

    2016-12-15

    In a rapidly changing water resources system, dynamic models based on the notion of systems thinking can serve as useful analytical tools for scientists and policy-makers to study changes in key system variables over time. In this paper, an integrated system dynamics simulation model was developed using a system dynamics modelling approach to examine the feedback processes and interaction between the population, the water resource, and the agricultural production sub-sectors of the Volta River Basin in West Africa. The objective of the model is to provide a learning tool for policy-makers to improve their understanding of the long-term dynamic behaviour of the basin, and as a decision support tool for exploring plausible policy scenarios necessary for sustainable water resource management and agricultural development. Structural and behavioural pattern tests, and statistical test were used to evaluate and validate the performance of the model. The results showed that the simulated outputs agreed well with the observed reality of the system. A sensitivity analysis also indicated that the model is reliable and robust to uncertainties in the major parameters. Results of the business as usual scenario showed that total population, agricultural, domestic, and industrial water demands will continue to increase over the simulated period. Besides business as usual, three additional policy scenarios were simulated to assess their impact on water demands, crop yield, and net-farm income. These were the development of the water infrastructure (scenario 1), cropland expansion (scenario 2) and dry conditions (scenario 3). The results showed that scenario 1 would provide the maximum benefit to people living in the basin. Overall, the model results could help inform planning and investment decisions within the basin to enhance food security, livelihoods development, socio-economic growth, and sustainable management of natural resources.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of nitrogen in river-alluvial aquifer systems affected by diffuse pollution from agricultural sources: Implications for the implementation of the Nitrates Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauzo, M.; Valladolid, M.; Martínez-Bastida, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    SummaryReducing nitrate pollution from diffuse agricultural sources is the major environmental challenge in the two adjacent catchments of the Oja-Tirón and Zamaca rivers (La Rioja and Castilla y León, northern Spain). For this reason, part of their territory was designated a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) according to the Nitrates Directive. The Oja Alluvial Aquifer, the Tirón Alluvial Aquifer and their associated rivers are particularly vulnerable to nitrogen pollution due to the shallow water table, the high permeability of alluvial deposits, interconnections between the alluvial aquifers and surface waters and pressures from agriculture. To this end, nine sampling campaigns, organised on a semi-annual basis and focused on the rivers and alluvial aquifers of the two catchments, were carried out from April 2005 to April 2009. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to investigate the chemical forms of nitrogen in river-alluvial aquifer systems of the Oja-Tirón and Zamaca catchments, (2) to improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal patterns of nitrogen distribution in the alluvial aquifers and associated rivers by integrating hydrochemical data and hydrogeological and environmental parameters, (3) to estimate the amount of nitrogen exported from the rivers and alluvial aquifers to the River Ebro, and (4) to evaluate the suitability of the current method of designating NVZs in the area. High groundwater flow velocities in the upper alluvial zones favoured the advective transport of nitrate and generated a dilution effect. In these areas, inter-annual variations in nitrate concentrations were observed related to precipitation and N-input from agriculture. However, low flow velocities favoured processes of accumulation in the lower alluvial zones. Our results demonstrated that the entire alluvial surface was highly vulnerable, according to dynamics of the nitrogen in the river-alluvial aquifer systems being studied. The amount of nitrogen exported from

  12. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Annual Report 2000 : Project Period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Monzyk, Fred R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring.

  13. Use of geostatistics for assessing the concentration of heavy metals in a stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoro (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, J. M.; Siqueira, G. M.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Silva, P. C. M.; Batista, R. O.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental changes with respect to the concentration of heavy metals in the sediment contained a stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoró (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil), considering changes in land use and soil. The sediment samples were collected at 30 points in the bed Apodi- Mossoró River in a section with features urban-rural town of Mossoró. The concentration of heavy metals in the sediment was determined using composite samples of surface sediments from the bottom with a depth of 20 cm, according to the methodology of APHAAWWA-WPCF (1998), where he subsequently held to determine the presence and quantity of metal concentration total by the technique of atomic absorption spectrometry, and analyzed the following heavy metals: aluminum(Al), cádmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Data were analyzed using statistical and geostatistical. The geostatistical analysiswas performed by the construction of experimental semivariogramas self-assessment and adjustment by using the technique of Jack-kinifing. The elemento Cd was absent in the samples, which reduces the possibility of environmental contamination events. The average concentrations of the elements under study are within the limits proposed by the environmental legislation (National Environmental Council). However, for the elements Fe, Al and Mn no threshold values, because these are associated with the rocky material of geochemical origin. The elemento Fe had the highest range of values than the other, and all elements except for Zn and Cd showed the presence of outliers, suggesting the possibility that these points are listed as points liable to contribution by human activities. It was verified the presence of human influence, because the elements undergo an increase of concentration values from the point 11, which is located downstream of the urban bus consolidated. The experimental

  14. 16. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids, Michigan City Library, Michigan Room) 1904, photographer unknown. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTHSIDE, BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. Note old railroad tressel bridge. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI

  15. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin, Annual Report 2008 : Project Period 1 February 2008 to 31 January 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Yanke, Jeffrey A.; Alfonse, Brian M.; Bratcher, Kyle W.

    2009-07-31

    This study was designed to document and describe the status and life history strategies of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin. We determined migration timing, abundance, and life-stage survival rates for juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer steelhead O. mykiss in four streams during migratory year 2008 from 1 July 2007 through 30 June 2008. As observed in previous years of this study, spring Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibited fall and spring movements out of natal rearing areas, but did not begin their smolt migration through the Snake and lower Columbia River hydrosystem until spring. In this report we provide estimates of migrant abundance and migration timing for each study stream, and their survival and timing to Lower Granite Dam. We also document aquatic habitat conditions using water temperature and stream flow in four study streams in the subbasin.

  16. Urban and agricultural contribution of annual loads of glyphosate and AMPA towards surface waters at the Orge River catchment scale (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Hélène

    2010-05-01

    The general use of pesticides in the Orge Basin, located in the southern part of the Paris suburb (France), is damaging surface water quality. Consequently, an increase in the water supply costs is registered by the water supply agencies that are situated downstream the Orge confluence with the Seine River. In this catchment, high uses of glyphosate are registered for fallow fields (upstream part) and for roadway weed control (downstream part). The proportion of glyphosate coming from these two zones was not well known, along with the double source of its metabolite AMPA originated from the degradation of some detergent phosphonates. The aim of this work was firstly to identify the potential sources of glyphosate and AMPA in urban sectors (such as sewerage system inputs) and in agricultural areas and to quantify the origins of urban pesticides pathways towards surface waters at the basin scale. The new approach of this project was to collect information at three different scales to establish a first step of modeling. At the basin scale, 1 year of surface water monitoring at the outlet of the Orge River was useful to establish the inputs towards the Seine River. At the urban catchment scale, the investigations have permitted to record glyphosate and AMPA loads transferred by storm waters and by wastewaters. Loads were estimated during and out of application calendar, in different hydrological conditions such as rainfall with high intensity or dry conditions. Impact of WWTP on surface water was also demonstrated. The third phase of this work was the interpretation of agricultural inputs from two different agricultural catchments of the Orge River. The results showed the impact of urban uses of glyphosate upon the Orge River contamination with annual loads from 100 times higher from the urban zone than from the agricultural one. Storm sewers were recognized to be the main way for glyphosate transfer towards surface waters. A budget of glyphosate and AMPA inputs and

  17. Assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural production in the Columbia River basin: incorporating water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. C.; Rajagopalan, K.; Stockle, C. O.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C. E.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Nelson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global population, food consumption and climate lead to a food security challenge for the future. Water resources, agricultural productivity and the relationships between them will to a large extent dictate how we address this challenge. Although food security is a global issue, impacts of climate change on water resources and agricultural productivity, as well as viability of adaptation strategies, are location specific; e.g., it is important to consider the regional regulatory environment. Our work focuses on the Columbia River basin (CRB) of the Pacific Northwest US. The water resources of the CRB are heavily managed to meet competing demands. There also exists a legal system for individuals/groups to obtain rights to use the publicly owned water resources, and the possibility of curtailing (i.e., restricting) some of these water rights in times of shortage. It is important to include an approximation of this water resource regulation and water rights curtailment process in modeling water availability and impacts of water shortages on agricultural production. The overarching objective of this work is to apply an integrated hydrologic-crop-water management modeling framework over the CRB to characterize the impacts of climate change on irrigation water demands, irrigation water availability, water shortages, and associated impacts in the 2030s. Results indicate that climate change has both positive and negative effects on agricultural production in the CRB and this varies by region and crop type. Certain watersheds that are already water stressed are projected to experience increasing stress in the future. Although, climate change results in increased water shortages and water rights curtailment in the region, this does not necessarily translate into an increased negative effect on yields; some crops are projected to increase in yield despite curtailment. This could be attributed to higher water use efficiency under elevated CO2 levels as well crops

  18. 24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administered by the National Park Service, along the Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park, upstream... Colorado River. (8) Swimming and bathing are permitted except in locations immediately above rapids, eddies... trip also authorizes camping along the Colorado River by persons in the river trip party, except...

  20. Sulfonylurea herbicides in an agricultural catchment basin and its adjacent wetland in the St. Lawrence River basin.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Yves; Beauvais, Conrad; Cessna, Allan J; Gagnon, Pierre; Hudon, Christiane; Poissant, Laurier

    2014-05-01

    The use of sulfonylurea herbicides (SU) has increased greater than 100 times over the past 30 years in both Europe and North America. Applied at low rates, their presence, persistence and potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems remain poorly studied. During late-spring to early fall in 2009-2011, concentrations of 9 SU were assessed in two agricultural streams and their receiving wetland, an enlargement of the St. Lawrence River (Canada). Six SU in concentrations >LOQ (10 ng L(-1)) were detected in 10% or less of surface water samples. Rimsulfuron was detected each year, sulfosulfuron and nicosulfuron in two years and the others in one year only, suggesting that application of specific herbicides varied locally between years. Detection frequency and concentrations of SU were not significantly associated with total precipitation which occurred 1 to 5d before sampling. Concentrations and fate of SU differed among sites due to differences in stream dynamics and water quality characteristics. The persistence of SU in catchment basin streams reflected the dissipation effects associated with stream discharge. Maximum concentrations of some SU (223 and 148 ng L(-1)) were occasionally above the baseline level (100 ng L(-1)) for aquatic plant toxicity, implying potential toxic stress to flora in the streams. Substantially lower concentrations (max 55 ng L(-1)) of SU were noted at the downstream wetland site, likely as a result from dilution and mixing with St. Lawrence River water, and represent less toxicological risk to the wetland flora. Sporadic occurrence of SU at low concentrations in air and rain samples indicated that atmospheric deposition was not an important source of herbicides to the study area.

  1. Economic Impact of Water Allocation on Agriculture in the Lower Chattahoochee River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Musleh, Fuad; Cruise, James F.; Hatch, L. Upton

    2004-01-01

    The relative value of irrigation water was assessed for three important crops (corn, cotton, and peanuts) grown in the southeastern United States. A decision tool was developed with the objective of allocating limited available water among competing crops in a manner that would maximize the economic returns to the producers. The methodology was developed and tested for a hypothetical farm located in Henry County, Alabama in the Chattahoochee river basin. Crop yield - soil moisture response functions were developed using Monte Carlo simulated data for cotton, corn, and peanuts. A hydrologic model was employed to simulate runoff over the period of observed rainfall the county to provide inflows to storage facilities that could be used as constraints for the optimal allocation of the available water in the face of the uncertainty of future rainfall and runoff. Irrigation decisions were made on a weekly basis during the critical water deficit period in the region. An economic optimization model was employed with the crop responses, and soil moisture functions to determine the optimum amount of water place on each crop subject to the amount of irrigation water availability and climatic uncertainty. The results indicated even small amounts of irrigation could significantly benefit farmers in the region if applied judiciously. A weekly irrigation sequence was developed that maintained the available water on the crops that exhibited the most significant combination of water sensitivity and cash value.

  2. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  3. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter.

  4. Effects of an agricultural drainwater bypass on fishes inhabiting the Grassland Water District and the lower San Joaquin River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; May, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Grassland Bypass Project, which began operation in September 1996, was conceived as a means of diverting brackish selenium-contaminated agricultural drainwater away from canals and sloughs needed for transporting irrigation water to wetlands within the Grassland Water District (the Grasslands), Merced County, California. The seleniferous drainwater is now routed into the San Luis Drain for conveyance to North Mud Slough and eventual disposal in the San Joaquin River. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the Grassland Bypass Project has affected fishes in sloughs and other surface waters within and downstream from the Grasslands. During September-October 1997, 9,795 fish representing 25 species were captured at 13 sampling sites. Although several species exhibited restricted spatial distributions, association analysis and cluster analysis failed to identify more than one fish species assemblage inhabiting the various sites. However, seleniferous drainwater from the San Luis Drain has influenced selenium concentrations in whole fish within North Mud Slough and the San Joaquin River. The highest concentrations of selenium (12-23 ??g/g, dry weight basis) were measured in green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus from the San Luis Drain where seleniferous drainwater is most concentrated, whereas the second highest concentrations occurred in green sunfish (7.6-17 ??g/g) and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus (14-18 ??g/g) from North Mud Slough immediately downstream from the drain. Although there was some variation, fish in the San Joaquin River generally contained higher body burdens of selenium when captured immediately below the mouth of North Mud Slough (3.1-4.8 ??g/g for green sunfish, 3.7-5.0 ??g/g for bluegills) than when captured upstream from the mouth (0.67-3.3 ??g/g for green sunfish, 0.59-3.7 ??g/g for bluegills). Waterborne selenium was the single most important predictor of selenium concentrations in green sunfish and bluegills, as judged by

  5. Hydrothermal Quartz Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Altered Post-Collapse Rhyolite at Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. R.; Larson, P. B.; John, D. A.; Pauley, B. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, displays regions of pervasively hydrothermally altered rock formed in the shallow, epithermal portions of a hydrothermal system. Hydrothermal fluid circulation causing the alteration is driven by magmatism related to the Yellowstone Caldera thermal anomaly. The protolith, the Tuff of Sulfur Creek, is a 480 ka high silica, low δ18O rhyolitic tuff that erupted after the Yellowstone caldera collapse at 640 ka. Incision of the canyon has exposed 350 vertical meters in the Sevenmile Hole vicinity. Hydrothermal mineralogy determined by standard XRD powder techniques and PIMA on over 90 samples shows both vertical and lateral variation. A vertical transition occurs from kaolinite at depths less than about 100 meters below the present day canyon rim, to illite in deeper exposures. This transition may correspond to a temperature of 150°C, based on a similar transition in the active Yellowstone hydrothermal system. A lateral variation of mineral assemblages in the altered tuff suggests temperatures that may range up to 330°C. Alteration was most likely caused by a liquid due to the presence of pyrite throughout. Local zones of suspected hydrothermal fluid upwelling correspond to the most intense silicification and highest temperature mineral assemblages. This alteration includes quartz + illite ± hyalophane, slawsonite, and buddingtonite. At similar depths outside inferred fluid upwelling zones, lower temperature assemblages are quartz + illite/smectite ± alunite and buddingtonite. At shallow depths, the lowest temperatures are suggested by the presence of quartz + kaolinite ± alunite and opal. Dickite, a kaolinite polymorph, may indicate locally higher temperatures in the shallow kaolinite zones. Oxygen isotope ratios of silica phases were measured for approximately 50 samples using laser fluorination techniques with an error of ±0.2‰. Hydrothermal quartz displays δ18O signatures more

  6. Long-term trends in alkalinity in large rivers of the conterminous US in relation to acidification, agriculture, and hydrologic modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward G.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    Alkalinity increases in large rivers of the conterminous US are well known, but less is understood about the processes leading to these trends as compared with headwater systems more intensively examined in conjunction with acid deposition studies. Nevertheless, large rivers are important conduits of inorganic carbon and other solutes to coastal areas and may have substantial influence on coastal calcium carbonate saturation dynamics. We examined long-term (mid-20th to early 21st century) trends in alkalinity and other weathering products in 23 rivers of the conterminous US. We used a rigorous flow-weighting technique which allowed greater focus on solute trends occurring independently of changes in flow. Increasing alkalinity concentrations and yield were widespread, occurring at 14 and 13 stations, respectively. Analysis of trends in other weathering products suggested that the causes of alkalinity trends were diverse, but at many stations alkalinity increases coincided with decreasing nitrate + sulfate and decreasing cation:alkalinity ratios, which is consistent with recovery from acidification. A positive correlation between the Sen–Thiel slopes of alkalinity increases and agricultural lime usage indicated that agricultural lime contributed to increasing solute concentration in some areas. However, several stations including the Altamaha, Upper Mississippi, and San Joaquin Rivers exhibited solute trends, such as increasing cation:alkalinity ratios and increasing nitrate + sulfate, more consistent with increasing acidity, emphasizing that multiple processes affect alkalinity trends in large rivers. This study was unique in its examination of alkalinity trends in large rivers covering a wide range of climate and land use types, but more detailed analyses will help to better elucidate temporal changes to river solutes and especially the effects they may have on coastal calcium carbonate saturation state.

  7. Long-term trends in alkalinity in large rivers of the conterminous US in relation to acidification, agriculture, and hydrologic modification.

    PubMed

    Stets, E G; Kelly, V J; Crawford, C G

    2014-08-01

    Alkalinity increases in large rivers of the conterminous US are well known, but less is understood about the processes leading to these trends as compared with headwater systems more intensively examined in conjunction with acid deposition studies. Nevertheless, large rivers are important conduits of inorganic carbon and other solutes to coastal areas and may have substantial influence on coastal calcium carbonate saturation dynamics. We examined long-term (mid-20th to early 21st century) trends in alkalinity and other weathering products in 23 rivers of the conterminous US. We used a rigorous flow-weighting technique which allowed greater focus on solute trends occurring independently of changes in flow. Increasing alkalinity concentrations and yield were widespread, occurring at 14 and 13 stations, respectively. Analysis of trends in other weathering products suggested that the causes of alkalinity trends were diverse, but at many stations alkalinity increases coincided with decreasing nitrate+sulfate and decreasing cation:alkalinity ratios, which is consistent with recovery from acidification. A positive correlation between the Sen-Thiel slopes of alkalinity increases and agricultural lime usage indicated that agricultural lime contributed to increasing solute concentration in some areas. However, several stations including the Altamaha, Upper Mississippi, and San Joaquin Rivers exhibited solute trends, such as increasing cation:alkalinity ratios and increasing nitrate+sulfate, more consistent with increasing acidity, emphasizing that multiple processes affect alkalinity trends in large rivers. This study was unique in its examination of alkalinity trends in large rivers covering a wide range of climate and land use types, but more detailed analyses will help to better elucidate temporal changes to river solutes and especially the effects they may have on coastal calcium carbonate saturation state.

  8. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  9. Effects of agricultural irrigation on water resources in the St. Joseph River basin, Indiana, and implications for aquifer yield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, J.G.; Renn, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    During the past decade, the acreage of irrigated agricultural land in Indiana has tripled, causing public concern about competition for water and resulting in several State laws for regulating water withdrawals. The St. Joseph River basin represents less than one-tenth of the area of the State, but it contains one-third of the State 's irrigated land. Irrigated land in the basin is composed of permeable soils that are underlain by productive glacial aquifers. A computer model was used to analyze the effects of maximum irrigation withdrawals on aquifer drawdown and streamflow in a 16.5 sq mi area of intensive irrigation. Simulation of maximum pumping resulted in predicted aquifer drawdowns of one-fourth of the total available drawdown. Flow in a nearby stream was decreased by 40%. Areas of most intensive irrigation in the basin also are areas that have productive aquifers and well-sustained streamflows. Aquifer yield is based on the concept of capture - the volume of increased recharge to the aquifer or decreased discharge from the aquifer that results from pumping. The high rates of capture for aquifers in the basin supply ample water for present (1982) irrigation and for substantial future development. (USGS)

  10. Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Pesticides in a Coastal Prairie Agricultural Area, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Agriculture is a major land use in the coastal prairie area located in the southern part of the Trinity River Basin. Crops grown in the area include rice, sorghum, and soybeans. Pesticide- use estimates for the area show that compounds with the highest use are the herbicides: molinate, propanil, thiobencarb, metolachlor, acifluorfen, bentazon, and atrazine and the insecticides: carbaryl and methyl parathion. More than 20 pesticide samples collected from each of three streams in the coastal prairie resulted in detections of 29 different pesticide compounds. The most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides: atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate, which were detected in more than 75 percent of the samples. Herbicides were detected more frequently than insecticides. Maximum concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate occurred in the spring and were 4, 1.9, and 200 micrograms per liter (?g/L), respectively. Almost all concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor were below drinking water standards; no standard is available for molinate. Concentrations and estimated loads and percent of applied compound lost to the streams were generally higher in the watersheds where more of the pesticides were applied to crops.

  11. Kd Values for Agricultural and Surface Soils for Use in Hanford Site Farm, Residential, and River Shoreline Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-08-01

    This report provides best estimate Kd values and a minimum and maximum range of Kd values to be used for agricultural soils and Columbia River bank sediments that exist today or would exist in the future when portions of the Hanford Site are released for farming, residential, and recreational use after the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) completes clean up of defense waste on the site. The Kd values should be used to determine the fate and transport rates of contaminants and their availability for plant and animal uptake in selected non-groundwater scenarios included in Hanford Site environmental impact statements, risk assessments and specific facility performance assessments. This report describes scenarios such as a small farm where drilling of a well inadvertently goes through buried waste and brings waste to the surface, allowing the tailings to become available for direct human exposure or incorporation into garden crops and farm animals used for food by the farm family. The Kd values recommended in this report can also be used to calculate sediment-water partitioning factors used to predict plant and animal uptake from interaction with the contaminated soil.

  12. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  13. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  14. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  15. Measuring fallout radionuclides to constrain the origin and the dynamics of suspended sediment in an agricultural drained catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J. Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion reaches problematic levels in agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe where tile drains may accelerate sediment transfer to rivers. This supply of large quantities of fine sediment to the river network leads to the degradation of water quality by increasing water turbidity, filling reservoirs and transporting contaminants. Agricultural patterns and landscapes features have been largely modified by human activities during the last century. To investigate erosion and sediment transport in lowland drained areas, a small catchment, the Louroux (24 km²), located in the French Loire River basin was selected. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and more than 220 tile drains outlets have been installed after World War II. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes strongly increased. Sediment supply needs to be better understood by quantifying the contribution of sources and the residence times of particles within the catchment. To this end, a network of river monitoring stations was installed, and fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Be-7) were measured in rainwater (n=3), drain tile outlets (n=4), suspended sediment (n=15), soil surface (n=30) and channel bank samples (n=15) between January 2013 and February 2014. Cs-137 concentrations were used to quantify the contribution of surface vs. subsurface sources of sediment. Results show a clear dominance of particles originating from surface sources (99 ± 1%). Be-7 and excess Pb-210 concentrations and calculation of Be-7/excess Pb-210 ratios in rainfall and suspended sediment samples were used to estimate percentages of recently eroded sediment in rivers. The first erosive winter storm mainly exported sediment depleted in Be-7 that likely deposited on the riverbed during the previous months. Then, during the subsequent floods, sediment was directly eroded and exported to the catchment outlet. Our results show the added value of combining spatial and temporal tracers to characterize

  16. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal.

  17. Residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment from CauBay River and Their Impacts on Agricultural Soil, Human Health Risk in KieuKy Area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Vu Duc; Quy, Nguyen Phuong

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the PCB residues from CauBay River and KieuKy area, Vietnam was carried out. CauBay River has been playing an important role in irrigated water supply for agriculture activities at KieuKy area in the downstream. The PCBs concentrations of sediment, soil samples were analyzed and obtained results indicated the wide extent of contamination of PCBs in CauBay River (from 30.74 to 167.35 ng g(-1) dry weight) and KieuKy area (from 21.62 to 60.22 ng g(-1) dry weight). This clearly reflected the effect of PCB residues from CauBay River to the quality of agricultural soil of the KieuKy area. The PCBs composition analyses in the samples reflect their long-time release. The total cancer risk of PCBs in the soil of KieuKy fell into the very low range suggesting low risk. However, since PCBs were the species of POPs with more concern in this area, ecological risk assessment should be further investigated.

  18. Seasonal variation in biological oxygen demand levels in the main stem of the Fraser River, British Columbia and an agriculturally impacted tributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, S. L.; Fraser, H.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B. M.; Marcotte, D.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M.; Hanson-Carson, J.; Luymes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Fraser River basin is one of British Columbia's most diverse and valuable ecosystems. Water levels and temperatures along the Fraser are seasonally variable, with high flow during the spring freshet and low flow during winter months. In the Fraser River, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations impact many aquatic species. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic matter and is an indicator of water quality in freshwater environments. We compared BOD, DO, and pH during winter (November 2011) and summer (July 2012) in the main stem of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and a tributary in an agricultural area of the Fraser Valley, Nathan Creek. In November the BOD of the main stem of the Fraser River was 2.36 mg/L, pH 7.26, and DO 9.13 mg/L. BOD and DO of Nathan Creek was not significantly lower at 1.68 mg/L and DO 8.28 mg/L, however, the pH was significantly lower (p=0.001) at 6.75. In July, the Fraser River had significantly higher BOD levels than in winter at 4.43 mg/L, but no significant change in pH and DO. Nathan Creek BOD was significantly higher than it was in winter and higher than the main stem at 7.34 mg/L, with no significant change in pH and DO. There were strong seasonal differences in BOD in the Fraser River and Nathan Creek, with the highest levels seen in July. The higher BOD seen in Nathan Creek in July may be an indication of agricultural impact. Although all BOD values fell in the range of 1-8 mg/L and are considered to be relatively unpolluted.

  19. Support vector machine-an alternative to artificial neuron network for water quality forecasting in an agricultural nonpoint source polluted river?

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Lu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Water quality forecasting in agricultural drainage river basins is difficult because of the complicated nonpoint source (NPS) pollution transport processes and river self-purification processes involved in highly nonlinear problems. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector model (SVM) were developed to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations for any location of the river polluted by agricultural NPS pollution in eastern China. River flow, water temperature, flow travel time, rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and upstream TN or TP concentrations were selected as initial inputs of the two models. Monthly, bimonthly, and trimonthly datasets were selected to train the two models, respectively, and the same monthly dataset which had not been used for training was chosen to test the models in order to compare their generalization performance. Trial and error analysis and genetic algorisms (GA) were employed to optimize the parameters of ANN and SVM models, respectively. The results indicated that the proposed SVM models performed better generalization ability due to avoiding the occurrence of overtraining and optimizing fewer parameters based on structural risk minimization (SRM) principle. Furthermore, both TN and TP SVM models trained by trimonthly datasets achieved greater forecasting accuracy than corresponding ANN models. Thus, SVM models will be a powerful alternative method because it is an efficient and economic tool to accurately predict water quality with low risk. The sensitivity analyses of two models indicated that decreasing upstream input concentrations during the dry season and NPS emission along the reach during average or flood season should be an effective way to improve Changle River water quality. If the necessary water quality and hydrology data and even trimonthly data are available, the SVM methodology developed here can easily be applied to other NPS-polluted rivers.

  20. Application of strontium isotope measurements to trace sediment sources in an upstream agricultural catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Thil, François; Foucher, Anthony; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the main processes of land degradation in agricultural areas. It accelerates the supply of sediment to the rivers and degrades water quality. To limit those impacts and optimize management programs in such areas, sources of sediment need to be identified and sediment transport to be controlled. Here, we determined the sources of suspended sediment in the Louroux (24 km², French Loire River basin), a small catchment representative of lowland cultivated environments of Northwestern Europe. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and 220 tile drain outlets have been installed over the last several decades. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes have increased drastically. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, driven by the weathering of rocks with different ages and chemical composition, may reflect the mixing of different sediment sources. Strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were therefore determined in potential soil sources, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and a sediment core sampled in the Louroux Pond at the catchment outlet. Soil, SPM and core samples displayed significantly different isotopic signatures. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in soil samples varied from 0.712763 to 0.724631 ± 0.000017 (2σ, n=20). Highest values were observed in silicic parts of the catchment whereas the lower values were identified in a calcareous area close to the Louroux Pond. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in SPM (0.713660 to 0.725749 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=20) plotted between the soil and sediment core (0.712255 to 0.716415 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=12), suggesting the presence of particles originating from at least two different lithological sources, i.e. silicic rocks and carbonate material. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the outlet core sample were used to reconstruct the sedimentary dynamics in the catchment during the last decades. These results will guide the future implementation of appropriate management practices aiming to reduce erosion in upstream

  1. General Reevaluation and Supplement to Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes. Red and Red Lake Rivers at East Grand Forks, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    transmitted to citiy officials, newspapers, and radio and television stations in the basin. These media disseminate the information to residents of the...telephone to news media and community officials and law enforcement agencies. The Weather Service Office issues flash flood warnings as required for...activity, lower taxes, a military facility, passenger air and rail service, and more extensive media to emphasize the benefits of Grand Forks. The

  2. Extending the turbidity record: making additional use of continuous data from turbidity, acoustic-Doppler, and laser diffraction instruments and suspended-sediment samples in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is a measure of the scattering and absorption of light in water, which in rivers is primarily caused by particles, usually sediment, suspended in the water. Turbidity varies significantly with differences in the design of the instrument measuring turbidity, a point that is illustrated in this study by side-by-side comparisons of two different models of instruments. Turbidity also varies with changes in the physical parameters of the particles in the water, such as concentration, grain size, grain shape, and color. A turbidity instrument that is commonly used for continuous monitoring of rivers has a light source in the near-infrared range (860±30 nanometers) and a detector oriented 90 degrees from the incident light path. This type of optical turbidity instrument has a limited measurement range (depending on pathlength) that is unable to capture the high turbidity levels of rivers that carry high suspended-sediment loads. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is one such river, in which approximately 60 percent of the range in suspended-sediment concentration during the study period had unmeasurable turbidity using this type of optical instrument. Although some optical turbidimeters using backscatter or other techniques can measure higher concentrations of suspended sediment than the models used in this study, the maximum turbidity measurable using these other turbidimeters may still be exceeded in conditions of especially high concentrations of suspended silt and clay. In Grand Canyon, the existing optical turbidity instruments remain in use in part to provide consistency over time as new techniques are investigated. As a result, during these periods of high suspended-sediment concentration, turbidity values that could not be measured with the optical turbidity instruments were instead estimated from concurrent acoustic attenuation data collected using side-looking acoustic-Doppler profiler (ADP) instruments. Extending the turbidity record to the full

  3. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers.

  4. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Ram Karan; Kansal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July-September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.

  5. Quantifying Nitrogen Sources and Cycling Along the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelsner, G.; Brooks, P.; Hogan, J.; Lacey, H.; McDonnell, D.; Zeglin, L.; Mills, S.; Villinski, J.

    2005-05-01

    Synoptic sampling of a 1200km reach of the Upper Rio Grande has been performed in January and August from 2000 to present. The objective of this sampling has been to develop seasonal relationships between discharge, land use, and major water quality parameters including salinity and nutrients. In general, water quality, both salinity and nutrient concentrations, degrades with distance downstream. Increased salinity is explained largely by gradual downstream increase due to evapoconcentration punctuated by localized inputs of saline groundwater. Both total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations gradually increase with distance downstream, however for TDN this trend is punctuated by large, localized inputs primarily from urban areas. Somewhat surprisingly, surface water draining from areas of intensive, irrigated agriculture during the growing season often had lower nutrient and DOC concentrations than the river. Increased spatial and temporal sampling of the 250km reach between Cochiti Dam and Elephant Butte Reservoir was conducted in June, July and August of 2004 to quantify the relationships between agricultural and urban land use and nutrient loading as well as nutrient sinks within the surface water, hyporheic and riparian systems. Summer 2004 data indicate that wastewater treatment plants are the largest and most consistent sources of inorganic nitrogen to the river. In both June and July there was a net removal of nitrogen from the reach as discharge decreased 26%, concentrations decreased 39%, and TDN loads decreased 56%. Interestingly, the diversion of river water for irrigated agriculture reduced discharge 25%, TDN loads 60% and concentrations 47% along the same reach before draining back to the main stem of the river suggesting that agricultural diversions were serving as a sink for nitrogen. However in August, TDN loads were higher in returning drains suggesting that agricultural systems had switched to a net source of

  6. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  7. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  8. The strategic significance of wastewater sources to pollutant phosphorus levels in English rivers and to environmental management for rural, agricultural and urban catchments.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Withers, Paul J A; Whitton, Brian A; Neal, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between soluble and particulate phosphorus was examined for 9 major UK rivers including 26 major tributaries and 68 monitoring points, covering wide-ranging rural and agricultural/urban impacted systems with catchment areas varying from 1 to 6000km(2) scales. Phosphorus concentrations in Soluble Reactive (SRP), Total Dissolved (TDP), Total (TP), Dissolved Hydrolysable (DHP) and Particulate (PP) forms correlated with effluent markers (sodium and boron) and SRP was generally dominant signifying the importance of sewage sources. Low flows were particularly enriched in SRP, TDP and TP for average SRP>100microg/l indicating low effluent dilution. At particularly low average concentrations, SRP increased with flow but effluent sources were still implicated as the effluent markers (boron in particular) increased likewise. For rural areas, DHP had proportionately high concentrations and SRP+DHP concentrations could exceed environmental thresholds currently set for SRP. Given DHP has a high bioavailability the environmental implications need further consideration. PP concentrations were generally highest at high flows but PP in the suspended solids was generally at its lowest and in general PP correlated with particulate organic carbon and more so than the suspended sediment in total. Separation of pollutant inputs solely between effluent and diffuse (agriculture) components is misleading, as part of the "diffuse" term comprises effluents flushed from the catchments during high flow. Effluent sources of phosphorus supplied directly or indirectly to the river coupled with within-river interactions between water/sediment/biota largely determine pollutant levels. The study flags the fundamental need of placing direct and indirect effluent sources and contaminated storage with interchange to/from the river at the focus for remediation strategies for UK rivers in relation to eutrophication and the WFD.

  9. Integration of cosmic-ray neutron probes into production agriculture: Lessons from the Platte River cosmic-ray neutron probe monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, W. A.; Finkenbiner, C. E.; Franz, T. E.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Munoz-Arriola, F.; Suyker, A.; Arkebauer, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Projected increases in global population will put enormous pressure on fresh water resources in the coming decades. Approximately 70 percent of human water use is allocated to agriculture with 40 percent of global food production originating from irrigated lands. Growing demand for food will only worsen the strain placed on many irrigated agricultural systems resulting in an unsustainable reliance on groundwater. This work presents an overview of the Platte River Cosmic-ray Neutron Probe Monitoring Network, which consists of 10 fixed probes and 3 mobile probes located across the Platte River Basin. The network was installed in 2014 and is part of the larger US COSMOS (70+ probes) and global COSMOS networks (200+ probes). Here we will present an overview of the network, comparison of fixed neutron probe results across the basin, spatial mapping results of the mobile sensors at various sites and spatial scales, and lessons learned by working with various producers and water stakeholder groups. With the continued development of this technique, its incorporation for soil moisture management in large producer operations has the potential to increase irrigation water use efficiency in the Platte River Basin and beyond.

  10. Hydrogeologic and agricultural-chemical data for the South Skunk River alluvial aquifer at a site in Story County, Iowa, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    A reconnaissance study was conducted during 1992-93 to collect background hydrogeologic and agricultural-chemical data for the South Skunk River alluvial aquifer near Ames, Iowa. Observation wells were drilled to characterize the surficial geologic materials of a field-scale study site and to provide locations for collecting waterlevel and agricultural-chemical data. Walnut Creek, a tributary to the South Skunk River, forms a lateral boundary on the northern edge of the field site. Water-level measurements showed a hydraulic-head gradient towards the South Skunk River under both wet and dry conditions at the study site. Walnut Creek appears to be losing water to the aquifer during most hydrologic conditions. More than 20 milligrams per liter of nitrate as nitrogen were present consistently in water from the southeastern part of the study site. Nitrate-as-nitrogen concentrations in water samples from other locations routinely did not exceed 10 milligrams per liter. The herbicide atrazine was detected most often, 36 of 38 times, in water samples collected from observation wells adjacent to Walnut Creek. Atrazine was not used on the study site during 1992-93 but was found frequently in water samples from Walnut Creek. Therefore, Walnut Creek appears to be a source of herbicide contamination to the alluvial aquifer.

  11. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jose; Botsford, James; Hernandez, Jose; Montoya, Anna; Saenz, Roswitha; Valles, Adrian; Vazquez, Alejandro; Alvarez, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC). Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no significant correlation was

  12. Use of a dynamic simulation model to understand nitrogen cycling in the middle Rio Grande, NM.

    SciTech Connect

    Meixner, Tom; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Oelsner, Gretchen; Brooks, Paul; Roach, Jesse D.

    2008-08-01

    Water quality often limits the potential uses of scarce water resources in semiarid and arid regions. To best manage water quality one must understand the sources and sinks of both solutes and water to the river system. Nutrient concentration patterns can identify source and sink locations, but cannot always determine biotic processes that affect nutrient concentrations. Modeling tools can provide insight into these large-scale processes. To address questions about large-scale nitrogen removal in the Middle Rio Grande, NM, we created a system dynamics nitrate model using an existing integrated surface water--groundwater model of the region to evaluate our conceptual models of uptake and denitrification as potential nitrate removal mechanisms. We modeled denitrification in groundwater as a first-order process dependent only on concentration and used a 5% denitrification rate. Uptake was assumed to be proportional to transpiration and was modeled as a percentage of the evapotranspiration calculated within the model multiplied by the nitrate concentration in the water being transpired. We modeled riparian uptake as 90% and agricultural uptake as 50% of the respective evapotranspiration rates. Using these removal rates, our model results suggest that riparian uptake, agricultural uptake and denitrification in groundwater are all needed to produce the observed nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, conveyance channels, and river as well as the seasonal concentration patterns. The model results indicate that a total of 497 metric tons of nitrate-N are removed from the Middle Rio Grande annually. Where river nitrate concentrations are low and there are no large nitrate sources, nitrate behaves nearly conservatively and riparian and agricultural uptake are the most important removal mechanisms. Downstream of a large wastewater nitrate source, denitrification and agricultural uptake were responsible for approximately 90% of the nitrogen removal.

  13. Response of Polish rivers (Vistula, Oder) to reduced pressure from point sources and agriculture during the transition period (1988-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Stålnacke, Per; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Witek, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    The Vistula and Oder Rivers, two out of the seven largest rivers in the Baltic drainage basin, were responsible for 25% of total riverine nitrogen (TN) and 37% of total riverine phosphorus (TP) input to the Baltic Sea in 2000. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the response of these two rivers to changes that took place in Polish economy during the transition period (1988-2008). The economic changes encompassed: construction of nearly 900 waste water treatment plants in 1999-2008, modernization or closure of obsolete factories, economizing in water consumption, closure or change of ownership of State-owned farms, a drop in fertilizer application, and a decline in livestock stocking. More intensive agriculture and higher point source emissions in the Oder than in the Vistula basin resulted in higher concentrations of TN, nitrate (NO3-N), and TP in the Oder waters in the entire period of our studies. In both rivers, nutrient concentrations and loads showed significant declining trends in the period 1988-2008. TN loads decreased by ca. 20% and 25% in the Vistula and Oder; TP loads dropped by ca. 15% and 65% in the Vistula and Oder. The reduction in phosphorus loads was particularly pronounced in the Oder basin, which was characterized by efficient management systems aiming at mitigation of nutrient emission from the point sources and greater extent of structural changes in agricultural sector during the transition period. The trends in riverine loads are discussed in the paper in relation to socio-economical changes during the transition period, and with respect to physiographic features.

  14. Water-Quality and Biological Characteristics and Responses to Agricultural Land Retirement in Three Streams of the Minnesota River Basin, Water Years 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Mohring, Eric H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Water-quality and biological characteristics in three streams in the Minnesota River Basin were assessed using data collected during water years 2006-08. The responses of nutrient concentrations, suspended-sediment concentrations, and biological characteristics to agricultural land retirement also were assessed. In general, total nitrogen, suspended-sediment, and chlorophyll-a concentrations, and fish resource quality improved with increasing land retirement. The Chetomba Creek, West Fork Beaver Creek, and South Branch Rush River subbasins, which range in size from about 200 to 400 square kilometers, have similar geologic and hydrologic settings but differ with respect to the amount, type, and location of retired agricultural land. Total nitrogen concentrations were largest, with a mean of 15.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), in water samples from the South Branch Rush River, a subbasin with little to no agricultural land retirement; total nitrogen concentrations were smaller in samples from Chetomba Creek (mean of 10.6 mg/L) and West Fork Beaver Creek (mean of 7.9 mg/L), which are subbasins with more riparian or upland land retirement at the basin scale. Total phosphorus concentrations were not related directly to differing land-retirement percentages with mean concentrations at primary data-collection sites of 0.259 mg/L in the West Fork Beaver Creek subbasin, 0.164 mg/L in the Chetomba Creek subbasin, and 0.180 mg/L in the South Branch Rush River subbasin. Temporal variation in water quality was characterized using data from in-stream water-quality monitors and storm-sediment data. Fish data indicate better resource quality for the West Fork Beaver Creek subbasin than for other subbasins likely due to a combination of factors, including habitat quality, food resources, and dissolved oxygen characteristics. Index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores increased as local land-retirement percentages (within 50 and 100 meters of the streams) increased. Data and analysis from

  15. Climate change impacts on runoff, sediment, and nutrient loads in an agricultural watershed in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projected climate change can impact various aspects of agricultural systems, including the nutrient and sediment loads exported from agricultural fields. This study evaluated the potential changes in runoff, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads using projected climate estimates from 2041 – 2070 ...

  16. Simulated effects of water-level changes in the Mississippi River and Pokegama Reservoir on ground-water levels, Grand Rapids area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2005-01-01

    The extent of aquifer water-level changes resulting from these river, wetland, and lake water-level changes varied because of the complex hydrogeology of the study area. A 1.00-foot decline in reservoir/river water levels caused a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline in the middle aquifer near Jay Gould and Little Jay Gould Lakes of 1.09 feet and a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline of 1.00 foot in the lower aquifer near Cut-off and Blackwater Lakes. The amount and extent of ground-water-level changes in the middle and lower aquifers can be explained by the thickness, extent, and connectivity of the aquifers. Surface-water/ground-water interactions near wetlands and lakes with water levels unchanged from the calibrated model resulted in small water-table altitude differences among the simulations. Results of the ground-water modeling indicate that lowering of the reservoir and river water levels by 1.00 foot likely will not substantially affect water levels in the middle and lower aquifers.

  17. Risk assessment of agriculture impact on the Frío River watershed and Caño Negro Ramsar wetland, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fournier, María-Luisa; Echeverría-Sáenz, Silvia; Mena, Freylan; Arias-Andrés, María; de la Cruz, Elba; Ruepert, Clemens

    2017-01-10

    The Caño Negro Ramsar wetland is a conservation area of great natural and societal value, located in the lower part of the Frío River watershed in the north of Costa Rica. Its aquatic ecosystems may be considered vulnerable to pollution due to recent changes in land use toward agriculture. In 2011 and 2012, quarterly sampling was done at ten sites located in the middle and lower sections of the Frío River Basin that pass through crop areas and later drain into Caño Negro wetland. Pesticide residues, nitrates, sediment concentrations, and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish biomarkers were studied in the selected sites. Additionally, risk of toxicity was calculated in two different ways: (1) by using a ratio of MEC to hazard concentrations threshold for 5% of species (HC5) to calculate a risk quotient (RQ), and (2) by using a ratio of MEC to available ecotoxicity data of native fish and cladocera for diazinon and ethoprophos, to obtain a risk quotient for native species (RQns). Results indicated that three out of the ten sites (rivers Thiales, Mónico, and Sabogal) showed variable levels of pollution including six different active ingredients (a.i.) of pesticide formulations (herbicides ametryn, bromacil, and diuron; insecticides cypermethrin, diazinon, and ethoprophos). Moreover, potential adverse effects on fishes in Thiales and Mónico rivers were indicated by cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enhancement. Risk evaluations indicated pesticide residues of ametryn, bromacil, and ethoprophos to be exceeding the limits set by MTR, also RQ was high (>1) in 70% of the positive samples for diuron (most frequently found pesticide in water samples), cypermethrin, diazinon, and ethoprophos, and RQns was high for diazinon. Therefore, these substances might be of major concern for the ecological health of aquatic ecosystems in the middle basin of the Frío River. The most critical site was Mónico River, which had the

  18. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Nutrients in two coastal prairie streams draining agricultural areas, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began nationwide implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Long-term goals of NAWQA are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation?s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources (Leahy and others, 1990). The Trinity River Basin in east-central Texas (fig. 1) was among the first 20 hydrologic areas, called study units, to be assessed by this program. The first intensive data-collection phase for the Trinity River Basin NAWQA began in March 1993 and ended in September 1995. Streams in the Trinity River Basin were assessed by sampling water, bed sediment, and tissue of biota and characterizing the aquatic communities and their habitat. Aquifers were assessed by sampling water from wells. The coastal prairie is a small part of the Trinity River Basin, but it is environmentally important because of its proximity to Galveston Bay and the extensive use of agricultural chemicals on many irrigated farms. Galveston Bay (fig. 1) was selected by Congress as an estuary of national significance and was included on a priority list for the National Estuary Program. The Trinity River is especially important because its watershed dominates the total Galveston Bay drainage area and because its flow contributes substantial amounts of freshwater and water-quality constituents to the bay. Historically, measurements of the quantity and quality of water entering Galveston Bay from the Trinity River Basin have been made using data from a station about 113 kilometers (70 miles) upstream from Trinity Bay, an inlet bay to Galveston Bay. With a focused objective of providing additional water-quality information in the intervening coastal prairie area and an overall objective of improving the understanding of the relations between farming practices

  19. 29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (compare this photograph with AZ-17-15, taken at the same spot in 1937). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST FROM BELOW THE SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 REALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD RAILROAD CROSSING AND CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT LARGE WHITE BUILDING. THE CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT IS HIDDEN BY TREES TO RIGHT OF STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTH BANK NEAR SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). THE LARGE FOREGROUND PIPE CARRIED WATER ACROSS THE CANAL FROM THE SETTLING BASIN TO THE CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  4. Determining Environmental Factors Controlling Nitrogen Cycling in the Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D. A.; Szynkiewicz, A.; Faiia, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande is a semi-arid river in the American Southwest supporting agriculture and large populous centers in New Mexico and west Texas. In addition to increasing salinity, considerable increases of nitrate (NO3), up to ~50 mg/L, have been previously observed in the Rio Grande between Las Cruces, New Mexico and El Paso, Texas. This is particularly a problem during non-irrigation season when little surface water is released from upstream reservoirs, substantially reducing stream flows in the Rio Grande. While both irrigation runoff and municipal waste effluents are likely important NO3 contributors, there are no quantitative studies assessing NO3 fluxes to the Rio Grande from these two sources. Therefore, in this study we used 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of NO3 as environmental tracers to characterize major NO3 sources in the Rio Grande and its agricultural drains between Las Cruces and El Paso. Surface water of the semi-arid Rio Grande, drains and major wastewater treatment plants were collected in October 2014 (non-irrigation season) and August 2015 (irrigation season). The water samples from the 2014 sampling campaign showed that the 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of NO3 in the Rio Grande and two agricultural drains located south of El Paso varied in relatively narrow range from +9.8 to +15.7‰ and -5.9 to -0.2‰, respectively. These ranges were similar to 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of local wastewater treatment plants in Las Cruces and El Paso, from +8.2 to +10.2‰ and -9.7 to -2.5‰ respectively. Municipal wastewater effluents are important tributaries to the semi-arid Rio Grande in the studied area, particularly during non-irrigation season. Furthermore, irrigation of agricultural fields south of El Paso is to a large extent supported by reclaimed municipal wastewater. Consequently, these explain the observed higher contributions of NO3 from urban sources in the investigated area.

  5. Differences in Nutrient Sources Caused by Variations in Monsoon Strength and Land Use/Land Cover, Middle Rio Grande, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelsner, G. P.; Brooks, P. D.; Hogan, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Synoptic sampling of the Middle Rio Grande (MRG) in central New Mexico was conducted each year during August from 2001 through 2006. Land use in the basin includes a large urban area around Albuquerque, agricultural areas, and rangeland. Because the Rio Grande is a highly managed river, the affects of land use and land cover on water quality are associated primarily with active management of river flows and water diversions and secondarily by episodic precipitation events that circumvent these management structures. A persistent monsoon regime brought heavy rains to the MRG in central New Mexico during July and August making 2006 the 8th wettest year on record for Albuquerque, NM. This summer's heavy rains increased river discharge and inputs from tributaries and ephemeral streams which served to reconnect the river to its floodplain and riparian area and transport solutes to the river from normally disconnected sources. Discharge in the Middle Rio Grande was 39 cms during the 2006 sampling event which is 250% higher than discharge during the previous sampling events. Under non-flood conditions, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are the primary source of nitrogen to the river. However, N loading from the Albuquerque WWTP was 40% lower in 2006 than previous years due to a decrease in effluent TDN concentrations. Tributaries had similar TDN concentrations in all years, but due to increased discharge, TDN loads from tributaries were an order of magnitude higher in 2006 and exceeded the TDN input from WWTPs. In all years, agricultural drains had lower TDN concentrations than the river water originally diverted for irrigation, suggesting that the agricultural areas function as a sink for nitrogen under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Increased TDN concentrations and discharge rates resulted in a five-fold increase of N loading to Elephant Butte Reservoir from 1000 kgN/day to more than 5000 kgN/day. Analysis of DOC and stable isotopes of water should help to

  6. Changes in nutrient and pesticide concentrations in urban and agricultural areas of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, 1994-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Greve, Adrienne I.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored two sites on the main-stem South Platte River? an urban site in Denver and a mixed urban/agricultural site near Kersey?to determine changes in nutrient and pesticide concentrations from 1994 through 2000. Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and orthophosphorus decreased at the Denver site during the study period, likely due to an increase in instream dilution of wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and upgrades at the WWTPs. In contrast, only concentrations of orthophosphorus decreased at the Kersey site; agricultural inputs between Denver and Kersey may have offset the observed decreases in other nutrients upstream. During the extreme low-flow conditions in 1994, when there was relatively little snowmelt to dilute instream pesticide concentrations, total median pesticide concentrations at both sites were the highest of the study period. During the less extreme conditions in 1997 through 2000, greater amounts of snowmelt likely led to lower total median pesticide concentrations at both sites. Because pesticide-use data are not available, the contribution of changes in the amount and type of pesticides applied on the land to changes in the concentration of pesticides in the river is not known but likely was substantial. In general, insecticides predominated at the Denver site, whereas herbicides predominated at the Kersey site.

  7. Whole watershed spectrometric and fluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter in two large rivers in Canada with differing impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, R.; Schiff, S.; Elgood, R.

    2009-05-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon pools on Earth. In aquatic systems, DOM can be derived from a terrestrial source (allochthonous) or within the aquatic system (autochthonous). These two types of DOM differ in UV absorbance and fluorescence. These methods are useful in differentiating the source and quality of DOM. Allochthonous DOM contains more humic and fulvic acids with higher absorbance at 254nm (SUVA) than autochthonous DOM. Using 3D fluorescence, the fluorescence index (FI) is higher for autochthonous than allochthonous DOM. These sources of DOM have implications on the availability to heterotrophic microorganisms, the depth of the photic zone for photosynthesis, the attenuation of damaging ultraviolet radiation, and the mobility of harmful contaminants. We investigated the changes in DOM at the watershed scale. The Grand River watershed has an area of 6800 km2 and stretches 300km through southern Ontario, Canada, flowing into Lake Erie. The primary land use in the basin is agriculture and the population is about 900,000 mostly in urban centres along the river. The largest cities Kitchener, Waterloo, and Cambridge are located in the middle of the watershed. The Burnt River in the Muskokas serves as a less impacted comparison. Changes in the spectrometric and fluorometric properties DOM along the length of the Grand River show the influence of seasons and land use, particularly agricultural and urban. The more impacted Grand River shows a generally more autochthonous signature than the less impacted Burnt River.

  8. Future Water Management in the South Platte River Basin: Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing, Population, Agriculture, and Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. L.; Hogue, T. S.; Anderson, A. M.; Read, L.

    2015-12-01

    In semi-arid basins across the world, the gap between water supply and demand is growing due to climate change, population growth, and shifts in agriculture and unconventional energy development. Water conservation efforts among residential and industrial water users, recycling and reuse techniques and innovative regulatory frameworks for water management strive to mitigate this gap, however, the extent of these strategies are often difficult to quantify and not included in modeling water allocations. Decision support systems (DSS) are purposeful for supporting water managers in making informed decisions when competing demands create the need to optimize water allocation between sectors. One region of particular interest is the semi-arid region of the South Platte River basin in northeastern Colorado, where anthropogenic and climatic effects are expected to increase the gap between water supply and demand in the near future. Specifically, water use in the South Platte is impacted by several high-intensity activities, including unconventional energy development, i.e. hydraulic fracturing, and large withdrawals for agriculture; these demands are in addition to a projected population increase of 100% by 2050. The current work describes the development of a DSS for the South Platte River basin, using the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP) to explore scenarios of how variation in future water use in the energy, agriculture, and municipal sectors will impact water allocation decisions. Detailed data collected on oil and gas water use in the Niobrara shale play will be utilized to predict future sector use. We also employ downscaled climate projections for the region to quantify the potential range of water availability in the basin under each scenario, and observe whether or not, and to what extent, climate may impact management decisions at the basin level.

  9. Preliminary assessment of DOC and THM precursor loads from a freshwater restored wetland, an agricultural field, and a tidal wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, R.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Ganju, N.K.; Fleck, J.A.; Burow-Fogg, K.R.; Schoellhamer, D.; Deverel, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta supplies drinking water to more than 22 million people in California. At certain times of the year, Delta waters contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bromide. During these times, chlorination of Delta water for drinking water disinfection will form disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), that can exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for THMs of 80 mg/L. Important sources of DOC and THM precursors (types of DOC that form THMs when chlorinated) to the Delta include rivers, drainage water from peat islands, water from wetlands and areas with extensive riparian vegetation, and in-channel growth of algae and macrophytes. Due to proposed ecosystem restoration and creation of wetlands in the Delta, there is an urgent need for information on the relative loads of DOC and THM precursors produced from three different land uses: restored wetlands constructed for subsidence mitigation, tidal wetlands, and agricultural operations. We have been conducting research in the Delta to provide this information. A restored wetland and agricultural field located on Twitchell Island, and a tidal wetland on Browns Island have been monitored for flow, DOC, and THM precursors. Initial results indicate that the loads of DOC and THM precursors are similar for the restored wetland (surface water only) and the agricultural field. These land uses produce DOC loads of about 14 and 11 g C/m2/yr, respectively, and THM precursor loads of about 1.7 and 1.0 g THM/m2/yr, respectively. Estimates of DOC and THM precursor loads for the tidal wetland site on Browns Island and seepage associated with the restored wetland are being developed.

  10. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  11. Impacts of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling as simulated by the CRCM5: a case study of the La Grande River watershed, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irambona, C.; Music, B.; Nadeau, D. F.; Mahdi, T. F.; Strachan, I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Located in northern Quebec, Canada, eight hydroelectric reservoirs of a 9782-km2 maximal area cover 6.4% of the La Grande watershed. This study investigates the changes brought by the impoundment of these reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling. Two 30-year climate simulations, corresponding to pre- and post-impoundment conditions, were used. They were generated with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), fully coupled to a 1D lake model (FLake). Seasonal temperatures and annual energy budget were generally well reproduced by the model, except in spring when a cold bias, probably related to the overestimation of snow cover, was seen. The difference in 2-m temperature shows that reservoirs induce localized warming in winter (+0.7 ± 0.02 °C) and cooling in the summer (-0.3 ± 0.02 °C). The available energy at the surface increases throughout the year, mostly due to a decrease in surface albedo. Fall latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced due to additional energy storage and availability in summer and spring. The changes in precipitation and runoff are within the model internal variability. At the watershed scale, reservoirs induce an additional evaporation of only 5.9 mm year-1 (2%). We use Brubaker's precipitation recycling model to estimate how much of the precipitation is recycled within the watershed. In both simulations, the maximal precipitation recycling occurs in July (less than 6%), indicating weak land-atmosphere coupling. Reservoirs do not seem to affect this coupling, as precipitation recycling only decreased by 0.6% in July.

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaf vegetables from agricultural soils and associated potential health risks in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chang, C Y; Yu, H Y; Chen, J J; Li, F B; Zhang, H H; Liu, C P

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the extent of heavy metal accumulation in leaf vegetables and associated potential health risks in agricultural areas of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Total concentrations of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were determined in 92 pairs of soil and leaf vegetable (flowering Chinese cabbage, lettuce, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, loose-leaf lettuce, and Chinese leaf mustard) samples collected from seven agricultural areas (cities). The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals from soil to vegetables were estimated, and the potential health risks of heavy metal exposure to the PRD residents through consumption of local leaf vegetables were assessed. Results showed that among the six leaf vegetables, pakchoi had the lowest capacity for heavy metal enrichment, whereas among the five heavy metals, Cd had the highest capacity for transferring from soil into vegetables, with BCF values 30-fold those of Hg and 50-fold those of Cr, Pb and As. Sewage irrigation and fertilization were likely the main sources of heavy metals accumulated in leaf vegetables grown in agricultural areas of the PRD region. Different from previous findings, soil pH had no clear effect on metal accumulation in leaf vegetables. Despite a certain degree of metal enrichment from soil to leaf vegetables, the PRD residents were not exposed to significant health risks associated with consumption of local leaf vegetables. Nevertheless, more attention should be paid to children due to their sensitivity to metal pollutants.

  13. "P8400564 Grand Valley Project view of GV Diversion Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "P8-400-564 Grand Valley Project - view of GV Diversion Dam on Col. River completed in 1915 by BOR to divert water to irrigate the Grand Valley Project. 7-18-58 by Stan Rasmussen." Note integration of the dam and canal headgate at center left, proximity of the river and railroad tracks at lower left, and gatekeeper's house on lower right - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  14. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  15. High-Level Genetic Diversity but No Population Structure Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Markers of the Peritrichous Ciliate Carchesium polypinum in the Grand River Basin (North America)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gentekaki, E.; Lynn, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that assess intraspecific genetic variation in ciliates are few and quite recent. Consequently, knowledge of the subject and understanding of the processes that underlie it are limited. We sought to assess the degree of intraspecific genetic variation in Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia), a cosmopolitan, freshwater ciliate. We isolated colonies of C. polypinum from locations in the Grand River basin in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. We then used the nuclear markers—ITS1, ITS2, and the hypervariable regions of the large subunit rRNA—and an 819-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (cox-1) to investigate the intraspecific genetic variation of C. polypinum and the degree of resolution of the above-mentioned markers at the population level. We also sought to determine whether the organism demonstrated any population structure that mapped onto the geography of the region. Our study shows that there is a high degree of genetic diversity at the isolate level, revealed by the mitochondrial markers but not the nuclear markers. Furthermore, our results indicate that C. polypinum is likely not a single morphospecies as previously thought. PMID:19304815

  16. The effect of regulation caused by a dam on the distribution of the functional feeding groups of the benthos in the sub basin of the Grande River (san Luis, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Vallania, Adriana; Corigliano, Maria Del Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The construction of small dams in principal streams is one of the most common forms of regulation in the province of San Luis since they cause changes of physical, chemical and biological nature downstream. The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term modifications in the food organization of benthic macroinvertebrates communities due to the construction of a dam in the Grande River (San Luis, Argentina). Two sampling sites were established: one before the dam and another one after it. The samplings were carried out with Surber sampler and during an annual cycle extending from April 1997 to March 1998, and two complementary samplings were done in low and high waters. The field sampling design was stratified randomly, and 3 pseudo replicas were taken in a transect seasonally and monthly and were then averaged. Macroinvertebrates were classified in different functional feeding groups. The comparisons at the level of physical and chemical variables and absolute abundances of the functional groups were carried out by means of the Wilcoxon test for two related samples. The collector-filterers, scrapers and predators increase whereas the collector-gatherers and shredders decreased. There were significant differences at the level of gatherers and shredders.

  17. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  18. THE YALOBUSHA RIVER - GRENADA RESERVOIR WATERSHED: SEDIMENT MOVEMENT, ACCUMULATION AND QUALITY IN A MISSISSIPPI INTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined sedimentation rates, watershed contamination contributions and potential impacts of row cropping (cotton, corn, soybeans, and sweet potato) on a small river and a large downstream flood control reservoir in the loess hills of Mississippi, USA. Grenada Reservoir has a total watershed dra...

  19. Effects of hydrology, watershed size, and agricultural practices on sediment yields in two river basins in Iowa and Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The specific sediment yield (SSY) from watersheds is the result of the balance between natural, scale-dependent erosion, and deposition processes, but can be greatly altered by human activities. In general, the SSY decreases along the course of a river as sediments are trapped in alluvial plains and...

  20. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Land cover data sets (1974-2007) for two southwestern Oklahoma agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A retrospective land cover analysis covering the time period from the early 1970s to early 1990s was conducted to gain a sense of the dynamics of land cover changes on the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir experimental watersheds (LWREW, FCREW), located in southwestern Oklahoma. This stu...

  1. Electrical resistivity investigation of fluvial geomorphology to evaluate potential seepage conduits to agricultural lands along the San Joaquin River, Merced County, California, 2012–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groover, Krishangi D.; Burgess, Matthew K.; Howle, James F.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2017-02-08

    Increased flows in the San Joaquin River, part of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program, are designed to help restore fish populations. However, increased seepage losses could result from these higher restoration flows, which could exacerbate existing drainage problems in neighboring agricultural lands and potentially damage crops. Channel deposits of abandoned river meanders that are hydraulically connected to the river could act as seepage conduits, allowing rapid and widespread water-table rise during restoration flows. There is a need to identify the geometry and properties of these channel deposits to assess their role in potential increased seepage effects and to evaluate management alternatives for reducing seepage. Electrical and electromagnetic surface geophysical methods have provided a reliable proxy for lithology in studies of fluvial and hyporheic systems where a sufficient electrical contrast exists between deposits of differing grain size. In this study, direct-current (DC) resistivity was used to measure subsurface resistivity to identify channel deposits and to map their subsurface geometry. The efficacy of this method was assessed by using DC resistivity surveys collected along a reach of the San Joaquin River in Merced County, California, during the summers of 2012 and 2013, in conjunction with borings and associated measurements from a hydraulic profiling tool. Modeled DC resistivity data corresponded with data from cores, hand-auger samples, a hydraulic profiling tool, and aerial photographs, confirming that DC resistivity is effective for differentiating between silt and sand deposits in this setting. Modeled DC resistivity data provided detailed two-dimensional cross-sectional resistivity profiles to a depth of about 20 meters. The distribution of high-resistivity units in these profiles was used as a proxy for identifying areas of high hydraulic conductivity. These data were used subsequently to guide the location and depth of wells

  2. The ‘Grand Canyon’ of the Da'an River, Taiwan - Influences on Ultra-Rapid Incision and Knickpoint Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. L.; Suppe, J.

    2009-12-01

    The 1999 magnitude 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake resulted in significant surface uplift along the rupture zone in western Taiwan. At northeastern-most end of the rupture zone, near the town of Cholan, motion on the Chelungpu fault was accommodated by growth of the Tungshi Anticline, resulting in up to 10m of surface uplift in the channel of the Da’an River. Where the river crosses the anticline, the zone of uplift is approximately 1 km wide, with a gently sloping downstream (western) limb about 400 m long and an abrupt upstream (eastern) limb less than 50 m long. The bedrock consists of the Pliocene Cholan Formation, composed of alternating sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone beds. The bedrock is quite weak and is also pervasively fractured, making it extremely easy to erode. In response to the 1999 uplift, the Da’an River has cut a dramatic gorge, with more than 20 m of incision over a very short period. The rapid pace of incision allows us to directly observe how factors such as lithology, structure, and discharge influence the evolution of an actively incising gorge. We use a series of aerial photographs to map out the development of the gorge since 1999. We monitor the more recent evolution of the system with RTK GPS surveys to measure channel profiles, laser rangefinder measurements of channel width, and terrestrial LIDAR surveys to quantify changes in the gorge walls. The channel can currently be divided into four segments: 1) A broad network of braided alluvial channels upstream of the gorge with an average slope of 1.5 cm/km, 2) A steep knickzone about 600 m long with an average slope of 2.7 cm/km, about 8 meters of ‘excess’ incision, and abundant bedrock in the channel, 3) A lower gorge zone with low slopes, averaging between 0.6 and 1.1 cm/km, a significant amount of aggradation, and relatively narrow width, as flow is confined to the incised gorge, and 4) A broad network of braided alluvial channels downstream of the gorge with an average slope of 1.5 cm

  3. From the Mountains of the Moon to the Grand Renaissance: misinformation, disinformation and, finally, information for cooperation in the Nile River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Habib, S.; Anderson, M. C.; Ozdogan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Nile River basin is shared by 11 nations and approximately 200 million people. Eight of the riparian States are defined as Least Developed Countries by the United Nations, and about 50% of the total basin population lives below the international poverty line. In addition, eight of the eleven countries have experienced internal or external wars in the past 20 years, six are predicted to be water scarce by 2025, and, at present, major water resource development projects are moving forward in the absence of a fully recognized basin-wide water sharing agreement. Nevertheless, the Nile basin presents remarkable opportunities for transboundary water cooperation, and today—notwithstanding significant substantive and perceived disagreements between stakeholders in the basin—this cooperation is beginning to be realized in topics ranging from flood early warning to hydropower optimization to regional food security. This presentation will provide an overview of historic and present challenges and opportunities for transboundary water management in the Nile basin and will present several case studies in which improved hydroclimatic information and communication systems are currently laying the groundwork for advanced cooperation. In this context climate change acts as both stress and motivator. On one hand, non-stationary hydrology is expected to tax water resources in the basin, and it undermines confidence in conventionally formulated water sharing agreements. On the other, non-stationarity is increasingly understood to be an exogenous threat to regional food and water security that will require informed, flexible cooperation between riparian states.

  4. Estimating recruitment dynamics and movement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using an integrated assessment model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Martell, Steven J.D.; Walters, Carl J.; Makinster, Andrew S.; Coggins, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.; Persons, William R.

    2012-01-01

    We used an integrated assessment model to examine effects of flow from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA, on recruitment of nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River and to estimate downstream migration from Glen Canyon to Marble Canyon, a reach used by endangered native fish. Over a 20-year period, recruitment of rainbow trout in Glen Canyon increased with the annual flow volume and when hourly flow variation was reduced and after two of three controlled floods. The model predicted that approximately 16 000 trout·year–1 emigrated to Marble Canyon and that the majority of trout in this reach originate from Glen Canyon. For most models that were examined, over 70% of the variation in emigration rates was explained by variation in recruitment in Glen Canyon, suggesting that flow from the dam controls in large part the extent of potential negative interactions between rainbow trout and native fish. Controlled floods and steadier flows, which were originally aimed at partially restoring conditions before the dam (greater native fish abundance and larger sand bars), appear to have been more beneficial to nonnative rainbow trout than to native fish.

  5. Comparisons of Water Quality and Biological Variables from Colorado River Shoreline Habitats in Grand Canyon, Arizona, under Steady and Fluctuating Discharges from Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Lauretta, Matthew V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam operations are known to affect mainstem Colorado River temperature and shoreline habitats for native fish. Options for ameliorating the impacts that operations have on young native fish include changing release volumes and/or changing the daily range of releases. Long-term alterations of operations that may produce a measurable biological response can be costly, particularly if the treatment involves reduced power generation. In September and October 2005, a series of two-week releases occurred that alternated between daily fluctuations that varied by 76 m3 s-1 and steady releases. The purpose of these short-term experiments was to study the effect of daily operations on water quality parameters and biotic constituents (phytoplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fishes) of associated shoreline habitats. Our results indicate that measured biological and physical parameters were, in general, unaffected by flow treatments. However, results should be interpreted cautiously as time within and between treatments was likely insufficient to affect measured parameters. These results lead to the recommendation that studies like this may be more amenable to laboratory experiments first and then applied to a large-scale setting, preferably for longer duration.

  6. 75 FR 7625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Rio Grande Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus amarus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... (mi)) reach of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico, downstream of Cochiti Dam to the headwaters of Elephant Butte Reservoir. In December 2008, silvery minnows were introduced into the Rio Grande River near Big Bend, Texas, as a nonessential, experimental population under section 10(j) of the ESA (December...

  7. Different Views of the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.

    Each year the spectacular scenery of the Grand Canyon of Arizona awes its more than 4,000,000 visitors. Just as its enormous scale dwarfs our human sense of space, its geology also dwarfs our human sense of time. Perhaps here, more than anywhere else on the planet, we can experience a sense of ``Deep Time.'' The colorful rocks exposed in the vertical walls of the canyon display a span of 1.8 billion years of Earth's history [Beus and Morales, 2003]. But wait! There is a different view! According to Vail [2003], this time span is only 6,000 years and the Grand Canyon and its rocks are a record of the Biblical 6 days of creation and Noah's flood. During a visit to Grand Canyon, in August 2003, I learned that Vail's book, Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold within the National Park. The author and compiler of Grand Canyon: A Different View is a Colorado River guide who is well acquainted with the Grand Canyon at river level. He has produced a book with an attractive layout and beautiful photographs. The book is remarkable because it has 23 co-authors, all male, who comprise a veritable ``Who's Who'' in creationism. For example, Henry Morris and John Whitcomb, the authors of the seminal young Earth creationist text, The Genesis Flood [Whitcomb and Morris, 1961], each contribute a brief introduction. Each chapter of Grand Canyon: A Different View begins with an overview by Vail, followed by brief comments by several contributors that ``have been peer reviewed to ensure a consistent and Biblical perspective.'' This perspective is strict Biblical literalism.

  8. Incidence of metal and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from the river water, agricultural soil irrigated with wastewater and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Malik, Abdul; Aleem, Asma

    2011-07-01

    A total of 144 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. (48 each from the Yamuna River water, wastewater irrigated soil and groundwater irrigated soil) were tested for their resistance against certain heavy metals and antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Hg(2+ ), Cd(2+ ), Cu(2+ ), Zn(2+ ), Ni(2+ ), Pb(2+ ), Cr(3+ ) and Cr(6+ ) for each isolate were also determined. A maximum MIC of 200 μg/ml for mercury and 3,200 μg/ml for other metals were observed. The incidences of metal resistance and MICs of metals for Pseudomonas isolates from the Yamuna water and wastewater irrigated soil were significantly different to those of groundwater irrigated soil. A high level of resistance against tetracycline and polymyxin B (81.2%) was observed in river water isolates. However, 87.5% of Pseudomonas isolates from soil irrigated with wastewater showed resistance to sulphadiazine, whereas 79.1% were resistant to both ampicillin and erythromycin. Isolates from soil irrigated with groundwater exhibited less resistance towards heavy metals and antibiotics as compared to those of river water and wastewater irrigated soil. Majority of the Pseudomonas isolates from water and soil exhibited resistance to multiple metals and antibiotics. Resistance was transferable to recipient Escherichia coli AB2200 strains by conjugation. Plasmids were cured with the curing agent ethidium bromide and acridine orange at sub-MIC concentration.

  9. Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munski, Laura

    Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Streamflow and Dissolved Solids in the Rio Grande from Del Norte, Colorado, to El Paso, Texas, 1993-95

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. J.; Anderholm, S. K.

    2002-12-01

    Data collected as part of the Rio Grande Valley National Water Quality Assessment Program were used to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in streamflow and the concentration of dissolved solids at selected sites on the Rio Grande from Del Norte, Colorado, to El Paso, Texas, for the period of April 1993 to September 1995. Dissolved solids loads, which were estimated by a multivariate linear regression model (ESTIMATOR2000), are also presented and discussed. Spatial and temporal variations in streamflow, dissolved solids concentrations, and dissolved solids loads were used to evaluate how surface-water and ground-water inflows to and outflows from the Rio Grande affect dissolved solids along the river. Streamflow decreases from Del Norte, Colorado, to the mouth of the Conejos River because of diversions for irrigation. Streamflow increases from the mouth of the Conejos River to Otowi Bridge because of surface-water inflows (from the Conejos River, the Chama River, and other tributaries) and ground-water inflow in northern New Mexico. Streamflow decreases downstream from Otowi Bridge because outflows (due to agricultural use, leakage to ground water, and evapo-transpiration) are greater than inflows. Dissolved solids concentrations generally increase in the downstream direction; however, dissolved solids concentrations decrease between the mouth of the Conejos River and Otowi Bridge due to surface-water inflows from the Conejos and the Chama Rivers and ground-water inflows in northern New Mexico. In several reaches of the Rio Grande, decreasing streamflow and increasing dissolved solids loads indicate the presence of inflows with large dissolved solids concentrations (relative to those of the Rio Grande immediately upstream from that inflow); this occurs (1) between Del Norte, Colorado, and the mouth of Trinchera Creek, near Lasauses, Colorado (2) between Otowi Bridge and San Marcial, New Mexico, and (3) between Leasburg, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas

  11. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (<63 μm) was investigated in the Quesnel River Basin (QRB) (~11,500 km(2)) in British Columbia, Canada. Samples of fine-grained sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal.

  12. Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion contamination for a river passing through an agricultural and urban area in Higashi Hiroshima City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-06-15

    A study was conducted on the pesticides Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion in Kurose River water, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan for a period of one year to assess the contribution of agriculture and urban activities on pesticide pollution of the river. Samples were analysed by a reverse phase HPLC system. The maximum pesticide concentrations were; 4620 ng/L, 50 ng/L and 370 ng/L for Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion, respectively. While Diuron and Fenitrothion were detected at all sites, Irgarol 1051 was only present at Izumi, a high density urban and industrial area which also registered the highest concentrations of the pesticides. The pattern showed by Diuron and Fenitrothion was linked to farming activities. Also, Diuron and Fenitrothion concentration correlated with pesticide utilization data for Hiroshima Prefecture. Irgarol 1051 showed a different pattern to that of Diuron and Fenitrothion and its source was attributed to paint. It was noted that 78% and 42% of water samples at Izumi sampling site exceeded the European Union (EU) guidelines for Diuron and Fenitrothion, respectively.

  13. Nitrate pollution of groundwater in the alsatian plain (France)—A multidisciplinary study of an agricultural area: The Central Ried of the ill river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, C.; Carbiener, R.; Cloots, A. R.; Froehlicher, R.; Schenck, Ch.; Zilliox, L.

    1992-09-01

    The area studied is part of the “Ried Central” of the Ill river (Middle Alsatian plain in northeastern France). This area is located mainly in the present floodplain of the Ill. The closeness of the water table to the surface results in quasi general soil hydromorphism. The economic constraints of the last two decades led to deep changes in agricultural activities in the study area. These have essentially involved a marked extension of intensive cultivation of grain corn at the expense of grasslands. The study of the influence of this change on the parallel increase in the concentration of nitrate in groundwater is only feasible when a multidisciplinary approach is adopted. The analyses carried out in the field and in the laboratory show that nitrate reduction occurs in gleyed or peaty horizons of hydromorphic soils. The aptitude and efficiency of the permanent ambient vegetation (alluvial forests and grasslands) in retaining nitrate must be emphasized. The amount of nitrate eliminated from the aquifer by rivers fed by this aquifer is considerable. This evacuation of nitrate into the Ill is a fine example of waste and illustrates the absurdity of the economic situation responsible for excessive nitrogen fertilization of farmlands. In determining hazard zones, this study also proposes practical solutions to the problem of nitrate pollution: diminution of land area under cultivation, reintroduction of grasslands, and a more judicious use of nitrogen manure.

  14. Quantify Effects of Integrated Land Management on Water Quality in Agricultural Landscape in South Fork Watershed, Iowa River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, M.; Wu, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable biofuel feedstock production — environmental sustainability and economic sustainability — may be achieved by using a multi-faceted approach. This study focuses on quantifying the water sustainability of an integrated landscaping strategy, by which current land use and land management, cropping system, agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and economics play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the South Fork watershed, IA, including the tributaries of Tipton and Beaver Creeks, which expand to 800-km2 drainage areas. The watershed is an agricultural dominant area covered with row-crops production. On the basis of profitability, switchgrass was chosen as a replacement for row crops in low-productivity land. Areas for harvesting agricultural residue were selected on the basis of soil conservation principals. Double cropping with a cover crop was established to further reduce soil loss. Vegetation buffer strips were in place at fields and in riparian areas for water quality control, resource conservation, and eco service improvement. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate source reduction under various management schemes and land use changes. SWAT modeling incorporated 10-yr meteorological information, soil data, land slope classification, land use, four-year crop-rotation cycle, and management operations. Tile drain and pothole parameters were modeled to assess the fate and transport of nutrients. The influence of landscape management and cropping systems on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, erosion process, and hydrological performance at the sub-watershed scale was analyzed and key factors identified. Results suggest strongly that incorporating agricultural BMPs and conservation strategies into integrated landscape management for certain energy crops in row-crop production regions can be economical and environmentally sustainable.

  15. Exploring relationships among land ownership, agricultural land use, and native fish species richness in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored relationships among agricultural land use, land ownership, and native fish biodiversity in the UMRB as a first step toward helping the Fishers and Farmers Partnership identify specific locations in the UMRB that may pose conservation challenges. For example, places that have experienced a loss of native fish species richness relative to historical conditions and also have high proportions of absentee landowners may provide restoration challenges. We were also interested in identifying areas that have retained high levels of species richness and are owner-operated. These areas present good opportunities to work with local landowners to protect aquatic resources. To identify such areas, we addressed two primary questions: 1) Is there a relationship between the type of agricultural land use (i.e. cropland vs pastureland) and the % of land rented or leased within the UMRB? and 2) How does the type of agricultural production and whether land is rented or leased relate to the maintenance of historical levels of native fish species richness? We predicted that areas with large amounts of land devoted to crop production will have experienced the greatest losses of native fish species richness. However, our hypothesis is that watersheds with large amounts of land rented or leased will have experienced even greater declines in native fish species richness than would be predicted from the amount of cultivated cropland alone. By testing these hypotheses, we intended to identify watersheds that would be strong candidates for protection, restoration, and enhancement

  16. The Role of Agriculture in the Social and Economic Development of the Lower Mississippi River Delta Region. Proceedings of a Regional Conference (Memphis, Tennessee, February 26-28, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Ames, IA.

    The lower Mississippi River delta region comprises 214 counties in Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Illinois. The region is heavily dependent on agriculture and contains unusually high proportions of small farms, poor farmers, and black farmers. A conference planned by the region's 13 land-grant institutions and…

  17. Wireless in-situ Sensor Network for Agriculture and Water Monitoring on a River Basin Scale in Southern Finland: Evaluation from a Data User’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kotamäki, Niina; Thessler, Sirpa; Koskiaho, Jari; Hannukkala, Asko O.; Huitu, Hanna; Huttula, Timo; Havento, Jukka; Järvenpää, Markku

    2009-01-01

    Sensor networks are increasingly being implemented for environmental monitoring and agriculture to provide spatially accurate and continuous environmental information and (near) real-time applications. These networks provide a large amount of data which poses challenges for ensuring data quality and extracting relevant information. In the present paper we describe a river basin scale wireless sensor network for agriculture and water monitoring. The network, called SoilWeather, is unique and the first of this type in Finland. The performance of the network is assessed from the user and maintainer perspectives, concentrating on data quality, network maintenance and applications. The results showed that the SoilWeather network has been functioning in a relatively reliable way, but also that the maintenance and data quality assurance by automatic algorithms and calibration samples requires a lot of effort, especially in continuous water monitoring over large areas. We see great benefits on sensor networks enabling continuous, real-time monitoring, while data quality control and maintenance efforts highlight the need for tight collaboration between sensor and sensor network owners to decrease costs and increase the quality of the sensor data in large scale applications. PMID:22574050

  18. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  19. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern.