Science.gov

Sample records for grande river agriculture

  1. U and Sr Isotope Tracers of Agricultural Salinity Sources to the Lower Rio Grande River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Szynkiewicz, A.; Jin, L.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated salinity of the lower Rio Grande River deteriorates water quality and limits domestic and agricultural water use. Both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute salts in the Rio Grande. Previous studies have focused on natural salt contributions with less emphasis on anthropogenic sources of salinity in the Rio Grande. Using (234U/238U) activity ratios (UAR), 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios, and major element concentrations, we aim to trace and quantify the salt loads in the Lower Rio Grande watershed which is greatly impacted by agricultural activities. Between 2009 and 2010, we sampled the Rio Grande stretch and irrigation return flows between the Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico and El Paso, Texas. Furthermore, we monitored in monthly intervals the temporal changes of chemical and isotopic compositions of the Rio Grande at Canutillo, Tx. Our results show higher U and Sr fluxes in the Rio Grande during the irrigation season as compared to the non-irrigation season. The UAR (1.62 to 2.13) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7099 to 0.7138) were higher in the non-irrigation season compared to the irrigation season (UAR: 1.69 to 1.77; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7100 to 0.7106). These variations of UAR and 87Sr/86Sr ratios imply multiple sources of U and Sr in the Rio Grande. In contrast, the agricultural return flows show a narrow range of UAR (1.31 to 1.37) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7091 to 0.7099) in the studied seasons. This is consistent with salinity contributions from agricultural sources. Rio Grande at Canutillo shows low UAR (1.62 to 1.77) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7104 to 0.7105) during the irrigation season as compared to the non-irrigation season (UAR: 2.04 to 2.24; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7105 to 0.7109). The low U and Sr signature at Canutillo during the irrigation season is close to that of the agricultural return flows, indicative of agricultural salinity sources. These results provide useful elemental and isotopic constraints for future mass balance calculations of salinity

  2. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River. The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter. Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons. Water samples collected from selected sites within

  3. Early Agriculture in the Eastern Grand Canyon of Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.W.; Davis, M.E.; Lucchitta, I.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2000-01-01

    Abandoned fields in Colorado River alluvium in the eastern Grand Canyon show signs of primitive agriculture. Presence of maize pollen in association with buried soils near Comanche Creek suggests that farming began prior to 3130 yr B.P. Cotton pollen, identified in buried soils near Nankoweap Creek, dates to 1310 yr B.P., approximately 500 years earlier than previously reported anywhere on the Colorado Plateau. Farming spanned three millennia in this reach of the canyon. Entrenchment, starting approximately 700 yr B.P., making water diversion to fields infeasible, was likely responsible for field abandonment. ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the aquatic…

  5. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Grand Calumet River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Last, Laurel L.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Calumet River is potential habitat for a rich community of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Historical surveys of these organisms have been limited to post-industrialization of the Calumet Region; but because river habitats and conditions prior to industrialization have been described, past macroinvertebrate composition can be inferred. In the past 20 years, several surveys have been conducted in the Grand Calumet that have focused on a limited area, but when these studies are amassed the information available covers much of the river. In this paper, the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in the river are described, and options for restoration are discussed. Many of the macroinvertebrates present are indicators of high levels of pollution, but a few pollution-sensitive species have been found. There is evidence, however, that the sediment quality has improved since the 1960's, likely due to pollution controls that have been put into place. Restoration opportunities should consider the macroinvertebrate community and the potential to improve sediment habitat without damaging the community structure.

  6. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Grand River... viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. topographic map in the scale of 1:250,000, entitled Cleveland, number NK...

  7. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Grand River... viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. topographic map in the scale of 1:250,000, entitled Cleveland, number NK...

  8. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Grand River... viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. topographic map in the scale of 1:250,000, entitled Cleveland, number NK...

  9. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Grand River... viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. topographic map in the scale of 1:250,000, entitled Cleveland, number NK...

  10. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87 Grand River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Grand River... viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. topographic map in the scale of 1:250,000, entitled Cleveland, number NK...

  11. Ecological potential of the Grand Calumet River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Hammann, Shira; Moy, Philip B.

    2002-01-01

    The Grand Calumet River and watershed have been severely degraded by industrialization and urbanization, and yet several high-quality natural areas remain intact. The degraded condition presents numerous opportunities for pollution mitigation and ecosystem restoration. In many areas of the river and watershed, biological communities are characterized by low diversity and pollution-tolerant organisms. By establishing programs of nonnative species control, prescribed burning, sediment removal, wetland establishment and extirpated species re-introduction, the Grand Calumet can be improved to reflect some of its natural history. The dredging plan for the river presents an opportunity to coordinate simultaneous improvement and restoration plans. Possibilities for each section of the river are discussed.

  12. History and environmental setting of the Grand Calumet River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.; Gerovac, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The Grand Calumet River lies in an area of great ecological diversity, a result of the convergence of three biomes during glaciation. Over thousands of years the region and the river have changed ecologically due to ice retreat, lake level declines, settlement and industrialization. Settlement and industrialization have greatly accelerated the rate of change, and the Grand Calumet River and its basin are now subject to the added effects of years of direct pollution. For years, industries directly discharged into the waterway; and those contaminants remain locked in the sediment a century later. In order to preserve the remaining surrounding natural areas and to improve the Grand Calumet River, buried contaminants would have to be dredged from the river. Restoration needs to be implemented as part of the clean-up process, and recontamination should be prevented.

  13. A Miocene river in northern Arizona and its implications for the Colorado River and Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.; Holm, R.F.; Lucchitta, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    The southwesterly course of the pre–late Miocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona. It is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains. The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks, whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, possibly steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged twice, and the Four Corners region was lowered by erosion 1–2 km. The river provides constraints on the history of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon; its continuation into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river was probably across the Kaibab Arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon.

  14. Early life history study of Grande Ronde River Basin chinook salmon. Annual progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.; Anderson, D.J.; Carmichasel, R.W.; Jonasson, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Grande Ronde River originates in the Blue Mountains in northeast Oregon and flows 334 kilometers to its confluence with the Snake River near Rogersburg, Washington. Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. It is estimated that prior to the construction of the Columbia and Snake River dams, more than 20,000 adult spring chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Grande Ronde River basin. A spawning escapement of 12,200 adults was estimated for the Grande Ronde River basin in 1957. Recent population estimates have been variable year to year, yet remain a degree of magnitude lower than historic estimates. In 1992, the escapement estimate for the basin was 1,022 adults (2.4 {times} number of redds observed). In addition to a decline in population abundance, a constriction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde basin. Historically, 21 streams supported spawning chinook salmon, yet today the majority of production is limited to eight tributary streams and the mainstem upper Grande Ronde River. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. More than 80% of anadromous fish habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River is considered to be degraded.

  15. 75 FR 18055 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mermentau River, Grand Chenier, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... of the SR 82 swing span bridge across the Mermentau River, mile 7.1, at Grand Chenier, Cameron Parish... operating schedule of the swing span bridge across the Mermentau River at mile 7.1 in Grand Chenier,...

  16. 76 FR 17541 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mermentau River, Grand Chenier, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... of the SR 82 swing span bridge across the Mermentau River, mile 7.1, at Grand Chenier, Cameron Parish... River at mile 7.1 in Grand Chenier, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The closure is necessary in order...

  17. 76 FR 43597 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Development to maintain the bridge in the closed-to-navigation position from 7 a.m. until 5 p.m. on Wednesday, July 20, 2011. At all others times, the bridge will operate normally for the passage of vessels. This... operation of the LA 77 bridge across the ] Lower Grand River, mile 47.0 (Alternate Route) at Grosse...

  18. Salinity in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, western Colorado, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; von Guerard, Paul B.

    1996-01-01

    Salinity, or the dissolved-solids concentration, is the measure of salts such as sodium chloride, calcium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate that are dissolved in water. About one-half of the salinity in the Colorado River Basin is from natural sources (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995), such as thermal springs in the Glenwood-Dotsero area, located about 90 miles upstream from Grand Junction (fig. 1). Effects of human activities, such as irrigation, reservoir evaporation, and transbasin diversions, have increased the levels of salinity in the Colorado River. High salinity can affect industrial and municipal water users by causing increased water-treatment costs, increased deterioration of plumbing and appliances, increased soap needs, and undesirable taste of drinking water. High salinity also can cause lower crop yields by reducing water and nutrient uptake by plants and can increase agricultural production costs because of higher leaching and drainage requirements. Agricultural losses might occur when salinity reaches about 700?850 milligrams per liter (U.S Department of the Interior, 1994). Figure 1. Irrigated area in the Grand Valley and locations of sampling sites for the 1994?95 salinity study of the Colorado River. The Colorado River is the major source of irrigation water to the Grand Valley (fig. 1) and also is one source of water for the Clifton Water District, which supplies domestic water to part of the eastern Grand Valley. During spring and early summer in 1994, the Colorado River in the Grand Valley had lower than average streamflow. There was concern by water users about the effect of this low streamflow on salinity in the river. In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study to evaluate salinity in the Colorado River. This fact sheet describes results of that study. The specific objectives of the fact sheet are to (1) compare salinity in the Colorado River among

  19. 76 FR 20654 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...: November 29, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The requested easement will be located on Grand River Dam Authority property...

  20. 76 FR 9341 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2011. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA). e. Name of Project: Pensacola Project. f... Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 74301; 918-256- 5545; tjahnke@gdra.com ....

  1. 77 FR 58820 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The.... Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, Oklahoma 74301,...

  2. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  3. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  6. Modeling The Water Table In The Middle Rio Grande River Riparian Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, O. Z.; Neale, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the state of New Mexico. An arid area with low water resources created a situation where water is extensively diverted or stored to supply the high demand for municipalities and agricultural activities. The extensive water diversions over the last few decades has affected the composition of the native riparian vegetation such as cottonwood and coyote willow and enhanced the spread of invasive species harmful to the river system such as Tamarisk and Russian Olives. The river aquatic system has also been badly affected. The need to study the river hydrological processes and their relation with its health is important to preserve the river ecosystem. The water table within the riparian zone is intrinsically connected to the flows in the river. Large withdrawals of water by Tamarisk affect the surface flows, which coupled with the large diversions for irrigation result in a complicated river management problem. In this paper we describe the methodology used to spatially model the water table depth between the river and the adjacent drains parallel to the river. Water table readings are used to check the model. Evapotranspiration by the riparian vegetation is estimated and included in the soil moisture balance. The model runs as an application in ArcGIS. Spatial layers include soils and riparian vegetation maps obtained from the classification of airborne high resolution multispectral imagery.

  7. Origin of the Colorado River experimental flood in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.; Pizzi, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most highly regulated and extensively utilized rivers in the world. Total reservoir storage is approximately four times the mean annual runoff of ~17 x 109 m3 year -1. Reservoir storage and regulation have decreased annual peak discharges and hydroelectric power generation has increased daily flow variability. In recent years, the incidental impacts of this development have become apparent especially along the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park downstream from Glen Canyon Dam and caused widespread concern. Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, the number and size of sand bars, which are used by recreational river runners and form the habitat for native fishes, have decreased substantially. Following an extensive hydrological and geomorphic investigation, an experimental flood release from the Glen Canyon Dam was proposed to determine whether sand bars would be rebuilt by a relatively brief period of flow substantially greater than the normal operating regime. This proposed release, however, was constrained by the Law of the River, the body of law developed over 70 years to control and distribute Colorado River water, the needs of hydropower users and those dependent upon hydropower revenues, and the physical constraints of the dam itself. A compromise was reached following often difficult negotiations and an experimental flood to rebuild sand bars was released in 1996. This flood, and the process by which it came about, gives hope to resolving the difficult and pervasive problem of allocation of water resources among competing interests.The Colorado River is one of the most highly regulated and extensively utilized rivers in the world. Total reservoir storage is approximately four times the mean annual runoff of approximately 17??109 m3 year-1. Reservoir storage and regulation have decreased annual peak discharges and hydroelectric power generation has increased daily flow variability. In recent years, the

  8. 78 FR 1210 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Telephone Meeting To Discuss the Salina Pumped Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Telephone Meeting To Discuss the Salina... Grand River Dam Authority. (An RSVP is required. See paragraph f below.) c. FERC Contact: Stephen Bowler... Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA) is holding a technical meeting to discuss the results of the...

  9. 78 FR 30914 - Grand River Dam Authority Notice of Application for Temporary Variance of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority Notice of Application for Temporary...: March 20, 2013, and supplemented on May 3, 2013, and May 16, 2013. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam..., Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 74301; telephone: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC Contact:...

  10. 75 FR 74700 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: October 26, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham.... 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Tamara E. Jahnke, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409,...

  11. 75 FR 4363 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License..., 2009. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Hydroelectric Project... Contact: D. Casey Davis, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, 226 West Dwain Willis Avenue,...

  12. 76 FR 7831 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Project. f. Location: The project is..., Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 73401-0409. Tel: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC...

  13. Tracing Anthropogenic Salinity Inputs to the Semi-arid Rio Grande River: A Multi-isotope Tracer (U, S, B and Sr) Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.; Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Szynkiewicz, A.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High salinity in the Rio Grande has led to severe reductions in crop productivity and accumulation of salts in soils. These pressing issues exist for other arid rivers worldwide. Salinity contributions to the Rio Grande have not been adequately quantified, especially from agriculture, urban activities, and geological sources. Here, we use major element concentrations and U, S, B, Sr isotopic signatures to fingerprint the salinity sources. Our study area focuses on a 200 km long stretch of the Rio Grande from Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM to El Paso, TX. River samples were collected monthly from 2014 to 2015. Irrigation drains, groundwater wells, city drains and wastewater effluents were sampled as possible anthropogenic salinity end-members. Major element chemistry, U, S and Sr isotope ratios in the Rio Grande waters suggest multiple salinity inputs from geological, agricultural, and urban sources. Natural upwelling of groundwater is significant for the Rio Grande near Elephant Butte, as suggested by high TDS values and high (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S ratios. Agricultural activities (e.g. flood irrigation, groundwater pumping, fertilizer use) are extensive in the Mesilla Valley. Rio Grande waters from this region have characteristic lower (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S ratios, with possible agricultural sources from use of fertilizers and gypsum. Agricultural practices during flood irrigation also intensify evaporation of Rio Grande surface water and considerably increase water salinity. Shallow groundwater signatures were also identified at several river locations, possibly due to the artificial pumping of local groundwater for irrigation. Impacts of urban activities to river chemistry (high NO3 and B concentrations) were evident for locations downstream to Las Cruces and El Paso wastewater treatment plants, supporting the use of the B isotope as an urban salinity tracer. This study improves our understanding of human impacts on water quality and elemental

  14. Implications of the miocene(?) crooked ridge river of northern arizona for the evolution of the colorado river and grand canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, Ivo; Holm, Richard F.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    2013-01-01

    The southwesterly course of the probably pre–early Miocene and possibly Oligocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona (United States). The course is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains (Colorado). The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, probably steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged three times, and the nearby Four Corners region was lowered 1–2 km by erosion. The river provides constraints on the early evolution of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon. Continuation of this river into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river probably was across the Kaibab arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon. Beyond this point, the course may have continued to the drainage basin of the Sacramento River, or to the proto–Snake River drainage. Crooked Ridge River was beheaded by the developing San Juan River, which pirated its waters and probably was tributary to a proto–Colorado River, flowing roughly along its present course west of the Monument upwarp.

  15. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  16. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX. 80.850 Section 80.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to the Rio Grande, TX. (a) Except as otherwise described in this section lines drawn continuing...

  17. 33 CFR 80.850 - Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brazos River, TX to the Rio Grande, TX. 80.850 Section 80.850 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to the Rio Grande, TX. (a) Except as otherwise described in this section lines drawn continuing...

  18. 77 FR 49730 - Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY in the Federal Register (77 FR 13516). We... Mercurio, Chief of Waterway Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343,...

  19. Long-term change along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (1889-2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Belnap, J.; Scott, M. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Esque, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado River and its riverine resources have undergone profound changes since completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, as every river runner with any history in Grand Canyon will attest. Long-term monitoring data are difficult to obtain for high-value resource areas (Webb et al. 2009), particularly in remote parts of national parks, yet these data are important to determining appropriate actions for restoration of resources and (or) potential modifications of flow releases on regulated rivers. The river corridor through the bottom of Grand Canyon creates a challenging environment for change-detection monitoring techniques (Belnap et al. 2008).

  20. 75 FR 16090 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: March 11, 2010, supplemented on March 17, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e.... 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Ms. Tamara E. Jahnke, Assistant General Council, Grand Dam...

  1. Structural control of the rapids and pools of the colorado river in the grand canyon.

    PubMed

    Dolan, R; Howard, A; Trimble, D

    1978-11-10

    Most of the major rapids along the 450-kilometer course of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon are within fracture zones that run perpendicular to the river. Steep tributaries flowing within the zones of bedrock weakness move large debris to the Colorado, forming the rapids. Accelerated flow through the rapids scours the deep pools that are located below them.

  2. 76 FR 40903 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: The project... River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 73401-0409. Tel: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC Contact:...

  3. Vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian dune fields in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Arizona, in Grand Canyon National Park. Characterizing these parameters provides a basis from which to assess future changes in this ecosystem, including the spread of nonnative plant species. Differences are apparent between aeolian dune fields that are downwind of where modern controlled flooding deposits new sandbars (modern-fluvial-sourced dune fields) and those that have received little or no new windblown sand since river regulation began in the 1960s (relict-fluvial-sourced dune fields). The most substantial difference between modern- and relict-fluvial-sourced aeolian dune fields is the greater abundance of biologic soil crust in relict dune fields. These findings can be used with similar investigations in other geomorphic settings in Grand Canyon and elsewhere in the Colorado River corridor to evaluate the health of the Colorado River ecosystem over time.

  4. An experiment to control nonnative fish in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered native fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. In Grand Canyon, most humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River and its confluence with the Colorado River. For decades, however, nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), which prey on and compete with native fish, have dominated the Grand Canyon fish community. Between 2003 and 2006, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and Arizona Game and Fish Department experimentally removed 23,266 nonnative fish from a 9.4-mile-long reach of the Colorado River near where it joins the Little Colorado River. During the experiment, rainbow trout were reduced by as much as 90% and native fish abundance apparently increased in the reach. Concurrent environmental changes and a decrease in rainbow trout throughout the river make it difficult to determine if the apparent increase in native fish was the result of the experiment.

  5. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  6. Flood of July 27-31, 2006, on the Grand River near Painesville, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebner, Andrew D.; Sherwood, James M.; Astifan, Brian; Lombardy, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    Two separate weather systems produced storms resulting in more than 11 inches of rain in parts of Lake County, Ohio, on July 27-28, 2006. As a result of the storms and ensuing flooding caused by the weather systems, the counties of Lake, Geauga, and Ashtabula were declared Federal and State disaster areas, with damages estimated at $30 million and one fatality in Lake County. About 600 people were evacuated in Lake County. The U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station at Grand River near Painesville, Ohio (station 04212100), had a record peak stage of 19.35 feet (elevation, 614.94 feet), with a record peak streamflow of 35,000 cubic feet per second, and an estimated recurrence interval of approximately 500 years. This report describes the meteorological factors that resulted in severe flooding on the Grand River near Painesville from July 27 to July 31, 2006, and addresses the damages caused by the storms and flooding. Peak-stage, peak-streamflow, and recurrence-interval data are reported for the Grand River near Painesville. A plot of high-water marks is also presented for the Grand River in a reach that includes the City of Painesville, Painesville Township, the Village of Fairport Harbor, and the Village of Grand River.

  7. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  8. Distribution and movement of humpback chub in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, based on recaptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Coggins, L.G.; Flaccus, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Mark-recapture data from the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, were analyzed from 1989 to 2002 to determine large-scale movement patterns and distribution. A total of 14,674 recaptures from 7,127 unique fish were documented; 87% of the recaptures occurred in the same main-stem river reach or tributary as the original captures, suggesting restricted distribution by most fish. A total of 99% of all recaptures were from in and around the Little Colorado River (LCR), a tributary of the Colorado River and primary aggregation and spawning location of humpback chub in Grand Canyon. Time at liberty averaged 394 d, but some fish were recaptured near their main-stem capture location over 10 years later. Proportionally fewer large (>300-mm) humpback chub exhibited restricted distribution than small (<200-mm) fish. However, several fish did move more than 154 km throughout Grand Canyon between capture and recapture, suggesting that limited movement occurs throughout Grand Canyon. The majority of the recaptured fish remained in or returned to the LCR or the Colorado River near the LCR. Although many large-river fishes exhibit extensive migrations to fulfill their life history requirements, most of the humpback chub in Grand Canyon appear to remain in or come back to the LCR and LCR confluence across multiple sizes and time scales. Detecting trends in the overall abundance of this endangered fish in Grand Canyon can probably be accomplished by monitoring the area in and around the LCR.

  9. Origin of the Grande Ronde Basalts, Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, S. R.; Sen, G.; Reidel, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    The Columbia River basalts are generally thought to have formed by plume melting. Takahashi et al. (1998) suggested that the near-aphyric Grande Ronde Basalts (GR), which comprise ~63% of the CRBG, are essentially primary melts formed by nearly complete fusion of eclogite source rock in the plume and that such melting took place ~2.0 GPa. Durand and Sen (2002) examined phenocrysts and whole rock analyses and concluded that all the basalts are non-primary and, more importantly, that they underwent significant "processing" in shallow crustal magma chambers which erased their higher pressure geochemical signal, thus casting doubt on the validity of the eclogitic plume melting model. Here we report the results of our efforts to simulate the higher pressure histories of GR basalts using COMAGMAT and MELTS software. Our intent was to evaluate (1) whether such melts could be derived from primary melts formed by partial melting of a peridotite source as an alternative to the eclogite model, or if bulk melting of eclogite is required; and (2) at what pressure such primary melts could have been in equilibrium with the mantle. We carried out both forward and inverse modeling. In the forward models we chose different starting melt compositions, all produced in laboratory experiments, from peridotite vs. eclogitic sources. Our starting melts were produced by 6-17% partial melting of the peridotite KLB-1 (Hirose and Kushiro, 1993) and 18-40% melting of eclogites (77SL-582; CRB72-31; Keshav et al., 2004; Takahashi et al., 1998) at 1-3.0 GPa. In a second model, our starting melt composition was the most primitive GR lava with 6.5 wt. % MgO. We extrapolated a linear regression through the GR data to 8 wt. % MgO. We then assumed that such a melt was only olivine-equilibrated, and incrementally added olivine while maintaining equilibrium between olivine and melt using a Kd of 0.3, until a melt in equilibrium with the mantle olivine (Fo89) was found. This composition was fractionated

  10. 75 FR 61458 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: May 27, 2010, supplemented on August 12 and August 16, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River...

  11. Debris flows in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona: magnitude, frequency and effects on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodre S.; Webb, Robert H.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Debris flows are recurrent sediment-transport processes in 525 tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Arizona. Initiated by slope failures in bedrock and (or) colluvium during intense rainfall, Grand Canyon debris flows are high-magnitude, short-duration floods. Debris flows in these tributaries transport very large boulders into the river where they accumulate on debris fans and form rapids. The frequency of debris flows range from less than 1 per century to 10 or more per century in these tributaries. Before regulation by Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, high-magnitude floods on the Colorado River reworked debris fans by eroding all particles except large boulders. Because flow regulation has substantially decreased the river's competence, debris flows occurring after 1963 have increased accumulation of finer-grained sediments on debris fans and in rapids.

  12. Paleohydraulic interpretation and morphologic reconstruction of the northern Rio Grande River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Muriceak, D.R. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A flight of unpaired late Quaternary terraces comprised of fluvio-glacial deposits flanks the northern Rio Grande River for nearly ten miles along the upper Rio Grande valley. These terraces, which occur at decreasing heights due to progressive valley incision, are comprised of sediments that represent aggradation by braided streams flowing from the terminus of valley glaciers that flowed down the upper Rio Grande at least twice during late Quaternary time. Terminal moraines that are equivalent to Pinedale and Bull Lake stages of ice advance occur at the upstream origin of the terraces. Incision of the Rio Grande river since Pinedale time has resulted in at least three cut terraces that converge downstream. The purpose of this report is to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Rio Grande river valley during its transition from full glacial to interglacial conditions. A total geodetic station provided coordinate and elevation data to correlate the terraces, extrapolate channel geometry through cross sections, and construct longitudinal profiles of the individual terrace surfaces. Measurements of the B-axis length of boulders on both terrace tread surfaces and surfaces within the terrace deposits were used to reconstruct paleoflow hydrology. The coarsest channel morphological features, too large to be deposited by normal glacial outwash, were deposited during a catastrophic outburst flood (after the failure of an ice dammed lake) that produced high discharge.

  13. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  14. Side-scan sonar imaging of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anima, Roberto; Wong, Florence L.; Hogg, David; Galanis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents data collection methods and side-scan sonar data collected along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in August and September of 2000. The purpose of the data collection effort was to image the distribution of sand between Glen Canyon Dam and river mile 87.4 before and after the 31,600 cfs flow of September 6-8. The side-scan sonar imaging focused on pools between rapids but included smaller rapids where possible.

  15. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Purser, Michael D.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.

    1999-01-01

    Fine sediment levels in spawning substrate have a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Assessments have consistently concluded that fine sediment is a major problem for salmon in the Grande Ronde and, to a lesser extent, the John Day rivers. It is likely that fine sediment levels in these rivers must be reduced if salmon survival from egg to smolt is to be increased.

  16. 76 FR 18547 - Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of...

  17. Streamflow and Topographic Characteristics of the Platte River near Grand Island, Nebraska, 1938-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Brenda K.

    2008-01-01

    The central Platte River is a dynamic, braided, sand-bed river located near Grand Island, Nebraska. An understanding of the Platte River channel characteristics, hydrologic flow patterns, and geomorphic conditions is important for the operation and management of water resources by the City of Grand Island. The north channel of the Platte River flows within 1 mile of the municipal well field, and its surface-water flow recharges the underlying aquifer, which serves as a water source for the city. Recharge from the north channel helps minimize the flow of contaminated ground water from the north of the channel towards the well field. In recent years the river channels have experienced no-flow conditions for extended periods during the summer and fall seasons, and it has been observed that no-flow conditions in the north channel often persist after streamflow has returned to the other three channels. This potentially allows more contaminated ground water to move toward the municipal well field each year, and has caused resource managers to ask whether human disturbances or natural geomorphic change have contributed to the increased frequency of no-flow conditions in the north channel. Analyses of aerial photography, channel surveys, Light Detection and Ranging data, discharge measurements, and historical land surveys were used to understand the past and present dynamics of the four channels of the Platte River near Grand Island and to detect changes with time. Results indicate that some minor changes have occurred in the channels. Changes in bed elevation, channel location, and width were minimal when compared using historical information. Changes in discharge distribution among channels indicate that low- and no-flow conditions in the north channel may be attributed to the small changes in channel characteristics or small elevation differences, along with recent reductions in total streamflow within the Platte River near Grand Island, or to factors not measured in

  18. Biological responses to contaminants in darters (Etheostoma spp.) collected from rural and urban regions of the Grand River, ON, Canada.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sam R; Sultana, Tamanna; Servos, Mark R; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-09-01

    Urban and agricultural activities may introduce chemical stressors, including contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and current use pesticides (CUPs) into riverine systems. The objective of this study was to determine if fish collected from various sites in the Grand River, ON, Canada show biomarkers of exposure to these classes of contaminants, and if the biomarker patterns vary in fish collected from urbanized and agricultural sites. Female rainbow darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) and female fantail darters (Etheostoma flabellare) were collected from the Grand River in June, 2014 for biomarker analysis from two urbanized sites and three agricultural sites. Over the same period of time, Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were deployed for 2weeks at each site to monitor for the presence of CUPs and CECs. Data on the liver somatic index for darters indicate site-specific differences in this condition factor (p<0.05). Significant differences in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in gill tissue (p<0.05) of darters collected from the various sites indicate site-specific differences in oxidative stress. The activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in the liver tissue of rainbow darters were significantly different between sites (p<0.05), indicating differences in exposure to chemicals that induce or inhibit CYP450 1A metabolic activity. Finally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain tissue was significantly different between rainbow darters collected from rural and urban sites (p<0.05). These data showing different impacts from chemical inputs related to land uses in the watershed may be useful in developing mitigation strategies to reduce impacts on fish and other aquatic organisms in receiving environments. PMID:26922905

  19. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  20. Statistical modeling of agricultural chemical occurrence in midwestern rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, William A.; Goolsby, Donald A.

    1997-09-01

    Agricultural chemicals in surface water may constitute a human health risk or have adverse effects on aquatic life. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1-4 months following application in late spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during fall, winter, and spring months. Natural and anthropogenic variables of river drainage basins, such as soil permeability, amount of agricultural chemicals applied, or percentage of land planted in corn, affect agricultural chemical concentration and mass transport in rivers. Presented is an analysis of selected data on agricultural chemicals collected for three regional studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Statistical techniques such as multiple linear and logistic regression were used to identify natural and anthropogenic variables of drainage basins that have strong relations to agricultural chemical concentrations and mass transport measured in rivers. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manage and analyze spatial data. Statistical models were developed that estimated the concentration, annual transport, and annual mean concentration of selected agricultural chemicals in midwestern rivers. Multiple linear regression models were not very successful ( R2 from 0.162 to 0.517) in explaining the variance in observed agricultural chemical concentrations during post-planting runoff. Logistic regression models were somewhat more successful, correctly matching the observed concentration category in 61-80% of observations. Linear and multiple linear regression models were moderately successful ( R2 from 0.522 to 0.995) in explaining the variance in observed annual transport and annual mean concentration of agricultural chemicals. Explanatory variables that were commonly significant in the regression models include estimates of agricultural chemical use, crop acreage, soil

  1. Statistical modeling of agricultural chemical occurrence in midwestern rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals in surface water may constitute a human health risk or have adverse effects on aquatic life. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1-4 months following application in late spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during fall, winter, and spring months. Natural and anthropogenic variables of fiver drainage basins, such as soil permeability, amount of agricultural chemicals applied, or percentage of land planted in corn, affect agricultural chemical concentration and mass transport in rivers. Presented is an analysis of selected data on agricultural chemicals collected for three regional studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Statistical techniques such as multiple linear and logistic regression were used to identify natural and anthropogenic variables of drainage basins that have strong relations to agricultural chemical concentrations and mass transport measured in rivers. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manage and analyze spatial data. Statistical models were developed that estimated the concentration, annual transport, and annual mean concentration of selected agricultural chemicals in midwestern rivers. Multiple linear regression models were not very successful (R2 from 0.162 to 0.517) in explaining the variance in observed agricultural chemical concentrations during post-planting runoff. Logistic regression models were somewhat more successful, correctly matching the observed concentration category in 61-80% of observations. Linear and multiple linear regression models were moderately successful (R2 from 0.522 to 0.995) in explaining the variance in observed annual transport and annual mean concentration of agricultural chemicals. Explanatory variables that were commonly significant in the regression models include estimates of agricultural chemical use, crop acreage, soil

  2. A stochastic streamflow model of the Platte River at Overton, Odessa, and Grand Island, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A stochastic model is developed to simulate flows for three seasons (September through February, March and April, May through August) at Overton, Odessa, and Grand Island, Nebraska on the Platte River. The model preserves the first and second order moment properties of the historical flow series, including significant autocorrelations within each station and cross-correlations between the stations. Higher order moments are preserved by a transformation technique that allows the residuals from the model to be approximately normal. An algorithm is given for simulation of combined-stations flows, and some simulations are carried out to determine the likelihood of specified flow shortages that could be detrimental to the wildlife habitat in the reach of the Platte River between Overton and Grand Island. (USGS)

  3. Factors affecting condition of flannelmouth suckers in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.; Rogers, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The impoundment of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963 created a highly regulated environment in the Grand Canyon that altered the native fish populations, including the flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis. Flannelmouth suckers were sampled from 1991 to 2001 to determine seasonal, annual, and spatial trends in fish condition (i.e., relative weight [Wr]). Mean Wr peaked during the prespawn and spawning periods and was lowest in summer and fall, but it was never lower than 93. Condition was variable throughout the Grand Canyon but was typically greatest at intermediate distances from Glen Canyon Dam, possibly because of the increased number of warmwater tributaries in this reach. Flannelmouth sucker condition in September was positively correlated with Glen Canyon Dam discharge during summer (June-August); this result may be due to the larger euphotic zone and greater macroinvertebrate abundance observed during higher water flows. Increased dam discharge that stimulates river productivity may provide benefits for this native fish.

  4. Sediment delivery by ungaged tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Melis, Theodre S.; Hartley, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment input to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, is a valuable resource required to sustain both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A total of 768 ungaged tributaries deliver sediment to the river between Glen Canyon Dam and the Grand Wash Cliffs (river miles -15 to 276). The 32 tributaries between the dam and Lee's Ferry produce only streamflow floods, whereas 736 tributaries in Grand Canyon produce streamflow floods and debris flows. We used three techniques to estimate annual streamflow sediment yield from ungaged tributaries to the Colorado River. For the Glen Canyon and Marble Canyon reaches (river miles -15 to 61.5), respectively, these techniques indicate that 0.065.106 and 0.610.106 Mg/yr (0.68.106 Mg/yr of total sediment) enters the river. This amount is 20 percent of the sediment yield of the Paria River, the only gaged tributary in this reach and a major sediment contributor to the Colorado River. The amount of sand delivered ranges from 0.10.106 to 0.51.106 Mg/yr, depending on the sand content of streamflow sediment. Sand delivered in Glen Canyon is notably coarser (D50 = 0.24 mm) than sand in other reaches (D50 = 0.15 mm). A relation is given for possible variation of this sediment delivery with climate. Debris flows transport poorly-sorted sediment onto debris fans in the Colorado River. In the pre-dam era, debris fans were completely reworked during Colorado River floods, liberating all fine-grained sediment to the river; in the post-dam river on average only 25 percent of debris-fan volume is reworked, leading to storage of sand in the matrix of debris fans. We develop a sediment-yield model for debris flows that uses a logistic-regression model of debris-flow frequency in Grand Canyon, a regression model of debris-flow volumes, particle- size distributions of intact debris-flow deposits, and debris-fan reworking. On average, debris flows deliver between 0.14.106 and 0.30.106 Mg/yr of sediment to debris fans throughout Grand Canyon

  5. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: Five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  6. Riparian vegetation, Colorado River, and climate: five decades of spatiotemporal dynamics in the Grand Canyon with river regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Joel B.; Ralston, Barbara; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Documentation of the interacting effects of river regulation and climate on riparian vegetation has typically been limited to small segments of rivers or focused on individual plant species. We examine spatiotemporal variability in riparian vegetation for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon relative to river regulation and climate, over the five decades since completion of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Long-term changes along this highly modified, large segment of the river provide insights for management of similar riparian ecosystems around the world. We analyze vegetation extent based on maps and imagery from eight dates between 1965 and 2009, coupled with the instantaneous hydrograph for the entire period. Analysis confirms a net increase in vegetated area since completion of the dam. Magnitude and timing of such vegetation changes are river stage-dependent. Vegetation expansion is coincident with inundation frequency changes and is unlikely to occur for time periods when inundation frequency exceeds approximately 5%. Vegetation expansion at lower zones of the riparian area is greater during the periods with lower peak and higher base flows, while vegetation at higher zones couples with precipitation patterns and decreases during drought. Short pulses of high flow, such as the controlled floods of the Colorado River in 1996, 2004, and 2008, do not keep vegetation from expanding onto bare sand habitat. Management intended to promote resilience of riparian vegetation must contend with communities that are sensitive to the interacting effects of altered flood regimes and water availability from river and precipitation.

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri and Iowa, USA, in support of integrated conservation practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of agricultural conservation programmes to adequately reduce nutrient exports to receiving streams and to help limit downstream hypoxia issues remains a concern. Quantifying programme success can be difficult given that short-term basin changes may be masked by long-term water-quality shifts. We evaluated nutrient export at stream sites in the 44 months that followed a period of increased, integrated conservation implementation within the Lower Grand River Basin. These short-term responses were then compared with export that occurred in the main stem and adjacent rivers in northern Missouri over a 22-year period to better contextualize any recent changes. Results indicate that short-term (October 2010 through May 2014) total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Grand River were 20% less than the long-term average, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 23% less. Nutrient reductions in the short term were primarily the result of the less-than-average precipitation and, consequently, streamflow that was 36% below normal. Therefore, nutrient concentrations measured in tributary streams were likely less than normal during the implementation period. Northern Missouri streamflow-normalized TN concentrations remained relatively flat or declined over the period 1991 through 2013 likely because available sources of nitrogen, determined as the sum of commercial fertilizers, available animal manures and atmospheric inputs, were typically less than crop requirement for much of that time frame. Conversely, flow-normalized stream TP concentrations increased over the past 22 years in northern Missouri streams, likely in response to many years of phosphorus inputs in excess of crop requirements. Stream nutrient changes were most pronounced during periods that coincided with the major tillage, planting and growth phases of row crops and increased streamflow. Nutrient reduction strategies targeted at the period February through June would likely have the

  8. Recreational water quality analyses of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed Central

    Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K

    1984-01-01

    We intensively examined the recreational water quality of the Colorado River and 26 tributaries in Grand Canyon National Park over four consecutive summers. Highly ephemeral precipitation cycles and arid watershed hydrologies were the principal factors influencing water quality. Fecal coliforms (FC) in the river and in most tributaries were less than or equal to 10 FC 100 ml-1 and less than or equal to 20 FC 100 ml-1, respectively, during drought cycles. During rainfall cycles, FC densities were highly variable and often exceeded recreational contact standards. FC were not found to vary significantly in response to diurnal fluctuations in river stage height which resulted from hydroelectric stream flow regulation. River and tributary bottom sediments harbored FC in densities averaging 10 to 100 times those in the overlying waters. Sediment FC densities were not found to be reliable indicators of overlying water quality when storm flow and nonstorm flow periods were compared. PMID:6508305

  9. Recreational water quality analyses of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K

    1984-11-01

    We intensively examined the recreational water quality of the Colorado River and 26 tributaries in Grand Canyon National Park over four consecutive summers. Highly ephemeral precipitation cycles and arid watershed hydrologies were the principal factors influencing water quality. Fecal coliforms (FC) in the river and in most tributaries were less than or equal to 10 FC 100 ml-1 and less than or equal to 20 FC 100 ml-1, respectively, during drought cycles. During rainfall cycles, FC densities were highly variable and often exceeded recreational contact standards. FC were not found to vary significantly in response to diurnal fluctuations in river stage height which resulted from hydroelectric stream flow regulation. River and tributary bottom sediments harbored FC in densities averaging 10 to 100 times those in the overlying waters. Sediment FC densities were not found to be reliable indicators of overlying water quality when storm flow and nonstorm flow periods were compared.

  10. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  11. Debris flows from tributaries of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Pringle, P.T.; Rink, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A reconnaissance of 36 tributaries of the Colorado River indicates that debris flows are a major process by which sediment is transported to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Debris flows are slurries of sediment and water that have a water content < 40% by volume. Debris flows occur frequently in arid and semiarid regions. Slope failures commonly trigger debris flows, which can originate from any rock formation in the Grand Canyon. The largest and most frequent flows originate from the Permian Hermit Shale, the underlying Esplanade Sandstone of the Supai Group, and other formations of the Permian and Pennsylvanian Supai Group. Debris flows have reached the Colorado River on an average of once every 20 to 30 yr in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage since about 1916. Two debris flows have reached the Colorado River in the last 25 yr in Monument Creek. The Crystal Creek drainage has had an average of one debris flow reaching the Colorado River every 50 yr, although the debris flow of 1966 has been the only flow that reached the Colorado River since 1900. Debris flows may actually reach the Colorado River more frequently in these drainages because evidence for all debris flows may not have been preserved in the channel-margin stratigraphy. Discharges were estimated for the peak flow of three debris flows that reached the Colorado River. The debris flow of 1966 in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage had an estimated discharge of 4,000 cu ft/sec. The debris flow of 1984 in the Monument Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 3,600 and 4,200 cu ft/sec. The debris flow of 1966 in the Crystal Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 9,200 and 14,000 cu ft/sec. Debris flows in the Grand Canyon generally are composed of 10 to 40% sand by weight and may represent a significant source of beach-building sand along the Colorado River. The particle size distributions are very poorly sorted and the largest transported boulders were in the Crystal Creek

  12. Using stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen for the determination of gas exchange in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Terra S; Schiff, Sherry L; Taylor, William D

    2013-02-01

    Gas exchange can be a key component of the dissolved oxygen (DO) mass balance in aquatic ecosystems. Quantification of gas transfer rates is essential for the estimation of DO production and consumption rates, and determination of assimilation capacities of systems receiving organic inputs. Currently, the accurate determination of gas transfer rate is a topic of debate in DO modeling, and there are a wide variety of approaches that have been proposed in the literature. The current study investigates the use of repeated measures of stable isotopes of O₂ and DO and a dynamic dual mass-balance model to quantify gas transfer coefficients (k) in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Measurements were conducted over a longitudinal gradient that reflected watershed changes from agricultural to urban. Values of k in the Grand River ranged from 3.6 to 8.6 day⁻¹, over discharges ranging from 5.6 to 22.4 m³ s⁻¹, with one high-flow event of 73.1 m³ s⁻¹. The k values were relatively constant over the range of discharge conditions studied. The range in discharge observed in this study is generally representative of non-storm and summer low-flow events; a greater range in k might be observed under a wider range of hydrologic conditions. Overall, k values obtained with the dual model for the Grand River were found to be lower than predicted by the traditional approaches evaluated, highlighting the importance of determining site-specific values of k. The dual mass balance approach provides a more constrained estimate of k than using DO only, and is applicable to large rivers where other approaches would be difficult to use. The addition of an isotopic mass balance provides for a corroboration of the input parameter estimates between the two balances. Constraining the range of potential input values allows for a direct estimate of k in large, productive systems where other k-estimation approaches may be uncertain or logistically infeasible.

  13. Development of Semi-distributed ecohydrological model in the Rio Grande De Manati River Basin, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Ortiz, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Guild, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are limited studies in Puerto Rico that shows the water resources availability and variability with respect to changing climates and land use. The main goal of the HICE-PR (Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): the Río Loco Watershed (southwest coast PR) project which was funded by NASA is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) in two priority watersheds in Puerto Rico (Manatí and Guánica).The main objective of this study is to set up a physically based spatially distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the analysis of hydrological processes in the Rio Grande de Manati river basin. SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) is a spatially distributed watershed model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in large complex watersheds. For efficient use of distributed models for hydrological and scenario analysis, it is important that these models pass through a careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. The model was calibrated and validated using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) calibration and uncertainty analysis algorithms. The model evaluation statistics for streamflows prediction shows that there is a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows that was verified by coefficients of determination and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.5. Keywords: Hydrological Modeling; SWAT; SUFI-2; Rio Grande De Manati; Puerto Rico

  14. Debris flows from tributaries of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Pringle, Patrick T.; Rink, Glenn R.

    1989-01-01

    A reconnaissance of 36 tributaries of the Colorado River indicates that debris flows are a major process by which sediment is transported to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Debris flows are slurries of sediment and water that have a water content of less than about 40 percent by volume. Debris flows occur frequently in arid and semiarid regions. Slope failures commonly trigger debris flows, which can originate from any rock formation in the Grand Canyon. The largest and most frequent flows originate from the Permian Hermit Shale, the underlying Esplanade Sandstone of the Supai Group, and other formations of the Permian and Pennsylvanian Supai Group. Debris flows also occur in the Cambrian Muav Limestone and underlying Bright Angel Shale and the Quaternary basalts in the western Grand Canyon. Debris-flow frequency and magnitude were studied in detail in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage at Colorado River mile 65.5; in the Monument Creek drainage at mile 93.5; and in the Crystal Creek drainage at mile 98.2. Debris flows have reached the Colorado River on an average of once every 20 to 30 years in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage since about 1916. Two debris flows have reached the Colorado River in the last 25 years in Monument Creek. The Crystal Creek drainage has had an average of one debris flow reaching the Colorado River every 50 years, although the debris flow of 1966 has been the only flow that reached the Colorado River since 1900. Debris flows may actually reach the Colorado River more frequently in these drainages because evidence for all debris flows may not have been preserved in the channel-margin stratigraphy. Discharges were estimated for the peak flow of three debris flows that reached the Colorado River. The debris flow of 1966 in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage had an estimated discharge of 4,000 cubic feet per second. The debris flow of 1984 in the Monument Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 3,600 and 4,200 cubic feet per

  15. Debris flow deposition and reworking by the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanites, B.J.; Webb, R.H.; Griffiths, P.G.; Magirl, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Flow regulation by large dams affects downstream flow competence and channel maintenance. Debris flows from 740 tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona, transport coarse-grained sediment onto debris fans adjacent to the Colorado River. These debris fans constrict the river to form rapids and are reworked during river flows that entrain particles and transport them downstream. Beginning in 1963, flood control operations of Glen Canyon Dam limited the potential for reworking of aggraded debris fans. We analyzed change in debris fans at the mouths of 75-Mile and Monument Creeks using photogrammetry of aerial photography taken from 1965 to 2000 and supplemented with ground surveys performed from 1987 to 2005. Our results quantify the debris fan aggradation that resulted from debris flows from 1984 to 2003. Volume, area, and river constriction increased at both debris fans. Profiles of the two debris fans show that net aggradation occurred in the middle of debris fans at stages above maximum dam releases, and surface shape shifted from concave to convex. Dam releases above power plant capacity partially reworked both debris fans, although reworking removed much less sediment than what was added by debris flow deposition. Large dam releases would be required to create additional reworking to limit the rate of debris fan aggradation in Grand Canyon.

  16. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  17. New Agricultural Settlement, Meheba River, Zambia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infra-red view of a new settlement along the Meheba River, Zambia, Africa (12.5S, 26.0E) resembles the resettlement clusters in the Amazon basin of Brazil. However, this settlement is on savanna land not a tropical forest region, so relatively little land clearing was required. The familiar pattern of small single family plots, no large commercial fields, along the branches of a herringbone road network is evident.

  18. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon: how fast does it flow?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, Julia B.

    1997-01-01

    Opening the jet tubes at Glen Canyon Dam on March 26, 1996, released from Lake Powell a controlled flood of water that traveled down the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. How fast did the water move? How long did it take for water to reach a particular point along the river? The answers to these questions are important because the speed of river water affects the amount of physical and chemical changes, such as warming by sunlight, that the water will undergo as it moves downstream. Also, very fine particles and substances dissolved in the water travel along with the water, and the speed of the water tells us how fast these move downstream.

  19. Turbidity, light, temperature, and hydropeaking control primary productivity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Robert O.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Yard, Michael D.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Voichick, Nicholas; Behn, Kathrine E.

    2015-01-01

    Dams and river regulation greatly alter the downstream environment for gross primary production (GPP) because of changes in water clarity, flow, and temperature regimes. We estimated reach-scale GPP in five locations of the regulated Colorado River in Grand Canyon using an open channel model of dissolved oxygen. Benthic GPP dominates in Grand Canyon due to fast transport times and low pelagic algal biomass. In one location, we used a 738 days time series of GPP to identify the relative contribution of different physical controls of GPP. We developed both linear and semimechanistic time series models that account for unmeasured temporal covariance due to factors such as algal biomass dynamics. GPP varied from 0 g O2 m−2 d−1 to 3.0 g O2 m−2 d−1 with a relatively low annual average of 0.8 g O2 m−2d−1. Semimechanistic models fit the data better than linear models and demonstrated that variation in turbidity primarily controlled GPP. Lower solar insolation during winter and from cloud cover lowered GPP much further. Hydropeaking lowered GPP but only during turbid conditions. Using the best model and parameter values, the model accurately predicted seasonal estimates of GPP at 3 of 4 upriver sites and outperformed the linear model at all sites; discrepancies were likely from higher algal biomass at upstream sites. This modeling approach can predict how changes in physical controls will affect relative rates of GPP throughout the 385 km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and can be easily applied to other streams and rivers.

  20. Reproductive seasonality of fishes from a lotic stretch of the Grande River, high Paraná river basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We searched for correlations between water level, rainfall, temperature, and reproductive activity of fishes in a lotic stretch of the Grande River below the Volta Grande Dam. Gillnets were used to catch the fish on six field journeys made bimonthly between April 1998 and February 1999. Fish gonads were classified according to maturation grade and the amount of mature or spent gonads was correlated with rainfall and air temperature. Most fish species showed seasonal reproduction (between October and February). The relative frequency of fully mature and spent gonads significantly correlated with rainfall (Spearman r = 0.94, p = 0.005) and air temperature (r = 0.84, p = 0.036), showing the importance of these factors in regulating the reproductive cycle of fishes in this location. Nevertheless, dam operation resulted in minimal water level variation that did not significantly correlate with reproductive activity (r = -0.43, p = 0.396). PMID:16341416

  1. Reproductive seasonality of fishes from a lotic stretch of the Grande River, high Paraná river basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We searched for correlations between water level, rainfall, temperature, and reproductive activity of fishes in a lotic stretch of the Grande River below the Volta Grande Dam. Gillnets were used to catch the fish on six field journeys made bimonthly between April 1998 and February 1999. Fish gonads were classified according to maturation grade and the amount of mature or spent gonads was correlated with rainfall and air temperature. Most fish species showed seasonal reproduction (between October and February). The relative frequency of fully mature and spent gonads significantly correlated with rainfall (Spearman r = 0.94, p = 0.005) and air temperature (r = 0.84, p = 0.036), showing the importance of these factors in regulating the reproductive cycle of fishes in this location. Nevertheless, dam operation resulted in minimal water level variation that did not significantly correlate with reproductive activity (r = -0.43, p = 0.396).

  2. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  3. Mercury and selenium accumulation in the Colorado River food web, Grand Canyon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, David M.; E.J. Rosi-Marshall,; Kennedy, Theodore A.; W.F. Cross,; C.V. Baxter,

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are toxic to fish and wildlife. The authors measured Hg and Se in organic matter, invertebrates, and fishes in the Colorado River food web at sites spanning 387 river km downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (AZ, USA). Concentrations were relatively high among sites compared with other large rivers (mean wet wt for 6 fishes was 0.17–1.59 μg g–1 Hg and 1.35–2.65 μg g–1 Se), but consistent longitudinal patterns in Hg or Se concentrations relative to the dam were lacking. Mercury increased (slope = 0.147) with δ15N, a metric of trophic position, indicating biomagnification similar to that observed in other freshwater systems. Organisms regularly exceeded exposure risk thresholds for wildlife and humans (6–100% and 56–100% of samples for Hg and Se, respectfully, among risk thresholds). In the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Hg and Se concentrations pose exposure risks for fish, wildlife, and humans, and the findings of the present study add to a growing body of evidence showing that remote ecosystems are vulnerable to long-range transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants. Management of exposure risks in Grand Canyon will remain a challenge, as sources and transport mechanisms of Hg and Se extend far beyond park boundaries. Environ Toxicol Chem2015;9999:1–10

  4. Mercury and selenium accumulation in the Colorado River food web, Grand Canyon, USA.

    PubMed

    Walters, David M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Kennedy, Theodore A; Cross, Wyatt F; Baxter, Colden V

    2015-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are toxic to fish and wildlife. The authors measured Hg and Se in organic matter, invertebrates, and fishes in the Colorado River food web at sites spanning 387 river km downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (AZ, USA). Concentrations were relatively high among sites compared with other large rivers (mean wet wt for 6 fishes was 0.17-1.59 μg g(-1) Hg and 1.35-2.65 μg g(-1) Se), but consistent longitudinal patterns in Hg or Se concentrations relative to the dam were lacking. Mercury increased (slope = 0.147) with δ(15) N, a metric of trophic position, indicating biomagnification similar to that observed in other freshwater systems. Organisms regularly exceeded exposure risk thresholds for wildlife and humans (6-100% and 56-100% of samples for Hg and Se, respectfully, among risk thresholds). In the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Hg and Se concentrations pose exposure risks for fish, wildlife, and humans, and the findings of the present study add to a growing body of evidence showing that remote ecosystems are vulnerable to long-range transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants. Management of exposure risks in Grand Canyon will remain a challenge, as sources and transport mechanisms of Hg and Se extend far beyond park boundaries.

  5. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2000 to 2009 summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Makinster, Andrew S.; Persons, William R.; Avery, Luke A.; Bunch, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term fish monitoring in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is an essential component of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). The GCDAMP is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam is met. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is responsible for the program's long-term fish monitoring, which is implemented in cooperation with the Arizona Game and Fish Department, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SWCA Environmental Consultants, and others. Electrofishing and tagging protocols have been developed and implemented for standardized annual monitoring of Colorado River fishes since 2000. In 2009, sampling occurred throughout the river between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead for 38 nights over two trips. During the two trips, scientists captured 6,826 fish representing 11 species. Based on catch-per-unit-effort, salmonids (for example, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)) increased eightfold between 2006 and 2009. Flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) catch rates were twice as high in 2009 as in 2006. Humpback chub (Gila cypha) catches were low throughout the 10-year sampling period.

  6. 2007 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Weather data constitute an integral part of ecosystem monitoring in the Colorado River corridor and are particularly valuable for understanding processes of landscape change that contribute to the stability of archeological sites. Data collected in 2007 are reported from nine weather stations in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The stations were deployed in February and March 2007 to measure wind speed and direction, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Sand traps near each weather station collect windblown sand, from which daily aeolian sand-transport rates are calculated. The data reported here were collected as part of an ongoing study to test and evaluate methods for quantifying processes that affect the physical integrity of archeological sites along the river corridor; as such, these data can be used to identify rainfall events capable of causing gully incision and to predict likely transport pathways for aeolian sand, two landscape processes integral to the preservation of archeological sites. Weather data also have widespread applications to other studies of physical, cultural, and biological resources in Grand Canyon. Aeolian sand-transport data reported here, collected in the year before the March 2008 High-Flow Experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam, represent baseline data against which the effects of the 2008 HFE on windblown sand will be compared in future reports.

  7. Mercury and selenium accumulation in the Colorado River food web, Grand Canyon, USA.

    PubMed

    Walters, David M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Kennedy, Theodore A; Cross, Wyatt F; Baxter, Colden V

    2015-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are toxic to fish and wildlife. The authors measured Hg and Se in organic matter, invertebrates, and fishes in the Colorado River food web at sites spanning 387 river km downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (AZ, USA). Concentrations were relatively high among sites compared with other large rivers (mean wet wt for 6 fishes was 0.17-1.59 μg g(-1) Hg and 1.35-2.65 μg g(-1) Se), but consistent longitudinal patterns in Hg or Se concentrations relative to the dam were lacking. Mercury increased (slope = 0.147) with δ(15) N, a metric of trophic position, indicating biomagnification similar to that observed in other freshwater systems. Organisms regularly exceeded exposure risk thresholds for wildlife and humans (6-100% and 56-100% of samples for Hg and Se, respectfully, among risk thresholds). In the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Hg and Se concentrations pose exposure risks for fish, wildlife, and humans, and the findings of the present study add to a growing body of evidence showing that remote ecosystems are vulnerable to long-range transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants. Management of exposure risks in Grand Canyon will remain a challenge, as sources and transport mechanisms of Hg and Se extend far beyond park boundaries. PMID:26287953

  8. Wastewater effluent impacts ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes of the Grand River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Cejudo, Eduardo; Schiff, Sherry L; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-12-01

    The Grand River (Ontario, Canada) is impacted by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release ammonia (NH3 and NH4+) into the river. In-river microbial communities help transform this ammonia into more oxidized compounds (e.g., NO3- or N2), although the spatial distribution and relative abundance of freshwater autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOP) are not well characterized. This study investigated freshwater N cycling within the Grand River, focusing on sediment and water columns, both inside and outside a WWTP effluent plume. The diversity, relative abundance, and nitrification activity of AOP were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and reverse transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR), targeting both 16S rRNA and functional genes, together with activity assays. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fingerprints showed that the WWTP effluent strongly affected autochthonous bacterial patterns in the water column but not those associated with sediment nucleic acids. Molecular and activity data demonstrated that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were numerically and metabolically dominant in samples taken from outside the WWTP plume, whereas ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) dominated numerically within the WWTP effluent plume. Potential nitrification rate measurements supported the dominance of AOB activity in downstream sediment. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were detected primarily in sediment nucleic acids. In-river AOA patterns were completely distinct from effluent AOA patterns. This study demonstrates the importance of combined molecular and activity-based studies for disentangling molecular signatures of wastewater effluent from autochthonous prokaryotic communities.

  9. The topographic distribution of annual incoming solar radiation in the Rio Grande River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubayah, R.; Van Katwijk, V.

    1992-01-01

    We model the annual incoming solar radiation topoclimatology for the Rio Grande River basin in Colorado, U.S.A. Hourly pyranometer measurements are combined with satellite reflectance data and 30-m digital elevation models within a topographic solar radiation algorithm. Our results show that there is large spatial variability within the basin, even at an annual integration length, but the annual, basin-wide mean is close to that measured by the pyranometers. The variance within 16 sq km and 100 sq km regions is a linear function of the average slope in the region, suggesting a possible parameterization for sub-grid-cell variability.

  10. Binational Dilemmas: the Contrasting Challenges for Environmental Management and Restoration of the Colorado River and Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    The United States and Mexico share waters of the Colorado River and Rio Grande. The two countries have signed joint declarations and begun talks focused on rehabilitating parts of these rivers affected by upstream dams and diversions. These areas include the Colorado River Delta and the Rio Grande downstream from Fort Quitman, TX. Other parts of these river systems are the focus on single country restoration efforts, such as the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and the effort to recover the Rio Grande silvery minnow. Regional and international coordination and collaboration are needed to focus limited restoration funds toward their most beneficial use. Analysis of historical records, published studies of channel change, and computation of sediment mass balance conditions demonstrates that the challenges and difficulties of rehabilitating different parts of the Colorado River and Rio Grande vary greatly. There is little accordance between the importance and tractability of restoration opportunities and the magnitude and location of investment in these opportunities. In some cases, large river management problems are focused on relatively intractable problems, while elsewhere relatively modest and solvable problems are ignored. We demonstrate how watershed scale analysis of the magnitude of hydrologic and geomorphic perturbations and the costs of addressing these perturbations can help guide the allocation of limited public resources to best meet the challenges faced by Mexico and the United States in rehabilitating its shared rivers.

  11. Influence of dams and habitat condition on the distribution of redhorse (Moxostoma) species in the Grand River watershed, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, S.M.; Mandrak, N.E.; Carl, L.M.; Wilson, C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Redhorse, Moxostoma spp., are considered to be negatively affected by dams although this assertion is untested for Canadian populations. One hundred and fifty-one sites in the Grand River watershed were sampled to identify factors influencing the distribution of redhorse species. Individual species of redhorse were captured from 3 to 32% of sites. The most widespread species were golden redhorse, M. erythrurum (30%) and greater redhorse, M. valenciennesi (32%), while river redhorse, M. carinatum, was only found along the lower Grand River. Redhorse were absent from the highly fragmented Speed River sub-watershed and upper reaches of the Conestogo River and the Grand River. Redhorse species richness was positively correlated to river fragment size and upstream drainage area. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were applied to evaluate the influence of river fragment length, connectivity and habitat on species distribution. Principal component analysis reduced habitat data to three axes representing: channel structure, substrate, and pool, riffle and run habitats (PC1); gradient and drainage area (PC2); and cover (PC3). GAMs indicate that PC2 was important for predicting black redhorse and greater redhorse site occupancy and PC1 was important for golden redhorse. River fragment length was important for predicting site occupancy for shorthead redhorse, but not other species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  12. Three cases of severe hyponatremia during a river run in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Emily A; Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-06-01

    We present 3 cases of severe hyponatremia occurring on a commercially guided river rafting trip on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. All 3 women appeared to have been overhydrating because of concern about dehydration and required evacuation within 24 hours of each other after the staggered onset of symptoms, which included fatigue and emesis progressing to disorientation or seizure. Each was initially transferred to the nearest hospital and ultimately required intensive care. Imaging and laboratory data indicated all 3 patients had hypervolemic hyponatremia. Unlike the well-documented exercise-associated hyponatremia cases commonly occurring in prolonged endurance athletic events, these 3 unique cases of acute hyponatremia were not associated with significant exercise. The cases illustrate the diagnostic and treatment challenges related to acute hyponatremia in an austere setting, and underscore the importance of preventive measures focused on avoidance of overhydration out of concern for dehydration.

  13. Three cases of severe hyponatremia during a river run in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Emily A; Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-06-01

    We present 3 cases of severe hyponatremia occurring on a commercially guided river rafting trip on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. All 3 women appeared to have been overhydrating because of concern about dehydration and required evacuation within 24 hours of each other after the staggered onset of symptoms, which included fatigue and emesis progressing to disorientation or seizure. Each was initially transferred to the nearest hospital and ultimately required intensive care. Imaging and laboratory data indicated all 3 patients had hypervolemic hyponatremia. Unlike the well-documented exercise-associated hyponatremia cases commonly occurring in prolonged endurance athletic events, these 3 unique cases of acute hyponatremia were not associated with significant exercise. The cases illustrate the diagnostic and treatment challenges related to acute hyponatremia in an austere setting, and underscore the importance of preventive measures focused on avoidance of overhydration out of concern for dehydration. PMID:25736400

  14. Colorado River campsite monitoring, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1998-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joe; Parnell, Rod; Hadley, Daniel R.; Grams, Paul

    2014-01-01

    River rafting trips and hikers use sandbars along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons as campsites. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on campsite areas on sandbars along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Campsite area was measured annually from 1998 to 2012 at 37 study sites between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona. The primary purpose of this report is to present the methods and results of the project. Campsite area surveys were conducted using total station survey methods to outline the perimeter of camping area at each study site. Campsite area is defined as any region of smooth substrate (most commonly sand) with no more than an 8 degree slope and little or no vegetation. We used this definition, but relaxed the slope criteria to include steeper areas near boat mooring locations where campers typically establish their kitchens. The results show that campsite area decreased over the course of the study period, but at a rate that varied by elevation zone and by survey period. Time-series plots show that from 1998 to 2012, high stage-elevation (greater than the 25,000 ft3/s stage-elevation) campsite area decreased significantly, although there was no significant trend in low stage-elevation (15,000–20,000 ft3/s) campsite area. High stage-elevation campsite area increased after the 2004 and 2008 high flows, but decreased in the intervals between high flows. Although no overall trend was detected for low stage-elevation campsite areas, they did increase after high-volume dam releases equal to or greater than about 20,000 ft3/s. We conclude that dam operations have not met the management objectives of the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management program to increase the size of camping beaches in critical and non-critical reaches of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead.

  15. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation on Water Resources and Agricultural Diversity of the Upper Rio Grande Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi Rad, M.; Hurd, B. H.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change can alter the balance of the water resources systems. It can both change the amount and the timing of the streamflow available in a basin and the amount of water consumed at the end point due to higher temperatures. These changes in the supply and demand sides can result in a different allocation of water and different price for water in basin scale based on economic principles. In a previous study Hurd and Coonrod (2012) modeled the impacts of climate change on the water related economic activities of the Rio Grande. In their study they assumed an aggregated benefit function for the agricultural sector. In another study on the Rio Grande Brinegar and Ward (2009) modeled the agricultural diversity of the Rio Grande within the framework of a hydro-economic model. This study builds upon and extends the previous studies by developing a model that can more carefully assess the role of adaptation in agriculture. Specially, the current study adds quadratic production functions for each crop. These production functions add a major benefit to the modeling of the hydro-economic system, namely that of adding diversity and expanded resolution to the agricultural sector. Using this production function the model includes both land and water as independent variables in the agricultural sector and, therefore this extension of the model has more flexibility to represent adaptive responses to climatic changes by including the capacity to change the crop mix and acreages as well as the water applied i.e. the capacity to deficit irrigate. The results of this study show that the agricultural sector can lose nearly a third of its water and more than 30% of its net economic benefits as a result of possible climate changes. It also shows as the climate become drier and population grows then economic forces will encourage agriculture to move towards more beneficial crops and reduce total acreage and in some cases applied water.

  16. Modeling Water-Surface Elevations and Virtual Shorelines for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Breedlove, Michael J.; Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    Using widely-available software intended for modeling rivers, a new one-dimensional hydraulic model was developed for the Colorado River through Grand Canyon from Lees Ferry to Diamond Creek. Solving one-dimensional equations of energy and continuity, the model predicts stage for a known steady-state discharge at specific locations, or cross sections, along the river corridor. This model uses 2,680 cross sections built with high-resolution digital topography of ground locations away from the river flowing at a discharge of 227 m3/s; synthetic bathymetry was created for topography submerged below the 227 m3/s water surface. The synthetic bathymetry was created by adjusting the water depth at each cross section up or down until the model?s predicted water-surface elevation closely matched a known water surface. This approach is unorthodox and offers a technique to construct one-dimensional hydraulic models of bedrock-controlled rivers where bathymetric data have not been collected. An analysis of this modeling approach shows that while effective in enabling a useful model, the synthetic bathymetry can differ from the actual bathymetry. The known water-surface profile was measured using elevation data collected in 2000 and 2002, and the model can simulate discharges up to 5,900 m3/s. In addition to the hydraulic model, GIS-based techniques were used to estimate virtual shorelines and construct inundation maps. The error of the hydraulic model in predicting stage is within 0.4 m for discharges less than 1,300 m3/s. Between 1,300-2,500 m3/s, the model accuracy is about 1.0 m, and for discharges between 2,500-5,900 m3/s, the model accuracy is on the order of 1.5 m. In the absence of large floods on the flow-regulated Colorado River in Grand Canyon, the new hydraulic model and the accompanying inundation maps are a useful resource for researchers interested in water depths, shorelines, and stage-discharge curves for flows within the river corridor with 2002 topographic

  17. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  18. Regulation of agricultural drainage to San Joaquin River

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, G.E.; Watkins, D.A. )

    1989-02-01

    A technical committee reported on: (1) proposed water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River Basin; (2) proposed effluent limitations for agricultural drainage discharges in the basin to achieve these objectives; and (3) a proposal to regulate these discharges. The costs and economic impact of achieving various alternative water quality objectives were also evaluated. The information gathered by the technical committee will be used by the Regional Board along with other information in their review of the San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Control Plan and their actions to regulate agricultural drainage in the San Joaquin Valley. The results of the Technical Committee's efforts as reported in Regulation of Agricultural Drainage to the San Joaquin River, August 1987. Based on the available information, the improvement in water quality resulting from implementation of the interim selenium objective and long-term objectives for salts, molybdenum and boron is necessary to provide reasonable protection to beneficial uses. The costs needed to implement these objectives seem reasonable. However, data on the: (1) concentrations of selenium that protect aquatic ecosystems in the basin; (2) concentrations of selenium that protect human consumers of fish and wildlife; and (3) drainage flows and quality produced in and upgradient of the drainage study area need to be developed and reviewed before a long-term selenium water quality objective is implemented. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Recent trends in nutrient concentrations in Swedish agricultural rivers.

    PubMed

    Ulén, B; Fölster, J

    2007-02-15

    In five out of twelve Swedish agricultural rivers examined during the period 1993-2004, significant trends for decreasing concentrations of reactive inorganic nitrogen (RIN) were indicated after flow normalisation. These decreases were constant (equal to 2-4% per year), most apparent in the Scania region, and weakly correlated to reductions in livestock density (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.825). The number of grazing cattle livestock units per unit area of arable land decreased on average by 14% and that of non-grazing cattle by 17% during 1985-2003. Based on estimates of root-zone leaching, increased area of set-aside and recent EU subsidisation of catch crops (with/without spring tillage) were suggested to be additional substantial causes but these changes were only rapid very recently (years 2000-2001). A significant and constant decrease in reactive phosphorus (RP) (3% per year) was observed in one river, mainly during the season of low flow, with reduced load from point sources suggested to be the main reason. Significant and constant reductions equal to 3-8% per year in concentrations of non-reactive phosphorus (NRP) were calculated for five rivers. These improvements were weakly correlated to the length of grassed buffer zones along the watercourses in arable parts of the river basin (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.845). Establishment of such zones also took place more recently, and together with constructed wetlands represent on average 0.5% of the agricultural area.

  20. Sand deposition in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from flooding of the Little Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, S.M.; Graf, J.B.; Smith, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for computing the volume of sand deposited in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by floods in major tributaries and for determining redistribution of that sand by main-channel flows are required for successful management of sand-dependent riparian resources. We have derived flow, sediment transport, and bed evolution models based on a gridded topography developed from measured channel topography and used these models to compute deposition in a short reach of the river just downstream from the Little Colorado River, the largest tributary in the park. Model computations of deposition from a Little Colorado River flood in January 1993 were compared to bed changes measured at 15 cross sections. The total difference between changes in cross-sectional area due to deposition computed by the model and the measured changes was 6%. A wide reach with large areas of recirculating flow and large depressions in the main channel accumulated the most sand, whereas a reach with similar planimetric area but a long, narrow shape and relatively small areas of recirculating flow and small depressions in the main channel accumulated only about a seventh as much sand. About 32% of the total deposition was in recirculation zones, 65% was in the main channel, and 3% was deposited along the channel margin away from the recirculation zone. Overall, about 15% of the total input of sand from this Little Colorado River flood was deposited in the first 3 km below the confluence, suggesting that deposition of the flood-derived material extended for only several tens of kilometers downstream from the confluence.

  1. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  2. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  3. Changes in the water surface profile of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, between 1923 and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    In 1923, a U.S. Geological Survey expedition surveyed the water surface profile of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon with theodolite and stadia rod. In 2000, lidar overflights collected topographic data centered on the river corridor, allowing construction of a new water surface profile and detection of change in the profile since 1923. By registering the surveys with respect to each other on the basis of 11 locations that were independently determined to have been unchanged between 1923 and 2000, 80 rapids were directly compared for change between 1923 and 2000. The average change for all measured rapids was +0.26 m, indicating net aggradation of the coarse-grained alluvium forming the rapids throughout Grand Canyon. In addition, comparison of the two water surface profiles showed enhanced pool-and-rapid morphology. While 50% of the total drop of the river occurred in just 9% of the river distance in 1923, that value increased to 66% by 2000.

  4. The State of the Colorado River Ecosystem in Grand Canyon: A Report of the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center 1991-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloss, Steven P.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2005-01-01

    This report is an important milestone in the effort by the Secretary of the Interior to implement the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 (GCPA; title XVIII, secs. 1801-1809, of Public Law 102-575), the most recent authorizing legislation for Federal efforts to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. The chapters that follow are intended to provide decision makers and the American public with relevant scientific information about the status and recent trends of the natural, cultural, and recreational resources of those portions of Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations. Glen Canyon Dam is one of the last major dams that was built on the Colorado River and is located just south of the Arizona-Utah border in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, approximately 15 mi (24 km) upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). The information presented here is a product of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey`s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) has responsibility for the scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program, including the preparation of reports such as this one.

  5. Landscape level influence: aquatic primary production in the Colorado River of Glen and Grand canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yard, M. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.; Bennett, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Irregular features common to canyon-bound regions intercept solar incidence (photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD: μmol m-2 s-1]) and can affect ecosystem energetics. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is topographically complex, typical of most streams and rivers in the arid southwest. Dam-regulated systems like the Colorado River have reduced sediment loads, and consequently increased water transparency relative to unimpounded rivers; however, sediment supply from tributaries and flow regulation that affects erosion and subsequent sediment transport, interact to create spatial and temporal variation in optical conditions in this river network. Solar incidence and suspended sediment loads regulate the amount of underwater light available for aquatic photosynthesis in this regulated river. Since light availability is depth dependent (Beer's law), benthic algae is often exposed to varying levels of desiccation or reduced light conditions due to daily flow regulation, additional factors that further constrain aquatic primary production. Considerable evidence suggests that the Colorado River food web is now energetically dependent on autotrophic production, an unusual condition since large river foodwebs are typically supported by allochthonous carbon synthesized and transported from terrestrial environments. We developed a mechanistic model to account for these regulating factors to predict how primary production might be affected by observed and alternative flow regimes proposed as part of ongoing adaptive management experimentation. Inputs to our model include empirical data (suspended sediment and temperature), and predictive relationships: 1) solar incidence reaching the water surface (topographic complexity), 2) suspended sediment-light extinction relationships (optical properties), 3) unsteady flow routing model (stage-depth relationship), 4) channel morphology (photosynthetic area), and 5) photosynthetic-irradiant response for dominant algae (Cladophora

  6. Erosion properties of cohesive sediments in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M.W.; Topping, D.J.; Melis, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cohesive sediment deposits characterized by a high fraction of mud (silt plus clay) significantly affect the morphology and ecosystem of rivers. Potentially cohesive sediment samples were collected from deposits in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons. The erosion velocities of these samples were measured in a laboratory flume under varying boundary shear stresses. The non-dimensional boundary shear stress at which erosion commenced showed a systematic deviation from that of non-cohesive sediments at mud fractions greater than 0.2. An empirical relation for the boundary shear stress threshold of erosion as a function of mud fraction was proposed. The mass erosion rate was modelled using the Ariathurai-Partheniades equation. The erosion rate parameter of this equation was found to be a strong function of mud fraction. Under similar boundary shear stress and sediment supply conditions in the Colorado River, cohesive lateral eddy deposits formed of mud fractions in excess of 0.2 will erode less rapidly than non-cohesive deposits. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Downstream effects of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. H.; Wegner, D. L.; Andrews, E. D.; Valdez, R. A.; Patten, D. T.

    Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, has altered geomorphic and ecological processes and resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Before the dam was completed, the river transported large quantities of sediment during spring floods as large as 8500 m3/s. After 1963, dam releases typically were less than 900 m3/s with large diurnal fluctuations and little sediment. The 2-yr peak discharge decreased by a factor of 2.5, resulting in aggraded rapids and a large increase in riparian vegetation. The clearwater releases from the dam eroded sand deposited on the bed and banks. Although pre-dam water temperatures varied seasonally, dam releases typically are about 8°C year round. Because of the clear, cold water and reduced flooding, post-dam aquatic productivity is considerably higher in the tailwater. Rainbow trout and other non-native fishes are now common, 3 native species have been extirpated, and the remaining species, including the endangered humpback chub, cannot successfully reproduce in the river.

  8. 2010 weather and aeolian sand-transport data from the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dealy, Timothy P.; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of weather parameters and aeolian sand transport were made in 2010 near selected archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Arizona. Data collected in 2010 indicate event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Differences in weather patterns between 2009 and 2010 included a slightly later spring windy season, greater spring precipitation and annual rainfall totals, and a later onset and length of the reduced diurnal barometric-pressure fluctuations commonly associated with summer monsoon conditions. The increase in spring precipitation was consistent with the 2010 spring El Niño conditions compared to the 2009 spring La Niña conditions, whereas the subsequent transition to an El Niño-Southern Oscillation neutral phase appeared to delay the reduction in diurnal barometric fluctuations.

  9. 77 FR 62442 - Safety Zone; Oregon City Bridge Grand Opening Fireworks Display; Willamette River, Oregon City, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Oregon City Bridge Grand Opening Fireworks...: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone on the Willamette River between the Oregon City...

  10. 77 FR 59395 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of...

  11. Trout piscivory in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon: Effects of turbidity, temperature, and fish prey availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, Michael D.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Baxter, Colden V.; Bennett, Glenn E.; Korman, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative salmonids, such as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta, have affected native fishes worldwide in unforeseen and undesirable ways. Predation and other interactions with nonnative rainbow trout and brown trout have been hypothesized as contributing to the decline of native fishes (including the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. A multiyear study was conducted to remove nonnative fish from a 15-km segment of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence. We evaluated how sediment, temperature, fish prey availability, and predator abundance influenced the incidence of piscivory (IP) by nonnative salmonids. Study objectives were addressed through spatial (upstream and downstream of the Little Colorado River confluence) and temporal (seasonal and annual) comparisons of prey availability and predator abundance. Data were then evaluated by modeling the quantity of fish prey ingested by trout during the first 2 years (2003–2004) of the mechanical removal period. Field effort resulted in the capture of 20,000 nonnative fish, of which 90% were salmonids. Results indicated that the brown trout IP was higher (8–70%) than the rainbow trout IP (0.5–3.3%); however, rainbow trout were 50 times more abundant than brown trout in the study area. We estimated that during the study period, over 30,000 fish (native and nonnative species combined) were consumed by rainbow trout (21,641 fish) and brown trout (11,797 fish). On average, rainbow trout and brown trout ingested 85% more native fish than nonnative fish in spite of the fact that native fish constituted less than 30% of the small fish available in the study area. Turbidity may mediate piscivory directly by reducing prey detection, but this effect was not apparent in our data, as rainbow trout IP was greater when suspended sediment levels (range = 5.9–20,000 mg/L) were higher.

  12. River management impacts on riparian forest vegetation along the Middle Rio Grande: 1935-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Roy E.

    Riparian ecosystems of the southwestern United States are highly valuable to both the ecological and human communities which surround them. Over the past century, they have been subject to shifting management practices to maximize human use, control, ecosystem service, and conservation. This creates a complex relationship between water policy, management, and the natural ecosystem necessitating research on spatial and temporal dynamics of riparian vegetation. The San Acacia Reach of the Middle Rio Grande, a 60 mile stretch from the San Acacia Diversion Dam to San Marcial, has experienced multiple management and river flow fluctuations over the past 80 years, resulting in threats to riparian and aquatic ecosystems. This research was completed through the use and analysis of multi-source remote sensing data, GIS, and a review of the on-the-ground management decisions to better understand how the location and composition of the riparian vegetation has been affected by these shifting practices. This research focused on four phases, each highlighting different management practices and river flow patterns during the last 80-years. Each of these periods provides a unique opportunity to observe a direct relationship between river management and riparian land cover response and change. Overall, management practices reduced surface river flows and limited overbank flooding and resulted in changes in the composition, density, and spatial patterns of the vegetation, including increased non-native vegetation growth. Restoration efforts over the past few decades have begun to reduce the presence of non-native species. Despite these changes, this ecosystem was shown to be extremely resilient in maintaining its function/service throughout the entire study time frame.

  13. An Estimate of Chemical Loads from Ground Water to the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal, Northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willoughby, Timothy C.; Siddeeq, Qaadir A.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical loads from ground water to the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal in northwestern Indiana were estimated to aid in determining the total maximum daily load. Data from two previous studies, completed in 1987 and 1993, were used to compute loads. The first study included a ground-water-flow model. Results from this model were used to determine ground-water fluxes to eight distinct reaches of the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal at assumed horizontal hydraulic conductivities of 50 and 100 feet per day. In addition, water quality data collected during the first study and a second study that further described the quality of water from wells screened in the Calumet aquifer, were used with the ground-water fluxes to compute estimates of chemical loads for selected constituents contributing to the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal. Constituents included trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and selected general chemistry properties. Total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved ammonia as nitrogen had the largest estimated loads to the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal for any river reach. The estimated loads for total dissolved solids ranged from 239 to 12,800 kilograms per day. Dissolved iron had the largest estimated load for the trace elements and exceeded 1 kilogram per day for all river reaches for which data were available. The majority of ground-water concentrations for polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were reported as less than the method reporting limit, resulting in small computed loads to the river and canal.

  14. Trend analysis of selected water-quality data associated with salinity-control projects in the Grand Valley, in the lower Gunnison River basin, and at Meeker Dome, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    To decrease salt loading to the Colorado River from irrigated agriculture, salinity-control projects have been under construction since 1979 by the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the Grand Valley and since 1988 in the lower Gunnison River Basin of western Colorado. In 1980, a salinity-control project was initiated at Meeker Dome, which involved plugging three abandoned oil wells that were discharging saline water to the White River. Trend analysis was used to determine if the salinity-control projects had affected salinity in the Colorado and White Rivers. The mean annual dissolved-solids load in the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line for water years 1970-93 was about 3.32 million tons. About 46 percent of that load was from the Colorado River upstream from the Grand Valley and about 38 percent was from the Gunnison River. About 16 percent of the dissolved-solids load in the Colorado River near the State line was discharged from the Grand Valley, and most of the Grand Valley dissolved-solids load was from irrigation-induced sources. Monotonic trend analysis of dissolved-solids and major-ion data for the Colorado and Gunnison Rivers was used for determining if salinity-control projects had affected salinity (dissolved solids) in the Colorado River. Data collected in water years 1970-93 at gaging stations on the Colorado River-one near Cameo and the other near the Colorado-Utah State line, and at the station on the Gunnison River near Grand Junction-were analyzed for trends. A computerized procedure developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that uses the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test with adjustment for streamflow was used for trend analysis of periodic and monthly data, and linear regression was used for trend analysis of annual data. Three time periods were tested, including periods that were concurrent with work on salinity-control projects. Many of the trends in unadjusted concentration and load data were not

  15. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Sterner, Mauritz C.; Linder, Chad; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger

    2012-01-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n=14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n=12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  16. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  17. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae. PMID:21793700

  18. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  19. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  20. Concentrations and Loads of Selenium in Selected Tributaries to the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    The reach of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah Border, and tributaries in the Grand Valley, are on the State of Colorado 303(d) list of impaired water bodies because the concentrations of dissolved selenium in these streams exceed the State of Colorado chronic standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter at the 85th percentile level. In response to concerns raised by a local watershed initiative about the issue of selenium in the Grand Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Mesa County and the City of Grand Junction, developed a study to characterize and determine the sources of selenium and how these sources are related to changes in land use. This report describes the methods and results of a study of concentrations and loads of selenium in three tributaries to the Colorado River in the Grand Valley. The study area consists of three subbasins, Persigo Wash, Adobe Creek, and Lewis Wash, each representing transitional agricultural to residential, agricultural, and residential land-use types, respectively. These subbasins represent different land-use types and the tributaries that drain each subbasin contribute moderate to high concentrations and loads of selenium to the Colorado River. Two synoptic-sampling events were conducted in each tributary to characterize variations in water quality during the nonirrigation season. Water samples were collected for analysis of dissolved selenium, total nitrogen, and total dissolved solids (salinity). Streamflow was measured by either the tracer-dilution or standard current-meter method. In Persigo Wash selenium concentrations generally decreased or remained constant in a downstream direction whereas selenium loads increased. Effluent from the Persigo Wash wastewater treatment plant diluted selenium concentrations in Persigo Wash and increased the selenium load. The concentrations and loads of salinity and total nitrogen generally increased downstream in Persigo Wash. Concentrations and

  1. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  2. Cenozoic incision history of the Little Colorado River and its role in carving Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-stage incision/denudation history for the southwestern Colorado Plateau involved: carving of 70-30 Ma Laramide paleotopography controlled by strike valleys at the base of retreating cliffs, 25-15 Ma incision of an East Kaibab paleovalley that cut to about half the modern depth of eastern Grand Canyon, and 5-6 Ma integration of the Colorado River (CR) through Grand Canyon. A synthesis of Little Colorado River (LCR) incision history informs aspects of each episode. Refined evidence for the first two episodes is from new thermochronology modeling that shows post-Laramide NE cliff retreat and a 35-25 Ma LCR paleovalley that flowed NW across the Kaibab uplift. Next was 16-14 Ma playa/ marsh deposition of Lower Bidahochi Formation, 13-8 Ma non-deposition, and 6-8 fluvial upper Bidahochi Formation with base level defined by Hopi Buttes maars. Little denudation in the LCR valley from 16 to 6 Ma is documented by similar elevations of 16 and 6 Ma paleo baselevels. The third pulse of regional incision/denudation was associated with integration of the CR across the Vermillion Cliffs after 5-6 Ma. Earliest integration reoccupied the East Kaibab paleocanyon, inferred from thermochronology to have been at ~1500-1700 m elevation at 15 Ma. Topographically inverted dated basalt mesas in the LCR headwater region show steady incision of 43 m/Ma since 6 Ma. New 2 Ma sanidine ages for Crooked Ridge and Blue Point ash show ~100 m/Ma differential incision across the LCR knickpoint over the last ~ 2 Ma: ~400 m (~200 m/Ma) at the confluence, 400-500 m (200-250 m/Ma) at the projected confluence of Crooked Ridge and the LCR, 220 m (110 m/Ma) for topographically inverted basalt mesas in LCR tributaries in the central reaches, and 116-204 m (61-43 m/Ma) in the headwaters. Headwater uplift of the Rocky Mountains likely facilitated CR integration; post-2 Ma differential incision in the LCR may reflect a combination of regional mantle-driven epeirogenic uplift and additional mantle

  3. Using GIS and logistic regression to estimate agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers of the midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, other pesticides and fertilizers) in surface water may constitute a human health risk. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1-4 months following application in spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during the fall, winter and spring. Natural and anthropogenic variables of river drainage basins, such as soil permeability, the amount of agricultural chemicals applied or percentage of land planted in corn, affect agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers. Logistic regression (LGR) models are used to investigate relations between various drainage basin variables and the concentration of selected agricultural chemicals in rivers. The method is successful in contributing to the understanding of agricultural chemical concentration in rivers. Overall accuracies of the best LGR models, defined as the number of correct classifications divided by the number of attempted classifications, averaged about 66%.

  4. Influence of topographic complexity on solar insolation estimates for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, M.D.; Bennett, G.E.; Mietz, S.N.; Coggins, L.G.; Stevens, L.E.; Hueftle, S.; Blinn, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rugged topography along the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons, exemplifies features common to canyon-bound streams and rivers of the arid southwest. Physical relief influences regulated river systems, especially those that are altered, and have become partially reliant on aquatic primary production. We measured and modeled instantaneous solar flux in a topographically complex environment to determine where differences in daily, seasonal and annual solar insolation occurred in this river system. At a system-wide scale, topographic complexity generates a spatial and temporal mosaic of varying solar insolation. This solar variation is a predictable consequence of channel orientation, geomorphology, elevation angles and viewshed. Modeled estimates for clear conditions corresponded closely with observed measurements for both instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: ??mol m-2 s-1) and daily insolation levels (relative error 2.3%, CI ??0.45, S.D. 0.3, n = 29,813). Mean annual daily insolation levels system-wide were estimated to be 36 mol m-2 d -1 (17.5 S.D.), and seasonally varied on average from 13.4-57.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. In comparison to identical areas lacking topographic effect (idealized plane), mean daily insolation levels were reduced by 22% during summer, and as much as 53% during winter. Depending on outlying topography, canyon bound regions having east-west (EW) orientations had higher seasonal variation, averaging from 8.1 to 61.4 mol m-2 d-1, for winter and summer, respectively. For EW orientations, 70% of mid-channel sites were obscured from direct incidence during part of the year; and of these sites, average diffuse light conditions persisted for 19.3% of the year (70.5 days), and extended upwards to 194 days. This predictive model has provided an initial quantitative step to estimate and determine the importance of autotrophic production for this ecosystem, as well as a broader application for other

  5. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  6. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Cole, Rebecca A

    2004-10-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  7. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Cole, Rebecca A

    2004-10-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub. PMID:15562604

  8. The internal structure of sand bars on the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as determined by ground-penetrating radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, Walter A.; Kayen, Robert; Rubin, David; Minasian, Diane L.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution, subsurface imagery from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has revealed the internal structure of sand bars at seven sites on the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. Based on reconnaissance-level surveys, we recognized three stratigraphic units and several intervening unconformities. Unit A, which exhibits hyperbolic reflections and always occurs at the base of the section, is interpreted as bedrock and/or talus. Unit B is a commonly observed sand deposit that overlies unit A and is characterized by reflections that gently dip down toward the river axis. Unit C is a sand deposit up to 2 m thick that always occurs at the top of the section and may represent a flood deposit from 1983. This study demonstrates the utility of GPR for non-destructive investigation of sand-bar thickness and the stratigraphic record of flood events in the Grand Canyon.

  9. Salinity of the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon confers anti-parasitic properties on a native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the Little Colorado River within Grand Canyon is naturally high in salt (NaCl), which is known to prohibit development of external fish parasites such as Ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). The naturally high salinity (>0.3%) of the Little Colorado River at baseflow may be one factor allowing survival and persistence of larval and juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fishes in Grand Canyon. We compared salinity readings from the Little Colorado River to those reported in the literature as being effective at removing protozoan parasites from fish. In laboratory tests, 10 juvenile roundtail chub (Gila robusta; 61–90 mm TL) were randomly placed into each of 12, 37-L aquaria filled with freshwater, water obtained from the Little Colorado River (0.3% salinity), or freshwater with table salt added until the salinity reached 0.3%. Roundtail chub was used as a surrogate for humpback chub in this study because the species is not listed as endangered but is morphologically and ecologically similar to humpback chub. All roundtail chub infected with Ich recovered and survived when placed in water from the Little Colorado River or water with 0.3% salinity, but all experimental fish placed in freshwater died because of Ich infection. The naturally high salinity of the Little Colorado River at baseflow (0.22%–0.36%), appears sufficiently high to interrupt the life cycle of Ich and may allow increased survival of larval and juvenile humpback chub relative to other areas within Grand Canyon.

  10. Diets of insectivorous birds along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, H.K.; van Riper, Charles; Brown, B.T.; Kearsley, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined diets of six insectivorous bird species (n = 202 individuals) from two vegetation zones along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1994. All bird species consumed similar quantities of caterpillars and beetles, but use of other prey taxa varied. Non-native leafhoppers (Opsius stactagolus) specific to non-native tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis) substantially augmented Lucy's Warbler (Vermivora luciae) diets (49%), while ants comprised 82% of Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) diets. Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) diets were composed of 45% aquatic midges. All bird species consumed the non-native leafhopper specific to tamarisk. Comparison of bird diets with availability of arthropod prey from aquatic and terrestrial origins showed terrestrial insects comprised 91% of all avian diets compared to 9% of prey from aquatic origin. Seasonal shifts in arthropod prey occurred in diets of three bird species, although no seasonal shifts were detected in arthropods sampled in vegetation indicating that at least three bird species were not selecting prey in proportion to its abundance. All bird species had higher prey overlap with arthropods collected in the native, mesquite-acacia vegetation zone which contained higher arthropod diversity and better prey items (i.e., Lepidoptera). Lucy's Warbler and Yellow Warbler consumed high proportions of prey items found in greatest abundance in the tamarisk-dominated vegetation zone that has been established since the construction of Glen Canyon Dam. These species appeared to exhibit ecological plasticity in response to an anthropogenic increase in prey resources.

  11. Recirculating flow and sedimentation in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.C. )

    1990-09-01

    Debris fans debouching into the bottom of Grand Canyon create rapids and flow separation in the Colorado River. The patterns of flow and the behavior of recirculation zones formed by flow separation are consistent throughout the Canyon's length. Zones of recirculating flow occur along the margin of channel expansions. Recirculation zones are comprised of one primary eddy; secondary eddies and areas of unorganized low velocity may exist upstream from the primary eddy. The longest recirculation zones are formed by channel constrictions of low width-to-depth ratio. Recirculation zones increase in length with increasing discharge. Sand bars form beneath recirculation zones, especially near separation and reattachment points. Reattachment bars project upstream from the reattachment point and underlie primary eddies. Separation bars mantle the downstream parts of the debris fans and form beneath secondary eddies and low-velocity areas. Sediment that forms reattachment bars is dominated by sizes characteristic of suspended load, while sediment that forms separation bars is finer. Reattachment bars are more common than separation bars, and both occur more frequently and are larger in wide reaches. The form and location of these bars is consistent with the location and behavior of stagnation points; however, the locations of these stagnation points change. Although velocity increases in the main channel at high discharges, velocities near the separation and reattachment points remain low. Sedimentation can occur in a bedrock gorge at high discharges and low transport rates, although the location of high-discharge sand bars may differ from those deposited at lower flows.

  12. Movement patterns of wintering lesser scaup in Grand Calumet River - Indiana Harbor Canal, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Hines, Randy K.; Kochanny, C.O.

    1996-01-01

    Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) winter in the Grand Calumet River-Indiana Harbor Canal (GCR-IHC) drainage into southern Lake Michigan, a polluted oasis in the highly urban and industrial corridor of northern Illinois and Indiana. The GCR-IHC is an important wintering area for lesser scaup in northwestern Indiana, especially after Lake Michigan freezes, because of the lack of other wildlife habitat in the area. We investigated the feeding and movement patterns of these wintering lesser scaup to better understand the ecological significance of this area to wintering waterfowl and to interpret contaminant levels in these lesser scaup. We implanted radio transmitters in 20 individuals in January 1994 and tracked them until early March 1994. Four lesser scaup disappeared and four died within the first 2 weeks after implantation; 12 lesser scaup remained in the GCR-IHC for the next 6-7 weeks. Individual radio-marked scaup (n = 12) were located in the GCR-IHC on an average of 62.2% (extreme values = 25-87%) of the searches. No radio-marked lesser scaup were located outside the GCR-IHC. Lesser scaup were feeding during 23% of the radio fixes.

  13. Effects of a test flood on fishes of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, R.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; McIvor, C.C.; McKinney, T.; Leibfried, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    A beach/habitat-building flow (i.e., test flood) of 1274 m3/s, released from Glen Canyon Dam down the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, had little effect on distribution, abundance, or movement of native fishes, and only short-term effects on densities of some nonnative species Shoreline and backwater catch rates of native fishes, including juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha), flannelmouth suckers (Catostomus latipinnis), and bluehead suckers (C. discobolus), and all ages of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus), were not significantly different before and after the flood. Annual spring spawning migrations of flannelmouth suckers into the Paria River and endangered humpback chub into the Little Colorado River (LCR) took place during and after the flood, indicating no impediment to fish migrations. Pre-spawning adults staged in large slack water pools formed at the mouths of these tributaries during the flood. Net movement and habitat used by nine radio-tagged adult humpback chub during the flood were not significantly different from prior observations. Diet composition of adult humpback chub varied, but total biomass did not differ significantly before, during, and after the flood, indicating opportunistic feeding for a larger array of available food items displaced by the flood. Numbers of nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) <152 mm total length decreased by ???8% in electrofishing samples from the dam tailwaters (0-25 km downstream of the dam) during the flood. Increased catch rates in the vicinity of the LCR (125 km downstream of the dam) and Hell's Hollow (314 km downstream of the dam) suggest that these young trout were displaced downstream by the flood, although displacement distance was unknown since some fish could have originated from local populations associated with intervening tributaries. Abundance, catch rate, body condition, and diet of adult rainbow trout in the dam tailwaters were not significantly affected by the flood, and the flood

  14. Implementation of a New Isotopic Tool (18O/16O in dissolved O2) for the Management of Oxygen in the Grand River, an Impacted Watershed in S. Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, T. S.; Schiff, S. L.; Taylor, W. D.

    2004-05-01

    Oxygen (O2) is essential for supporting life in aquatic ecosystems, and mediates the geochemistry of the aquatic environment. Recent analytical development now permits rapid analysis of the 18O/16O ratio of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water. The 18O/16O ratio provides insight into the main processes controlling DO concentrations in rivers: gas exchange, photosynthesis and respiration. Previously, this information was only available using indirect methods that involved laborious point scale measurements that are not amenable to routine sampling. The focus of this study is the Grand River, a Canadian Heritage River that drains into Lake Erie. The receives organic and nutrient inputs from sewage treatment plants, non-point agricultural sources, and serves as a source of drinking water and supports a significant recreational fishery. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Grand River can cycle from 2 mg/l to 14 mg/l in the summer during a 24 hour period. The concurrent shift in 18O/16O is greater than 10 permil on a diel basis. Rigorous sampling regimes are needed in dynamic systems that experience large fluxes in O2. Diurnal curves were analyzed for DO and 18O/16O in DO during different seasons. Gas exchange is an important constraint on the diurnal flux of DO. Currently, gas exchange coefficients for the Grand River are typically obtained using empirical estimates based on results from other rivers. Analysis of 18O/16O offers a new method to allow for the direct determination of the gas exchange coefficient for DO in rivers with diurnal cycles.

  15. Climate-Related Flood and Sediment Transport From the Paria River to Grand Canyon: The Role of Multiple Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    Since the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the sole major supplier of sand to the Colorado River in the upper portion of Grand Canyon is the Paria River, which supplies about 6% of the pre-dam supply of sand at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park. Sand is delivered by the Paria River during short-duration (< 24 hours), large magnitude (up to 300 m3s-1) floods that occur primarily during the warm season (July-October). The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of the tributary supplied sediment, endangered species recovery, and cultural resources. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the AMP, related to the timing and volume of sediment input into Grand Canyon. Adequate sediment inputs into the Canyon combined with active management of the timed releases from Glen Canyon Dam support the restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. For the Paria River, we relate the climatic drivers of episodic to interdecadal variations to the observed changes in the flood magnitude, timing and spatial scales as they affect the sediment inputs to the Colorado River. Variability in regional precipitation distribution on multiple time scales is diagnosed with emphasis on understanding the relative role of East Pacific tropical storms, North Pacific sea surface temperatures, and subtropical moisture sources. Better understanding of the coupled climate-hydrologic variations on multiple time scales is increasingly recognized as critical input for adaptive management (both passive and active). In collaboration with the AMP, this work deliberately identifies the entry-points for predictive hydroclimatic information at appropriate lead times. From the standpoint of this active adaptive management program, lead climate information allows

  16. Demographics and chronology of a spawning aggregation of blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) in the Grand River, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, Jason C.; Guerrant, Travis L.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) was sampled as individuals arrived, spawned, and departed from a spawning rime in the Grand River of northcentral Missouri, USA. The Grand River basin was not known to support blue sucker reproduction with few individuals ever recorded. The spawning site is unique in character for the lower river. Individuals began arriving in early April when water temperatures reached 10–12°C. Females with freely-flowing roe were sampled in late April after a large rise in river stage and concurrent lowering of the water temperature 4–5 degrees to 16.5°C. The spawning aggregation had a mean age of 15 y and ranged from 9 to 22 y based on scales that probably underestimated true ages. Males outnumbered females 5.5:1. Mean length was 659 mm for males and 721 mm for females. Females were longer at age than males and no significant age-length relationship was evident.

  17. Streamwater quality at selected sites in the Fraser River basin, Grand County, Colorado, water years 1991-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of population growth on streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey did a study in cooperation with the Grand County Commissioners and the East Grand County Water Quality Board. During water years 1991 through 2000, the study determined that concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate in the streamwater of the basin are within Colorado State streamwater?quality standards. The study also found that concentrations of chloride are largest at the headwaters and decrease downstream; however, chloride loading in the stream has the opposite relation. Most nutrient loading to the Fraser River happens January through May. Concentrations of ammonia at Fraser River downstream from Vasquez Creek at Winter Park had a downward trend through the period of the study. Nitrite plus nitrate had upward and downward trends at different sites and over different time spans. Orthophosphorus concentrations had upward trends at two sites. In general, the streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin is good and is not out of compliance with State standards.

  18. 2008 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Sondossi, Hoda A.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.; Vanaman, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents measurements of weather parameters and aeolian (windblown) sand transport made in 2008 near selected archaeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The quantitative methods and data discussed here form a basis for monitoring ecosystem processes that affect archeological-site stability. Combined with forthcoming work to evaluate landscape evolution at nearby archaeological sites, these data can be used to document the relationship between physical processes, including weather and aeolian sand transport, and their effects on the physical integrity of archaeological sites. Data collected in 2008 reveal event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Broad seasonal changes in aeolian sediment flux are also apparent at most study sites. The continuation of monitoring that began in 2007, and installation of equipment at several new sites in early 2008, allowed evaluation of the effects of the March 2008 high-flow experiment (HFE) on aeolian sand transport. At two of the nine sites studied, spring and summer winds reworked 2008 HFE sandbars to form new aeolian dunes, at which sand moved inland toward larger, well-established dune fields. At the other seven study sites, neither dune formation nor enhanced sand transport after the HFE were observed. At several of those sites, dominant wind directions in spring 2008 were not oriented such that much HFE sand would have moved inland; at other sites, lack of increased inland sand flux is attributable to lack of sandbar enlargement near the study sites or to inhibition of sand movement by vegetation or local topography.

  19. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  20. Agricultural Employment and Economic Growth in the Lower Rio Grande Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Conrad F.

    Using the basic input-output model developed by the Texas Input-Output Project for a 19 county South Texas Region, income transfer effects from the extension of unemployment insurance to the agricultural sector were derived. Total income transferred would have ranged from $1.5 million to $2.3 million depending upon coverage provisions. About…

  1. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied. PMID:16341415

  2. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.

  3. Spatial information technologies for climate change impact on ecosystems: detecting and mapping invasive weeds in the Rio Grande River system of south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetlands and aquatic ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change. Exotic invasive weeds are a serious problem in the Rio Grande River system of Texas. The river extends 3,040 km from its source in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado to the mouth at the Gulf of Mexico on the United States-Mexico borde...

  4. Impact of the biological control agent, Tetramesa romana (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) on Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) along the Rio Grande River in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five years post release of 1.2 million arundo wasps, Tetramesa romana, into the riparian habitats of the lower Rio Grande River; changes in the health the invasive weed, Arundo donax, giant reed have been documented. These changes in plant attributes are fairly consistent along the 558 river miles b...

  5. Achieving Long-Term Protection of Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Through Implementation of Conservation Practices and Control of Phosphorus Input from Agricultural Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), a 13,000 acre lake in northwestern Ohio, is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting primarily from phosphorus input from agricultural runoff. The algal blooms are so severe that the Ohio Department of Natural Resources advised against any...

  6. Distribution and partitioning of iron, zinc, and arsenic in surface sediments in the Grande River mouth to Cuitzeo Lake, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Castañeda, Benjamín; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; Cortés-Martínez, Raúl; Martínez-Miranda, Verónica; Márquez-Benavides, Liliana

    2010-07-01

    Cuitzeo Lake is one of the largest and most important lakes in Mexico. It receives different types of pollutants through its main tributary, the Grande River of Morelia. The aim of this work was to determine if high concentrations of iron, zinc, and arsenic are present in sediments in an area near the river mouth to the lake, as well as to estimate the partitioning of these metals using a sequential extraction procedure in order to obtain information of their potential bioavailability. Sediment samples were collected from three different sites in Cuitzeo Lake and two sites in Grande River in both dry and wet seasons. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out to determine the concentrations of these elements in different geochemical phases of the sediments. Total metal concentrations were evaluated by using the enrichment factor and the geoaccumulation index. A comparison with sediment quality guidelines and shale values has also been made. The results indicate that sediments are considered unpolluted by iron and moderately polluted by zinc and arsenic. However, fractionation studies showed that significant amounts of Zn and As could be released to the lake ecosystem depending on the environmental conditions, representing a medium risk potential of bioavailability to the biota.

  7. Large-scale bedforms in the Platte River downstream from Grand Island, Nebraska; structure, process, and relationship to channel narrowing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Platte River channel in Nebraska, especially downstream from Grand Island, is characterized by large, periodic, and geometrically distinct bedforms called macroforms. Macroforms have dimensions commensurate with the width and depth of the channel and are emergent at all but the highest flow stages. The encroachment of vegetation on macroforms and their consequent stabilization since the large-scale development of irrigation in the Platte River basin is the major cause of the reduction in channel width upstream from Grand Island. From simple geometrical considerations of macroform shape, an equation is developed to predict the depth and duration of flow required to erode the stoss sides of the macroforms to remove new vegetal growth each year. The methods developed in this report to eliminate vegetal growth on macroforms may provide a useful management tool for controlling width of the Platte River channels. Although further testing is required to establish the validity of these methods at actual stream sites, a sample calculation for the Silver Creek reach shows good agreement between the flow conditions predicted by the methods developed in this report and actual flow conditions. (USGS)

  8. Multiple constraints on the age of a Pleistocene lava dam across the Little Colorado River at Grand Falls, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.; Riggs, N.; Kaufman, D.; Champion, D.; Fenton, C.; Forman, S.; McIntosh, W.; Hereford, R.; Plescia, J.; Ort, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Grand Falls basalt lava flow in northern Arizona was emplaced in late Pleistocene time. It flowed 10 km from its vent area to the Little Colorado River, where it cascaded into and filled a 65-m-deep canyon to form the Grand Falls lava dam. Lava continued ???25 km downstream and ???1 km onto the far rim beyond where the canyon was filled. Subsequent fluvial sedimentation filled the reservoir behind the dam, and eventually the river established a channel along the margin of the lava flow to the site where water falls back into the pre-eruption canyon. The ca. 150 ka age of the Grand Falls flow provided by whole-rock K-Ar analysis in the 1970s is inconsistent with the preservation of centimeter-scale flow-top features on the surface of the flow and the near absence of physical and chemical weathering on the flow downstream of the falls. The buried Little Colorado River channel and the present-day channel are at nearly the same elevation, indicating that very little, if any, regional downcutting has occurred since emplacement of the flow. Newly applied dating techniques better define the age of the lava dam. Infrared-stimulated luminescence dating of silty mudstone baked by the lava yielded an age of 19.6 ?? 1.2 ka. Samples from three noneroded or slightly eroded outcrops at the top of the lava flow yielded 3He cosmogenic ages of 16 ?? 1 ka, 17 ?? 1 ka, and 20 ?? 1 ka. A mean age of 8 ?? 19 ka was obtained from averaging four samples using the 40Ar/39Ar step-heating method. Finally, paleomagnetic directions in lava samples from two sites at Grand Falls and one at the vent area are nearly identical and match the curve of magnetic secular variation at ca. 15 ka, 19 ka, 23 ka, and 28 ka. We conclude that the Grand Falls flow was emplaced at ca. 20 ka. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  9. O, H and S Isotopes as Tracers of Groundwater Discharge Into the Rio Grande and the Gila River, Southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, C. J.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J. F.; Harris, R. C.

    2004-05-01

    In the semi-arid Basin-and-Range province, large rivers commonly enter and exit basins through hard-rock barriers impermeable to groundwater. Isotopic contrasts characteristically exist between river water entering a basin and locally-derived groundwater in basin-fill sediment. Basin aquifers must discharge to the river near the river exit point, and may contribute significantly to river water and solute load. O, H and S isotopes can potentially indicate the location of discharge zones. At times of low river flow, the Gila River enters Safford Basin with isotope delta values, here presented as [d18O‰ , dD‰ , d34S‰ ], of [-8.5, -65, +4.5]. Deep basin water has values [-11.5, -85, +11], the d34S reflecting gypsum evaporite. Values in river water change by km 50 to [-7.5, -60, +4.5] and between km 50 and 80 to [-8.5, -65, +7.5]. The increase in d18O and dD from 0-50 km indicates irrigation water discharge; the change from 50-80 km is accompanied by doubling of sulfate content and requires addition of deep basin water. The Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson with isotope composition [-6.5 to -8.5, -65 to -75, +2 to +4], the d18O and dD values defining an evaporation line (RGEL) resulting from passage of water through upstream reservoirs. Basin groundwater is sulfate-rich and has variable isotope composition: [-9 to -11, -66 to -76, +5 to +10]; it includes both evaporated and non-evaporated types. Groundwater discharge is generally insufficient to shift water away from the RGEL, but d34S values in river water increase to +5 to +9‰ with increasing sulfate content downstream of Fabens, TX, indicating discharge of high-d34S groundwater. Variable sewage discharge from Ciudad Juàrez limits the possibility of detecting isotope shifts in Rio Grande water.

  10. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  11. Paleosecular variation, geochemistry, correlation, and timing of Grande Ronde Basalt lava flows, Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Sawlan, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Co-located paleomagnetic and geochemical sampling of lava flows at eight sections within the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB) was undertaken across the Columbia Plateau in WA and OR. The GRB represents roughly 87% (151,000 km3) of the Miocene Columbia River flood basalt province (174,000 km3) by volume (exclusive of the Steens Mountain Basalt), and recently published 40Ar/39Ar age estimates indicate that it was most likely emplaced within a time interval of less than 400 ka [Barry et al., Lithos 118(3), 213-222, 2010]. GRB flows include four stratigraphic magnetozones within the formation (R1, N1, R2, N2), and the sections currently sampled are mostly within the upper two magnetozones. Because Plateau GRB flows have undergone pervasive low-temperature alteration to varying degrees [see M. Sawlan's abstract, this meeting], particular care has been taken to collect the freshest available rock. Several new flow units have been identified, and similar, but unusual, paleomagnetic directions in stratigraphically adjacent flows of different chemical composition indicate, with high probability, that these flows were emplaced contemporaneously relative to the rate of geomagnetic paleosecular variation (PSV). Thus, several magma sources and their vent systems apparently operated nearly simultaneously and produced a stratigraphic framework in which compositionally distinct flows are intercalated. In addition, transitional directions have been found in flows near the N1/R2 and R2/N2 geomagnetic reversal boundaries, and an excursion to low inclinations occurred during emplacement of the Winter Water member (N2) flows. The detail and sequential nature of the PSV curve recovered from the upper GRB lava flows (R2 & N2) so far indicate extraordinarily rapid eruption of these flows. Comparison of the rate of change shown by our nascent PSV curve for the upper GRB with a recently published one for the Holocene of western North America [Hagstrum and Blinman, G3 11(6), 2010], which covers in

  12. 2009 weather and aeolian sand-transport data from the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Sondossi, Hoda A.; Dealy, Timothy P.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents measurements of weather parameters and aeolian sand transport made in 2009 near selected archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The quantitative methods and data discussed here form a basis for monitoring ecosystem processes that affect archeological-site stability. Combined with forthcoming work to evaluate landscape evolution at nearby archeological sites, these data can be used to document the relation between physical processes, including weather and aeolian sand transport, and their effects on the physical integrity of archeological sites. Data collected in 2009 reveal event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Broad seasonal changes in aeolian sediment flux are also apparent at most study sites. Differences in weather patterns between 2008 and 2009 included an earlier spring windy season, greater spring precipitation even though 2009 annual rainfall totals were in general substantially lower than in 2008, and earlier onset of the reduced diurnal barometric-pressure fluctuations commonly associated with summer monsoon conditions. Weather patterns in middle to late 2009 were apparently affected by a transition of the ENSO cycle from a neutral phase to the El Ni?o phase. The continuation of monitoring that began in 2007, and installation of additional equipment at several new sites in early 2008, allowed evaluation of the effects of the March 2008 high-flow experiment (HFE) on aeolian sand transport. As reported earlier, at 2 of the 9 sites studied, spring and summer winds in 2008 reworked the HFE sandbars to form new aeolian dunes, where sand moved inland toward larger, well-established dune fields. Observations in 2009 showed that farther inland migration of the dune at one of those two sites is likely inhibited by vegetation. At the other location, the new aeolian dune form was found to have moved 10 m inland toward older, well

  13. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  14. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  15. Streamflow and water quality of the Grand Calumet River, Lake County, Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois, October 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wangsness, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A diel (24-hour) water-quality survey was done to investigate the sources of dry-weather waste inputs attributable to other than permitted point-source effluent and to evaluate the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Grand Calumet River, Lake County, Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois, in October 1984. Flow in the Grand Calumet River consists almost entirely of municipal and industrial effluents which comprised more than 90% of the 500 cu ft/sec flow observed at the confluence of the East Branch Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal during the study. At the time of the study, virtually all of the flow in the West Branch Grand Calumet River was municipal effluent. Diel variations in streamflow of as much as 300 cu ft/sec were observed in the East Branch near the ship canal. The diel variation diminished at the upstream sampling sites in the East Branch. In the West Branch, the diel variation in flow was quite drastic; complete reversals of flow were observed at sampling stations near the ship canal. Average dissolved-oxygen concentrations at stations in the East Branch ranged from 5.7 to 8.2 mg/L and at stations in the West Branch from 0.8 to 6.6 mg/L. Concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, biochemical-oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphorus were substantially higher in the West Branch than in the East Branch. In the East Branch, only the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board water-quality standards for total phosphorus and phenol were exceeded. In the West Branch, water-quality standards for total ammonia, chloride, cyanide, dissolved solids, fluoride, total phosphorus, mercury, and phenol were exceeded and dissolved oxygen was less than the minimum allowable. Three areas of significant differences between cumulative effluent and instream chemical-mass discharges were identified in the East Branch and one in the West Branch. The presence of unidentified waste inputs in the East Branch were indicated by

  16. Deciphering Paria and Little Colorado River flood regimes and their significance in multi-objective adaptive management strategies for Colorado River resources in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, sandbars, recreational trout angling, endangered native fish, whitewater rafting, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on warm-season Paria River floods (JUL-OCT, at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars below Glen Canyon Dam; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of warm season tributary sand input from the Paria River into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The Little Colorado River is an important secondary source of sand inputs to Grand Canyon, but its lower segment is also critical spawning habitat for the endangered humpback chub. Fish biologists have reported increased abundance of chub juveniles in this key tributary in summers following cool-season flooding (DEC-FEB), but little is known about chub spawning substrates and behavior or the role that flood frequency in this tributary may play in native fish population dynamics in Grand Canyon. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm- and cool-season floods from these two important tributaries of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. Coupled variations of floods (magnitude and timing) from these rivers are also

  17. Effects of Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River and its floodplain, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Richard A.; Mills, John D.; Wrazien, David R.; Bassett, Beau; Splinter, Dale K.

    2005-10-01

    In 1906, the Bureau of Reclamation created Jackson Lake Dam on the Snake River in what later became Grand Teton National Park. The geomorphic, hydrologic and vegetation adjustments downstream of the dam have yet to be documented. After a larger reservoir was completed further downstream in 1957, the reservoir release schedule from Jackson Lake Dam was changed in a manner that lowered the magnitude and frequency of floods. The stability of the Snake River exhibited a complex response to the change in flow regime. Close to major tributaries, the Snake River increased in total sinuosity and rates of lateral channel migration. Away from the influence of tributaries, the river experienced fewer avulsions and a decrease in sinuosity. Vegetation maps were constructed from 1945 and 1989 aerial photography and field surveys. Using these data, we determined how vegetation is directly related to the number of years since each portion of the floodplain was last occupied by the channel. The vegetation has changed from a flood-pulse dominated mosaic to a more terrestrial-like pattern of succession. Changes in the Snake River and its floodplain have direct implications on bald eagle habitat, moose habitat, fish habitat, safety of rafting and canoeing, and biodiversity at the community and species levels.

  18. Colorado River Vegetation, and Climate: Five Decades of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Grand Canyon in Response to River Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, B. E.; Sankey, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent analysis of remotely sensed imagery of 400 km of the Colorado River confirms a net increase in vegetated area has occurred since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. The rates and magnitude of vegetation change appear to be river stage-dependent. Riparian vegetation expansion on geomorphic surfaces at lower elevations relative to the river was greater for decades with lower peak and average discharges. Vegetation change at higher elevation relative to the river indicate that increases and decreases in vegetated area reflect regional precipitation patterns, and respectively coincide with regionally significant wet and dry periods that include the current early 21st century drought. The objective of this work was to examine the temporal persistence, and changes, in the spatial distribution of riparian vegetation relative to geomorphic characteristics of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, dam and reservoir management, and regional climate over the 5-decade period from the mid-1960s to present. We employed archived riparian vegetation classifications that used aerial imagery from 1965, 1973, 1984, 1992, 2002, and 2009 coupled with flow regime data that is primarily related to operations of Glen Canyon Dam, field-measured rating relations, predictions of rating relations based on 1-D modeling, and detailed, geomorphic field mapping. Documentation of the effects of river regulation on riparian habitats in the SW USA has traditionally been limited to either small segments of river channels (e.g., 0.1-10km), or focused on specific plant species. The smaller geographic scale approach evaluates local hydrology, river channel changes, and serial recruitment events of riparian plants. The species-specific plant response informs larger scale patterns of riparian plant distributions across the landscape, but is less sensitive to differences of climate and hydrology among rivers. Our study is unique in that it employs datasets that allow both large-scale change

  19. Evaluation of the extent of contaminated sediments in the west branch of the Grand Calumet river, Indiana-Illinois, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, R.A.; Unger, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The extent of contamination in river sediments is often not rigorously evaluated. In many cases, only surface sediment samples are taken. In other cases, entire sediment cores are composited for analysis, an approach that limits the ability to identify discrete zones of contamination. In addition, few studies include information on the rate of sedimentation. Composited sediment cores, subsamples of cores made at discrete intervals, and surface samples were obtained from locations in the West Branch of the Grand Calumet River. The organic carbon content and concentrations of up to 26 major, minor, and trace elements were determined. Sedimentation rates at the ten locations were estimated using 137Cs. The mean concentrations of metals in the surface samples were considerably higher than concentrations in samples obtained by the two coring approaches. Only by analyzing discrete subsamples was it possible to plot the concentrations by depth and location. This approach was used to demonstrate that high levels of organic carbon and trace elements are confined between river miles 5 and 7.5. Sedimentation rate information combined with chemical analyses of the same cores indicate that contamination of this part of the river began in the 1930s.The extent of contamination in river sediments is often not rigorously evaluated. In many cases, only surface sediment samples are taken. In other cases, entire sediment cores are composited for analysis, an approach that limits the ability to identify discrete zones of contamination. In addition, few studies include information on the rate of sedimentation. Composited sediment cores, subsamples of cores made at discrete intervals, and surface samples were obtained from locations in the West Branch of the Grand Calumet River. The organic carbon content and concentrations of up to 26 major, minor, and trace elements were determined. Sedimentation rates at the ten locations were estimated using 137Cs. The mean concentrations of metals

  20. Modeling the transfer of land and water from agricultural to urban uses in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Jarratt, Janet; Passell, Howard David; Kelly, Susan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Chermak, Janie; Van Bloeman Waanders, Paul; McNamara, Laura A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Pallachula, Kiran; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Newman, Gretchen Carr

    2004-11-01

    Social and ecological scientists emphasize that effective natural resource management depends in part on understanding the dynamic relationship between the physical and non-physical process associated with resource consumption. In this case, the physical processes include hydrological, climatological and ecological dynamics, and the non-physical process include social, economic and cultural dynamics among humans who do the resource consumption. This project represents a case study aimed at modeling coupled social and physical processes in a single decision support system. In central New Mexico, individual land use decisions over the past five decades have resulted in the gradual transformation of the Middle Rio Grande Valley from a primarily rural agricultural landscape to a largely urban one. In the arid southwestern U.S., the aggregate impact of individual decisions about land use is uniquely important to understand, because scarce hydrological resources will likely limit the viability of resulting growth and development trajectories. This decision support tool is intended to help planners in the area look forward in their efforts to create a collectively defined 'desired' social landscape in the Middle Rio Grande. Our research question explored the ways in which socio-cultural values impact decisions regarding that landscape and associated land use. Because of the constraints hydrological resources place on land use, we first assumed that water use, as embodied in water rights, was a reasonable surrogate for land use. We thought that modeling the movement of water rights over time and across water source types (surface and ground) would provide planners with insight into the possibilities for certain types of decisions regarding social landscapes, and the impact those same decisions would have on those landscapes. We found that water rights transfer data in New Mexico is too incomplete and inaccurate to use as the basis for the model. Furthermore, because of its

  1. River eutrophication: irrigated vs. non-irrigated agriculture through different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Laura; Moreno, José Luis; Picazo, Félix

    2012-05-15

    The main objective of this study was to determine how spatial scale may affect the results when relating land use to nutrient enrichment of rivers and, secondly, to investigate which agricultural practices are more responsible for river eutrophication in the study area. Agriculture was split into three subclasses (irrigated, non-irrigated and low-impact agriculture) which were correlated to stream nutrient concentration on four spatial scales: large scale (drainage area of total subcatchment and 100 m wide subcatchment corridors) and local scale (5 and 1 km radius buffers). Nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations and land use composition (agriculture, urban and forest) were measured at 130 river reaches in south-central Spain during the 2001-2009 period. Results suggested that different spatial scales may lead to different conclusions. Spatial autocorrelation and the inadequate representation of some land uses produced unreal results on large scales. Conversely, local scales did not show data autocorrelation and agriculture subclasses were well represented. The local scale of 1 km buffer was the most appropriate to detect river eutrophication in central Spanish rivers, with irrigated cropland as the main cause of river pollution by nitrate. As regards river management, a threshold of 50% irrigated cropland within a 1 km radius buffer has been obtained using breakpoint regression analysis. This means that no more than 50% of irrigation croplands should be allowed near river banks in order to avoid river eutrophication. Finally, a methodological approach is proposed to choose the appropriate spatial scale when studying river eutrophication caused by diffuse pollution like agriculture.

  2. A Comparison of Techniques for Mapping the Distribution of Sediment on the Bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, E.; Kaplinski, M.; Rubin, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is charged with establishing and implementing monitoring projects to provide scientific information to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) on the effects of operating Glen Canyon Dam on the downstream resources of the Colorado River ecosystem. One primary resource of concern to the GCDAMP is fine-grained sediment. Glen Canyon Dam traps approximately 94% of the pre-dam sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, resulting in a decline in the size of eddy sand bars (25% decline in surface area over the past 15 years). Sand bars are an important resource because they provide habitat for endangered native fish, protect archeological sites, provide substrate for vegetation, are used as campsites and are a distinctive feature of the pre-dam environment. A combination of traditional survey techniques and multi-beam bathymetry has been used to determine the size and elevation of sandbars and to obtain topographic maps of the riverbed. These techniques have proven useful in evaluating the spatial changes and channel morphology along the Colorado River ecosystem. While previous studies have been very effective in measuring volumetric and spatial changes, a method is needed map the distribution of sediment along the submerged portion of the river channel. The distribution of fine-grained sediment is needed to evaluate the potential for deposition onto high elevation sand bars during proposed experimental high flows. This study used high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter and underwater video images collected on expeditions in 2002 and 2004 to evaluate the different methodologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible technologies to be used in determining the distribution of sediment along the bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. These technologies include: 1) visual interpretation of shaded relief images produced from multibeam bathymetry; 2) visual

  3. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffnagle, T.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (<150 mm total length) humpback chub from the LCR and those from the Colorado River during 1996a??1999. Both K and AFI were lower and L. cyprinacea prevalence and B. acheilognathi prevalence were higher in LCR fish than in Colorado River fish for all years. Mean K and AFI were 0.622 and 0.48, respectively, in the LCR and 0.735 and 2.02, respectively, in the Colorado River, indicating that fish in the Colorado River were more robust. Mean prevalence of L. cyprinacea was 23.9% and mean intensity was 1.73 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 3.2% and intensity was 1.0 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the Colorado River. Mean prevalence of B. acheilognathi was 51.0% and mean intensity was 25.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 15.8% and intensity was 12.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the Colorado River. Increased parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

  4. Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-value<0.001), where concentrations in 43 samples ranged from 62 to 240 milligrams per liter, compared to the downstream site where concentrations in 33 samples ranged from 77 to 141 milligrams per liter. Major-ion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National

  5. Impacts of future climate change on river discharge based on hydrological inference: A case study of the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Han, Jingcheng; Fan, Yurui

    2016-04-01

    Over the recent years, climate change impacts have been increasingly studied at the watershed scale. However, the impact assessment is strongly dependent upon the performance of the climatic and hydrological models. This study developed a two-step method to assess climate change impacts on water resources based on the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and a Hydrological Inference Model (HIM). PRECIS runs provided future temperature and precipitation projections for the watershed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The HIM based on stepwise cluster analysis is developed to imitate the complex nonlinear relationships between climate input variables and targeted hydrological variables. Its robust mathematical structure and flexibility in predictor selection makes it a desirable tool for fully utilizing various climate modeling outputs. Although PRECIS and HIM cannot fully cover the uncertainties in hydro-climate modeling, they could provide efficient decision support for investigating the impacts of climate change on water resources. The proposed method is applied to the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. The model performance is demonstrated with comparison to observation data from the watershed during the period 1972-2006. Future river discharge intervals that accommodate uncertainties in hydro-climatic modeling are presented and future river discharge variations are analyzed. The results indicate that even though the total annual precipitation would not change significantly in the future, the inter-annual distribution is very likely to be altered. The water availability is expected to increase in Winter while it is very likely to decrease in Summer over the Grand River Watershed, and adaptation strategies would be necessary.

  6. High diet overlap between native small-bodied fishes and nonnative fathead minnow in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seegert, Sarah E. Zahn; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Baxter, Colden V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.

    2014-01-01

    River regulation may mediate the interactions among native and nonnative species, potentially favoring nonnative species and contributing to the decline of native populations. We examined food resource use and diet overlap among small-bodied fishes in the Grand Canyon section of the Colorado River as a first step in evaluating potential resource competition. We compared the diets of the predominant small-bodied fishes (native Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus, juvenile Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis, and juvenile Bluehead Sucker C. discobolus, and nonnative Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas) across seasons at four sites downstream of Glen Canyon Dam using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and Schoener's similarity index. The diets of these fishes included diatoms, amorphous detritus, aquatic invertebrates (especially simuliid and chironomid larvae), terrestrial invertebrates, and terrestrial vegetation. Diets varied with season and were affected by high turbidity. Fish consumed more amorphous detritus and terrestrial vegetation during the summer monsoon season (July–September), when turbidity was higher. The diets of all species overlapped, but there was large variation in the degree of overlap. The diets of juvenile suckers and Fathead Minnows were most similar, while Speckled Dace had relatively distinct diets. The differences took the form of higher proportions of diatoms and amorphous detritus in the diets of Bluehead Suckers and Fathead Minnows and higher proportions of simuliids and chironomids in those of Speckled Dace. If food resources are or become limiting, diet overlap suggests that competition may occur among native and nonnative species, which could have implications for the population dynamics of these fishes and for the management of the Colorado River ecosystem in Grand Canyon.

  7. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, Annual Reports 1993, 1994, 1995 : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Timothy R.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This reports on the second, third, and fourth years of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally produced spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulational and interannual variation in several early life history parameters of naturally produced spring and summer chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project will provide information to assist chinook salmon population recovery efforts. Specific populations included in the study are: (1) Catherine Creek; (2) Upper Grande Ronde River; (3) Lostine River; (4) Imnaha River; (5) Wenaha River; and (6) Minam River. In this document, the authors present findings and activities from research completed in 1993, 1994, and 1995.

  8. Hydrogeology and deformation of sandbars in response to fluctuations in flow of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, M.C.; Carruth, R.L.; Fink, J.B.; Boling, J.K.; Cluer, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring develop on seepage faces of many sandbars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. These processes, observed at low river stage, are a response to residual head gradients in the sandbars caused by the river-stage fluctuation. Three sandbars were instrumented with sensors for continual monitoring of pore pressure and ground-water temperature within the sandbars and river stage. Two of the sandbars also had tilt sensors to aid in determining the relation between ground-water flow within and out of the sandbars and sandbar deformation. Tilting at sandbar 43.1L occurred on the downward limb of the hydrograph in the absence of scour, indicating slumping or a slump-creep sequence. The deformation was caused by outward-flowing bank storage, oversteepening of the lower part of the slope in the zone of fluctuating river stage by filling, and increased effective stress. At sandbar 172.3L, tilts were probably all related to scour and occurred on the rising limb of a hydrograph. Tilt occurred on April 17, May 7, May 13, June 18, and September 1, 1991. On September 1, the entire face of sandbar 172.3L was scoured. Rill erosion and slumping accompanied by measured tilts continued in reduced magnitude on sandbar 43.1L during interim flows. Thus, reduction in the range of discharge does not eliminate degradation caused by rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring. The importance of the ground-water processes is that they occur on every sandbar and become increasingly important on all sandbars in the absence of sandbar-building flows.

  9. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    PubMed

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  10. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  11. Modeling the Fate and Transport of Bacteriophage PRD-1 in a Large Surface Water System: The Grand River Watershed, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, M. S.; Shen, C.; Fong, T. T.; Rose, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the transport of biological agents that mimic the movement of pathogenic microorganisms in surface waters is important from the point of human health as well as risk assessment. In May 2006, we conducted a field experiment on the Grand River, Michigan using a conservative tracer (Rhodamine-WT) and the bacteriophage PRD-1, a surrogate for human viruses. Observed concentrations of the chemical and biological tracers were described using a transport model that included the effects of transient storage in addition to virus sorption and inactivation. Linkages between watershed-scale processes and in-stream processes were an important aspect of the modeling. Here we describe the similarities and differences between the two tracers (e.g., travel times and recovery factors) as well as environmental factors that influence virus transport and inactivation in the surface water system.

  12. Herbicide levels in rivers draining two prairie agricultural watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Grift, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    A monitoring survey was conducted during 1984 on the Ochre and Turtle Rivers, which flow into Dauphin Lake in western Manitoba, Canada, to determine levels of the herbicides MCPA, diclofop-methyl, dicamba, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, triallate and trifluralin which were widely used in each watershed. Triallate concentrations exceeded 4 ng/L in 50% and 10% of the 21 samples taken from each of the Turtle and Ochre River, respectively, during the period March to October 1984. Trifluralin concentrations exceeded 3 ng/L in 14% and 10% of the samples from the respective rivers. Maximum concentrations did not exceed 25 ng/L and were unrelated to changes in river flow. Bromoxynil and diclofop were detected in the Turtle River, at concentrations of 113 and 476 ng/L, respectively, following a major high water event in late June, but were undetectable (<2 and 12 ng/L, respectively) at other sampling times. Dicamba and 2,4-D were detectable.

  13. Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine in a large agricultural river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schottler, S.P.; Eisenreich, Steven J.; Capel, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine exhibited maximum concentrations of about 1000-6000 ng/L in the Minnesota River in 1990 and 1991, resulting from precipitation and runoff following the application period. Transport of these herbicides to the river occurs via overland flow or by infiltration to tile drainage networks. Suspended sediment, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations were used as indicators of transport mechanisms. The atrazine metabolite, DEA, was present in the river throughout the year. The ratio of DEA to atrazine concentration was used to calculate an apparent first-order soil conversion rate of atrazine to DEA. Half lives of 21-58 d were calculated for 1990 and 1991, respectively. The longer conversion rate in 1991 results from rapid flushing from the soil and minimum exposure to soil microorganisms. Total flux of herbicide to the river was 1-6.5 t, with over 60% of this loading occurring during the month of June. Loading to the river accounts for less than 1.5% of applied herbicide. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  14. Geohydrology and water quality of the Calumet aquifer, in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal, northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, J.M.; Watson, Lee R.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of primarily inorganic-constituent data from the five land-use groups to inorganic-constituent data from sites known to be contaminated shows that constituent concentrations in ground waters from wells in the land-use areas generally are lower than those in ground water from contaminated areas. Abstract 1 Likewise, a comparison of inorganic-constituent data from the land-use groups to inorganic-constituent data from areas relatively unaffected by human presence shows that constituent concentrations in ground water from wells in the land-use areas generally are greater than those in ground water from the unaffected areas. Some documented but unaccounted for chemical loads in the Grand Calumet River are from ground water. Ground water probably contributes more than 10 percent of the total chemical load of ammonia, chromium, and cyanide to the Grand Calumet River. In comparison, about 1 to 3 percent of the total streamflow in the Grand Calumet River is from ground water. Of the four major groundwater sinks in the aquifer, the east branch of the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Canal generally receive the greatest chemical loads from ground water, whereas Lake Michigan generally receives the smallest loads.

  15. Application of sedimentary-structure interpretation to geoarchaeological investigations in the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, A.E.; Rubin, D.M.; Dierker, J.L.; Fairley, H.C.; Griffiths, R.E.; Hazel, J.E.; Hunter, R.E.; Kohl, K.; Leap, L.M.; Nials, F.L.; Topping, D.J.; Yeatts, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed geoarchaeological study of landscape processes that affected prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites in three areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. The methods used in this case study can be applied to any locality containing unaltered, non-pedogenic sediments and, thus, are particularly relevant to geoarchaeology in arid regions. Resolving the interaction of fluvial, aeolian, and local runoff processes in an arid-land river corridor is important because the archaeological record in arid lands tends to be concentrated along river corridors. This study uses sedimentary structures and particle-size distributions to interpret landscape processes; these methods are commonplace in sedimentology but prove also to be valuable, though less utilized, in geoarchaeology and geomorphology. In this bedrock canyon, the proportion of fluvial sediment generally decreases with distance away from the river as aeolian, slope-wash, colluvial, and debris-flow sediments become more dominant. We describe a new facies consisting of 'flood couplets' that include a lower, fine-grained fluvial component and an upper, coarser, unit that reflects subaerial reworking at the land surface between flood events. Grain-size distributions of strata that lack original sedimentary structures are useful within this river corridor to distinguish aeolian deposits from finer-grained fluvial deposits that pre-date the influence of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. Identification of past geomorphic settings is critical for understanding the history and preservation of archaeologically significant areas, and for determining the sensitivity of archaeological sites to dam operations. Most archaeological sites in the areas studied were formed on fluvial deposits, with aeolian deposition acting as an important preservation agent during the past millennium. Therefore, the absence of sediment-rich floods in this

  16. Application of sedimentary-structure interpretation to geoarchaeological investigations in the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2008-10-01

    We present a detailed geoarchaeological study of landscape processes that affected prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites in three areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. The methods used in this case study can be applied to any locality containing unaltered, non-pedogenic sediments and, thus, are particularly relevant to geoarchaeology in arid regions. Resolving the interaction of fluvial, aeolian, and local runoff processes in an arid-land river corridor is important because the archaeological record in arid lands tends to be concentrated along river corridors. This study uses sedimentary structures and particle-size distributions to interpret landscape processes; these methods are commonplace in sedimentology but prove also to be valuable, though less utilized, in geoarchaeology and geomorphology. In this bedrock canyon, the proportion of fluvial sediment generally decreases with distance away from the river as aeolian, slope-wash, colluvial, and debris-flow sediments become more dominant. We describe a new facies consisting of 'flood couplets' that include a lower, fine-grained fluvial component and an upper, coarser, unit that reflects subaerial reworking at the land surface between flood events. Grain-size distributions of strata that lack original sedimentary structures are useful within this river corridor to distinguish aeolian deposits from finer-grained fluvial deposits that pre-date the influence of the upstream Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. Identification of past geomorphic settings is critical for understanding the history and preservation of archaeologically significant areas, and for determining the sensitivity of archaeological sites to dam operations. Most archaeological sites in the areas studied were formed on fluvial deposits, with aeolian deposition acting as an important preservation agent during the past millennium. Therefore, the absence of sediment-rich floods in this

  17. Postdam evolution of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draut, A. E.; Collins, B. D.; Fairley, H. C.; Rubin, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Sediment deposits within the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, USA, include fluvial sandbars and aeolian dune fields; fluvial deposits are the primary sediment source for the dune fields. We present a conceptual model describing evolution of aeolian landscapes in Grand Canyon, based upon field measurements of wind and sand transport and on surveys of vegetation and substrate properties. The data indicate that Glen Canyon Dam operations can affect geomorphic evolution above the elevation reached by river flows because of the link between fluvial deposition and aeolian transport of sediment. Evolution of aeolian landscapes, in turn, can affect the stability and preservation of archaeological material that occurs in numerous dune fields. Before closure of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in 1963, sediment-rich floods (mean annual flood 2400 m3/s) formed sandbars from which wind moved sand inland to form aeolian dunes. After dam operations reduced the amplitude and frequency of high flows, and eliminated the mainstream fluvial sediment supply, fluvial sandbars lost open sand area owing to erosion by river flows and the spread of riparian vegetation. Two types of aeolian landscapes now occur: (1) modern fluvial sourced, those downwind of postdam sandbars; and (2) relict fluvial sourced, which are not downwind of postdam sandbars and whose primary sediment source was deposits from predam floods that were larger than any postdam flows have been. Sediment supply has been reduced to type (1) dune fields because postdam sandbars are smaller than in the predam era; new sediment supply to type (2) dune fields has been essentially eliminated. Decreased aeolian sediment supply leads to increased vegetation and biologic soil crust in dune fields, and can result in greater susceptibility to gully formation during rainfall due to lack of infilling aeolian sand. Modern-fluvial-sourced dunes can receive new windblown sand from sandbars formed by controlled

  18. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer is a major source of public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The aquifer outcrop trends northwest - southeast across Mississippi and Alabama. A relatively thin shallow aquifer overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer in the flood plains and terraces of the Alabama, Coosa, Black Warrior, and Tallapoosa Rivers. Ground water in the shallow aquifer and the Black Warrior River aquifer is susceptible to contamination due to the effects of land use. Ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer and the shallow subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer, underlying an agricultural and an urban area, is described and compared. The agricultural and urban areas are located in central Alabama in Autauga, Elmore, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa Counties. Row cropping in the Mobile River Basin is concentrated within the flood plains of major rivers and their tributaries, and has been practiced in some of the fields for nearly 100 years. Major crops are cotton, corn, and beans. Crop rotation and no-till planting are practiced, and a variety of crops are grown on about one-third of the farms. Row cropping is interspersed with pasture and forested areas. In 1997, the average farm size in the agricultural area ranged from 196 to 524 acres. The urban area is located in eastern Montgomery, Alabama, where residential and commercial development overlies the shallow aquifer and subcrop of the Black Warrior River aquifer. Development of the urban area began about 1965 and continued in some areas through 1995. The average home is built on a 1/8 - to 1/4 - acre lot. Ground-water samples were collected from 29 wells in the agricultural area, 30 wells in the urban area, and a reference well located in a predominately forested area. The median depth to the screens of the agricultural and urban wells was 22.5 and 29 feet, respectively. Ground-water samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and pesticides

  19. Constructing a morphologic sediment budget, with uncertainties, for a 50-km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinski, M. A.; Hazel, J. E.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; Hadley, D.; Kohl, K.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial sediment budgets may be computed by measurement of sediment flux, measurement of channel morphologic change, or by a combination of both methods. Because the uncertainty associated with flux-based sediment budgets accumulates over time, it may be difficult or impossible to use this type of budget to predict or monitor long-term changes in sediment storage and channel morphology. Uncertainty in morphologically-based sediment budgets is not time-dependent and provides an attractive complement or alternative to sediment budgets based on measurements of flux. However, computation of a morphologically based sediment budget for long (~50 km) river segments does require thorough consideration of the suite of uncertainties (i.e. measurement error, interpolation error, and error associated with variability in bed surface texture, among others) that contribute to the sediment budget uncertainty. We report on repeat measurements of morphology and associated uncertainties for a 50-km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Topographic (total station) surveys, bathymetric (multibeam and singlebeam) surveys, and underwater microscope grain-size measurements were conducted in 2009 and 2012 for the same river segment. Multibeam sonar surveys also incorporate backscatter information used to define the distribution of bed sediment. One meter DEM's of the study reach were interpolated from TIN models constructed from the combined topographic and bathymetric datasets and differenced to determine the sediment budget. Uncertainties were estimated for each input dataset, as well as the interpolation methods used to construct each DEM. This results in a spatially variable 1 meter model of surface uncertainty, which is used to determine the total uncertainty of the sediment budget calculated by DEM differencing. Sediment flux measurements are also measured for the study segment over the same time period. Together, these datasets provide a unique opportunity to compare

  20. Inventory of wetlands and agricultural land cover in the upper Sevier River Basin, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Clark, L. D., Jr.; Landgraf, K. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of color infrared aerial photography in the mapping of agricultural land use and wetlands in the Sevier River Basin of south central utah is described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of utilizing LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital data to augment photographic interpretations are discussed. Transparent overlays for 27 quadrangles showing delineations of wetlands and agricultural land cover were produced. A table summarizing the acreage represented by each class on each quadrangle overlay is provided.

  1. Long-term change in perennial vegetation along the Colorado river in Grand Canyon national park (1889-2010)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Belnap, J.; Scott, M.L.; Esque, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring data are difficult to obtain for high-value resource areas, particularly in remote parts of national parks. One long-used method for evaluating change uses ground-based repeat photography to match historical images of landscapes. River expeditions that documented a proposed railroad route through Grand Canyon with large-format photographs occurred in 1889 and 1890. A total of 452 images from those expeditions are still in existence, and these were matched as closely as possible from December 1989 through March 1992. In 2010 and 2011, we are repeating these matches 120 years after the originals and 20 years after the first matches. This repeat photography provides visual information that can be interpreted for changes in terrestrial and riparian ecosystems along the river corridor, including change in the desert plant assemblages related to increasing winter low temperatures and severe drought. The riparian ecosystem, which originally consisted of native species established along the stage of frequent floods, has increased in area, density, and biomass as both nonnative and native species have become established following flow regulation by Glen Canyon Dam. The original and matched images provide the basis for one element of a robust monitoring program for the effects of climate change on ecosystem resources.

  2. A method for characterizing late-season low-flow regime in the upper Grand Ronde River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Valerie J.; White, Seth

    2016-04-19

    This report describes a method for estimating ecologically relevant low-flow metrics that quantify late‑season streamflow regime for ungaged sites in the upper Grande Ronde River Basin, Oregon. The analysis presented here focuses on sites sampled by the Columbia River Inter‑Tribal Fish Commission as part of their efforts to monitor habitat restoration to benefit spring Chinook salmon recovery in the basin. Streamflow data were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Water Resources Department. Specific guidance was provided for selection of streamgages, development of probabilistic frequency distributions for annual 7-day low-flow events, and regionalization of the frequency curves based on multivariate analysis of watershed characteristics. Evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the various components of this protocol indicates that the results are reliable for the intended purpose of hydrologic classification to support ecological analysis of factors contributing to juvenile salmon success. They should not be considered suitable for more standard water-resource evaluations that require greater precision, especially those focused on management and forecasting of extreme low-flow conditions.

  3. Seasonal and spatial patterns of growth of rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, Micheal D.; Korman, Josh; Walters, Carl J.; Kennedy, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been purposely introduced in many regulated rivers, with inadvertent consequences on native fishes. We describe how trout growth rates and condition could be influencing trout population dynamics in a 130 km section of the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam based on a large-scale mark–recapture program where ∼8000 rainbow trout were recaptured over a 3-year period (2012–2014). There were strong temporal and spatial variations in growth in both length and weight as predicted from von Bertalanffy and bioenergetic models, respectively. There was more evidence for seasonal variation in the growth coefficient and annual variation in the asymptotic length. Bioenergetic models showed more variability for growth in weight across seasons and years than across reaches. These patterns were consistent with strong seasonal variation in invertebrate drift and effects of turbidity on foraging efficiency. Highest growth rates and relative condition occurred in downstream reaches with lower trout densities. Results indicate that reduction in rainbow trout abundance in Glen Canyon will likely increase trout size in the tailwater fishery and may reduce downstream dispersal into Grand Canyon.

  4. A method for characterizing late-season low-flow regime in the upper Grand Ronde River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Valerie J.; White, Seth

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a method for estimating ecologically relevant low-flow metrics that quantify late‑season streamflow regime for ungaged sites in the upper Grande Ronde River Basin, Oregon. The analysis presented here focuses on sites sampled by the Columbia River Inter‑Tribal Fish Commission as part of their efforts to monitor habitat restoration to benefit spring Chinook salmon recovery in the basin. Streamflow data were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Water Resources Department. Specific guidance was provided for selection of streamgages, development of probabilistic frequency distributions for annual 7-day low-flow events, and regionalization of the frequency curves based on multivariate analysis of watershed characteristics. Evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the various components of this protocol indicates that the results are reliable for the intended purpose of hydrologic classification to support ecological analysis of factors contributing to juvenile salmon success. They should not be considered suitable for more standard water-resource evaluations that require greater precision, especially those focused on management and forecasting of extreme low-flow conditions.

  5. Revealing fate of CO2 leakage pathways in the Little Grand Wash Fault, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K.; Han, W. S.; Watson, Z. T.; Guyant, E.; Park, E.

    2015-12-01

    To assure long-term security of geologic carbon sequestration site, evaluation of natural CO2 leakage should be preceded before actual construction of the CO2 facility by comparing natural and artificial reservoir systems. The Little Grand Wash fault is located at the northwestern margin of the Paradox Basin and roles on a bypass of deep subsurface CO2 and brine water onto the surface, e.g., cold water geyser, CO2 spring, and surface travertine deposits. CO2 degassed out from brine at the Little Grand Wash fault zone may react with formation water and minerals while migrating through the fault conduit. Leakage observed by soil CO2 flux on the fault trace shows this ongoing transition of CO2, from supersaturated condition in deep subsurface to shallow surface equilibria. The present study aims to investigate the reactions induced by changes in hydrological and mineralogical factors inside of the fault zone. The methodology to develop site-specific geochemical model of the Little Grand Wash Fault combines calculated mechanical movements of each fluid end-member, along with chemical reactions among fluid, free CO2 gas and rock formations. Reactive transport modeling was conducted to simulate these property changes inside of the fault zone, using chemistry dataset based on 86 effluent samples of CO2 geysers, springs and in situ formation water from Entrada, Carmel, and Navajo Sandstone. Meanwhile, one- and two-dimensional models were separately developed to delineate features mentioned above. The results from the 3000-year simulation showed an appearance of self-sealing processes near the surface of the fault conduit. By tracking physicochemical changes at the depth of 15 m on the 2-dimensional model, significant changes induced by fluid mixing were indicated. Calculated rates of precipitation for calcite, illite, and pyrite showed increase in 2.6 x 10-4, 2.25 x 10-5, and 3.0 x 10-6 in mineral volume fraction at the depth of 15m, respectively. Concurrently

  6. Alarming nutrient pollution of Chinese rivers as a result of agricultural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokal, Maryna; Ma, Lin; Bai, Zhaohai; Luan, Shengji; Kroeze, Carolien; Oenema, Oene; Velthof, Gerard; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-02-01

    Transitions in Chinese agriculture resulted in industrial animal production systems, disconnected from crop production. We analyzed side-effects of these transitions on total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and phosphorus (TDP) inputs to rivers. In 2000, when transitions were ongoing, 30%-70% of the manure was directly discharged to rivers (range for sub-basins). Before the transition (1970) this was only 5%. Meanwhile, animal numbers more than doubled. As a result, TDN and TDP inputs to rivers increased 2- to 45-fold (range for sub-basins) during 1970-2000. Direct manure discharge accounts for over two-thirds of nutrients in the northern rivers and for 20%-95% of nutrients in the central and southern rivers. Environmental concern is growing in China. However, in the future, direct manure inputs may increase. Animal production is the largest cause of aquatic eutrophication. Our study is a warning signal and an urgent call for action to recycle animal manure in arable farming.

  7. Development of a bioenergetics model for humpback chub and evaluation of water temperature changes in the Grand Canyon, Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Paukert, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    The construction of Glen Canyon Dam above the Grand Canyon (Arizona) has reduced the water temperature in the Colorado River and altered the growth rate and feeding patterns of the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. A bioenergetics model for humpback chub was developed and used to examine how warmer water temperatures in the lower Colorado River (achieved through a temperature control device [TCD] at Glen Canyon Dam) might influence their growth rate and food requirements. Parameter values for humpback chub were developed by Monte Carlo filtering and fitting to laboratory growth. Parameter bounds were established from the literature for Gila species, random parameter sets were selected within these bounds, and the growth of modeled humpback chub was compared with criteria from a laboratory growth experiment at 24??C. This method of parameter estimation could be applied to other imperiled fishes where physiological studies are impractical. Final parameter values were corroborated by comparison with the growth rates of humpback chub from independent field and laboratory studies. Simulations indicated that increasing water temperatures from approximately 9??C to 16??C during summer and fall, the change expected from the TCD, may have a minimal effect on humpback chub growth rate unless food availability also increases with temperature. To evaluate the effects of increased temperatures on humpback chub in the lower Colorado River, it will be essential to monitor their growth rate, the invertebrate community, and the predators of humpback chub, which are also influenced by temperature changes. Bioenergetics models for humpback chub and their predators should be helpful tools for identifying potential scenarios and evaluating the complex interactions resulting from a TCD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. [Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

  9. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a cloudless sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  10. Tributary debris fans and the late Holocene alluvial chronology of the Colorado River, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.; Thompson, K.S.; Burke, K.J.; Fairley, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    Bouldery debris fans and sandy alluvial terraces of the Colorado River developed contemporaneously during the late Holocene at the mouths of nine major tributaries in eastern Grand Canyon. The age of the debris fans and alluvial terraces contributes to understanding river hydraulics and to the history of human activity along the river, which has been concentrated on these surfaces for at least two to three millennia. Poorly sorted, coarse-grained debris-flow deposits of several ages are interbedded with, overlie, or are overlapped by three terrace-forming alluviums. The alluvial deposits are of three age groups: the striped alluvium, deposited from before 770 B.C. to about A.D. 300; the alluvium of Pueblo II age deposited from about A.D. 700 to 1200; and the alluvium of the upper mesquite terrace, deposited from about A.D. 1400 to 1880. Two elements define the geomorphology of a typical debris fan: the large, inactive surface of the fan and a smaller, entrenched, active debris-flow channel and fan that is about one-sixth the area of the inactive fan. The inactive fan is segmented into at least three surfaces with distinctive weathering characteristics. These surfaces are conformable with underlying debris-flow deposits that date from before 770 B.C. to around A.D. 660, A.D. 660 to before A.D. 1200, and from A.D. 1200 to slightly before 1890, respectively, based on late-19th-century photographs, radiocarbon and archaeologic dating of the three stratigraphically related alluviums, and radiocarbon dating of fine-grained debris-flow deposits. These debris flows aggraded the fans in at least three stages beginning about 2.8 ka, if not earlier in the late Holocene. Several main-stem floods eroded the margin of the segmented fans, reducing fan symmetry. The entrenched, active debris-flow channels contain deposits <100 yr old, which form debris fans at the mouth of the channel adjacent to the river. Early and middle Holocene debris-flow and alluvial deposits have not been

  11. A 4500-year record of large floods on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence of flood deposits suggests at least 15 floods with peak discharges greater than 5500 m3sec-1 over the last 4500 yr. Ten floods during the last 2000-2300 yr had discharges greater than 6800 m3sec-1. One flood, 1600-1200 yr ago, had a discharge exceeding 14 000 m3sec-1, a flow rate more than twice the largest gaged flood. This record of flooding is one of the longest for a major US river and, combined with the gaged record of twentieth century floods, allows determination of the frequency and history of large floods that have affected key aspects of Colorado River geomorphology. -from Authors

  12. Factors Influencing Nutrient Losses from Agriculture in the St. Joseph River Watershed, Northeast Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient losses from agricultural watersheds in Indiana have been implicated in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico as well as massive algal blooms in Lake Erie. We monitored water quality from fields and drainage ditches in the St. Joseph River Watershed, Northeast Indiana. The complex ‘pot-ho...

  13. MANAGEMENT OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS: LESSONS FROM THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN. (R825290)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The Minnesota River (Minnesota, USA) receives large non-point source pollutant loads. Complex interactions between agricultural, state agency, environmental groups, and issues of scale make watershed management difficult. Subdividing the basin's 12 major water...

  14. Interpreting Hydraulic Conditions from Morphology, Sedimentology, and Grain Size of Sand Bars in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D. M.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; East, A. E.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    During three decades of research on sand bars and sediment transport in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, we have collected unprecedented quantities of data on bar morphology, sedimentary structures, grain size of sand on the riverbed (~40,000 measurements), grain size of sand in flood deposits (dozens of vertical grain-size profiles), and time series of suspended sediment concentration and grain size (more than 3 million measurements using acoustic and laser-diffraction instruments sampling every 15 minutes at several locations). These data, which include measurements of flow and suspended sediment as well as sediment within the deposits, show that grain size within flood deposits generally coarsens or fines proportionally to the grain size of sediment that was in suspension when the beds were deposited. The inverse problem of calculating changing flow conditions from a vertical profile of grain size within a deposit is difficult because at least two processes can cause similar changes. For example, upward coarsening in a deposit can result from either an increase in discharge of the flow (causing coarser sand to be transported to the depositional site), or from winnowing of the upstream supply of sand (causing suspended sand to coarsen because a greater proportion of the bed that is supplying sediment is covered with coarse grains). These two processes can be easy to distinguish where suspended-sediment observations are available: flow-regulated changes cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be positively correlated, whereas changes in supply can cause concentration and grain size of sand in suspension to be negatively correlated. The latter case (supply regulation) is more typical of flood deposits in Grand Canyon.

  15. Modeling of flood-deposited sand distributions in a reach of the Colorado River below the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    A release from Glen Canyon Dam during March-April 1996 was designed to test the effectiveness with which the riparian environment could be renewed with discharges greatly in excess of the normal powerplant-restricted maximum. Of primary concern was the rebuilding of sand deposits along the channel sides that are important to the flora and fauna along the river corridor and that provide the only camp sites for riverside visitors to the Grand Canyon National Park. Analysis of the depositional processes with a model of flow, sand transport, and bed evolution shows that the sand deposits formed along the channel sides early during the high flow were affected only slightly by the decline in suspended-sand concentrations over the course of the controlled flood. Modeling results suggest that the removal of a large sand deposit over several hours was not a response to declining suspended-sand concentrations. Comparisons of the controlled-flood deposits with deposits formed during a flood in January 1993 on the Little Colorado River that contributed sufficient sand to raise the suspended-sand concentrations to predam levels in the main stem show that the depositional pattern as well as the magnitude is strongly influenced by the suspended-sand concentrations.

  16. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Influences such as weather, flow controls and lag time play an important role in the processes influencing the water quality of agricultural catchments. In particular weather signals need to be clearly considered when interpreting the effectiveness of current measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. In north-western Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Gulf Stream, the latter expressed as the Gulf Stream North Wall index (GSNW index). Here we present five years of monthly data of nitrate-N concentration in stream water and groundwater (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring in the stream outlet and monthly sampling in multilevel monitoring wells) from four agricultural catchments (ca. 10 km2) together with monitored weather parameters, long-term weather data and the GSNW index. The catchments are situated in Ireland on the Atlantic seaboard and are susceptible to sudden and seasonal shifts in oceanic climate patterns. Rain anomalies and soil moisture deficit dynamics were similar to the dynamics of the GSNW index. There were monitored changes in nitrate-N concentration in both groundwater and surface water with no apparent connection to agricultural management; instead such changes also appeared to follow the GSNW index. For example, in catchments with poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' there were seasonal dynamics in nitrate-N concentration that correlated with the seasonal dynamics of the GSNW index. In a groundwater driven catchment there was a consistent increase in nitrate-N concentration over the monitored period which may be the result of increasingly more recharge in summer and autumn (as indicated by more flux in the GSNW index). The results highlight that the position of the Gulf Stream may influence the nitrate-N concentration in groundwater and stream water and there is a risk

  17. Primary production in headwater streams of the Seine basin: the Grand Morin river case study.

    PubMed

    Flipo, Nicolas; Rabouille, Christophe; Poulin, Michel; Even, Stéphanie; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Lalande, Marie

    2007-04-01

    Periphytic biomass has an important influence on the water quality of many shallow streams. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the knowledge obtained on periphyton during the PIREN Seine research program. Periphyton was sampled using chl a measurements by acetone extraction and oxygen measurements with microelectrodes. The experiments reveal the presence of an important fixed biomass ranging between 123 and 850 mgchl a m(-2) and the mean gross production (photosynthesis) is shown to range between 180 and 315 mgC m(-2) h(-1). An independent approach was performed using the ProSe model, which simulates transport and biogeochemical processes in 22 km of the Grand Morin stream. A strong agreement between in situ measurements and the model results was obtained. The gross production obtained using ProSe is 220 mgC m(-2) h(-1) for the periphyton, which matches the experimental data. Although the net photosynthetic activity of the phytoplankton (0.84 gC gC(-1) d(-1)) is higher than the periphytic one (0.33 gC gC(-1) d(-1)), the absolute periphytic activity is greater since the mean biomass (3.4 gC m(-)(2)) is 10 times higher than the phytoplanktonic one (0.3 gC m(-2)), due to the short residence time of the water body (1.5d).

  18. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  19. Comparison of turbidity to multi-frequency sideways-looking acoustic-Doppler data and suspended-sediment data in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Water clarity is important to biologists when studying fish and other fluvial fauna and flora. Turbidity is an indicator of the cloudiness of water, or reduced water clarity, and is commonly measured using nephelometric sensors that record the scattering and absorption of light by particles in the water. Unfortunately, nephelometric sensors only operate over a narrow range of the conditions typically encountered in rivers dominated by suspended-sediment transport. For example, sediment inputs into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon caused by tributary floods often result in turbidity levels that exceed the maximum recording level of nephelometric turbidity sensors. The limited range of these sensors is one reason why acoustic Doppler profiler instrument data, not turbidity, has been used as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration and load of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. However, in addition to being an important water-quality parameter to biologists, turbidity of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has been used to strengthen the suspended-sediment record through the process of turbidity-threshold sampling; high turbidity values trigger a pump sampler to collect samples of the river at critical times for gathering suspended-sediment data. Turbidity depends on several characteristics of suspended sediment including concentration, particle size, particle shape, color, and the refractive index of particles. In this paper, turbidity is compared with other parameters coupled to suspended sediment, namely suspended-silt and clay concentration and multifrequency acoustic attenuation. These data have been collected since 2005 at four stations with different sediment-supply characteristics on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. These comparisons reveal that acoustic attenuation is a particularly useful parameter, because it is strongly related to turbidity and it can be measured by instruments that experience minimal fouling and record over the entire range

  20. Water-quality characteristics and ground water quantity of the Fraser River Watershed, Grand County, Colorado, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand County Board of County Commissioners, conducted a 4-year study to assess ground- and surface-water-quality conditions and ground-water quantity in the 302-square-mile Fraser River watershed in north-central Colorado. The Fraser River flows north about 28 miles from the headwaters near the Continental Divide, through the towns of Winter Park, Fraser, Tabernash, and Granby, and is one of the major tributaries to the Upper Colorado River. Increasing urban development, as well as the seasonal influx of tourists, is placing more demands on the water resources in the Fraser River watershed. A ground-water sampling network of 11 wells was established to represent different aquifer systems (alluvial, Troublesome Formation, Precambrian granite), land uses (urban, nonurban), and areas with or without individual septic disposal system use. The well network was sampled for ground-water quality on a semiannual basis from August 1998 through September 2001. The sampling included field properties and the collection of water samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, bacteria, methylene blue active substances, and radon-222. One surface-water site, on the Fraser River just downstream from the town of Tabernash, Colorado, was sampled bimonthly from August 1998 through September 2001 to assess the cumulative effects of natural and human processes on water quality in the upper part of the Fraser River watershed. Surface-water-quality sampling included field properties and the collection of water-quality samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, organic carbon, and bacteria. Ground water was a calcium-bicarbonate type water and is suitable as a drinking-water, domestic, municipal, industrial, and irrigation source. In general, no widespread ground-water-quality problems were indicated. All pH values and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, fluoride

  1. Effects of Agricultural and Conservation Practices on Nutrients Losses from the St. Joseph River Watershed, Northeast Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture has been identified as a primary contributor to nutrients that cause algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico and Lake Erie. Since 2002, we have been monitoring water quality from agricultural drainage ditches in the St. Joseph River watershed to assess the impacts of agricultural and conserva...

  2. Origin, structure, and evolution of a reattachment bar, Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Schmidt, John C.; Moore, Johnnie N.

    1990-01-01

    In a channel expansion, flow can separate from the bank, creating a zone of relatively weak recirculating current. Bars that accumulate in this weak flow near the point where flow reattaches to the bank are called reattachment bars. As a reattachment bar evolves, the recirculation zone may fill with sediment and restrict flow from the main channel. The increasingly restricted flow over the bar causes ripples to replace dunes and causes the sediment size to fine; the resulting vertical sequence resembles that of point bars. Seasonal and daily flow fluctuations in the Grand Canyon complicate this idealized sequence. Changes in discharge alter the geometry of recirculation zones, flow within the recirculation zones, the location of depositional and erosional sites, the kind of bedform and migration direction of bedforms on the bar, and the transported sediment size. Dunes and ripples within a recirculation zone migrate in a rotary pattern in response to the recirculating flow. Ripples near the reattachment point often resemble oscillation ripples in morphology and dynamics. The reversing flow that creates these ripples is caused by fluctuations in location of the reattachment point. These fluctuations cause flow near the reattachment point to reverse in an upstream-downstream direction, thereby producing symmetrical, reversing ripples with crests that trend normal to the bank. Low rates of ripple migration in the reversing flow, accompanied by rapid deposition, cause these ripples to climb at a high angle. At increasing distances from the reattachment point, the reversing flow is less balanced, and the ripples climb at lower angles as they migrate upstream and downstream. Although these observations were made in a bedrock canyon, the same processes operate in alluvial and tidal channels and are important in adjusting the shape of channels on point bars and concave benches and behind bedforms that become emergent at low stage. Reattachment bars can be recognized by the

  3. Nonnative fish control in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: An effective program or serendipitous timing?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.; Pine, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River within Grand Canyon is currently the focus of a multiyear program of ecosystem-level experimentation designed to improve native fish survival and promote population recovery as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. A key element of this experiment was a 4-year effort to remove nonnative fishes from critical humpback chub habitat, thereby reducing potentially negative interactions between native and nonnative fishes. Over 36,500 fish from 15 species were captured in the mechanical removal reach during 2003–2006. The majority (64%) of the catch consisted of nonnative fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (19,020), fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (2,569), common carp Cyprinus carpio (802), and brown trout Salmo trutta (479). Native fish (13,268) constituted 36% of the total catch and included flannelmouth suckers Catostomus latipinnis (7,347), humpback chub (2,606), bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus (2,243), and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (1,072). The contribution of rainbow trout to the overall species composition fell steadily throughout the study period from a high of approximately 90% in January 2003 to less than 10% in August 2006. Overall, the catch of nonnative fish exceeded 95% in January 2003 and fell to less than 50% after July 2005. Our results suggest that removal efforts were successful in rapidly shifting the fish community from one dominated numerically by nonnative species to one dominated by native species. Additionally, increases in juvenile native fish abundance within the removal reach suggest that removal efforts may have promoted greater survival and recruitment. However, drought-induced increases in river water temperature and a systemwide decrease in rainbow trout abundance concurrent with our experiment made it difficult to determine the cause of the apparent increase in juvenile native fish survival and recruitment

  4. Synthesis of Geological and Geophysical Data on the Delta of the Colorado River with Relevance to the Evolution of the Grand canyon of Arizona, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Espinosa-Cardena, J. M.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Hunt, A. G.

    2001-12-01

    The origin and details of the history of Grand Canyon of Arizona is a classical but still controversial problem in geology. The Delta of Colorado River, which extends from the Imperial Valley of California to the Gulf of California of Mexico, is formed of the detritus eroded from the Grand Canyon. A great deal has been written about the Grand Canyon, however to date no one has attempted to correlate the history of the development of Canyon with the history and development of the Delta. This is mainly because information on the Delta and Northern Gulf of California is sparser and is disseminated among various governmental, educational and industrial organizations. We have therefore begun a binational effort to synthesize available geological and geophysical data from both sides of the international border and use this information to estimate the volume of sediment deposited by the Colorado River. A comparison of this volume with the volume of rocks eroded from the Grand Canyon is a first and necessary step in developing the history of the growth of the Delta as a record of the erosion of the Canyon. This progress report of our on-going project of compiling the available geological and geophysical data from the Mexicali and Imperial Valleys presents a preliminary estimation of the volume of sediments, based on deep wells, seismic reflection/refraction data, and 3D modeling of gravity data, along the crest of the modern Colorado delta.

  5. Probable effects of the proposed Sulphur Gulch Reservoir on Colorado River quantity and quality near Grand Junction, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A 16,000 acre-foot reservoir is proposed to be located about 25 miles east of Grand Junction, Colorado, on a tributary of the Colorado River that drains the Sulphur Gulch watershed between De Beque and Cameo, Colorado. The Sulphur Gulch Reservoir, which would be filled by pumping water from the Colorado River, is intended to provide the Colorado River with at least 5,412.5 acre-feet of water during low-flow conditions to meet the East Slopes portion of the 10,825 acre-feet of water required under the December 20, 1999, Final Programmatic Biological Opinion for the Upper Colorado River. The reservoir also may provide additional water in the low-flow period and as much as 10,000 acre-feet of water to supplement peak flows when flows in the Colorado River are between 12,900 and 26,600 cubic feet per second. For this study, an annual stochastic mixing model with a daily time step and 1,500 Monte Carlo trials were used to evaluate the probable effect that reservoir operations may have on water quality in the Colorado River at the Government Highline Canal and the Grand Valley Irrigation Canal. Simulations of the divertible flow (ambient background streamflow), after taking into account demands of downstream water rights, indicate that divertible flow will range from 621,860 acre-feet of water in the driest year to 4,822,732 acrefeet of water in the wettest year. Because of pumping limitations, pumpable flow (amount of streamflow available after considering divertible flow and subsequent pumping constraints) will be less than divertible flow. Assuming a pumping capacity of 150 cubic feet per second and year round pumping, except during reservoir release periods, the simulations indicate that there is sufficient streamflow to fill a 16,000 acre-feet reservoir 100 percent of the time. Simulated pumpable flows in the driest year are 91,669 acre-feet and 109,500 acre-feet in the wettest year. Simulations of carryover storage together with year-round pumping indicate that

  6. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins of Eastern Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Beschta, Robert L.; Platts, William S.; Kauffman, J. Boone

    1991-10-01

    The restoration of vegetation adapted to riparian environments and the natural succession of riparian plant communities is necessary to recreate sustainable salmonid habitat and should be the focal point for fish habitat improvement programs. In mid-August of 1991, a field review of 16 Salmon habitat improvement sites in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins in Eastern Oregon was undertaken. The review team visited various types of fish habitat improvements associated with a wide range of reach types, geology, channel gradients, stream sizes, and vegetation communities. Enhancement objectives, limiting factors, landuse history, and other factors were discussed at each site. This information, in conjunction with the reviewer's field inspection of portions of a particular habitat improvement project, provided the basis for the following report. This report that follows is divided into four sections: (1) Recommendations, (2) Objectives, (3) Discussion and Conclusions, and (4) Site Comments. The first section represents a synthesis of major recommendations that were developed during this review. The remaining sections provide more detailed information and comments related to specific aspects of the field review.

  7. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity. PMID:21180920

  8. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity.

  9. Agricultural chemical interchange between ground water and surface water, Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota; a study description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the data collected in the Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota, indicates that atrazine is consistently detected in the main-stem river at concentrations greater than 0.10 microgram per liter even during periods of extended base flow. The primary source of atrazine in the river during these periods of base flow is not known. This study is designed to determine how atrazine and other agricultural chemicals move between ground water and surface water in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to a river. A site has been selected in an unfarmed area adjacent to the Cedar River near Bertram, Iowa, to determine how the concentrations of agricultural chemicals in the alluvial aquifer change as a result of bank storage of surface water. Research also is planned to determine the contribution of agricultural chemicals discharged by the alluvial aquifer into the river during base flow.

  10. Benthic macroinvertebrate community in the Sinos river drainage basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, M P; Gayeski, L M; Tundisi, J G

    2016-06-27

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna is a relevant component of limnic continental aquatic ecosystems, playing an important role in several processes with relevant biocomplexity. The present study characterized the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna found in three hydric bodies in the Sinos river drainage basin regarding community structure. Sample was collected from January to December 2013 in three locations in the basin: the city of Caraá (29 °45'45.5"S/50°19'37.3"W), the city of Rolante (29°38'34.4"S/50°32'33.2"W) and the city of Igrejinha (29°36'10.84"S/50°48'49.3"W). Abiotic components (pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature) were registered and collected samples were identified up to family type. Average annual pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were similar in all locations. A total of 26,170 samples were collected. Class Insecta (Arthropods) represented 85.5% of total sample. Platyhelmintes, Mollusca and Annelida samples were also registered. A total of 57 families were identified for the drainage basin and estimators (Chao-1, Chao-2 and jackknife 2) estimated richness varying from 60 to 72 families. PMID:27355982

  11. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  12. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  13. Simulating The Change In Agricultural Fruit Patterns In The Context of River Basin Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloecking, B.; Laue, K.; Stroebl, B.

    A new concept has been developed for the integrated analysis of impacts of Global Change and direct human activities on the environment and the society in mesoscale river basins. The main steps of this approach are: (1) Developing a set of regional scenarios of change considering expected changes in climate, economic, demographic and social development, (2) Identification of indicators of sustainability for the impact assessment, (3) Impact analysis of the defined scenarios of development, (4) Evalu- ation of the different scenarios on the basis of the impact analysis to elaborate new stategies in regional development. All steps include consultations with actors and stakeholders. The concept is applied in the western part of Thuringia (7.500 km2), covering the basin of the Unstrut river. This part of the German Elbe river basin is highly suited for food production under the present conditions. Therefore it is a good site for vulnerability studies focused on agriculture. The development of agricultural land-use scenarios for the Unstrut region will be done in form of a bottom-up approach based on adaptation reactions of example farms within the expected boundary condi- tions such as the global food markets and other global economic trends as well as in- ternational agreements. Representing the present conditions in Thuringia, a referential land-use scenario was developed, assuming a complete realisation of the AGENDA 2000 resolutions. Impacts of changed land use in combination with climate change scenarios on plant production and on availability and quality of water are been inves- tigated with the help of a spatial distributed river basin model. A GIS-based approach was developed to locate the spatially not explicit land use scenarios. This approach allows to reproduce the agricultural fruit patterns of a region in a river basin model without taking into account the real field boundaries. First simulation results for the referential climate and land-use scenario

  14. [Relationship Between Agricultural Land and Water Quality of Inflow River in Erhai Lake Basin].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yan; Xiang, Song; Chu, Zhao-sheng; Xue, Li-qiang; Ye, Bi-bi

    2015-11-01

    We studied the relationship between agricultural land and water quality of inflow river in Erhai Lake Basin, by means of spatial and statistical analysis, from the perspective of comprehensive agricultural land and the area percentage of different types of agricultural land. The obtained results indicated that inflow water quality showed a significant spatial difference, the inflow TP pollution in the western inflow rivers of Erhai Basin was serious. The major pollution indicators in the northern and southern inflow rivers (except for D3) were organic matter and nitrogen. The area percentage of agricultural land had a significantly indicative effect on the water quality of inflow river. The area percentage of comprehensive agricultural land negatively correlated with permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TN and TP contents in wet season, the correlation coefficients were - 0.859, - 0.565, - 0.693, - 0.181. It negatively correlated with permanganate index and NH4(+) -N content in dry season, the correlation coefficients were - 0.384, - 0.328. It had positive relationships with and TN, TP content in dry season, the correlation coefficients were 0.221 and 0.146. The area percentage of different types of agricultural land had an obviously indicative effect on the inflow water quality. Farmland positively correlated with TN and TP contents both in wet and dry seasons. The correlation coefficients between farmland and TN, TP were 0.252, 0.581 in rainy season and were 0.149, 0.511 in dry season. It had positive and negative relationships with permanganate index, NH4(+) -N content in wet season and dry season, respectively. The correlation coefficients between farmland and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N were 0.388, 0.053 in rainy season and were -0.137, -0.147 in dry season. Forest land exhibited an opposite performance to that of farmland. The correlation coefficients between forest land and TN, TP, permanganate index, NH4(+) -N were - 0.526, - 0.275, - 0.469, -0.155 in rainy

  15. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N.R.; Creel, B.J.

    1981-07-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict for water now used by the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. In the Green River Basin, we found that Duchesne and Uintah Counties, Utah, would experience the greatest economic impacts when agricultural water supplies were reduced by 50%. In the Upper Yellowstone River Basin, Treasure and Rosebud Counties, Montana, would experience the greatest total income and employment reductions when water supplies were reduced less than or equal to 40%. When these supplies were reduced by more than 40%, Stillwater, Carbon, Yellowstone, and Big Horn Counties, Montana, would experience the greatest reductions.

  16. Microgeographic Population Genetic Structure of Baylisascaris procyonis (Nematoda: Ascaroidae) in Western Michigan Indicates the Grand River Is a Barrier to Gene Flow.

    PubMed

    Sarkissian, Christina A; Campbell, Sara K; Dharmarajan, Guha; Jacquot, Joseph; Page, L Kristen; Graham, Douglas H

    2015-12-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis , the raccoon roundworm, is increasingly being recognized for its zoonotic and public health importance. Fine-scale analyses of the population genetics of this species have been hampered due to a lack of appropriate genetic markers. To this end, we developed 8 novel polymorphic microsatellites for B. procyonis and used these markers to elucidate microgeographic structuring of this parasite in a 500-km(2) study area in western Michigan. Our analyses revealed significant levels of genetic differentiation amongst the 74 worms collected from 10 different raccoons. Critically, Bayesian clustering indicated 2 genetically distinct groups, one on either side of the Grand River which bisects our study area. Estimates of F(ST), and results from AMOVA and isolation by distance, further corroborated a scenario whereby the river is acting as a barrier to gene flow, a rather unexpected finding given the high vagility of raccoons and microgeographic scale of the analysis. It is possible that the Grand River is a major dispersal barrier for B. procyonis because raccoons are most likely to disperse across the river when it is frozen, and worm burden in raccoons approaches zero during the winter.

  17. From agricultural intensification to conservation: Sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 1916-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.S.; Schilling, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fluvial sediment is a ubiquitous pollutant that negatively aff ects surface water quality and municipal water supply treatment. As part of its routine water supply monitoring, the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) has been measuring turbidity daily in the Raccoon River since 1916. For this study, we calibrated daily turbidity readings to modern total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations to develop an estimation of daily sediment concentrations in the river from 1916 to 2009. Our objectives were to evaluate longterm TSS patterns and trends, and relate these to changes in climate, land use, and agricultural practices that occurred during the 93-yr monitoring period. Results showed that while TSS concentrations and estimated sediment loads varied greatly from year to year, TSS concentrations were much greater in the early 20th century despite drier conditions and less discharge, and declined throughout the century. Against a backdrop of increasing discharge in the Raccoon River and widespread agricultural adaptations by farmers, sediment loads increased and peaked in the early 1970s, and then have slowly declined or remained steady throughout the 1980s to present. With annual sediment load concentrated during extreme events in the spring and early summer, continued sediment reductions in the Raccoon River watershed should be focused on conservation practices to reduce rainfall impacts and sediment mobilization. Overall, results from this study suggest that eff orts to reduce sediment load from the watershed appear to be working. ?? 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  18. Distribution of Hydrothermal Mineral Assemblages in the Sevenmile Hole Area, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A.; Larson, P.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pauley, B.; Manion, J.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.

    2007-12-01

    Incision of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River in Yellowstone National Park has exposed approximately 350 vertical meters of hydrothermally altered rhyolites. This older alteration formed in the shallow portion of a hydrothermal system that was most likely similar to the modern Yellowstone hydrothermal environment. Hydrothermal fluid circulation is related to the ongoing rhyolitic magmatism that produced the Yellowstone caldera at 640 ka. The rhyolitic magmatism and hydrothermal system are shallow expressions of deeper mantle- derived basalts. The older alteration is well exposed in the Sevenmile Hole area, near the northeastern margin of the caldera. Here, the alteration protolith is the high silica, low-18O, rhyolitic Tuff of Sulfur Creek. The tuff erupted at about 480 ka after resurgent doming associated with the third cycle collapse of the Yellowstone caldera. The tuff is a rheomorphically deformed densely welded agglutinate fallout ash that was deposited along the caldera wall. It contains phenocrysts of quartz, sodic plagioclase, and potassium feldspar. The tuff is exposed from the rim of the canyon, which is very close to the pre-alteration paleosurface, to the river bottom where it is covered by detrital sediments and actively forming hot spring deposits. Rocks exposed within the field area are pervasively hydrothermally altered. Mineral phases in approximately 90 samples were determined in the field using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyser (PIMA). Subsequently, more precise mineral determinations were made using standard petrographic and powder XRD techniques. The alteration mineralogy consists of variable assemblages that include zones of kaolinite + opal; kaolinite + alunite with local dickite and typically high opal and/or quartz concentrations; highly silicified zones containing illite with or without smectite; and weakly silicified zones containing mostly illite. Minor (less than 1 percent) fine-grained disseminated pyrite is ubiquitous. The

  19. Sandbar Response in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona, Following the 2008 High-Flow Experiment on the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2010-01-01

    A 60-hour release of water at 1,203 cubic meters per second (m3/s) from Glen Canyon Dam in March 2008 provided an opportunity to analyze channel-margin response at discharge levels above the normal, diurnally fluctuating releases for hydropower plant operations. We compare measurements at sandbars and associated campsites along the mainstem Colorado River, downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, at 57 locations in Marble and Grand Canyons. Sandbar and main-channel response to the 2008 high-flow experiment (2008 HFE) was documented by measuring bar and bed topography at the study sites before and after the controlled flood and twice more in the following 6 months to examine the persistence of flood-formed deposits. The 2008 HFE caused widespread deposition at elevations above the stage equivalent to a flow rate of 227 m3/s and caused an increase in the area and volume of the high-elevation parts of sandbars, thereby increasing the size of campsite areas. In this study, we differentiate between four response styles, depending on how sediment was distributed throughout each study site. Then, we present the longitudinal pattern relevant to the different response styles and place the site responses in context with two previous high-release experiments conducted in 1996 and 2004. We find that (1) nearly every measured sandbar aggraded above the 227-m3/s water-surface elevation, resulting in sandbars as large or larger than occurred following previous high flows; (2) reaches closest to Glen Canyon Dam were characterized by a greater percentage of sites that incurred net erosion, although the total sand volume in all sediment-flux monitoring reaches was greater following the 2008 HFE than following previous high flows; and (3) longitudinal differences in topographic response in eddies and in the channel suggest a greater and more evenly distributed sediment supply than existed during previous controlled floods from Glen Canyon Dam.

  20. Quality of wet deposition in the Grand Calumet River watershed, northwestern Indiana, June 30, 1992-August 31, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willoughby, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Northwestern Indiana is one of the most heavily industrialized and largest steel-producing areas in the United States. High temperature processes, such as fossil-fuel combustion and steel production, release contaminants to the atmosphere that may result in wet deposition being a major contributor to major ion and trace-metal loadings in north- western Indiana and Lake Michigan. A wet-deposition collection site was established at the Gary (Indiana) Regional Airport in June 1992 to monitor the chemical quality of wet deposition. Weekly samples were collected at this site from June 30, 1992, through August 31, 1993, and were analyzed for pH, specific conductance, and selected major ions and trace metals. Forty-eight samples collected during the study were of sufficient volumes for some of the determinations to be performed. Median constituent concentrations were determined for samples collected during warm weather and cold weather (November 1 through March 31). Median concentrations were substituted for missing values from samples with insufficient volumes for analysis of all the constituents of interest. Constituent concentrations were converted to weekly loadings. Two values were calculated to provide a range for the weekly loading for samples with measured concentrations of constituents less than the method reporting limit. The minimum weekly loading was computed by substituting zero for the constituent concentration; the maximum weekly loading was computed by substituting the method reporting limit for the concentration. If all of the sample concentrations measured were greater than the method reporting limit, an annual loading value was computed. The annual loadings could be used to assist in estimating the contribution of wet deposition to the total annual constituent loadings in the Grand Calumet River in northwestern Indiana.

  1. Geomorphologic and physical characteristics of a human impacted estuary: Quequén Grande River Estuary, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Pérez, Daniel E.; Piccolo, M. Cintia; Palma, Elbio D.; Cuadrado, Diana G.

    2005-01-01

    Even though the Quequén Grande River Estuary has economic and strategic importance from an oceanographic point of view, it has been ignored until recently. Nevertheless, many anthropogenic modifications (i.e., dredging, jetty and harbour construction, etc.) have taken place in the last 100 years which, most of them, have resulted in significative economic expenses to the harbour and city authorities due to the lack of adequate prior studies. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the present status of the geomorphology and main physical characteristics of the estuary and describe the effects of these man-made modifications upon the estuary. Data were gathered in several field cruises from 1994 to 2000 plus from continuous recording devices installed at or near the estuary directed to define the present geomorphologic and oceanographic conditions of the estuary and to establish a monitoring program. The ultimate goal is to provide some practical solutions in diminishing the maintenance of the harbour and to provide pollution-control devices. The estuary is classified as a microtidal, primary, coastal-plain system. It can be considered as a partly-mixed system 2 km from the mouth up to its head (15 km inland). Artificial dredging to accommodate the Quequén harbour in the last 2 km of the estuary has induced a highly stratified water column where the upper 2-3 m concentrates low salinity water and the lower layer is filled by water of the same or slightly higher salinity than the inner shelf waters. Due to the presence of a step at the head of the harbour, water circulation is very reduced and in some cases nonexistent, producing strong reductive and even anoxic conditions. The foot of the step is a sediment and organic matter trap that must be dredged periodically to insure adequate navigability.

  2. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, P.B.; Phillips, A.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.; Manion, J.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640??ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480??ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300??m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ?? alunite ?? dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ?? adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100??m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170????C. An 40Ar/39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ?? 16,000??years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM. PMID:26026234

  4. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM.

  5. Elbe river flood peaks and postwar agricultural land use in East Germany.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, R R; Schweigert, P

    2001-12-01

    Collectivization of farmland since the 1950s has changed the agricultural land use in former East Germany. Single fields on the collective farms became increasingly large and were cultivated with increasingly heavy farm equipment. This led to large-scale physical degradation of arable soils, enhancing the formation of surface runoff in periods with prolonged and excessive precipitation. The extent to which this development may have affected the discharge behavior of the main East German river, the Elbe, has so far not been studied. We analyzed the flood peaks of the Elbe during the past century (1900-2000). The flood discharge behavior of the Elbe has apparently changed significantly since the 1950s. Although climate changes may be involved, we conclude that the Elbe flood peaks, recorded since 1950, are related to the changes in postwar agricultural land use in former East Germany. To restore the degraded farmland soils, a change in agricultural land use may be necessary.

  6. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  7. Apcocynum Pictum and Sustainable Agriculture Along the Tarim River In Arid Northwest, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihemaitijiang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity and population increase have been a major limiting factor in oasis development along the Tarim River in Xinjiang, Northwest China which has very continental and dry climate, and all the agriculture and livelihoods depend on glacier melt water from Tarim River. Due to vast land reclamation along the Tarim River to grow cotton, native plant species are facing a severe competition for water, which is essential for their survival. Decreasing river runoff and inefficient water use practices by agriculture and industry has exacerbated already serious situation even worse. In addition, a large influx of migrant famers from Eastern China is being settled in this region to cultivate new agricultural lands that consumed even more water. Under those conditions, the natural riparian vegetation and the irrigation agriculture, especially along the lower reaches, suffers water shortage leading the degradation and economic losses, respectively. Along with the enlargement of irrigation area and periods of water shortage, soil salinization has become a major concern for farmers in the area. Alternative cash crops are much needed to reduce water use, so both native vegetation and human demand for water would be fulfilled. We hypothesized Apocynum Pictum, perennial herb species with multiple uses as potential substitute. Multidisciplinary approach is being used in this study to investigate three related issues to offer a basis for Apocynum's role in sustainable agriculture, such as Biomass production of Apocynum; Water budget of Apocynum; and Economic utilization of Apocynum. A.Pictum is perennial plant distributed in Central Asia and China, which its roots are perennial, while the stems die every year. Thus, A.pictum grow under the arid climate of Central Asia and provide utilization options without irrigation. We initially estimate water requirement for this plant is much less than cotton. In order to validate our hypothesis, we have measured water consumption of the

  8. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  9. Explaining streamflow variability of the Gila and Rio Grande rivers : Pacific teleconnections and catchment-scale interaction of the hydrological cycle with vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascolini-Campbell, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    The streamflows of the Gila River, N.M. and the upper Rio Grande, with headwaters in Colorado are influenced by a range of drivers including the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and, for the Gila, the North American Monsoon. At the catchment scale, runoff to the river is modulated by the interaction of snowmelt, rainfall, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and vegetation. A simple eco-hydological model is used to explain the seasonal cycles of flow of the Gila (strong spring peak, weak summer peak) and upper Rio Grande (single spring peak) in terms of precipitation, snowpack, and evapotranspiration. We then examine the drivers of streamflow variability using USGS gages located upstream of human extraction, precipitation and temperature data from PRISM, and SST data from ERSST. High spring streamflow tends to occur in response to prior winter El Nino but not all high and low streamflow events can be explained by the Pacific teleconnection. Decadal variations, including low flows in the Gila and upper Rio Grande since the mid 1990s, are explained in terms of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean decadal variability.

  10. Water temperatures in select nearshore environments of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, during the Low Steady Summer Flow experiment of 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vernieu, William S.; Anderson, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Water releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, are the primary determinant of streamflow, sediment transport, water quality, and aquatic and riparian habitat availability in the Colorado River downstream of the dam in Grand Canyon. The presence and operation of the dam have transformed the seasonally warm Colorado River into a consistently cold river because of hypolimnetic, or deep-water, releases from the penstock withdrawal structures on the dam. These releases have substantially altered the thermal regime of the downstream riverine environment. This, in turn, has affected the biota of the river corridor, particularly native and nonnative fish communities and the aquatic food web. In the spring and summer of 2000, a Low Steady Summer Flow experiment was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effects of the experimental flow on physical and biological resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead on the Arizona-Nevada border. This report describes the water temperatures collected during the experimental flow from 14 nearshore sites in the river corridor in Grand Canyon to assess the effects of steady releases on the thermal dynamics of nearshore environments. These nearshore areas are characterized by low-velocity flows with some degree of isolation from the higher velocity flows in the main channel and are hypothesized to be important rearing environments for young native fish. Water-temperature measurements were made at 14 sites, ranging from backwater to open-channel environments. Warming during daylight hours, relative to main-channel temperatures, was measured at all sites in relation to the amount of isolation from the main-channel current. Boat traffic, amount of direct solar radiation, and degree of isolation from the main-channel current appear to be the primary factors affecting the differential warming of the nearshore environment.

  11. Trends in concentrations and use of agricultural herbicides for Corn Belt rivers, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V.; Gilliom, R.J.; Sullivan, D.J.; Lorenz, D.L.; Martin, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the concentrations and agricultural use of four herbicides (atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and alachlor) were evaluated for major rivers of the Corn Belt for two partially overlapping time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Trends were analyzed for 11 sites on the mainstems and selected tributaries in the Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Missouri River Basins. Concentration trends were determined using a parametric regression model designed for analyzing seasonal variability, flow-related variability, and trends in pesticide concentrations(SEAWAVE-Q).TheSEAWAVE-Qmodel accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic conditions from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. Most of the trends in atrazine and acetochlor concentrations for both time periods were relatively small and nonsignificant, but metolachlor and alachlor were dominated by varying magnitudes of concentration downtrends. Overall, with trends expressed as a percent change per year, trends in herbicide concentrations were consistent with trends in agricultural use; 84 of 88 comparisons for different sites, herbicides, and time periods showed no significant difference between concentration trends and agricultural use trends. Results indicate that decreasing use appears to have been the primary cause for the concentration downtrends during 1996-2006 and that, while there is some evidence that nonuse management factors may have reduced concentrations in some rivers, reliably evaluating the influence of these factors on pesticides in large streams and rivers will require improved, basin-specific information on both management practices and use over time. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  13. Distribution and speciation of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils near a stream upriver from the Pearl River, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Silin; Zhou, Dequn; Yu, Huayong; Wei, Rong; Pan, Bo

    2013-06-01

    The distribution and chemical speciation of typical metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils were investigated in the area of Nanpan River, upstream of the Pearl River. The investigated four metals showed higher concentrations in agricultural soils than in non-agricultural soils, and the site located in factory district contained metals much higher than the other sampling sites. These observations suggested that human activities, such as water irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide applications might have a major impact on the distribution of metals. Metal speciation analysis presented that Cu, Zn and Cd were dominated by the residual fraction, while Pb was dominated by the reducible fraction. Because of the low mobility of the metals in the investigated area, no remarkable difference could be observed between upstream and downstream separated by the factory site. PMID:23466733

  14. Distribution and speciation of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils near a stream upriver from the Pearl River, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Silin; Zhou, Dequn; Yu, Huayong; Wei, Rong; Pan, Bo

    2013-06-01

    The distribution and chemical speciation of typical metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils were investigated in the area of Nanpan River, upstream of the Pearl River. The investigated four metals showed higher concentrations in agricultural soils than in non-agricultural soils, and the site located in factory district contained metals much higher than the other sampling sites. These observations suggested that human activities, such as water irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide applications might have a major impact on the distribution of metals. Metal speciation analysis presented that Cu, Zn and Cd were dominated by the residual fraction, while Pb was dominated by the reducible fraction. Because of the low mobility of the metals in the investigated area, no remarkable difference could be observed between upstream and downstream separated by the factory site.

  15. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was -254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, -218‰ in the San Joaquin River, -175‰ in the California State Water Project and -152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California's Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, -204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between -275 and -687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California's Central Valley.

  16. Water quality of runoff from agricultural-forestry watersheds in the Geum River Basin, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Chung, Sewoong; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2007-11-01

    Forestry and agricultural land uses constitute 85% of Korea and these land uses are typically mixed in many watersheds. Land cover is one of the most important factors affecting diffuse pollution and water quality. The aim of this study is to estimate the pollutant concentrations in runoff from four study watersheds consisting of a mix of forestry and agricultural land uses at different ratios in the Geum River Basin. The effect of topographical variables was also considered. The ratio of agricultural land use to the total area of study watersheds was in the range of 0.01-0.36. Flow rate and water quality (suspended solids, organics and nutrients) of runoff from 40 rainfall events were monitored at the study watersheds. Descriptive statistics showed higher nutrients and organic concentrations in runoff from watershed with higher agricultural activities. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of individual runoff event was calculated for each water quality constituent based on the flow rate and concentration data of runoff discharge, and arranged on a cumulative probability scale according to runoff occurrence. From the correlation analysis between EMC data and affecting variables, the ratio of agricultural land use to the total area was identified as the parameter that most affected the magnitude of EMC.

  17. Water quality of runoff from agricultural-forestry watersheds in the Geum River Basin, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Chung, Sewoong; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2007-11-01

    Forestry and agricultural land uses constitute 85% of Korea and these land uses are typically mixed in many watersheds. Land cover is one of the most important factors affecting diffuse pollution and water quality. The aim of this study is to estimate the pollutant concentrations in runoff from four study watersheds consisting of a mix of forestry and agricultural land uses at different ratios in the Geum River Basin. The effect of topographical variables was also considered. The ratio of agricultural land use to the total area of study watersheds was in the range of 0.01-0.36. Flow rate and water quality (suspended solids, organics and nutrients) of runoff from 40 rainfall events were monitored at the study watersheds. Descriptive statistics showed higher nutrients and organic concentrations in runoff from watershed with higher agricultural activities. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of individual runoff event was calculated for each water quality constituent based on the flow rate and concentration data of runoff discharge, and arranged on a cumulative probability scale according to runoff occurrence. From the correlation analysis between EMC data and affecting variables, the ratio of agricultural land use to the total area was identified as the parameter that most affected the magnitude of EMC. PMID:17294267

  18. Aggradation and degradation of alluvial sand deposits, 1965 to 1986, Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, John C.; Graf, Julia B.

    1990-01-01

    Alluvial sand deposits along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park are used as campsites and are substrate for vegetation. The largest and most numerous of these deposits are formed in zones of recirculating current that are created downstream from where the channel is constricted by debris fans at tributary mouths. Alluvial sand deposits are classified by location and form. Separation and reattachment deposits are downstream from constrictions within recirculation zones. Separation deposits are near the point of flow separation and typically mantle large debris fans. Reattachment deposits are near the point of flow reattachment and project upstream beneath much of the zone of recirculating current. Upper-pool deposits are upstream from a constriction and are associated with backwaters. Channel-margin deposits line the channel and have the form of terraces. Some are created in small recirculation zones. Reattachment and channel-margin deposits are largest and most numerous in wide reaches, although small channel-margin deposits are used as campsites in the narrow Muav Gorge. Separation deposits are more uniformly distributed throughout Grand Canyon National Park than are other types of deposits. In some narrow reaches where the number of alluvial sand deposits used as campsites is small, separation deposits are a high percentage of the total. During high flows, both separation and reattachment deposits are initially scoured but are subsequently redeposited during flow recession. Sand is also exchanged between the main channel and recirculation zones. The rate of recession of high flows can affect the elevation of alluvial deposits that are left exposed after a flood has passed. Fluctuating flows that follow a period of steady discharge cause initial erosion of separation and reattachment deposits. A part of this eroded sand is transported to the main channel. Therefore, sand is exchanged between the main channel and recirculation zones and redistributed

  19. Transport of particle-associated elements in two agriculture-dominated boreal river systems.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Hannu; Saarinen, Tuomas; Celebi, Ahmet; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-09-01

    Transport of particulate pollutants in fluvial systems can contribute greatly to total loads. Understanding transport mechanics under different hydrological conditions is key in successful load estimation. This study analysed trace elements and physico-chemical parameters in time-integrated suspended sediment samples, together with dissolved and total concentrations of pollutants, along two agriculture- and peatland-dominated boreal river systems. The samples were taken in a spatially and temporally comprehensive sampling programme during the ice-free seasons of 2010 and 2011. The hydrochemistry and transport of particle-bound elements in the rivers were strongly linked to intense land use and acid sulphate soils in the catchment area, with arable, pasture and peat areas in particular being main diffuse sources. There were significant seasonal and temporal variations in dissolved and particulate fluxes, but spatial variations were small. Continuous measurements of EC, turbidity and discharge proved to be an accurate indicator of dissolved and particulate fluxes. Overall, the results show that transport of particle-bound elements makes a major contribution to total transport fluxes in agriculture-dominated boreal rivers. PMID:23770550

  20. Use of Composite Fingerprinting Technique to Determine Contribution of Paria River Sediments to Dam-Release Flood Deposits in Marble Canyon, Grand Canyon, Az

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, K.; Parnell, R. A.; Smith, M. E.; Grams, P. E.; Mueller, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam drastically reduced the downstream sediment supply and altered daily flow regimes of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, resulting in significant sandbar erosion downstream of the dam. Dam-release floods, known as High Flow Experiments (HFEs), have occurred six times since 1996 and are intended to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars using tributary-supplied sediment. In Marble Canyon (first 100 km of Grand Canyon) the targeted tributary is the Paria River which supplies approximately 90% of the annual suspended sediment flux through Marble Canyon; the same input contributed less than 6% prior to the dam. Annual topographic surveys have established that HFEs are effective at rebuilding sandbars. However, the long-term viability of using HFEs for sandbar maintenance is dependent on a sustainable source of sediments comprising HFE deposits. Significant use of non-tributary, main-stem sediments (i.e. pre-dam sand stored in eddies or the channel bed) in HFE deposits would indicate reliance on a limited resource, and diminishing returns in the ability of HFEs to rebuild sandbars. In this study, we sampled vertically throughout 12 bars in Marble Canyon to document temporal and downstream changes in the proportion of sediment sourced from the Paria River during the 2013 and 2014 HFEs. Preliminary data suggest that heavy mineral compositions and concentrations of Ti, S, Cr and Rb, all of which are influenced by grainsize, could be sufficiently capable of differentiating Paria-derived and main-stem sediments when combined into a composite fingerprint (CF). A multivariate mixing model using these CFs quantitatively determines the contribution of Paria-derived sediment in each HFE deposit sample. Mixing model endmembers for non-Paria sand include pre-dam flood deposits in Glen and Marble Canyons, and Marble Canyon dredge samples. These results elucidate the role of contemporary versus legacy sediment in long-term sandbar maintenance.

  1. Quality of wet deposition in the Grand Calumet River watershed, northwestern Indiana, April 29, 1997-April 28, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willoughby, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Calumet River, in northwestern Indiana, drains a heavily industrialized area along the southern shore of Lake Michigan. Steel production and petroleum refining are two of the area?s predominant industries. High-temperature processes, such as fossilfuel combustion and steel production, release contaminants to the atmosphere that may result in wet deposition being a major contributor to major-ion and trace-metal loadings in northwestern Indiana and Lake Michigan. A wet-deposition collection site was established at the Gary (Indiana) Regional Airport to monitor the quantity and chemical quality of wet deposition. During a first phase of sampling, 48 wet-deposition samples were collected weekly between June 30, 1992, and August 31, 1993. During a second phase of sampling, 40 wet-deposition samples were collected between October 17, 1995, and November 12, 1996. Forty-two wet-deposition samples were collected during a third phase of sampling, which began April 29, 1997, and was completed April 28, 1998. Wetdeposition samples were analyzed for pH, specific conductance, and selected major ions and trace metals. This report describes the quantity and quality of wet-deposition samples collected during the third sampling phase and compares these findings to the results of the first and second sampling phases. All of the samples collected during the third phase of sampling were of sufficient volumes for at least some of the analyses to be performed. Constituent concentrations from the third sampling phase were not significantly different (at the 5-percent significance level) from those for the second sampling phase. Significant increases, however, were observed in the concentrations of potassium, iron, lead, and zinc when compared to the concentrations observed in the first sampling phase. Weekly loadings were estimated for each constituent measured during the third sampling phase. If constituent concentrations were reported less than the method reporting limit, a

  2. Observations of Sand Dune Migration on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinski, M. A.; Buscmobe, D.; Ashley, T.; Tusso, R.; Grams, P. E.; McElroy, B. J.; Mueller, E. R.; Hamill, D.

    2015-12-01

    Repeat, high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys were conducted in March and July 2015 along a reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon near the Diamond Creek gage (362 km downstream of Lees Ferry, AZ) to characterize the migration of sand dunes. The surveys were collected as part of a study designed to quantify the relative importance of bedload and suspended sediment transport and develop a predictive relationship for bedload transport. Concurrent measurements of suspended-sediment concentrations, bed-sediment grain size, and water velocity were also collected. The study site is approximately 350 m long and 50 m wide; water depths are 7 to 10 m during normal flows; and a field of sand dunes form along its entire length with negligible coarse material at the bed surface. Full swath coverage of the site required about 6 to 10 minutes to complete with two passes of the survey vessel. Mapping occurred continuously during several survey periods. For each survey period, time-series of bathymetric maps were constructed from each pair of survey lines. In March, surveys were collected over durations of 2, 3, 9, and 11 hours, at discharges of 339 to 382 m3/s. In July, surveys were collected over durations of 4, 4, and 13 hours, at discharges ranging from 481 to 595 ft3/s. These surveys capture the migration of sand dunes over a wide range of discharge with an unprecedented temporal resolution. The dunes in March were between 30 and 50 cm in height, 5 m in length, and migrating downstream at about 1 m per hour. In July, dunes were between 75 and 130 cm in height and 10-15 m in length, and were migrating downstream at rates of 5 to 2 m per hour. The surveys also reveal that the dune migration is spatially and temporally variable, with fast-migrating small dunes variably superimposed on slower-moving larger dunes. The dunes also refract around shoreline talus piles and other flow constrictions collectively causing a large degree of dune deformation as they migrate.

  3. Assessment of injury to fish and wildlife resources in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Smorong, D.E.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Sparks, D.W.; Smith, J.R.; Simon, T.P.; Hanacek, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of three that describes the results of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) conducted in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern (IHAOC). The assessment area is located in northwest Indiana and was divided into nine reaches to facilitate the assessment. This component of the NRDA was undertaken to determine if fish and wildlife resources have been injured due to exposure to contaminants that are associated with discharges of oil or releases of other hazardous substances. To support this assessment, information was compiled on the chemical composition of sediment and tissues; on the toxicity of whole sediments, pore water, and elutriates to fish; on the status of fish communities; and on fish health. The data on each of these indicators were compared to regionally relevant benchmarks to assess the presence and extent of injury to fish and wildlife resources. The results of this assessment indicate that injury to fish and wildlife resources has occurred throughout the assessment area, with up to five distinct lines of evidence demonstrating injury within the various reaches. Based on the frequency of exceedance of the benchmarks for assessing sediment and tissue chemistry data, total polychlorinated biphenyls is the primary bioaccumulative contaminant of concern in the assessment area. It is important to note, however, that this assessment was restricted by the availability of published bioaccumulation-based sediment quality guidelines, tissue residue guidelines, and other benchmarks of sediment quality conditions. The availability of chemistry data for tissues also restricted this assessment in certain reaches of the assessment area. Furthermore, insufficient information was located to facilitate identification of the substances that are causing or substantially contributing to effects on fish (i.e., sediment toxicity, impaired fish health, or impaired fish community structure). Therefore, substances

  4. Pesticides in wells in agricultural and urban areas of the Hudson River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Ryan, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water samples from four monitoring well networks in the Hudson River basin were analyzed for pesticides (detection limits from 0.001 to 0.018 ??g/L). The most frequent detections were in samples from shallow depths beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations of pesticides in samples from all four networks were generally below 0.10 ??g/L, and the concentration of only one (cyanazine) exceeded any maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The well networks represented two land-use and two well-depth categories as follows: 1. agricultural shallow wells - two springs and 14 wells finished less than 15 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath agricultural land, 2. agricultural water-supply-wells - 31 wells finished 1.8 to 120 m below land surface in unconsolidated unconfined aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath agricultural land 3. urban/residential shallow-wells - 17 wells finished less than 16 m below land surface in unconfined unconsolidated aquifers beneath urban or residential land; and 4. urban/residential water-supply-wells - 25 water-supply or observation wells finished 5 to 113 m below land surface in unconfined, unconsolidated aquifers and bedrock aquifers beneath urban or residential land. Pesticides were detected in 69 percent of the samples from the agricultural shallow wells, in 29 percent of the samples from the agricultural water-supply wells, in no samples from the urban/residential shallow wells, and in 16 percent of the samples from the urban/residential water-supply wells. At least half of the samples from the agricultural shallow-well network contained two herbicides (atrazine and metolachlor) and one herbicide metabolite (deethylatrazine); other pesticides detected in samples from this network included metribuzin, cyanazine, EPTC, and pendimethalin. Samples from the agricultural water-supply wells contained two insecticides (diazinon and malathion), two

  5. Mercury in the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal and Lake Michigan, Lake County, Indiana, August 2001 and May 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    Data from this study have implications for a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for mercury in the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal. Comparisons of data from this study with historical data do not show substantial changes in the distribution of mercury in the study area from 1994 through 2002. Treated municipal effluent had larger mercury concentrations than industrial effluent and presents a potential for larger mercury loads that could be controlled to achieve a TMDL, based on concentration. Mercury in ground-water discharge may be difficult to control to achieve a TMDL because of its diffuse and widespread distribution.

  6. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Basin Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    1999-07-01

    This Annual Report provides a detailed overview of watershed restoration accomplishments achieved by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and project partners in the Upper Grande Ronde River Basin under contract with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) during the period July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998. The Contract Agreement entitled McCoy Meadows Watershed Restoration Project (Project No.96-83-01) includes habitat restoration planning, design, and implementation in two project areas--the McCoy Meadows Ranch located in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek subbasins on private land and the Mainstem Grande Ronde River Habitat Enhancement Project located on private and National Forest System lands near Bird Tract Springs along the Grande Ronde River. During the contract period, the CTUIR and partners (Mark and Lorna Tipperman, landowners), Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) initiated phase 1 construction of the McCoy Meadows Restoration Project. Phase 1 involved reintroduction of a segment of McCoy Creek from its existing channelized configuration into a historic meander channel. Project efforts included bioengineering and tree/shrub planting and protection, transporting salvaged cottonwood tree boles and limbs from offsite source to the project area for utilization by resident beaver populations for forage and dam construction materials, relocation of existing BPA/ODFW riparian corridor fencing to outer edges of meadow floodplain, establishment of pre-project photo points, and coordination of other monitoring and evaluation efforts being led by other project partners including groundwater monitoring wells, channel cross sections, water quality monitoring stations, juvenile population sampling index sites, redd surveys, and habitat surveys. Project activities also included

  7. Estimating the Agricultural Water Consumption of the Yellow River Basin Based on Remote Sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Water shortage for agricultural water use is a major problem in the Yellow River Basin. This research uses NDVI value, meteorological data, supervised classification in remote sensing image classification and actual statistical data to estimate and verify the wheat and maize distribution and their water demand in the Yellow River Basin. The validation of the estimate method is performed by comparing the distribution of CIESIN statistic data for 1990. To obtain the accurate water demand, the study used and compared two methods of calculating the total water demand. The first one is to make the crop water requirement per unit area multiply by estimated crops total area of the basin. The second one is to sum the calculated water demand of each province. The research found that the remote sensing data can be used to estimate the crop area, while it overestimates the water consumption by both of the two methods.

  8. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  9. Data from synoptic water-quality studies on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, November 1990 and June 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, H.E.; Peart, D.B.; Antweiler, R.C.; Brinton, T.I.; Campbell, W.L.; Barbarino, J.R.; Roth, D.A.; Hart, R.J.; Averett, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Two water-quality synoptic studies were made on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Field measurements and the collection of water samples for laboratory analysis were made at 10 mainstem and 6 tributary sites every 6 hours for a 48-hour period on November 5-6, 1990, and again on June 18-20, 1991. Field measurements included discharge, alkalinity, water temperature, light penetration, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Water samples were collected for the laboratory analysis of major and minor ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, strontium, chloride, sulfate, silica as SiO2), trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium and zinc), and nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon). Biological measurements included drift (benthic invertebrates and detrital material), and benthic invertebrates from the river bottom.

  10. Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam: Two Decades of Large Scale Experimental Treatments Intended to Benefit Resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Theodore

    2010-05-01

    Glen Canyon Dam was closed in 1963, primarily to store water for the rapidly developing southwestern United States. The dam's hydropower plant, with a generating capacity of up to 1,300 megawatts of electrical energy, was initially operated without daily peaking constraints from 1966 to 1990, resulting in daily tides on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park of up to 4 meters. The influences of Glen Canyon Dam's peaking operations on downstream river resources through Grand Canyon have been intensively studied for nearly four decades. Following experimental reoperation of the dam in summer 1990, and five years of studies associated with a major environmental impact statement, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program was created in 1997, to evaluate whether a new experimental flow regime, combined with other non-flow treatments, can mitigate the detrimental effects of the former hydropeaking flow regime. Experimental flow treatments associated with the program over the last two decades have included the adoption of hourly and daily operating rules that now govern and constrain hydropeaking, periodic release of experimental controlled floods to rebuild sandbar habitats along shorelines and occasional steady flow tests intended to benefit the river's endangered humpback chub; one of the endemic fish of the Colorado River basin that experienced a population decline following dam closure. Other non-flow experimental treatments being evaluated by the program include removal of nonnative fish species, such as rainbow trout and other exotic fish, as well as translocation of humpback chub into other habitats below the dam where they might successfully spawn. Since 1995, three controlled flood experiments have been released from the dam to determine whether the remaining sand supplies that enter the Colorado River below the dam (about 6 to 16 percent of the predam sand supply) can be managed to create and maintain sandbar habitats used by humpback chub

  11. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using rotary screw traps on four streams in the Grande Ronde River basin during the 2001 migratory year (MY 2001) from 1 July 2000 through 30 June 2001. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O. mykiss could be distinguished. An 'early' migrant group left upper rearing areas from 1 July 2000 through 29 January 2001 with a peak in the fall. A 'late' migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from 30 January 2001 through 30 June 2001 with a peak in the spring. The migrant population of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River in MY 2001 was very low in comparison to previous migratory years. We estimated 51 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 12% of the migrant population leaving as early migrants to overwinter downstream. In the same migratory year, we estimated 16,067 O. mykiss migrants left upper rearing areas with approximately 4% of these fish descending the upper Grande Ronde River as early migrants. At the Catherine Creek trap, we estimated 21,937 juvenile spring chinook migrants in MY 2001. Of these migrants, 87% left upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. We also estimated 20,586 O. mykiss migrants in Catherine Creek with 44% leaving upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. At the Lostine River trap, we estimated 13,610 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 77% migrating early. We estimated 16,690 O. mykiss migrated out of the Lostine River with approximately 46% descending the river as early migrants. At the Minam River trap, we estimated 28,209 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of the river with 36% migrating early. During the same period, we estimated 28,113 O. mykiss with approximately 14

  12. 20,000 grain-size observations from the bed of the Colorado River, and implications for sediment transport through Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Chezar, Henry; Hazel, Joseph E.; Schmidt, John C.; Breedlove, Michael J.; Melis, Theodore S.; Grams, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, we developed digital imaging hardware and software for in-situ mapping of sand-sized bed sediment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. This new technology enables collection and processing of hundreds of grain-size samples in a day. Bed grain size was mapped using this equipment on 8 surveys of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, for a total of more than 20,000 observations spanning 8 years. These observations document the fining of the bed when fine sand is introduced from tributaries and document the winnowing of that new sediment in the mainstem during intervening periods. The observations show how grain size varies with depth and geomorphic setting (finer in shallow depths and in lateral separation eddies), and how it varies through time. The results document that mean grain size of sand covering much of the riverbed can change substantially through time (a factor of 3). Such changes in bed sediment can be expected to cause suspended sediment concentration and flux to change by an order of magnitude for a constant water discharge.

  13. Spatial distribution of electrical conductivity and stable isotopes in groundwater in large catchments: a geostatistical approach in the Quequén Grande River catchment, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Hector Enrique; Londoño Ciro, Libardo Antonio; Dapeña, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes and electrical conductivity in groundwater were used as natural tracers to adjust the hydrogeological conceptual model in one of the largest catchments within the inter-mountainous Pampa plain, Argentina. Geostatistical tools were used to define the model that best fitted the spatial distribution of each tracer, and information was obtained in areas where there was a lack of data. The conventional isotopic analysis allowed the identification of three groundwater groups with different isotopic fingerprints. One group containing 56% of the total groundwater samples suggested a well-mixed system and soil infiltration precipitation as the main recharge source to the aquifer. The other two groups included samples with depleted (25.5%) and enriched (18.5%) isotopic compositions, respectively. The combination of δ(18)O, δ(2)H and electrical conductivities maps suggested ascending regional flows and water transfer from the Quequén Grande River catchment to the Moro creek. The spatial interpretation of these tracers modified the conceptual hydrogeological model of the Quequén Grande River.

  14. Occurrence of metolachlor and trifluralin losses in the Save river agricultural catchment during floods.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Sauvage, Sabine; Taghavi, Lobat; Merlina, Georges; Probst, Jean-Luc; Pérez, José Miguel Sánchez

    2011-11-30

    Rising pesticide levels in streams draining intensively managed agricultural land have a detrimental effect on aquatic ecosystems and render water unfit for human consumption. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate daily pesticide transfer at the outlet from an agriculturally intensive catchment of 1110 km(2) (Save river, south-western France). SWAT reliably simulated both dissolved and sorbed metolachlor and trifluralin loads and concentrations at the catchment outlet from 1998 to 2009. On average, 17 kg of metolachlor and 1 kg of trifluralin were exported at outlet each year, with annual rainfall variations considered. Surface runoff was identified as the preferred pathway for pesticide transfer, related to the good correlation between suspended sediment exportation and pesticide, in both soluble and sorbed phases. Pesticide exportation rates at catchment outlet were less than 0.1% of the applied amount. At outlet, SWAT hindcasted that (i) 61% of metolachlor and 52% of trifluralin were exported during high flows and (ii) metolachlor and trifluralin concentrations exceeded European drinking water standards of 0.1 μg L(-1) for individual pesticides during 149 (3.6%) and 17 (0.4%) days of the 1998-2009 period respectively. SWAT was shown to be a promising tool for assessing large catchment river network pesticide contamination in the event of floods but further useful developments of pesticide transfers and partition coefficient processes would need to be investigated.

  15. 21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE WIDE DRY BED OF THE SALT RIVER SPANS THE BACKGROUND. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, S. K.; Lyons, W. B.; Carey, A. E.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Welch, S. A.; Welch, K. A.

    2012-03-01

    Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi), Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.0065 to 0.383 km2) gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ year stand), mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture), an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (<3 yr) converted no-till corn field. The first three watersheds had perennial streams, but the two corn watersheds only produced runoff during storms and snowmelt. For the perennial streams, total discharge was an important control of dissolved silicate transport. Median DSi yields (2210-3080 kg km-2 yr-1) were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979-2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (2560 kg km-2 yr-1). Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (<530 kg km-2 yr-1) than the perennial-flow watersheds. The lack of contributions from Si-enriched groundwater largely explained their much lower DSi yields with respect to sites having baseflow. A significant positive correlation between the molar ratio of (Ca2++Mg2+)/alkalinity to DSi in the tilled corn and the forested site suggested, however, that silicate minerals weathered as alkalinity was lost via enhanced nitrification resulting from fertilizer

  18. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  19. Toxicity assessment of sediments from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal in northwestern Indiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; MacDonald, D.D.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Johnson, B.T.; Kemble, N.E.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Wang, N.; Smith, J.R.; Sparks, D.W.; Ireland, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal located in northwestern Indiana, USA. Toxicity tests used in this assessment included 10-day sediment exposures with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, 31-day sediment exposures with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, and the Microtox?? Solid-Phase Sediment Toxicity Test. A total of 30 sampling stations were selected in locations that had limited historic matching toxicity and chemistry data. Toxic effects on amphipod survival were observed in 60% of the samples from the assessment area. Results of a toxicity test with oligochaetes indicated that sediments from the assessment area were too toxic to be used in proposed bioaccumulation testing. Measurement of amphipod length after the 10-day exposures did not provide useful information beyond that provided by the survival endpoint. Seven of the 15 samples that were identified as toxic in the amphipod tests were not identified as toxic in the Microtox test, indicating that the 10-day H. azteca test was more sensitive than the Microtox test. Samples that were toxic tended to have the highest concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The toxic samples often had an excess of simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) relative to acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and had multiple exceedances of probable effect concentrations (PECs). Metals may have contributed to the toxicity of samples that had both an excess molar concentration of SEM relative to AVS and elevated concentrations of metals in pore water. However, of the samples that had an excess of SEM relative to AVS, only 38% of these samples had elevated concentration of metals in pore water. The lack of correspondence between SEM-AVS and pore water metals indicates that there are variables in addition to AVS controlling the concentrations of metals in pore water. A mean PEC quotient of 3

  20. Chemical Contamination of the Lower Rio Grande near Laredo, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, B.; Ren, J.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Belzer, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Rio Grande River stretches over 2000 miles from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado to the tip of Texas where the Rio Grande meets the Gulf of Mexico. It is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX, to Brownsville, TX. The communities along the border heavily rely upon the Rio Grande as a primary source of water for consumption, agricultural uses, supporting wildlife and recreation. For many years the Rio Grande has been polluted with municipal, industrial, agricultural and farming contaminants from both sides of the border. This pollution has led to the extinction or reduction of certain wildlife species as well as affecting the health of the residences along the border. Even though great strides have been made in monitoring the Rio Grande, there has been a lack of intense monitoring data collection for pollutants such as pesticides. Three sampling sites including Manadas Creek, the Rio Grande River at International Bridge I, and USGS monitoring site 08459200 off of Highway 83 were chosen. The water quality parameters focused include temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total dissolved solids, nutrients, metals and pesticides. Preliminary results have shown elevated concentration of total phosphorus and ortho-phosphorus in the Manadas Creek site. Organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor and 4, 4 DDE were detected at various concentrations at all sites and endrin aldehyde was found at Manadas Creek site. This research has provided more information on the current chemical contamination level of the Rio Grande in the Laredo area.

  1. View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  2. Evaluation of a Laser-Acoustic System for Continuously Monitoring Suspended-Sediment Concentration and Grain Size in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.; Rubin, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Sandbars and other sandy deposits in and along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) were an integral part of the pre-dam riverscape, and are important for habitat, protecting archeological sites, and recreation. These deposits have eroded substantially following the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam that reduced the supply of sand at the upstream boundary of GCNP by about 94%; sandbars in the upstream portion of Grand Canyon have decreased in size by about 25% during only the last 15 years. Recent work has shown that sand transport in the post-dam river is supply limited, and is equally regulated by the discharge of water and short-term changes in the grain size of sand available for transport. During and following tributary floods, fine sand supplied to the Colorado River travels downstream as an elongating sediment wave. As the front of a sediment wave passes a given location, sand on the bed first fines and sand-transport rates increase independently of the discharge of water. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed and sand-transport rates decrease independently of discharge. By virtue of this process, sand supplied by tributaries is typically exported from the upstream portion of Grand Canyon within months under normal dam releases. Thus, newly input sand may be available to rebuild sandbars during controlled floods conducted only following large tributary floods. Accurate monitoring of sand transport in such a river requires frequent measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size, and cannot be accomplished by using stable sediment-rating curves constructed from a sparser dataset of suspended-sediment measurements. To monitor sediment transport in the Colorado River, we have designed and are evaluating a laser-acoustic system for measuring the concentration and grain size of suspended sediment every 15 minutes. This system consists of (1) a subaqueously deployed laser-diffraction instrument (either a LISST 100 or a LISST 25X

  3. Contaminant exposure of willets feeding in agricultural drainages of the lower Rio Grande valley of south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) were collected in June and August 1986 at the outlets of two agricultural drainages into the Lower Laguna Madre of South Texas and at two other Texas coastal sites. Mean liver concentration of arsenic was higher in August than June. Over 20% of the livers had arsenic concentrations elevated above a suggested background level of 5.0 ppm dry weight (DW), but concentrations (maximum 15 ppm) were below those associated with acute toxicity. Selenium concentration in livers varied from 2.3 to 8.3 ppm DW for all locations and represented background levels. Mercury concentrations in livers for all locations (means = 2.0 to 3.4, maximum 17 ppm DW) were below those associated with avian mortality and similar to levels found in other estuarine/marine birds. DDE in carcasses was higher in adults (mean = 1.0 ppm wet weight) than juveniles (0.2 ppm), and higher in August (1.0 ppm) than June (0.5 ppm); however, DDE concentrations were generally at background levels. Based on brain cholinesterase activity, willets were not recently exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

  4. Sustainable Agricultural Paradigm Of mountain-Oasis-Ecotone-Desert System in Inland Manasi River Basin, Xinjiang Province, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiming; Chen, Weiming; Dong, Xiaobin; Zhang, Xinshi

    Manasi River basin is located in the north foot of Tianshan Mountain, south edge of Zhunger Basin, central-north Xinjiang province, with typical aridfeatures of northern China. As the pressure on water resources in Manasi river basin is mounting because of rapid economic development, its conservation becomes ever more important. Climate change is another major threat to the future of water resources of Manasi river basin. How the water resourcechanges in Manasi river basin caused by glacial ablation, will affect the typical mountain-basin terrestrial ecosystems and agricultural production in Manasi river basin? What can we cope with the ecological issues caused by glacial ablation? In this paper we show how the water-saving stratagem such asconstructing reservoir in the mountainous region, building water pipes and be used in combination with the potential of water-saving resources, and build up sustainable agricultural paradigm of mountain-oasis-ecotone-desert system to coping with the glacier retreat and ablation. The potential of water-saving instudy area were calculated which presumed that if mountainous reservoirs and water pipes were built and water-saving technology were adopted, optimized eco-productive paradigm for mountain-basin system in Manasi river basin is proposed in desertification controlling, constructing artificial grassland in the oasis is the measure to protect vegetation in the downstream desert in Manasi river basin, and stopping grazing or forbidding grazing in the downstream of serious degradation in Manasi river basin.

  5. Urban and agricultural inputs of antibiotics in the Seine River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamtam, F.; Le Bot, B.; Dinh, T.; Mercier, F.; Eurin, J.; Chevreuil, M.

    2009-04-01

    The fate and effects of antibiotics are emerging issues since trace levels have been detected in environmental samples. Despite increasing concern on the effects of these active contaminants, researches on their origins, occurrence and environmental fate are rather scarce, especially in France. In order to have a better knowledge of the fate of these contaminants in the receiving waters, a large scale survey was performed in the Seine River basin, where surface waters were sampled at different locations, in rural or urban area, or near aquaculture facilities at different periods. Samples were analysed for 17 antibiotics, including quinolones and sulfonamides, with a few compounds used in human or veterinary medicine exclusively. This survey showed that different compounds occurred at individual concentrations reaching 544 ng/L (sulfamethoxazole). All 17 compounds were detected at least once in the survey. Sulfamethoxazole was the most ubiquitous compound, and showed the highest concentrations. Norfloxacin and flumequine were found to be the most frequently detected quinolones. Investigations into the origins of this contamination were made by the means of a profile along the Seine River between Paris and Poses. It showed large inputs of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole from wastewater treatment plants. Punctual appearances of veterinary fluoroquinolones rapidly dissipated indicate that non point sources e.g., surface runoff or leaching, may contribute to the river contamination. Analysis of river water from agricultural area showed a greater proportion of veterinary antibiotics in such watershed, and a notable impact of aquaculture facilities as a source of antibiotics to the surface waters was highlighted.

  6. Decades of Change on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta; Rivers, Coastlines, Agriculture and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is formed by the convergence of two great rivers, superlative in both size and geologic activity. The GBD is home to > 150 million people with a mean population density of more than 1000 people/km2. The fertile soils, abundant water and favorable climate also make the delta one of the most agriculturally diverse and productive areas on Earth. We seek to better understand the coupled natural and anthropogenic dynamics of the delta through a number of cross-disciplinary field studies of the contributing geophysical, biophysical and anthropogenic processes. To provide a synoptic multitemporal perspective for these studies, we use a variety of remotely sensed observations collected over the delta since 1988. In this overview we provide a synthesis of recent results from studies of 4 interrelated processes; river channel migration, coastal erosion and deposition, co-evolution of agriculture and aquaculture, and economic development. In each study we use multi-sensor spatiotemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery spanning more than 2 decades to observe and quantify a variety of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites provide 16 day temporal and 250m spatial resolution of the entire delta from 2000 to present. This image time series captures not only agricultural phenology over the entire delta but also the development of aquaculture on the lower delta and interannual fluvial dynamics on both the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI allow us to represent land cover as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrate, vegetation and dark surfaces (water and shadow) throughout the delta since 1988. Despite its irregular temporal sampling, Landsat's 30 m pixels better resolve both natural and anthropogenic land cover units and its longer time series extends retrospective analyses back to 1988. More recent sensors like Ikonos, Quickbird, GeoEye and World

  7. Simulating the Effects of Drainage and Agriculture on Hydrology and Sediment in the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Banitt, A. M.; Eggers, G.; Pickett, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Midwest region of the United States, slopes are relatively flat, soils tend to have low permeability, and local water tables are high. In order to make the region suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. Within the watershed, tiles have outlets to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are explicitly simulating the tile and drainage systems in the watershed at multiple scales using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis). The tile drainage system is simulated as a network of pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, testing of the methods on smaller basins shows the ability of the model to simulate tile flow, however, application at the larger scale is hampered by the computational burden of simulating the flow in the complex tile drain networks that drain the agricultural fields. Modeling indicates the subsurface drains account for approximately 40% of the stream flow in the Seven Mile Creek sub-basin account in the late spring and early summer when the tile is flowing. Preliminary results indicate that agricultural tile drains increase overland erosion in the Seven Mile Creek watershed.

  8. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  9. Modelling the impacts of agricultural management practices on river water quality in Eastern England.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sam D; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin M

    2016-09-15

    Agricultural diffuse water pollution remains a notable global pressure on water quality, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and water resources and as a result legislation has been introduced in many parts of the world to protect water bodies. Due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, water quality models have been increasingly applied to catchments as Decision Support Tools (DSTs) to identify mitigation options that can be introduced to reduce agricultural diffuse water pollution and improve water quality. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the River Wensum catchment in eastern England with the aim of quantifying the long-term impacts of potential changes to agricultural management practices on river water quality. Calibration and validation were successfully performed at a daily time-step against observations of discharge, nitrate and total phosphorus obtained from high-frequency water quality monitoring within the Blackwater sub-catchment, covering an area of 19.6 km(2). A variety of mitigation options were identified and modelled, both singly and in combination, and their long-term effects on nitrate and total phosphorus losses were quantified together with the 95% uncertainty range of model predictions. Results showed that introducing a red clover cover crop to the crop rotation scheme applied within the catchment reduced nitrate losses by 19.6%. Buffer strips of 2 m and 6 m width represented the most effective options to reduce total phosphorus losses, achieving reductions of 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. This is one of the first studies to quantify the impacts of agricultural mitigation options on long-term water quality for nitrate and total phosphorus at a daily resolution, in addition to providing an estimate of the uncertainties of those impacts. The results highlighted the need to consider multiple pollutants, the degree of uncertainty associated with model predictions and the risk of

  10. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunling; Yang, Renxiu; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil>vegetable soil>paddy soil>natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products.

  11. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  12. 2008 High-Flow Experiment at Glen Canyon Dam Benefits Colorado River Resources in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Grams, Paul E.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.; Draut, Amy E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Korman, Josh; Hilwig, Kara D.; Schmit, Lara M.

    2010-01-01

    On March 5, 2008, the Department of the Interior began a 60-hour high-flow experiment at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, to determine if water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding could be used to improve downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and their cooperators undertook a wide range of physical and biological resource monitoring and research activities before, during, and after the release. Scientists sought to determine whether or not high flows could be used to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars, create nearshore habitat for the endangered humpback chub, and benefit other resources such as archaeological sites, rainbow trout, aquatic food availability, and riverside vegetation. This fact sheet summarizes research completed by January 2010.

  13. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, S. K.; Lyons, W. B.; Carey, A. E.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Welch, S. A.; Welch, K. A.

    2011-09-01

    Myriad studies have shown the extent of human alteration to global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is only a limited understanding of the influence that humans have over silicate weathering fluxes; fluxes that have regulated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and global climate over geologic timescales. Natural landscapes have been reshaped into agricultural ones to meet food needs for growing world populations. These processes modify soil properties, alter hydrology, affect erosion, and consequently impact water-soil-rock interactions such as chemical weathering. Dissolved silica (DSi), Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, and total alkalinity were measured in water samples collected from five small (0.65 to 38.3 ha) gauged watersheds at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) near Coshocton, Ohio, USA. The sampled watersheds in this unglaciated region include: a forested site (70+ yr stand), mixed agricultural use (corn, forest, pasture), an unimproved pasture, tilled corn, and a recently (<3 yr) converted no-till corn field. The first three watersheds had perennial streams, but the two corn watersheds only produced runoff during storms and snowmelt. For the perennial streams, total discharge was an important control of dissolved silicate transport. Median DSi yields (22.1-30.8 kg ha-1 a-1) were similar to the median of annual averages between 1979-2009 for the much larger Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (25.6 kg ha-1 a-1). Corn watersheds, which only had surface runoff, had substantially lower DSi yields (<5.3 kg ha-1 a-1) than the perennial-flow watersheds. The lack of contributions from Si-enriched groundwater largely explained their much lower DSi yields with respect to sites having baseflow. A significant positive correlation between the molar ratio of (Ca2+ + Mg2)/alkalinity to DSi in the tilled corn and the forested site suggested, however, that silicate minerals weathered as alkalinity was lost via enhanced nitrification resulting from fertilizer additions

  14. Agricultural land use and water quality in the upper St. Joseph River basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T. Ray

    1978-01-01

    Land use in the upper St. Joseph River basin of south-central Michigan is primarily agricultural. In the 144-square-mile area, the chemical and physical characteristics of water are determined by the climate and soils, as well as by land conservation practices. Municipal waste discharges affect water quality at some locations, as do the larger lakes and ponds. Data indicate that mean discharge from the basin is 135 cubic feet per second. About half this flow is contributed to the St. Joseph River by three major tributaries: Beebe Creek (36 cubic feet per second); Sand Creek (24 cubic feet per second); and Soap Creek (13 cubic feet per second). Runoff from 21 drainage areas delineated for the investigation ranged from 0.22 to 4.07 cubic feet per second per square mile; both the higher and lower values are largely the result of naturally occurring inter- and intrabasin transfers of water.Suspended-sediment concentrations are low throughout the basin, rarely exceeding 100 milligrams per liter. Mean concentrations at four daily sampling stations on the major tributaries and on the St. Joseph River ranged from 9.7 milligrams per liter to 38 milligrams per liter. The maximum sediment yield was 182 pounds per acre per year. Deposition of sediment in five of the 21 areas resulted in a net loss of sediment transported, and thus “negative” yields.Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations do not vary greatly from site to site. Mean concentrations of total nitrogen at downstream sites on Beebe, Sand, and Soap Creeks, and on the St. Joseph River ranged from 1.5 to 1.8 milligrams per liter. About 90 percent of all nitrogen, and 66 percent of all phosphorus, is transported in solution. Land used principally for agriculture has a mean total nitrogen yield of 4.9 pounds per acre per year and a mean total phosphorus yield of 0.13 pounds per year. A comparison of total nitrogen and total phosphorus yields with type of agricultural use showed few relationships; nitrogen yield

  15. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  16. Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarty, Gregory W.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Rice, Clifford P.; Hively, W. Dean; McConnell, Laura L.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Lang, Megan W.; Whitall, David R.; Bialek, Krystyna; Downey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over 50% of streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have been rated as poor or very poor based on the index of biological integrity. The Choptank River estuary, a Bay tributary on the eastern shore, is one such waterway, where corn and soybean production in upland areas of the watershed contribute significant loads of nutrients and sediment to streams. We adopted a novel approach utilizing the relationship between the concentration of nitrate-N and the stable, water-soluble herbicide degradation product MESA {2-[2-ethyl-N-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-6-methylanilino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid} to distinguish between dilution and denitrification effects on the stream concentration of nitrate-N in agricultural subwatersheds. The ratio of mean nitrate-N concentration/(mean MESA concentration * 1000) for 15 subwatersheds was examined as a function of percent cropland on hydric soil. This inverse relationship (R2 = 0.65, p 2 ≤ 0.99) for all eight sampling dates except one where R2 = 0.90. This very strong correlation indicates that nitrate-N was conserved in much of the Choptank River estuary, that dilution alone is responsible for the changes in nitrate-N and MESA concentrations, and more importantly nitrate-N loads are not reduced in the estuary prior to entering the Chesapeake Bay. Thus, a critical need exists to minimize nutrient export from agricultural production fields and to identify specific conservation practices to address the hydrologic conditions within each subwatershed. In well drained areas, removal of residual N within the cropland is most critical, and practices such as cover crops which sequester the residual N should be strongly encouraged. In poorly drained areas where denitrification can occur, wetland restoration and controlled drained structures that minimize ditch flow should be used to maximize denitrification.

  17. Regulation leads to increases in riparian vegetation, but not direct allochthonous inputs, along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, T.A.; Ralston, B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Dams and associated river regulation have led to the expansion of riparian vegetation, especially nonnative species, along downstream ecosystems. Nonnative saltcedar is one of the dominant riparian plants along virtually every major river system in the arid western United States, but allochthonous inputs have never been quantified along a segment of a large river that is dominated by saltcedar. We developed a novel method for estimating direct allochthonous inputs along the 387km-long reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam that utilized a GIS vegetation map developed from aerial photographs, empirical and literature-derived litter production data for the dominant vegetation types, and virtual shorelines of annual peak discharge (566m 3s -1 stage elevation). Using this method, we estimate that direct allochthonous inputs from riparian vegetation for the entire reach studied total 186metric tonsyear -1, which represents mean inputs of 470gAFDMm -1year -1 of shoreline or 5.17gAFDMm -2year -1 of river surface. These values are comparable to allochthonous inputs for other large rivers and systems that also have sparse riparian vegetation. Nonnative saltcedar represents a significant component of annual allochthonous inputs (36% of total direct inputs) in the Colorado River. We also estimated direct allochthonous inputs for 46.8km of the Colorado River prior to closure of Glen Canyon Dam using a vegetation map that was developed from historical photographs. Regulation has led to significant increases in riparian vegetation (270-319% increase in cover, depending on stage elevation), but annual allochthonous inputs appear unaffected by regulation because of the lower flood peaks on the post-dam river. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Measurements of wind, aeolian sand transport, and precipitation in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona; January 2005 to January 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents measurements of aeolian sediment-transport rates, wind speed and direction, and precipitation records from six locations that contain aeolian deposits in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. Aeolian deposits, many of which contain and preserve archaeological material, are an important part of the Grand Canyon ecosystem. This report contains data collected between January 2005 and January 2006, and is the second in a series; the first contained data that were collected between November 2003 and December 2004 (Draut and Rubin, 2005; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1309/). Analysis of data collected in 2005 shows great spatial and seasonal variation in wind and precipitation patterns. Total annual rainfall can vary by more than a factor of two over distances ~ 10 km. Western Grand Canyon received substantially more precipitation than the eastern canyon during the abnormally wet winter of 2005. Great spatial variability in precipitation indicates that future sedimentary and geomorphic studies would benefit substantially from continued or expanded data collection at multiple locations along the river corridor, because rainfall records collected by NPS at Phantom Ranch (near river-mile 88) cannot be assumed to apply to other areas of the canyon. Wind velocities and sand transport in 2005 were greatest during May and June, with maximum winds locally as high as ~25 m s-1, and transport rates locally >100 g cm-1 d-1. This represents a later peak in seasonal aeolian sand transport compared to the previous year, in which transport rates were greatest in April and May 2004. Dominant wind direction varies with location, but during the spring windy season the greatest transport potential was directed upstream in Marble Canyon (eastern Grand Canyon). At all locations, rates of sand transport during the spring windy season were 5–15 times higher than at other times of year. This information has been used to

  19. Validation of a land data assimilation system using river discharge and agricultural yield observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Barbu, Alina; Fairbairn, David; Gelati, Emiliano

    2015-04-01

    Meteo-France develops the ISBA-A-gs generic Land Surface Model (LSM) able to represent the diurnal cycle of the surface fluxes together with the seasonal, interannual and decadal variability of the vegetation biomass. The LSM is embedded in the SURFEX modeling platform together with a simplified extended Kalman filter. These tools form a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS). The current version of the LDAS assimilates SPOT-VGT LAI and ASCAT surface soil moisture (SSM) products over France (8km x 8km), and a passive monitoring of albedo, FAPAR and Land Surface temperature (LST) is performed (i.e., the simulated values are compared with the satellite products). The vegetation biomass is analysed together with the root-zone soil moisture. The LDAS was coupled to the MODCOU hydrological model, and this allowed the use of in situ river discharge observations for the validation of the whole system. Moreover, open-loop (i.e. without integrationg satellite observations into the model) simulations of the above-ground biomass of straw cereals were compared with the analyzed values (i.e. after integration of satellite observations into the model), and with agricultural yield observations. It is shown that the assimilation of satellite observations sharply enhances the overall correlation of the simulated above-ground biomass with the agricultural yield observations.

  20. Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in an animal-based agriculture river system.

    PubMed

    Palhares, Julio Cesar Pascale; Kich, Jalusa D; Bessa, Marjo C; Biesus, Luiza L; Berno, Lais G; Triques, Nelise J

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance within an animal-based agriculture river system. The study area consisted of a 1,345 ha upper part of Pinhal catchment. A total of 384 samples were collected in four years of monitoring. Salmonella was isolated from 241 samples (62.7%), resulting in 324 isolates. The highest number of Salmonella sp. occurred in samples associated with sites with high stoking density animal unit per hectare. It was possible to demonstrate the variability of serovars in the study area: 30 different serovars were found and at least 11 per monitoring site. Thirty-three potentially related isolates were genotyped by PFGE, one major clone was observed in serovar Typhimurium, which occurred in animal feces (swine and bovine), and different sites and samplings proving the cross-contamination and persistence of this specific clone. Among 180 isolates submitted to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, 50.5% were susceptible to all 21 antimicrobials tested and 54 different profiles were found. In the current study, 49.5% of the tested isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and multi-resistance occurred in 18% of isolates. Results indicate a close interaction between animal-based agriculture, Salmonella, and antimicrobial resistance.

  1. Comparative growth and consumption potential of rainbow trout and humpback chub in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, under different temperature scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Petersen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    We used bioenergetics models for humpback chub, Gila cypha, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to examine how warmer water temperatures in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, through a proposed selective withdrawal system (SWS) at Glen Canyon Dam, would affect growth, consumption, and predation rates. Consumption by the rainbow trout population was at least 10 times higher than by the smaller humpback chub population. Water temperature increases of 6??C during autumn increased growth of humpback chub and likely increased their survival by reducing the time vulnerable to predation. Water temperature increases caused by drought in 2005 did not alter humpback chub growth as much as the SWS. Increased temperatures might cause changes to the invertebrate community and the distribution and abundance of other warmwater nonnative fishes. The implications on the entire aquatic community need to be considered before any management action that includes increasing water temperatures is implemented.

  2. Estimating the effects of agricultural conservation practices on phosphorus loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin (MARB) is important in terms of both the national economy and the nutrients discharged to the basin and the Gulf of Mexico. Conservation practices are installed on cropland to reduce the nutrient losses. A recent study by the Conservation Effec...

  3. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-07-28

    The irrigated acreage that was field verified in 2015 for the 13 counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District (113,134 acres) is about 6 percent higher than the estimated acreage published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (107,217 acres)

  4. Influence of agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic stresses on the distribution and diversity of macroinvertebrates in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2011-07-01

    Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated rivers (ANOVA, P<0.05). The WQI classified CTKR, PR, and JR into class III (slightly polluted). However, PRR and KUR fell into class IV (polluted). High diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, especially the intolerant taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were observed in the least polluted river, CTKR. Decreasing abundance of macroinvertebrates followed the deterioration of river water quality with the least number of the most tolerant taxa collected from PR. On the basis of composition and sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to pollutants in each river, the highest Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index score of 93 was reported in CTKR (good water quality). BMWP scores in PRR and JR were 38.7 and 20.1, respectively, classifying both of them into "moderate water quality" category. Poor water quality was reported in PR and KUR. The outcome of the multivariate analysis (CCA) was highly satisfactory, explaining 43.32% of the variance for the assemblages of macroinvertebrates as influenced by 19 physical and chemical variables. According to the CCA model, we assert that there were three levels of stresses on macroinvertebrate communities in the investigated rivers: Level 1, characterized of undisturbed or slightly polluted as in the case of CTKR; Level 2, characterized by a lower habitat quality (the JR) compared to the CTKR; and Level 3 showed severe environmental stresses (PRR, PR, and KUR) primarily contributed by agricultural, industrial, and municipal discharges.

  5. Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Gregory W; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Rice, Clifford P; Hively, W Dean; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Lang, Megan W; Whitall, David R; Bialek, Krystyna; Downey, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Over 50% of streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have been rated as poor or very poor based on the index of biological integrity. The Choptank River estuary, a Bay tributary on the eastern shore, is one such waterway, where corn and soybean production in upland areas of the watershed contribute significant loads of nutrients and sediment to streams. We adopted a novel approach utilizing the relationship between the concentration of nitrate-N and the stable, water-soluble herbicide degradation product MESA {2-[2-ethyl-N-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-6-methylanilino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid} to distinguish between dilution and denitrification effects on the stream concentration of nitrate-N in agricultural subwatersheds. The ratio of mean nitrate-N concentration/(mean MESA concentration * 1000) for 15 subwatersheds was examined as a function of percent cropland on hydric soil. This inverse relationship (R(2)=0.65, p<0.001) takes into consideration not only dilution and denitrification of nitrate-N, but also the stream sampling bias of the croplands caused by extensive drainage ditch networks. MESA was also used to track nitrate-N concentrations within the estuary of the Choptank River. The relationship between nitrate-N and MESA concentrations in samples collected over three years was linear (0.95 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.99) for all eight sampling dates except one where R(2)=0.90. This very strong correlation indicates that nitrate-N was conserved in much of the Choptank River estuary, that dilution alone is responsible for the changes in nitrate-N and MESA concentrations, and more importantly nitrate-N loads are not reduced in the estuary prior to entering the Chesapeake Bay. Thus, a critical need exists to minimize nutrient export from agricultural production fields and to identify specific conservation practices to address the hydrologic conditions within each subwatershed. In well drained areas, removal of residual N within the cropland is most critical, and practices such

  6. Climate Change and Adaptation in Irrigated Agriculture-A Case Study of the Yakima River

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Vail, Lance W; Stockle, Claudio O; Kemanian, Armen

    2004-07-22

    Using a case study of the Yakima River Valley in Washington State, we show that relatively simple tools originally developed to forecast the impact of the El Nino phenomenon on water supplies to irrigated agriculture also can be used to estimate the significantly shifted probability distribution of water shortages in irrigated agriculture during climate change, and that these shifted probabilities can be used to estimate the impact on agriculture in a region. The more permanent nature of changes in the temperature and precipitation regime associated with climate change means that risk management options also take a more permanent form (such as changes in crops and cultivars, and adding storage). A number of storage options have been proposed to deal with El Nino-associated drought, and would be more valuable under climate change. The most ambitious of the proposed storage projects is Black Rock, which would add about 500,00 acre-feet of water to supplement the Yakima's current 1.1 million acre-feet, at a cost currently estimated at $1.9 billion. For perspective, economic losses in the Yakima Valley reportedly have been about $100 million in a drought year such as 2001. Under current circumstances, the expected annual fisheries and periodic drought relief benefits may be large enough to justify the expenditure, but since drought has been occasional, environmental consequences of new projects uncertain, and the price tag beyond the reach of all but the Federal government, no projects have been built. The benefits become more certain with warming. Analysis shows that adding 500,000 acre-feet to TWSA would offset El Nino and the effects of 2 C warming.

  7. Preliminary analysis of the shallow ground-water system in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal, northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Lee R.; Shedlock, R.J.; Banaszak, K.J.; Arihood, L.D.; Doss, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River-Indiana Harbor Canal, Indiana was analyzed from June 1985 to May 1986. This analysis was done to obtain detailed information about the physical characteristics of the Calumet aquifer and the shallow groundwater flow system. 36 shallow wells were installed and sediment samples were collected at 26 sites. Water level measurements were made in 45 wells. Data indicate that the aquifer consists of fine-grained to medium-grained sand, locally overlain by slag fill. Aquifer thickness is 0 to 65 ft. This aquifer is underlain by about 100 ft of glacial till and lacustrine clay that overlies carbonate bedrock of Silurian age. Broad, low-relief water table mounds occur between the major surface water drains. The crests of these mounds form major east-west-trending water table divides. Northwest of the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC), a narrow water table ridge parallels the Lake Michigan shoreline and connects to a somewhat circular, low mound northwest of the IHC. Shallow groundwater generally flows from these water table mounds to the major streams or to Lake Michigan. Groundwater also flows to small ditches, wetlands, and sewer lines. Stream/aquifer relations along the Grand Calumet River/IHC were quite complex. Digital model simulations of a conceptual north-south section near the middle of the study area indicate that discharge of groundwater to small ditches and leaky sewer lines has lowered the water table by several ft from predevelopment levels. Simulations also indicate that downward leakage to the bedrock may have contributed to the decline in the water table. (USGS)

  8. Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

  9. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin. PMID:24292872

  10. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin.

  11. Evaluating the Impacts of an Agricultural Water Market in the Guadalupe River Basin, Texas: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Cai, X.; Minsker, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture comprises about 80 percent of the total water consumption in the US. Under conditions of water shortage and fully committed water rights, market-based water allocations could be promising instruments for agricultural water redistribution from marginally profitable areas to more profitable ones. Previous studies on water market have mainly focused on theoretical or statistical analysis. However, how water users' heterogeneous physical attributes and decision rules about water use and water right trading will affect water market efficiency has been less addressed. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to evaluate the benefits of an agricultural water market in the Guadalupe River Basin during drought events. Agricultural agents with different attributes (i.e., soil type for crops, annual water diversion permit and precipitation) are defined to simulate the dynamic feedback between water availability, irrigation demand and water trading activity. Diversified crop irrigation rules and water bidding rules are tested in terms of crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. The model was coupled with a real-time hydrologic model and run under different water scarcity scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that an agricultural water market is capable of increasing crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. This capability is more significant under moderate drought scenarios than in mild and severe drought scenarios. The water market mechanism also increases agricultural resilience to climate uncertainty by reducing crop yield variance in drought events. The challenges of implementing an agricultural water market under climate uncertainty are also discussed.

  12. Occurrence and transport of agricultural chemicals in the Mississippi River basin, July through August 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goolsby, Donald A.; Battaglin, William A.; Thurman, E. Michael

    1993-01-01

    Heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the upper Mississippi River Basin from mid-June through early August 1993 flushed extraordinarily large amounts of agricultural chemicals (herbicides and nitrate) into the Mississippi River, many of its tributaries, and, ultimately, the Gulf of Mexico. Even though extremely high streamflows were recorded during the flood in 1993, concentrations of herbicides, such as atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor, were similar to the maximum concentrations measured during spring and summer 1991 and 1992. It was anticipated that the higher streamflows during the flood would dilute the concentrations of herbicides that are usually flushed into streams in late spring and summer. Instead, concentrations were similar to those measured during much lower flows, but the daily loads of herbicides transported in some reaches of the Mississippi River were higher than those measured in 1991 and 1992. The total atrazine load transported to the Gulf of Mexico from April through August 1993 (539,000 kilograms) was about 80 percent higher than that for the same period in 1991 and 235 percent higher than for the same period in 1992. The concentrations of atrazine and cyanazine in a few individual samples exceeded health-based limits for drinking water. However, because drinking-water regulations are based on the average of at least four quarterly samples, the annual average concentrations in the Mississippi River probably will not exceed these limits for 1993. Nitrate concentrations were similar to those measured during spring and summer 1991 and 1992. The loads of nitrate-nitrogen transported into the Gulf of Mexico during July and August 1993 were as much as 5,734 metric tons per day. These loads generally are similar to those measured in spring 1991 and 1992 but larger than those measured in summer 1991 and 1992. The total nitrate-nitrogen load transported to the Gulf of Mexico from April through August 1993 (827,000 metric tons) was about

  13. Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE

  14. Stage-Discharge Relations for the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Rod; Kohl, Keith; Topping, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents stage-discharge relations for 47 discrete locations along the Colorado River, downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. Predicting the river stage that results from changes in flow regime is important for many studies investigating the effects of dam operations on resources in and along the Colorado River. The empirically based stage-discharge relations were developed from water-surface elevation data surveyed at known discharges at all 47 locations. The rating curves accurately predict stage at each location for discharges between 141 cubic meters per second and 1,274 cubic meters per second. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the fit to the data ranged from 0.993 to 1.00. Given the various contributing errors to the method, a conservative error estimate of ?0.05 m was assigned to the rating curves.

  15. Factors controlling the abundance of rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in a reach utilized by endangered humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the abundance, survival, movement, and recruitment of non-native rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon to determine what controls their abundance near the Little Colorado River (LCR) confluence where endangered humpback chub rear. Over a 3-year period, we tagged more than 70,000 trout and recovered over 8,200 tagged fish. Trout density was highest (10,000-25,000 fish/km) in the reach closest to Glen Canyon Dam where the majority of trout recruitment occurs, and was 30-50-fold lower (200-800 fish/km) in reaches near the LCR confluence ~100 km downstream. The extent of rainbow trout movement was limited with less than 1% of recaptures making movements greater than 20 km. However, due to high trout densities in upstream source areas, this small dispersal rate was sufficient to explain the 3-fold increase in the relatively small population near the LCR. Reducing dispersal rates of trout from upstream sources is the most feasible solution to maintain low densities near the LCR to minimize negative effects of competition and predation on humpback chub.

  16. Development of a regionally consistent geospatial dataset of agricultural lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2007-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buto, Susan G.; Gold, Brittany L.; Jones, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation in arid environments can alter the natural rate at which salts are dissolved and transported to streams. Irrigated agricultural lands are the major anthropogenic source of dissolved solids in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Understanding the location, spatial distribution, and irrigation status of agricultural lands and the method used to deliver water to agricultural lands are important to help improve the understanding of agriculturally derived dissolved-solids loading to surface water in the UCRB. Irrigation status is the presence or absence of irrigation on an agricultural field during the selected growing season or seasons. Irrigation method is the system used to irrigate a field. Irrigation method can broadly be grouped into sprinkler or flood methods, although other techniques such as drip irrigation are used in the UCRB. Flood irrigation generally causes greater dissolved-solids loading to streams than sprinkler irrigation. Agricultural lands in the UCRB mapped by state agencies at varying spatial and temporal resolutions were assembled and edited to represent conditions in the UCRB between 2007 and 2010. Edits were based on examination of 1-meter resolution aerial imagery collected between 2009 and 2011. Remote sensing classification techniques were used to classify irrigation status for the June to September growing seasons between 2007 and 2010. The final dataset contains polygons representing approximately 1,759,900 acres of agricultural lands in the UCRB. Approximately 66 percent of the mapped agricultural lands were likely irrigated during the study period.

  17. River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Soltani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds. PMID:25740683

  18. Disinfection byproduct formation potentials of wetlands, agricultural drains, and rivers and the effect of biodegradation on trihalomethane precursors.

    PubMed

    Engelage, Samantha K; Stringfellow, William T; Letain, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Trihalomethane (THM) precursors are a significant problem in the San Joaquin River (SJR) watershed, an important source of drinking water for >20 million people. Trihalomethane precursors diminish drinking water quality and are formed during natural decomposition of organic matter in aquatic systems. This study sought to identify sources of chlorine-reactive dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the SJR watershed and to determine if wetlands were more important sources of THM precursors than nearby rivers and agricultural drains. The effects of biodegradation on DOC quality and quantity were investigated and analyzed across drainage type. Results show wetland drainage contained comparable bromide concentrations and organic carbon aromaticity but contained more than two times the average DOC concentrations found in agricultural drains and rivers. Wetland DOC did not have an increased propensity to form THMs when compared with the other drainage types, despite significantly higher wetland formation potentials. The higher formation potentials measured in wetland drainages were attributed to higher DOC concentrations; the positive correlation found between DOC and trihalomethane formation potentials (THMFPs) and the significantly higher wetland DOC concentrations suggest that increased wetland restoration could result in increased THMFPs in the SJR watershed. Wetland THM precursors were more resistant to biodegradation than THM precursors from agricultural and river samples. Results suggest that THM precursors in the SJR were from algae and were biodegraded. PMID:19643756

  19. River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Soltani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds.

  20. Risk assessment of agricultural pesticides in water, sediment, and fish from Owan River, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of pesticides in water, sediments, Clarias gariepinus, and Tilapia zilli from the Owan River was investigated to evaluate the pollution status and potential hazard in the river system. A total of 16 pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The concentration of pesticide residues ranged from ND to 0.43 μg/l for water samples, 0.82 to 2.14 μg/kg/dw for sediment, 0.04 to 2.34 μg/kg/ww for C. gariepinus, and 0.02 to 1.73 μg/kg/ww for T. zilli. High concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, specifically benzenehexachloride (α-BHC, γ-BHC, and β-BHC) observed in all environmental media, are an indication of the current illegal use of banned pesticides for agricultural activities in the region. Analysis of data showed a strong correlation (r (2) = 0.7) between total organic carbon (TOC) and total pesticide residues in sediment samples. Meanwhile, risk quotient estimates for heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan aldehyde, and phosphomethylglycine showed potential risk to aquatic organism under observed mean concentrations (risk quotient (RQ) ≥ 1). Estimated average daily intake (EADI) for organochlorine pesticides (γ-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) was above their respective acceptable average daily intake (ADI), while hazard quotient for each of these pesticides was above the unity value (1). This indicates that there is a potential cancer risk for the local residents with life time consumption of pesticide-contaminated fish. PMID:26423632

  1. The effects of hydraulics, geomorphology, and storm events on metabolism rates in an agricultural river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, B. L.; Harvey, J. W.; McPhillips, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Physical factors such as discharge, geomorphology, and sediment transport strongly influence metabolism rates in agricultural rivers with sparse tree canopies where sunlight is not limiting. These physical processes establish a mosaic of sediment habitats of varying particle sizes, permeabilities, and biological communities that control primary production and respiration rates. In this study, we examined the combined factors of hydraulic conditions, sediment texture, and hyporheic exchange on the spatial and temporal variability of metabolism rates in an agricultural river located in central Iowa. Hydraulic conditions were quantified using field velocity measurements and two-dimensional hydraulic modeling. Sediment texture was assessed using a grid-based survey identifying dominant particle size classes, as well as aerial coverage of green algae and fine benthic organic material. Hyporheic exchange potential was quantified using an effective diffusion scaling relationship based on sediment and flow conditions. Patch-scale metabolism rates varied spatially according to patterns in hydraulic and sediment characteristics, but were of the same order of magnitude as reach-scale gross primary productivity and community respiration measurements. Two discharge-related storm perturbation regimes to the reach-scale metabolism rates were identified using diurnal dissolved oxygen data measured at the study reach over three years. Rainfall events of < 3 cm disrupted the metabolism rates for 1-2 days as a result of increased turbidity, whereas rainfall events of > 3 cm disrupted metabolism rates for several days to weeks due to bed mobilization and the restructuring of the sediment habitats. A combination of hydraulic modeling, habitat mapping, and reach-scale metabolism measurements were used to produce a two-dimensional analysis of a turbidity-related disturbance event that occurred in late fall 2007. Results from this study suggest that physical processes establish, destroy

  2. Determination of predevelopment denudation rates of an agricultural watershed (Cayaguas River, Puerto Rico) using in-situ-produced 10Be in river-borne quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, E.T.; Stallard, R.F.; Larsen, M.C.; Bourles, D.L.; Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate estimates of watershed denudation absent anthropogenic effects are required to develop strategies for mitigating accelerated physical erosion resulting from human activities, to model global geochemical cycles, and to examine interactions among climate, weathering, and uplift. We present a simple approach to estimate predevelopment denudation rates using in-situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in fluvial sediments. Denudation processes in an agricultural watershed (Cayaguas River Basin, Puerto Rico) and a matched undisturbed watershed (Icacos River Basin) were compared using 10Be concentrations in quartz for various size fractions of bed material. The coarse fractions in both watersheds bear the imprint of long subsurface residence times. Fine material from old shallow soils contributes little, however, to the present-day sediment output of the Cayaguas. This confirms the recent and presumably anthropogenic origin of the modern high denudation rate in the Cayaguas Basin and suggests that pre-agricultural erosional conditions were comparable to those of the present-day Icacos.

  3. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved selenium load and concentration in the Gunnison and Colorado Rivers near Grand Junction, Colorado, water years 1986--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of elevated selenium concentrations, many western Colorado rivers and streams are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Colorado 303(d) list, including the main stem of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah border. Selenium is a trace metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other adverse impacts in birds and fish, including several threatened and endangered fish species. Salinity in the upper Colorado River has been the focus of source-control efforts for many years. Although salinity loads and concentrations have been previously characterized at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo., and at the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line, trends in selenium load and concentration at these two stations have not been studied. The USGS, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Water Conservation District, evaluated dissolved selenium (herein referred to as "selenium") load and concentration trends at these two sites to inform decision makers on the status and trends of selenium. This report presents results of the evaluation of trends in selenium load and concentration for two USGS streamflow-gaging stations: the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo. ("Gunnison River site"), USGS site 09152500, and the Colorado River near Colorado-Utah State line ("Colorado River site"), USGS site 09163500. Flow-adjusted selenium loads were estimated for the beginning water year (WY) of the study, 1986, and the ending WY of the study, 2008. The difference between flow-adjusted selenium loads for WY 1986 and WY 2008 was selected as the method of analysis because flow adjustment removes the natural variations in load caused by changes in mean-daily streamflow, emphasizing human-caused changes in selenium load and concentration. Overall changes in human-caused effects

  4. Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Wong, S C; Li, X D; Zhang, G; Qi, S H; Min, Y S

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China owing to rapid urban and industrial development and increasing reliance on agrochemicals in the last several decades. Excessive accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils may not only result in environmental contamination, but elevated heavy metal uptake by crops may also affect food quality and safety. The present study is aimed at studying heavy metal concentrations of crop, paddy and natural soils in the Pearl River Delta, one of the most developed regions in China. In addition, some selected soil samples were analyzed for chemical partitioning of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn. The Pb isotopic composition of the extracted solutions was also determined. The analytical results indicated that the crop, paddy and natural soils in many sampling sites were enriched with Cd and Pb. Furthermore, heavy metal enrichment was most significant in the crop soils, which might be attributed to the use of agrochemicals. Flooding of the paddy soils and subsequent dissolution of Mn oxides may cause the loss of Cd and Co through leaching and percolation, resulting in low Cd and Co concentrations of the paddy soils. The chemical partitioning patterns of Pb, Zn and Cu indicated that Pb was largely associated with the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions, while Zn was predominantly found in the residual phase. A significant percent fraction of Cu was bound in the organic/sulphide and residual phases. Based on the 206Pb/207Pb ratios of the five fractions, it was evident that some of the soils were enriched with anthropogenic Pb, such as industrial and automobile Pb. The strong associations between anthropogenic Pb and the Fe-Mn oxide and organic/sulphide phases suggested that anthropogenic Pb was relatively stable after deposition in soils. PMID:12125727

  5. Study of extrabasinal-sourced rock clasts in Mesozoic and Cenozoic conglomerates and stream terrace gravels from the Colorado River Basin upstream from the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P. W.; Dearaujo, J.; Li, A.; Adam, H.; White, L.

    2008-12-01

    Far-travelled durable, extrabasinal pebbles occur in Mesozoic and Tertiary conglomerate-bearing rock formations and in unconsolidated stream terrace gravels and mesa-capping gravel deposits of Late Tertiary and Quaternary age throughout the Colorado Plateau. Pebble collections were made from each of the major modern tributaries of the Colorado River for possible correlation of remnant gravel deposits remaining from the ancestral regional drainage system that existed prior to the formation of the Grand Canyon. Pebble collecting and sorting techniques were used to make representative collections with both representative and eye-catching lithologies that can be most useful for correlation. Pebbles found in the conglomerate and younger gravel deposits were evaluated to determine general sediment source areas based on unique lithologies, pebble-shape characteristics, and fossils. Chert pebbles derived from source areas in the Great Basin region during the Mesozoic are perhaps the most common, and many of these display evidence of tectonic fracturing during deep burial sometime during their geologic journey. Unique chert pebble lithologies correlate to specific rock units including chert-bearing horizons within the Triassic Shinarump Formation, the Jurassic Morrison and Navajo Formations, and the Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Quartzite, metaconglomerate, and granitic rocks derived from Precambrian rocks of the Rocky Mountain region are also common. Reworked rounded and flattened quartzite cobbles probably derived from shingled beaches along the western shoreline of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway are also common along the Green River drainage. Xenolith-bearing volcanic rocks, fossil wood, and shell fossils preserved in concretion matrix can be linked to other unique source areas and stratigraphic units across the region. By correlating the pebbles with their sources we gain insight into the erosional history of the Colorado Plateau and the evolution of the

  6. Amazon river flow regime and flood recessional agriculture: Flood stage reversals and risk of annual crop loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Lapointe, Michel; Templeton, Michael; List, Geneva

    2016-08-01

    The annual flood cycle is an important driver of ecosystem structure and function in large tropical rivers such as the Amazon. Riparian peasant communities rely on river fishing and annual floodplain agriculture, closely adapted to the recession phase of the flood pulse. This article reports on a poorly documented but important challenge facing farmers practicing flood recessional agriculture along the Amazon river: frequent, unpredictable stage reversals (repiquetes) which threaten to ruin crops growing on channel bars. We assess the severity of stage reversals for rice production on exposed river mud bars (barreales) near Iquitos, Peru. Crop loss risk is estimated based on a quantitative analysis of 45 years of daily Amazon stage data and field data from floodplain communities nearby in the Muyuy archipelago, upstream of Iquitos. Rice varieties selected, elevations of silt rich bars where rice is sown, as well as planting and harvest dates are analyzed in the light of the timing, frequencies and amplitudes of observed stage reversals that have the potential to destroy growing rice. We find that unpredictable stage reversals can produce substantial crop losses and shorten significantly the length of average growing seasons on lower elevation river bars. The data reveal that local famers extend planting down to lower bar elevations where the mean probabilities of re-submergence before rice maturity (due to reversals) approach 50%, below which they implicitly consider that the risk of crop loss outweighs the potential reward of planting.

  7. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  8. Influence of atmospheric correction on image classification for irrigated agriculture in the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric correction is essential for accurate quantitative information retrieval from satellite imagery. In this paper, we applied the atmospheric correction algorithm, Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code, to retrieve surface reflectance from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery for the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) within the lower Colorado River basin. The 6S code was implemented with the input data of visibility, aerosol optical depth, pressure, temperature, water vapour, and ozone from local measurements. The 6S corrected image of PVID was classified into the irrigated agriculture of alfalfa, cotton, melons, corn, grass, and vegetables. We performed multiple classification methods of maximum likelihood, fuzzy means, and object-oriented classification methods. Using field crop type data, we conducted accuracy assessment for the results from 6S corrected image and uncorrected image and found a consistent improvement of classification accuracy for 6S corrected image. The study proves that 6S code is a robust atmospheric correction method in providing a better simulation of surface reflectance and improving image classification accuracy.;

  9. Hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of river subsurface solutes under agriculturally enhanced ground water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildman, R.A.; Domagalski, J.L.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The relative influences of hydrologic processes and biogeochemistry on the transport and retention of minor solutes were compared in the riverbed of the lower Merced River (California, USA). The subsurface of this reach receives ground water discharge and surface water infiltration due to an altered hydraulic setting resulting from agricultural irrigation. Filtered ground water samples were collected from 30 drive point locations in March, June, and October 2004. Hydrologic processes, described previously, were verified by observations of bromine concentrations; manganese was used to indicate redox conditions. The separate responses of the minor solutes strontium, barium, uranium, and phosphorus to these influences were examined. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that hydrologic processes dominate the distribution of trace elements in the ground water. Redox conditions appear to be independent of hydrologic processes and account for most of the remaining data variability. With some variability, major processes are consistent in two sampling transects separated by 100 m. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of trace element impacts on agricultural use of water from the Dan River following the Eden coal ash release.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Dean; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Crozier, Carl; Austin, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    Catastrophic events require rapid, scientifically sound decision making to mitigate impacts on human welfare and the environment. The objective of this study was to analyze potential impacts of coal ash-derived trace elements on agriculture following a 35,000-tonne release of coal ash into the Dan River at the Duke Energy Steam Station in Eden, North Carolina. We performed scenario calculations to assess the potential for excessive trace element loading to soils via irrigation and flooding with Dan River water, uptake of trace elements by crops, and livestock consumption of trace elements via drinking water. Concentrations of 13 trace elements measured in Dan River water samples within 4 km of the release site declined sharply after the release and were equivalent within 5 d to measurements taken upriver. Mass-balance calculations based on estimates of soil trace-element concentrations and the nominal river water concentrations indicated that irrigation or flooding with 25 cm of Dan River water would increase soil concentrations of all trace elements by less than 0.5%. Calculations of potential increases of trace elements in corn grain and silage, fescue, and tobacco leaves suggested that As, Cr, Se, Sr, and V were elements of most concern. Concentrations of trace elements measured in river water following the ash release never exceeded adopted standards for livestock drinking water. Based on our analyses, we present guidelines for safe usage of Dan River water to diminish negative impacts of trace elements on soils and crop production. In general, the approach we describe here may serve as a basis for rapid assessment of environmental and agricultural risks associated with any similar types of releases that arise in the future. PMID:26033746

  11. Whole organism responses and intersex severity in rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) following exposures to municipal wastewater in the Grand River basin, ON, Canada. Part A.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, P A; Fuzzen, M L; Bennett, C J; Tetreault, G R; McMaster, M E; Servos, M R; Martyniuk, C J; Munkittrick, K R

    2015-02-01

    Municipal wastewater effluents (MWWEs) contain anthropogenic substances that can exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity. These complex mixtures have been observed to exert adverse effects on fish. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum, RBD) is a small benthic fish that is widespread throughout the Grand River, Ontario, Canada, and has been previously shown to be adversely affected by MWWE exposure in this watershed. The objectives of this study were to quantify biological responses in this sentinel species and intersex severity in male fish, in relation to the area of urbanization. It focused on RBD populations adjacent to wastewater outfalls in the Grand River watershed. In May 2011, nine sites across the urban gradient were selected to evaluate the impact of MWWEs. Endpoints for energy storage (i.e. condition factor, k; liversomatic index, LSI) as well as reproductive endpoints (i.e. gonadosomatic index, GSI; gonad development, hormone production), and intersex were assessed in the fish. Rainbow darter showed a high incidence of intersex downstream of the wastewater outfalls, especially below the largest treatment plant outfall at Kitchener (∼85%). We applied an intersex index (score from 0 to 7) that considers the number of eggs within the testis and the stage of maturation of the egg. RBD exposed downstream of the largest wastewater outfall at Kitchener had a score of 3.81±0.37 compared to upstream to the urban areas where there were no intersex males found other than a single individual with a score 1 (average intersex score of site 0.06±0.06). In addition, several fish associated with the Kitchener outfall had macroscopic vitellogenic eggs in the testes (intersex scores 5 and 6). The sub-population of fish located at the wastewater outfall also showed a tendency towards skewed sex ratios (greater proportion of females to male fish) compared to the population at the reference sites. Male fish inhabiting the urbanized area of the Grand River also showed

  12. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a partially cloudy sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  13. View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking southwest. Note the trash racks at the entrance to the penstocks. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  14. Water quality changes in floodplain lakes due to the Amazon River flood pulse: Lago Grande de Curuaí (Pará).

    PubMed

    Affonso, A G; Barbosa, C; Novo, E M L M

    2011-08-01

    Assurance of water quality for human consumption is essential for public health policies. In the Amazon floodplain, the seasonal water level variation causes periodic flooding of marginal areas that are usually used for settlements, agriculture and livestock. Therefore, the exchange of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem affects the proportion of suspended and dissolved components in water and its physical-chemical characteristics, and consequently the quality of the water used by local people. Following this approach, the aim of this study is to evaluate changes in water quality in Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain, Óbidos, Pará in response to the flood pulse, during one hydrological year from 2003 to 2004, based on water use classes (according to National Water Agency 357/2005 resolution) using chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters and the eutrophication index. Ordinary kriging was applied to interpolate chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen and to predict values at non sampled locations. Each location was then classified according to water use acceptable parameters and to Carlson Trophic State Index modified by Toledo to map lake water classes and trophic status. The result showed that Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain is a supereutrophic system, with levels of dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a not suitable for human supply during the receding water phase. These areas are located near the riverine communities, which can cause health problems due to the presence of potentially toxic algae. Therefore, monitoring water quality in Amazon lakes is essential to ensure the availability has appropriate quality for human and animal supplies.

  15. Quantification and Characterization of Chloride Sources in the Rio Grande, Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, H. F.; Phillips, F. M.; Tidwell, V.; Hogan, J.; Bastien, E.; Oelsner, G.

    2005-12-01

    Salinization of rivers is a problem in the southwestern United States as well as in other semiarid and arid regions of the world. Arid and semiarid rivers including the Rio Grande often exhibit increasing salinity with distance downstream, which is commonly attributed to irrigated agriculture. Increased river salinity causes economic losses by reducing crop productivity, rendering the water unsuitable for many municipal and industrial uses, and corroding or plugging pipes. Although most salinization of the Rio Grande takes place in the United States, many of the effects are felt in Mexico. Recent studies have found that salinization of the Rio Grande is geologically controlled by the addition of deep saline brines at several distinct locations. However, these additions of deep brine have not been well quantified. We have designed a model using a system dynamics software program to analyze Rio Grande chloride data. The model uses historical chloride and gaging station data and high-resolution synoptic chloride samples collected between 2000 and 2005 to characterize and quantify additions of deep brine to the river. The model has also been used to evaluate the effect of the construction of Elephant Butte Reservoir on the chloride balance of the river using chloride concentration data from 1905-1907. The model can also be used to evaluate future climatic and management scenarios in order to plan for the future water needs of the basin.

  16. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Steve M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  17. Contribution of agricultural liming to riverine bicarbonate export and CO2 sequestration in the Ohio River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Raymond, Peter A.

    2006-09-01

    Chemical weathering of silicates and carbonates is essential in the global cycles of many elements, including carbon. Chemical weathering affects regional and global carbon budgets through the export of bicarbonate, much of which can originate from the atmosphere. Agricultural practices may accelerate chemical weathering from the Mississippi River basin directly or indirectly. Here we investigated one of the direct effects of agricultural practices, liming, on stream bicarbonate export and the carbon budget of agricultural systems. Using geographic information systems (GIS) layers extracted from various sources such as USGS National Land Cover Data set, U.S. Census of Agriculture data, USGS water data, NADP atmospheric acid deposition data, and NASS-USDA crop production data, we estimated the contributions of liming inputs on both the riverine bicarbonate export and atmospheric CO2 sequestration for a subset of agricultural and forested watersheds within the Ohio River basin. Liming rates have slightly decreased from 23.6 to 19.4 g CaCO3 m-2 cropland yr-1 from 1954-1970 to 1971-1987 in six highly agricultural watersheds. The largest decrease was observed in watersheds located in the state of Ohio while a slight increase was observed in watersheds located in the state of Illinois where agricultural practices are the most intense. An average of 21.1 and 22.4 g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 were applied to the two most highly agricultural watersheds (91% agricultural in 1992) located in the state of Illinois during 1954-1970 and 1971-1987, respectively. Using a calcium mass balance, we estimated that 29% of the total riverine bicarbonate export from the two most agricultural watersheds was by liming and thus liming is important to the cation/anion balance and buffering capacity of streams. The on-site net atmospheric C sequestration by liming from the two most agricultural watersheds was estimated to be 0.95 g C m-2 yr-1. However, considering 0.85 g C m-2 yr-1 is estimated to be

  18. Measurements of bed load transport on Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork and The Snake River in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Dams disrupt the flow of both of water and sediment through a watershed. Channel morphology is a function of discharge and sediment load, and perturbations caused by dams often alter channel form, causing significant geomorphic and, potentially, ecological changes (e.g. Petts and Gurnell, 2005). At the first order, dams often produce a flow regime that is profoundly altered in the timing, magnitude, and frequency of flows (Magilligan and Nislow, 2005). Yet, the nature of channel adjustments will be specific to both the physical setting, size of the river, dam characteristics, and nature and severity of the flow regulation (Church 1995; Knighton, 1998).

  19. Effects of Jackson Lake dam and Tributaries on the Hydrology and Geomorphology of the Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, N. C.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Geomorphic and hydrologic analyses of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) indicate that flow contributions of tributaries mitigate impacts of regulation. Since a flow regime change in 1958, regulation resulted in a 43 and 35% decrease in estimated unregulated flows immediately downstream of Jackson Lake Dam (JLD) and at Moose (43 km and 5 tributaries downstream of JLD), respectively. Geomorphic evidence indicates that some channel characteristics are more sensitive than others to this decreasing influence of flow regulation. First, entrainment of tracer rocks suggests that the ability of the Snake River to mobilize its bed increases downstream. A greater proportion of the bed became active, and the mobilized clasts moved further, in the two study reaches furthest downstream. Second, repeat mapping from aerial photographs suggest that some changes in channel form are the result of flow regulation and some are the result of climatically driven changes in runoff determined by tributaries. Initial decreases in flows due to regulation may have caused the observed channel narrowing between 1945 and 1969, and greater precipitation causing greater natural flows may have resulted in the subsequent channel widening between 1969 and 1990. Third, flow models were used to obtain the magnitudes of flows necessary to inundate two floodplain surfaces in 4 reaches from JLD to Moose. Recurrence intervals and inundation periods were similar for a narrow, inset floodplain in all 4 reaches, suggesting that this surface developed due to regulation. Recurrence intervals for a much broader and higher floodplain decreased downstream from 9 to 3.2 years and inundation periods increased downstream from 1.1 to 3 days immediately below JLD and at Moose, respectively. This suggests the upper floodplain was formed prior to regulation of the Snake River. Thus, the effects of flow regulation on bed mobility and connectivity between the channel and the upper floodplain decrease

  20. Dissolved Organic Carbon Export from Sacramento and San Joaquin River Watersheds as Impacted by Precipitation and Agricultural Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, N.; Pallud, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Most of the agricultural activities in California occur within the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins, where, as a consequence, water quality as well as quantity have been significantly affected over the last century. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and fluxes from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins have received much attention because riverine DOC flux is an important part of the carbon cycle connecting terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems and because DOC concentration can influence public health as a precursor of carcinogenic disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Studies on the fate of DOC in watersheds and its relationship with land use are crucial to improve drinking water quality. Considering that water yield from a watershed is one of the main factors governing riverine DOC flux, it is essential to understand factors affecting riverine discharge from watersheds such as precipitation variability, wetland surface area, soil moisture content, and irrigation methods. We investigated the role of precipitation, crop species, and agricultural practices including flood irrigation on watershed water budget and DOC export from subwatersheds of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins using GIS analysis. The preliminary results indicate that agricultural practices effect on DOC fluxes may deserve further attention due to its impacts on watershed water budget, which will be critical for watershed management of DBP precursors.

  1. Analysis of agricultural land use change in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Lanhui; He, Chansheng

    2014-03-04

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in arid Northwest China. The expanding agricultural irrigation, growing industrialization, and increasing urban development in the middle reach have depleted much of the river flow to the lower reach, degrading the corresponding ecosystems. Since the enactment of the State Council of China's new HRB water allocation policy in 2000 tremendous land use and land cover (LULC) changes have taken place to reduce water consumption in the middle reach and deliver more water downstream. This paper analyzes LULC changes during the period of 2000-2009 to understand how the changing land use patterns have altered water resource dynamics in the region. Results, while yet to be further verified in the field, show that from 2000 to 2009, urban, agricultural land, rangeland, and forest areas have increased, and barren area has decreased. Within the cropland, rice (a high water consumption crop) planting area decreased, while corn and wheat (relatively lower water consumption crops) planting areas increased. These changes in land use patterns, especially in the agricultural zones, have ensured the discharge of the required amount of water to the lower reach.

  2. Integrated Environmental Assessment of streams in the Sinos River basin in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kieling-Rubio, M A; Benvenuti, T; Costa, G M; Petry, C T; Rodrigues, M A S; Schmitt, J L; Droste, A

    2015-05-01

    The deterioration of environmental quality in the Sinos River basin is directly associated with the impacts of intense industrialization and urbanization. An integrated environmental assessment (IEA) was conducted in July and September of 2012, in areas along the sources of the EstânciaVelha/Portão, Pampa and Schmidt streams using physical, chemical and biological methods. The water in the three sampling sites was not proper for human consumption, presented a low toxic contamination index (TCI) and mesotrophic characteristics. One site was included in Class 4, and two, in Class 3, according to current legislation. The rapid assessment protocol (RAP) indicated a natural environmental condition for habitat diversity and environmental impact in the three sites. The Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea Boom biomarker showed water genotoxicity in two of the sites. The integrated diagnosis of water quality in these streams is fundamentally important to ensure the sustainable management of water resources and their multiple uses, as well to estimate their contribution to pollution in this river basin. PMID:26270222

  3. Integrated Environmental Assessment of streams in the Sinos River basin in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kieling-Rubio, M A; Benvenuti, T; Costa, G M; Petry, C T; Rodrigues, M A S; Schmitt, J L; Droste, A

    2015-05-01

    The deterioration of environmental quality in the Sinos River basin is directly associated with the impacts of intense industrialization and urbanization. An integrated environmental assessment (IEA) was conducted in July and September of 2012, in areas along the sources of the EstânciaVelha/Portão, Pampa and Schmidt streams using physical, chemical and biological methods. The water in the three sampling sites was not proper for human consumption, presented a low toxic contamination index (TCI) and mesotrophic characteristics. One site was included in Class 4, and two, in Class 3, according to current legislation. The rapid assessment protocol (RAP) indicated a natural environmental condition for habitat diversity and environmental impact in the three sites. The Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt var. purpurea Boom biomarker showed water genotoxicity in two of the sites. The integrated diagnosis of water quality in these streams is fundamentally important to ensure the sustainable management of water resources and their multiple uses, as well to estimate their contribution to pollution in this river basin.

  4. Streamflow and sediment-transport data, Colorado River and three tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1983 and 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, W.B.; van de Vanter, E.K.; Graf, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected streamflow and sediment-transport data at 5 streamflow-gaging stations on the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead as a part of an interagency environmental study. The data were collected for about 6 mo in 1983 and about 4 mo in 1985-86; data also were collected at 3 sites on tributary streams in 1983. The data were used for development of unsteady flow-routing and sediment-transport models, sand-load rating curves, and evaluation of channel changes. For the 1983 sampling period, 1,076 composite cross-section suspended-sediment samples were analyzed; 809 of these samples were collected on the main stem of the Colorado River and 267 samples were from the tributaries. Bed-material samples were obtained at 1,988 verticals; 161 samples of material in transport near the bed (bedload) were collected to define the location of sand, gravel, and bed rock in the channel cross section; and 664 discharge measurements were made. For the 1985-86 sampling period, 765 composite cross-section suspended-sediment samples and 887 individual vertical samples from cross sections were analyzed. Bed-material samples were obtained at 531 verticals, 159 samples of bedload were collected, and 218 discharge measurements were made. All data are presented in tabular form. Some types of data also are presented in graphs to better show trends or variations. (USGS)

  5. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Umatilla, Tucannon, Asotin, and Grande Ronde River Basins, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Umatilla and Grande Ronde River basins, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries contained in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be used to assess pool and substrate conditions. This data is available from the Bonneville Power

  6. Holocene climate-dynamics of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon-a record built by centennial paleoflood variations superimposed upon millennial cycles of grade change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    How do climate variations build an alluvial stratigraphic record versus destroy it? How do we reconcile the paradigms of paleoflood hydrology versus cyclic aggradation and degradation? Intensive research in Grand Canyon reveals a record spanning the entire Holocene that addresses these and other issues of the dynamic response of continental-scale rivers to climate. The Colorado River integrates sediment from the rapidly eroding Colorado Plateau with a hydrology controlled by snowmelt in its Rocky Mountain headwaters. Thus geomorphic responses may be driven by climate in both regions, and the influence of both variable flooding and sediment supply must be resolved. Recent chronostratigraphic investigations at archaeological sites spanning the Colorado River corridor have involved scores of exposures constrained by 104 OSL and 14C dates. Results indicate a correlatable Holocene stratigraphy exists across the canyon, assigned to packages I-V based upon field observations of bounding unconformities and hiatuses in deposition. A sharp character distinction exists between the thinly interbedded, diverse canyon-bottom facies of millennial-scale packages I, II, and III, versus the thickly bedded, purer mainstem flood deposits of younger, century-scale packages IV and V. These distinct packages are borne out by peaks in the probability distribution of all stratigraphic ages. Packages I, II, and III are evenly spaced over the entire Holocene, suggesting a cyclical driver, and the last episode of aggradation from 3500-1500 yrs bp. Spikes of depositional ages within these reflect field evidence that century-scale oscillations built the millennial packages in pulses. Packages IV and V are likewise interpreted as peaks in flood magnitude, and their inset stratigraphic position is consistent with overall lowering of grade over the last several hundred years. This new stratigraphic model can be conceptualized as two sine curves, with a longer millennial wavelength dictating the

  7. Biomonitoring the genotoxic potential of the air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea under climatic conditions in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cassanego, M B B; Sasamori, M H; Petry, C T; Droste, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated the genotoxic effects of the atmospheric air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in urban areas with different intensities of vehicular traffic and in riparian forest fragments in the Sinos River Basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), considering the influence of climatic conditions prevailing in these environments. Bimonthly, from May 2012 to March 2013, cuttings with flower buds were exposed for 8 h in urban and riparian forest environments in the municipalities of Caraá, Taquara and Campo Bom in the upper, middle and lower sections, respectively, of the Sinos River Basin. Simultaneously, negative controls were made and climatic data were recorded. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Significantly higher MCN frequencies were observed in buds exposed in urban and riparian forest environments in Taquara (up to 7.23 and 4.80, respectively) and Campo Bom (up to 4.90 and 4.23, respectively) than in buds exposed in Caraá (up to 2.90 and 2.50, respectively), in the majority of samplings, and in relation to the negative control (up to 1.93) in all months. Over the course of the period monitored, there were significant variations in MCN frequencies at all sampling points, with the exception of the urban environment in Caraá. For the urban environments, relation between the MCN frequency, vehicular traffic and mean temperature was observed. For the riparian forest fragments, there was no association between MCN frequency and climatic factors. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea can be considered a useful tool to point out areas with increased atmospheric pollution, since the exposure of plants under severe climatic conditions is avoided to minimize their negative influence on the formation of micronuclei.

  8. They had me in stitches: a Grand Canyon river guide's case report and a review of wilderness wound management literature.

    PubMed

    Spano, Susanne J; Dimock, Brad

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of failed conservative management of a traumatic wound sustained in a wilderness setting. The patient was initially treated with a povidone-iodine scrub, suture closure, and expectant management by 2 physicians who were paying clients on a multiday river rafting expedition. Empiric antibiotic coverage and irrigation of the dehisced wound were initiated several days after initial treatment. The patient arranged his own evacuation 8 days after injury. Hospitalization, intravenous (IV) antibiotics, and surgical debridement with wound vacuum placement led to a full recovery. This case presents several common wound care pitfalls. The sequelae to these pitfalls are more dramatic in a wilderness setting and underscore the importance of early aggressive management and considering prompt evacuation when treating wounds sustained in the wilderness.

  9. They had me in stitches: a Grand Canyon river guide's case report and a review of wilderness wound management literature.

    PubMed

    Spano, Susanne J; Dimock, Brad

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of failed conservative management of a traumatic wound sustained in a wilderness setting. The patient was initially treated with a povidone-iodine scrub, suture closure, and expectant management by 2 physicians who were paying clients on a multiday river rafting expedition. Empiric antibiotic coverage and irrigation of the dehisced wound were initiated several days after initial treatment. The patient arranged his own evacuation 8 days after injury. Hospitalization, intravenous (IV) antibiotics, and surgical debridement with wound vacuum placement led to a full recovery. This case presents several common wound care pitfalls. The sequelae to these pitfalls are more dramatic in a wilderness setting and underscore the importance of early aggressive management and considering prompt evacuation when treating wounds sustained in the wilderness. PMID:24418453

  10. An assessment of injury to sediments and sediment-dwelling organisms in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Smorong, D.E.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Sparks, D.W.; Smith, J.R.; Simon, T.P.; Hanacek, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of three that describe the results of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) conducted in the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Area of Concern (IHAOC). The assessment area is located in northwest Indiana and was divided into nine reaches to facilitate the assessment. This component of the NRDA was undertaken to determine if sediments and sediment-dwelling organisms have been injured due to exposure to contaminants that have accumulated in sediments as a result of discharges of oil or releases of other hazardous substances from industrial, municipal, and nonpoint sources. To support this assessment, information was compiled on the chemical composition of sediment and pore water; on the toxicity of whole sediments, pore water, and elutriates; and on the status of benthic invertebrate communities. The data on each of these indicators were compared to regionally relevant benchmarks to assess the presence and extent of injury to surface water resources (i.e., sediments) or biological resources (i.e., sediment-dwelling organisms). The results of this assessment indicate that sediment injury has occurred throughout the assessment area, with up to four distinct lines of evidence demonstrating injury within the various reaches. The primary contaminants of concern (i.e., those substances that are present at concentrations that are sufficient to cause or substantially contribute to sediment injury) include metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and total polychlorinated biphenyls.

  11. Magnetic properties of agricultural soil in the Pearl River Delta, South China - Spatial distribution and influencing factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yong; Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wan, Hongfu; Li, Mingkun

    2014-08-01

    Environmental magnetism has been widely applied to soil science due to its speediness, non-destructiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, the magnetic investigation of agricultural soil, so closely related to human activity, is limited, most probably because of its complexity. Here we present a magnetic investigation of 301 agricultural soil samples collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD, 112°E-115°E and 22°N-24°N), China. The results showed that both low and high coercivity magnetic minerals coexist in agricultural soil. The values of concentration-dependent parameters, low-field susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanence magnetization susceptibility (χARM), and saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM) were much higher in the PRD plain than in the surrounding areas. The S-ratio (S- 300) showed a similar spatial pattern to the aforementioned parameters. By contrast, frequency-dependent susceptibility (χfd%) and χARM/SIRM were higher in the surrounding hilly and mountainous areas than in the PRD plain. Natural and anthropogenic factors such as parent material, soil type and cultivation methods play important roles in determining agricultural soil magnetic properties. Magnetic minerals were coarser grained and overall indicated higher concentrations in soils from river alluvium and deposited materials. Soils which had suffered long-term water submergence have the lowest magnetic mineral concentration, a result consistent with previous studies. The magnetic properties of agricultural soils are strongly influenced by cultivation methods. Other human activities, such as industrial development and concomitant emitted pollutants, might have had an additional impact on the magnetic properties of agricultural soil.

  12. 19. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT ROOF WITH FOUR CUPOLAS VISIBLE. Photographer: Mark Durben, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Evaluation of Streamflow Losses Along the Gunnison River from Whitewater Downstream to the Redlands Canal Diversion Dam, near Grand Junction, Colorado, Water Years 1995-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Williams, Cory A.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Colorado Division of Water Resources, and Bureau of Reclamation, initiated a study to characterize streamflow losses along a reach of the Gunnison River from the town of Whitewater downstream to the Redlands Canal diversion dam. This describes the methods and results of the study that include: (1) a detailed mass-balance analysis of historical discharge records that were available for the three streamflow-gaging stations along the study reach; and (2) two sets of discharge measurements that were made at the three stations and at four additional locations. Data for these existing streamflow-gaging stations were compiled and analyzed: (1) Gunnison River near Grand Junction (Whitewater station); (2) Gunnison River below Redlands Canal diversion dam (below-Redlands-dam station); and (3) Redlands Canal near Grand Junction (Redlands-Canal station). Data for water years 1995-2003 were used for the mass-balance analysis. Four intermediate sites (M1, M2, M3, and M4) were selected for discharge measurements in addition to the existing stations. The study reach is the approximate 12-mile reach of the Gunnison River from the Whitewater station downstream to the Redlands Canal diversion dam, which is about 3 miles upstream from the confluence with the Colorado River. For the mass-balance analysis, differences between the sum of the annual cumulative daily mean discharge at the two downstream stations and the annual cumulative daily mean discharges at the upstream station ranged from about -8,700 to -69,800 acre-feet (about -.8 to -1.1 percent), indicating that the downstream discharges generally were less than the upstream discharges. Moving 3-day daily mean discharge averages also were computed for each of the three stations to smooth out some of the abrupt differences between the

  14. Groundwater denitrification in two agricultural river catchments: influence of hydro-geological setting and aquifer geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAleer, Eoin; Mellander, Per-Erik; Coxon, Catherine; Richards, Karl G.; Jahangir, Mohammad M. R.

    2015-04-01

    Identifying subsurface environments with a natural capacity for denitrification is important for improving agricultural management. At the catchment scale, a complex hierarchy of landscape, hydro-geological and physico-chemical characteristics combine to affect the distribution of groundwater nitrate (NO3-). This study was conducted along four instrumented hillslopes in two ca. 10km2 agricultural river catchments in Ireland, one dominated by arable and one by grassland agriculture. Both catchments are characterised by well drained soils, but have differing aquifer characteristics. The arable catchment is underlain by weathered Ordovician slate bedrock which is extensively fractured with depth. The grassland catchment is characterised by Devonian sandstone bedrock, exhibiting both lateral (from upslope to near stream) and vertical variations in permeability along each hillslope. The capacity for groundwater denitrification was assessed by examining the concentration and distribution patterns of N species (total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and redox potential (Eh) in monthly samples from shallow and deep groundwater piezometers (n=37). Additionally, the gaseous products of denitrification: nitrous oxide (N2O) and excess dinitrogen (excess N2) were measured seasonally using gas chromatography and membrane inlet mass spectroscopy, respectively. The slate catchment was characterised by uniformity, both laterally and vertically, in aquifer geochemistry and gaseous denitrification products. The four year spatial mean groundwater NO3--N concentration was 6.89 mg/l and exhibited low spatial and temporal variability (temporal SD: 1.19 mg/l, spatial SD: 1.185 mg/l). Elevated DO concentrations (mean: 9.75 mg/l) and positive Eh (mean: +176.5mV) at all sample horizons indicated a setting with little denitrification potential. This non-reducing environment was reflected in a low accumulation of denitrification

  15. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  16. Initial-phase investigation of multi-dimensional streamflow simulations in the Colorado River, Moab Valley, Grand County, Utah, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to aid in the assessment of the potential hazard posed to the uranium mill tailings near Moab, Utah, by flooding in the Colorado River as it flows through Moab Valley. Discharge estimates for the 100- and 500-year recurrence interval and for the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) were evaluated with the model for the existing channel geometry. These discharges also were modeled for three other channel-deepening configurations representing hypothetical scour of the channel at the downstream portal of Moab Valley. Water-surface elevation, velocity distribution, and shear-stress distribution were predicted for each simulation. The hydrodynamic model was developed from measured channel topography and over-bank topographic data acquired from several sources. A limited calibration of the hydrodynamic model was conducted. The extensive presence of tamarisk or salt cedar in the over-bank regions of the study reach presented challenges for determining roughness coefficients. Predicted water-surface elevations for the current channel geometry indicated that the toe of the tailings pile would be inundated by about 4 feet by the 100-year discharge and 25 feet by the PMF discharge. A small area at the toe of the tailings pile was characterized by velocities of about 1 to 2 feet per second for the 100-year discharge. Predicted velocities near the toe for the PMF discharge increased to between 2 and 4 feet per second over a somewhat larger area. The manner to which velocities progress from the 100-year discharge to the PMF discharge in the area of the tailings pile indicates that the tailings pile obstructs the over-bank flow of flood discharges. The predicted path of flow for all simulations along the existing Colorado River channel indicates that the current distribution of tamarisk in the over-bank region affects how flood-flow velocities are spatially distributed. Shear-stress distributions were predicted throughout the study reach

  17. A Reach-Averaged Model of Diurnal Discharge Wave Propagation Down the Colorado River Through the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiele, S. M.; Smith, J. D.

    1996-05-01

    As part of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies, we have developed a discharge model that routes daily discharge waves released from Glen Canyon Dam to Diamond Creek, 386 km downstream. Owing to the length of the diurnal discharge wave and the sparseness of the available topographic data, the latter were averaged over the entire length of the system. Terms too small to be significant in the momentum equation were identified by scaling arguments based on data from past dam releases and on channel hydraulic geometry. Channel friction results primarily from form drag on large topographic elements and from variations in cross-sectional area and flow depth, rather than bed roughness, producing a stage-dependent friction that is not well represented by a constant value of standard channel roughness parameters, such as Manning's n. Channel friction as a function of stage was determined from field data available at high discharge (792 m3/s) and intermediate discharge (425 m3/s) and by using simple kinematic wave theory together with wave speed measurements to determine channel friction at low discharge (about 142 m3/s). Model predictions of wave speed and shape agree well with data from five streamflow gaging stations and 42 stage gaging stations located along this segment of the Colorado River.

  18. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  19. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  20. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    PubMed

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil. PMID:26398021

  1. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    PubMed

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil.

  2. Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, K; Elango, L

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of suitability of groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes was carried out in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The study area covers an area of 315 km(2) and lies in a semiarid region. Groundwater is the major source for domestic and agricultural activity in this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 45 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period in the year 2006. The water samples were analysed for physical and chemical characteristics. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on salinity hazard, sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, US salinity diagram, Wilcox's diagram, Kelly's ratio and permeability index. Ca-HCO(3), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl were the dominant groundwater types. High hardness and electrical conductivity in this area makes the groundwater unsuitable for drinking and agricultural purposes. Concentration of trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) did not exceed the permissible limit for drinking and agricultural purposes. Majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for domestic and agricultural purposes except for 31% and 36%, which were suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, respectively.

  3. Identification and evaluation of scientific uncertainties related to fish and aquatic resources in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon - summary and interpretation of an expert-elicitation questionnaire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying areas of scientific uncertainty is a critical step in the adaptive management process (Walters, 1986; Runge, Converse, and Lyons, 2011). To identify key areas of scientific uncertainty regarding biologic resources of importance to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) convened Knowledge Assessment Workshops in May and July 2005. One of the products of these workshops was a set of strategic science questions that highlighted key areas of scientific uncertainty. These questions were intended to frame and guide the research and monitoring activities conducted by the GCMRC in subsequent years. Questions were developed collaboratively by scientists and managers. The questions were not all of equal importance or merit—some questions were large scale and others were small scale. Nevertheless, these questions were adopted and have guided the research and monitoring efforts conducted by the GCMRC since 2005. A new round of Knowledge Assessment Workshops was convened by the GCMRC in June and October 2011 and January 2012 to determine whether the research and monitoring activities conducted since 2005 had successfully answered some of the strategic science questions. Oral presentations by scientists highlighting research findings were a centerpiece of all three of the 2011–12 workshops. Each presenter was also asked to provide an answer to the strategic science questions that were specific to the presenter’s research area. One limitation of this approach is that these answers represented the views of the handful of scientists who developed the presentations, and, as such, they did not incorporate other perspectives. Thus, the answers provided by presenters at the Knowledge Assessment Workshops may not have accurately captured the sentiments of the broader group of scientists involved in research and monitoring of the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Yet a fundamental ingredient of

  4. Water and waste load allocation in rivers with emphasis on agricultural return flows: application of fractional factorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Ali; Kerachian, Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Maryam; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is developed to handle parameter and input uncertainties in water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers by using factorial interval optimization and the Soil, Water, Atmosphere, and Plant (SWAP) simulation model. A fractional factorial analysis is utilized to provide detailed effects of uncertain parameters and their interaction on the optimization model outputs. The number of required optimizations in a fractional factorial analysis can be much less than a complete sensitivity analysis. The most important uncertain inputs and parameters can be also selected using a fractional factorial analysis. The uncertainty of the selected inputs and parameters should be incorporated real time water and waste load allocation. The proposed methodology utilizes the SWAP simulation model to estimate the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow based on the allocated water quantity and quality. In order to control the pollution loads of agricultural dischargers, it is assumed that a part of their return flows can be diverted to evaporation ponds. Results of applying the methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern part of Iran show its effectiveness and applicability for simultaneous water and waste load allocation in rivers. It is shown that in our case study, the number of required optimizations in the fractional factorial analysis can be reduced from 64 to 16. Analysis of the interactive effects of uncertainties indicates that in a low flow condition, the upstream water quality would have a significant effect on the total benefit of the system. PMID:24880723

  5. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-07-28

    The irrigated acreage that was field verified in 2015 for the 13 counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District (113,134 acres) is about 6 percent higher than the estimated acreage published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (107,217 acres) for 2012; however, this 2012 value represents acreage for the entire portion of all 13 counties, not just the Suwannee River Water Management District portion. Differences between the 2015 field-verified acreage totals and those published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for 2012 may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 3-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) calculated field-verified irrigated acreage may be an overestimate because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.

  6. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-01-01

    The irrigated acreage that was field verified in 2015 for the 13 counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District (113,134 acres) is about 6 percent higher than the estimated acreage published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (107,217 acres) for 2012; however, this 2012 value represents acreage for the entire portion of all 13 counties, not just the Suwannee River Water Management District portion. Differences between the 2015 field-verified acreage totals and those published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for 2012 may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 3-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) calculated field-verified irrigated acreage may be an overestimate because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.

  7. Developing unique tracers to distinguish nutrient contributions from agriculture and wastewater sources in the Choptank River and Anacostia River watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eutrophication is a major problem for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The efficacy of the restoration efforts implemented is restricted by the inability to differentiate nutrient sources. This study assessed the use of stable tracers in order to discriminate between urban and agricultural nutrient sou...

  8. Grand Canyon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Monument on the right. Meteor Crater appears as a small dark depression with a brighter rim, and is just visible along the upper right-hand ... Grand Canyon location:  United States region:  Western United States Order:  ...

  9. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  10. Topographic and Acoustic Estimates of Grain-Scale Roughness from High-Resolution Multibeam Echo-Sounder: Examples from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency (several hundred kilohertz) multibeam echo-sounder (MBES) systems have the potential to provide complete coverage of large areas (km2) of the bed, rapidly (mins to hrs), at high resolution (cm2), and with high positional accuracy (cm). Here, we explore the use of MBES data to estimate grain-scale roughness of submerged riverbed sediment. There are two broad approaches: 1) using digital elevation models constructed from depth soundings, and 2) using acoustic backscatter. We discuss the relative merits of both approaches using examples from data collected on the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona, USA. The primary advantage of acoustic backscatter over topography from soundings, for the purposes of sediment classification, is the potential to distinguish between sediment at a higher resolution. This is because soundings are point measurements, whereas a recorded backscatter magnitude is the integral of backscattered sound from all scatterers in the insonified area. In addition, this acoustic return contains information about both the roughness and the hardness/impedance of the sediment. The statistics of backscatter magnitudes alone are found to be a poor discriminator between sediment types perhaps because, using our 400 kHz system, the scattering regime changes from Rayleigh (sound scattering by particles smaller than the sound wavelength) for fine sand, to geometric (scattering by larger-than-sound-wavelength particles) for substrates coarser than sand. However, simple measures derived from backscatter power spectra (namely, the variance, integral lengthscale, and the intercept and slope from a power-law form - see Figure) are found to distinguish between patches of sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. Using this dependence, we present a new data-driven approach to classify grain-scale roughness, developed by comparing the spectral properties of backscatter with bed-sediment observations using geo-referenced underwater video.

  11. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, C. R.; Norton, L. D.; Curi, N.; Yanagi, S. N. M.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR) and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM). These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST) for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30), rainfall depth (P), erosive rainfall depth (E), number of rainfall events (NRE), number of erosive rainfall events (NEE), frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP), occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP) and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP). Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown that the ENSO variables have

  12. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  13. Geologic Mapping and Paired Geochemical-Paleomagnetic Sampling of Reference Sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt: An Example from the Bingen Section, Columbia River Gorge, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawlan, M.; Hagstrum, J. T.; Wells, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have completed comprehensive geochemical (GC) and paleomagnetic (PM) sampling of individual lava flows from eight reference stratigraphic sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB), Columbia River Basalt Group [Hagstrum et al., 2009, GSA Ann. Mtg, Portland (abst); Hagstrum et al., 2010, AGU Fall Mtg, San Francisco (abst)]. These sections, distributed across the Columbia Plateau and eastern Columbia River Gorge, contain as many as 30 flows, are up to 670 m thick, span upper magneto-stratigraphic zones R2 and N2, and, in some locations, also contain one or more N1 flows. In concert with GC and PM sampling, we have carried out detailed geologic mapping of these sections, typically at a scale of 1:3,000 to 1:5,000, using GPS, digital imagery from the National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP), and compilation in GIS. GRB member and informal unit names of Reidel et al. [1989, GSA Sp. Paper 239] generally have been adopted, although two new units are identified and named within the N2 zone. Notably, a distinctive PM direction for intercalated lavas of several lower N2 units indicates coeval eruption of compositionally distinct units; this result contrasts with the scenario of serial stratigraphic succession of GRB units proposed by Reidel et al. [1989]. Our objectives in the mapping include: Confirming the integrity of the stratigraphic sequences by documenting flow contacts and intraflow horizons (changes in joint patterns or vesicularity); assessing fault displacements; and, establishing precisely located samples in geologic context such that selected sites can be unambiguously reoccupied. A geologic map and GC-PM data for the Bingen section, along the north side of the Columbia River, are presented as an example of our GRB reference section mapping and sampling. One of our thicker sections (670 m) along which 30 flows are mapped, the Bingen section spans 7 km along WA State Hwy 14, from near the Hood River Bridge ESE to Locke Lake. This section cuts obliquely through a

  14. The influence of surface water - groundwater interactions on the shallow groundwater in agricultural areas near Fu River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauns, Bentje; Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Song, Xianfang

    2014-05-01

    The Northern China Plain (NPC) is known as a very productive area in China for the production of maize and winter wheat, which is grown by local farmers rotationally without lag phases throughout the year. The needed application of fertilizers and pesticides can hereby have strong impacts on the quality shallow groundwaters. Because 70-80% percent of the annual rainfall in the NCP is limited to the summer months, irrigation in the spring season is a necessity. As high quality groundwater resources from deeper aquifers are a valuable and rare asset in Northern China, it should preferentially be used as drinking water, and farmers therefore often shift to flood irrigation with surface water from streams. It is due to this reason, that large agricultural areas are located very close alongside these waterways; often without buffer zones. Fu River is one of the major feeding streams for the Baiyangdian Lake region in the north of Hebei Province. It springs in the west of the lake area and - after passing the populated city of Baoding (with a population of about 600 000 in the metropolitan area) - continues on its course through agricultural area before it feeds into the lake system. Industrial and domestic wastewater as well as surface runoff from urban and agricultural areas substantiates for a significant amount of the river's recharge and often causes poor water quality. As the water from the river may infiltrate into the shallow groundwater, this could cause further deterioration of the groundwater quality, additionally to the effects of the agricultural activities. However, fluctuations may be high because of the strong seasonal differences in precipitation and depending on the connectivity and dynamics of the system . In order to assess the water quality situation and the potential link between surface water and shallow groundwater in the region, a small-scale investigation site was set up on a typical wheat-maize field that reaches almost up to the river bank in

  15. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on oxbow lake watersheds in the Mississippi River alluvial plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, agricultural lands are considered to major sources of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients in the United States. While conservation practices have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing agricultural related pollutants on test plot scales, they typ...

  16. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and <1.0-382 ng/g, respectively. The OCPs residuals originated from both historical usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security. PMID:26674696

  17. The Role of Extreme Flooding in the Inception of the Lower Colorado River and the Excavation of the Grand Canyon-Stratigraphic Insights from the Southern Tip of Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, P. K.

    2003-12-01

    The origin of the course of the lower Colorado River in Mohave Valley at the conjunction of Nevada, Arizona, and California, can be traced to a catastrophic flood in the late Miocene (approx. 5.6 Ma). The occurrence of this ancient and essentially instantaneous extreme event is solidly linked to the primary integration of the lower Colorado River system and the ultimate excavation of much of the Grand Canyon--which arguably constitutes one of the most extreme geomorphic events in the late Cenozoic history of the western US. Exceptionally clear, well-preserved, and previously undocumented stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence near Laughlin, Nevada supports a model of river integration in Mohave Valley through catastrophic divide-breaching by a large lake in an adjacent valley upstream (Cottonwood Valley). This event was followed by the formation of a deep lake in both valleys. The maximum age of the lake is constrained to 5.6 Ma by a bed of volcanic ash near the base of the lacustrine section. This lake ultimately breached a bedrock divide at the southern end of Mohave Valley and it is likely that subsequent lakes formed and failed in a similar manner in Chemehuevi and Parker valleys downstream. Following this calamitous series of events, the newly integrated course of the lower Colorado River was subject to a tremendous aggradation event forced by deep incision in the Grand Canyon. In Mohave Valley, the aggradation event culminated in the Pliocene (approx. 3.6 Ma) as indicated by a key bed of volcanic ash very near the top of the section. This major aggradation event was followed by deep incision to the pre-integration valley bottom that may have persisted into the early Quaternary. The downstream-directed, cascading lake-failure model of river integration supported by stratigraphic and geochronologic data in Mohave Valley presents a serious challenge to previous models of Lower Colorado River integration that involve marine incursion, rapid uplift, and

  18. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Malek, K.; Kruger, C.; Yoder, J.; Marsh, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest covers parts of US and Canada with a total drainage area of about 670,000 square kilometers. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of Columbia River water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area in the CRB. Agriculture is an important component of the economy in the region, with an annual value over $5 billion in Washington State alone. The availability of surface water for irrigation in the basin is expected to be negatively impacted by climate change. Previous climate change studies in the CRB region suggest a likelihood of increasing temperatures and a shift in precipitation patterns, with precipitation higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Warming further exacerbates summer water availability in many CRB tributaries as they shift from snowmelt-dominant towards rain-dominant hydrologic regimes. The goal of this research is to study the impacts of climate change on CRB water availability and agricultural production in the expectation that curtailment will occur more frequently in an altered climate. Towards this goal it is essential that we understand the interactions between crop-growth dynamics, climate dynamics, the hydrologic cycle, water management, and agricultural economy. To study these interactions at the regional scale, we use the newly developed crop-hydrology model VIC-CropSyst, which integrates a crop growth model CropSyst with the hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC). Simulation of future climate by VIC-CropSyst captures the socio-economic aspects of this system through economic analysis of the impacts of climate change on crop patterns. This integrated framework (submitted as a separate paper) is linked to a reservoir operations simulations model, Colsim. ColSim is modified to explicitly account for agricultural withdrawals. Washington State water

  19. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  20. Sediment Transport During Three Controlled-Flood Experiments on the Colorado River Downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, with Implications for Eddy-Sandbar Deposition in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Grams, Paul E.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Voichick, Nicholas; Tusso, Robert B.; Vanaman, Karen M.; McDonald, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Three large-scale field experiments were conducted on the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996, 2004, and 2008 to evaluate whether artificial (that is, controlled) floods released from the dam could be used in conjunction with the sand supplied by downstream tributaries to rebuild and sustainably maintain eddy sandbars in the river in Grand Canyon National Park. Higher suspended-sand concentrations during a controlled flood will lead to greater eddy-sandbar deposition rates. During each controlled flood experiment, sediment-transport and bed-sediment data were collected to evaluate sediment-supply effects on sandbar deposition. Data collection substantially increased in spatial and temporal density with each subsequent experiment. The suspended- and bed-sediment data collected during all three controlled-flood experiments are presented and analyzed in this report. Analysis of these data indicate that in designing the hydrograph of a controlled flood that is optimized for sandbar deposition in a given reach of the Colorado River, both the magnitude and the grain size of the sand supply must be considered. Because of the opposing physical effects of bed-sand area and bed-sand grain size in regulating suspended-sand concentration, larger amounts of coarser sand on the bed can lead to lower suspended-sand concentrations, and thus lower rates of sandbar deposition, during a controlled flood than can lesser amounts of finer sand on the bed. Although suspended-sand concentrations were higher at all study sites during the 2008 controlled-flood experiment (CFE) than during either the 1996 or 2004 CFEs, these higher concentrations were likely associated with more sand on the bed of the Colorado River in only lower Glen Canyon. More sand was likely present on the bed of the river in Grand Canyon during the 1996 CFE than during either the 2004 or 2008 CFEs. The question still remains as to whether sandbars can be sustained in the Colorado River in Grand

  1. Managing stakeholders' conflicts for water reallocation from agriculture to industry in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun; Zhou, Dingyang; Zhang, Zhuoying

    2015-02-01

    Along with the accelerating process of industrialization and urbanization, water reallocation from agriculture to industry will be an inevitable trend in most developing countries. In the inland river basin, inter-sectoral water transfer is likely to result in reallocation of water resources between upstream and downstream regions, and further triggers frictions and conflicts between regions. Designing effective policy measures to coordinate these conflicts among stakeholders is crucial for the successful implementation of water reallocation. This study established a participatory multi-attribute decision support model to seek a widely acceptable water allocation alternative in the Heihe River Basin, an arid region in Northwest China. The results indicate that: (1) intense conflicts arise not only among stakeholder groups but also between upstream and downstream regions in the process of water reallocation from agriculture to industry; (2) among the options which respectively emphasize on equity, efficiency, and sustainability, the combination of equity and efficiency is the least controversial alternative for the majority of stakeholder groups, although it is not the most desirable one in the performance of all sub-objectives; (3) the multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) approach is a useful technique to elicit stakeholder values and to evaluate water reallocation options. The technique can improve the transparency and credibility of decision making in the water management process. PMID:25461085

  2. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23-1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates.

  3. Managing stakeholders' conflicts for water reallocation from agriculture to industry in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun; Zhou, Dingyang; Zhang, Zhuoying

    2015-02-01

    Along with the accelerating process of industrialization and urbanization, water reallocation from agriculture to industry will be an inevitable trend in most developing countries. In the inland river basin, inter-sectoral water transfer is likely to result in reallocation of water resources between upstream and downstream regions, and further triggers frictions and conflicts between regions. Designing effective policy measures to coordinate these conflicts among stakeholders is crucial for the successful implementation of water reallocation. This study established a participatory multi-attribute decision support model to seek a widely acceptable water allocation alternative in the Heihe River Basin, an arid region in Northwest China. The results indicate that: (1) intense conflicts arise not only among stakeholder groups but also between upstream and downstream regions in the process of water reallocation from agriculture to industry; (2) among the options which respectively emphasize on equity, efficiency, and sustainability, the combination of equity and efficiency is the least controversial alternative for the majority of stakeholder groups, although it is not the most desirable one in the performance of all sub-objectives; (3) the multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) approach is a useful technique to elicit stakeholder values and to evaluate water reallocation options. The technique can improve the transparency and credibility of decision making in the water management process.

  4. Exploring the impact of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemistry in global rivers during the twentieth century (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, L.; Beusen, A.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients are transported from land to sea through the continuum formed by soils, groundwater, riparian zones, floodplains, streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The hydrology, ecology and biogeochemical processing in each of these components are strongly coupled and result in retention of a significant fraction of the nutrients transported. This paper analyzes the global changes in nutrient biogeochemical processes and retention in rivers during the past century (1900-2000); this period encompasses dramatic increases in human population and economic human activities including agriculture that have resulted in major changes in land use, nutrient use in agriculture, wastewater flows and human interventions in the hydrology (1). We use the hydrological PCR-GLOBWB model (2) for the period 1900-2000, including climate variability and the history of dam construction and land use conversion. Global agricultural and natural N and P soil budgets for the period 1900-2000 are the starting point to simulate nutrient flows from the soil via surface runoff and leaching through the groundwater system and riparian zones. In-stream processes are described with the nutrient spiraling concept. In the period 1900-2000, the global soil N budget surplus (inputs minus withdrawal in harvested crops) for agricultural and natural ecosystems increased from 118 to 202 Tg yr-1, and the global P budget increased from < 0.5 to 11 Tg P yr-1. As a result of this massive increase, nutrient delivery to streams and river nutrient export has increased rapidly in the 20th century. Model results are sensitive to factors determining the N and P delivery, as well as in-stream processes. The most uncertain factors are N delivery to streams by groundwater (denitrification as a function of thickness and reactivity of aquifers), and in-stream N and P retention parameters (net uptake velocity, retention as function of concentration). References 1. Bouwman AF, Beusen AHW, Griffioen J, Van Groenigen JW

  5. Agricultural management change effects on river nutrient yields in a catchment of Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling efforts are strongly recommended nowadays by European legislation for investigating non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution on catchment scale. Agricultural diffuse pollution is considered to be the main responsible human activity for the Eutrophication of inland waters with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The physically-based water quality model SWAT is implemented in an agricultural medium-size agricultural catchment of Central Greece with the purpose to simulate the baseline situation and subsequently to predict the effects that realistic non-structural interventions, applied on the agricultural land, have on water quality and crop yields. SWAT was successfully calibrated according to measured flows and water quality data and subsequently scenarios were developed by changing chemical fertilizer application rates and timing on corn, cotton and wheat cultivations. All scenarios resulted in a decrease of nutrient emissions to surface waters but with a simultaneous small decrease in crop yields. The model predicted explicitly the consequences of non-structural mitigation measures against water pollution sustaining that the understanding of land management changes in relation to its driving factors provides essential information for sustainable management of the agricultural sector in an agricultural country like Greece.

  6. Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

  7. Factors controlling phosphorus export from agricultural/forest and residential systems to rivers in eastern China, 1980-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Hu, Minpeng; Wang, Jiahui; Guo, Yi; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-02-01

    This study quantified long-term response of riverine total phosphorus (TP) export to changes in land-use, climate, and net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs to agricultural/forest (NAPIAF) and residential (NAPIR) systems for the upper Jiaojiang watershed in eastern China. Annual NAPIAF rose by 73% in 1980-1999 followed by a 41% decline in 2000-2011, while NAPIR continuously increased by 122% over the 1980-2011 period. Land-use showed a 63% increase in developed land area (D%) and a 91% increase in use of efficient drainage systems on agricultural land area (AD%) over the study period. Although no significant trends were observed in annual river discharge or precipitation, the annual number of storm events rose by 90% along with a 34% increase in the coefficient of variation of daily rainfall. In response to changes of NAPIAF, NAPIR, land-use and precipitation patterns, riverine TP flux increased 16.0-fold over the 32-year record. Phosphorus export via erosion and leaching was the dominant pathway for P delivery to rivers. An empirical model incorporating annual NAPIAF, NAPIR, precipitation, D%, and AD% was developed (R2 = 0.96) for apportioning riverine TP sources and predicting annual riverine TP fluxes. The model estimated that NAPIAF, NAPIR and legacy P sources contributed 19-56%, 16-67% and 13-32% of annual riverine TP flux in 1980-2011, respectively. Compared to reduction of NAPIAF, reduction of NAPIR was predicted to have a greater immediate impact on decreasing riverine TP fluxes. Changes in anthropogenic P input sources (NAPIAF vs. NAPIR), land-use, and precipitation patterns as well as the legacy P source can amplify P export from landscapes to rivers and should be considered in developing P management strategies to reduce riverine P fluxes.

  8. 33. Grand Canal at Old Crosscut, Site Plan for Conduit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Grand Canal at Old Crosscut, Site Plan for Conduit and Supervisory Control Equipment, October 1973. Source: Salt River Project. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Nitrogen Legacies in Agricultural Landscapes: A 150-year Longitudinal Study of the Susquehanna and Mississippi River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Van Cappellen, P.; Basu, N. B.

    2015-12-01

    Global flows of reactive nitrogen (N) have increased significantly over the last century in response to land-use change, agricultural intensification and elevated levels of atmospheric N. Although the use of commercial N fertilizers began to plateau in developed countries in the mid-1980s and despite widespread implementation of a range of conservation measures to mitigate the impacts of N-intensive agriculture, N concentrations in surface waters are in many cases remaining steady or continuing to increase. This lack of correlation between N inputs and outputs is increasingly being attributed to the presence of legacy N stores in subsurface reservoirs, with present-day concentrations being a function of inputs that are many decades old. It has remained unclear, however, what the magnitudes of such stores might be, and how they are partitioned between soil and groundwater reservoirs. In the present work, we have synthesized agricultural, population, and land-use data to develop a comprehensive, 150-year dataset of N inputs to the land surface of the continental United States. We have concurrently developed a parsimonious, process-based model that utilizes this N input trajectory to simulate biogeochemical transformations of N along subsurface pathways. Model results allow us predict the magnitudes of legacy N in soil and groundwater pools and to predict long-term stream N concentration trajectories over the last century and into the future. We have applied this modeling approach to two U.S. watersheds, the Mississippi River and Susquehanna River Basins, which are major sources of nutrient contamination to the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay, respectively. Our results show significant stream N loading above baseline levels in both watersheds before the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers, largely due to 19th-century conversion of natural forest and grassland areas to row-crop agriculture. However, the temporal patterns of this loading differ between the two

  10. An agricultural drought index to incorporate the irrigation process and reservoir operations: A case study in the Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehua; Hao, Zhenchun; Shi, Xiaogang; Déry, Stephen J.; Li, Jieyou; Chen, Sichun; Li, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    To help the decision making process and reduce climate change impacts, hydrologically-based drought indices have been used to determine drought severity in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) over the past decades. As the major components of the surface water balance, however, the irrigation process and reservoir operations have not been incorporated into drought indices in previous studies. Therefore, efforts are needed to develop a new agricultural drought index, which is based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module. The new drought index was derived from the simulated soil moisture data from a retrospective VIC simulation from 1961 to 2007 over the irrigated area in the TRB. The physical processes in the coupled VIC model allow the new agricultural drought index to take into account a wide range of hydrologic processes including the irrigation process and reservoir operations. Notably, the irrigation process was found to dominate the surface water balance and drought evolution in the TRB. Furthermore, the drought conditions identified by the new agricultural drought index presented a good agreement with the historical drought events that occurred in 1993-94, 2004, and 2006-07, respectively. Moreover, the spatial distribution of coupled VIC model outputs using the new drought index provided detailed information about where and to what extent droughts occurred.

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Legacy P and Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Loads from the Maumee River Watershed.

    PubMed

    Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Kalcic, Margaret; Scavia, Donald

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of hypoxia and harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, driven substantially by phosphorus loads from agriculture, have led the United States and Canada to begin developing plans to meet new phosphorus load targets. To provide insight into which agricultural management options could help reach these targets, we tested alternative agricultural-land-use and land-management scenarios on phosphorus loads to Lake Erie. These scenarios highlight certain constraints on phosphorus load reductions from changes in the Maumee River Watershed (MRW), which contributes roughly half of the phosphorus load to the lake's western basin. We evaluate the effects on phosphorus loads under nutrient management strategies, reduction of fertilizer applications, employing vegetative buffers, and implementing widespread cover crops and alternative cropping changes. Results indicate that even if fertilizer application ceased, it may take years to see desired decreases in phosphorus loads, especially if we experience greater spring precipitation or snowmelt. Scenarios also indicate that widespread conversions to perennial crops that may be used for biofuel production are capable of substantially reducing phosphorus loads. This work demonstrates that a combination of legacy phosphorus, land management, land use, and climate should all be considered when seeking phosphorus-loading solutions.

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Legacy P and Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Loads from the Maumee River Watershed.

    PubMed

    Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Kalcic, Margaret; Scavia, Donald

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of hypoxia and harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, driven substantially by phosphorus loads from agriculture, have led the United States and Canada to begin developing plans to meet new phosphorus load targets. To provide insight into which agricultural management options could help reach these targets, we tested alternative agricultural-land-use and land-management scenarios on phosphorus loads to Lake Erie. These scenarios highlight certain constraints on phosphorus load reductions from changes in the Maumee River Watershed (MRW), which contributes roughly half of the phosphorus load to the lake's western basin. We evaluate the effects on phosphorus loads under nutrient management strategies, reduction of fertilizer applications, employing vegetative buffers, and implementing widespread cover crops and alternative cropping changes. Results indicate that even if fertilizer application ceased, it may take years to see desired decreases in phosphorus loads, especially if we experience greater spring precipitation or snowmelt. Scenarios also indicate that widespread conversions to perennial crops that may be used for biofuel production are capable of substantially reducing phosphorus loads. This work demonstrates that a combination of legacy phosphorus, land management, land use, and climate should all be considered when seeking phosphorus-loading solutions. PMID:27322563

  13. The Role of Sediment Budgets in the Implementation and Evaluation of Controlled Floods to Restore Sandbars along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The measurement and prediction of the fine sediment budget for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has been of strong scientific and management interest since erosion of sandbars was first reported in the early 1970s, about 10 years after Glen Canyon Dam began regulating streamflow and eliminated the upstream sediment supply. Efforts to rebuild eroded sandbars have consisted largely of the experimental release of controlled floods, during which sand is redistributed from the bed to eddy sandbars along the channel margin. Flood-aggraded sandbars are, however, inherently unstable and inevitably erode between floods. Thus, sandbars cannot be "preserved," but are dynamic landforms that require periodic rebuilding by recurring floods. Such a strategy, with the goal of achieving a long-term increase in the size and number of sandbars, was recently implemented as a policy initiative of the U.S. Department of the Interior. This High Flow Experiment Protocol is being implemented by a unique collaboration of scientists, engineers, and policy makers and provides a rare example of a case in which management decisions are fully integrated with scientific monitoring. Controlled floods are scheduled based on real-time monitoring of sediment flux, computations of sediment budgets, and use of flow and sediment models. Floods are scheduled to occur within a few weeks of measurement results becoming available, assuming that threshold triggers for sediment accumulation are met. Sandbar building results are evaluated within weeks to months using remotely deployed time-lapse cameras. The protocol has been implemented in fall 2013 and fall 2014. Preliminary results suggest that the program may be resulting in the desired effect of cumulative increases in sandbar size. These results are tentative, because recent years have been relatively favorable, with large fine-sediment inputs and low annual dam-release volumes. Successive years with low fine-sediment supply or above-average dam

  14. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Annual Report 2000 : Project Period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Monzyk, Fred R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring.

  15. Effects of hydrology, watershed size, and agricultural practices on sediment yields in two river basins in Iowa and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Welch, Heather L.; Tomer, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The specific sediment yield (SSY) from watersheds is the result of the balance between natural, scale-dependent erosion and deposition processes, but can be greatly altered by human activities. In general, the SSY decreases along the course of a river as sediments are trapped in alluvial plains and other sinks. However, this relation between SSY and basin area can actually be an increasing one when there is a predominance of channel erosion relative to hillslope erosion. The US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of suspended sediment in the Iowa River basin (IRB), Iowa, and the Yazoo River basin (YRB), Mississippi, from 2006 through 2008. Within each river basin, the SSY from four largely agricultural watersheds of various sizes (2.3 to 35,000 km2 [0.9 to 13,513 mi2]) was investigated. In the smallest watersheds, YRB sites had greater SSY compared to IRB sites due to higher rain erosivity, more erodible soils, more overland flow, and fluvial geomorphological differences. Watersheds in the YRB showed a steady decrease in SSY with increasing drainage basin area, whereas in the IRB, the maximum SSY occurred at the 30 to 500 km2 (11.6 to 193 mi2) scale. Subsurface tile drainage and limits to channel downcutting restrict the upstream migration of sediment sources in the IRB. Nevertheless, by comparing the SSY-basin size scaling relationships with estimated rates of field erosion under conservation and conventional tillage treatments reported in previous literature, we show evidence that the SSY-basin size relationship in both the IRB and YRB remain impacted by historical erosion rates that occurred prior to conservation efforts.

  16. Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akintola, Jacob; And Others

    In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

  17. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin. PMID:27243625

  18. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  19. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  20. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to inves...

  1. Alteration, mass conservation, and magmatic compositions of lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province: Insights from the Sentinel Bluffs Member, Grande Ronde Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawlan, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding magmatic processes involved in flood basalt volcanism, and the ability to correlate flows within the voluminous, widespread lava fields requires accurate characterization of their magmatic geochemistry. Although evidence of alteration is widespread, modifications to lava chemistry by secondary processes are poorly understood. This results in uncertainty in the interpretation of geochemical analyses of Columbia River Basalt Group lava flows, particularly those of the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB), in which chemical differences between the lavas are subtle. This problem is addressed here using major and trace element analyses (XRF) of samples of the Sentinel Bluffs Member (SB) of the GRB collected from multiple stratigraphic sections within the Columbia Plateau, Columbia River Gorge and Coast Ranges. Sixteen chemical groups, comprising 1-3 flows each, are recognized among multiple SB lava compositions. Flows assigned to three or four successive chemical groups are, in turn, assigned to more broadly defined chemical series based on shared characteristics such as immobile element ratios. Magmatic and alteration trends among SB compositions are clearly distinguished in Al-Ti variations. Magmatic trends are defined by inverse correlation of Al2O3 and TiO2. Alteration trends, extending from the magmatic array to higher abundances, are characterized by constant Al2O3/TiO2. Paired enrichments in Al and Ti, as well as other immobile elements, result from concentration in the residuum of altered rock that has lost mass due to soluble cation removal. Such enrichments are inversely proportional to mass loss. A mass conservation index (MCI), derived from Al-Ti systematics, quantifies mass retention and has multiple applications. MCI normalization eliminates residual concentration accompanying mass loss such that MCI-normalized immobile element abundances in altered rock agree with those in high-MCI rock. Compositions filtered to high-MCI values more closely reflect

  2. A complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss rivers with agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Simon; Comte, Rahel; Doppler, Tobias; Wittmer, Irene; Moschet, Christoph; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Kunz, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in surface waters at concentration levels that raise ecotoxicological concerns. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides in agricultural watersheds, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive overview of the actual pollution level. This collaborative project between research and Swiss federal and cantonal authorities aimed for a comprehensive analysis of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to address this knowledge gap. The five rivers are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops, such as grains, vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Urban activities and influences are low. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August with automatic sampling devices, resulting in 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap technology), involved a target screening of 248 pesticides including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, as well as important transformation products. Data on the total number and distribution of pesticides, their detection frequency, crop specific applications and concentration time profiles will be presented. Preliminary results indicate substantial pesticide exposure since at least 20 different compounds were detected in all samples. One sample even contained a mixture of 80 pesticides. The majority of concentrations were in the low ng/L range but concentrations of a few compounds were very high (several micrograms/L) during discharge events as well as during low flow conditions

  3. Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen from agricultural activities contributes to the hypoxic zones and severe declines in water quality in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. The Federal Clean Water Act requires nitrogen load reductions to restore the integrity of these important waterways. Tools are needed to track t...

  4. Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia: National Institute of Food and Agriculture - Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2007, USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), now the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) jointly funded two integrated research and outreach grants to conduct a synthesis of resul...

  5. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on N loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalya River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modeling framework consisting of a farm-scale model, Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX); a watershedscale model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); and databases was used in the Conservation Effects Assessment Project to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practi...

  6. Evaluating agricultural best management practices in tile-drained subwatersheds of the Mackinaw River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lemke, A M; Kirkham, K G; Lindenbaum, T T; Herbert, M E; Tear, T H; Perry, W L; Herkert, J R

    2011-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are widely promoted in agricultural watersheds as a means of improving water quality and ameliorating altered hydrology. We used a paired watershed approach to evaluate whether focused outreach could increase BMP implementation rates and whether BMPs could induce watershed-scale (4000 ha) changes in nutrients, suspended sediment concentrations, or hydrology in an agricultural watershed in central Illinois. Land use was >90% row crop agriculture with extensive subsurface tile drainage. Outreach successfully increased BMP implementation rates for grassed waterways, stream buffers, and strip-tillage within the treatment watershed, which are designed to reduce surface runoff and soil erosion. No significant changes in nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus, total suspended sediment (TSS), or hydrology were observed after implementation of these BMPs over 7 yr of monitoring. Annual NO-N export (39-299 Mg) in the two watersheds was equally exported during baseflow and stormflow. Mean annual TP export was similar between the watersheds (3.8 Mg) and was greater for TSS in the treatment (1626 ± 497 Mg) than in the reference (940 ± 327 Mg) watershed. Export of TP and TSS was primarily due to stormflow (>85%). Results suggest that the BMPs established during this study were not adequate to override nutrient export from subsurface drainage tiles. Conservation planning in tile-drained agricultural watersheds will require a combination of surface-water BMPs and conservation practices that intercept and retain subsurface agricultural runoff. Our study emphasizes the need to measure conservation outcomes and not just implementation rates of conservation practices.

  7. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin, Annual Report 2008 : Project Period 1 February 2008 to 31 January 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Yanke, Jeffrey A.; Alfonse, Brian M.; Bratcher, Kyle W.

    2009-07-31

    This study was designed to document and describe the status and life history strategies of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin. We determined migration timing, abundance, and life-stage survival rates for juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer steelhead O. mykiss in four streams during migratory year 2008 from 1 July 2007 through 30 June 2008. As observed in previous years of this study, spring Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibited fall and spring movements out of natal rearing areas, but did not begin their smolt migration through the Snake and lower Columbia River hydrosystem until spring. In this report we provide estimates of migrant abundance and migration timing for each study stream, and their survival and timing to Lower Granite Dam. We also document aquatic habitat conditions using water temperature and stream flow in four study streams in the subbasin.

  8. 24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 2. Lower end of the Old Crosscut at the Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Lower end of the Old Crosscut at the Grand Canal, aerial view to Southeast. The Old Crosscut, obscured by trees, runs from lower left to where it meets the much larger Grand. The large mound is the Pueblo Grande archaeological site. Photographer: A.D. Newcomer, 1928 Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park, Phoenix, Arizona. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Geochemical characterization and biomonitoring of reclaimed soils in the Po River Delta (Northern Italy): implications for the agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Martucci, Annalisa; Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    This geochemical study is focused on the easternmost part of the Po River alluvial plain in Northern Italy, which is interested by widespread agricultural activities, investigating a reclaimed sector of the Province of Ferrara, known as "Valle del Mezzano" (Mezzano Low Land, hereafter reported as MLL) characterized by peat-rich soils. The chemical-mineralogical characterization of these reclaimed soils is important to compare the local geochemical backgrounds with those recorded in other sectors of the River Po plain and to monitor if the observed concentration exceeds critical thresholds. The reported analyses include (a) measurement of the soil salinity, (b) nutrient evaluation, (c) major and trace element concentrations carried out on bulk soils, (d) tests of metal extraction with both aqua regia and EDTA to highlight the distinct elemental mobility and (e) phyto-toxicological measurement of heavy metal concentrations in plants (Lactuca sativa acephala) grown on the studied soils. The results indicate (1) high soil salinity, often with drastic increase of sodium and chloride along the soil profiles, (2) high nitrogen content (in part related to anthropogenic activities) on superficial horizons and nitrate decrease along the soil profiles and (3) comparative enrichments in heavy metals with respect to other soils of the province, which indicate that peat deposits are effective in trapping metals from anthropogenic sources. This, in turn, implies potential geochemical risks for the agricultural activities. In this regard, specific concerns are related to the high nickel and arsenic content of MLL soils due to the mobility of these elements and their attitude to be taken up by plants.

  11. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources. PMID:26547321

  12. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  13. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  14. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  15. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Yields and Water Resources in the Maumee River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkirk, R. L.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will likely have considerable effects on agriculture in the Midwestern United States. Under current climate projections, end-of-century temperatures rise by approximately 4 C, while precipitation stays relatively unchanged despite a potential increase in heavy rainfall events. These trends have already been observed over the last century: rising temperatures have extended the growing season two days per decade and heavy rainfall events have become twice as common. In an effort to understand the likely effects of climate change on agriculture, maize and soybean yields in the Maumee River Watershed were simulated using the Systems Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) crop model. SALUS calculates daily crop growth in response to changing climate, soil, and management conditions. We test the hypotheses that 1) despite any positive effects of CO2 fertilization and allowing for higher yielding varieties, longer and warmer growing seasons will lead to excessive water- and heat-stress, lowering yields under current management practices, and 2) that double-cropping maize and soybeans successively in the same season to offset these losses may become feasible if sufficient late-season soil moisture is made available. Outputs of daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and root mass from a range of SALUS models are then distributed spatially to drive regional hydrologic simulations using the Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model (ILHM). These coupled simulations demonstrate the response of streamflow and groundwater levels to different management strategies.

  16. Calculation of Agricultural Nitrogen Quantity for EU15, spatialisation of the results to river basins using CORINE Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campling, P.; Terres, J. M.; Vandewalle, S.; Crouzet, P.

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the study was the implementation of the OECD/Eurostat Soil Surface balance method to calculate nitrogen balances from agricultural sources for the whole European Union (EU) at administrative or river basins level. This methodology combines the use of statistics on crops area, number of animals together with agronomic technical coefficients and Corine Land Cover data to spatialise agricultural nitrogen quantity through spatial modelling. Results on catchments show an EU average surplus level of 60 kg N/ha. The distribution of the balances shows high surplus amounts in regions of intensive livestock farming (Flanders (B), the Netherlands, Brittany (FR)), and low or deficit values in the central areas of Spain, France and Italy. The effect of the Corine Land Cover in nitrogen balance calculations was also examined through scenario analysis. These simulations indicated a slight improvement in estimation when the Corine Land Cover was used to spatialise the results of the Soil surface balance model. A sensitivity analysis of the technical coefficients was also carried out and showed a higher sensitivity of the model to crop related coefficients than manure coefficients. The overall sensitivity analysis revealed the need to improve the quality of the technical coefficients, requiring more consistency and harmonisation and moreover reflecting regional differences.

  17. Dairy farming and river condition: investigating the sustainable use of water resources in an agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Christesen, L

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores some of the factors that may contribute to the sustainable use of water on irrigated dairy farms in Victoria, Australia. The paper begins with a discussion of the principles of sustainable water use as they would apply to dairy farms in the Gippsland region of Victoria. A series of indicators are used to link aspects of sustainable water use at a regional scale, and the observable trends are discussed. Of particular interest is the way that local river systems contribute to the dairy industry in this region and the aspects of dairying and other significant regional factors that may be impacting on the sustainability of river systems in this area. The indicators are structured and analysed using the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework developed by the OECD, most commonly used in State of the Environment reporting. The trends highlighted by the indicator set are discussed in terms of the implications that current patterns of water use may have for possible shifts towards more sustainable water use on individual dairy farms in Gippsland. PMID:12171355

  18. Influence of years engaged in agriculture and number of pregnancies and deliveries on mortality of inhabitants of the Jinzu River basin area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, E; Okubo, Y; Suwazono, Y; Kido, T; Nishijo, M; Nakagawa, H; Nogawa, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of itai-itai disease is thought to be affected by such factors as pregnancy, lactation, hormonal disorders, aging, and calcium deficiency. Aims: To study the influence of years engaged in agriculture and number of pregnancies and deliveries on the mortality of inhabitants of the Jinzu River basin area, which has been an endemic region for itai-itai disease. Methods: From 6667 participants (3181 men, 3486 women; participation rate 93.4%) in the 1967 health survey, 3639 subjects (1591 men, 2048 women) whose years engaged in agriculture were established, and 2559 women/2410 women with a known number of pregnancies/deliveries were selected as the target population. These data were confirmed on the basis of self reported replies confirmed afterwards by interview. The survival survey was conducted for 6127 days from 1 August 1967 to 10 May 1984. Subjects were divided according to three water systems: the Jinzu River, non-Jinzu River, and mixed water system; the influence on mortality of the years engaged in agriculture and the number of pregnancies/deliveries was analysed using a Cox's proportional hazards model according to the water systems. Results: The mean years engaged in agriculture and mean number of pregnancies/deliveries were not different among the three water systems. Cox's hazard ratios of these parameters to mortality were not statistically significant in the any of the water systems. Conclusions: Neither the years engaged in agriculture nor the number of pregnancies/deliveries influenced mortality in subjects living not only in the non-Jinzu River basin but also in the Jinzu River basin using a Cox's proportional hazards model. PMID:12468753

  19. 78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk... prepared for a proposed highway project in Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR... Sorlie Bridge over the Red River between Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks,...

  20. Evaluation of in-situ calibration of Chemcatcher passive samplers for 322 micropollutants in agricultural and urban affected rivers.

    PubMed

    Moschet, Christoph; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian; Hollender, Juliane

    2015-03-15

    In a large field study, the in-situ calibration of the Chemcatcher(®) passive sampler - styrenedivinylbenzene (SDB) covered by a polyether sulfone (PES) membrane - was evaluated for 322 polar organic micropollutants. Five rivers with different agricultural and urban influences were monitored from March to July 2012 with two methods i) two-week time-proportional composite water samples and ii) two-week passive sampler deployment. All substances - from different substance classes with logKow -3 to 5, and neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic species - were analyzed by liquid-chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. This study showed that SDB passive samplers are well-suited for the qualitative screening of polar micropollutants because the number of detected substances was similar (204 for SDB samples vs. 207 for composite water samples), limits of quantification were comparable (median: 1.3 ng/L vs. 1.6 ng/L), and the handling in the field and laboratory is fast and easy. The determination of in-situ calibrated sampling rates (field Rs) was possible for 88 compounds where the R(2) from the regression (water concentration vs. sampled mass on SDB disk) was >0.75. Substances with moderately fluctuating river concentrations such as pharmaceuticals showed much better correlations than substances with highly fluctuating concentrations such as pesticides (R(2) > 0.75 for 93% and 60% of the investigated substances, respectively). Flow velocity (0.05-0.8 m/s) and temperature (5-20 °C) did not have an evident effect on the field Rs. It was observed that ionic species had significantly lower field Rs than neutral species. Due to the complexity of the different transport processes, a correlation between determined field Rs and logDow could only predict Rs with large uncertainties. We conclude that only substances with relatively constant river concentrations can be quantified accurately in the field by passive sampling if substance-specific Rs are

  1. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  2. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  3. Urban and agricultural contribution of annual loads of glyphosate and AMPA towards surface waters at the Orge River catchment scale (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Hélène

    2010-05-01

    The general use of pesticides in the Orge Basin, located in the southern part of the Paris suburb (France), is damaging surface water quality. Consequently, an increase in the water supply costs is registered by the water supply agencies that are situated downstream the Orge confluence with the Seine River. In this catchment, high uses of glyphosate are registered for fallow fields (upstream part) and for roadway weed control (downstream part). The proportion of glyphosate coming from these two zones was not well known, along with the double source of its metabolite AMPA originated from the degradation of some detergent phosphonates. The aim of this work was firstly to identify the potential sources of glyphosate and AMPA in urban sectors (such as sewerage system inputs) and in agricultural areas and to quantify the origins of urban pesticides pathways towards surface waters at the basin scale. The new approach of this project was to collect information at three different scales to establish a first step of modeling. At the basin scale, 1 year of surface water monitoring at the outlet of the Orge River was useful to establish the inputs towards the Seine River. At the urban catchment scale, the investigations have permitted to record glyphosate and AMPA loads transferred by storm waters and by wastewaters. Loads were estimated during and out of application calendar, in different hydrological conditions such as rainfall with high intensity or dry conditions. Impact of WWTP on surface water was also demonstrated. The third phase of this work was the interpretation of agricultural inputs from two different agricultural catchments of the Orge River. The results showed the impact of urban uses of glyphosate upon the Orge River contamination with annual loads from 100 times higher from the urban zone than from the agricultural one. Storm sewers were recognized to be the main way for glyphosate transfer towards surface waters. A budget of glyphosate and AMPA inputs and

  4. Assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural production in the Columbia River basin: incorporating water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. C.; Rajagopalan, K.; Stockle, C. O.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C. E.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Nelson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global population, food consumption and climate lead to a food security challenge for the future. Water resources, agricultural productivity and the relationships between them will to a large extent dictate how we address this challenge. Although food security is a global issue, impacts of climate change on water resources and agricultural productivity, as well as viability of adaptation strategies, are location specific; e.g., it is important to consider the regional regulatory environment. Our work focuses on the Columbia River basin (CRB) of the Pacific Northwest US. The water resources of the CRB are heavily managed to meet competing demands. There also exists a legal system for individuals/groups to obtain rights to use the publicly owned water resources, and the possibility of curtailing (i.e., restricting) some of these water rights in times of shortage. It is important to include an approximation of this water resource regulation and water rights curtailment process in modeling water availability and impacts of water shortages on agricultural production. The overarching objective of this work is to apply an integrated hydrologic-crop-water management modeling framework over the CRB to characterize the impacts of climate change on irrigation water demands, irrigation water availability, water shortages, and associated impacts in the 2030s. Results indicate that climate change has both positive and negative effects on agricultural production in the CRB and this varies by region and crop type. Certain watersheds that are already water stressed are projected to experience increasing stress in the future. Although, climate change results in increased water shortages and water rights curtailment in the region, this does not necessarily translate into an increased negative effect on yields; some crops are projected to increase in yield despite curtailment. This could be attributed to higher water use efficiency under elevated CO2 levels as well crops

  5. Economic Impact of Water Allocation on Agriculture in the Lower Chattahoochee River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Musleh, Fuad; Cruise, James F.; Hatch, L. Upton

    2004-01-01

    The relative value of irrigation water was assessed for three important crops (corn, cotton, and peanuts) grown in the southeastern United States. A decision tool was developed with the objective of allocating limited available water among competing crops in a manner that would maximize the economic returns to the producers. The methodology was developed and tested for a hypothetical farm located in Henry County, Alabama in the Chattahoochee river basin. Crop yield - soil moisture response functions were developed using Monte Carlo simulated data for cotton, corn, and peanuts. A hydrologic model was employed to simulate runoff over the period of observed rainfall the county to provide inflows to storage facilities that could be used as constraints for the optimal allocation of the available water in the face of the uncertainty of future rainfall and runoff. Irrigation decisions were made on a weekly basis during the critical water deficit period in the region. An economic optimization model was employed with the crop responses, and soil moisture functions to determine the optimum amount of water place on each crop subject to the amount of irrigation water availability and climatic uncertainty. The results indicated even small amounts of irrigation could significantly benefit farmers in the region if applied judiciously. A weekly irrigation sequence was developed that maintained the available water on the crops that exhibited the most significant combination of water sensitivity and cash value.

  6. A Coupled Modeling System to Simulate Water Resources in the Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.; Breshears, D.D.; Campbell, K.; Costigan, K.R.; Greene, R.K.; Keating, E.H.; Kleifgen, L.M.; Langley, D.L.; Martens, S.N.; Sanderson, J.G.; Springer, E.P.; Stalker, J.R.; Tartakovsky, D.M.; Winter, C.L.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1999-01-11

    Limited availability of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world requires prudent management strategies from accurate, science-based assessments. These assessments demand a thorough understanding of the hydrologic cycle over long time periods within the individual water-sheds that comprise large river basins. Measurement and simulation of the hydrologic cycle is a tremendous challenge, involving a coupling between global to regional-scale atmospheric precipitation processes with regional to local-scale land surface and subsurface water transport. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a detailed modeling system of the hydrologic cycle and applying this tool at high resolution to assess the water balance within the upper Rio Grande river basin. The Rio Grande is a prime example of a river system in a semiarid environment, with a high demand from agricultural, industrial, recreational, and municipal interests for its water supply. Within this river basin, groundwater supplies often augment surface water. With increasing growth projected throughout the river basin, however, these multiple water users have the potential to significantly deplete groundwater resources, thereby increasing the dependence on surface water resources.

  7. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter. PMID:25189079

  8. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter.

  9. Effects of an agricultural drainwater bypass on fishes inhabiting the Grassland Water District and the lower San Joaquin River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; May, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Grassland Bypass Project, which began operation in September 1996, was conceived as a means of diverting brackish selenium-contaminated agricultural drainwater away from canals and sloughs needed for transporting irrigation water to wetlands within the Grassland Water District (the Grasslands), Merced County, California. The seleniferous drainwater is now routed into the San Luis Drain for conveyance to North Mud Slough and eventual disposal in the San Joaquin River. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the Grassland Bypass Project has affected fishes in sloughs and other surface waters within and downstream from the Grasslands. During September-October 1997, 9,795 fish representing 25 species were captured at 13 sampling sites. Although several species exhibited restricted spatial distributions, association analysis and cluster analysis failed to identify more than one fish species assemblage inhabiting the various sites. However, seleniferous drainwater from the San Luis Drain has influenced selenium concentrations in whole fish within North Mud Slough and the San Joaquin River. The highest concentrations of selenium (12-23 ??g/g, dry weight basis) were measured in green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus from the San Luis Drain where seleniferous drainwater is most concentrated, whereas the second highest concentrations occurred in green sunfish (7.6-17 ??g/g) and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus (14-18 ??g/g) from North Mud Slough immediately downstream from the drain. Although there was some variation, fish in the San Joaquin River generally contained higher body burdens of selenium when captured immediately below the mouth of North Mud Slough (3.1-4.8 ??g/g for green sunfish, 3.7-5.0 ??g/g for bluegills) than when captured upstream from the mouth (0.67-3.3 ??g/g for green sunfish, 0.59-3.7 ??g/g for bluegills). Waterborne selenium was the single most important predictor of selenium concentrations in green sunfish and bluegills, as judged by

  10. 77 FR 73637 - Grande Pointe Power Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grande Pointe Power Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment.... Applicant: Grande Pointe Power Corporation. e. Name of Project: Three Rivers Hydroelectric Project....

  11. Extending the turbidity record: making additional use of continuous data from turbidity, acoustic-Doppler, and laser diffraction instruments and suspended-sediment samples in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is a measure of the scattering and absorption of light in water, which in rivers is primarily caused by particles, usually sediment, suspended in the water. Turbidity varies significantly with differences in the design of the instrument measuring turbidity, a point that is illustrated in this study by side-by-side comparisons of two different models of instruments. Turbidity also varies with changes in the physical parameters of the particles in the water, such as concentration, grain size, grain shape, and color. A turbidity instrument that is commonly used for continuous monitoring of rivers has a light source in the near-infrared range (860±30 nanometers) and a detector oriented 90 degrees from the incident light path. This type of optical turbidity instrument has a limited measurement range (depending on pathlength) that is unable to capture the high turbidity levels of rivers that carry high suspended-sediment loads. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is one such river, in which approximately 60 percent of the range in suspended-sediment concentration during the study period had unmeasurable turbidity using this type of optical instrument. Although some optical turbidimeters using backscatter or other techniques can measure higher concentrations of suspended sediment than the models used in this study, the maximum turbidity measurable using these other turbidimeters may still be exceeded in conditions of especially high concentrations of suspended silt and clay. In Grand Canyon, the existing optical turbidity instruments remain in use in part to provide consistency over time as new techniques are investigated. As a result, during these periods of high suspended-sediment concentration, turbidity values that could not be measured with the optical turbidity instruments were instead estimated from concurrent acoustic attenuation data collected using side-looking acoustic-Doppler profiler (ADP) instruments. Extending the turbidity record to the full

  12. Kd Values for Agricultural and Surface Soils for Use in Hanford Site Farm, Residential, and River Shoreline Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-08-01

    This report provides best estimate Kd values and a minimum and maximum range of Kd values to be used for agricultural soils and Columbia River bank sediments that exist today or would exist in the future when portions of the Hanford Site are released for farming, residential, and recreational use after the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) completes clean up of defense waste on the site. The Kd values should be used to determine the fate and transport rates of contaminants and their availability for plant and animal uptake in selected non-groundwater scenarios included in Hanford Site environmental impact statements, risk assessments and specific facility performance assessments. This report describes scenarios such as a small farm where drilling of a well inadvertently goes through buried waste and brings waste to the surface, allowing the tailings to become available for direct human exposure or incorporation into garden crops and farm animals used for food by the farm family. The Kd values recommended in this report can also be used to calculate sediment-water partitioning factors used to predict plant and animal uptake from interaction with the contaminated soil.

  13. Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Pesticides in a Coastal Prairie Agricultural Area, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Agriculture is a major land use in the coastal prairie area located in the southern part of the Trinity River Basin. Crops grown in the area include rice, sorghum, and soybeans. Pesticide- use estimates for the area show that compounds with the highest use are the herbicides: molinate, propanil, thiobencarb, metolachlor, acifluorfen, bentazon, and atrazine and the insecticides: carbaryl and methyl parathion. More than 20 pesticide samples collected from each of three streams in the coastal prairie resulted in detections of 29 different pesticide compounds. The most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides: atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate, which were detected in more than 75 percent of the samples. Herbicides were detected more frequently than insecticides. Maximum concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate occurred in the spring and were 4, 1.9, and 200 micrograms per liter (?g/L), respectively. Almost all concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor were below drinking water standards; no standard is available for molinate. Concentrations and estimated loads and percent of applied compound lost to the streams were generally higher in the watersheds where more of the pesticides were applied to crops.

  14. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  15. Effects of agricultural irrigation on water resources in the St. Joseph River basin, Indiana, and implications for aquifer yield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, J.G.; Renn, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    During the past decade, the acreage of irrigated agricultural land in Indiana has tripled, causing public concern about competition for water and resulting in several State laws for regulating water withdrawals. The St. Joseph River basin represents less than one-tenth of the area of the State, but it contains one-third of the State 's irrigated land. Irrigated land in the basin is composed of permeable soils that are underlain by productive glacial aquifers. A computer model was used to analyze the effects of maximum irrigation withdrawals on aquifer drawdown and streamflow in a 16.5 sq mi area of intensive irrigation. Simulation of maximum pumping resulted in predicted aquifer drawdowns of one-fourth of the total available drawdown. Flow in a nearby stream was decreased by 40%. Areas of most intensive irrigation in the basin also are areas that have productive aquifers and well-sustained streamflows. Aquifer yield is based on the concept of capture - the volume of increased recharge to the aquifer or decreased discharge from the aquifer that results from pumping. The high rates of capture for aquifers in the basin supply ample water for present (1982) irrigation and for substantial future development. (USGS)

  16. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  17. Long-term trends in alkalinity in large rivers of the conterminous US in relation to acidification, agriculture, and hydrologic modification.

    PubMed

    Stets, E G; Kelly, V J; Crawford, C G

    2014-08-01

    Alkalinity increases in large rivers of the conterminous US are well known, but less is understood about the processes leading to these trends as compared with headwater systems more intensively examined in conjunction with acid deposition studies. Nevertheless, large rivers are important conduits of inorganic carbon and other solutes to coastal areas and may have substantial influence on coastal calcium carbonate saturation dynamics. We examined long-term (mid-20th to early 21st century) trends in alkalinity and other weathering products in 23 rivers of the conterminous US. We used a rigorous flow-weighting technique which allowed greater focus on solute trends occurring independently of changes in flow. Increasing alkalinity concentrations and yield were widespread, occurring at 14 and 13 stations, respectively. Analysis of trends in other weathering products suggested that the causes of alkalinity trends were diverse, but at many stations alkalinity increases coincided with decreasing nitrate+sulfate and decreasing cation:alkalinity ratios, which is consistent with recovery from acidification. A positive correlation between the Sen-Thiel slopes of alkalinity increases and agricultural lime usage indicated that agricultural lime contributed to increasing solute concentration in some areas. However, several stations including the Altamaha, Upper Mississippi, and San Joaquin Rivers exhibited solute trends, such as increasing cation:alkalinity ratios and increasing nitrate+sulfate, more consistent with increasing acidity, emphasizing that multiple processes affect alkalinity trends in large rivers. This study was unique in its examination of alkalinity trends in large rivers covering a wide range of climate and land use types, but more detailed analyses will help to better elucidate temporal changes to river solutes and especially the effects they may have on coastal calcium carbonate saturation state.

  18. Long-term trends in alkalinity in large rivers of the conterminous US in relation to acidification, agriculture, and hydrologic modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward G.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    Alkalinity increases in large rivers of the conterminous US are well known, but less is understood about the processes leading to these trends as compared with headwater systems more intensively examined in conjunction with acid deposition studies. Nevertheless, large rivers are important conduits of inorganic carbon and other solutes to coastal areas and may have substantial influence on coastal calcium carbonate saturation dynamics. We examined long-term (mid-20th to early 21st century) trends in alkalinity and other weathering products in 23 rivers of the conterminous US. We used a rigorous flow-weighting technique which allowed greater focus on solute trends occurring independently of changes in flow. Increasing alkalinity concentrations and yield were widespread, occurring at 14 and 13 stations, respectively. Analysis of trends in other weathering products suggested that the causes of alkalinity trends were diverse, but at many stations alkalinity increases coincided with decreasing nitrate + sulfate and decreasing cation:alkalinity ratios, which is consistent with recovery from acidification. A positive correlation between the Sen–Thiel slopes of alkalinity increases and agricultural lime usage indicated that agricultural lime contributed to increasing solute concentration in some areas. However, several stations including the Altamaha, Upper Mississippi, and San Joaquin Rivers exhibited solute trends, such as increasing cation:alkalinity ratios and increasing nitrate + sulfate, more consistent with increasing acidity, emphasizing that multiple processes affect alkalinity trends in large rivers. This study was unique in its examination of alkalinity trends in large rivers covering a wide range of climate and land use types, but more detailed analyses will help to better elucidate temporal changes to river solutes and especially the effects they may have on coastal calcium carbonate saturation state.

  19. Quantifying Nitrogen Sources and Cycling Along the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelsner, G.; Brooks, P.; Hogan, J.; Lacey, H.; McDonnell, D.; Zeglin, L.; Mills, S.; Villinski, J.

    2005-05-01

    Synoptic sampling of a 1200km reach of the Upper Rio Grande has been performed in January and August from 2000 to present. The objective of this sampling has been to develop seasonal relationships between discharge, land use, and major water quality parameters including salinity and nutrients. In general, water quality, both salinity and nutrient concentrations, degrades with distance downstream. Increased salinity is explained largely by gradual downstream increase due to evapoconcentration punctuated by localized inputs of saline groundwater. Both total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations gradually increase with distance downstream, however for TDN this trend is punctuated by large, localized inputs primarily from urban areas. Somewhat surprisingly, surface water draining from areas of intensive, irrigated agriculture during the growing season often had lower nutrient and DOC concentrations than the river. Increased spatial and temporal sampling of the 250km reach between Cochiti Dam and Elephant Butte Reservoir was conducted in June, July and August of 2004 to quantify the relationships between agricultural and urban land use and nutrient loading as well as nutrient sinks within the surface water, hyporheic and riparian systems. Summer 2004 data indicate that wastewater treatment plants are the largest and most consistent sources of inorganic nitrogen to the river. In both June and July there was a net removal of nitrogen from the reach as discharge decreased 26%, concentrations decreased 39%, and TDN loads decreased 56%. Interestingly, the diversion of river water for irrigated agriculture reduced discharge 25%, TDN loads 60% and concentrations 47% along the same reach before draining back to the main stem of the river suggesting that agricultural diversions were serving as a sink for nitrogen. However in August, TDN loads were higher in returning drains suggesting that agricultural systems had switched to a net source of

  20. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  1. Measuring fallout radionuclides to constrain the origin and the dynamics of suspended sediment in an agricultural drained catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J. Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion reaches problematic levels in agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe where tile drains may accelerate sediment transfer to rivers. This supply of large quantities of fine sediment to the river network leads to the degradation of water quality by increasing water turbidity, filling reservoirs and transporting contaminants. Agricultural patterns and landscapes features have been largely modified by human activities during the last century. To investigate erosion and sediment transport in lowland drained areas, a small catchment, the Louroux (24 km²), located in the French Loire River basin was selected. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and more than 220 tile drains outlets have been installed after World War II. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes strongly increased. Sediment supply needs to be better understood by quantifying the contribution of sources and the residence times of particles within the catchment. To this end, a network of river monitoring stations was installed, and fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Be-7) were measured in rainwater (n=3), drain tile outlets (n=4), suspended sediment (n=15), soil surface (n=30) and channel bank samples (n=15) between January 2013 and February 2014. Cs-137 concentrations were used to quantify the contribution of surface vs. subsurface sources of sediment. Results show a clear dominance of particles originating from surface sources (99 ± 1%). Be-7 and excess Pb-210 concentrations and calculation of Be-7/excess Pb-210 ratios in rainfall and suspended sediment samples were used to estimate percentages of recently eroded sediment in rivers. The first erosive winter storm mainly exported sediment depleted in Be-7 that likely deposited on the riverbed during the previous months. Then, during the subsequent floods, sediment was directly eroded and exported to the catchment outlet. Our results show the added value of combining spatial and temporal tracers to characterize

  2. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice...

  3. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal.

  4. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. PMID:27289141

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Nutrients in streams draining an agricultural and an urban area, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Shipp, Allison A.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples collected from streams draining an agricultural area in the west-central part of the Trinity River Basin upstream from the Richland-Chambers Reservoir and from streams draining an urban area in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area during March 1993 - September 1995 were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds). A comparison of the data for agricultural and urban streams shows the maximum concentration of total nitrogen is from an urban stream and the maximum concentration of total phosphorus is from an agricultural stream. One-half of the samples have total nitrogen concentrations equal to or less than 1.1 and 1.0 milligrams per liter in the agricultural and urban streams, respectively; and one-half of the samples have total phosphorous concentrations equal to or less than 0.04 and 0.05 milligram per liter in the agricultural and urban streams, respectively. The highest concentrations of total nitrogen in both types of streams are in the spring. The minimum concentrations of total nitrogen are during the summer in the agricultural streams and during the winter in the urban streams. Concentrations of total phosphorus in agricultural streams show negligible seasonal variability. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus are in spring and possibly late summer in the urban streams. In the midrange of streamflow in the urban streams and throughout the range of streamflow in the agricultural streams, concentrations of total nitrogen increase. Concentrations of total phosphorus increase with streamflow in the middle and upper ranges of streamflow in both agricultural and urban streams.

  6. Residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment from CauBay River and Their Impacts on Agricultural Soil, Human Health Risk in KieuKy Area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Vu Duc; Quy, Nguyen Phuong

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the PCB residues from CauBay River and KieuKy area, Vietnam was carried out. CauBay River has been playing an important role in irrigated water supply for agriculture activities at KieuKy area in the downstream. The PCBs concentrations of sediment, soil samples were analyzed and obtained results indicated the wide extent of contamination of PCBs in CauBay River (from 30.74 to 167.35 ng g(-1) dry weight) and KieuKy area (from 21.62 to 60.22 ng g(-1) dry weight). This clearly reflected the effect of PCB residues from CauBay River to the quality of agricultural soil of the KieuKy area. The PCBs composition analyses in the samples reflect their long-time release. The total cancer risk of PCBs in the soil of KieuKy fell into the very low range suggesting low risk. However, since PCBs were the species of POPs with more concern in this area, ecological risk assessment should be further investigated.

  7. Application of strontium isotope measurements to trace sediment sources in an upstream agricultural catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Thil, François; Foucher, Anthony; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the main processes of land degradation in agricultural areas. It accelerates the supply of sediment to the rivers and degrades water quality. To limit those impacts and optimize management programs in such areas, sources of sediment need to be identified and sediment transport to be controlled. Here, we determined the sources of suspended sediment in the Louroux (24 km², French Loire River basin), a small catchment representative of lowland cultivated environments of Northwestern Europe. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and 220 tile drain outlets have been installed over the last several decades. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes have increased drastically. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, driven by the weathering of rocks with different ages and chemical composition, may reflect the mixing of different sediment sources. Strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were therefore determined in potential soil sources, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and a sediment core sampled in the Louroux Pond at the catchment outlet. Soil, SPM and core samples displayed significantly different isotopic signatures. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in soil samples varied from 0.712763 to 0.724631 ± 0.000017 (2σ, n=20). Highest values were observed in silicic parts of the catchment whereas the lower values were identified in a calcareous area close to the Louroux Pond. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in SPM (0.713660 to 0.725749 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=20) plotted between the soil and sediment core (0.712255 to 0.716415 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=12), suggesting the presence of particles originating from at least two different lithological sources, i.e. silicic rocks and carbonate material. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the outlet core sample were used to reconstruct the sedimentary dynamics in the catchment during the last decades. These results will guide the future implementation of appropriate management practices aiming to reduce erosion in upstream

  8. Support vector machine-an alternative to artificial neuron network for water quality forecasting in an agricultural nonpoint source polluted river?

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Lu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Water quality forecasting in agricultural drainage river basins is difficult because of the complicated nonpoint source (NPS) pollution transport processes and river self-purification processes involved in highly nonlinear problems. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector model (SVM) were developed to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations for any location of the river polluted by agricultural NPS pollution in eastern China. River flow, water temperature, flow travel time, rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and upstream TN or TP concentrations were selected as initial inputs of the two models. Monthly, bimonthly, and trimonthly datasets were selected to train the two models, respectively, and the same monthly dataset which had not been used for training was chosen to test the models in order to compare their generalization performance. Trial and error analysis and genetic algorisms (GA) were employed to optimize the parameters of ANN and SVM models, respectively. The results indicated that the proposed SVM models performed better generalization ability due to avoiding the occurrence of overtraining and optimizing fewer parameters based on structural risk minimization (SRM) principle. Furthermore, both TN and TP SVM models trained by trimonthly datasets achieved greater forecasting accuracy than corresponding ANN models. Thus, SVM models will be a powerful alternative method because it is an efficient and economic tool to accurately predict water quality with low risk. The sensitivity analyses of two models indicated that decreasing upstream input concentrations during the dry season and NPS emission along the reach during average or flood season should be an effective way to improve Changle River water quality. If the necessary water quality and hydrology data and even trimonthly data are available, the SVM methodology developed here can easily be applied to other NPS-polluted rivers.

  9. Seasonal variation in biological oxygen demand levels in the main stem of the Fraser River, British Columbia and an agriculturally impacted tributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, S. L.; Fraser, H.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B. M.; Marcotte, D.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M.; Hanson-Carson, J.; Luymes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Fraser River basin is one of British Columbia's most diverse and valuable ecosystems. Water levels and temperatures along the Fraser are seasonally variable, with high flow during the spring freshet and low flow during winter months. In the Fraser River, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations impact many aquatic species. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic matter and is an indicator of water quality in freshwater environments. We compared BOD, DO, and pH during winter (November 2011) and summer (July 2012) in the main stem of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and a tributary in an agricultural area of the Fraser Valley, Nathan Creek. In November the BOD of the main stem of the Fraser River was 2.36 mg/L, pH 7.26, and DO 9.13 mg/L. BOD and DO of Nathan Creek was not significantly lower at 1.68 mg/L and DO 8.28 mg/L, however, the pH was significantly lower (p=0.001) at 6.75. In July, the Fraser River had significantly higher BOD levels than in winter at 4.43 mg/L, but no significant change in pH and DO. Nathan Creek BOD was significantly higher than it was in winter and higher than the main stem at 7.34 mg/L, with no significant change in pH and DO. There were strong seasonal differences in BOD in the Fraser River and Nathan Creek, with the highest levels seen in July. The higher BOD seen in Nathan Creek in July may be an indication of agricultural impact. Although all BOD values fell in the range of 1-8 mg/L and are considered to be relatively unpolluted.

  10. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers.

  11. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. PMID:24509365

  12. 29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (compare this photograph with AZ-17-15, taken at the same spot in 1937). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST FROM BELOW THE SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 23. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT CANAL ON RIGHT. THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM APPROXIMATELY THE SAME SPOT AS THE PREVIOUS PHOTOGRAPH (AZ-17-22). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 REALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD RAILROAD CROSSING AND CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT LARGE WHITE BUILDING. THE CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT IS HIDDEN BY TREES TO RIGHT OF STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTH BANK NEAR SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). THE LARGE FOREGROUND PIPE CARRIED WATER ACROSS THE CANAL FROM THE SETTLING BASIN TO THE CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Use of a dynamic simulation model to understand nitrogen cycling in the middle Rio Grande, NM.

    SciTech Connect

    Meixner, Tom; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Oelsner, Gretchen; Brooks, Paul; Roach, Jesse D.

    2008-08-01

    Water quality often limits the potential uses of scarce water resources in semiarid and arid regions. To best manage water quality one must understand the sources and sinks of both solutes and water to the river system. Nutrient concentration patterns can identify source and sink locations, but cannot always determine biotic processes that affect nutrient concentrations. Modeling tools can provide insight into these large-scale processes. To address questions about large-scale nitrogen removal in the Middle Rio Grande, NM, we created a system dynamics nitrate model using an existing integrated surface water--groundwater model of the region to evaluate our conceptual models of uptake and denitrification as potential nitrate removal mechanisms. We modeled denitrification in groundwater as a first-order process dependent only on concentration and used a 5% denitrification rate. Uptake was assumed to be proportional to transpiration and was modeled as a percentage of the evapotranspiration calculated within the model multiplied by the nitrate concentration in the water being transpired. We modeled riparian uptake as 90% and agricultural uptake as 50% of the respective evapotranspiration rates. Using these removal rates, our model results suggest that riparian uptake, agricultural uptake and denitrification in groundwater are all needed to produce the observed nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, conveyance channels, and river as well as the seasonal concentration patterns. The model results indicate that a total of 497 metric tons of nitrate-N are removed from the Middle Rio Grande annually. Where river nitrate concentrations are low and there are no large nitrate sources, nitrate behaves nearly conservatively and riparian and agricultural uptake are the most important removal mechanisms. Downstream of a large wastewater nitrate source, denitrification and agricultural uptake were responsible for approximately 90% of the nitrogen removal.

  18. Near-Channel Sediment Sources Now Dominate in Many Agricultural Landscapes: The Emergence of River-Network Models to Guide Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Gran, K. B.; Belmont, P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed sediment budgets for many agricultural watersheds are revealing a surprising story - that sediment is no longer primarily sourced from upland fields, but instead from near-channel sources. This is the case for the Minnesota River Basin (MRB) where an intensification and expansion of agricultural drainage combined with increased precipitation has (1) reduced surface runoff and erosion, (2) amplified streamflows, and (3) accelerated both near-channel sediment generation and sediment transport. Bluffs and streambanks in the MRB are now the dominant sources of sediment, but these features are not easily incorporated into traditional watershed-scale, sediment-transport models. Instead, we are advancing a network-based modeling framework that explicitly considers sediment sources, transport, and storage along a river network. We apply this framework to bed-material sediment transport in the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, the major sediment-generating subbasin of the MRB, where a recent sediment budget has quantified the locations and rates of erosion and deposition of major sediment sources and sinks (i.e., bluffs, streambanks/floodplains, agricultural fields, and ravines) over millennial and decadal timescales. With the river network as the basis of a simple model, inputs of sediment to the network are informed by the sediment budget and these inputs are tracked through the network using process-based time delays that incorporate uniform-flow hydraulics and at-capacity sediment transport. We explore how this sediment might move through the network and affect the variability of bed elevations under cases where the mechanisms of in-channel and floodplain storage are turned on and off. We will discuss timescales of movement of sediment through the system to better inform legacy effects and hysteresis, and also discuss targeted management actions that will most effectively reduce the detrimental effects of excess sediment.

  19. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Ram Karan; Kansal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July-September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.

  20. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

  1. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  2. Determining Environmental Factors Controlling Nitrogen Cycling in the Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D. A.; Szynkiewicz, A.; Faiia, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande is a semi-arid river in the American Southwest supporting agriculture and large populous centers in New Mexico and west Texas. In addition to increasing salinity, considerable increases of nitrate (NO3), up to ~50 mg/L, have been previously observed in the Rio Grande between Las Cruces, New Mexico and El Paso, Texas. This is particularly a problem during non-irrigation season when little surface water is released from upstream reservoirs, substantially reducing stream flows in the Rio Grande. While both irrigation runoff and municipal waste effluents are likely important NO3 contributors, there are no quantitative studies assessing NO3 fluxes to the Rio Grande from these two sources. Therefore, in this study we used 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of NO3 as environmental tracers to characterize major NO3 sources in the Rio Grande and its agricultural drains between Las Cruces and El Paso. Surface water of the semi-arid Rio Grande, drains and major wastewater treatment plants were collected in October 2014 (non-irrigation season) and August 2015 (irrigation season). The water samples from the 2014 sampling campaign showed that the 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of NO3 in the Rio Grande and two agricultural drains located south of El Paso varied in relatively narrow range from +9.8 to +15.7‰ and -5.9 to -0.2‰, respectively. These ranges were similar to 𝛿15N and 𝛿18O values of local wastewater treatment plants in Las Cruces and El Paso, from +8.2 to +10.2‰ and -9.7 to -2.5‰ respectively. Municipal wastewater effluents are important tributaries to the semi-arid Rio Grande in the studied area, particularly during non-irrigation season. Furthermore, irrigation of agricultural fields south of El Paso is to a large extent supported by reclaimed municipal wastewater. Consequently, these explain the observed higher contributions of NO3 from urban sources in the investigated area.

  3. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ..., Cass, Traill, Grand Forks, Walsh, and Pembina Counties, plus those in Minnesota South of a line drawn..., Grand Forks, Walsh, and Pembina Counties in North Dakota, extending the entire width of the river. To... of the river bordered by Richland, Cass, Traill, Grand Forks, Walsh, and Pembina Counties, plus...

  4. Hydrogeologic and agricultural-chemical data for the South Skunk River alluvial aquifer at a site in Story County, Iowa, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    A reconnaissance study was conducted during 1992-93 to collect background hydrogeologic and agricultural-chemical data for the South Skunk River alluvial aquifer near Ames, Iowa. Observation wells were drilled to characterize the surficial geologic materials of a field-scale study site and to provide locations for collecting waterlevel and agricultural-chemical data. Walnut Creek, a tributary to the South Skunk River, forms a lateral boundary on the northern edge of the field site. Water-level measurements showed a hydraulic-head gradient towards the South Skunk River under both wet and dry conditions at the study site. Walnut Creek appears to be losing water to the aquifer during most hydrologic conditions. More than 20 milligrams per liter of nitrate as nitrogen were present consistently in water from the southeastern part of the study site. Nitrate-as-nitrogen concentrations in water samples from other locations routinely did not exceed 10 milligrams per liter. The herbicide atrazine was detected most often, 36 of 38 times, in water samples collected from observation wells adjacent to Walnut Creek. Atrazine was not used on the study site during 1992-93 but was found frequently in water samples from Walnut Creek. Therefore, Walnut Creek appears to be a source of herbicide contamination to the alluvial aquifer.

  5. Integration of cosmic-ray neutron probes into production agriculture: Lessons from the Platte River cosmic-ray neutron probe monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, W. A.; Finkenbiner, C. E.; Franz, T. E.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Munoz-Arriola, F.; Suyker, A.; Arkebauer, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Projected increases in global population will put enormous pressure on fresh water resources in the coming decades. Approximately 70 percent of human water use is allocated to agriculture with 40 percent of global food production originating from irrigated lands. Growing demand for food will only worsen the strain placed on many irrigated agricultural systems resulting in an unsustainable reliance on groundwater. This work presents an overview of the Platte River Cosmic-ray Neutron Probe Monitoring Network, which consists of 10 fixed probes and 3 mobile probes located across the Platte River Basin. The network was installed in 2014 and is part of the larger US COSMOS (70+ probes) and global COSMOS networks (200+ probes). Here we will present an overview of the network, comparison of fixed neutron probe results across the basin, spatial mapping results of the mobile sensors at various sites and spatial scales, and lessons learned by working with various producers and water stakeholder groups. With the continued development of this technique, its incorporation for soil moisture management in large producer operations has the potential to increase irrigation water use efficiency in the Platte River Basin and beyond.

  6. 76 FR 44302 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Monte...

  7. Changes in sea level, water salinity and wetland habitat linked to the late agricultural development in the Pearl River delta plain of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Yongqiang; Zheng, Zhuo; Huang, Kangyou; Sun, Yiying; Wang, Ning; Tang, Min; Huang, Guangqing

    2013-06-01

    Environmental change plays a significant role in the development of agriculture worldwide. The availability of wetland habitats and freshwater supply has been particularly important to the expansion and sustainability of rice-based economies. Some studies have emphasized the connections between societal changes and climatic fluctuations. However, recently emerged evidence has indicated the prevalence of human's initiatives. To tackle this complex issue, we employ a multi-proxy approach applying microfossil diatom/pollen and organic carbon isotopes collected from sediment cores of multiple locations to the reconstructions of palaeo-environment and identification of agricultural activity in the northern part of the Pearl River delta. Our study confirms the importance of environmental conditions, but also reveals initiatives taken by the agricultural communities in site selection for cultivation and settlements. Our results also show that freshwater wetland conditions became available in the most landward part of the deltaic plain along the West/North Rivers as early as 7000 years ago, since which wetland habitats expanded seawards as the deltaic shoreline advanced. By 2500 years ago, extensive freshwater wetlands already emerged in northwest part of the deltaic plain. However, before this time, economic activity within the deltaic basin was still predominantly based on fishing and gathering. This is possibly because the Neolithic communities did not need to adapt the labour-intensive cultivation due to the abundance of natural resources in the deltaic region, a strong contrast to what the communities in the Yangtze valley did 5000 years earlier. The agriculture was finally expanded about 2500-2200 years ago in a small area of marsh wetlands along a small river on the northern edge of the deltaic plain by a community migrated from the Yangtze basin. The agricultural activity was spread across the deltaic plain by about 1000 years ago, again as a result of the influx

  8. 77 FR 51967 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Saguache Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Saguache, Colorado....

  9. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  10. "P8400564 Grand Valley Project view of GV Diversion Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "P8-400-564 Grand Valley Project - view of GV Diversion Dam on Col. River completed in 1915 by BOR to divert water to irrigate the Grand Valley Project. 7-18-58 by Stan Rasmussen." Note integration of the dam and canal headgate at center left, proximity of the river and railroad tracks at lower left, and gatekeeper's house on lower right - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  11. "Department of the Interior U.S. Reclamation Service Grand Valley Project, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Department of the Interior U.S. Reclamation Service Grand Valley Project, Colo. Grand River Dam and headworks general plan revised Aug. 13, 1914 and Aug. 29, 1914." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  12. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  13. Response of Polish rivers (Vistula, Oder) to reduced pressure from point sources and agriculture during the transition period (1988-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Stålnacke, Per; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Witek, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    The Vistula and Oder Rivers, two out of the seven largest rivers in the Baltic drainage basin, were responsible for 25% of total riverine nitrogen (TN) and 37% of total riverine phosphorus (TP) input to the Baltic Sea in 2000. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the response of these two rivers to changes that took place in Polish economy during the transition period (1988-2008). The economic changes encompassed: construction of nearly 900 waste water treatment plants in 1999-2008, modernization or closure of obsolete factories, economizing in water consumption, closure or change of ownership of State-owned farms, a drop in fertilizer application, and a decline in livestock stocking. More intensive agriculture and higher point source emissions in the Oder than in the Vistula basin resulted in higher concentrations of TN, nitrate (NO3-N), and TP in the Oder waters in the entire period of our studies. In both rivers, nutrient concentrations and loads showed significant declining trends in the period 1988-2008. TN loads decreased by ca. 20% and 25% in the Vistula and Oder; TP loads dropped by ca. 15% and 65% in the Vistula and Oder. The reduction in phosphorus loads was particularly pronounced in the Oder basin, which was characterized by efficient management systems aiming at mitigation of nutrient emission from the point sources and greater extent of structural changes in agricultural sector during the transition period. The trends in riverine loads are discussed in the paper in relation to socio-economical changes during the transition period, and with respect to physiographic features.

  14. Water-Quality and Biological Characteristics and Responses to Agricultural Land Retirement in Three Streams of the Minnesota River Basin, Water Years 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Mohring, Eric H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Water-quality and biological characteristics in three streams in the Minnesota River Basin were assessed using data collected during water years 2006-08. The responses of nutrient concentrations, suspended-sediment concentrations, and biological characteristics to agricultural land retirement also were assessed. In general, total nitrogen, suspended-sediment, and chlorophyll-a concentrations, and fish resource quality improved with increasing land retirement. The Chetomba Creek, West Fork Beaver Creek, and South Branch Rush River subbasins, which range in size from about 200 to 400 square kilometers, have similar geologic and hydrologic settings but differ with respect to the amount, type, and location of retired agricultural land. Total nitrogen concentrations were largest, with a mean of 15.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), in water samples from the South Branch Rush River, a subbasin with little to no agricultural land retirement; total nitrogen concentrations were smaller in samples from Chetomba Creek (mean of 10.6 mg/L) and West Fork Beaver Creek (mean of 7.9 mg/L), which are subbasins with more riparian or upland land retirement at the basin scale. Total phosphorus concentrations were not related directly to differing land-retirement percentages with mean concentrations at primary data-collection sites of 0.259 mg/L in the West Fork Beaver Creek subbasin, 0.164 mg/L in the Chetomba Creek subbasin, and 0.180 mg/L in the South Branch Rush River subbasin. Temporal variation in water quality was characterized using data from in-stream water-quality monitors and storm-sediment data. Fish data indicate better resource quality for the West Fork Beaver Creek subbasin than for other subbasins likely due to a combination of factors, including habitat quality, food resources, and dissolved oxygen characteristics. Index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores increased as local land-retirement percentages (within 50 and 100 meters of the streams) increased. Data and analysis from

  15. Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Meador, M.R.; Porter, S.D.; Gurtz, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

  16. The influence of agricultural and urban contamination on leech infestation of freshwater turtles, Phrynops geoffroanus, taken from two areas of the Uberabinha River.

    PubMed

    De Campos Brites, Vera Lucia; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu

    2004-01-01

    Infestation by leeches on adult freshwater turtles Phrynops geoffroanus in two areas of the Uberabinha River, in Uberlândia, was investigated during the summer (January 2000). Fifty eight turtles were trapped: 26 (12 males, 14 females) in an agricultural area and 32 (16 males, 16 females) in an area with a more urban environment. The females present larger length and body mass (291.77+/-29.18 mm; 2233.30+/-511.40 g) than males (259.71+/-33.15 mm; 1488.68+/-529.35 g). Blood samples were drawn from the retrorbital sinus using heparinized micro-hematocrit capillary tubes, for microscopic and direct examination for intracellular parasites. Ectoparasitism by leeches, Placobdella bistriata, on young and adult animals was observed in the limb cavities of 28.1% of the urban area turtles. No leeches were found on the turtles in the agricultural area. Hemogregarine erythrocytic gametocytes were found in 15.4% of the agricultural area turtles, and in 37.5% of the urban area turtles. Concurrent parasitism by leeches and hemogregarines on the same individuals was seen on six turtles. Infections with microorganisms (bacteria and fungus) facilitated by the bites of leeches were not observed in another study on the same sample of infested turtles. However, 19% of the turtles collected in the agricultural area and 15% of the turtles from the urban area presented normocytic acute anemia. The occupation of the soil apparently interfered in the aquatic ecosystem favoring parasitism in the urban area. PMID:15327164

  17. High-Level Genetic Diversity but No Population Structure Inferred from Nuclear and Mitocho