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Sample records for granitic underground research

  1. Seismic anisotropy in granite at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, G.M.; Crampin, S.; Young, R.P.

    2000-05-01

    The Shear-Wave Experiment at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory was probably the first controlled-source shear-wave survey in a mine environment. Taking place in conjunction with the excavation of the Mine-by test tunnel at 420 m depth, the shear-wave experiment was designed to measure the in situ anisotropy of the rockmass and to use shear waves to observe excavation effects using the greatest variety of raypath directions of any in situ shear-wave survey to date. Inversion of the shear-wave polarizations shows that the anisotropy of the in situ rockmass is consistent with hexagonal symmetry with an approximate fabric orientation of strike 023{degree} and dip 35{degree}. The in situ anisotropy is probably due to microcracks with orientations governed by the in situ stress field and to mineral alignment within the weak gneissic layering. However, there is no unique interpretation as to the cause of the in situ anisotropy as the fabric orientation agrees approximately with both the orientation expected from extensive-dilatancy anisotropy and that of the gneissic layering. Eight raypaths with shear waves propagating wholly or almost wholly through granodiorite, rather than granite, do not show the expected shear-wave splitting and indicate a lower in situ anisotropy, which may be due to the finer grain size and/or the absence of gneissic layering within the granodiorite. These results suggest that shear waves may be used to determine crack and mineral orientations and for remote monitoring of a rockmass. This has potential applications in mining and waste monitoring.

  2. Minerals Associated with Biofilms Occurring on Exposed Rock in a Granitic Underground Research Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. Ann; Kamineni, D. Choudari; Sawicki, Jerzy A.; Beveridge, Terry J.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock requires the effects of microbial action to be investigated. The Underground Research Laboratory excavated in a pluton of the Canadian Shield provides a unique opportunity to study these effects. Three biofilms kept moist by seepage through fractures in granitic rock faces of the Underground Research Laboratory have been examined. The biofilms contained a variety of gram-negative and gram-positive morphotypes held together by an organic extracellular matrix. Nutrient levels in the groundwater were low, but energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has shown biogeochemical immobilization of several elements in the biofilms; some of these elements were concentrated from extremely dilute environmental concentrations, and all elements were chemically complexed together to form amorphous or crystalline fine-grained minerals. These were seen by transmission electron microscopy to be both associated with the surfaces of the bacteria and scattered throughout the extracellular matrix, suggesting their de novo development through bacterial surface-mediated nucleation. The biofilm consortia are thought to concentrate elements both by passive sorption and by energy metabolism. By Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, one of the biofilms showed that iron was both oxidized and precipitated as ferrihydrite or hematite aerobically and reduced and precipitated as siderite anaerobically. We believe that some Archean banded-iron formations could have been formed in a manner similar to this, as it would explain the deposition of hematite and siderite in close proximity. This biogeochemical development of minerals may also affect the transport of material in waste disposal sites. Images PMID:16349374

  3. Minerals associated with biofilms occurring on exposed rock in a granitic underground research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A; Kamineni, D C; Sawicki, J A; Beveridge, T J

    1994-09-01

    The concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock requires the effects of microbial action to be investigated. The Underground Research Laboratory excavated in a pluton of the Canadian Shield provides a unique opportunity to study these effects. Three biofilms kept moist by seepage through fractures in granitic rock faces of the Underground Research Laboratory have been examined. The biofilms contained a variety of gram-negative and gram-positive morphotypes held together by an organic extracellular matrix. Nutrient levels in the groundwater were low, but energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has shown biogeochemical immobilization of several elements in the biofilms; some of these elements were concentrated from extremely dilute environmental concentrations, and all elements were chemically complexed together to form amorphous or crystalline fine-grained minerals. These were seen by transmission electron microscopy to be both associated with the surfaces of the bacteria and scattered throughout the extracellular matrix, suggesting their de novo development through bacterial surface-mediated nucleation. The biofilm consortia are thought to concentrate elements both by passive sorption and by energy metabolism. By Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, one of the biofilms showed that iron was both oxidized and precipitated as ferrihydrite or hematite aerobically and reduced and precipitated as siderite anaerobically. We believe that some Archean banded-iron formations could have been formed in a manner similar to this, as it would explain the deposition of hematite and siderite in close proximity. This biogeochemical development of minerals may also affect the transport of material in waste disposal sites.

  4. Distribution of U and REE on colloids in granitic groundwater and quality-controlled sampling at the Mizunami underground research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munemoto, Takashi; Ohmori, Kazuaki; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2014-12-01

    Colloids and their association with analogue elements, uranium, and rare earth elements (REEs), in deep granitic groundwater were investigated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). Groundwater was sampled from underground boreholes and gallery walls, and the colloids were separated by size-fractionated ultrafiltration (pore sizes, 0.2 μm, 10 kDa, and 1 kDa). For the groundwater sampled from fractures in excavation walls, the size-fractionated concentrations of the colloid-forming elements were approximately constant relative to different size fractions (0.2 μm, 200 kDa, 50 kDa, and 10 kDa). The contamination of Fe- and Al-bearing materials was insignificant in the filtered groundwater from fracture seepages. Changes in the concentrations of U in the groundwater sampled from boreholes and excavation walls were associated with the Al-bearing colloids, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. The REE-bearing material(s) that were >0.2 μm in size were mobile in the deep granitic groundwater, rather than occurring in association with Al-bearing, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. It is suggested that sampling from water-conducting fractures in host rock and colloid elimination in borehole are important components of water quality control in geochemical investigations.

  5. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Steven Derek

    2014-03-01

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is an operating deep underground research facility with six active projects, and greater than 50 trained researchers. KURF is 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech (VT) campus in an operating limestone mine with drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' × 20 +' the current lab is 35' × 22' × 100'), and 1700' of overburden (1450m.w.e.). The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ~0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. The current users are funded by NSF, DOE, and NNSA. Current user group: 1) mini-LENS (VT, Louisiana State University, BNL); 2) Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); 3) HPGe Low-Background Screening (University of North Carolina (UNC), VT); 4) MALBEK (UNC); 5&6) Watchman - 5) Radionuclide Detector and 6) MARS detector (LLNL, SNL, UC-Davis, UC-Berkeley, UH, Hawaii Pacific, UC-Irvine, VT).

  6. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2011-10-01

    A new deep underground research facility is open and operating only 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech campus. It is located in an operating limestone mine, and has drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' x 20' x 100'; the current lab is 35'x100'x22'), and is located where there is a 1700' overburden. The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ˜ 0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. There are currently six projects using the facility: mini-LENS - Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (Virginia Tech, Louisiana State University, BNL); Neutron Spectrometer (University of Maryland, NIST); Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); HPGe Low-Background Screening (North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina, Virginia Tech); MALBEK - Majorana neutrinoless double beta decay (University of North Carolina); Ar-39 Depleted Argon (Princeton University). I will summarize the current program, and exciting plans for the future.

  7. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, S. Derek; Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2012-03-01

    A new deep underground research facility is open and operating only 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech campus. It is located in an operating limestone mine, and has drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' x 20+'; the current lab is 35' x 22' x 100'), and is located where there is a 1700' overburden. The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ˜0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. There are currently six projects using the facility: mini-LENS - Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (Virginia Tech, Louisiana State University, BNL); Neutron Spectrometer (University of Maryland, NIST); Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); HPGe Low-Background Screening (North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina, Virginia Tech); MALBEK - Majorana neutrinoless double beta decay (University of North Carolina); Ar-39 Depleted Argon (Princeton University). I will summarize the current program and exciting potential for the future.

  8. Underground pumped storage scheme in the Bukit Timah granite of Singapore

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.H.

    1996-10-01

    Pumped storage is an energy storage method that involves the pumping of water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during off-peak period using low cost power and releasing of the water from the upper reservoir to produce electricity during peak load period. Because of the very small and relatively flat land area of Singapore, a conventional surface pumped storage plant is not feasible. A pumped storage plant can be constructed here by siting the upper reservoir in one of the many abandoned granite quarries and by placing the lower reservoir and the powerhouse underground in the Bukit Timah granite, which is sound, massive and impervious. The capital costs for a pumped storage plant could be the same as those of an oil-fired plant of a comparable size. When the very high cost of land in Singapore is taken into account, an underground pumped storage scheme for peaking purposes becomes attractive. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  10. The Antei uranium deposit: A natural analogue of an SNF repository and an underground geodynamic laboratory in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.; Nasimov, R. M.; Hammer, J.; Burmistrov, A. A.; Shchukin, S. I.

    2008-10-01

    The estimation of the long-term stability of crystalline rock massifs with respect to natural and technogenic loads in the course of long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a special area of surveys at underground research laboratories (URLs). In parallel with these surveys, data on uranium deposits—natural analogues of repositories of SNF consisting of 95% UO2—are used for obtaining insight into the dynamics of radionuclide migration and validating barrier properties of host rocks. Examples of URLs located in granitic massifs of Sweden (Äspö), Canada (Whiteshell), Switzerland (Grimsel), Japan (Mizunami), and Finland (ONKALO), as well as the El Berrocal (Spain), Palmottu (Finland), Sanerliu (China), and Kamaishi (Japan) deposits, are considered in the paper. The objects listed above are distinct in tectonic settings, geology, control of ore mineralization, redox conditions of uranium migration, and character and intensity of filtration and transportation, which predetermine the direction and specific features of research conducted therein. A variant in which a URL and a natural analogue are combined in one object is especially promising for validation of safe long-term isolation of SNF. The Antei vein-stockwork uranium deposit in the southeastern Transbaikal region, localized in Paleozoic granite at a depth of 400 1000 m and opened by mine workings at six levels, is such an object. Its geological features, stress-strain state, and infrastructure of mine workings offer an opportunity to study the entire spectrum of processes proceeding in near-and far-field of an SNF repository. The structural geology, mineralogy and petrography, and petrophysical and tectonophysical features of the deposit at its three lower levels are considered. The sequence of metasomatic alteration of rocks and the dynamics of formation of ore-bearing faults that crosscut prototectonic elements, as well as relationships of physicomechanical properties of rocks as a function of

  11. Linking Material Properties and Microstructures to Characterize Damage Associated with an Underground Explosion in Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. E.; Broome, S.; Sussman, A. J.; Townsend, M.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment, conducted in granite in Nevada, is a series of explosive tests designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. Extensive seismic monitoring and site rock characterization are being used to improve the predictive capability of models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Site rock characterization includes geomechanical and material properties testing, core-scale fracture identification, and optical microscopy studies. Geomechanical and material properties determined via laboratory testing of the site rocks include unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and bulk density. Detailed fracture mapping and characterization of meso- and micro-scale fractures in recovered cores are being conducted and include mineralization changes and the extent of crushed or fractured zone away from the source. We report on the analysis of microfractures in these cores, which provide a detailed and quantitative dataset on the extent and nature of damage in the recovered cores. Microfracture density and character (open, sealed, healed) are recorded in order to differentiate sets of microfractures associated with explosive tests. Densities (mf/mm) of open microfractures correlate with source-related damage, and increase from pre- to post-test samples. Microfracture densities are affected by pre-existing fractures, depending on fracture-zone mineralogy and alteration. These microfracture density data, linked to the bulk material properties, geomechanical properties, and the structural features of the rock at the core-scale, define a damage zone surrounding the source at depth. This link is essential to understanding how the bulk material properties manifest themselves in the rock and how that might affect energy propagation. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security

  12. Twenty Years of Underground Research at Canada's URL

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, N. A.

    2003-02-27

    Construction of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) began in 1982. The URL was designed to address the needs of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. Over the years, a comprehensive program of geologic characterization and underground hydrogeologic, geotechnical and geomechanical projects have been performed, many of which are ongoing. The scientific work at the URL has evolved through a number of different phases to meet the changing needs of Canada's waste management program. The various phases of the URL have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. Collaboration with international organizations is encouraged at the URL, with the facility being a centre of excellence in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of underground facilities. One of AECL's major achievements of the past 20 year program has been the preparation and public defense of a ten-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a conceptual deep geologic repository. Completion of this dissertation on the characterization, construction and performance modeling of a conceptual repository in the granite rock of the Canadian Shield was largely based on work conducted at the URL. Work conducted over the seven years since public defense of the EIS has been directed towards developing those engineering and performance assessment tools that would be required for implementation of a deep geologic repository. The URL continues to be a very active facility with ongoing experiments and demonstrations performed for a variety of Canadian and international radioactive waste management organizations.

  13. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, J.

    2014-06-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  14. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-08-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  15. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-05-01

    The former Homestakegold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinolessdouble-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low- background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long- baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  16. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, J.

    2015-08-17

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  17. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  18. Seismic velocities and attenuation in an underground granitic waste repository subjected to heating

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, B.N.P.; King, M.S.

    1984-03-01

    The behavior of a granitic rock mass subjected to thermal load has been studied by an acoustic cross-hole technique between four boreholes, over a period of some two years. Velocities between boreholes were obtained from the times-of-flight of pulses of acoustic waves between transducers clamped to the borehole wall. The attenuation was obtained by a spectral ratios technique. When the heater was turned on, the velocities increased rapidly to an asymptotic value. When the heater was turned off, the velocities decreased rapidly to their original values or below. Velocities along a particular profile were found to increase linearly with the mean temperature in the profile tested. The attenuation showed little correlation with changes in temperature or the associated thermal stresses, but there was a good correlation of attenuation with water content and the related changes in pore pressure. 18 references, 7 figures.

  19. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    DOE PAGES

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; ...

    2017-08-19

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy’s Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models weremore » created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within ~40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90–130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the

  20. Comparative study of large scale simulation of underground explosions inalluvium and in fractured granite using stochastic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.; Glenn, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology used for large scale modeling of wave propagation fromunderground explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in two different geological settings:fractured granitic rock mass and in alluvium deposition. We show that the discrete nature of rockmasses as well as the spatial variability of the fabric of alluvium is very important to understand groundmotions induced by underground explosions. In order to build a credible conceptual model of thesubsurface we integrated the geological, geomechanical and geophysical characterizations conductedduring recent test at the NTS as well as historical data from the characterization during the undergroundnuclear test conducted at the NTS. Because detailed site characterization is limited, expensive and, insome instances, impossible we have numerically investigated the effects of the characterization gaps onthe overall response of the system. We performed several computational studies to identify the keyimportant geologic features specific to fractured media mainly the joints; and those specific foralluvium porous media mainly the spatial variability of geological alluvium facies characterized bytheir variances and their integral scales. We have also explored common key features to both geologicalenvironments such as saturation and topography and assess which characteristics affect the most theground motion in the near-field and in the far-field. Stochastic representation of these features based onthe field characterizations have been implemented in Geodyn and GeodynL hydrocodes. Both codeswere used to guide site characterization efforts in order to provide the essential data to the modelingcommunity. We validate our computational results by comparing the measured and computed groundmotion at various ranges. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  2. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  3. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  4. Assessment of Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of a Granite Rock Mass for a Pilot Underground Crude Oil Storage Facility in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhechao; Li, Shucai; Qiao, Liping

    2015-11-01

    The hydro-mechanical behavior of a pilot underground crude oil storage facility in a granite host rock in China was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Characterization of hydro-mechanical behavior of the rock mass was performed using laboratory test, field monitoring, back analysis of field measurements and permeability tests. FEM numerical analyses were used to assess the hydro-mechanical behavior of the granite to study several design and construction issues. The containment properties of the storage facility were investigated without and with the water curtain system. Results showed that the stored oil would leak into rock mass if a water curtain system is not provided, whereas the containment property of the facility will be maintained when a water curtain system is in place. On the influence of cavern excavation sequence, it was indicated that the excavation of the caverns from left to right is a better choice than right to left for the containment property of the facility. On the influence of permeable condition, it was found that the extent of plastic zones, horizontal convergence and crown settlement under permeable condition are lower than those under impermeable condition due to the different stress paths in the rock mass experienced during excavation.

  5. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, M.; Harms, J.; Christensen, N.; Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Kandhasamy, S.; Mandic, V.

    2014-11-01

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, USA, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector underground. A major noise source for these detectors would be Newtonian noise (NN), which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the NN to below the projected noise floor for future GW detectors. In this paper, certain properties of the NN subtraction problem are studied by applying similar techniques to data of a seismic array. We use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the frequency band 0.05-1 Hz. This achieves more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation over a majority of this band. The variation in the Wiener-filter coefficients over the course of the day, including how local activities impact the filter, is analyzed. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a month, showing the stability of the filter with time. How varying the filter order affects the subtraction performance is also explored. It is shown that optimizing filter order can significantly improve subtraction of seismic noise.

  6. Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Although the Underground Railroad has been an integral part of U.S. history and folklore for well over 150 years, the recent past has seen an increased public interest in the identification of historic sites associated with the experiences of fugitive slaves. This booklet is part of a National Park Service initiative to design research methods…

  7. Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Although the Underground Railroad has been an integral part of U.S. history and folklore for well over 150 years, the recent past has seen an increased public interest in the identification of historic sites associated with the experiences of fugitive slaves. This booklet is part of a National Park Service initiative to design research methods…

  8. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, K. T.

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  9. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    DOE PAGES

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark mattermore » experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.« less

  10. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  11. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  12. The Use of Underground Research Laboratories to Support Repository Development Programs. A Roadmap for the Underground Research Facilities Network.

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Robert J.

    2015-10-26

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nationally developed underground research laboratories (URLs) and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form an Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network for training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies and the sharing of knowledge and experience related to geologic repository development, research, and engineering. In order to achieve its objectives, the URF Network regularly sponsors workshops and training events related to the knowledge base that is transferable between existing URL programs and to nations with an interest in developing a new URL. This report describes the role of URLs in the context of a general timeline for repository development. This description includes identification of key phases and activities that contribute to repository development as a repository program evolves from an early research and development phase to later phases such as construction, operations, and closure. This information is cast in the form of a matrix with the entries in this matrix forming the basis of the URF Network roadmap that will be used to identify and plan future workshops and training events.

  13. Hydrogeological characterization on surface-based investigation phase in the Mizunami underground research laboratory project, in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Ohyama, Takuya

    2007-07-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research laboratory project that is planned for a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a stepwise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water conducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved. (authors)

  14. Abandoned SSC Site can provide underground facility for geoscience research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Herbert F.; Myer, Larry R.; Witherspoon, Paul A.; Nelson, Priscilla P.; Logan, John M.; Dutton, Alan R.; Younker, Leland W.

    By the time Congress terminated the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project in October 1993, the Department of Energy and the state of Texas had sunk $2 billion into the project. Now closure and remediation of the disturbed surface and subsurface lands are underway with a budget of $22 million, according to a recent agreement between the DOE and Texas. Rather than chalking up the creation of the large, expensive hole in the ground to failure, however, some are hailing the site as an excellent test-bed for geoenvironmental and geotechnical research (Figure 1). They hope to use the site's tunnel, exploratory shaft, and test wells to identify new and improved methods for investigating subsurface fluid flow and transport processes, to characterize physical properties of weak and fractured rock through geophysics and geomechanical testing, and to test model predictions through large-scale experiments conducted underground.

  15. Earth Science Research in the National Underground Science Laboratory at the Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Cording, E. J.; Fairhurst, C.; Lesko, K. T.; Nabighian, M.; Silver, L. T.; Tiedje, J. M.; Wierenga, P. J.; Witherspoon, P. A.

    2001-12-01

    flooded conditions. The re-flooding process around the NUSL will be assessed carefully before implementation. Preservation of a region with multiple levels below 4,850 ft (connected by sloping ramps) for multi-drift heater tests over a 30-year period is a possibility. These tests could study heat-induced coupled processes with temperature, fluid flow, chemical transport, and mechanical deformation measurements in fractured rocks (which are in igneous and sedimentary units that have been subject to intense folding, and have been uplifted and domed by a nearby granite massif). The space around the NUSL and the access shaft will be open to a depth of 8,000 ft. This will allow long term hydrochemical/geomechanical evaluations and ecological/geomicrobiological studies in these ~2 billion years old metamorphic rocks. Underground access at these depths will facilitate additional drilling and excavation into surrounding intact rocks for multi-disciplinary research during and after the conversion of the Mine.

  16. Research on joint parameter inversion for an integrated underground displacement 3D measuring sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-04-13

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0~30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor.

  17. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  18. PEGASUS, a European research project on the effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-12-31

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and possible gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular in the 4th five year R and D program on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste (1990--1994), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called PEGASUS, Project on the Effects of GAS in Underground Storage facilities for radioactive waste, about 20 organizations and research institutes from 7 European countries are involved. The project covers both experimental and theoretical studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations as clay, salt and granite. In this paper an overview is given of the various studies undertaken in the project as well as some first results presented.

  19. Making of the underground scientific experimental programme at the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory, North Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Vinsot, Agnès; Krieguer, Jean-Marie; Rebours, Hervé; Armand, Gilles

    In November 1999 Andra began building an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) on the border of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in eastern France. The research activities of the URL are dedicated to study the feasibility of reversible, deep geological disposal of high-activity, long-lived radioactive wastes in an argillaceous host rock. The Laboratory consists of two shafts, an experimental drift at 445 m depth and a set of technical and experimental drifts at the main level at 490 m depth. The main objective of the research is to characterize the confining properties of the argillaceous rock through in situ hydrogeological tests, chemical measurements and diffusion experiments. In order to achieve this goal, a fundamental understanding of the geoscientific properties and processes that govern geological isolation in clay-rich rocks has been acquired. This understanding includes both the host rocks at the laboratory site and the regional geological context. After establishing the geological conditions, the underground research programme had to demonstrate that the construction and operation of a geological disposal will not introduce pathways for waste migration. Thus, the construction of the laboratory itself serves a research purpose through the monitoring of excavation effects and the optimization of construction technology. These studies are primarily geomechanical in nature, though chemical and hydrogeological coupling also have important roles. In order to achieve the scientific objectives of this project in the underground drifts, a specific methodology has been applied for carrying out the experimental programme conducted concurrently with the construction of the shafts and drifts. This methodology includes technological as well as organizational aspects and a systematic use of feedback from other laboratories abroad and every scientific zone of the URL already installed. This methodology was first applied to set up a multi-purpose experimental area

  20. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to

  1. 3D imaging of geological structures by R-VSP utilizing vibrations caused by shaft excavations at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Hodotsuka, Y.; Ishigaki, K.; Lee, C.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is now conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project. The MIU consists of two shafts (main shaft: 6.5m, ventilation shaft: 4.5m diameter) and horizontal research galleries, in sedimentary and granitic rocks at Mizunami City, Central Japan. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment providing the basis for research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. One of the main goals is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. As a part of the MIU project, we carried out the Reverse-Vertical Seismic Profile (R-VSP) using vibrations from the blasting for the shaft excavations and drilling of boreholes in the horizontal research galleries and examined the applicability of this method to imaging of geological structures around underground facilities, such as the unconformity between the sedimentary rocks and the basal granite, and faults and fracture zones in the granite. R-VSP method is a seismic method utilizing the receiver arrays on surface and seismic sources underground (e.g. in boreholes). This method is advantageous in that planning of 3-dimensional surveys is easy compared with reflection seismic surveying and conventional VSP because seismic source arrays that are major constraint for conducting surveys on surface are unnecessary. The receiver arrays consist of six radial lines on surface with a central focus on the main shaft. Seven blast rounds for the main shaft excavation from GL-52.8m to GL-250m and the borehole drilling in the GL-200m horizontal research gallery were observed. Three types of data processing, conventional VSP data processing (VSP-CDP transform and VSP migration), Reflection data processing utilizing Seismic interferometry method (“Seismic interferometry”) and Reflection mapping utilizing Image Point transform method (“IP transform

  2. Research of Characteristics of the Low Voltage Power Line in Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shaoliang; Qin, Shiqun; Gao, Wenchang; Cheng, Fengyu; Cao, Zhongyue

    The power line communications (PLCs) can count on existing electrical connections reaching each corner in the locations where such applications are required, so signal transmission over power lines is nowadays gaining more and more interest for applications like internet. The research of characteristics of the low voltage power line is the fundamental and importance task. This work presents a device to test the characteristics of the low voltage power line. The low voltage power line channel characteristics overground and the channel characteristics underground were tested in using this device. Experiments show that, the characteristics are different between the PLCs channel underground coal mine and the PLC channel overground. Different technology should be adopted to structure the PLCs channel model underground coal mine and transmit high speed digital signal. But how to use the technology better to the high-speed digital communication under coal mine is worth of further studying.

  3. Surface and subsurface microgravity data in the vicinity of Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Koth, Karl R.; Carruth, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Absolute gravity data were collected at 32 stations in the vicinity of the Sanford Underground Research Facility from 2007 through 2014 for the purpose of monitoring groundwater storage change during dewatering of the former Homestake gold mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, the largest and deepest underground mine in North America. Eight underground stations are at depths from 300 feet below land surface to 4,850 feet below land surface. Surface stations were located using Global Positioning System observations, and subsurface stations were located on the basis of maps constructed from survey measurements made while the mine was in operation. Gravity varies widely at many stations; however, no consistent temporal trends are present across all stations during the 7-year period of data collection.

  4. Underground Research Laboratories for Crystalline Rock and Sedimentary Rock in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeta, N.; Takeda, S.; Matsui, H.; Yamasaki, S.

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started two off-site (generic) underground research laboratory (URL) projects, one for crystalline rock as a fractured media and the other for sedimentary rock as a porous media. This paper introduces an overview and current status of these projects.

  5. Muon flux Measurements at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility with the Majorana Demonstrator Veto System

    DOE PAGES

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; ...

    2017-02-16

    Here, we report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MajoranaDemonstratormuon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31±0.17)×10–9μ/s/cm2.

  6. Detection of Underground Tunnels with a Synchronized Electromagnetic Wave Gradiometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ). A synchronization receiver channel was added to the design so that the gradiometer receiver could be...complex in Alaska . 2. BRIEF HISTORY Since early history, people have attempted to avoid detection through underground activity. In the Roman siege on...nears San Diego, California, to sedimentary rocks in New Mexico and to granitic, and permafrost formations in Alaska . The technology has been shown to

  7. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Korbin, G.; Wollenberg, H.; Wilson, C.; Strisower, B.; Chan, T.; Wedge, D.

    1981-09-01

    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility.

  8. RESEARCH INTO PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION METHOD OF UNDERGROUND SPACE - CENTERING ON THE TOKYO METRO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    This research is concerned with developing evaluation methods that can be useful for environmental design from the psychological perspective of QOL, that is comfort, in underground space. For this research, eight stations on the Tokyo Metro, including the Fukutoshin line, were selected and two types of questionnaires were carried out after respondents had walked through the station areas and the walkways connecting the stations. From the results of the first questionnaire, four factors, comfort/convenience, insecurity, visibility/noticeability, brightness/ease of walking, were extracted. From the results of the second questionnaire, three factors were extracted: visibility of noticeboards, overall atmosphere of underground space, visibility of fare chart/subway map. There was a strong correlation between the factors comfort/convenience and insecurity, extracted from the first questionnaire, and the overall atmosphere factor extracted from the second questionnaire. For visibility/noticeability, there was a strong correlation with notices, fares chart, and subway map.

  9. Controlled drill & blast excavation at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Onagi, D.P.; Thompson, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    A controlled drill and blast method has been developed and used to excavate the Underground Research Laboratory, a geotechnical facility constructed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in crystalline rock. It has been demonstrated that the method can effectively reduce the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and is suitable for the construction of a used fuel disposal vault in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield.

  10. Index of granitic rock masses in the state of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Spengler, Richard W.; Hanna, W.F.; Dixon, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    A compilation of 205 areas of exposed granitic rock in Nevada was undertaken for the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose was to obtain data for evaluating granitic rock masses as potential underground nuclear waste repositories. Information, compiled by county for areas of granitic rock exposure, includes general location, coordinates, land classification, areal extent, accessibility, composition, age, rocks intruded, aeromagnetic expression, mining activity, and selected references.

  11. A Visualization Tool for Integrating Research Results at an Underground Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, S.; Macdonald, B. D.; Orr, T.; Johnson, W.; Benton, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are conducting research at a deep, underground metal mine in Idaho to develop improvements in ground control technologies that reduce the effects of dynamic loading on mine workings, thereby decreasing the risk to miners. This research is multifaceted and includes: photogrammetry, microseismic monitoring, geotechnical instrumentation, and numerical modeling. When managing research involving such a wide range of data, understanding how the data relate to each other and to the mining activity quickly becomes a daunting task. In an effort to combine this diverse research data into a single, easy-to-use system, a three-dimensional visualization tool was developed. The tool was created using the Unity3d video gaming engine and includes the mine development entries, production stopes, important geologic structures, and user-input research data. The tool provides the user with a first-person, interactive experience where they are able to walk through the mine as well as navigate the rock mass surrounding the mine to view and interpret the imported data in the context of the mine and as a function of time. The tool was developed using data from a single mine; however, it is intended to be a generic tool that can be easily extended to other mines. For example, a similar visualization tool is being developed for an underground coal mine in Colorado. The ultimate goal is for NIOSH researchers and mine personnel to be able to use the visualization tool to identify trends that may not otherwise be apparent when viewing the data separately. This presentation highlights the features and capabilities of the mine visualization tool and explains how it may be used to more effectively interpret data and reduce the risk of ground fall hazards to underground miners.

  12. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  13. First results from the LUX dark matter experiment at the Sanford underground research facility.

    PubMed

    Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Coffey, T; Currie, A; Curioni, A; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J; Dragowsky, E M; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Flores, C; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Hertel, S A; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J; Morii, M; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Ott, R A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Sofka, C J; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stiegler, T; O'Sullivan, K; Sumner, T J; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Tennyson, B; Tiedt, D R; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; White, D; Witherell, M S; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2014-03-07

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota). The LUX cryostat was filled for the first time in the underground laboratory in February 2013. We report results of the first WIMP search data set, taken during the period from April to August 2013, presenting the analysis of 85.3 live days of data with a fiducial volume of 118 kg. A profile-likelihood analysis technique shows our data to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis, allowing 90% confidence limits to be set on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering with a minimum upper limit on the cross section of 7.6 × 10(-46) cm(2) at a WIMP mass of 33 GeV/c(2). We find that the LUX data are in disagreement with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of the results from several recent direct detection experiments.

  14. Underground Research Laboratories to characterize fault reactivation in shales and carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, C.; Guglielmi, Y.; Dick, P.; Henry, P.; Gout, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since a decade, observations and experiments conducted in underground environments worldwide (mines, underground research laboratories - URL) allowed to bridge the scale gap between laboratory scale and large earthquake scale. Indeed, underground rock laboratories allow developing decameter scale relatively well constrained experiments at the smallest distance from the hypocenters. URL's experiments allowed developing new monitoring technologies coupling pressure-strain-seismic measurements and reproducing complete earthquakes sequence analogue to natural ones. They also allowed exploring past movements of faults and sometimes also paleofluids in three dimensions and characterizing different fault architectures and hydromechanical properties in unaltered conditions. This is particularly important in the study of faults affecting clay formations which could not be observed at the Earth's surface because of the high alteration. Here we show how examples from the Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Tournemire (France) URLs may help in (i) defining the concepts of fault architecture in shales, complemented with some examples from Rustrel (LSBB URL, France) in carbonates, (ii) estimating fault hydromechanical properties from field decameter scale experiments. Some key results are that faults which are critically stressed or at the rupture limit can reactivate for stresses variations within the range of the ones produced by such shallow underground excavations, and that slight micrometer-to-millimeter scale reactivations may lead to large factor-of-10-to-more permeability increases. This appears to be more related to complex multi-scale geological processes linked to fault history such as differential hardening, partial sealing, pressure solution and gouge development within the fault zones than to the regional state of stresses.

  15. Underground Safari” and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The “Underground Safari” website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the “Underground Safari” website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

  16. Ground penetrating radar for fracture mapping in underground hazardous waste disposal sites: A case study from an underground research tunnel, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Um, Evan Schankee

    2017-06-01

    Secure disposal or storage of nuclear waste within stable geologic environments hinges on the effectiveness of artificial and natural radiation barriers. Fractures in the bedrock are viewed as the most likely passage for the transport of radioactive waste away from a disposal site. We utilize ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map fractures in the tunnel walls of an underground research tunnel at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). GPR experiments within the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) were carried out by using 200 MHz, 500 MHz, and 1000 MHz antennas. By using the high-frequency antennas, we were able to identify small-scale fractures, which were previously unidentified during the tunnel excavation process. Then, through 3-D visualization of the grid survey data, we reconstructed the spatial distribution and interconnectivity of the multi-scale fractures within the wall. We found that a multi-frequency GPR approach provided more details of the complex fracture network, including deep structures. Furthermore, temporal changes in reflection polarity between the GPR surveys enabled us to infer the hydraulic characteristics of the discrete fracture network developed behind the surveyed wall. We hypothesized that the fractures exhibiting polarity change may be due to a combination of air-filled and mineralogical boundaries. Simulated GPR scans for the considered case were consistent with the observed GPR data. If our assumption is correct, the groundwater flow into these near-surface fractures may form the water-filled fractures along the existing air-filled ones and hence cause the changes in reflection polarity over the given time interval (i.e., 7 days). Our results show that the GPR survey is an efficient tool to determine fractures at various scales. Time-lapse GPR data may be essential to characterize the hydraulic behavior of discrete fracture networks in underground disposal facilities.

  17. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  18. Underground laboratory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  19. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Moo Y.

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  20. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  1. Mapping Fractures in KAERI Underground Research Tunnel using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon

    2016-04-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the Republic of Korea occupies about 40 percent of the entire electricity production. Processing or disposing nuclear wastes, however, remains one of biggest social issues. Although low- and intermediate-level nuclear wastes are stored temporarily inside nuclear power plants, these temporary storages can last only up to 2020. Among various proposed methods for nuclear waste disposal, a long-term storage using geologic disposal facilities appears to be most highly feasible. Geological disposal of nuclear wastes requires a nuclear waste repository situated deep within a stable geologic environment. However, the presence of small-scale fractures in bedrocks can cause serious damage to durability of such disposal facilities because fractures can become efficient pathways for underground waters and radioactive wastes. Thus, it is important to find and characterize multi-scale fractures in bedrocks hosting geologic disposal facilities. In this study, we aim to map small-scale fractures inside the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) using ground penetrating radar (GPR). The KURT is situated in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The survey target is a section of wall cut by a diamond grinder, which preserves diverse geologic features such as dykes. We conducted grid surveys on the wall using 500 MHz and 1000 MHz pulseEKKO PRO sensors. The observed GPR signals in both frequencies show strong reflections, which are consistent to form sloping planes. We interpret such planar features as fractures present in the wall. Such fractures were also mapped visually during the development of the KURT. We confirmed their continuity into the wall from the 3D GPR images. In addition, the spatial distribution and connectivity of these fractures are identified from 3D subsurface images. Thus, we can utilize GPR to detect multi-scale fractures in bedrocks, during and after developing underground disposal facilities. This study was

  2. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M.

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  3. Underground facility for geoenvironmental and geotechnical research at the SSC Site in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.F.; Myer, L.R.

    1994-10-31

    The subsurface environment is an important national resource that is utilized for construction, waste disposal and groundwater supply. Conflicting and unwise use has led to problems of groundwater contamination. Cleanup is often difficult and expensive, and perhaps not even possible in many cases. Construction projects often encounter unanticipated difficulties that increase expenses. Many of the difficulties of predicting mechanical behavior and fluid flow and transport behavior stem from problems in characterizing what cannot be seen. An underground research laboratory, such as can be developed in the nearly 14 miles of tunnel at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site, will provide a unique opportunity to advance scientific investigations of fluid flow, chemical transport, and mechanical behavior in situ in weak and fractured, porous rock on a scale relevant to civil and environmental engineering applications involving the subsurface down to a depth of 100 m. The unique element provided by underground studies at the SSC site is three-dimensional access to a range of fracture conditions in two rock types, chalk and shale. Detailed experimentation can be carried out in small sections of the SSC tunnel where different types of fractures and faults occur and where different rock types or contacts are exposed. The entire length of the tunnel can serve as an observatory for large scale mechanical and fluid flow testing. The most exciting opportunity is to mine back a volume of rock to conduct a post-experiment audit following injection of a number of reactive and conservative tracers. Flow paths and tracer distributions can be examined directly. The scientific goal is to test conceptual models and numerical predictions. In addition, mechanical and hydrological data may be of significant value in developing safe and effective methods for closing the tunnel itself.

  4. Low frequency electromagnetic signals from underground explosions: On-site inspections research progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-07-21

    We are investigating the characteristics of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic pulse (EMW) phenomena from underground nuclear and chemical explosions and from surface chemical explosions as they may be applied in an On-Site Inspection (OSI) context under a Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The principal application of these phenomena is for discrimination among underground chemical explosions, underground nuclear explosions, and earthquakes. Underground chemical and nuclear explosions both generate low-frequency EMP signals (about 1 Hz) that are observable within several kilometers of ground zero. During this fiscal year we have been gathering data from explosions of opportunity to see if ELF EMP signals are observable from large ripple-fired blasts and from smaller dedicated explosions such as those occurring at the NTS. In addition, we are continuing to review data from the Henderson Mine deployment that took place during FY94 and data from previous underground nuclear tests including Hunter`s Trophy and past underground nuclear tests have been analyzed and we here make estimates of the properties of the EMP ftom underground nuclear ard chemical explosions, including detectability, dependence on yield, and dependence on distance from the source. Data from the Henderson Mine provide information about detection of EMP from typical moderate size underground chemical explosions in hard rock and problems related to detection of EMP in a mine environment located at high elevations. Data from the Carlin Mine site provide information about EMP from surface ripple-fired chemical explosions and detection in an open-pit mine environment. Data from the Kuchen experiment at NTS provide additional data about small underground chemical explosions in a setting similar to that for underground nuclear tests at the NTS.

  5. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M M

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  6. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  7. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  8. The use of HANDIDET{reg_sign} non-electric detonator assemblies to reduce blast-induced overpressure at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Onagi, D.P.; Keith, S.G.; Kuzyk, G.W.; Proudfoot, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    A number of aspects of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal are being assessed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in a series of experiments at its Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. One of the major objectives of the work being carried out at the URL is to develop and evaluate the methods and technology to ensure safe, permanent disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. In 1994, AECL excavated access tunnels and a laboratory room for the Quarried Block Fracture Migration Experiment (QBFME) at the 240 Level of the URL. This facility will be used to study the transport of radionuclides in natural fractures in quarried blocks of granite under in-situ groundwater conditions. The experiment is being carried out under a cooperative agreement with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The excavation of the QBFME access tunnels and laboratory was carried out using controlled blasting techniques that minimized blast-induced overpressure which could have damaged or interrupted other ongoing experiments in the vicinity. The majority of the blasts used conventional long delay non-electric detonators but a number of blasts were carried out using HANDIDET 250/6000 non-electric long delay detonator assemblies and HTD{reg_sign} non-electric short delay trunkline detonator assemblies. The tunnel and laboratory excavation was monitored to determine the levels of blast-induced overpressure. This paper describes the blasting and monitoring results of the blasts using HANDIDET non-electric detonator assemblies and the effectiveness of these detonators in reducing blast-induced overpressure.

  9. Microbiology and Biogeochemical Study of Underground Research Tunnel for the Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y.; Oh, J.; Seo, H.; Rhee, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Underground Research Tunnel (URT) located in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, South Korea was recently constructed as an experimental site to study radionuclide transport, biogeochemistry, radionuclide-mineral interactions for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. Groundwater sampled from URT was used to examine microbial diversity and to enrich metal reducing bacteria for studying microbe- metal interactions. Genomic analysis indicated that the groundwater contained diverse microorganisms such as metal reducers, metal oxidizers, anaerobic denitrifying bacteria, and bacteria for reductive dechlorination. Metal- reducing bacteria enriched from the groundwater was used to study metal reduction and biomineralization. The metal-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate or lactate as the electron donors showed the bacteria reduced Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, Mn(IV) oxide, and Cr(VI) as the electron acceptors. Preliminary study indicated that the enriched bacteria were able to use glucose, lactate, acetate, and hydrogen as electron donors while reducing Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III) oxyhydroxide as the electron acceptor. The bacteria exhibited diverse mineral precipitation capabilities including the formation of magnetite, siderite, and rhodochrosite. The results indicated that Fe(III)- and metal-reducing communities are present in URT at the KAERI.

  10. Underground laboratories in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  11. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  12. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  13. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  14. New methodical developments for GRANIT

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Toperverg, B; Zhernenkov, K.; Gagarski, A; Lychagin, E; Muzychka, A; Strelkov, A; Mietke, A

    2011-01-01

    New methodical developments for the GRANIT spectrometer address further improvements of the critical parameters of this experimental installation, as well as its applications to new fields of research. Keeping in mind an extremely small fraction of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) that could be bound in gravitational quantum states, we look for methods to increase statistics due to: developing UCN sources with maximum phase-space density, counting simultaneously a large fraction of neutrons using position-sensitive detectors, and decreasing detector backgrounds. Also we explore an eventual application of the GRANIT spectrometer beyond the scope of its initial goals, for instance, for reflectometry with UCN.

  15. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  16. A heating experiment in the argillites in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wileveau, Yannick; Su, Kun; Ghoreychi, Mehdi

    2007-07-01

    A heating experiment named TER is being conducted with the objectives to identify the thermal properties, as well as to enhance the knowledge on THM processes in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory (France). The in situ experiment has being switched on from early 2006. The heater, 3 m length, is designed to inject the power in the undisturbed zone at 6 m from the gallery wall. A heater packer is inflated in a metallic tubing. During the experiment, numerous sensors are emplaced in the surrounding rock and are experienced to monitor the evolution in temperature, pore-water pressure and deformation. The models and numerical codes applied should be validated by comparing the modeling results with the measurements. In parallel, some lab testing have been achieved in order to compare the results given with two different scales (cm up to meter scale). In this paper, we present a general description of the TER experiment with installation of the heater equipment and the surrounding instrumentation. Details of the in situ measurements of temperature, pore-pressure and strain evolutions are given for the several heating and cooling phases. The thermal conductivity and some predominant parameters in THM processes (as linear thermal expansion coefficient and permeability) will be discussed. (authors)

  17. Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland-Research Program And Key Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, C. O.; Bossart, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants and the potential for self-sealing, has brought clay formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation, the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NW Switzerland is an important international test site for researching clay formations. Research is carried out in the underground facility, which is located adjacent to the security gallery of the Mont Terri motorway tunnel. Fifteen partners from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan participate in the project. The objectives of the research program are to analyze the hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the Opalinus Clay, to determine the changes induced by the excavation of galleries and by heating of the rock formation, to test sealing and container emplacement techniques and to evaluate and improve suitable investigation techniques. For the safety of deep geological disposal, it is of key importance to understand the processes occurring in the undisturbed argillaceous environment, as well as the processes in a disturbed system, during the operation of the repository. The objectives are related to: 1. Understanding processes and mechanisms in undisturbed clays and 2. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations. Experiments of the first group are dedicated to: i) Improvement of drilling and excavation technologies and sampling methods; ii) Estimation of hydrogeological, rock mechanical and geochemical parameters of the undisturbed Opalinus Clay. Upscaling of parameters from laboratory to in situ scale; iii) Geochemistry of porewater and natural gases; evolution of porewater over time scales; iv) Assessment of long-term hydraulic transients associated with erosion and thermal

  18. Opportunities for Multidisciplinary Research in Partnership with Rock Engineers at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughton, C.

    2008-12-01

    For the last half century the physics community has increasingly turned to the use of underground space to conduct basic research. The community is currently planning to conduct a new generation of underground experiments at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). DUSEL will be constructed within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Gold Mine, located in Lead, South Dakota. Physics proposals call for the construction of new caverns in which to conduct major new experiments. Some of the proposed laboratory facilities will be significantly larger and deeper than any previously constructed. The talk will highlight possible opportunities for integrating multi-disciplinary research in to the cavern construction program, and will stress the need to work closely with design and construction contractors to ensure that research goals can be achieve with minimal impact on project work. The constructors of large caverns should be particularly receptive to, and encouraging of geoscience research that could improve the engineering characterization of the rock mass. An improved understanding of the rock mass, as the host construction material, would result in a more reliable cavern design and construction process, and a reduced construction risk to the Project.

  19. Coordinated underground measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides for plasma physics research.

    PubMed

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Fenyvesi, András; Bandac, Iulian; Degering, Detlev; Ianni, Aldo; Laubenstein, Matthias; de Vismes-Ott, Anne; Marissens, Gerd; Stroh, Heiko; Lutter, Guillaume; Son, Soohyun; Hong, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Junghee; Cheon, Mun Seung; Jo, Jungmin; Braun, Mihály; Németh, József; Zoletnik, Sándor; Bonheure, Georges

    2016-12-24

    Forty-eight samples made of CaF2, LiF and YVO4 were placed inside the KSTAR Tokamak and irradiated by neutrons and charged particles from eight plasma pulses. The aim was to provide information for plasma diagnostics. Due to the short pulse durations, the activities induced in the samples were low and therefore measurements were performed in five low-background underground laboratories. Details of the underground measurements, together with data on the quality control amongst the radiometric laboratories, are presented.

  20. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA.

    PubMed

    Osburn, Magdalena R; LaRowe, Douglas E; Momper, Lily M; Amend, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to -328 mV), and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe(2+) from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and Σ S(2-) from 7 to 2778μg/L). As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density) and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will significantly

  1. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Momper, Lily M.; Amend, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to −328 mV), and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and Σ S2- from 7 to 2778μg/L). As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density) and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will significantly

  2. Power plant of high safety for underground nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    An ecologically pure, reliable, and economic nuclear power station is based on the use of nuclear power plants with the liquid-metal coolant. This plant with the inherent safety is protected from external influences due to the underground accommodations in geologically stable formations such as granites, cambrian clays, and salt deposits. The design features of this underground plant are described.

  3. [Research on the sensitivity of geochemical of underground river in Chongqing Xueyu Cave].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shang-Quan; Yang, Ping-Heng; Yin, Jian-Jun; Mao, Hai-Hong; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Quoted geochemical susceptivity index and isosensitive line on geochemical susceptivity, analyzed the data of underground rivers of Xueyu Cave in Chongqing from September 2010 to August 2011, we found that the chemical composition of the underground river was controlled by the bedrock, due to the composition of high concentration of Ca2+ and low concentration of Mg2+. Owing to the effects of the monsoon, water chemistry was different between drought season and rainy season: the value of [Mg2+]/[Ca2+] was 0.018-0.051 in the rainy season, but in dry season the value was 0.038-0.064. The value of [HCO3(-)]/[SO4(2-)] was 4.86-36.62 in the rainy season, and 6.23-46.67 in the dry season. The seasonal change of Karstification made Ca2+ and HCO3(-) become the most sensitive ion. As a result of the special hydrogeological structure in Karat area, rain, surface water and groundwater transformed rapidly, which caused the underground river was sensitive to agricultural activities, especially for Cl- and NO3(-), and their sensitive indices were 0.286 and 0.022 respectively. The influence of tourism activities on the underground river was less than the management. The management work of ecological system should be strengthen in the recharge area, thus the largest economic and environmental benefits in the Karst area could be achieved.

  4. [Experimental research on in-situ auto-monitoring for underground sewage pipeline leakage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Fu, Teng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhan-Kun

    2012-12-01

    The leakage of underground sewage pipes may seriously affect the soil and the environment of groundwater. In this paper, an in-situ automatic monitoring device on basis of multi-electrode resistivity method was developed for the leakage of underground sewage pipelines, and it was validated by a simulated experiment in laboratory that the feasibility of the new device is feasible for real-time monitoring the leakage of underground sewage pipelines at many different groundwater levels. The experimental results indicated that small leakage of sewage pipelines could be rapidly detected by the developed monitoring device when the pipeline was located in the vadose zone. The leakage could also be monitored in a prompt manner when the pipeline was located near the groundwater level, and the extent of pollutant leakage could be speculated with the gradient change in resistivity of the soil layer above the pipeline. When the pipeline was located below the groundwater level, the device could only monitor the leakage if it reached a certain concentration to produce notable changes in resistivity, because of the rapid mixing and diffusion of the pollutant in groundwater. The device set up in this paper was found capable of real-time automatic monitoring the leakage of underground sewage pipelines buried in different depths and groundwater levels.

  5. In situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Boom Clay at the Mol underground research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavito, A. M.; De Cannière, P.; Kooi, H.

    Studies on the compatibility of Boom Clay with large amounts of nitrate- bearing bituminized radioactive waste have recently raised a particular interest for osmosis-induced effects in this reference formation in Belgium. Indeed, water flow and solute transport may be associated with several types of driving forces, or gradients (chemical, electrical, thermal), in addition to the hydraulic forces, resulting in the so-called coupled flows. Fluid flow caused by driving forces different than hydraulic gradients is referred to as osmosis. Chemical osmosis, the water flow induced by a chemical gradient across a semi-permeable membrane, can generate pressure increase. The question thus arises if there is a risk to create high pore pressures that could damage the near-field of medium-level waste (MLW) galleries, if osmotically driven water flows towards the galleries are produced by the release of large amounts of NaNO 3 (750 t) in the formation. To what extent a low-permeability clay formation such as the Boom Clay acts as an osmotic membrane is thus a key issue to assess the relevance of osmosis phenomena for the disposal of medium-level waste. An in situ osmosis experiment has been conducted at the H ADES underground research laboratory to determine the osmotic efficiency of Boom Clay at the field scale. A recently developed chemical osmosis flow continuum model has been used to design the osmosis experiment, and to interpret the water pressure measurements. Experimental data could be reproduced quite accurately by the model, and the inferred parameter values are consistent with independent determinations for Boom Clay. A rapid water pressure increase (but limited to about a 2 m water column) was observed after 12 h in the filter containing the more saline water. Then, the osmotically induced water pressure slowly decays on several months. So, the experimental results obtained in situ confirm the occurrence of non-hydraulic flow phenomena (chemical osmosis) in a low

  6. Wireless Monitoring Study in the Meuse / Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory, France - 12046

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kei; Eto, Jiro; Tanabe, Hiromi; Mayer, Stefan; Bertrand, Johan; Takamura, Hisashi; Suyama, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Two types of wireless transmission systems using ultra low frequency (8.5 kHz) were developed and used in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillites layer in the Meuse / Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (CMHM URL) in France. Short-range and mid-range transmission antennas received data transmitted from 25 m to 50 m away. From the results of two series of tests, it is clear that transmission is practical when the received voltage is larger than the received noise. However, it is also clear that wireless transmission in the CMHM URL gallery is affected by the electromagnetic noise level and steel components, and the maximum transmission distance depends on the S/N ratio. The mid-range transmission antenna achieved a transmission distance of 240 m in the surface test, where the electromagnetic noise level was small and there was no environmental attenuation. The short-range transmission antenna achieved a transmission distance of 25 m in the surface test and in the CMHM URL gallery. As the clay layer of the CMHM URL had little effect on the attenuation of the electromagnetic field, transmission over 200 m might be possible in the CMHM URL when the electromagnetic noise level is small enough and there are no significant factors enhancing attenuation. But in reality, the possible transmission distance was around 50 m. In order to show the transmitter's ability, it is preferable to keep some distance between steel components and the transmitter. The most effective way to use this transmitter is to put it in a borehole drilled from a gallery to outside of a gallery around 10 m length. In this way, it might be possible to avoid almost of all the influence of steel components. For the position of receiver, the recommendation is the same as for the transmitter. That is, place the receiver where the incoming signal from the transmitter suffers little attenuation from steel components. Therefore, the option of implementing a receiving antenna in a borehole is required

  7. Underground Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhlrott, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of underground buildings constructed primarily during last two decades for various reasons (energy conservation, density of environment, preservation of landscape and historic buildings) notes advantages, disadvantages, and psychological and design considerations. Examples of underground libraries, built mainly in United States, are…

  8. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  9. Maintainability design of underground mining equipment. Volume 2. Maintainability design guidelines. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, E.J.; Unger, R.

    1989-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) determine the extent to which maintainability design concepts and principles have been applied to the design of underground coal mining equipment, (2) try to assess its impact on productivity and personnel safety, and (3) develop maintainability guidelines to enhance the design of new or rebuilt equipment. An equipment design review was completed at ten operational coal mines. The purpose was to identify design approaches and features that enhanced and degraded the maintenance process. Mine management, safety, and maintenance personnel were also interviewed to identify machine specific design problems. Six original equipment manufacturers were visited and the procedures used to enhance the maintainability of their equipment discussed. Volume I of the Final Technical Report presents an overview of procedures and protocol used and a summary of the findings. Volume II includes the maintainability design guide for mobile underground mining equipment.

  10. Maintainability design of underground-mining equipment. Volume 1. Final technical report. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, E.J.; Unger, R.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) determine the extent to which maintainability design concepts and principles have been applied to the design of underground coal mining equipment, (2) try to assess its impact on productivity and personnel safety, and (3) develop maintainability guidelines to enhance the design of new or rebuilt equipment. An equipment design review was completed at ten operational coal mines. The purpose was to identify design approaches and features that enhanced and degraded the maintenance process. Mine management, safety, and maintenance personnel were also interviewed to identify machine specific design problems. Six original equipment manufacturers were visited and the procedures used to enhance the maintainability of their equipment discussed. Volume I of the Final Technical Report presents an overview of procedures and protocol used and a summary of the findings. Volume II includes the maintainability design guide for mobile underground mining equipment.

  11. Life in Inner Space: Subsurface Microbiology Investigations in Underground Research Laboratories and Deep Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Onstott, T. C.; van Heerden, E.; Kieft, T. L.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    extinct life beyond Earth as well, as Mars, like the Precambrian cratons, is dominated by billion year old tectonically quiescent geologic terrains, some with serpentinized ultramafics capable of sustaining production of hydrogen and potentially other reduced gases. Taking advantage of deep boreholes, subsurface mines and deep research laboratories worldwide, researchers in geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and genomics are mobilizing to explore Earth's "Inner Space". The presentation will highlight work at underground sites in 2-3 billion year old Precambrian Shield rocks in South Africa, Canada and Finland where isotope geochemistry has identified large accumulations of free H2 gas, methane, higher hydrocarbons and noble gases dissolved in saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of millions of years. Within these fracture waters, a low biomass chemolithotrophic microbial community couples H2 consumption to sulfate-reduction to eke out an existence at maintenance levels in an exotic outpost of life far from the photosphere.

  12. HPPP Hydromechanical tests and developments at the LSBB Underground Research Laboratory (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LSBB is a French National Underground Facility dedicated to the observation of coupled THMC processes in the shallow crust. This URL is nested at a 500m depth in a perfect analogue to current middle-eastern oil carbonate reservoirs with porosity varying between 5 and 20%. LSBB galleries give a direct access to the unaltered reservoir porosity under a realistic state of natural stresses and at a meter-to-decameter scale which is the borehole near-field crucial scale in all reservoir engineering problems. The very low seismo-electro-magnetic noise in the LSBB underground environment allowed to conduct high accuracy hydromechanical experiments that were designed (i) to test and develop the High Pulse Poro-Elasticity Protocol (HPPP) and (ii) to improve the knowledge of stress flow coupling processes in fractured-porous reservoirs. The HPPP project relies in the development of a downhole probe that allows synchronous pressure/3D-deformation monitoring of the rock response to a localized source made of a water pressure pulse generated in an injection chamber between packers. The use of Bragg fiber-optic sensors makes it possible to conduct a wide range of frequencies (1-500 Hz) and high accuracy (10-6) sampling of pressure and deformations for the in situ study of variations of Biot-Gassman parameters at the metric to decameter scale. We present some preliminary results from a set of HPPP pressure pulse tests that were performed in boreholes drilled from a horizontal gallery of the LSBB URL. The HPPP protocol enabled to detect infinitesimal deformation components both radial and axial to the borehole related to the complex 3D-deformation of a pressurized 3m thick fractured-porous layer. The realistic experimental conditions of the LSBB URL galleries maked the method look promising to characterize and actively monitor hydraulic and mechanical properties variations of rocks within deep boreholes and underground facilities.

  13. Research and design of the electronics system for the underground dark matter detection experiment in IHEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, H.; Xiaoshan, J.; Jie, Z.; Wei, W.; Gang, L.

    2015-03-01

    The underground dark matter experiment in IHEP searches for direct detection of dark matter using CsI(Na) as detector material. Rare nuclear recoil events of dark matter particles scattering off the target material will be detected by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This paper describes the electronics system structure we chose for this detector. It focuses on the design of the main modules, the high-speed ADC module and the 2-level data acquisition module. Some performance results are presented at the end.

  14. Fracture characterization and fracture-permeability estimation at the underground research laboratory in southeastern Manitoba, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1988-01-01

    Various conventional geophysical well logs were obtained in conjunction with acoustic tube-wave amplitude and experimental heat-pulse flowmeter measurements in two deep boreholes in granitic rocks on the Canadian shield in southeastern Manitoba. The objective of this study is the development of measurement techniques and data processing methods for characterization of rock volumes that might be suitable for hosting a nuclear waste repository. One borehole, WRA1, intersected several major fracture zones, and was suitable for testing quantitative permeability estimation methods. The other borehole, URL13, appeared to intersect almost no permeable fractures; it was suitable for testing methods for the characterization of rocks of very small permeability and uniform thermo-mechanical properties in a potential repository horizon. Epithermal neutron , acoustic transit time, and single-point resistance logs provided useful, qualitative indications of fractures in the extensively fractured borehole, WRA1. A single-point log indicates both weathering and the degree of opening of a fracture-borehole intersection. All logs indicate the large intervals of mechanically and geochemically uniform, unfractured granite below depths of 300 m in the relatively unfractured borehole, URL13. Some indications of minor fracturing were identified in that borehole, with one possible fracture at a depth of about 914 m, producing a major acoustic waveform anomaly. Comparison of acoustic tube-wave attenuation with models of tube-wave attenuation in infinite fractures of given aperture provide permeability estimates ranging from equivalent single-fractured apertures of less than 0.01 mm to apertures of > 0.5 mm. One possible fracture anomaly in borehole URL13 at a depth of about 914 m corresponds with a thin mafic dike on the core where unusually large acoustic contrast may have produced the observed waveform anomaly. No indications of naturally occurring flow existed in borehole URL13; however

  15. Hydraulic Monitoring of Low-Permeability Argillite at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Cruchaudet, Martin

    ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Déchets Radioactifs) has developed an electromagnetic permanent gauge (EPG) for long term monitoring of pore pressures in low permeability Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The EPG is a pressure gauge that is permanently cemented into a borehole with no wire or tubing connections. The EPG transmits its data electromagnetically through the rock. Improvements in batteries have extended the life of the EPG to six years or more. Data from EPG installations in two holes near ANDRAs underground laboratory provide information on hydraulic conductivity and head. The heads in the argillites of the laboratory site are higher than heads in the two encasing carbonate units. These anomalous overpressures provide evidence for the very low permeability of the rock. Possible mechanisms for the overpressure include osmotic flows due to chemical potential gradients or delayed responses to the evolution of the regional groundwater hydrodynamics.

  16. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  17. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10-7-10-8 m/s and that of influx is about 10-4-10-1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  18. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring and summer of 1977. The test involved only two process wells but also had twelve water monitoring wells, eight in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and four in an aquifer above the coal seam. The test was designed to obtain information regarding the effects of the process on groundwater within the target seam and the overlying aquifer. The site for Hanna III had a low productivity aquifer above the Hanna No. 1 seam. The wells within the seam and the overlying aquifer were placed in such a manner that maximum information on groundwater flow and quality could be obtained. This report covers: (1) site selection and characterization; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  20. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  1. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  2. Underground physics with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  3. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-06-09

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  4. Underground physics with DUNE

    DOE PAGES

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-06-09

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  5. FROGS (Friends of Granites) report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Calvin

    This VGP News, which is devoted to petrology, is a good one for noting the existence of FROGS. FROGS is, as the name suggests, an informal organization of people whose research relates in one way or another to granitic rocks. Its purpose has been to promote communication among geoscientists with different perspectives and concerns about felsic plutonism. Initially, a major focus was experimental petrology and integration of field-oriented and lab-oriented viewpoints; now that there is the opportunity to communicate with the Eos readership, an obvious additional goal will be to bring together volcanic and plutonic views of felsic magmatism.FROGS first gathered in late 1982 under the guidance of E-an Zen and Pete Toulmin (both at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Va.), who saw a need for greater interaction among those interested in granites and for renewed, focused experimental investigations. They produced two newsletters (which were sent out by direct mail) and organized an informal meeting at the Geological Society of America meeting at Indianapolis, Ind., and then turned over the FROG reins to Sue Kieffer (USGS, Flagstaff, Ariz.) and John Clemens (Arizona State University, Tempe). They generated another newsletter, which was directly mailed to a readership that had grown beyond 200.

  6. Muon flux measurements at the davis campus of the sanford underground research facility with the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR veto system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2017-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR muon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31 ± 0.17) ×10-9 μ /s/cm2. Demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/(ROI-t-y)in the 4-keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value for 76Ge ββ(0ν) decay. This is required for tonne-scale germanium-based searches that will probe the inverted-ordering neutrino-mass parameter space for the effective Majorana neutrino mass in ββ(0ν) decay. Show technical and engineering scalability toward a tonne-scale instrument. Perform searches for additional physics beyond the Standard Model, such as dark matter and axions. The MAJORANA Collaboration has designed a modular instrument composed of two cryostats built from ultra-pure electroformed copper, with each cryostat capable of housing over 20 kg of HPGe detectors. The MAJORANADEMONSTRATOR contains 30 kg of detectors fabricated from Ge material enriched to 88% in 76Ge and another 15 kg fabricated from natural Ge (7.8% 76Ge). The modular approach allows us to assemble and optimize each cryostat independently, providing a fast deployment with minimal effect on already-operational detectors.Starting from the innermost cavity, the cryostats are surrounded by a compact graded shield composed of an inner layer of electroformed copper, a layer of commercially sourced C10100 copper, high-purity lead, an active muon veto, borated polyethylene, and pure polyethylene shielding. The cryostats, copper, and lead shielding are enclosed in a radon exclusion box and rest on an over-floor table that has openings for the active muon veto and polyethylene shielding panels situated below the detector. The entire experiment is located in a clean

  7. Effectiveness of granite cleaning procedures in cultural heritage: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Rivas, T; López, A J; Fiorucci, M P; Ramil, A

    2016-11-15

    Most of the Cultural Heritage built in NW Iberian Peninsula is made of granite which exposition to the environment leads to the formation of deposits and coatings, mainly two types: biological colonization and sulphated black crusts. Nowadays, another form of alteration derives from graffiti paints when these are applied as an act of vandalism. A deep revision needs to be addressed considering the severity of these deterioration forms on granite and the different cleaning effectiveness achieved by cleaning procedures used to remove them. The scientific literature about these topics on granite is scarcer than on sedimentary carbonate stones and marbles, but the importance of the granite in NW Iberian Peninsula Cultural Heritage claims this review centred on biological colonization, sulphated black crusts and graffiti on granite and their effectiveness of the common cleaning procedures. Furthermore, this paper carried out a review of the knowledge about those three alteration forms on granite, as well as bringing together all the major studies in the field of the granite cleaning with traditional procedures (chemical and mechanical) and with the recent developed technique based on the laser ablation. Findings concerning the effectiveness evaluation of these cleaning procedures, considering the coating extraction ability and the damage induced on the granite surface, are described. Finally, some futures research lines are pointed out.

  8. Evolution of petrophysical properties of across natural faults: a study on cores from the Tournemire underground research laboratory (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnelye, Audrey; David, Christian; Schubnel, Alexandre; Wassermann, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Mélody; Henry, Pierre; Guglielmi, Yves; Castilla, Raymi; Dick, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Faults in general, and in clay materials in particular, have complex structures that can be linked to both a polyphased tectonic history and the anisotropic nature of the material. Drilling through faults in shaly materials allows one to measure properties such as the structure, the mineralogical composition, the stress orientation or physical properties. These relations can be investigated in the laboratory in order to have a better understanding on in-situ mechanisms. In this study we used shales of Toarcian age from the Tournemire underground research laboratory (France). We decided to couple different petrophysical measurements on core samples retrieved from a borehole drilled perpendicularly to a fault plane, and the fault size is of the order of tens of meters. This 25m long borehole was sampled in order to perform several types of measurements: density, porosity, saturation directly in the field, and velocity of elastic waves and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in the laboratory. For all these measurements, special protocols were developed in order to preserve as much as possible the saturation state of the samples. All these measurements were carried out in three zones that intersects the borehole: the intact zone , the damaged zone and the fault core zone. From our measurements, we were able to associate specific properties to each zone of the fault. We then calculated Thomsen's parameters in order to quantify the elastic anisotropy across the fault. Our results show strong variations of the elastic anisotropy with the distance to the fault core as well as the occurrence of anisotropy reversal.

  9. Numerical Simulation Research of Gas Migration Laws on Real Underground Mining Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S. Y.; Chen, X. X.; Dong, L. H.; Li, Z.

    In order to show gas migration process visually and research gas migration laws at different status when gas gushed from driving working face and then migrated along the roadway, we used FLUENT to research the characters of gas migration when wind velocities were 6m / s, 8m / s, 10m / s, and gas emission speeds were 10m / s, 30m / s and 50m / s on real atmospheric pressure, moisture content, viscosity coefficient of the mixed gas and other real roadway conditions. We derived the following results: Gas group gather together at the bottom of the roadway when it gush from driving working face by wind action, and then rise to the top gradually. Its volume increased while gas concentration came down in the process of migration. Attenuation degree of gas group diminished slower as the volume of gas group nun larger when the wind velocity is constant. Gas attenuation degree diminished slower as wind speed came down while gas emission volume is constant. Contrarily, wind speed is constant, the volume of gas emission became larger the maximum values of gas group became much more approximated to power function.

  10. Carbon transformations by attached bacterial populations in granitic groundwater from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine.

    PubMed

    Ekendahl, S; Pedersen, K

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents and compares the assimilation rates of CO2 and lactate, and the lactate respiration rates, of attached bacterial populations growing in slowly flowing groundwater (1-3 mm s-1) from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine, Sweden. The bacteria studied grew in anoxic, high-pH (9-10) and low-redox artesian groundwater flowing up through tubing from two levels of a borehole designated V2, 812-820 m and 970-1240 m below ground. Bacteria were allowed to attach to and grow on sterile glass microscope slides in laminar-flow reactors connected to the flowing groundwater. Total numbers of bacteria were counted by acridine orange direct counts. The bacteria grew slowly, with doubling times of 34 d at 10 degrees C for the 812-820 m population, 23 d for the 970-1240 m population at 10 degrees C and 16 d for this population at 20 degrees C. Numbers of attached bacteria reached between 10(6) and 10(7) bacteria cm-2. The populations at the two levels of the borehole were different in physiology as well as in phylogeny and reflected the heterogeneity between the sampling levels. The earlier proposed presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria could not be confirmed. This is discussed in relation to results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. The CO2 assimilation rates (as mol CO2 cm-2 h-1, using liquid scintillation techniques) increased with depth and temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The GRANIT spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan; Beau, M; Kreuz, Michael; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Kurlov, V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K.; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

  12. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of

  13. A summary of current Bureau research into the effects of whole-body vibration and shock on operators of underground mobile equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Love, A.C.; Unger, R.L.; Bobick, T.G.; Fowkes, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses current research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock on underground mobile equipment operators. The highlights of a comprehensive literature review of WBV, shock, and seating are presented. Factors discussed include health and physiological effects, comfort, performance, and fatigue. Vibration data were collected from shuttle cars and ramcars at several underground coal mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. The data were formatted so that they could be used to drive the Bureau's motion platform, and to compare them with ANSI S3-1979, Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration. Human subject testing in the Bureau's vibration research laboratory evaluated the effects of two different seat angles and of the presence or absence of vibration and of foam padding on heart rate, blood pressure, and subjective discomfort. Only vibration significantly increased heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressures. Vibration and a steel seat had a significant effect on subjective discomfort. The apparatus used for these tests and the experimental procedures are described in detail. Recommendations are made for additional research on the exposure of underground mining machine operators to WBV and shock.

  14. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  15. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  16. Climax granite test results

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-01-15

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

  17. Hydrogeological conceptual model determined from baseline and construction phase groundwater pressure and surface tilt-meter data at the Mizunami underground research laboratory, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Salden, Walter; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Arai, Takashi; Matsuki, Koji

    2007-07-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed based on pressure responses observed at multilevel pressure monitoring zones in seven boreholes and surface tilt data in and around the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory site. Pressure changes caused by some earthquakes, cross-hole hydraulic testing, and shaft excavation activities are considered. Surface tilt has been measured from the half way of the shaft excavation phase. The shaft excavation has been commenced from July 2003 with two shafts (Main shaft and Ventilation shaft). By the end of October 2005, discharging of water in the shafts has been halted at the depths of 172 m and 191 m respectively to allow modifications to be made to the water treatment facility due to an excess of F and B concentration in the water. This results in the recovery of the groundwater levels and filling of the underground workings. Beginning in February 2006 pumping has been resumed and the underground workings have been re-occupied. Continuous groundwater pressure and surface tilt measurements with some numerical analysis during the shaft excavation phase show the existence of the flow barrier fault predicted from the surface-based investigation phase and hydraulic parameter around the shafts. (authors)

  18. Objectives and Current Status of the IAEA Network of Centers of Excellence: Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M. J.; Knapp, M. R.

    2003-02-27

    Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) to develop and demonstrate technologies for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes have been established for national purposes by several Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Under the auspices of the IAEA, nationally developed URLs and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form a Network of Centers of Excellence for training in and development of waste disposal technologies. Experience gained in the operation of the facilities, and through associated experimentation and demonstrations, will be transferred to participating Member States through hands-on work at the facilities. The Network consists of Network Members and Network Participants who share co-operative activities. Network Members are owners of facilities who have offered them to be part of the Network. At this time there are eight Members consisting of six underground facilities, a laboratory, and a university. Network Participants can potentially come from any interested IAEA Member State having spent nuclear fuel for disposal, with or without an established program for geologic disposal. There are presently about 15 Network Participants. A significant Network activity beginning in 2003 will be a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on characterization and evaluation of swelling clays for use in engineered barrier systems of geologic repositories. At the end of this project, every involved Member State should be able to identify and characterize a swelling clay that is suitable for use in a geologic repository. As the Network grows, additional CRPs to be carried out in the Underground Research Facilities of the Network Members will be defined.

  19. Granite Symposia and Working Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Calvin

    In addition to the Hutton Symposium on Granites and Related Rocks to be held in Canberra, Australia, Sept. 23-28, 1991, two other international symposia on granitoids will take place during 1991: the inaugural meeting and field excursion of the proposed IGCP project Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks, to be held in Helsinki, Finland, July 29-August 4, and Granites and Geodynamics, to be held in Moscow, August 6-9. Contacts for these meetings are: Hutton Symposium, Bruce Chappell, Dept. of Geology, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; Rapakivi Granites, Ilmari Haapala or Tapani Ramo, Dept. of Geology, Division of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Helsinki, Snelmaninkatu 5, 60170 Helsinki 17, Finland. Melt segregation and migration in partly molten rocks will be the topic of a special session at the Geological Association/Mineralogical Association of Canada meeting in Toronto, May 27-29, 1991.

  20. From Seismic Characterization to Coupled Process Testing Along Drifts at LSBB as an Example of Establishing an International Facility for a Worldwide Network of Underground Research Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, S.; Wang, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit (LSBB) at Rustrel France is a French National Instrumented Infrastructure, CNRS, dedicated to inter-Disciplinary Underground Science and Technology. The underground galleries and the surrounding carbonate rock formations are well characterized by seismic imaging studies obtained with sensors both along the ridges and underground along the drifts. The facility is horizontally accessible with the main tunnel following an L-shape. The deepest is 518m below the surface. The main tunnel continues with a long gallery below the ridge, and ends with an escape shaft to the surface. Electrical and fiber optic communication cables connect the galleries and the underground to the huts on the surface. All data from LSBB are distributed on line (http://lsbb.oca.eu) and data from the 3D broadband seismic array are fed in real time (delay of ~4s) to the European Union seismic network (see streams RUSF_01, 03, 04, 05, 06, and 07 at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/Data-info/orbstats.html). Concurrently with establishing the seismic network, the LSBB characterizes its low noise environment, including its low ambient magnetic noise with a (SQUID)2 magnetometer, located 518m below the surface in a shielded cage. The magnetic noise floor in the cage is lower than 2fT/SQRT(Hz). Together with the seismic network and the magnetic sensor, tiltmeters, radiation sensors, groundwater pressure and chemistry monitoring devices are installed to characterize the unsaturated environment along the tunnel. Seasonal seepage observations are also collected. 3 national research projects are currently carried out along dedicated tunnels: (1) the project on High-Pulse Poroelasticity Protocol (HPPP) for geophysical monitoring of CO2 injection in reservoirs (http://hppp.unice.fr/), focusing currently on hydromechanical testing in carbonate rock; (2) the MAXWELL electromagnetic project on broadband imaging which employs joint resistivity and permittivity inversion (http

  1. Production of the neutron-induced isotope, 73Ga, at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility with the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Pinghan; Majorana Demonstrator Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We report a study of the production of the neutron-induced isotope, 73Ga, in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR array at the underground Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility 4850 ft level. This isotope has a half-life time of 4.86 hours and can be generated through interactions between fast neutrons and germanium isotopes. Using its unique decay signature, we have identified three candidate events of 73Ga in the commissioning data of MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. Based on these three events, we estimate the corresponding neutron energy spectrum and the radioactive background generated by neutron-induced isotopes. The background from neutron-induced isotopes has been also calculated in the Region of Interest for 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decays. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Numbers DE-AC02-05CH11231, DE-AC52-06NA25396, DE-FG02-97ER41041, DE-FG02-97ER41033, DE-FG02-97ER41042, DE-SC0012612, DE-FG02-10ER41715, DE-SC0010254, and DE-FG02-97ER4102.

  2. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  3. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  4. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 6. Hanna IVA and IVB field test research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. The reports in this series include: The Hanna IV test was designed as the first underground coal gasification test using commercial well spacings of 100 and 150 feet between well pairs in a linear 3-well pattern. The test was initiated in late 1977 and completed in late 1979. This long duration was due to unfavorable geologic conditions (faulting) which could not be successfully overcome resulting in the test being split into Hanna IVA and Hanna IVB with about one year between the conduct of each. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 5 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Analysis of occupational health hazards and associated risks in fuzzy environment: a case research in an Indian underground coal mine.

    PubMed

    Samantra, Chitrasen; Datta, Saurav; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a unique hierarchical structure on various occupational health hazards including physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards, and associated adverse consequences in relation to an underground coal mine. The study proposes a systematic health hazard risk assessment methodology for estimating extent of hazard risk using three important measuring parameters: consequence of exposure, period of exposure and probability of exposure. An improved decision making method using fuzzy set theory has been attempted herein for converting linguistic data into numeric risk ratings. The concept of 'centre of area' method for generalized triangular fuzzy numbers has been explored to quantify the 'degree of hazard risk' in terms of crisp ratings. Finally, a logical framework for categorizing health hazards into different risk levels has been constructed on the basis of distinguished ranges of evaluated risk ratings (crisp). Subsequently, an action requirement plan has been suggested, which could provide guideline to the managers for successfully managing health hazard risks in the context of underground coal mining exercise.

  6. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  7. Permeability Evolution of Granite Gneiss During Triaxial Creep Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Xu, W. Y.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, R. B.

    2016-09-01

    Permeability is an important factor for seepage analysis of rock material, and a key factor in ensuring the safety of underground works. In this study, the permeability evolution of granite gneiss during triaxial creep tests was investigated. In the context of an underground oil storage cavern in China, a series of hydro-mechanical coupling creep tests were conducted on rock cores of granite gneiss at three different pore pressures to reveal the effect of pore pressure on the permeability evolution and to investigate the correlation between the permeability and volumetric strain during the creep process. During the creep tests, the permeability decreases in the initial loading phase. At all deviatoric stress levels, the permeability remains stable in the steady creep stage and increases rapidly in the accelerated creep stage. Based on the test data, the initial permeability, steady permeability and peak permeability at various stress levels are defined. The effect of pore pressure on the permeability is captured by a linear model. In addition, the relationship between permeability and volumetric strain can be described as a process divided into three phases, with different functions in each phase.

  8. Vermont granite workers' mortality study.

    PubMed

    Costello, J; Graham, W G

    1988-01-01

    A cohort mortality study was carried out in Vermont granite workers who had been employed between the years 1950 and 1982. The cohort included men who had been exposed to high levels of granite dust prior to 1938-1940 (average cutters to 40 million parts/cubic foot), and those employed at dust levels after 1940, which on average were less than 10 million parts/cubic foot. Deaths were coded by a qualified nosologist and standardized mortality ratios were calculated. The results confirm previous studies that show that death rates from silicosis and tuberculosis, the major health threats in the years before 1940, were essentially eliminated after dust controls. However, we found excessive mortality rates from lung cancer in stone shed workers who had been employed prior to 1930, and hence had been exposed to high levels of granite dust. When information was available, 100% of those dying from lung cancer had been smokers.

  9. Status of LLNL granite projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  10. First radon measurements and occupational exposure assessments in underground geodynamic laboratory the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ Castle (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the results of the first radon activity concentration measurements conducted continuously between 17(th) May 2014 and 16(th) May 2015 in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ. The data were registered with the use of three Polish semiconductor SRDN-3 detectors located the closest (SRDN-3 No. 6) to and the furthest (SRDN-3 No. 3) from the facility entrance, and in the fault zone (SRDN-3 No. 4). The study was conducted to characterize the radon behaviour and check it possibility to use with reference to long- and short-term variations of radon activity concentration observed in sedimentary rocks strongly fractured and intersected by systems of multiple faults, for integrated comparative assessments of changes in local orogen kinetics. The values of radon activity concentration in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) Space Research Centre in Książ undergo changes of a distinctly seasonal character. The highest values of radon activity concentration are recorded from late spring (May/June) to early autumn (October), and the lowest - from November to April. Radon activity concentrations varied depending on the location of measurement points. Between late spring and autumn they ranged from 800 Bq·m(-3) to 1200 Bq·m(-3), and even 3200 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. Between November and April, values of radon activity concentration are lower, ranging from 500 Bq·m(-3) to 1000 Bq·m(-3) and 2700 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. The values of radon activity concentration recorded in the studied facility did not undergo short-term changes in either the whole annual measuring cycle or any of its months. Effective doses received by people staying in the underground laboratory range from 0.001 mSv/h to 0.012 mSv/h. The mean annual effective dose, depending on the measurement site, equals 1 or is slightly higher than 10 mSv/year, while the maximum

  11. Natural polish in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman-Tov, S.; Brodsky, E. E.; Stock, G. M.; White, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Fault mirrors are highly smooth and reflective rock surfaces that are found in many shear zones around the world. Recent studies suggest that fault mirrors are formed during high velocity slip on faults and therefore may serve as an indicator for seismic slip. In contrast, other studies suggest that fault mirrors may form under high normal stress at sub-seismic velocities and at room temperature. Fault mirrors are observed within the fault core of many rock type environments including limestone, dolomite, chert and rhyolite. However, to the best of our knowledge, they are missing in faults hosted in granite. Moreover, mirror-like surfaces form during high velocity rotary shear experiments in many types of rock but not in sheared granite blocks. The absence of fault mirrors in granite is surprising, particularly since there exists extensive glacial polish on granitic bedrock. Glacial polish describes the smooth and reflective rock surfaces formed at the base of glaciers that carved the underlying bedrock. In addition to their import for studies of glacial dynamics and geomorphology, glacially polished surfaces may hold some significance for fault mechanics. Glacial polish and fault mirrors share many similarities. At field exposures they both present highly smooth surfaces and striations that clearly point in the slip direction. Studies on carbonate fault mirrors showed that individual highly reflective surfaces are composed of a thin nanograin layer. Preliminary SEM observations on samples collected from granitic rocks at Yosemite National Park suggest that these polished surfaces are also coated by an ultrathin cohesive layer composed of nanograins. Although there are clear differences between glacial and fault-zone environments, the similarity between these textures, and the fact that both are formed during shear, suggest that a similar mechanism is responsible for their formation. The comparison raises questions about the importance of high fluid contents and

  12. The potential for underground coal gasification in Indiana. Final report to the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research (CCTR)

    SciTech Connect

    John Rupp; Evgeny Shafirovich; Arvind Varma; Maria Mastalerz; Agnieszka Drobniak

    2009-03-15

    The preliminary feasability assessment analyses the potential for underground coal gasification within Indiana. A review of existing worldwide operations and geological requirements demonstrates that the application of UCG practices in Indiana has very significant potential benefits, but careful analysis of the specific geological conditions, physical and chemical properties of coals, water resources, coupled with an assessment of the state-of-the-art technologies must be conducted to identify potential UCG sites and to determine the feasibility of employing this technology in Indiana. Of particular importance is the relatively small number of active and successful operators of UCG projects around the world and that collaborations with one or two among them could be beneficial for all concerned. There are significant opportunities for economic development that will provide dividends for first movers in the Illinois basin. The report recommends nine 'promising zones' for UCG in two large coal deposits (the Springfield and Seelyville coal beds) in Knox, Gibson, Vanderburgh, Warrick and Posey counties. 69 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs., 1 app.

  13. [Research on the spectral feature and identification of the surface vegetation stressed by stored CO2 underground leakage].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Hao; Jiang, Jin-Bao; Steven, Michael D; Gong, A-Du; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-07-01

    With the global climate warming, reducing greenhouse gas emissions becomes a focused problem for the world. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) techniques could mitigate CO2 into atmosphere, but there is a risk in case that the CO2 leaks from underground. The objective of this paper is to study the chlorophyll contents (SPAD value), relative water contents (RWC) and leaf spectra changing features of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress through field experiment. The result shows that the chlorophyll contents and RWC of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress become lower than the control beetroot', and the leaf reflectance increases in the 550 nm region and decreases in the 680nm region. A new vegetation index (R550/R680) was designed for identifying beetroot under CO2 leakage stress, and the result indicates that the vegetation index R550/R680 could identify the beetroots after CO2 leakage for 7 days. The index has strong sensitivity, stability and identification for monitoring the beetroots under CO2 stress. The result of this paper has very important meaning and application values for selecting spots of CCS project, monitoring and evaluating land-surface ecology under CO2 stress and monitoring the leakage spots by using remote sensing.

  14. RESEARCH PAPERS : Palaeomagnetism of the Ross of Mull granite complex, western Scotland: lower Palaeozoic apparent polar wander of the Orthotectonic Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The Ross of Mull granite complex was emplaced near the western margin of the Orthotectonic Caledonides of Scotland in early-mid-Silurian times. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility reflects the post-tectonic character of the pluton and contrasts with magnetic fabrics in adjoining country rocks which record the regional D3 deformation. Palaeomagnetic study identifies two dominant magnetizations. An `A' component is magnetite-resident with distributed blocking temperatures (100-500°C) and normal polarity (D/I=339/-50°, 30 samples, α95=5.6°, palaeomagnetic pole at 12°E, 1°S, dp/dm=5.0/7.5°) it was probably acquired during initial cooling. A `B' magnetization (unblocking temperatures 500-580°C, D/I=195/+21°, 40 samples, α95=4.3°, palaeomagnetic pole at 339°E, 22°S, dp/dm=2.4/4.5°) is of dual polarity and comparable to magnetizations widely recorded in the Younger Granite Suite of the Scottish Caledonides. It does not correlate with the timing of regional isotopic closure as defined by K/Ar thermochron ages and appears to have been imparted during a regional thermochemical event at low temperatures (~250-150°C) and a late stage of cooling of the orogen (~420-410 Ma). Metamorphic facies in the aureole and adjoining country rocks record examples of both A and B magnetizations, together with a low-blocking-temperature (0-350°C) component acquired during late Palaeozoic/early Mesozoic rifting in the Hebridean Basin. Palaeomagnetic poles from the Orthotectonic Caledonides define a late to post-tectonic magnetization record equivalent to a general east to west apparent polar wander trend of late Ordovician-Lower Devonian age. A short-term reversal of this trend is identified during the earlier part of Silurian times so that mid-late Silurian poles are located in a similar position to late Ordovician poles. The overall path coincides with the contemporaneous record from the Paratectonic Caledonides of England and Wales from c. 455 Ma. It is therefore concluded

  15. Emanation of radon from household granite.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E; Haines, Douglas K; Arauzo, Hernando Diaz

    2009-04-01

    Emanation of radon (222Rn) from granite used for countertops and mantels was measured with continuous and integrating radon monitors. Each of the 24 granite samples emitted a measurable amount of radon. Of the two analytical methods that utilized electret-based detectors, one measured the flux of radon from the granite surfaces, and the other one measured radon levels in a glass jar containing granite cores. Additional methods that were applied utilized alpha-scintillation cells and a continuous radon monitor. Measured radon flux from the granites ranged from 2 to 310 mBq m-2 s-1, with most granites emitting <20 mBq m-2 s-1. Emanation of radon from granites encapsulated in airtight containers produced equilibrium concentrations ranging from <0.01 to 11 Bq kg-1 when alpha-scintillation cells were used, and from <0.01 to 4.0 Bq kg-1 when the continuous radon monitor was used.

  16. [Thermal load at workstations in the underground coal mining: Results of research carried out in 6 coal mines].

    PubMed

    Słota, Krzysztof; Słota, Zbigniew; Kułagowska, Ewa

    Statistics shows that almost half of Polish extraction in underground mines takes place at workstations where temperature exceeds 28°C. The number of employees working in such conditions is gradually increasing, therefore, the problem of safety and health protection is still growing. In the present study we assessed the heat load of employees at different workstations in the mining industry, taking into account current thermal conditions and work costs. The evaluation of energy cost of work was carried out in 6 coal mines. A total of 221 miners employed at different workstations were assessed. Individual groups of miners were characterized and thermal safety of the miners was assessed relying on thermal discomfort index. The results of this study indicate considerable differences in the durations of analyzed work processes at individual workstations. The highest average energy cost was noted during the work performed in the forehead. The lowest value was found in the auxiliary staff. The calculated index of discomfort clearly indicated numerous situations in which the admissible range of thermal load exceeded the parameters of thermal load safe for human health. It should be noted that the values of average labor cost fall within the upper, albeit admissible, limits of thermal load. The results of the study indicate that in some cases work in mining is performed in conditions of thermal discomfort. Due to high variability and complexity of work conditions it becomes necessary to verify the workers' load at different workstations, which largely depends on the environmental conditions and work organization, as well as on the performance of workers themselves. Med Pr 2016;67(4):477-498. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Hercynian Granite and Related Mineralisation in Beni Snouss, Western Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacera, Hadj Mohamed; Abdelhak, Boutaleb

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the mineralisation related to the Hercynian granite located in western Algeria by combining geologic, tectonic, mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies. Quartz veins bearing sulphides occur in close spatial association with granitoids, which, representing hydrothermal activities associated with them. Visible but rare gold occurs in a very small quantity connected with arsenopyrite. Barite veins and stock works are developed in the granites where are observed at Mallal and Bouabdous. The vein varies in thickness from a few centimetres up to 2 meters, and their length varies from 10 up to up 100 m. Most of veins are N50 - N75 and 60 to 90 dip.

  18. A Facility Goes Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Norman

    1980-01-01

    Ohio's Sinclair Community College met the challenge of building a campus in an urban area with limited space by connecting the system with underground tunnels. This underground complex has made a comprehensive physical education, recreation, and intercollegiate program available to students and the community. (CJ)

  19. Overcoring in highly stressed granite: Comparison of USBM and modified CSIR devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C. D.; Christiansson, R. C.

    1991-10-01

    An overcoring program in three nearly orthogonal boreholes, intersecting the same rock volume, was carried out in highly stressed Lac du Bonnet granite at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The program was designed to determine if the more commonly used United States Bureau of Mines borehole deformation gauge (USBM gauge) gave similar in situ stress results as a modified Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) triaxial strain cell. A total of 15 successful USBM tests and 17 successful CSIR tests were carried out. The measured mean stress tensor for the USBM results fell within the 90% confidence limits for the CSIR results. The measured CSIR stress tensors were slightly influenced by the orientation of the boreholes, although this phenomenon may be site specific as it is probably related to the amount of stress-induced microcracking that occurs during the overcoring process. The results of the program provided sufficient confidence in the modified CSIR cell to warrant using it as the main overcoring device for future URL overcoring programs.

  20. Thermomechanical properties of Stripa granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, L.

    1982-09-01

    The Stripa material properties testing program was initiated to study, by laboratory testing, the thermomechanical behavior of the Stripa rock mass and to provide material properties for input into numerical programs for simulation of the in situ heater experiments at Stripa. Measurement of elastic moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion of dry, intact samples of Stripa granite was completed in fiscal year 1980. A summary of the most significant findings resulting from tests on six samples are presented.

  1. Laboratory migration experiments with radionuclides and natural colloids in a granite fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilks, Peter; Baik, Min-Hoon

    2001-02-01

    Natural colloids in groundwater could facilitate radionuclide transport, provided the colloids are mobile, are present in sufficient concentrations and can adsorb radionuclides. This paper describes the results of a laboratory migration study carried out with combinations of radionuclides and natural colloids within a fracture in a large granite block to experimentally determine the impact of colloids on radionuclide transport. The 85Sr used in this study is an example of a moderately sorbing radionuclide, while the 241Am is typical of a strongly sorbed radionuclide with very low solubility. The natural colloids used in this study were isolated from granite groundwater from Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL), and consisted of mostly 1-10 nm organic colloids, along with lesser amounts of 10-450 nm colloids (organics and aluminosilicates). The measured coefficients for radionuclide sorption onto these colloids were between 3×10 2 and 1×10 3 ml/g for 85Sr, and between 7×10 4 and 7×10 5 mg/l for 241Am. The 85Sr sorption on the natural colloids appeared to be reversible. Migration experiments in the granite block were carried out by establishing a flow field between two boreholes (out of a total of nine) intersecting a main horizontal fracture. These experiments showed that dissolved 85Sr behaved as a moderately sorbing tracer, while dissolved 241Am was completely adsorbed by the fracture surfaces and showed no evidence of transport. However, when natural colloids were injected together with dissolved 241Am, a small amount of 241Am transport was observed, demonstrating the ability of natural colloids to facilitate the transport of radionuclides with low solubility. Natural colloids had only a minor effect on the transport of 85Sr. In a separate experiment to test the effect of higher colloid concentrations on 85Sr migration, synthetic colloids were produced from Avonlea bentonite. The introduction of a relatively high concentration

  2. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  3. Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite

    SciTech Connect

    Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina; Poteri, Antti

    2007-07-01

    Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

  4. Detection of underground structures and tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H.; Cogbill, A.H.; Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There is a continuing need in the United States defense and drug interdiction for effective over, convert, and standoff means of detecting underground tunnels, structures, and objects. This project sought to begin an assessment of electromagnetic and gravitational gradient detection approaches to the detection of underground structures and tunnels.

  5. Enigmatic reticulated filaments in subsurface granite.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Z; Hernández-Mariné, M; Jurado, V; Dionísio, A; Barquinha, P; Fortunato, E; Afonso, M J; Chaminé, H I; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, geomicrobiologists have focused their researches on the nature and origin of enigmatic reticulated filaments reported in modern and fossil samples from limestone caves and basalt lava tubes. Researchers have posed questions on these filaments concerning their nature, origin, chemistry, morphology, mode of formation and growth. A tentative microbial origin has been elusive since these filaments are found as hollow tubular sheaths and could not be affiliated to any known microorganism. We describe the presence of similar structures in a 16th century granite tunnel in Porto, Northwest Portugal. The reticulated filaments we identify exhibit fine geometry surface ornamentation formed by cross-linked Mn-rich nanofibres, surrounded by a large amount of extracellular polymeric substances. Within these Mn-rich filaments we report for the first time the occurrence of microbial cells.

  6. Understanding Granites: Integrating New and Classical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Philip A.

    Many aspects of granite geology are covered in Understanding Granites: Integrating New and Classical Techniques, a 288-page volume edited by Antonio Castro, Carlos Ferñandez, and Jean-Louis Vigneresse. However, the topics chosen for this collection lean toward the physical, rather than the chemical end of the spectrum. In the introduction to this 16-chapter collection, the authors set the stage by reviewing the groundwork laid by Hutton, Reed, and Bowen; they then discuss the landmark work of Chappell and White, first published in the 1970s, which ushered in the new era of granite research—one that has continued unabated to the present day. Finally, the editors outline some of the perennial questions of granite science, such as the “room problem,” granite ascent and emplacement, and the thermal and petrochemical requirements for granite genesis.

  7. Calculation Method and Distribution Characteristics of Fracture Hydraulic Aperture from Field Experiments in Fractured Granite Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yang-Bing; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yan, E.-Chuan; Chen, Gang; Lü, Fei-fei; Ji, Hui-bin; Song, Kuang-Yin

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the fracture hydraulic aperture and its relation to the mechanical aperture and normal stress is urgently needed in engineering construction and analytical research at the engineering field scale. A new method based on the in situ borehole camera measurement and borehole water-pressure test is proposed for the calculation of the fracture hydraulic aperture. This method comprises six steps. The first step is to obtain the equivalent hydraulic conductivity of the test section from borehole water-pressure tests. The second step is a tentative calculation to obtain the qualitative relation between the reduction coefficient and the mechanical aperture obtained from borehole camera measurements. The third step is to choose the preliminary reduction coefficient for obtaining the initial hydraulic aperture. The remaining three steps are to optimize, using the genetic algorithm, the hydraulic apertures of fractures with high uncertainty. The method is then applied to a fractured granite engineering area whose purpose is the construction of an underground water-sealed storage cavern for liquefied petroleum gas. The probability distribution characteristics of the hydraulic aperture, the relationship between the hydraulic aperture and the mechanical aperture, the hydraulic aperture and the normal stress, and the differences between altered fractures and fresh fractures are all analyzed. Based on the effects of the engineering applications, the method is proved to be feasible and reliable. More importantly, the results of the hydraulic aperture obtained in this paper are different from those results elicited from laboratory tests, and the reasons are discussed in the paper.

  8. Mapping Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Heterogeneities in Fractured Granite through Transient Hydraulic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Y.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Illman, W. A.; Tanaka, T.; Bruines, P.; Onoe, H.; Saegusa, H.; Mao, D.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2005 and 2010, three independent sequential pumping tests were conducted in a fractured granite formation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) site in central Japan. Additional pumping operations were undertaken in the course of excavation of two vertical shafts at the site. During these events, groundwater responses were monitored in multiple observation intervals in several shallow and deep boreholes. In this study, we first visually inspected these responses at all observation intervals induced by each pumping event. We found that some intervals at far-distance boreholes showed rapid, and strong responses, while intervals of boreholes near the vicinity of the pumping locations showed little responses. Moreover, the locations of the rapid and slow responses varied with pumping locations. This preliminary inspection suggested that some boreholes are likely connected via fractures and some are separated by flow barrier(s). Subsequently, these drawdown data sets were analyzed using a three-dimensional (3-D) transient hydraulic tomography (HT) code to estimate the hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) distributions. Results of the analysis depicted several large-scale high K and low K zones and some small-scale features at the MIU site. The locations of these high and low K estimates explain the observed fast and slow groundwater responses, and corroborate with the locations of fractures and fault zones estimated based on geologic information. The HT analysis nevertheless provides a detailed description of the hydraulic characteristics of the fracture and fault zones.

  9. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  10. Science Center Goes Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A unique underground science center at Bluffton College, designed to save energy and preserve trees, rolling landscape, and other environmental features of the campus, is under construction in Bluffton, Ohio. (Author)

  11. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  12. Case study for underground workers at an electric utility: how a research institution, university, and industry collaboration improved occupational health through ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Amy; Usher, Debra; Marklin, Richard; Seeley, Patricia; Yager, Janice W

    2006-08-01

    This article describes a collaboration between a research institution, a university, and a medium-sized electric power utility. Two ergonomics teams were created at the host utility to identify tasks with risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and propose ergonomic interventions for these tasks. Both ergonomics teams focused on tasks performed by underground workers: one team focused on manhole-vault tasks, and the other team focused on direct-buried cable job tasks. Several of the ergonomic interventions were tested in the ergonomics laboratory at the university. The results of one of the laboratory experiments indicated that a 2nd class lever tool reduced muscle forces required to remove and replace a manhole cover as compared with a T-handle attached to a hook and chain. The results of another laboratory experiment demonstrated that a battery-powered cutter reduced muscle forces to cut cable as compared to a manual cutting tool. A collaborative ergonomics effort is an effective method for identifying problematic tasks for workers in a particular industry, evaluating those tasks, and developing best work practices for that type of industry. This approach could be used by other industries in their effort to reduce the incidence, cost, and severity of MSDs in the workplace.

  13. Relationship Between Faults Oriented Parallel and Oblique to Bedding in Neogene Massive Siliceous Mudstones at The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, Akira; Ishii, Eiichi

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanical relationship between bedding-parallel and bedding-oblique faults in a Neogene massive siliceous mudstone at the site of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Hokkaido, Japan, on the basis of observations of drill-core recovered from pilot boreholes and fracture mapping on shaft and gallery walls. Four bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge, named respectively the MM Fault, the Last MM Fault, the S1 Fault, and the S2 Fault (stratigraphically, from the highest to the lowest), were observed in two pilot boreholes (PB-V01 and SAB-1). The distribution of the bedding-parallel faults at 350 m depth in the Horonobe URL indicates that these faults are spread over at least several tens of meters in parallel along a bedding plane. The observation that the bedding-oblique fault displaces the Last MM fault is consistent with the previous interpretation that the bedding- oblique faults formed after the bedding-parallel faults. In addition, the bedding-parallel faults terminate near the MM and S1 faults, indicating that the bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge act to terminate the propagation of younger bedding-oblique faults. In particular, the MM and S1 faults, which have a relatively thick fault gouge, appear to have had a stronger control on the propagation of bedding-oblique faults than did the Last MM fault, which has a relatively thin fault gouge.

  14. Hydrologic analysis of the U.S. Bureau of Mines' underground oil-shale research-facility site, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, R.H.; Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines plans to develop an underground oil-shale research facility near the center of Piceance Creek basin in Colorado. The oil-shale zone, which is to be penetrated by a shaft, is overlain by 1,400 feet of sedimentary rocks, primarily sandstone and marlstone, consisting of two aquifers separated by a confining layer. Three test holes were drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to obtain samples of the oil shale, and to test the hydraulic properties of the two aquifers. The data collected during construction of the test holes were used to update an existing ground-water-flow computer model. The model was used to estimate the maximum amount of water that would have to be pumped to dewater the shaft during its construction. It is estimated that it would be necessary to pump as much as 3,080 gallons per minute to keep the shaft dry. Disposal of waste water and rock are the principal hydrologic problems associated with constructing the shaft. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric studies of Irish radiothermal granites and their geothermal energy potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. F.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Feely, M.

    2013-12-01

    The IRETHERM project seeks to develop a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modeling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), heat-flow (HF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is of key importance in assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Leinster granite, the Galway granite and the buried Kentstown granite. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of an early 1980's EU-funded geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite. In the Galway granite batholith, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Ros a Mhil borehole. The lower heat-flow encountered at the Ros a Mhil borehole suggests that the associated high heat production does not extend to great depth. The buried Kentstown granite has associated with it a significant negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 485 m. Heat production has been measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30m of the granite. The core of this study consists of an ambitious program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, extending over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite extend to depths of 2-5 km. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total

  16. 6. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13731, Granite Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13731, Granite Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE STATION, MAY 24, 1915. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  17. Shotcrete for underground support VI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings consists of papers presented at the Shotcrete for Underground Support VI Conference held in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, May 2-6, 1993. It covers three broad themes concerning shotcrete - engineering, research, and applications. Specifically, the proceedings presents papers on: (1) materials engineering; (2) shotcrete research; (3) engineering design; and (4) tunneling, soil nailing, and mining applications. The book concludes by presenting an international compilation of guidelines and recommendations on shotcrete. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  19. Ecological and genomic profiling of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea in a deep granitic environment.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kohei; Hernsdorf, Alex W; Konno, Uta; Kouduka, Mariko; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Kato, Shingo; Sunamura, Michinari; Hirota, Akinari; Togo, Yoko S; Ito, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Akari; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi; Komatsu, Daisuke D; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishimura, Toyoho; Amano, Yuki; Thomas, Brian C; Banfield, Jillian F; Suzuki, Yohey

    2017-09-08

    Recent single-gene-based surveys of deep continental aquifers demonstrated the widespread occurrence of archaea related to Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens (ANME-2d) known to mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). However, it is unclear whether ANME-2d mediates AOM in the deep continental biosphere. In this study, we found the dominance of ANME-2d in groundwater enriched in sulfate and methane from a 300-m deep underground borehole in granitic rock. A near-complete genome of one representative species of the ANME-2d obtained from the underground borehole has most of functional genes required for AOM and assimilatory sulfate reduction. The genome of the subsurface ANME-2d is different from those of other members of ANME-2d by lacking functional genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases and multiheme cytochromes. In addition, the subsurface ANME-2d genome contains a membrane-bound NiFe hydrogenase gene putatively involved in respiratory H2 oxidation, which is different from those of other methanotrophic archaea. Short-term incubation of microbial cells collected from the granitic groundwater with (13)C-labeled methane also demonstrates that AOM is linked to microbial sulfate reduction. Given the prominence of granitic continental crust and sulfate and methane in terrestrial subsurface fluids, we conclude that AOM may be widespread in the deep continental biosphere.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 8 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.140.

  20. A decade of research of the shallow underground water level and temperature in the area of Mygdonian basin, Northern Greece for precursory phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asteriadis, G.; Contadakis, M. E.

    1994-11-01

    A shallow underground water level and temperature monitoring network was intalled in the area of the lakes Langada and Volvi, in Norhtern Greece by the end of 1983 and was followed since then for a decade. The results so far show that: (a) The atmospheric pressure and the earth tides do not affect the observations of the hallow underground water level in accordance with the results of other investigators while the rainfall does, and (b) although there is not a unique response pattern for all the stations of the network, sharp changes in the underground water level and temperature can be related to earthquakes occurred in this area as pre- and post seismic phenomena.

  1. Dependency of hydromechanical properties of monzonitic granite on confining pressure and fluid pressure under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanling; Xu, Weiya; Lui, Zaobao; Chao, Zhiming; Meng, Qingxiang

    2016-05-01

    Monzonitic granite is a low-permeability rock. Monzonitic granite formations are ideal for underground storage of oil due to their low permeability and high mechanical strength. In this study, a series of coupled hydromechanical triaxial tests are carried out using monzonitic granite specimens. The influence of confining and fluid pressures on stress, strain, and permeability is investigated. Failure characteristics under different confining and fluid pressures are discussed based on the analysis of macro fracture planes and micro scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The test results show that the change of permeability with stress and strain reflects the deformation stages of compaction, compression, crack propagation, coalesce, and failure of cracks. Due to the low porosity, the change of permeability is small in the initial phases of compaction and compression, whereas there is a significant increase in permeability when new cracks start to develop and coalesce. Confining pressures have a significant impact on the strength and permeability, particularly the crack damage stress of the rock. Compared with confining pressure, the effect of fluid pressure on rock strength and crack damage stress is small. For the monzonitic granite specimens tested, changing the confining pressure results in different failure modes, whereas the fluid pressure has a relatively small effect on the failure modes.

  2. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  3. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  5. Drilling effect on subsurface microbial community structure in groundwater from the -250 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ise, K.; Amano, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    The deep geological disposal system is regarded as the most secure and practical disposal method of high-level radioactive waste in the world. In this disposal system, preservation of reducing condition is one of the key requirements, because most of radionuclides have low solubilities in such condition. However, the host rocks near the shafts and galleries would be affected by oxidization during the construction and operation period of a repository (for about 50 years). Therefore, the recovery of reducing condition after closing the repository should be verified. During the recovery processes, it is considered that microbial activities play important roles, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the changes in microbial communities by molecular method to evaluate microbial response toward the oxygen stress. The groundwater samples were collected from a borehole of 250 m depth at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, for two years immediately after drilling of a borehole without any contamination as much as possible. Immediately after drilling of the borehole, the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. was dominated about 65 % of the total clone library. Arcobacter spp. is known as sulfide oxidizer and which can growth chemoautotrophically. Half a year later, the phylotype related to Azoarcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. known as nitrate reducing bacteria increased, instead of the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. One year later, in addition to nitrate reducing bacteria, phylotype related to Dethiobacterspp. known as thiosulfate reducing bacteria was dominantly detected. Two years later, most of detected clones were related to uncultured species such as candidate division WS6 and JS1 which are detected frequently in deep-sea sediments. Our results indicate that these redox sequential reactions could contribute to the recovery and maintenance of reducing conditions and provide a conceptual model for evaluating the capacity to

  6. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  7. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ``Dynamic Stripping`` to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92.

  8. The ANDES underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertou, X.

    2012-09-01

    The ANDES underground laboratory, planned for inclusion in the Agua Negra tunnel crossing the Andes between Argentina and Chile, will be the first deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere. It will be deep (1750 m of rock overburden), large (60 000 m3 of volume), and provide the international community with a unique site for testing dark-matter modulation signals. The site furthermore has a low nuclear reactor neutrino background and is of special interest to the geophysics sciences. The laboratory will be run as a multi-national facility, under a consortium of Latin-American countries. Its opening is expectedfor 2020.

  9. Two-mica granites of northeastern Nevada.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.E.; Kistler, R.W.; Friedman, I.; Van Loenen, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The field settings are described and analytical data are presented for six two-mica granites from NE Nevada. High delta 18O and 87Sr/86Sr values indicate that all are S-type granite, derived from continental crust. The major element chemistry and accessory mineral contents of these rocks also are characteristic of S-type granites. Chemical, X ray, and other data are presented for the micas recovered from these granites. The muscovites are notably high in Fe2O3, FeO, and MgO. Except for one hydrobiotite, each of the biotites has an MgO content near 6.0 wt%. Two different types of two-mica granites are recognized in the area of this study. One type is distinguished by the presence of many biotite euhedra within muscovite phenocrysts and by an unusual suite of accessory minerals completely devoid of opaque oxides. This type probably resulted from anatexis of late Precambrian argillites under conditions of relatively low oxygen fugacity, along a line that roughly coincides with the westward disappearance of continental basement. In the other textural type of two-mica granite the micas are equigranular and there is a greater variety of accessory minerals. The magmatic evolution of this type also appears to reflect the influence of late Precambrian argillites; there may be age differences between the two types of two-mica granites.-Author

  10. Lunar granites with unique ternary feldspars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Marvin, U. B.; Bower, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unusually high concentration of granitic fragments, with textures ranging from holocrystalline to glassy, occurs throughout Boulder 1, a complex breccia of highland rocks from Apollo 17, Station 2. Among the minerals included in the granites are enigmatic K-Ca-rich feldspars that fall in the forbidden region of the ternary diagram. The great variability in chemistry and texture is probably the result of impact degradation and melting of a granitic source-rock. Studies of the breccia matrix suggest that this original granitic source-rock may have contained more pyroxenes and phosphates than most of the present clasts contain. Petrographic observations on Apollo 15 KREEP basalts indicate that granitic liquids may be produced by differentiation without immiscibility, and the association of the granites with KREEP-rich fragments in the boulder suggests that the granites represent a residual liquid from the plutonic fractional crystallization of a KREEP-rich magma. Boulder 1 is unique among Apollo 17 samples in its silica-KREEP-rich composition. We conclude that the boulder represents a source-rock unlike the bedrock of South Massif.

  11. Notification: Evaluation of EPA Efforts to Protect Tribal Communities From Risks Related to Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0013, March 8, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA’s work related to Underground Storage Tank and Leaking Underground Storage Tank programs in Indian country.

  12. 3D density modelling of Gemeric granites of the Western Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šefara, Ján; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozár, Jozef; Katona, Martin; Szalaiová, Viktória; Vozárová, Anna; Šimonová, Barbora; Pánisová, Jaroslava; Schmidt, Sabine; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    The position of the Gemeric Superunit within the Western Carpathians is unique due to the occurrence of the Lower Palaeozoic basement rocks together with the autochthonous Upper Palaeozoic cover. The Gemeric granites play one of the most important roles in the framework of the tectonic evolution of this mountain range. They can be observed in several small intrusions outcropping in the western and south-eastern parts of the Gemeric Superunit. Moreover, these granites are particularly interesting in terms of their mineralogy, petrology and ages. The comprehensive geological and geophysical research of the Gemeric granites can help us to better understand structures and tectonic evolution of the Western Carpathians. Therefore, a new and original 3D density model of the Gemeric granites was created by using the interactive geophysical program IGMAS. The results show clearly that the Gemeric granites represent the most significant upper crustal anomalous low-density body in the structure of the Gemeric Superunit. Their average thickness varies in the range of 5-8 km. The upper boundary of the Gemeric granites is much more rugged in comparison with the lower boundary. There are areas, where the granite body outcrops and/or is very close to the surface and places in which its upper boundary is deeper (on average 1 km in the north and 4-5 km in the south). While the depth of the lower boundary varies from 5-7 km in the north to 9-10 km in the south. The northern boundary of the Gemeric granites along the tectonic contact with the Rakovec and Klátov Groups (North Gemeric Units) was interpreted as very steep (almost vertical). The results of the 3D modelling show that the whole structure of the Gemeric Unit, not only the Gemeric granite itself, has an Alpine north-vergent nappe structure. Also, the model suggests that the Silicicum-Turnaicum and Meliaticum nappe units have been overthrusted onto the Golčatov Group.

  13. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2011-12-26

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  14. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  15. Underground neutrino astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium.

  16. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  17. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Ten years Underground. Rover roundup (International Conference on Mobile Planetary Robots and Rover Roundup, Santa Monica, CA (USA), 29 Jan - 4 Feb 1997). Reaching the Red. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of April 1, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  18. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  19. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  20. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  1. Potassium-argon dating of the cape granite and a granitized xenolith at sea point.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, G D; Basson, H H; Verbeek, A A

    1968-11-01

    Ages obtained by potassium-argon dating are reported for the total rock, light mineral fraction and heavy mineral fractions of the Cape Granite, and of a granitized xenolith derived from the Malmesbury sediments. These ages lie between 430 and 554 million years. The heavy mineral fractions from each rock type show the oldest age, 540 (granite) and 554 (xenolith) million years. These ages are interpreted as lower limits, and the granite age confirms the age of 553 million years found by rubidium-strontium dating. The coincidence of the ages of the different fractions of the granite and xenolith samples is discussed in the light of the different suggestions about the age of the Malmesbury sediments. The conclusion is reached that all pre-granitization history has been eliminated. The possibility of the use of argon retention as a measure of metamorphic activity is suggested.

  2. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites in Ireland and the Isle of Man: Implications from hydrothermal alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Buhre, Stephan; McConnell, Brian; The Iretherm Team

    2015-04-01

    . Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., Buhre, S., McConnell, B., 2015. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man - Implications for EGS prospectivity. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, in press. Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., McConnell, B., Buhre, S., 2014. Zircon geochronology and Hf-O isotope geochemistry from granites in the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man. Geophysical Research Abstracts 16, EGU-2014-801.

  3. Magnetic susceptibility and cyclostratigraphy of upper Jurassic marly formations (ANDRA, underground research laboratory, Bure, Eastern Paris Basin): Record of Milankovitch cycles, sedimentary gaps, and implications for regional correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilia, H.; Bruno, G.; Pierre-Yves, C.; Slah, B.; Pascal, E.; Linda, H.; Christian, R.

    2006-05-01

    This study integrates research conducted by ANDRA at the Underground Research Laboratory of Bure (Meuse, France) to investigate the feasibility of a deep geological waste repository in clay for high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste. The aim of this study is to detect possible sedimentary gaps in the upper Callovian-lower Oxfordian homogeneous marly formation where the laboratory is located, and to estimate the duration of stages and biostratigraphic zonation by comparison with a basin sequence from the southeast of France that is presumed to have accumulated continuously. The search for hiatuses was made using a high resolution cyclostratigraphic approach based on the study of magnetic susceptibility (MS) fluctuations. Four ANDRA boreholes (EST 342, EST 322, EST 103 and EST 312) oriented on a SW-NE transect (40 kilometers) were analyzed. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were made on core samples with a Bartington Instruments MS2E1 sensor every 4 centimeters. Sedimentological data suggest that variations of the clay content influence the long term evolution of MS. The high frequency variations in MS were subjected to spectral analysis. Composite cycles of 0.5, 1 and 2.5 m thickness were recognized on the basis of frequency ratio and correspond to the frequency ratio of orbital Milankovitch cycles. The duration of the Mariae ammonite zone in the Paris Basin was estimated by counting the cycles, to be between 2.4 and 2.6 My ± 0.3 ky (borehole EST 322 & EST 103). The amplitude spectrum shows (1) sedimentation rate variations in particular in the lower Oxfordian and (2) interruptions in cycle evolution correlated to sequential limits. We interpret these zones as short condensed levels. The same methods were applied to sections from the southeast of France (Aspres-sur-Buëch, Thuoux), and the Mariae ammonite zone estimated to be between 2.3 and 2.8 My of age. By comparison of this biostratigraphic zone between the two studied regions

  4. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  5. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  6. Zarzalejo granite (Spain). A nomination for 'Global Heritage Stone Resource'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; José Varas-Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    Escorial Monastery, which shows the building material used during its construction. There is currently an active quarry of this dimension stone which continues to be sold under the commercial name of "Gris Escorial". Zarzalejo granite is mainly exported to Turkey, Italy and Saudi Arabia. Today this stone is used primarily in flooring. Other uses include cobblestones, funeral art, and building and monument restoration and rehabilitation. Sculptures have also built in recent years, notably the great monoliths in Salvador Dalí Square (1989) in Madrid. There are also small historic family-run quarries intermittently continuing this dimension stone carving tradition. Given its characteristics, Zarzalejo granite meets the requisites proposed to be nominated as a GHSR. This nomination will contribute to raising awareness and disseminate key aspects for conservation and thus ensure its use as a replacement stone in restoring heritage buildings where it was used as a building stone. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Community of Madrid under the GEOMATERIALS 2 project (S2013/MIT-2914). The authors are members of the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group: "Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio" (ref. 921349).

  7. Survey of existing underground openings for in-situ experimental facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.; Graf, A.; Strisower, B.; Korbin, G.

    1981-07-01

    In an earlier project, a literature search identified 60 underground openings in crystalline rock capable of providing access for an in-situ experimental facility to develop geochemical and hydrological techniques for evaluating sites for radioactive waste isolation. As part of the current project, discussions with state geologists, owners, and operators narrowed the original group to 14. Three additional sites in volcanic rock and one site in granite were also identified. Site visits and application of technical criteria, including the geologic and hydrologic settings and depth, extent of the rock unit, condition, and accessibility of underground workings, determined four primary candidate sites: the Helms Pumped Storage Project in grandiodorite of the Sierra Nevada, California; the Tungsten Queen Mine in Precambrian granodiorite of the North Carolina Piedmont; the Mount Hope Mine in Precambrian granite and gneiss of northern New Jersey; and the Minnamax Project in the Duluth gabbro complex of northern Minnesota.

  8. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Morrill, Charles; Mensik, Fred

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased hatchery chinook numbers, and an overall decrease in numbers of smolts collected and transported. A total of 5,882,872 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite. Of these, 5,466,057 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,232,105 by barge and 233,952 by truck. An additional 339,398 fish were bypassed back to the river. A total of 117,609 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 440,810 smolts (7.5% of the total collected) of which 247,268 were PIT tagged and 572 were recorded as incidental mortalities.

  9. Grusification of granite (scheme based on the study of granites from Sudety Mts., SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajdas, Bartlomiej; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Gruses that are developed on the Karkonosze granite (three outcrops) and the Izera granite (one outcrop) were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS and electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, chemical analysis (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratio determination and K-Ar dating. Three groups of samples were distinguished according to the degree of grusification (group I - compact granite; group II - friable granite; group III - granitic grus). The results of the examination allowed to present the simplified scheme of the grusification: 1. Development of microcracks (caused by tectonic stress, mechanical upload or magma cooling processes) promote circulation of hydrothermal fluids in granites; 2. The presence of the microcracks in granite facilitate the circulation of low-temperature fluids (low-temperature hydrothermal or weathering fluids). Fluids cause hydration and expansion of primary biotite (vermiculitization), what leads to development of secondary cracks in a rock. Fluids can also induce advanced alteration of plagioclases into clay minerals (mainly smectite or vermiculite). Expansion of biotite during vermiculitization is the most important factor in grusification. Other processes of alteration also contribute to grusification. Hydrothermal fluids in granite contribute the increase of alteration degree of primary minerals (e.g. sericitization and albitization of feldspar, chloritization or muscovitization of biotite, decomposition of monazite-(Ce) and formation of secondary REE phosphates). If primary biotite is subjected to muscovitization or chloritization, complete grusification of granite does not occur because of lack of vermiculitation.

  10. AMS studies in Portuguese variscan granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Martins, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of Variscan granitic rocks outcrop in Central Iberian Zone which are well documented concerning geological mapping, petrography and geochemistry but whose magnetic characteristics and fabric remain unknown. In this study we summarize the available AMS data from approximately 644 sampling stations (5152 samples) on different massifs of Variscan Portuguese granites. Despite their different geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics, magnetic susceptibility (K) values obtained for the majority of the studied granites range from 15 to 300 × 10-6 SI. The dominant paramagnetic behaviour of the granite bodies reflects the presence of ilmenite as the main iron oxide. This feature indicates the reduced conditions involved in the granite melt formation during the Variscan orogeny. The two-mica granites show K values ranging between 15 to 70 × 10-6 SI which are lower than values displayed by the biotite-rich facies scattered within the interval of 70 and 300 × 10-6 SI. The magnetite-bearing granites are scarce but represented in Lavadores, Gerês and Manteigas. Even so, only the Lavadores body could be considered as a true magnetite-type granite (K >3.0 × 10-3 SI) in face of its K, comprised between 1550 and 19303 × 10-6 SI. Magnetic anisotropy can be used as a "marker" for the deformation experienced by granite mushes during their crustal emplacement and further cooling. Magnetic anisotropy can thus be correlated with the finite deformation of a rock, as record by mineral fabrics. Post-tectonic granites, such as those from Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Pedras Salgadas, Caria, Vila da Ponte, Chaves and Lamas de Olo, have a magnetic anisotropy <2.5% which corresponds to a deformation hardly visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, at microscopic scale, these granites display almost ubiquitous magmatic to submagmatic microstructures (rare wavy extinction in quartz, erratic subgrain boundaries in quartz and, eventually, folded or kinked biotites). For

  11. Neutrons and Granite: Transport and Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, P J

    2004-04-13

    In typical ground materials, both energy deposition and radionuclide production by energetic neutrons vary with the incident particle energy in a non-monotonic way. We describe the overall balance of nuclear reactions involving neutrons impinging on granite to demonstrate these energy-dependencies. While granite is a useful surrogate for a broad range of soil and rock types, the incorporation of small amounts of water (hydrogen) does alter the balance of nuclear reactions.

  12. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  13. Black Hills State University Underground Campus.

    PubMed

    Mount, Brianna J; Thomas, Keenan J; Oliver-Mallory, Kelsey C; Lesko, Kevin T; Schnee, Richard W; Henning, Reyco; MacLellan, Ryan F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Busch, Matthew; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann D; Wilkerson, J F; Xu, Wenqin; Mei, Dongming

    2017-08-01

    The Black Hills State University Underground Campus (BHUC) houses a low background counting facility on the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility. There are currently four ultra-low background, high-purity germanium detectors installed in the BHUC and it is anticipated four more detectors will be installed within a year. In total, the BHUC will be able to accommodate up to twelve detectors with space inside a class 1000 cleanroom, an automated liquid nitrogen fill system, on-site personnel assistance and other required utilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiological implications of granite of northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M; Tufail, M; Sabiha-Javied; Abid, A; Waqas, M

    2008-09-01

    Granite is an igneous rock that contains natural radioactivity of primordial radionuclides. In Pakistan, granite is distributed in a vast area called the Ambela Granitic Complex (AGC) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Granite is a hard rock that exists in different colours and is used to decorate floors, kitchen counter tops, etc. The use of granite in a building as a decor material is a potential source of radiation dose; therefore, natural radioactivity has been measured in 20 granite samples of the AGC with an HPGe (high purity germanium) based gamma ray spectrometer. The average specific activities and their range (given in parentheses) for primordial radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 1218 (899-1927), 659 (46-6120) and 598 (92-3214) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations were used for the assessment of hazard indices and radiation dose which were evaluated based on the permissible limits defined for these parameters. The measured specific activities and the derived quantities, hazard indices and radiation dose, have been compared with those given in the literature for these parameters.

  15. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  16. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  17. Formation of a Granite Bodies in Depleted Granulite Terranes: the Wuluma Granite, Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaure, S.; Sawyer, E. W.

    2009-05-01

    The Wuluma Granite (ca.17 km2) is hosted by Palaeoproterozoic, granulite facies metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks. It is believed to have formed by in situ partial melting of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses at 1728±3 Ma due to the influx of an externally derived aqueous fluid after the granulite facies metamorphism. We have reinvestigated the Wuluma Granite and find that most contacts between the granite and the host granulites are intrusive, not gradational. Granite occurs as thin (<1m) subconcordant sheets and dykes in country rocks that contain fresh orthopyroxene and cordierite without much replacement by hydrous minerals. Screens of country rock are common within the granite, and many contain metapelitic rocks that have leucosome and melanosome structures similar those found in the country rocks. Although some of the migmatite structures in the screens still contain garnet, cordierite and orthopyroxene, in most these minerals are replaced by biotite. Biotite is the only ferromagnesian mineral in the thinnest screens of country rock. All the screens contain subconcordant sheets and dykes of granite; typically a narrow selvedge is developed between the intrusive granite and the rocks of the screen; selvedges are either rich in biotite or in quartz depending on the host rock type. Schlieren are common throughout the granite and represent the last vestiges of the country rocks in the granite; there is much morphological and mineralogical variation among the schlieren. The Wuluma granite consists of innumerable thin (less than a metre) subparallel sheets and cross-cutting dykes, that are distinguished by variations in grain size, microstructure and the proportion of minerals present. The earliest phase to be porphyritic and rich in biotite, whereas the last is leucocratic, coarse grained and locally forms dykes up to 20m wide. The centre of the granite contains large (1 cm) crystals of garnet and, more rarely, cordierite. However, in many places these have been

  18. A Micromechanical Damage Mechanics Model for the Seismic Coupling of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers-Martinez, M. A.; Sammis, C. G.; Mihaly, J. M.; Bhat, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Seismological discrimination between underground explosions and earthquakes is complicated by the observation that explosions generate significant S wave radiation. Whether these S waves are generated mainly in the non-linear source region, or by slip on nearby faults, or by mode conversion at boundaries along the propagation path remains controversial. In this study we explore the hypothesis that S wave radiation is generated during the ubiquitous generation of fractures observed in the non-linear source region. We model the nucleation, growth, and interaction of these fractures using a fully dynamic micromechanical damage mechanics recently formulated by Bhat et al. (J. Appl. Mech., 2012). Parameters in the model include the size, density, and orientation of initial fractures in the source rock, the coefficient of friction on their faces, and the dynamic critical stress intensity factor for nucleation and propagation. The damage mechanics is built into the ABAQUS dynamic finite element code as a user-defined rheology and is used to calculate the spatial extent and geometry of the fracture damage as well as resultant seismic radiation generated by an explosion with a specified pressure time-function. A fundamental result of these calculations is that any process that breaks the spherical symmetry of the explosion produces S waves. Sources of asymmetry include an anisotropic distribution of initial fracture (e.g. a rift in the granitic texture), an anisotropic regional pre-stress, or even heterogeneity that breaks the symmetry of the radial fractures. We compare our calculations with field experiments (by Weston Geophysical and New England Research) in a granite quarry and with laboratory experiments that use high-speed photography and laser velocimeters to record the evolution of the damage pattern and resultant seismic radiation.

  19. Long-term monitoring of rock mass properties in the underground excavation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    It is generally agreed today that hazardous waste should be placed in repositories hundreds of meters below the Earth's surface. In our research we deal with the long-term monitoring of the underground excavation by seismic and electrical resistivity measurements. Permanent measuring system was developed and installed at the Bedřichov gallery test site (northern Bohemia). The gallery was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) in granitic rocks. Realized repeated measurements include ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The seismic measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The main emphasis is devoted to P-waves; however, recording of full waveform enables analyzing of S- waves and other types of waves as well. The comparison of repeated measurements is used for an assessment of changes in seismic velocities with very high-accuracy. The repetition rate of measurements can be selected from seconds; however such fast changes in the rock mass are unexpected. The ERT measurement is performed on the same rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. The conductivity of undisturbed granitic rocks is extremely low. Therefore the observed local increase of conductivity can be associated with joints and fractures saturated with water, resulting in their ionic conductivity. Repeated ERT measurement can reveal some changes in the rock mass. Due to time requirements of ERT measurement the repetition rate can be about three hours. The data collected by measuring system is transferred by means of computer network and can be accessed via internet. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained so far during the testing of developed monitoring system. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA

  20. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  1. Petrogenesis of the Yangzhuang Nb- and Ta-rich A-type granite porphyry in West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guo; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Mou; Li, Yanlong; Ren, Manchuan; Bai, Yanping; Yang, Feng

    2014-06-01

    West Junggar is featured with a wide spread of Late Carboniferous-Early Permian A-type granites. Systematic comparison of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry and the regional coeval A-type granites (RCAG) shows that: (1) all the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian A-type granites are of the A2 group except the Yangzhuang granite porphyry; (2) the Nb and Ta contents of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry are nearly 10 times that of the RCAG while Ti content is more depleted; (3) εNd (t) of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry is slightly lower and the Sr isotope has a wider range relative to the RCAG. Previous research revealed that highly incompatible elements including Nb and Ta can be transferred into the mantle wedge by precipitation of amphibole from the ascending fluids generated by dehydration of subducted slab. It is inferred that enhanced heat flux brought by the Late Carboniferous ridge subduction decomposed amphibole in the mantle wedge to generate Nb and Ta-rich melt and finally produced the Yangzhuang granite porphyry.

  2. Underground Engineering (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-04

    Layer By * An Engineering Group, by Shen Junda and Wang Jingwen .................. I Innovation in Injection Conctete Aggregates , by Hu Yexi...In the situation that the effect of underground water on the surrounding rock was small and the vibration was not significant, the surrounding rock...INNOVATIONIN INJECTION CONCRETE AGGREGATES /28 Hu Yexi The use of injection concrete in the construction of civil defense projects has already obtained

  3. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Morrill, Charles; Ross, Doug; Mensik, Fred

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by lower than average spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased unclipped yearling and subyearling chinook smolts, and 8,300,546 smolts collected and transported compared to 5,882,872 in 1999. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above Lower Granite Dam, we can no longer accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. Although some table titles in this report still show ''wild'' column headings, the numbers in these columns for 1999 and 2000 include wild and unclipped hatchery origin smolts. The increases over previous years reflect the increased supplementation. A total of 8,300,546 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, 187,862 fish were bypassed back to the river and 7,950,648 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 7,778,853 by barge and 171,795 by truck. A total of 151,344 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 1,361,006 smolts (16.4% of the total collection).

  4. Origin of late Archean granite: geochemical evidence from the Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Warren C.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1986-07-01

    The 2,700-Ma Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota is a granite-migmatite terrane composed of supracrustal metasedimentary rocks, mafic rocks, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks, and granite. The metasedimentary rocks are predominantly graywacke, which has been regionally metamorphosed to garnet-sillimanite-muscovite-bearing biotite schist, and has locally undergone anatexis. The mafic rocks form early phases within the complex and are of two types: (1) basaltic amphibolite, and (2) monzodiorite and essexite rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The members of the early plutonic suite form small bodies that intrude the metasedimentary rocks and mafic rocks, producing an early migmatite. The granite is of two distinct varieties: (1) white garnet-muscovite-biotite leucogranite ( S-type; Chappell and White 1974) and (2) grayish-pink biotite-magnetite Lac La Croix Granite ( I-type). The leucogranite occurs in the early migmatite and in paragneissic portions of the complex, whereas the Lac La Croix Granite is a late-stage intrusive phase that invades the early migmatite and metasediment (producing a late migmatite) and forms a batholith. This study focuses specifically on the origin of granite in the Vermilion Granitic Complex. Chemical mass-balance calculations suggest that the S-type two-mica leucogranite had a metagraywacke source, and that the I-type Lac La Croix Granite formed via partial fusion of calc-alkaline tonalitic material, which may have been similar to rocks of the early plutonic suite. This model is satisfactory for petrogenesis of similar Late Archean post-kinematic granites throughout the Canadian Shield.

  5. Origin of late Archean granite: geochemical evidence from the Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, W.C.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The 2,700-Ma Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota is a granite-migmatite terrane composed of supracrustal metasedimentary rocks, mafic rocks, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks, and granite. The metasedimentary rocks are predominantly graywacke, which has been regionally metamorphosed to garnet-sillimanite-muscovite-bearing biotite schist, and has locally undergone anatexis. The mafic rocks form early phases within the complex and are of two types: (1) basaltic amphibolite, and (2) monzodiorite and essexite rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The members of the early plutonic suite form small bodies that intrude the metasedimentary rocks and mafic rocks, producing an early migmatite. The granite is of two distinct varieties: (1) white garnet-muscovite-biotite leucogranite (S-type; Chappell and White 1974) and (2) grayish-pink biotite-magnetite Lac La Croix Granite (I-type). The leucogranite occurs in the early migmatite and in paragneissic portions of the complex, whereas the Lac La Croix Granite is a late-stage intrusive phase that invades the early migmatite and metasediment (producing a late migmatite) and forms a batholith. This study focuses specifically on the origin of granite in the Vermilion Granitic Complex. Chemical mass-balance calculations suggest that the S-type two-mica leucogranite had a metagraywacke source, and that the I-type Lac La Croix Granite formed via partial fusion of calc-alkaline tonalitic material, which may have been similar to rocks of the early plutonic suite. This model is satisfactory for petrogenesis of similar Late Archean post-kinematic granites throughout the Canadian Shield. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2009-11-09

    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to depth of

  7. Estimation of crystallization pressure of granite intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-Ming

    2017-08-01

    A numerical method is presented to estimate the crystallization pressure of granite intrusions based on two polynomial equations obtained by an analysis of the existing haplogranite ternary phase diagram and associated dataset. The results indicate that the pressure is correlated respectively with normative quartz (Qtz) content and with normative albite (Ab) plus orthoclase (Or) contents of granitic rocks as follows. where P is pressure in MPa, and R denotes correlation coefficient. It is noted that the procedure of normalizing the sum of CIPW norm (quartz, albite, orthoclase) contents to 100% is required before using Eqs. (1) and (2). The difference in pressure calculations between these two equations is ≤ 16 MPa for the range of normative quartz contents from 15 to 40 wt%. An example of how to use these equations to estimate the crystallization pressure of a granite intrusion is also provided to show the validity and convenience of this method. The uncertainty of such pressure estimation is not well known, although it must fall into the uncertainty range of the existing experimental work on pressure constraints. The simplicity of this empirical method is appreciable, although its applicability to natural granitoids needs further test. More experimental work is required to constrain the effects of components, such as CaO, FeO, MgO, F, Cl, CO2, on the granite phase equilibria. These equations, however, can be used for estimating crystallization pressures of water-saturated and quartz-oversaturated granitic systems.

  8. Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

  9. Origin of peralkaline granites of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radain, A. A. M.; Fyfe, W. S.; Kerrich, R.

    1982-01-01

    Small volumes of peralkaline granites were generated as the final phase of a Pan African calc-alkaline igneous event which built the Arabian Peninsula. The peralkaline granites are closely associated with trends or sutures related to ophiolites. Peralkaline rocks are chemically heterogeneous, with anomalous abundances of Zr (average 2,150 ppm±2,600 1σ), Y (200±190), and Nb (105±100), representing up to ten-fold enrichments of these elements relative to abundances in calc alkaline granite counterparts. Large enrichments of some rare earth elements and fluorine are also present. The peralkaline granites have scattered whole rock 18O values, averaging 8.7±0.6% in the Hadb Aldyaheen Complex and 10.7±1% in the Jabal Sayid Complex. Quartz-albite fractionations of 0.5 to 1.5% signify that the heavier whole rock δ-values probably represent the oxygen isotope composition of the peralkaline magma. Small variable enrichments of 18O, in conjunction with slightly elevated 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios relative to broadly contemporaneous calc alkaline granites, are both suggestive of a small degree of involvement of crustal, or crustal derived material in the peralkaline magmas. It is proposed that the peculiar magma genesis is associated with a relaxation event which followed continental collision and underthrusting of salt rich sediments.

  10. Dynamic Brazilian Tests of Granite Under Coupled Static and Dynamic Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zilong; Li, Xibing; Zou, Yang; Jiang, Yihui; Li, Guonan

    2014-03-01

    Rocks in underground projects at great depth, which are under high static stresses, may be subjected to dynamic disturbance at the same time. In our previous work (Li et al. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 45(5):739-748, 2008), the dynamic compressive behaviour of pre-stressed rocks was investigated using coupled-load equipment. The current work is devoted to the investigation of the dynamic tensile behaviour of granite rocks under coupled loads using the Brazilian disc (BD) method with the aid of a high-speed camera. Through wave analyses, stress measurements and crack photography, the fundamental problems of BD tests, such as stress equilibrium and crack initiation, were investigated by the consideration of different loading stresses with abruptly or slowly rising stress waves. The specially shaped striker method was used for the coupled-load test; this generates a slowly rising stress wave, which allows gradual stress accumulation in the specimen, whilst maintaining the load at both ends of the specimen in an equilibrium state. The test results showed that the tensile strength of the granite under coupled loads decreases with increases in the static pre-stresses, which might lead to modifications of the blasting design or support design in deep underground projects. Furthermore, the failure patterns of specimens under coupled loads have been investigated.

  11. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Underground nuclear waste containments

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.

    1995-11-01

    In the United States, about a hundred million gallons of high-level nuclear waste are stored in underground containments. Basically, these containments are of two different designs: single-shell and double-shell structures. The single-shell structures consist of reinforced concrete cylindrical walls seated on circular mats and enclosed on top with torispherical domes or circular flat roofs. The walls and the basemats are lined with carbon steel. The double-shell structures provide another layer of protection and constitute a completely enclosed steel containment within the single-shell structure leaving an annular space between the two walls. Single-shell containments are of earlier vintage and were built in the period 1945-1965. Double-shell structures were built through the 1960s and 1970s. Experience gained in building and operating the single-shell containments was used in enhancing the design and construction of the double-shell structures. Currently, there are about 250 underground single-shell and double-shell structures containing the high-level waste with an inventory of about 800 million curies. During their service lives, especially in early stages, these structures were subjected to thermal excursions of varying extents; also, they have aged in the chemical environment. Furthermore, in their remaining service lives, the structures may be subjected to loads for which they were not designed, such as larger earthquakes or chemical explosions. As a result, the demonstration of safety of these underground nuclear containments poses a challenge to structural engineers, which increases with time. Regardless of current plans for gradual retrieval of the waste and subsequent solidification for disposal, many of these structures are expected to continue to contain the waste through the next 20-40 years. In order to verify their structural capabilities in fulfilling this mission, several studies were recently performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  13. Biofouling of granite-rapakivi in St. Petersburg monuments and in the quarry in Russia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Dmitry; Panova, Elena; Alampieva, Elena; Olhovaya, Elena; Popova, Tatyana; Vlasov, Alexey; Zelenskaya, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Granite-rapakivi was widely used in the architecture of St. Petersburg: the facades of buildings, embankments of rivers and canals, bridges, sculptural monuments, pedestals, facing the metro stations. This stone is rapidly destroyed due to the peculiarities of its structure. Biofouling of granite is insufficiently studied. Cause the destruction of granite can be bacteria, microscopic algae, fungi, mosses, lichens, higher plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. They often form specific lithobiotic communities that contribute to the destruction of granite-rapakivi. The objects of research were monuments of St. Petersburg (granite sculpture, facades, facing embankments) as well as granite-rapakivi quarries in Russia and Finland, where the stone was quarried for use in St. Petersburg. Sampling was carried out from the most typical biofouling sites. Different methods were applied for the study of damaged granite: petrographic analysis, light and scanning electron microscopy, methods for detection and identification of microorganisms, X-ray microprobe analysis. As result the main forms of granite destruction were described: fractures, ovoid weathering, granular disintegration, surface films, crusts and layers, pitting and fouling. Lichens, mosses, herbaceous and micromycetes were dominated on the granite-rapakivi in quarries. For example, in a Monferran quarry (Virolahti region) the complicated lithobiotic community was revealed. It included 30 species of micromycetes, 31 species of lichens, 10 species of moss. Bacteriological analysis showed the dominance of bacteria Bacillus, and actinomycetes in microbial biofilms. More than 100 species of plants were found on the granite embankments in St. Petersburg. They were confined to the cracks, seams of granite blocks. Plants and mosses were common to the granite embankments of rivers and canals in the central (historical) part of the city. Dimensions of mosses depend on the area of the deepening which they occupy. The most

  14. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  15. Thermometers and thermobarometers in granitic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.L.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.; ,

    2008-01-01

    The ability to determine the thermal and barometric history during crystallization and emplacement of granitic plutons has been enhanced by several new calibrations applicable to granitic mineral assemblages. Other existing calibrations for granitic plutons have continued to be popular and fairly robust. Recent advances include the trace element thermometers Ti-in-quartz, Ti-in-zircon, and Zr-in-sphene (titanite), which need to be further evaluated on the roles of reduced activities due to lack of a saturating phase, the effect of pressure dependence (particularly for the Ti-in-zircon thermometer), and how resistive these thermometers are to subsolidus reequilibration. As zircon and sphene are also hosts to radiogenic isotopes, these minerals potentially also provide new insights into the temperature - time history of magmas. When used in conjunction with pressure-sensitive mineral equilibria in the same rocks, a complete assessment of the P-T-t (pressure-temperature-time) path is possible given that the mineralogy of plutons can reflect crystallization over a range of pressure and temperature during ascent and emplacement and that many intrusions are now seen as forming over several millions of years during the protracted history of batholith construction. Accessory mineral saturation thermometers, such as those for zircon, apatite, and allanite, provide a different and powerful perspective, specifically that of the temperature of the onset of crystallization of these minerals, which can allow an estimate of the range of temperature between the liquidus and solidus of a given pluton. In assessment of the depth of crystallization and emplacement of granitic plutons, the Al-in-hornblende remains popular for metaluminous granites when appropriately corrected for temperature. For peraluminous granites, potential new calibrations exist for the assemblages bearing garnet, biotite, plagioclase, muscovite, and quartz. Other thermometers, based on oxygen abundance, and

  16. Mesozoic Granitic Magmatism in Macao, Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quelhas, P. M.; Mata, J.; Lou, U. T.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Dias, Á. A.

    2016-12-01

    Macao ( 30 Km2) is a territory characterized by small granitic intrusions, located along the coastal region of Southeast China (Cathaysia Block). Granitoids occur as different facies, including microgranite dykes, with distinct textural, mineralogical and geochemical features, for which a middle-upper Jurassic age ( 164 Ma) has been proposed. New data suggest that these granitoids are mostly high-K calc-alkaline metaluminous (A/CNK = 0.8 - 1.1) biotite granites, consistent with total absence of primary muscovite. They show variable amounts of SiO2 (67-77%), reflecting different degrees of magmatic evolution. There is also variability in terms of trace elements, particularly Rare Earth Elements (REEs), evidenced by decreasing (La/Sm)N, (Gd/Lu)N, (Ce/Yb)N and (Eu/Eu*)N towards the more evolved samples, which can be partly attributed to fractional crystallization processes. Most of the granitoids are characterized by (La/Yb)N = 3 - 10.8, showing negative Ba, Nb, Sr, Zr, P, Ti and Eu anomalies. On the other hand, microgranite dykes, along with a few more evolved granites, show an opposite tendency, being usually enriched in HREEs relatively to LREEs with (La/Yb)N = 0.4 - 1.1. Our data suggests intermediate genetic affinities between I-type and A-type granites. Although these granitoids are mostly metaluminous (characteristic of I-types), Ga/Al ratios, usually used to identify A-types, are close to the accepted boundary between A-type and other granite types. The affinities with A-type granites are more marked for the more evolved facies, which depict higher values of FeOt/MgO (14 - 60) and K2O/MgO (60 - 250). Their trace element characteristics are also transitional between WPG (Within-plate granites) and Syn-COLG (Collision Granites). We interpret those transitional characteristics (A/I and WPG/Syn-COLG) of Macao granitoids as reflecting an origin by melting of infracrustal sources over a period of high heat transfer from mantle to crust during an extensional tectonic

  17. Underground corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion of underground metallic structures continues to be a crucial concern within society and the engineering community. Costs associated with corrosion losses are staggering. Indirect costs associated with environmental damage as well as loss of public confidence has in many cases out-stripped direct costs for facility repair and replacement. NACE Group Committee T-10, responsible for the study and advancement of technology necessary for engineering solutions for underground corrosion problems, is divided into five key unit committees as follows: cathodic protection; interference problems; electric power and communications; protective coating systems; and internal corrosion of pipelines. The papers presented in this publication reflect the most recent developments in field practice in all five areas. Cathodic protection criteria, protection of pipelines, tanks and pilings, test methods, transit systems investigations, power and communication cables, and compliance with regulations are addressed. Interference testing, refinery problems, methods of safely mitigating the effects of induced AC on pipelines, and experience with alternate engineering materials such as prestressed concrete cylinder pipe and ductile iron pipe are included. All 37 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  19. Yingmailai Granitic Intrusion in the Southern Tianshan:Magnetite-series or Ilmenite-series?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The Yingmailai granitic intrusion is located in the middle part of the southern Tianshan. It consists predominantly of biotite K-feldspar granite with minor two-mica K-feldspar granite. They have similar whole-rock geochemical characteristics, but distinct mineralogy. Opaque minerals in biotite K-feldspar granite are ilmenite, whereas they are magnetite in two-mica K-feldspar granite. Primary muscovite has been recognized in two-mica K-feldspar granite, which is characterized by high Mg/Fe in biotite, An contents of plagioclase and Ab contents of perthite. According to Ishihara's classification(1977), biotite K-feldspar granite can undoubtedly be classified to ilmenite-series. For instance, opaque oxide minerals are less than 1 vol%, in which ilmenite is unique recognized; Fe-rich biotite (high FeO+Fe2O3) and low MgO, high FeO+Fe2O3/ FeO+Fe2O3+MgO ratio (0.957~0.980), low Mg numbers (<0.6), mostly Fe2+>1.1, and low Fe3+/(Fe3++Fe2+). Although some characteristics, e.g., presence of magnetite and Mg-rich biotite, suggest magnetite-series, it should be noted that the magnetite in two-mica K-feldspar granite is formed by post magmatism. In combination with low Fe3+/(Fe3++Fe2+)ratio and presence of indicating mineral—muscovite, it can be inferred that it also belongs to ilmenite-series. The factors which control the appearance of secondary magnetite are sudden change of fO2, pressure, temperature during magma emplacement rather than their source. In addition, Yingmailai granitic intrusion's characteristics, such as mineralogy, CaO(wt%)<3.7, w(Na2O)/w(K2O)<1, high SiO2 and (87Sr/86Sr)t, low temperature during the process of forming, indicate S type granitoids, suggesting that ilmenite-series defined by Ishihara (1977) correspond to S-type granite in the south Tienshan. This research also suggests that the south Tianshan had not experienced within plate during early Permian.

  20. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  1. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UNQUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UN-QUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP IN BACKGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  2. [Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jerzy; Zmyślony, Marek; Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Walczak, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1-2 months) in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm-3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20,000 Bqm-3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm-3 (threshold method) considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm-3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm-3. Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  4. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  5. A Case for Underground Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made…

  6. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  7. 7. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13729, Granite Station Special ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13729, Granite Station Special Folder, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE HYDRO-ELECTRIC PLANT (1500KW) STATION. PENSTOCK AND SPILWAY, NOVEMBER 1914. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  8. 9. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13730, Granite Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13730, Granite Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE STATION: WESTINGHOUSE 750 K.V.A., 2- PHASE GENERATORS AND SWITCHBOARD, MAY 24, 1915. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. 8. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 11479, Granite Station Special ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 11479, Granite Station Special Folder, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE HYDRO-ELECTRIC PLANT (1500 KW) STATION. PENSTOCK AND SPILWAY, NOVEMBER 1914. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  10. Landslides and the weathering of granitic rocks

    Treesearch

    Philip B. Durgin

    1977-01-01

    Abstract - Granitic batholiths around the Pacific Ocean basin provide examples of landslide types that characterize progressive stages of weathering. The stages include (1) fresh rock, (2) corestones, (3) decomposed granitoid, and (4) saprolite. Fresh granitoid is subject to rockfalls, rockslides, and block glides. They are all controlled by factors related to...

  11. The origin of granites and related rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Michael; Piccoli, Philip M.

    1995-01-01

    This Circular is a compilation of abstracts for posters and oral presentations given at the third Hutton symposium on the Origin of granites and related rocks. The symposium was co-sponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Maryland at College Park; the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia; and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  12. Subsurface drainage erodes forested granitic terrane

    Treesearch

    Philip Durgin

    1984-01-01

    Abstract - Solution and landsliding, the dominant erosion processes in undisturbed forested mountainous watersheds, are both influenced by subsurface drainage. Biological processes that generate organic acids accelerate loss of dissolved solids by promoting the dissolution of primary minerals in granitic rock. These organic acids can also disperse the secondary...

  13. Voluminous granitic magmas from common basaltic sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Ratajeski, K.; Hankins, W.B.; Glazner, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Granitic-rhyolitic liquids were produced experimentally from moderately hydrous (1.7-2.3 wt% H2O) medium-to-high K basaltic compositions at 700 MPa and f O2 controlled from Ni-NiO -1.3 to +4. Amount and composition of evolved liquids and coexisting mineral assemblages vary with fO2 and temperature, with melt being more evolved at higher fO2s, where coexisting mineral assemblages are more plagioclase- and Fe-Ti oxide-rich and amphibole-poor. At fO2 of Ni-NiO +1, typical for many silicic magmas, the samples produce 12-25 wt% granitic-rhyolitic liquid, amounts varying with bulk composition. Medium-to-high K basalts are common in subduction-related magmatic arcs, and near-solidus true granite or rhyolite liquids can form widely, and in geologically significant quantities, by advanced crystallization-differentiation or by low-degree partial remelting of mantle-derived basaltic sources. Previously differentiated or weathered materials may be involved in generating specific felsic magmas, but are not required for such magmas to be voluminous or to have the K-rich granitic compositions typical of the upper continental crust. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  14. The global age distribution of granitic pegmatites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, Andrew; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    An updated global compilation of 377 new and previously published ages indicates that granitic pegmatites range in age from Mesoarchean to Neogene and have a semi-periodic age distribution. Undivided granitic pegmatites show twelve age maxima: 2913, 2687, 2501, 1853, 1379, 1174, 988, 525, 483, 391, 319, and 72 Ma. These peaks correspond broadly with various proxy records of supercontinent assembly, including the age distributions of granites, detrital zircon grains, and passive margins. Lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites have a similar age distribution to the undivided granitic pegmatites, with maxima at 2638, 1800, 962, 529, 485, 371, 309, and 274 Ma. Lithium and Ta resources in LCT pegmatites are concentrated in the Archean and Phanerozoic. While there are some Li resources from the Proterozoic, the dominantly bimodal distribution of resources is particularly evident for Ta. This distribution is similar to that of orogenic gold deposits, and has been interpreted to reflect the preservation potential of the orogenic belts where these deposits are formed. Niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatites show similar age distributions to LCT pegmatites, but with a strong maximum at ca. 1000 Ma.

  15. Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Myra H.; And Others

    A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…

  16. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, P.B. ); Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  17. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  18. Fractal patterns of fractures in granites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velde, B.; Dubois, J.; Moore, D.; Touchard, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fractal measurements using the Cantor's dust method in a linear one-dimensional analysis mode were made on the fracture patterns revealed on two-dimensional, planar surfaces in four granites. This method allows one to conclude that: 1. (1)|The fracture systems seen on two-dimensional surfaces in granites are consistent with the part of fractal theory that predicts a repetition of patterns on different scales of observation, self similarity. Fractal analysis gives essentially the same values of D on the scale of kilometres, metres and centimetres (five orders of magnitude) using mapped, surface fracture patterns in a Sierra Nevada granite batholith (Mt. Abbot quadrangle, Calif.). 2. (2)|Fractures show the same fractal values at different depths in a given batholith. Mapped fractures (main stage ore veins) at three mining levels (over a 700 m depth interval) of the Boulder batholith, Butte, Mont. show the same fractal values although the fracture disposition appears to be different at different levels. 3. (3)|Different sets of fracture planes in a granite batholith, Central France, and in experimental deformation can have different fractal values. In these examples shear and tension modes have the same fractal values while compressional fractures follow a different fractal mode of failure. The composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value compared to the individual values for the fracture plane sets. These observations indicate that the fractal method can possibly be used to distinguish fractures of different origins in a complex system. It is concluded that granites fracture in a fractal manner which can be followed at many scales. It appears that fracture planes of different origins can be characterized using linear fractal analysis. ?? 1991.

  19. Active ultramicrobacterial alteration of iron in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. Ann; Sherriff, Barbara L.

    1997-07-01

    Microorganisms are able to exist in extreme environments, where they often form biofilms. We are investigating an iron metabolizing biofilm consortium derived from groundwater draining the Canadian Shield. This was first discovered in the Underground Research Laboratory of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., where its influence on the management of nuclear fuel waste was examined. Incubations have shown that the microbial consortium contains different morphological forms. Ultramicrobacteria, 0.3 micrometers diameter cocci, are dominant on magnetite surfaces, which they are able to transform rapidly to hematite. Larger rods, 1.0 micrometers long, aggregate on silicon minerals containing little iron. Carbon is limited in these natural groundwaters so that iron is utilized as an alternative energy source. The cell surface of the organisms and the extracellular polymers of the biofilm are both negatively-charged allowing metal cations to be quickly bound by physicochemical sorption, thus providing nucleation sites for mineralization within the boundaries. The biofilm consortium is able to mediate a wide range of iron reactions. Aerobically a ferric gel is precipitated throughout the biofilm slime, which alters first to ferrihydrite and later to hematite. When anaerobic fermentation produces a reducing environment the iron is converted to the ferrous state which may then be precipitated as ferrous hydroxide, vivianite or siderite. Since iron is widespread in the natural environment, these reactions could have important geochemical implications.

  20. The geology and petrogenesis of the southern closepet granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayananda, M.; Mahabaleswar, B.; Oak, K. A.; Friend, C. R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Closepet Granite is a polyphase body intruding the Peninsular Gneiss Complex and the associated supracrustal rocks. The granite out-crop runs for nearly 500 km with an approximate width of 20 to 25 km and cut across the regional metamorphic structure passing from granulite facies in the South and green schist facies in the north. In the amphibolite-granulite facies transition zone the granite is intimately mixed with migmatites and charnockite. Field observations suggests that anatexis of Peninsular gneisses led to the formation of granite melt, and there is a space relationship between migmatite formation, charnockite development and production and emplacement of granite magma. Based on texture and cross cutting relationships four major granite phases are recognized: (1) Pyroxene bearing dark grey granite; (2) Porphyritec granite; (3) Equigranular grey granite; and (4) Equigranular pink granite. The granite is medium to coarse grained and exhibit hypidiomorphic granular to porphyritic texture. The modal composition varies from granite granodiorite to quartz monzonite. Geochemical variation of the granite suite is consistent with either fractional crystallization or partial melting, but in both the cases biotite plus feldspar must be involved as fractionating or residual phases during melting to account trace element chemistry. The trace element data has been plotted on discriminant diagrams, where majority of samples plot in volcanic arc and within plate, tectonic environments. The granite show distinct REE patterns with variable total REE content. The REE patterns and overall abundances suggests that the granite suite represents a product of partial melting of crustal source in which fractional crystallization operated in a limited number of cases.

  1. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics - from LUNA to CASPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Caspar Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    It is in the nature of astrophysics that many of the processes and objects are physically inaccessible. Thus, it is important that those aspects that can be studied in the laboratory are well understood. Nuclear reactions are such quantities that can be partly measured in the laboratory. These reactions influence the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the Big Bang as well as in all objects formed thereafter, and control the associated energy generation and evolution of stars. Since 20 years LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) has been measuring cross sections relevant for hydrogen burning in the Gran Sasso Laboratory and demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator facility. Unfortunately, the number of reactions is limited by the energy range accessible with the 400 kV LUNA accelerator. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the so-called s-process, e.g. 13 C(α , n) 16 O and 22 Ne(α , n) 25 Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies.

  2. Identification of granite varieties from colour spectrum data.

    PubMed

    Araújo, María; Martínez, Javier; Ordóñez, Celestino; Vilán, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying granite varieties by processing spectral information captured by a spectrophotometer at various stages of processing using functional machine learning techniques.

  3. Identification of Granite Varieties from Colour Spectrum Data

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, María; Martínez, Javier; Ordóñez, Celestino; Vilán, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying granite varieties by processing spectral information captured by a spectrophotometer at various stages of processing using functional machine learning techniques. PMID:22163673

  4. Contrasting Sources Of Granites In The Fosdick Migmatite Dome, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Brown, M.; Korhonen, F.; Siddoway, C. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Fosdick Mountains in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica comprise a migmatite dome 80x15km composed of paragneiss, orthogneiss and associated granites. The dome represents exposed middle-crust that experienced a polymetamorphic evolution associated with the active margin of Gondwana during the Devonian-Carboniferous and the Cretaceous. Research to date has focused on the metamorphic and structural evolution of the dome, with little attention to the origin and petrogenesis of the granites and migmatite leucosomes. Here, we report new geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data for granites and migmatite leucosomes from the dome that bear on the source and petrogenesis of the parent melts (see also Saito et al., 2007, isaes.confex.com, 2.PS-38). We have obtained whole-rock major and trace element, and Sr-Nd isotope data for a suite of samples comprising paragneiss and orthogneiss, leucosome from paragneiss, and various types of granite from within the migmatite dome, and for possible protolith lithologies from outside the dome. Possible protoliths are Devonian biotite- and hornblende- bearing Ford Granodiorite and pre-Upper Ordovician Swanson Formation metapelites. Geochemical and isotopic compositions of the paragneiss and orthogneiss are comparable to those of the Swanson Formation metapelites and the Ford Granodiorite, respectively, consistent with previous interpretations regarding the protoliths of the gneisses (Siddoway et al., 2004, GSA SP380). Granites and leucosomes within the dome are silicic (71-78 wt % SiO2) and slightly peraluminous (1.02-1.18 alumina saturation index), and are granite sensu stricto in terms of normative mineralogy. The major element composition of granites and leucosomes is broadly similar to those of high-pressure experimental melts produced from granodiorite sources (Skjerlie and Johnston, 1993, J. Pet.34; Patin~{o}-Douce, 1997, Geol.25) and sedimentary sources (Montel and Vielzeuf, 1997, CMP128; Koester et al., 2002, J. Pet.43). Our data

  5. Assessment of radiological hazard of commercial granites from Extremadura (Spain).

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Tejado, J J; Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Muñoz, J G

    2014-06-01

    The term "commercial granite" comprises different natural stones with different mineralogical components. In Extremadura, western Spain, "commercial granites" can be classified in three types: granite s.s. (sensus stricti), granodiorite, and diorite. The content of naturally occurring radionuclides depended of the mineralogy. Thus, the (40)K content increased as the relative content of alkaline feldspar increased but decreased as the plagioclase content increased. The radioactive content decreased in the following order: granite s.s. > granodiorite > diorite. In this work, the radiological hazard of these granites as building material was analyzed in terms of external irradiation and radon exposure. External irradiation was estimated based on the "I" index, ranged between 0.073 and 1.36. Therefore, these granites can be use as superficial building materials with no restriction. Radon exposure was estimated using the surface exhalation rates in polished granites. The exhalation rate in granites depends of their superficial finishes (different roughness). For distinct mechanical finishes of granite (polish, diamond sawed, bush-hammered and flamed), the surface exhalation rate increased with the roughness of the finishes. Thermal finish presented the highest exhalation rate, because the high temperatures applied to the granite may increase the number of fissures within it. The exhalation rates in polished granites varied from 0.013 to 10.4 Bq m(-2) h(-1).

  6. Cause of large negative Eu anomaly in the highly evolved A-type granites with REE tetrad pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Asahara, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Lee, M.; Lee, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    REE tetrad pattern with strongly large negative Eu anomaly is one of the specific geochemical phenomena observed in the highly evolved, fractionated granite or A-type granite. The large negative Eu anomaly from the highly evolved or fractionated granites related with REE tetrad effect was discussed in a lot of literatures (e.g. [1] Muecke and Clarke, 1981; [2] Irber, 1999; [3] Jahn et al., 2001). Recently, Lee et al.[4] also suggested that Eu anomalies and REE tetrad pattern from the highly fractionated A-type Muamsa and Weolaksan granites in the Okcheon Metamorphic Belt, Korea, might be associated with a fractionation between the residual melt and a coexisting aqueous high temperature fluid. Their origin and geochemical significance are ongoing yet. In order to clarify cause of large negative Eu anomaly in the granite with REE tetrad effect more clearly, we reanalyzed REE abundance of the Muamsa and Weolaksan granites using MC-ICP-MS at the origins laboratory of the University of Chicago. We also measured REE abundances of the constituent minerals using quadruple ICP-MS at the Korea Polar Research Institute. In this report, we show the re-analyzed REE data from the whole rock as well as new REE data from constituent minerals of the granite with REE tetrad effect. Then, we discuss the cause of large negative Eu anomaly in the highly evolved granite with REE tetrad effect. Especially, the granites with very large negative Eu anomaly also show large negative Ce anomaly. Lee et al. [4] mentioned that negative Ce anomalies were formed after granite emplacement. However, our new data indicate that negative Ce anomaly might be formed during the same geochemical process with very large negative Eu anomaly. This suggests that the REE tetrad effect may be related with a change of oxidation state during a magma evolution. Therefore, we will discuss REE tetrad effect, negative Eu and Ce anomaly as an indicator for the change of oxidation state of magma during the emplacement

  7. Underground nuclear astrophysics studies with CASPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The drive of low-energy nuclear astrophysics laboratories is to study the reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, over the energy range of astrophysical interest. As laboratory measurements approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need to lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

  8. Automatic three-dimensional underground mine mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.F.; Vandapel, N.

    2006-01-15

    For several years, our research group has been developing methods for automated modeling of three-dimensional environments. In September 2002, we were given the opportunity to demonstrate our mapping capability in an underground coal mine. The opportunity arose as a result of the Quecreek mine accident, in which an inaccurate map caused miners to breach an abandoned, water-filled mine, trapping them for several days. Our field test illustrates the feasibility and potential of high-resolution 3D mapping of an underground coal mine using a cart-mounted 3D laser scanner In this paper we present our experimental setup, the automatic 3D modeling method used, and the results of the field test.

  9. Building Capacity through Sustainable Engagement: Lessons for the Learning Community from the "GraniteNet" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Catherine; McLachlan, Kathryn; Cooper, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an exploration into critical success factors for the sustainability of the partnership between the University of Southern Queensland and the Stanthorpe community during the GraniteNet Phoenix Project--the first phase of a three-phase participatory action research project conducted during 2007-2008. The concepts of learning…

  10. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  11. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of §...

  12. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  13. Retention of Anionic Species on Granite: Influence of Granite Composition - 12129

    SciTech Connect

    Videnska, Katerina; Havlova, Vaclava

    2012-07-01

    Technetium (Tc-99, T{sub 1/2} = 2.1.10{sup 5} yrs) and selenium (Se-79, T{sub 1/2} = 6.5.10{sup 4} yrs) belong among fission products, being produced by fission of nuclear fuel. Both elements can significantly contribute to risk due to their complicated chemistry, long life times, high mobility and prevailing anionic character. Therefore, knowledge of migration behaviour under different conditions can significantly improve input into performance and safety assessment models. Granite is considered as a potential host rock for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries. Granitic rocks consist usually of quartz, feldspar, plagioclase (main components), mica, chlorite, kaolinite (minor components). The main feature of the rock is advection governed transport in fractures, complemented with diffusion process from fracture towards undisturbed rock matrix. The presented work is focused on interaction of anionic species (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) with granitic rock. Furthermore, the importance of mineral composition on sorption of anionic species was also studied. The batch sorption experiments were conducted on the crushed granite from Bohemian Massive. Five fractions with defined grain size were used for static batch method. Mineral composition of each granitic fraction was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. The results showed differences in composition of granitic fractions, even though originating from one homogenized material. Sorption experiments showed influence of granite composition on adsorption of both TcO4{sup -} and SeO3{sup 2-} on granitic rock. Generally, Se(IV) showed higher retention than Tc(VII). Se(VI) was not almost sorbed at all. Fe containing minerals are pronounced as a selective Se and Tc sorbent, being reduced on their surface. As micas in granite are usually enriched in Fe, increased sorption of anionic species onto mica enriched fractions can be explained by this reason. On the other hand

  14. Silicosis in West Country Granite Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hale, L. W.; Sheers, G.

    1963-01-01

    The granite industry in Cornwall and Devon is briefly described, especially the production of dust in dressing the stone. In 1951, 210 granite masons were examined (about 84% of the total at that time) and 37 (17·6%) showed silicosis. These men were followed up for 10 years. No silicosis was seen in men with less than 15 years' exposure, but after this time the risk increased to 11 out of 14 in those with over 35 years' exposure. Nine deaths occurred, two of which were due to silicosis. Radiological progression was observed in 13 of the 28 survivors. It was not necessarily associated with additional exposure but was related to age. More young men progressed. In 1961, 132 of the granite masons (about 93% of the total at that time) were re-examined and nine new cases of silicosis were found to have developed during the 10-year interval. The exposure in the 1961 cases was comparable with that of similar cases in 1951. Thus the risk has not been much reduced over this period. Pulmonary tuberculosis occurred in eight of the 37 cases of silicosis in 1951, and between 1951 and 1961 a further five cases were diagnosed, four being from one locality. This was by far the most frequent and disabling complication. Only one case of progressive massive fibrosis was seen. More extensive use of protective antituberculous chemotherapy is advocated, and also better dust control. Images PMID:14046159

  15. SILICOSIS FROM QUARRYING AND WORKING OF GRANITE

    PubMed Central

    Ahlmark, A.; Bruce, T.; Nyström, Å

    1965-01-01

    Previous knowledge of silicosis in the Swedish granite industry suggested that the disease was neither common nor severe. In recent years, however, changes in working methods have involved a considerably increased formation of dust, and it was considered likely that the risk of contracting silicosis was increased. Reports from other countries supported this conjecture. The 34 known cases of silicosis caused by quarrying and working of granite in Sweden were therefore reviewed. The mean duration of exposure to siliceous dust when stage I silicosis was diagnosed was 32 years, and the mean age at diagnosis was 55 years. Despite the relatively long `prediagnosis' exposure to dust, the disease showed a pronounced tendency to progression, and six cases were complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis. Eighty per cent of the men were awarded disablement benefit because of their pulmonary lesions, and four men died from silicosis alone or in combination with tuberculosis. In Swedish granite works there is room for considerable improvement in dust suppression. Careful checks of such preventive measures and periodic medical examination of exposed persons are strongly advocated. PMID:5836568

  16. Potential source for crushed granite aggregate in Heard County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkins, R.L.; Higgins, Michael W.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    The production of crushed stone suitable for highway and general construction is a major industry in Georgia. The state ranks eighth in the nation in overall crushed stone production, and first in crushed granite production. Crushed stone production in Georgia in 1979 was 40,902,000 short tons worth $154,021,000 (D.H. White, Jr., US Bureau of Mines, personal commun., Aug. 1980). More than 3,000 people were employed by the crushed stone industry in Georgia during that year.Presently, the only active quarry in Heard County is located in an amphibolite. Amphibolite is not a conventional aggregate. It has a high specific gravity, a tendency to make elongate fragments, and varies considerably in abrasion tests.Because the nearest approved aggregate quarry is more than 25 miles from Franklin, the county seat, the purpose of this brief report is to describe a body of granite gneiss that may provide suitable aggregate for the crushed stone industry, potential quarry operators and various agencies in Heard County. This report is part of a project to study the geology and mineral resources of the Piedmont south of the Brevard Zone, and is not intended to supplant detailed site investigations by industry or consultants. The report is a joint effort between the Georgia Geologic Survey and the Office of Materials and Research of the Georgia Department of Transportation.

  17. Radiation dose to workers due to the inhalation of dust during granite fabrication.

    PubMed

    Zwack, L M; McCarthy, W B; Stewart, J H; McCarthy, J F; Allen, J G

    2014-03-01

    There has been very little research conducted to determine internal radiation doses resulting from worker exposure to ionising radiation in granite fabrication shops. To address this issue, we estimated the effective radiation dose of granite workers in US fabrication shops who were exposed to the maximum respirable dust and silica concentrations allowed under current US regulations, and also to concentrations reported in the literature. Radiation doses were calculated using standard methods developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated internal doses were very low, and below both US occupational standards (50 mSv yr(-1)) and limits applicable to the general public (1 mSv yr(-1)). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respirable dust permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg m(-3) over a full year had an estimated radiation dose of 0.062 mSv yr(-1). Workers exposed to respirable granite dust concentrations at the OSHA silica PEL and at the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value for a full year had expected radiation doses of 0.007 mSv yr(-1) and 0.002 mSv yr(-1), respectively. Using data from studies of respirable granite dust and silica concentrations measured in granite fabrication shops, we calculated median expected radiation doses that ranged from <0.001 to 0.101 mSv yr(-1).

  18. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  19. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  20. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudrapati Sandesh Kumar; Payal Shirvastava

    2002-07-01

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  1. Natural radioactivity of granites used as building materials.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, S; Koroneos, A; Papastefanou, C; Christofides, G; Stoulos, S; Vavelides, M

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen kinds of different granites, used as building materials, imported to Greece mainly from Spain and Brazil, were sampled and their natural radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K of granites are presented and compared to those of other building materials as well as other granite types used all over the world. In order to assess the radiological impact from the granites investigated, the absorbed and the effective doses were determined. Although the annual effective dose is higher than the limit of 1mSvy(-1) for some studied granites, they could be used safely as building materials, considering that their contribution in most of the house constructions is very low. An attempt to correlate the relatively high level of natural radioactivity, shown by some of the granites, with their constituent radioactive minerals and their chemical composition, was also made.

  2. Predicted indoor radon concentrations from a Monte Carlo simulation of 1,000,000 granite countertop purchases.

    PubMed

    Allen, J G; Zwack, L M; MacIntosh, D L; Minegishi, T; Stewart, J H; McCarthy, J F

    2013-03-01

    Previous research examining radon exposure from granite countertops relied on using a limited number of exposure scenarios. We expanded upon this analysis and determined the probability that installing a granite countertop in a residential home would lead to a meaningful radon exposure by performing a Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a distribution of potential indoor radon concentrations attributable to granite. The Monte Carlo analysis included estimates of the probability that a particular type of granite would be purchased, the radon flux associated with that type, the size of the countertop purchased, the volume of the home where it would be installed and the air exchange rate of that home. One million countertop purchases were simulated and 99.99% of the resulting radon concentrations were lower than the average outdoor radon concentrations in the US (14.8 Bq m(-3); 0.4  pCi l(-1)). The median predicted indoor concentration from granite countertops was 0.06 Bq m(-3) (1.59 × 10(-3) pCi l(-1)), which is over 2000 times lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's action level for indoor radon (148 Bq m(-3); 4 pCi l(-1)). The results show that there is a low probability of a granite countertop causing elevated levels of radon in a home.

  3. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields.

  4. Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase.

  5. Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressure Responses during Excavation of the TSX Tunnel in Granitic Rock at URL, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Borgesson, Lennart; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Hernelind, Jan; Jing, Lanru; Kobayashi, Akira; Nguyen, Son

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling of excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, and fluid-pressure responses during excavation of the TSX tunnel at the underground research laboratory (URL) in Canada. Four different numerical models were applied, using a wide range of approaches to model damage and permeability changes in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around the tunnel. Using in situ calibration of model parameters the modeling could reproduce observed spatial distribution of damage and permeability changes around the tunnel, as a combination of disturbance induced by stress redistribution around the tunnel and by the drill-and-blast operation. The modeling showed that stress-induced permeability increase above the tunnel is a result of micro and macrofracturing under high deviatoric (shear) stress, whereas permeability increases alongside the tunnel as a result of opening of existing microfractures under decreased mean stress. The remaining observed fracturing and permeability changes around the periphery of the tunnel were attributed to damage from the drill-and-blast operation. Moreover, a reasonably good agreement was achieved between simulated and observed excavation-induced pressure responses around the TSX tunnel for 1 year following its excavation. The simulations showed that these pressure responses are caused by poroelastic effects as a result of increasing or decreasing mean stress, with corresponding contraction or expansion of the pore volume. The simulation results for pressure evolution were consistent with previous studies, indicating that the observed pressure responses could be captured in a Biot model using a relatively low Biot-Willis coefficient, {alpha} {approx} 0.2, a porosity of n {approx} 0.007, and a relatively low permeability of k {approx} 2 x 10{sup -22} m{sup 2}, which is consistent with the very tight, unfractured granite at the site.

  6. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  7. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  8. Multivariate analyses of Erzgebirge granite and rhyolite composition: Implications for classification of granites and their genetic relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forster, H.-J.; Davis, J.C.; Tischendorf, G.; Seltmann, R.

    1999-01-01

    High-precision major, minor and trace element analyses for 44 elements have been made of 329 Late Variscan granitic and rhyolitic rocks from the Erzgebirge metallogenic province of Germany. The intrusive histories of some of these granites are not completely understood and exposures of rock are not adequate to resolve relationships between what apparently are different plutons. Therefore, it is necessary to turn to chemical analyses to decipher the evolution of the plutons and their relationships. A new classification of Erzgebirge plutons into five major groups of granites, based on petrologic interpretations of geochemical and mineralogical relationships (low-F biotite granites; low-F two-mica granites; high-F, high-P2O5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P2O5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P2O5 biotite granites) was tested by multivariate techniques. Canonical analyses of major elements, minor elements, trace elements and ratio variables all distinguish the groups with differing amounts of success. Univariate ANOVA's, in combination with forward-stepwise and backward-elimination canonical analyses, were used to select ten variables which were most effective in distinguishing groups. In a biplot, groups form distinct clusters roughly arranged along a quadratic path. Within groups, individual plutons tend to be arranged in patterns possibly reflecting granitic evolution. Canonical functions were used to classify samples of rhyolites of unknown association into the five groups. Another canonical analysis was based on ten elements traditionally used in petrology and which were important in the new classification of granites. Their biplot pattern is similar to that from statistically chosen variables but less effective at distinguishing the five groups of granites. This study shows that multivariate statistical techniques can provide significant insight into problems of granitic petrogenesis and may be superior to conventional procedures for petrological interpretation.

  9. Multivariate analyses of Erzgebirge granite and rhyolite composition: implications for classification of granites and their genetic relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Davis, John C.; Tischendorf, Gerhard; Seltmann, Reimar

    1999-06-01

    High-precision major, minor and trace element analyses for 44 elements have been made of 329 Late Variscan granitic and rhyolitic rocks from the Erzgebirge metallogenic province of Germany. The intrusive histories of some of these granites are not completely understood and exposures of rock are not adequate to resolve relationships between what apparently are different plutons. Therefore, it is necessary to turn to chemical analyses to decipher the evolution of the plutons and their relationships. A new classification of Erzgebirge plutons into five major groups of granites, based on petrologic interpretations of geochemical and mineralogical relationships (low-F biotite granites; low-F two-mica granites; high-F, high-P 2O 5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P 2O 5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P 2O 5 biotite granites) was tested by multivariate techniques. Canonical analyses of major elements, minor elements, trace elements and ratio variables all distinguish the groups with differing amounts of success. Univariate ANOVA's, in combination with forward-stepwise and backward-elimination canonical analyses, were used to select ten variables which were most effective in distinguishing groups. In a biplot, groups form distinct clusters roughly arranged along a quadratic path. Within groups, individual plutons tend to be arranged in patterns possibly reflecting granitic evolution. Canonical functions were used to classify samples of rhyolites of unknown association into the five groups. Another canonical analysis was based on ten elements traditionally used in petrology and which were important in the new classification of granites. Their biplot pattern is similar to that from statistically chosen variables but less effective at distinguishing the five groups of granites. This study shows that multivariate statistical techniques can provide significant insight into problems of granitic petrogenesis and may be superior to conventional procedures for petrological

  10. GRANITE CHIEF WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Chief Wilderness study area encompasses 57 sq mi near the crest of the Sierra Nevada 6 mi west of Tahoe City, California. Geologic, geochemical, and mines and prospect studies were carried out to assess the mineral-resource potential of the area. On the basis of the mineral-resource survey, it is concluded that the area has little promise for the occurrence of precious or base metals, oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources. Sand, gravel, and glacial till suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but inaccessability and remoteness from available markets preclude their being shown on the map as a potential resource.

  11. Rare accessory uraninite in a Sierran granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snetsinger, K. G.; Polkowski, G.

    1977-01-01

    One grain of uraninite was found in a single thin-section of Sierran granite. Electron and ion microprobe analysis were used to determine the composition. Since the U-Pb age calculated for the uraninite does not differ greatly from the K-Ar age of the unit in which it occurs, it is suggested that the mineral is primary and not reworked from a preexisting rock. No uraninite has been detected in heavy mineral concentrates from other rocks of the local area.

  12. Strain localization during deformation of Westerly granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, N. S.; Spetzler, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A specimen of Westerly granite was cyclically loaded to near failure at 50 MPa confining pressure. Holographic interferometry provided detailed measurements of localized surface deformations during loading and unloading. The data are consistent with deformation occurring primarily elastically at low differential stress; in conjunction with one incipient fault zone between approximately 350 and 520 MPa differential stress; and in conjunction with a second incipient fault zone above 580 MPa and/or during creep. During unloading only one fault zone, that which is active at the intermediate stress levels during loading, is seen to recede.

  13. SIMFUEL dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, K.

    1992-08-01

    The dissolution behaviour of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel, SIMFUEL, has been studied in synthetic, granitic groundwater under anoxic conditions. The release of U and the minor components Mo, Ru, Sr, Ba, La, Zr, Ce, Y, Rh, Pd and Nd was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments. For molybdenum, ruthenium, strontium and barium, the leaching results (the total experimental time of 300 days) show a trend to congruent dissolution with the UO 2 matrix. The release rates of lanthanum, zirconium and cerium are higher relative to uranium. Sorption, colloidal and/or precipitation phenomena appear to play an important role under these experimental conditions.

  14. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  15. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  16. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  17. Bacillus endospores isolated from granite: close molecular relationships to globally distributed Bacillus spp. from endolithic and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-04-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain approximately 500 cultivable Bacillus spores and approximately 10(4) total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted.

  18. Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ∼500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ∼104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  19. The relationship between hydraulic conductivity and diffusion in granitic rock matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najser, J.; Gvozdik, L.; Havlova, V.; Sosna, K.; Vecernik, P.; Zaruba, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the Czech Republic, granite is being considered as the host rock for a radioactive waste repository. The aim of the current research project is to study of the hydraulic properties of the low-permeable rock matrix. 45 granitic samples from ten sites have been subjected to hydraulic conductivity (K) and diffusivity (De) tests. Hydraulic conductivity was measured in pressure cells. A constant pressure difference of Δ = 50 kPa was applied by pressure controllers and the volume of water that passed through the sample was recorded. The effective diffusion coefficient De was measured using 3H tracer in through-diffusion experiments. The activities in both input and output reservoirs were regularly monitored using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The hydraulic conductivities of fresh granite varied from 1.65 x 10-10 to 1 x 10-14 m.s-1 while the effective diffusion coefficient ranged from 7.4 x 10-12 to 4 x 10-13 m2.s-1. Comparison of measured "K" and "De" values reveals significant scatter, despite clear trends. Numerical simulation of both hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity was undertaken using finite-element code NAPSAC. The results show that reduced microcrack length influences the connectivity of the microcrack network, increases diffusivity, and decreases hydraulic conductivity. The imperfect correlation between experimental "K" and "De" is explained by the different geometries of the microcrack networks within the studied granites.

  20. Estimation of the indoor radon and the annual effective dose from granite samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, P.; Srinuttrakul, W.; Kewsuwan, P.

    2015-05-01

    Inhalation of radon and thoron daughters increases the risk of lung cancer. The main sources of indoor radon are building materials. The aim of this research is to estimate the indoor radon and the annual effective dose from the building materials. Eighteen granite samples bought from the markets in Thailand were measured using an ionization chamber (ATMOS 12 DPX) for the radon concentration in air. Radon exhalation rates were calculated from the radon concentration in chamber. The indoor radon from the granite samples ranged from 10.04 to 55.32 Bq·m-2·h-1 with an average value of 20.30 Bq·m-2·h-1 and the annual effective dose ranged from 0.25 to 1.39 mSv·y-1 with an average value of 0.48 mSv·y-1. The results showed that the annual effective doses of three granite samples were higher than the annual exposure limit for the general public (1 mSv·y-1) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In addition, the relationship between the colours and radon exhalation rates of granite samples was also explained.

  1. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  2. Ponderosa pine progenies: differential response to ultramafic and granitic soils

    Treesearch

    James L. Jenkinson

    1974-01-01

    Progenies of nine ponderosa pines native to one granitic and several ultramafic soils in the northern Sierra Nevada were grown on both soil types in a greenhouse. The progenies differed markedly in first-year growth on infertile ultramafic soils, but not on a fertile granitic soil. Growth differences between progenies were primarily related to differences in calcium...

  3. Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and iron footing plates on top of granite cap stones. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Experimental methods of determining thermal properties of granite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determination of thermal properties of granite using the block method is discussed and compared with other methods. Problems that limit the accuracy of contact method in determining thermal properties of porous media are evaluated. Thermal properties of granite is determined in the laboratory with a...

  5. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  6. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters.

  7. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  8. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  9. Underground technology benefits surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Swaim, M.

    2008-09-15

    Sensitive ground fault relays (GFRs) on high voltage underground electrical equipment have been in used for a number of years to improve mine safety. Advanced GFRs do more than just interrupt fault current flow. They can also reveal linkages as they develop so ground faults are detected before they become critical. 3 figs.

  10. Geophysical Studies of Irish Granites Using Magnetotelluric and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. F.; Muller, M. R.; Rath, V.; Feely, M.; Hogg, C.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of on-going geophysical studies of Caledonian radiothermal granite bodies in Ireland, which are being undertaken to investigate the volumetric depth extent and structural features of these granites. During three field seasons, magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired at 156 sites targeting three separate granite bodies. These studies will contribute to a crustal-scale investigation of the geothermal energy potential of the granites and their contribution to the thermal field of the Irish crust. Across the calc-alkaline Galway granite, located on the Irish west coast, MT and AMT data were acquired at 75 sites distributed in a grid. Preliminary 3D inversion reveals the presence of a resistor, thickest beneath the central block of the granite where it extends to depths of 11 - 12 km. The greater depth of the resistor beneath the central block is in contrast to previous thinking that proposed the central block granites to have shallower depth extent than those of the western block, based on Bouguer anomaly maps of the area in which the western block exhibited a more pronounced negative Bouguer anomaly than the central block. At the S-type Leinster granite, in eastern Ireland and to the south of Dublin, MT and AMT data were acquired along two profiles (LGN - 27 sites and LGS - 32 sites). Preliminary 1D inversions of AMT data along profile LGN show the Northern Units of the Leinster granite to extend to a depth of 4.5 km and the Lugnaquilla pluton extending to 2.5 km depth. MT and AMT data were acquired at 22 sites along a profile across the buried Kentstown granite, 35 km to the NW of Dublin. The Kentstown granite was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 492 m and 663 m. Preliminary 2D inversions do not yet satisfactorily resolve the top of the buried granite. Inversion of MT and AMT data is continuing, with the electrical conductivity structures revealed by these inversions being used to

  11. Lower Granite Pool and Turbine Survival Study, 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.; Stuehrenberg, Lowell

    1988-06-01

    Survival of yearling spring chinook salmon was estimated as they traversed Lower Granite Reservoir and passed through a turbine at Lower Granite Dam. Fish were PIT tagged at Rapid River Hatchery and transported to release sites near Asotin, Washington, and at Lower Granite Dam. Recovery ratios of treatment and control groups were used to estimate survival. Estimates were based on tags intercepted at both Lower Granite and Little Goose dams. Turbine survival was estimated to be 83.1% (95% CI = 74.1 to 92.2%). A qualified estimate of survival from Asotin to Lower Granite Dam for a single release group was calculated as 71.9%. Uncertainties associated with satisfying certain key mark and recapture statistical assumptions are examined. As a result of these uncertainties, an alternate study design and analytical procedure are recommended for future investigations. 14 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. An evaluation of compliance with occupational exposure limits for crystalline silica (quartz) in ten Georgia granite sheds.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Arthur R; Middendorf, Paul J

    2002-06-01

    Since the 1920s, industrial hygiene studies have documented granite shed workers' exposures to crystalline silica, and the data from these studies have contributed to a better understanding of the relationship between silica exposures and adverse health effects, such as silicosis. The majority of these studies were conducted in the Barre, Vermont, granite sheds. However, a second major granite processing region is located in Elberton, Georgia, where approximately 1800 workers are employed in 150 granite sheds and 45 quarries. The current study reports the exposures of 40 workers in 10 granite sheds in Elberton, Georgia. The arithmetic mean exposure to silica for all monitored employees was 0.052 mg/m3. Employees were classified into one of seven job task groups. The job task group with the greatest exposure was the top polish group, which had a mean exposure of 0.085 mg/m3. Among the top polish workers, the greatest percentage of exposures above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit (OSHA PEL) occurred among the workers who used dry grinders. Wet methods were effective in reducing these exposures to below the OSHA PEL. The mean exposure of Elberton granite shed workers was less than the OSHA PEL, but was not below the threshold limit value of the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH TLV), which was lowered in the year 2000 to 0.05 mg/m3. The Elberton granite shed workers provide a valuable cohort for research on the effects of exposure to crystalline silica at levels between the ACGIH TLV and the OSHA PEL. They are a relatively permanent worker population, are concentrated geographically, and have a quantitatively documented exposure to crystalline silica over the past twenty years.

  13. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Borges, Régis Munhoz Krás; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The trace element content in zircons from A-type granites and rhyolites was investigated by using back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses. The studied Proterozoic (Wiborg batholith, Finland and Pará, Amazonas and Goiás states, Brazil) and Variscan (Krušné Hory/Erzgebirge, Czech Republic and Germany) plutons cover a wide range of rocks, from large rapakivi-textured geochemically primitive plutons to small intrusions of F-, Li-, Sn-, Nb-, Ta-, and U-enriched rare-metal granites. While zircon is one of the first crystallized minerals in less fractionated metaluminous and peraluminous granites, it is a late-crystallized phase in peralkaline granites and in evolved granites that may crystallize during the whole process of magma solidification. The early crystals are included in mica, quartz, and feldspar; the late grains are included in fluorite or cryolite or are interstitial. The zircon in hornblende-biotite and biotite granites from the non-mineralized plutons is poor in minor and trace elements; the zircon in moderately fractionated granite varieties is slightly enriched in Hf, Th, U, Y, and HREEs; whereas the zircon in highly fractionated ore-bearing granites may be strongly enriched in Hf (up to 10 wt.% HfO2), Th (up to 10 wt.% ThO2), U (up to 10 wt.% UO2), Y (up to 12 wt.% Y2O3), Sc (up to 3 wt.% Sc2O3), Nb (up to 5 wt.% Nb2O5), Ta (up to 1 wt.% Ta2O5), W (up to 3 wt.% WO3), F (up to 2.5 wt.% F), P (up to 11 wt.% P2O5), and As (up to 1 wt.% As2O5). Metamictized zircons may also be enriched in Bi, Ca, Fe, and Al. The increase in the Hf content coupled with the decrease in the Zr/Hf value in zircon is one of the most reliable indicators of granitic magma evolution. In the zircon of A-type granites, the Zr/Hf value decreases from 41-67 (porphyritic granite) to 16-19 (equigranular granite) in the Kymi stock, Finland, and from 49-52 (biotite granite) to 18-36 (leucogranite) in the Pedra Branca pluton, Brazil. In the in situ strongly

  14. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-05-22

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  15. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  16. Age of granites of Wrangel Island metamorphic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, Marina; Sergeev, Sergey; Sokolov, Sergey; Tuchkova, Marianna

    2014-05-01

    texture are preserved. Accessory minerals of granitoides are zircon, sphene, apatite. During field work of 2006 year the probes for U-Pb SHRIMP zircon datings were collected (upper reaches of Khishchnikov River). Dating was carried out on SHRIMP-II in the Center of Isotopic Studies of Federal State Unitary Enterprize "A.P.Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute". Wheited mean ages of zircons from three probes are: 702±3 Ma (N=19), 701±7 Ma (N=3), 707±4 Ma (N=25). They indicate Neoproterozoic age of granitoides. Furthermore, some zircons contain inherited cores, for which following datings were obtained: 1.1; 1,21; 1.107; 1.2-1,4; 1.58; 1.8; 2.6 Ga. These data allow supposing the presence of ancient (Neoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the basement of Wrangel Island and their participation in the melting process during granite magmas formation. The work was supported by Russian Fund of Basic Researhes projects 13-05-00249, 14-05-00031, Scientific school NSh-2981.2014.5.

  17. Mineralogical and chemical evolution of a rare-element granite-pegmatite system: Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1987-03-01

    The Harney Peak Granite (1.7 b.y.) in the Black Hills, South Dakota, is a well-exposed granite complex surrounded by a rare-element pegmatite field (barren to Nb-, Ta-, Be, Li-enriched pegmatites). It consists of a multitude of large and small sills and dikes, which exhibit great variation in texture, mineralogy and geochemistry. This granite is moderately to strongly peraluminous with the following mineralogy: plagioclase (An 0-An 21) + potassium feldspar (Or 70-96) + quartz + muscovite ± apatite ± biotite ± garnet ± tourmaline. The granitic intrusions in the interior of the complex have similar K/Rb ratios (> 190), whereas this ratio decreases and is more variable for intrusions which are structurally higher or along the perimeter of the complex. Substitutions of (Fe, Mn)Mg -1 in the ferromagnesian minerals, NaCa -1 in plagioclase and RbK -1 in muscovite and potassium feldspar increase in the perimeter granites and vary systematically with K/Rb. These more evolved intrusions are commonly enriched in incompatible elements such as Nb, Li, Cs, Be, and B and depleted in Ba, Ca, and Sr relative to the interior, primitive granites. Biotite-bearing assemblages are common in the interior granites but are replaced by tourmaline-bearing granites in the more evolved intrusions. A series of discontinuous reactions may explain this assemblage transition. Observations and trace element modeling suggest that: (1) within individual units volatile transfer mechanisms have resulted in mineral and chemical segregation; (2) 75-80% fractional crystallization of a primitive biotite-muscovite granite was the dominant mechanism in producing the more evolved tourmaline-bearing granites; and (3) extreme fractional crystallization aided by high volatile activity produced the associated rare-element pegmatites.

  18. Uranium-lead isotope systematics and apparent ages of zircons and other minerals in precambrian granitic rocks, Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Zircon suites from the two main types of granite in the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, yielded concordia-intercept ages of 2,640??20 m.y. for a red, foliated granite (granite of Long Creek Mountain) and 2,595??40 m.y. for the much larger mass of the granite of Lankin Dome. These ages are statistically distinct (40??20 m.y. difference) and are consistent with observed chemical and textural differences. The lower intercepts of the zircon chords of 50??40 and 100+ 75 m.y. for the granite of Long Creek Mountain and granite of Lankin Dome, respectively, are not consistent with reasonable continuous diffusion lead-loss curves but do correspond well with the known (Laramide) time of uplift of the rocks. Epidote, zircon, and apatite from silicified and epidotized zones in the granites all record at least one postcrystallization disturbance in addition to the Laramide event and do not define a unique age of silicification and epidotization. The lower limit of ???2,500 m.y. provided by the least disturbed epidote, however, suggests that these rocks were probably formed by deuteric processes shortly after emplacement of the granite of the Lankin Dome. The earlier of the two disturbances that affected the minerals of the silicified-epidotized rock can be bracketed between 1,350 and 2,240 m.y. ago and is probably the same event that lowered mineral K-Ar and ages in the region. Zircon suites from both types of granite show well-defined linear correlations among U content, common-Pb content, and degree of discordance. One of the zircon suites has an extremely high common-Pb content (up to 180 ppm) and exhibits a component of radiogenic-Pb loss that is apparently unrelated to radiation damage. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Permeability reduction in granite under hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of impermeable fault seals between earthquake events is a feature of many models of earthquake generation, suggesting that earthquake recurrence may depend in part on the rate of permeability reduction of fault zone materials under hydrothermal conditions. In this study, permeability measurements were conducted on intact, fractured, and gouge-bearing Westerly granite at an effective pressure of 50 MPa and at temperatures from 150?? to 500??C, simulating conditions in the earthquake-generating portions of fault zones. Pore fluids were cycled back and forth under a 2 MPa pressure differential for periods of up to 40 days. Permeability of the granite decreased with time t, following the exponential relation k = c(10-rt). For intact samples run between 250?? and 500??C the time constant for permeability decrease r was proportional to temperature and ranged between 0.001 and 0.1 days-1 (i.e., between 0.4 and 40 decades year-1 loss of permeability). Values of r for the lower-temperature experiments differed little from the 250??C runs. In contrast, prefractured samples showed higher rates of permeability decrease at a given temperature. The surfaces of the fractured samples showed evidence of dissolution and mineral growth that increased in abundance with both temperature and time. The experimentally grown mineral assemblages varied with temperature and were consistent with a rock-dominated hydrothermal system. As such mineral deposits progressively seal the fractured samples, their rates of permeability decrease approach the rates for intact rocks at the same temperature. These results place constraints on models of precipitation sealing and suggest that fault rocks may seal at a rate consistent with earthquake recurrence intervals of typical fault zones.

  20. Detection of underground pipeline based on Golay waveform design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jingjing; Xu, Dazhuan

    2017-08-01

    The detection of underground pipeline is an important problem in the development of the city, but the research about it is not mature at present. In this paper, based on the principle of waveform design in wireless communication, we design an acoustic signal detection system to detect the location of underground pipelines. According to the principle of acoustic localization, we chose DSP-F28335 as the development board, and use DA and AD module as the master control chip. The DA module uses complementary Golay sequence as emission signal. The AD module acquisiting data synchronously, so that the echo signals which containing position information of the target is recovered through the signal processing. The test result shows that the method in this paper can not only calculate the sound velocity of the soil, but also can locate the location of underground pipelines accurately.

  1. Examination of the Average Chipping Rate on the Edges of Milled Granite Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyurika, István Gábor; Szalay, Tibor

    2015-02-01

    The research described in this article was carried out for the purpose of developing a quantitative marker for defining the average edge chipping rate of milled granite surfaces and for testing and proving whether this quantitative marker can effectively be applied. Another aim of the research was to test the applicability of the developed measurement method and the precision of the body representing the volume loss caused by chipping. The surface edges of the milled specimens were digitised using a laser scanner and chipped volumes were defined on the basis of a body generated with the help of a point cloud, and then the errors of the volumes produced by the evaluation-purpose software were examined using a digital microscope. The investigations proved that the proposed measurement method is accurate and that the replacement body defined through measurements appropriately approximates the volume of chippings in the case of milled granite surfaces.

  2. An Innovative Summer Institute for Teachers: Examining the Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallmer, Denise

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the summer institute which she planned through her involvement with the Institute for Freedom Studies at Northern Kentucky University, whose purpose is to promote interdisciplinary research, teaching and community outreach grounded in the study of the Underground Railroad. The purpose of the institute was to…

  3. An Innovative Summer Institute for Teachers: Examining the Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallmer, Denise

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the summer institute which she planned through her involvement with the Institute for Freedom Studies at Northern Kentucky University, whose purpose is to promote interdisciplinary research, teaching and community outreach grounded in the study of the Underground Railroad. The purpose of the institute was to…

  4. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

  5. Geology of Nicholson's point granite, Natal Metamorphic Province, South Africa: the chemistry of charnockitic alteration and origin of the granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, G. H.; Allen, A. R.; Cornell, D. H.; Harris, C.

    1996-10-01

    In the Port Edward area of southern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, charnockitic aureoles up to ˜4 m in width are developed adjacent to contacts with Port Edward enderbite and pegmatites intruded into the normally garnetiferous Nicholson's Point granite. Other mineralogical differences between the aureoles and the granite include increased myrmekite and significantly less biotite in the former and the replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite in the charnockitic rocks. No significant differences in major element chemistry between the garnet-biotite Nicholson's Point granite and charnockitic Nicholson's Point granite are seen, except possibly for higher CaO and TiO 2 in the charnockite. Higher Rb, Th, Nb and Y contents in the garnet-biotite granite suggest that these elements have been locally depleted from garnet-biotite granite during char nockitisation. This depletion is considered to be related to the reduction in biotite. Strontium and Ba contents are significantly higher in the charnockite. Generally higher S contents in the charnockite suggest S metasomatism, with S possibly being added from the enderbite. No differences in δ18O isotope data are seen between the garnetiferous and hypersthene bearing granite. In the charnockite the LREEs are weakly depleted whereas the HREEs show greater depletion compared to the garnetiferous granite. The depletions in REEs are thought to be related to the breakdown of garnet. Europium is marginally enriched or unchanged in the charnockite relative to the garnetiferous granite. Two-pyroxene thermometry on the Port Edward enderbite suggests that it was intruded at temperatures of ˜1000-1100°C. The replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite is also consistent with a thermal auroele. Consequently the charnockitic zones developed around the intrusions of Port Edward enderbite may result from the thermally driven dehydration of biotite. The aureoles developed adjacent to pegmatites are not considered to have resulted from heat but probably

  6. Petrogenesis of pegmatites and granites in southwestern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomascak, P.B.; Walker, R.J.; Krogstad, E.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Granitic pegmatites occurring near the town of Topsham in southwestern Maine are mineralogically diverse, featuring abundant dikes and contain rare earth element minerals as well as one pegmatite that contains Li minerals. The pegmatite series crops out near the Brunswick granite, a texturally diverse granitic pluton, and lies 13 km southeast of the Mississippian age Sebago batholith. Areas intruded by pegmatites that possess such different mineral assemblages are globally rare. The origins of these mixed'' pegmatite series have not been comprehensively investigated. There is no known pattern of regional zonation (mineral/chemical) among Topsham series pegmatites, hence simple fractionation processes are probably not responsible for the compositional variations. The authors are attempting to clarify pegmatite petrogenesis using common Pb isotopic ratios of feldspars and Sm-Nd isotopic data from whole rocks and minerals. Pb isotopic ratios from leached feldspars reflect the Pb ratios of the source from which they were derived. The range of Pb isotopic compositions of alkali feldspars from 7 granitic pegmatites is as follows: [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 18.5-19.1; [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 15.53-15.69; [sup 208]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 38.3-38.6. The Brunswick granite has K-feldspars with [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 18.40-18.47, [sup 207]/[sup 204]Pb = 15.64-15.66 and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 38.29-38.39. The Pb isotopic compositions of both pegmatites and granites are significantly more radiogenic than existing data for the Sebago granite and argue against the consanguinity of Topsham pegmatites and the Sebago batholith. These data instead support a genetic link between the pegmatites and the Brunswick granite, which ranges from a fine-grained two-mica granite to a garnet-bearing pegmatitic leucogranite.

  7. Underground hibernation in a primate.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Marina B; Dausmann, Kathrin H; Ranaivoarisoa, Jean F; Yoder, Anne D

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation in mammals is a remarkable state of heterothermy wherein metabolic rates are reduced, core body temperatures reach ambient levels, and key physiological functions are suspended. Typically, hibernation is observed in cold-adapted mammals, though it has also been documented in tropical species and even primates, such as the dwarf lemurs of Madagascar. Western fat-tailed dwarf lemurs are known to hibernate for seven months per year inside tree holes. Here, we report for the first time the observation that eastern dwarf lemurs also hibernate, though in self-made underground hibernacula. Hence, we show evidence that a clawless primate is able to bury itself below ground. Our findings that dwarf lemurs can hibernate underground in tropical forests draw unforeseen parallels to mammalian temperate hibernation. We expect that this work will illuminate fundamental information about the influence of temperature, resource limitation and use of insulated hibernacula on the evolution of hibernation.

  8. Underground hibernation in a primate

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Marina B.; Dausmann, Kathrin H.; Ranaivoarisoa, Jean F.; Yoder, Anne D.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation in mammals is a remarkable state of heterothermy wherein metabolic rates are reduced, core body temperatures reach ambient levels, and key physiological functions are suspended. Typically, hibernation is observed in cold-adapted mammals, though it has also been documented in tropical species and even primates, such as the dwarf lemurs of Madagascar. Western fat-tailed dwarf lemurs are known to hibernate for seven months per year inside tree holes. Here, we report for the first time the observation that eastern dwarf lemurs also hibernate, though in self-made underground hibernacula. Hence, we show evidence that a clawless primate is able to bury itself below ground. Our findings that dwarf lemurs can hibernate underground in tropical forests draw unforeseen parallels to mammalian temperate hibernation. We expect that this work will illuminate fundamental information about the influence of temperature, resource limitation and use of insulated hibernacula on the evolution of hibernation. PMID:23636180

  9. Advancing Underground Nuclear Astrophysics with CASPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The advancement of experimental nuclear astrophysics techniques and the requirement of astrophysical network models for further nuclear data over greater energy ranges, has led to the requirement for the better understanding of nuclear reactions in stellar burning regimes. For those reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, the energy range of astrophysical interest is always problematic to probe. As reaction measurements approach the burning window of interest, the rapid drop off in cross-section hampers laboratory investigation. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13 C(α,n)16 O and 22 Ne(α,n)25 Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, SD. With thanks to funding provided by South Dakota Science and Technology Authority and the NSF under Grant Number PHY-1419765.

  10. Performance of Granite Asphalt Mixture Modified by Silane Coupling Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihang; Li, Xia; Wang, Li; Kang, Rongling

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve pavement performance of granite asphalt mixture, the surface of granite mineral powder was organic modified by silane coupling agent. The water stability and high temperature stability of the asphalt mixture were analyzed by Marshall tests, immersion Marshall test, freeze-thaw splitting test and rutting test. The results show that the mixing amount of silane coupling agent in the range from 0.5% to 2.5% can significantly improve the high temperature stability and water stability of the asphalt mixture. Taking into account the performance and economic factors, 2.0% silane coupling agent on the surface of granite filler was recommended.

  11. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  12. Above- and underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Canning, K.; Kilbourne, A.

    1997-09-01

    Storage tanks are the primary means of storing liquid, fluid and gas products. Federal and state environmental regulations, as well as local building and fire codes, take into account leaks and spills, tank emissions, underground tank seepage and safety issues, and they define standards for tank manufacturers and owners. For specific regulatory information pertaining to your application, contact the local authorities having jurisdiction. Storage tanks listed within this product guide have been classified as underground or aboveground, with subcategories including modular, process and temporary tanks. Tank construction materials include aluminum, carbon steel, concrete, fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and stainless steel. A variety of accessories, including automatic tank gauging systems, level monitors, leak detectors, overfill protection and tank inspection systems, also are listed. Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have less than 10 percent of their tank volume and piping below ground. Available in both vertical and horizontal configurations, they can be either erected in the field or fabricated in a factory. Underground storage tanks (USTs) are primarily used to contain regulated substances; USTs have at least 10% of their tank volume and piping buried belowground. Common UST construction materials include carbon steel, coated steel, cathodically protected steel and FRP. USTs are required to have corrosion protection, spill and overfill prevention and control and release detection in place by December 1998.

  13. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  14. The world deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a series of coordinated articles of an EPJ Plus Focus Point on underground physics laboratories, written by the directors of the larger ones and by the coordinators of the principal new projects. The paper is largely based on the text of my lecture Perspectives of underground physics, given at the Enrico Fermi Varenna International School, Course CLXXXII (2011), Neutrino physics and astrophysics, reproduced here by permission of the Italian Physical Society. Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. Experiments range from the direct search of the dark-matter particles that constitute the largest fraction of matter in the Universe, to the exploration of the properties of the neutrinos, the most elusive of the known particles and which might be particle and antiparticle at the same time, to the investigation on why our universe contains only matter and almost no antimatter, and much more.

  15. Seismicity-induced groundwater level changes in boreholes around Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan: Effect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Takeuchi, R.; Onoe, H.; Asamori, K.; Umeda, K.; Sugihara, K.

    2011-12-01

    For improving the scientific basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, multidisciplinary researches are approached in the MIU, in which two vertical shafts are excavated in the crystalline rock mass. Groundwater levels are continuously logged in multiple boreholes, for understanding the regional groundwater flow around the MIU site. Soon after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, groundwater level changes were observed in the almost boreholes. All boreholes arranged away from the MIU (approximately 1 to 5 km) showed drawdown ranging from 1 to 5 m. Several studies (e.g. Wang, 1997, JGR; Ge and Stover, 2000, JGR; Hamiel et al., 2005, EPSL) suggest that coseismic changes of groundwater level correspond to static volumetric strain changes induced by earthquakes, i.e., drawdown/elevation of groundwater level is reflected by crustal dilatation/constriction. We calculated volumetric strain changes due to the Tohoku earthquake based on the previously-reported fault models (slip models estimated by teleseismic source inversion; Yagi and Nishimura, Univ. of Tsukuba; Poiata et al., ERI, Univ. of Tokyo). We determined crustal deformation and stress change using the program Coulomb 3.0 (Lin and Stein, 2004, JGR; Toda et al., 2005, JGR). The calculation outputs approximately 2.3E-7 strain of dilatation around the MIU. Thus the drawdown observed in the boreholes arranged away from the MIU is consistent with the volumetric strain changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake. In contrast, groundwater levels were elevated up to 15 m in the boreholes localized in the vicinity of the MIU (within 600 m). These boreholes had shown successive drawdown since the shaft excavations started in the MIU, while voluminous sump water had been released successively from the shafts. Soon after the Tohoku earthquake, volume of the sump water increased approximately ten percent. Irregular elevation of water level soon after an earthquake like the case of the MIU

  16. 5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS AND COLUMN BRICKFACED AFTER THE GREAT FIRE 1904 - Old U.S. Appraisers Stores, Gay & Lombard Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of boathouse, west and south sides of dock - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  19. Lift Off (Granite City C. U. School District 9)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Robert C.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the ESEA Title I program in Granite City (Illinois) target area schools which provide preschool classes, remedial reading, and supportive health and counseling services. The programs are considered to be efficient. (DM)

  20. 9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE BLOCK PAVING, EXPANSION JOINT AND NORTH SIDE PIPE RAILING - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  1. Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at low tide. View Northwest - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Granite Monument Plaza Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Granite Monument Plaza - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  3. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. A Global compilation of Heat Production in Granitic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Kiki; Sørensen, Nanna K.; Nielsen, Louise S. K.; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the heat production in the crust is important for understanding the energy balance in Earth. It is assumed that the crust produces a substantial part of the heat in Earth, but its proportion in comparison to the mantle and the contribution from core solidification is not well known. Knowledge of the crustal heat production is required for assessing the mantle heat flow at the crust-mantle interface. Granites probably are the main heat producing rock types in the crust, and therefore their heat production is of crucial importance for understanding Earth heat balance. As part of a B.Sc. thesis study we have compiled a new database based on published values of heat production in various types of granites. The database has about 500 entries for concentrations of U, Th, and K and the total heat generation in different continental regions. The database also includes information on crustal age and the emplacement age of granites, where available. Some of the main conclusions that may be drawn from analyses of this new database are: • Distribution of heat production values is narrow in Archean-early Proterozoic granites but very broad in middle-late Proterozoic granites. • We observe no correlation between granite type and heat production. • Some correlation may be inferred between age and heat production - heat production is relatively low in Archaean-early Proterozoic granites. • Proterozoic granites are dominated by A-type which have high heat production; the I-type Archean granitic rocks seem to have the highest Th/U ratio. • The Th/U ratio is supposed to be 3.7-4.0 based on relative time constants. This is in general correct with a global average value of 3.7. However, it is ca. 3.8 for Phanerozoic and Archaean-early Proterozoic granites and 3.3 for middle-late Proterozoic granites. We speculate if this variation may be caused by major plate reorganization or perhaps by change in global plate tectonic style?

  6. Lithium Isotopes; a Potential aid to Understanding Granite Petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, C.; Chappell, B.; Bennett, V.

    2002-12-01

    Significant enrichment in 6Li occurs during the weathering of continental crustal materials to clays, contributing to depleted δ7Li in the resultant sedimentary rocks. As such Li isotopes potentially provide a unique perspective on the nature of crustal components involved granite genesis. Carboniferous-Permian granites of the New England Batholith (NEB), Australia, emplaced in a Devonian-Triassic arc setting, are subdivided into 5 major supersuites1. Bundarra and Hillgrove are both S-types, interpreted to be derived from strongly weathered arc rocks1, and immature greywackes2, respectively. Moonbi, Uralla and Clarence River represent three distinct I-type supersuites. Moonbi granites are high-K and strongly oxidised. Uralla granites are medium-high-K, and more reduced. Clarence River are low-K, isotopically primitive granites, equivalent to arc magmas. Li isotopes were evaluated using MC-ICP-MS analysis under conditions of reduced RF power. This 'cool' plasma technique yields precision equivalent to TIMS (2\\sigma SD; 0.5‰ , 680W; 0.7‰ , 800W)3. Overall variations of ~10‰ δ 7Li are observed, greater than the differences observed in arc lavas worldwide (δ 7Li = ~2 to 7‰ ). Clarence River granites typically have δ7Li > 4‰ , similar to lavas from sediment poor island arcs (e.g. Izu-Bonin and Kuriles). Bundarra granites have low δ7Li, consistent with involvement of more strongly weathered source components. The higher δ7Li (< 4.9‰ ) observed for Hillgrove supports the inferred derivation from immature arc sediments2. Moonbi and Uralla overlap with the lighter values observed for arc lavas. The slightly heavier values for Uralla granites are consistent with the greater involvement of sedimentary components in the latter. Although no simple delineation exists between NEB S- and I-type granites, Li isotopes provide important insights into the nature of the crustal components involved in granite magma-genesis. 1Shaw, S.E. and Flood, R.H. 1981. JGR, 86

  7. Natural radioactivity content of granite tiles used in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in commercial granite tiles imported in Greece were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 1 to 434, 2 to 239 and 71 to 1576 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all granite samples examined were found to be within the EC limit values for superficial and other materials with restricted use.

  8. Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops.

    PubMed

    Llope, W J

    2011-06-01

    The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been measured with portable survey meters as well as an NaI(Th) gamma spectrometer. The (40)K, U-nat, and (232)Th activity concentrations were determined using a full-spectrum analysis. The dose rates that would result from two different arrangements of decorative granite slabs as countertops were explored in simulations involving an adult anthropomorphic phantom.

  9. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  10. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges. PMID:28400744

  11. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun H; Christopoulos, George I; Kwok, Kian W; Roberts, Adam C; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  12. Mortality experience of Vermont granite workers

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.K.; Wegman, D.H.; Monson, R.R.; Froines, J.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison was made between the chief cause of death among 969 deceased white male granite workers in Vermont and the causes of death among other individuals not in that occupation. Tuberculosis deaths were ten times the number predicted, based on the U.S. white male experience. Of the 65 tuberculosis deaths, 48 were silicotuberculosis and 16 were pulmonary tuberculosis. A notable increase was found for deaths due to all respiratory diseases, with 28 deaths due to silicosis. Excluding deaths due to silicosis and tuberculosis left a small excess of emphysema-related deaths. For 25 men in the respiratory disease category whose cause of death was not listed as silicosis, ten had evidence of silicosis in their x-ray records suggesting some misdiagnoses may have occurred. An excess of lung cancer deaths was noted among sawyers and polishers, suggesting possible effects of abrasive exposures. No tuberculosis deaths were noted in men who started work in the post dust control period, after 1950. There was an excess of suicide deaths before 1970.

  13. Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

  14. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  15. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    . Within the framework of research programs devoted to recognition of sinkholes in Apulia, and addressed to the evaluation of the sinkhole hazard, this paper examines in detail the distribution of sinkholes related to underground quarrying in Salento, the southern part of Apulia, where the presence of subterranean quarries is particularly high. Through description of some case studies, the main problems related to underground quarries, and the development of sinkholes are discussed, even taking into account civil protection issues, that is in terms of the effects these phenomena may have on the local communities.

  16. Experimental investigations on the thermal conductivity characteristics of Beishan granitic rocks for China's HLW disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. G.; Wang, J.; Chen, F.; Li, P. F.; Ma, L. K.; Xie, J. L.; Liu, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline rocks are potential host rock types for the construction of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. A better understanding of thermal conductivity of rocks is essential to safe evaluation and engineering optimization of a HLW disposal system in the rock at depth. In the present study, experimental investigations on the thermal conductivity characteristics of 47 pairs of granitic rock specimens were conducted using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method. The specimens were collected from borehole cores in the Beishan area, which is being considered as the most potential candidate area for China's HLW repository. To evaluate geological nature of the rocks, mineralogical compositions of the rocks were identified, and porosity of the specimens was measured. The thermal conductivities of the specimens under dry and water-saturated conditions were determined, and the effect of water saturation on the thermal conductivity was investigated. In addition, the influence of temperature and axial compression stress on the thermal conductivity of dry specimens was studied. The results revealed that the thermal conductivity of tested rocks was dependent on water saturation, temperature and compression stress. Based on the obtained data, some models considering porosity were established for describing the thermal conductivity characteristics of the tested rocks. Furthermore, when the rocks have a similar porosity, the quartz content dominates the thermal conductivity, and there exists an obvious increase of the thermal conductivity with increasing quartz content. The test results constitute the first systematic measurements on the Beishan granitic rocks and can further be used for the development of thermal models for predicting thermal response near the underground excavations for HLW disposal.

  17. Factors controlling the permeability distribution in fault vein zones surrounding granitic intrusions (Ore Mountains/Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtziger-Zupančič, P.; Loew, S.; Hiller, A.

    2017-03-01

    An outstanding legacy data set has been compiled from underground excavations mostly prospected and mined by the former Soviet (German) Stock Company Wismut describing the hydrology of faulted basement rocks in the Ore Mountains (SE Germany). It consists of more than 5000 detailed descriptions of groundwater inflows to about 660 km of tunnels and 57 km of drillings measured during or shortly after excavation. Inflow measurements (recorded between 1E-8 and 4E-2 m3/s) have been converted to fracture transmissivities using a simplified analytical solution. Discarding site specific effects, the median log transmissivity decreases from 1E-7 to 1E-10 m2/s within the studied depth interval of 0-2000 meters below ground surface (mbgs), and the spacing of conductive fracture increases from 0.1 to 2500 m. This general trend is overprinted at three mining sites by a clear reversal of fracture transmissivity which correlates with contact metamorphic aureoles around Variscan granite intrusions (327-295 Ma). We hypothesize that this transmissivity increase is caused by processes accompanying granite intrusion and contact metamorphism. The thickness of these hydraulically active aureoles is greater in lower-grade metamorphic schist than in higher-grade metamorphic gneisses. Rock mass equivalent continuum conductivities have been estimated by arithmetic averaging of fracture and matrix transmissivities over 100 m intervals and have been converted to permeabilities. The median equivalent continuum permeability decreases with depth according to log(k) = - 1.7 * log(z) - 17.3 (k in m2 and increasing depth z in kilometer being positive). Matrix conductivity controls the bulk conductivity below about 1000 mbgs and is less sensitive to the occurrence of contact metamorphic aureoles.

  18. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall...

  19. High-resolution cross-borehole thermal tracer testing in granite: preliminary field results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how heat is transported, stored and exchanged across fractured media is becoming increasingly relevant in our society, as manifested from the growing popularity of modern technologies relying on the subsurface to either source or store heat. One good example is the utilization of heat from deep hydrothermal or petrothermal systems to generate electricity for base load power generation, a technology also known as deep geothermal energy (DGE). While very attractive in principle, the number of geothermal fields producing economical levels of electricity to this day is still very limited - largely due to the difficulty of either locating deep reservoirs that are both sufficiently hot and permeable or, in the absence of the latter, creating them. In this context, the Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research - Supply of Electricity (SCCER - SoE) is carrying out an in situ stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), an underground rock lab located in the Aar massif, in the Swiss Alps. The circulation experiment planned for the post-stimulation phase represents one of the key components of this experimental research program, and the outcome of this test is expected to ultimately provide key insights in the factors controlling the performance of enhanced geothermal reservoirs. Therefore, to support the design of this experiment, short-term thermal tracer tests (TTT) were conducted with the objective to (i) assess the feasibility of conducting TTTs in a relatively intact granite (where fluid flow is controlled by a limited number of discrete fractures); (ii) determine optimal experimental setups; and to ultimately (iii) monitor thermal breakthroughs at high spatial and temporal resolution, providing insights on heat transport and complementing the characterization of hydrogeological conditions carried out through conventional means (e.g. hydraulic and/or solute tracer tests). Presented herein are the results of a 10-day

  20. The H2O Content of Granite Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, O.; Cesare, B.; Remusat, L.; Acosta-Vigil, A.; Poli, S.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of H2O contents of natural granites has been an on-going challenge owing to the extremely fugitive character of H2O during cooling and ascent of melts and magmas. Here we approach this problem by studying granites in their source region (i.e. the partially melted continental crust) and we present the first NanoSIMS analyses of anatectic melt inclusions (MI) hosted in peritectic phases of migmatites and granulites. These MI which totally crystallized upon slow cooling represent the embryos of the upper-crustal granites. The approach based on the combination of MI and NanoSIMS has been here tested on amphibolite-facies migmatites at Ronda (S Spain) that underwent fluid-present to fluid-absent melting at ~700 °C and ~5 kbar. Small (≤ 5 µm) crystallized MI trapped in garnet have been remelted using a piston-cylinder apparatus and they show leucogranitic compositions. We measure high and variable H2O contents (mean of 6.5±1.4 wt%) in these low-temperature, low-pressure granitic melts. We demonstrate that, when the entire population from the same host is considered, MI reveal the H2O content of melt in the specific volume of rock where the host garnet grew. Mean H2O values for the MI in different host crystals range from 5.4 to 9.1 wt%. This range is in rather good agreement with experimental models for granitic melts at the inferred P-T conditions. Our study documents for the first time the occurrence of H2O heterogeneities in natural granitic melts at the source region. These heterogeneities are interpreted to reflect the birth of granitic melts under conditions of "mosaic" equilibrium, where the distinct fractions of melt experience different buffering assemblages at the micro-scale, with concomitant differences in melt H2O content. These results confirm the need for small-scale geochemical studies on natural samples to improve our quantitative understanding of crustal melting and granite formation. The same approach adopted here can be applied to

  1. The H2O content of granite embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Omar; Cesare, Bernardo; Remusat, Laurent; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Poli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of H2O contents of natural granites has been an on-going challenge owing to the extremely fugitive character of H2O during cooling and ascent of melts and magmas. Here we approach this problem by studying granites in their source region (i.e. the partially melted continental crust) and we present the first NanoSIMS analyses of anatectic melt inclusions (MI) hosted in peritectic phases of migmatites and granulites. These MI which totally crystallized upon slow cooling represent the embryos of the upper-crustal granites [1, 2, 3]. The approach based on the combination of MI and NanoSIMS has been here tested on amphibolite-facies migmatites at Ronda (S Spain) that underwent fluid-present to fluid-absent melting at ~700 °C and ~5 kbar. Small (≤ 5 µm) crystallized MI trapped in garnet have been remelted using a piston-cylinder apparatus and they show leucogranitic compositions. We measure high and variable H2O contents (mean of 6.5±1.4 wt%) in these low-temperature, low-pressure granitic melts. We demonstrate that, when the entire population from the same host is considered, MI reveal the H2O content of melt in the specific volume of rock where the host garnet grew. Mean H2O values for the MI in different host crystals range from 5.4 to 9.1 wt%. This range is in rather good agreement with experimental models for granitic melts at the inferred P-T conditions. Our study documents for the first time the occurrence of H2O heterogeneities in natural granitic melts at the source region [3]. These heterogeneities are interpreted to reflect the birth of granitic melts under conditions of "mosaic" equilibrium, where the distinct fractions of melt experience different buffering assemblages at the micro-scale, with concomitant differences in melt H2O content. These results confirm the need for small-scale geochemical studies on natural samples to improve our quantitative understanding of crustal melting and granite formation. The same approach adopted here can

  2. Magmatic Enclaves in Granitic Rocks: Paragons or Parasites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, John; Stevens, Gary; Elburg, Marlina

    2017-04-01

    Granitic rocks form the fundamental building blocks of Earth's continents and provide us with a wide range of resources, so their formation is worth trying to understand. Fine-grained, igneous-textured microgranular enclaves of tonalitic to monzogranitic composition (ME) are common in granitic rocks and their origins have been hotly debated, with some workers suggesting that ME are not igneous. These ME have been studied intensively enough that we are now certain that they are of igneous origin - globules of mingled and quenched magma. Although a mantle connection is evident in many cases, their ultimate origin (including where in the lithosphere they originate) is still debated. This contribution explores the systematics of chemical variation in ME and their host granites, with the aim of uncovering any systematics in their behaviour and modelling the processes that have led to the variations that we measure, comparing host-rock series to their respective ME series. As always, the hope is that the study of ME may lead to improved understanding and modelling of the processes that are responsible for the formation of the host granitic magmas. Using variations between the molecular quantities Ti and M (Fe+Mn+Mg), we demonstrate that the petrogenetic processes that operated within a diverse group of S- and I-type granitic host magmas and their ME suites are dissimilar. Variations within the granitic series result from a variety of what might be called 'orderly' processes, resulting in linear or curvilinear trends in chemical variation diagrams. In contrast, processes that affected the ME series commonly resulted in scattered, chaotic variations. Even in cases in which an ME series displays more orderly variation, it can be shown that the hypothesis of simple mixing between a parent enclave magma and its host granitic magma, to produce the overall variations, cannot be supported. ME magmas had vastly smaller volumes compared with their host granitic magmas. Thus, they

  3. Magnetic Properties of the Precambrian Granitic Rocks in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, N.; Jackson, M.; Kogiso, T.; Sato, M.; Seita, K.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2008-12-01

    It has been known that granitic rocks have stable components of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) as well as unstable NRM. It is noted that remanent magnetization of plagioclase crystals in granitic and basaltic rocks can yield reliable paleomagnetic data (e.g. Wu et al., 1974; Geissman et al., 1988; Tarduno et al., 2001; Wakabayashi et al., 2006). The acquisition process of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) of granitic rocks is not well-understood because the size of magnetic grains varies from less than a few μm to hundreds of μm and parts of them are included in each crystal of granitic rocks. Thus we have made rock-magnetic studies and microscopic observations on granitic rocks and their separated crystals. Samples used in this study are collected from multiple sites of the Sacred Heart Granite (2.6 Ga U-Pb zircon ages) and the St. Cloud Granite and Granodiorite (1.8 Ga U-Pb zircon age) in Minnesota. For most of the bulk samples from granitic rocks, the Verwey transition at 120 K is clearly recognized. Susceptibility- temperature (χ-T) curves show an abrupt drop at about 580°C. Hysteresis parameters of bulk samples are distributed along a mixing line between the multi-domain (MD) and pseudo-single-domain (PSD) areas on the Day plot. Saturation isothermal remanence (SIRM) cooling and warming curves indicate that low-temperature memories range in a few to several tens % of the initial SIRM. These results indicate the MD magnetite grains dominate the magnetic properties but more or less PSD (or single-domain (SD)) magnetite grains are present in the granitic rocks. The separated crystals of feldspar and quartz show the Verwey transition at 120 K and the Curie temperature of about 580°C. Hysteresis properties of them are similar to those of bulk samples. These suggest that the MD and PSD (or SD) magnetite are included in both feldspar and quartz, suggesting that those magnetite grains primarily formed during the initial formation of the granitic rocks. We

  4. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1989 spring outmigration at a migrant trap on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was much higher in 1989 than in either of the 1987 or 1988 drought years. The 1989 Snake River trap catch was similar to 1986. Effort was the same during the four years. Steelhead trout catch was greater than in any previous year. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1986, even though effort was greatly reduced in 1989 due to high runoff during most of the season. The 1989 Clearwater River trap catch was lower than in the two drought years (1987 and 1988) and was due to the minimal number of days the trap was operated. Fish tagged with Passive Interrogated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were recovered at the three dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary) with PIT tag detection systems. Travel time (days) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three-fold and steelhead trout travel time decreased two-fold. 11 refs., 8 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill dust control at underground areas of... OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.630 Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall...

  6. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill dust control at underground areas of... OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.630 Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock...

  7. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  8. Overvoltages in underground systems, phase 2 results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mata, C.T.; Fernandez, M.I.; Rakov, V.A.; Uman, M.A.; Bejleri, M.; Rambo, K.J.; Stapleton, M.V.

    1998-12-01

    In 1993, a research facility was constructed by Power Technologies, Inc. (PTI) under the funding and direction of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) at the Camp Blanding Florida Army National Guard Base, located approximately midway between Gainesville and Jacksonville, Florida, for the specific purpose of studying lightning`s interaction with power distribution systems. This report is primarily based on Camp Blanding experiments conducted by the University of Florida (UF) from 1994 to 1998 and experiments conducted by PTI in 1993. The responses (currents and voltages) of the test system are presented for ten cases representing the following lightning strike points and test-system configurations: two triggered strikes and one natural strike to the phase conductor of the overhead line while the underground distribution system was connected to the line; two triggered strikes to ground tens of meters from the underground cable (one at 20 meters from the line and one at 125 m from the line) and one natural strike to ground tens of meters from the cable (and from the line) while the underground system was connected to the line; two triggered strikes to the line (one to the phase conductor and one to the neutral conductor) with no connection to the underground system 80 meters away; one triggered strike to ground 20 m from the line (without MOV arresters), with no connection to the underground system 60 m away; one strike to ground surface between two cables buried about 5 m apart and at a depth of about 1 m. EMTP modeling is used to simulate lightning interaction with power distribution system. Conditions at the lightning channel termination on ground are analyzed.

  9. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  10. A Corrosion Risk Assessment Model for Underground Piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik; Fraser, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Systems Manager at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has embarked on a project to collect data and develop risk assessment models to support risk-informed decision making regarding future inspections of underground pipes at ARC. This paper shows progress in one area of this project - a corrosion risk assessment model for the underground high-pressure air distribution piping system at ARC. It consists of a Corrosion Model of pipe-segments, a Pipe Wrap Protection Model; and a Pipe Stress Model for a pipe segment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the combined models provides a distribution of the failure probabilities. Sensitivity study results show that the model uncertainty, or lack of knowledge, is the dominant contributor to the calculated unreliability of the underground piping system. As a result, the Pressure Systems Manager may consider investing resources specifically focused on reducing these uncertainties. Future work includes completing the data collection effort for the existing ground based pressure systems and applying the risk models to risk-based inspection strategies of the underground pipes at ARC.

  11. Bimodal detection of underground contamination in two-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Guzmán, Maria F.; Padilla, Ingrid; Rodriguez, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Widespread contamination of underground environments with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is of great concern to the public, military, and industrial sectors. Proper management of contaminated sites requires detection and monitoring of the contaminants, and accurate knowledge of their transport behavior in underground environments. Over the last years we have done great efforts to develop and integrate technologies that serve to locate contamination and monitor transport mechanism underground. In this paper, we describe a two-dimensional multiphase flow experiment to develop and evaluate two modes of concurrent detection and monitoring technologies: Cross Well Radar (CWR) and Image Analysis (IA). Loop antennas preset at specific locations in the tank are used to evaluate wave scattering properties of the soil under different conditions, while color images are acquired. The electromagnetic response in the CWR antennas and IA are used to establish the relation between electrical soil properties variations and changes spatial and temporal mass of water and contaminants. The technologies used in this research are both in development, but they can be successful tools for the detection, monitoring and imagining of underground contaminants and process. Once develop, the technology may be applied for detecting and monitoring other buried objects.

  12. Silicified Granites (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) as Global Heritage Stones Resources from Avila (Central of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed

  13. Excavation and drilling at a spent-fuel test facility in granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.; Mayr, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Funding for a project to test the feasibility of safe and reliable storage and retrieval of spent fuel from a commercial nuclear reactor was approved by the Department of Energy on June 2, 1978. By May 28, 1980, 11 spent-fuel assemblies had been emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Design and construction of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax, including fuel emplacement, had taken less than two years, at a total cost of $18.4 million. Construction activities were preceded by geologic exploration using four cored holes and existing underground workings. The sinking of a 0.76-m-diam shaft to the 420-m level initiated construction at the site. Effective rates of sinking varied from 0.16 m/h with a rotary tricone drill to 0.5 m/h with a hammer drill. Underground excavation included a central canister-storage drift 4.6 x 6.1 x 64 m long, two parallel 3.4 x 3.4-m heater drifts, and a tail drift. About 6700 m{sup 3} were excavated at an average rate of 2 m{sup 3}/h, and 178 cored holes, with diameters from 38 to 152 mm, were drilled. A total length of nearly 1100 m was drilled at rates ranging from 0.4 m/h to 1 m/h, depending on hole size and drilling equipment. Eighteen 610-mm-diam canister emplacement holes were hammer-drilled at an average rate of 1.4 m/h. The use of the critical path method, integrated contractors, and close cooperation between project participants facilitated completion of the project on schedule.

  14. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km

  15. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase

  16. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations

  17. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high

  18. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-15

    This audit was part of the overall audit of "DoD Management of Underground Storage Tanks ," (Project No. 6CK-5051). The overall audit was jointly...Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks were compliant

  19. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  1. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to central... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable...

  4. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  5. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  6. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  7. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  8. Seismic evaluation of an underground reinforced concrete tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.N.

    1993-02-01

    An underground reinforced concrete tunnel under the influence of seismic wave propagation was analyzed. Methods previously developed for underground steel pipes were extended to assess the structural integrity of the underground reinforced concrete tunnel.

  9. Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Owsiak, Z

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses results of the research into the influence of high-alkali Portland cement on granite aggregate. The deformation of the concrete structure occurred after 18 months. The research was carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer that allowed observation of unpolished sections of concrete bars exhibiting the cracking pattern typical of the alkali-silica reaction. Both the microscopic observation and the X-ray elemental analysis confirm the presence of alkali-silica gel and secondary ettringite in the cracks.

  10. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  11. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  12. Geology of the Andover Granite and surrounding rocks, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, Robert O.

    1964-01-01

    Field and petrographic studies of the Andover Granite and surrounding rocks have afforded an opportunity for an explanation of its emplacement and crystallization. The investigation has contributed secondarily to an understanding of the geologic history of southeastern New England, particularly as it is revealed in the Lawrence, Wilmington, South Groveland, and Reading quadrangles of Massachusetts. The Andover Granite and Sharpners Pond Tonalite together comprise up to 90 percent of the Acadian(?) subalkaline intrusive series cropping out within the area of study. The subalkaline series locally invades a sequence of early to middle Paleozoic and possibly Precambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Much of the subalkaline series and most of the Andover Granite is confined between two prominent east-northeast trending faults or fault systems. The northern fault separates the mildly metamorphosed Middle Silurian(?) Merrimack Group on the north from a highly metamorphosed and thoroughly intruded Ordovician(?) sequence on the south. The southern 'boundary '' fault is a major structural discontinuity characterized by penetrative, diffuse shearing over a zone one-half mile or more in width. The magmatic nature of the Andover Granite is demonstrated by: (1) sharply crosscutting relationships with surrounding rocks; (2) the occurrence of tabular-shaped xenoliths whose long directions parallel the foliation within the granite and whose internal foliation trends at a high angle to that of the granite; (3) continuity with the clearly intrusive Sharpners Pond Tonalite; (4) the compositional uniformity of the granite as contrasted with the compositional diversity of the rocks it invades; (5) its modal and normative correspondence with (a) calculated norms of salic extrusives and (b) that of the ternary (granite) minimum for the system NaAlSi3O8-KAlSi3O8-SiO2. Orogenic granites, as represented by the Andover, contrast with post-orogenic granites, represented locally by

  13. Transport model of underground sediment in soils.

    PubMed

    Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.

  14. Transport Model of Underground Sediment in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment. PMID:24288479

  15. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2009-12-01

    The US National Science Foundation and the US underground science community are well into the campaign to establish a world-class, multi-disciplinary deep underground science and engineering laboratory—DUSEL. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected Homestake as the prime site to be developed into an international, multidisciplinary, world-class research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota demonstrates remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer of the former Homestake Gold Mine and has initiated re-entry and rehabilitation of the facility to host a modest interim science program with state funds and those from a substantial philanthropic donor. I review the scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in developing the preliminary design of DUSEL in Homestake and the integrated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility.

  16. Prevalence of dry methods in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret L; Johnson, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Granite countertop fabricators are at risk of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, which may cause silicosis and other lung conditions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exposure control methods, especially wet methods, in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma to assess how many workers might be at risk of overexposure to crystalline silica in this industry. Granite fabrication shops in the three largest metropolitan areas in Oklahoma were enumerated, and 47 of the 52 shops participated in a survey on fabrication methods. Countertop shops were small businesses with average work forces of fewer than 10 employees. Ten shops (21%) reported using exclusively wet methods during all fabrication steps. Thirty-five shops (74%) employing a total of about 200 workers reported using dry methods all or most of the time in at least one fabrication step. The tasks most often performed dry were edge profiling (17% of shops), cutting of grooves for reinforcing rods (62% of shops), and cutting of sink openings (45% of shops). All shops reported providing either half-face or full-face respirators for use during fabrication, but none reported doing respirator fit testing. Few shops reported using any kind of dust collection system. These findings suggest that current consumer demand for granite countertops is giving rise to a new wave of workers at risk of silicosis due to potential overexposure to granite dust.

  17. Petrological features of the Santa Teresa Granitic Complex Southeastern Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzio, Rossana; Artur, Antonio Carlos

    1999-09-01

    The Santa Teresa Granitic Complex, located in the north-eastern region of the Rocha Department (Eastern Uruguay), is an epizonal Late-Brasiliano granite intruded in the low-grade metasedimentary sequence of the Rocha Group. Twelve different facies types, each with distinctive structural-petrographic features, were recognized during detailed mapping (1:50,000) of the central-eastern part of the granitic complex and form two magmatic suites. The Santa Teresa Calk-alkaline Suite is composed of mostly porphyritic 3a-3b granites with variable amounts of biotite, sphene, allanite, magnetite and microgranular enclaves and belongs to a middle to high potassium calk-alkaline series with high silica contents. In contrast, the Sierra de la Blanqueada Peraluminous Suite has a great variation of grain size, including 3a-3b granitic facies with variable content of muscovite, biotite, tourmaline, ilmenite and monazite. Zircon morphology was studied in both suites and also shows their calk-alkaline and peraluminous nature. The Santa Teresa Calk-alkaline Suite had a Late- to Post-orogenic setting whereas the Sierra de la Blanqueada Peraluminous Suite was formed during the crustal thickening related to a syn-collisional environment.

  18. Geochemistry and origin of granitic rocks, Scourian Complex, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C.; Muecke, G. K.

    1982-11-01

    Concordant granite sheets from the granulite facies Scourian Complex, N.W. Scotland exhibit the following features: 1) a common planar fabric with their host pyroxene granulites; 2) the presence of an exsolved ternary feldspar phase; 3) a low-pressure, water-saturated minimum composition; 4) K/Rb ratios (450 1,350) distinctly higher than most upper crustal granites but similar to the surrounding granulites; 5) low absolute concentrations of the rare earth elements (REEs), light REE enrichment, and large positive Eu anomalies. It is proposed that the granite sheets have originated by anatexis of gneisses undergoing granulite facies metamorphism — gneisses that were already essentially dry and depleted in incompatible elements. Their unusual trace element chemistry may be explained by either disequilibrium melting and/or sub-solidus reequilibration of the granite sheets with the surrounding gneisses. Isotopic and trace element data suggest that cross-cutting, potash-rich pegmatites represent reworking of the granite sheets during a later amphibolitization.

  19. Fractionated alkaline rare-metal granites: two examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverton, Timothy; Botelho, Nilson F.

    2001-04-01

    Two suites of tin-related alkaline granites are compared: the Seagull-Thirtymile granites of the Yukon, which were emplaced in a cordilleran setting and the Paranã suite of Goiás, which were emplaced in an incipient rift environment. The geochemistry of these two suites is similar and both have evolved small volumes of Li-Rb rich alkali feldspar leucogranites. Both fall partly, but not wholly, within the compositional fields defined for 'A-types' on various tectonic discrimination diagrams. Halogen contents and major element chemistry of Fe-Li micas from the Seagull-Thirtymile suite indicate that these plutons were reduced magmas that evolved magmatic/hydrothermal systems with increasing Cl content in a shallow, at least periodically 'open' system. The most important Sn-granites of the Paranã suite of Goiás were also emplaced at shallow depth and developed extensive greisen in active shear zones, which contrasts with a more passive environment for the Seagull granites. Both of these suites may be classified as low-P 2O 5 alkaline types and they display particularly Fe 2+-rich biotite micas that separate the alkaline plutons from S-type tin granites.

  20. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  1. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.

    2011-04-27

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  2. Locomotive track detection for underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  3. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  4. Earth's youngest exposed granite and its tectonic implications: the 10-0.8 Ma Kurobegawa Granite.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Yamada, Ryuji; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Horie, Kenji; Hokada, Tomokazu

    2013-01-01

    Although the quest for Earth's oldest rock is of great importance, identifying the youngest exposed pluton on Earth is also of interest. A pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock that crystallized from slowly cooling magma at depths of several kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Therefore, the youngest exposed pluton represents the most recent tectonic uplift and highest exhumation. The youngest exposed pluton reported to date is the Takidani Granodiorite (~ 1.4 Ma) in the Hida Mountain Range of central Japan. Using LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating methods, this study demonstrates that the Kurobegawa Granite, also situated in the Hida Mountain Range, is as young as ~ 0.8 Ma. In addition, data indicate multiple intrusion episodes in this pluton since 10 Ma with a ~ 2-million-year period of quiescence; hence, a future intrusion event is likely within 1 million years.

  5. The mechanism of ascent and emplacement of granite magma during transpression: a syntectonic granite paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Solar, G. S.

    1999-10-01

    We propose a model for syntectonic ascent and emplacement of granite magma based on structural relations in part of the northern Appalachians. In the study area in western Maine, strain was distributed heterogeneously during Devonian Acadian transpression. Metasedimentary rocks (migmatites at high grades) record two contrasting types of finite strain in zones that alternate across strike. Rocks in both types of zones have a penetrative, moderately-to-steeply NE-plunging mineral elongation lineation defined by bladed muscovite (fibrolite/sillimanite at high grades). In `straight' belts of enhanced deformation rocks have S > L fabrics that record apparent flattening-to-plane strain (apparent flattening zones, AFZs), but rocks between these belts have L > S fabrics that record apparent constriction (apparent constriction zones, ACZs). At metamorphic grades above the contemporary solidus, rocks in AFZs developed stromatic structure in migmatite, which suggests that percolative flow of melt occurred along the evolving flattening fabric. Stromatic migmatites are intruded by concordant to weakly discordant, m-scale composite sheet-like bodies of granite to suggest magma transport in planar conduits through the AFZ rocks. Inhomogeneous migmatite is found in the intervening ACZs, which suggests migration of partially molten material through these zones en masse, probably by melt-assisted granular flow. Inhomogeneous migmatites are intruded by irregular m-scale bodies of granite that vary from elongate to sub-circular in plan view and seem cylindrical in three dimensions. These bodies apparently plunge to the northeast, parallel to the regional mineral elongation lineation, to suggest magma transport in pipe-like conduits through the ACZ rocks. We postulate that the form of magma ascent conduits was deformation-controlled, and was governed by the contemporaneous strain partitioning. Magma ascent in planar and pipe-like conduits through migmatites is possible because oblique

  6. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1994-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1994 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1994 snowpack was among the lowest since the beginning of the present drought, and the subsequent runoff was very poor. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1994. Total annual (hatchery + wild) chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.5 times greater than in 1993. Hatchery and wild steelhead trout catches were similar to 1993. The Snake River trap collected 30 age 0 chinook salmon. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was 3.5 times higher than in 1993, and wild chinook salmon catch was 4.2 times higher. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was less than half of 1993 numbers because the trap was fishing near the north shore during the majority of the hatchery steelhead movement due to flow augmentations from Dworshak. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 times higher than in 1993. The Salmon River trap was operated for about a month longer in 1994 than in 1993 due to extremely low flows. Hatchery chinook salmon catch was 1.4 times greater in 1994 than the previous year. Wild chinook salmon catch was slightly less in 1994. The 1994 hatchery steelhead trout collection did not change significantly from 1993 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1994 was 59% of the 1993 catch. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993, cumulative interrogation data is not comparable with the prior five years (1988-1992).

  7. On the Eighth Hutton Symposium on Granites and Related Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Bitencourt, Maria; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir; Sawyer, Edward

    2017-04-01

    The Eighth Hutton Symposium was held on September 20-25, in the coastal city of Florianópolis, south Brazil, situated on the Neoproterozoic Florianópolis Batholith. During the mid-symposium field trip shallow-level granites, rhyolites and mafic dikes were visited in several large exposures along the shore. A 4-day pre-meeting field trip took place to see the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Province Archaean basement in Minas Gerais (southeast Brazil). After the meeting, another field trip took participants to the southern Brazilian coast to see Neoproterozoic, syntectonic granite magmatism within a transpressive orogen and to discuss crust and mantle contribution to granite generation.

  8. Monitoring underground water quality based on high-density resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanyan

    2015-12-01

    Underground water is different from surface water. Once contaminated, underground water is difficult to recover, so it is necessary to give priority to the prevention of the quality of underground water. High-density resistivity method is very important in the environmental engineering geophysical prospecting and it is widely used in mineral resources as well as monitoring the underground-water quality. In the experiment, multi-tools joint inversion is applied to build the model in order to increase the accuracy. In contrast with the pollution-free water model which is owned by the RES2DMOD, the inversion result of underground water quality with the high density resistivity method is useful to monitor the underground water quality, showing that different degree of water pollution depends on the position of abnormal and there is a more significant abnormal value in the vertical direction of the deep abnormal than that of the shallow abnormal, and high and low resistance pollution depends on the different value and forms of abnormal resistance. In conclusion, monitoring the underground water quality by the high density resistivity method is efficient. In the future research, it is necessary to accomplish more precise inversion models combining with field measurements to find out the optimal solution to monitor underwater quality.

  9. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  10. Close-range photogrammetry in underground mining ground control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Donovan J.; Chambers, Amy J.; Raffaldi, Michael J.; Finley, Seth A.; Powers, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring underground mine deformation and support conditions has traditionally involved visual inspection and geotechnical instrumentation. Monitoring displacements with conventional instrumentation can be expensive and time-consuming, and the number of locations that can be effectively monitored is generally limited. Moreover, conventional methods typically produce vector rather than tensor descriptions of geometry changes. Tensor descriptions can provide greater insight into hazardous ground movements, particularly in recently excavated openings and in older workings that have been negatively impacted by high stress concentrations, time-dependent deformation, or corrosion of ground support elements. To address these issues, researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane Mining Research Division are developing and evaluating photogrammetric systems for ground control monitoring applications in underground mines. This research has demonstrated that photogrammetric systems can produce millimeter-level measurements that are comparable to conventional displacement-measuring instruments. This paper provides an overview of the beneficial use of close-range photogrammetry for the following three ground control applications in underground mines: monitoring the deformation of surface support, monitoring rock mass movement, and monitoring the corrosion of surface support. Preliminary field analyses, case studies, limitations, and best practices for these applications are also discussed.

  11. Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

    2010-05-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health.

  12. Granite microcracks: Structure and connectivity at different depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fan; Dong, Yan-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Wang, Li-Heng; Tong, Shao-Qing; Duan, Rui-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Granite is one rock type used to host high-level radioactive waste repositories, and the structure of microcracks in the rock can influence its hydraulic characteristics. Thus, a quantitative analysis of granite microcracks is relevant for understanding the hydrogeological characteristics of the rocks surrounding geological repositories. The analysis can also contribute scientific data to a seepage model for low permeability rocks and materials with microscopic pores. In this study, seven granite core samples were drilled from different depths up to 600 m in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. Using a grid survey method and image processing technology, micrographs were converted into binary images of microcracks. The geometric parameters of the microcracks, including their quantity, width, cranny ratio, crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, were analyzed in order to fully describe their spatial distribution. In addition, the morphological characteristics and elemental compositions of the microcracks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS), and the natural moisture content was also determined through heated. Finally, two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models of the granite samples were simulated using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which revealed the influence of the microcrack structure on their connectivity. The results show that the growth and development of microcracks in the granite samples generally decreases as sampling depth increases in this study area. Connectivity is positively correlated with a number of the geometric parameters: the quantity of microcracks, the cranny ratio, the number of crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, which is revealed in the two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models for these granite samples.

  13. Magnetic Properties of Hydrothermalized A-type Red Granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, R. I. F.; Nédélec, A.; Peschler, A.; Archanjo, C. J.; Poitrasson, F.; Bouchez, J. L.

    Hydrothermalized A-type granites are commonly identified by their pink to red-brick colour attributed to tiny flakes of hematite in the alkali feldspars. These inclusions can be of interest in magnetic studies, but their timing and process of formation are still unclear. Formation of chlorite after biotite is the commonest effect of hydrother- malization and may occur quite early after crystallization due to late-magmatic or externally-derived fluids. The reddish colour appears at a later stage. Five cases of A-type granites were investigated for their magnetic mineralogy and properties. The selected cases range from nearly unmodified granites (Panafrican stratoid granites of Madagascar) to strongly hydrothermalized ones (Meruoca, Brazil; Tana, Corsica); in- termediate cases are : Mount Scott (Oklahoma), Bushveld (granitic core kindly pro- vided by R.G. Cawthorn) and. Hydrothermal alteration is often associated to a de- crease of the magnetic susceptibility magnitude (K) and of the anisotropy degree (P). It also strongly affects the rockt's bulk coercivity parameters, since alteration changes the relative amounts of coarse-grained primary magnetite, fine-grained PSD to SD sec- ondary magnetite, and hematite. Correspondingly, most samples plot away from the magnetite trend in the Dayt's diagram, but the different groups identified after coer- civity parameters do not directly correlate with whole-rock colour. In addition, IRM- acquisition curves and thermal demagnetization of tri-axial IRM show that hematite occurs in almost all analysed samples despite their colour. Various hematite coercivity ranges are also evidenced. In fact, hematite can be formed either in feldspar crys- tals or after magnetite. Tiny hematite within feldspars can appear either by exsolu- tion process or, more likely, by precipitation from a fluid phase. For these reasons, hematite inclusions may carry a remanence acquired shortly after granite crystalliza- tion or, conversely, a recent

  14. The identification and significance of pure sediment-derived granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, Thomas N.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Warren, Clare J.; Spencer, Christopher J.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Parrish, Randall R.; EIMF

    2017-06-01

    The characterization of the geochemical reservoirs of the Earth's continental crust, including the determination of representative upper and lower crustal compositions, underpins our understanding of crustal evolution. The classic I- and S-type granite classification has often been invoked to distinguish between melts derived from igneous protoliths and those derived from the melting of a sedimentary source. Recent geochemical studies suggest that most granites, even those cited as typical examples of 'S-type', show evidence for a mixture of mantle and upper crustal sources, thereby implying that granite formation is evidence for overall crustal growth. We have examined the source of leucogranite bodies in one of the world's youngest collisional orogens using novel zircon techniques that can resolve the presence of even minor mantle contributions. 232 zircons from 12 granites from the Bhutan Himalaya were analysed by in-situ techniques for O, Hf and U-Pb isotopic signatures. In combination with data from the granite host rocks, our data show that the Himalayan leucogranites were derived solely from metamorphosed crustal sediments, and do not record any mantle contribution. This finding is consistent with the time-lag between crustal thickening and widespread crustal melting, and the heat-producing capacities of the pelitic source rocks. We conclude that Himalayan leucogranites provide a more suitable type locality for 'S-type' granites than the Lachlan area in South-East Australia where the term was first defined. The Himalayan leucogranites therefore provide evidence that syn-orogenic melting during collisional events does not necessarily result in crustal growth. Importantly, crustal growth models should not always assume that crustal growth is achieved during collisional orogenesis.

  15. Scale-dependent resistivity measurements of Oracle granite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    The author reports a series of electrical conductivity measurements made on a section of Oracle granite, in Arizona. The measurements were made within and between bore holes, over a length scale of 8 inches to 100 feet, in a block sized roughly as 50 x 50 x 150 ft, of subsurface granite. A power law relationship was observed, with the electric conductivity increasing with electrode spacing. In general the author argues these measurements give a good assesment of the electrical properties of this fractured system.

  16. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  17. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923)

    PubMed Central

    Kinateder, Max

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite—a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations. PMID:28286640

  18. Effets d'échelle dans la fracturation des granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genter, Albert; Castaing, Christian

    1997-09-01

    A multi-scale fracture-system characterization was made at the surface of a well-exposed granite (Jabal Qutan, Saudi Arabia) and in a buried granite known only through drilling (Soultz-sous-Forêts, France). At outcrop scale the fractures are seen to lie in irregularly distributed clusters that form highly fractured zones alternating with non-fractured zones. The fracture spacing is governed by a power law to three decades revealing a self-similar fractal character. At massif scale the regional fractures and faults show a more regular spacing indicating a periodic organization characterized by a lognormal-type distribution.

  19. Metalliferous deposits near Granite Mountain, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.; Elliott, R.L.

    1969-01-01

    New deposits of lead, zinc, and silver were found in a large altered zone 18 miles long and 2 to 5 miles wide near Quartz Creek west of Granite Mountain in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. New deposits of molybdenum, bismuth, and silver were found associated with a previously reported occurrence of uranium, copper, lead, and zinc minerals in the upper Peace River drainage northeast of Granite Mountain. Both groups of deposits are associated spatially with felsic plutonic rocks and occur near the western edge of a late Mesozoic province of volcanic plutonic rocks. Both groups of deposits warrant further investigation as possible exploration target areas.

  20. In-situ investigation of the influence of the long-term shear strength of faults on the regional stress field in a granite rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Bruno; Cornet, Francois; Lamas, Luís; Muralha, José

    2016-04-01

    A case study is presented to show how stress field measurements may be used to assess the long-term rheological behaviour of an equivalent geo-material. The example concerns a granitic rock mass at the km3 scale, where an underground hydropower scheme including a new 10 km long power conduit and a powerhouse complex will be constructed. For design of the underground cavern and hydraulic pressure tunnel, several in situ stress measurements were carried out, using hydraulic borehole testing, overcoring and flat jack techniques. A first continuum mechanics model, with a homogenous material, was developed to integrate the several in situ test results and to assess the regional stress field. This model is based on elasticity and relaxation of the elastic properties measured through laboratory tests conducted on cores. Results of integration show that the long-term behavior of this granite rock mass differs markedly from the short-term behaviour as defined by laboratory tests. This suggests that the in-situ stress field depends mostly on the softer material that fills up the faults and hence results from the shear stress relaxation over a large number of pre-existing fractures and faults. A second continuum mechanics model, with consideration of two fault planes located nearby the hydraulic tests, was studied. This model is based on elasticity for the overall rock mass, with the elastic properties extracted from laboratory measurements, and visco-elasticity with small long-term shear strength for the two fault planes. Results show that the overall granite rock mass may be viewed as a combination of stiff elastic blocks separated by soft low strength material, leading to a fairly large scale homogeneous axisymmetrical stress field with vertical axis. Advantages and limitations of the two modelling approaches are discussed.

  1. Resistor network as a model of fractures in granitic rocks - model for ERT interpretation in crystalline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Janeček, Josef; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Recently we have developed and tested system for long-term monitoring of underground excavation stability in granitic rocks. It is based on repeated ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurement. The ERT measurement is performed directly on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes was selected 20 centimeters. Based on sensitivity function it can be expected that maximum penetration depth of ERT is about 1.5 m. The observed time changes in apparent resistivity are expected to be mainly result of changes in fracture water saturation. To get some basic knowledge about relation between electrical resistivity in the rock fracture zone and its saturation a series of laboratory tests with rock samples with different porosity and different saturation was performed. The model of crystalline rock with sparse net of fractures is highly inhomogeneous medium and can be hardly considered as 2D layered model, which is usually used in ERT inversion. Therefore, we prepared resistor-network model for the qualitative/quantitative interpretation of observed apparent resistivity changes. Some preliminary results of our experience with this new type of resistivity model are presented. The results can be used for underground storage monitoring projects. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  2. Assessing the acoustical climate of underground stations.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Designing a proper acoustical environment--indispensable to speech recognition--in long enclosures is difficult. Although there is some literature on the acoustical conditions in underground stations, there is still little information about methods that make estimation of correct reverberation conditions possible. This paper discusses the assessment of the reverberation conditions of underground stations. A comparison of the measurements of reverberation time in Warsaw's underground stations with calculated data proves there are divergences between measured and calculated early decay time values, especially for long source-receiver distances. Rapid speech transmission index values for measured stations are also presented.

  3. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  4. Genesis of a zoned granite stock, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis

    1977-01-01

    A composite epizonal stock of biotite granite has intruded a diverse assemblage of metamorphic rocks in the Serpentine Hot Springs area of north-central Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The metamorphic rocks include amphibolite-facies orthogneiss and paragneiss, greenschist-facies fine-grained siliceous and graphitic metasediments, and a variety of carbonate rocks. Lithologic units within the metamorphic terrane trend generally north-northeast and dip moderately toward the southeast. Thrust faults locally juxtapose lithologic units in the metamorphic assemblage, and normal faults displace both the metamorphic rocks and some parts of the granite stock. The gneisses and graphitic metasediments are believed to be late Precambrian in age, but the carbonate rocks are in part Paleozoic. Dating by the potassium-argon method indicates that the granite stock is Late Cretaceous. The stock has sharp discordant contacts, beyond which is a well-developed thermal aureole with rocks of hornblende hornfels facies. The average mode of the granite is 29 percent plagioclase, 31 percent quartz, 36 percent K-feldspar, and 4 percent biotite. Accessory minerals include apatite, magnetite, sphene, allanite, and zircon. Late-stage or deuteric minerals include muscovite, fluorite, tourmaline, quartz, and albite. The stock is a zoned complex containing rocks with several textural facies that are present in four partly concentric zones. Zone 1 is a discontinuous border unit, containing fine- to coarse-grained biotite granite, that grades inward into zone 2. Zone 2 consists of porphyritic biotite granite with oriented phenocrysts of pinkish-gray microcline in a coarse-grained equigranular groundmass of plagioclase, quartz, and biotite. It is in sharp, concordant to discordant contact with rocks of zone 3. Zone 3 consists of seriate-textured biotite granite that has been intruded by bodies of porphyritic biotite granite containing phenocrysts of plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite in an

  5. From granite to highly evolved pegmatite: A case study of the Pinilla de Fermoselle granite-pegmatite system (Zamora, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Robles, E.; Pesquera, A.; Gil-Crespo, P.; Torres-Ruiz, J.

    2012-11-01

    The Pinilla de Fermoselle pegmatite is a cap-like body with an asymmetrical vertical zoning, from a granitic facies at the bottom to the upper contact with the metamorphic country-rocks. The granite grades imperceptibly into the pegmatite, which includes three main zones with different degrees of enrichment in Li + F + B (± P, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn). The essential minerals are quartz, feldspar, Al-micas from the muscovite-lepidolite series, Fe-micas (biotite and zinnwaldite), tourmaline (schorl-elbaite-rossmanite) and Fe-Mn phosphates. Apatite, beryl, cassiterite and cookeite are the most significant accessory minerals. The trace elements Li, Be and Sr show similar trends in feldspar, micas and tourmaline, with an increase in the Li and Be contents and a decrease in Sr from the granite to the most evolved pegmatitic zone. Similar trends are shown by Rb, Cs and Ba for micas and K-feldspar, Rb and Cs increasing gradually from the granite to most evolved pegmatitic zones, simultaneously to the decrease of Ba. In tourmaline Nb and Ta contents increase upwards whereas Zn contents decrease in the same way. The Mn contents increase until intermediate degrees of evolution, and decrease again in the pinkish elbaite. Combined field, petrographic and geochemical data are consistent with a fractional crystallization model from a granitic melt, with a clear petrogenetic relationship between the underlying peraluminous granite and the pegmatite body. K-feldspar and, particularly, micas and tourmaline appear as good geochemical monitors using trace elements such as Li, Rb, Be, Sr and Ba, which offer intriguing insights into the petrogenesis of pegmatites.

  6. Enclaves in the S-type granites of the Kösseine massif (Fichtelgebirge, Germany): implications for the origin of granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödlbauer, S.; Hecht, L.; Höhndorf, A.; Morteani, G.

    The Hercynian peraluminous granites of the Kösseine massif differ in composition and content of enclaves from the other granites of the Fichtelgebirge. They are garnet-, cordierite- and andalusite-bearing S-type granites containing at least five different types of enclaves. Based on petrography and geochemical data, including radiogenic isotopes, the following is concluded: The amphibolite enclave (AE) and most of the aluminium silicate-bearing surmicaceous enclaves (SEA) are country-rock xenoliths picked up by the granite at or close to the emplacement level. The orthopyroxene-bearing surmicaceous enclave (SEO) probably represents a restite from the source level of the granite. The gneiss enclaves (GE) could be fragments of Saxothuringian paragneisses taken up by the granite near the source level. The pale microgranular enclaves with igneous texture (PMEI) could be fragments of a yet-unknown granitic material or unmelted igneous material of an inhomogeneous source. The biotite-rich microgranular enclaves with igneous texture (BMEI) and the microgranular enclaves with polygonal texture (MEP) represent material which derives from the source region of the granite. The Kösseine granites represent an independent intrusion among the Fichtelgebirge granites formed by a combination of incomplete restite unmixing, assimilation and probably fractional crystallization in the course of magma formation, ascent and emplacement.

  7. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Undergroung Radioactive Waste Isloation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-15

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available site characterization

  8. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  9. Research results reported by OEO summer (1981) student employees of LLNL working with Earth Sciences (K) Division personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, M. C.; Griffith, P. J.; Kreevoy, E. P.; Turner, III, H. J.; Tatman, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Significant experimental results were achieved in a number of research programs that were carried out during the summer of 1981 by students sponsored by the Office of Equal Opportunity at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These students were working with Earth Sciences (K) Division personnel. Accomplishments include the following: (1) preparation of post-burn stratigraphic sections for the Hoe Creek III experiment, Underground Coal Gasification project; (2) preparation of miscellaneous stratigraphic sections in the Climax granite near the Spent Fuel Test, Nevada Test Site, for the Waste Isolation Project; (3) confirmation of the applicability of a new theory relating to subsidence (solid matrix movement); (4) experimental confirmation that organic groundwater contaminants produced during an underground coal gasification experiment can be removed by appropriate bacterial treatment; (5) development of data supporting the extension of the Greenville Fault Zone into the Northern Diablo Range (Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California); (6) completion of a literature review on hazardous waste (current disposal technology, regulations, research needs); (7) preparation of a map showing levels of background seismic noise in the USSR; (8) demonstration of a correlation of explosion size with the P-wave magnitude of the seismic signal produced by the explosion; and (9) reduction of data showing the extent of ground motion resulting from subsidence in the vicinity of the Hoe Creek III experiment, Underground Coal Gasification Project.

  10. Influence of phosphate on mobility and adsorption of REEs during weathering of granites in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanematsu, Kenzo; Kon, Yoshiaki; Imai, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The Permo-Jurassic North Thai (NT) Granites and the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Western Province (WP) Granites in Thailand are contrasting in terms of tectonic settings and chemical compositions. The NT Granites, which are dominated by S-type features, are characterized by lower SiO2 contents and higher P2O5 contents than the WP Granites in this study. In order to compare the mobility and adsorption of rare earth elements (REEs) during weathering of the two granite suites, geochemical analyses were conducted on the granite and weathered granites. The weathered WP Granites show wider ranges of REEs + Y (REY) contents, percentages of ion-exchangeable REY and Ce anomalies than the weathered NT Granites. These results indicate that REEs were less mobile during weathering of the NT Granites than those of the WP Granites. The low mobility of REEs can be explained by the occurrences of residual monazite and secondary REE phosphates which immobilize REEs during weathering. Therefore, in the weathered NT Granites, REEs are mostly contained in the phosphate minerals. In contrast, the weathered WP Granites are dominated by ion-exchangeable REEs (adsorbed REEs) which are likely to exist on the surface of clays. Previous studies and our study results suggest that the ion-exchangeable REEs in the weathered granites were probably sourced from weatherable allanite, titanite, apatite and/or REE fluorocarbonate, and rarely from monazite and zircon, which are resistant to weathering. The weathered granites of low phosphate contents potentially show high percentages of ion-exchangeable REY, although they can be influenced by the degree of hydrothermal alteration or weathering of granites.

  11. Automated in-situ inspection systems for underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Chris C.; Whittaker, Warren C.

    1993-12-01

    The Army-has 20,000 underground fuel storage tanks (UST's) that must be brought into compliance with the new federal regulations by 1998. To be compliant, a tank must be closed, upgraded or replaced. This report covers the investigative research for the development of a robotic system capable of performing an in situ ultrasonic thickness inspection on the interior of a fueled UST. The robotic system is designed to meet the criteria outlined in the Draft Standard for the Robotic inspection of Underground Storage Tanks developed for the EPA. This robotic inspection will allow the Army to make an informed decision on the appropriate action to be taken for a given tank. The robotic system offers a cost effective way to monitor a tank when compared with the existing manual technology that produces the same results. The robotic technology also moves the human out of the UST which eliminates the human liability factor in the hazardous environment.

  12. Evaluation of communication in wireless underground sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X. Q.; Zhang, Z. L.; Han, W. T.

    2017-06-01

    Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN) are an emerging area of research that promises to provide communication capabilities to buried sensors. In this paper, experimental measurements have been conducted with commodity sensor motes at the frequency of 2.4GHz and 433 MHz, respectively. Experiments are run to examine the received signal strength of correctly received packets and the packet error rate for a communication link. The tests show the potential feasibility of the WUSN with the use of powerful RF transceivers at 433MHz frequency. Moreover, we also illustrate a classification for wireless underground sensor network communication. Finally, we conclude that the effects of burial depth, inter-node distance and volumetric water content of the soil on the signal strength and packet error rate in communication of WUSN.

  13. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, WeiPing; Li, ZhiHong; He, JiangJun; Tang, XiaoDong; Lian, Gang; An, Zhu; Chang, JianJun; Chen, Han; Chen, QingHao; Chen, XiongJun; Chen, ZhiJun; Cui, BaoQun; Du, XianChao; Fu, ChangBo; Gan, Lin; Guo, Bing; He, GuoZhu; Heger, Alexander; Hou, SuQing; Huang, HanXiong; Huang, Ning; Jia, BaoLu; Jiang, LiYang; Kubono, Shigeru; Li, JianMin; Li, KuoAng; Li, Tao; Li, YunJu; Lugaro, Maria; Luo, XiaoBing; Ma, HongYi; Ma, ShaoBo; Mei, DongMing; Qian, YongZhong; Qin, JiuChang; Ren, Jie; Shen, YangPing; Su, Jun; Sun, LiangTing; Tan, WanPeng; Tanihata, Isao; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Peng; Wang, YouBao; Wu, Qi; Xu, ShiWei; Yan, ShengQuan; Yang, LiTao; Yang, Yao; Yu, XiangQing; Yue, Qian; Zeng, Sheng; Zhang, HuanYu; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, LiYong; Zhang, NingTao; Zhang, QiWei; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, XiaoPeng; Zhang, XueZhen; Zhang, ZiMing; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Zuo; Zhou, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Jinping Underground lab for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultralow background in Jinping underground lab, high current accelerator based on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of crucial reactions to the hydrostatic stellar evolution for the first time at their relevant stellar energies. In its first phase, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O. The experimental setup, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be established during the above research. The current progress of JUNA will be given.

  14. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant to groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.

  15. FROGS Report Friends of Granite Summer 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FROGS Reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller (6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235) concerning your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  16. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    2000-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka, during the 1998 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake and Salmon rivers. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam 19 1998 were marked with a fin-clip. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 226% of the 1997 number and 110% of the 1996 catch. The wild chinook catch was 120% of the 1997 catch but was only 93% of 1996. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 501% of 1997 numbers but only 90% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 569% of 1997 and 125% of the 1996 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 106 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998, for the first time, the Snake River trap captured a significant number of hatchery sockeye salmon (1,552) and hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch (166). Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 8 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on June 12. The trap was out of operation for 34 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 476% and wild chinook salmon catch was 137% of 1997 numbers and 175% and 82% of 1996 catch, respectively. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 96% of the 1997 catch and 13% of the 1996 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1998 was 170% of the 1997 catch and 37% of the 1996 numbers. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir were affected by discharge. For fish tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis of 1998 detected a significant relation between migration rate and discharge. For hatchery and

  17. The Later Paleozoic granites of the Greater Caucasus Fore Range zone: geochemistry, magnetic properties and the structural and metamorphic evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Latyshev, Anton; Ivanov, Stanislav; Vidjapin, Jury

    2017-04-01

    Clarification of the position of the granitic intrusions associated with the Blyb Metamorphic Complex is the important problem of the reconstruction of the structural evolution of the Greater Caucasus Fore Range zone. Based of the rock geochemistry we found out that the quartz diorites, granodiorites and syeno-granites of the BMC formed in suprasubduction conditions and refer to I-type granites. However, their emplacement was multistage coinciding with the various stages of the BMC evolution. We detected the mineral associations typical for the epidote-amphibolite facies in the Balkan massif, but these metamorphic features are absent in the granodiorite intrusions in the southern part of the Fore Range zone. Thus, quartz diorites of the Balkan intrusion intruded after the high-pressure metamorphism of the host rocks, but before the epidote-amphibolite stage, and the Southern granodiorite intrusions are younger. The measurements of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in the Balkan intrusion indicated the shallow orientation of the minimal (north-eastern strike) and maximal (north-western strike) axes of the AMS ellipsoid. This result is compatible with the idea of the north-east compression fixed in the fold deformation structures of the BMC host rocks (Vidyapin, Kamzolkin, 2015). However, the macroscopic foliation in the granites dips to the east steeply. The discrepancy of the texture orientation of the granites, the host rock structure and the magnetic fabric can be explained as a result of the repeated changes of the stress field during the evolution of the Fore Range nappe structures. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research projects No. 16-35-00571mol_a; 16-05-01012a.

  18. 76 FR 62758 - Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Forest Service Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans... of mining Plans of Operation in the Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans analysis area on the Whitman... proposed mining Plans in the portions of the Granite Creek Watershed under their administration. As issues...

  19. Geochemical study of granites from Chinmen (Quemoy) and Hong Kong, southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Ju-Chin

    Eighteen granite samples from Chinmen and 31 granite samples from Hong Kong were chemically analyzed. All granite specimens contain essentially quartz, potash-feldspar and albite with a minor amount of biotite. Chinmen granites are chemically similar to Hong Kong granites and both show the characteristics of S-type granite defined by Chappell and White (1974), indicating that Chinmen and Hong Kong granites originated from continental crustal material. Negative europium anomalies observed in Chinmen and Hong Kong granites suggest that both Chinmen and Hong Kong granites have evolved through magmatic differentiation with Ca-rich plagioclase being separated out in the early stage of the differentiation. It is inferred that the parental magmas of Chinmen and Hong Kong granites were derived from partially melted SiO 2, Na 2O, K 2O-enriched material during the Yenshan orogeny in southeastern China in Late Mesozoic, associated with the rapid spreading of the Pacific plate. The Chinmen granites are relatively higher in Al, Ca, Na, Ni and Sc but lower in Fe, K, Ba, Hf, Y and Ce when compared with Hong Kong granites, indicating that there might be slight differences in the parental crustal material and/or differentiation process.

  20. New Measurement of ^39Ar in Underground Argon with a Low Background Liquid Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingke

    2012-03-01

    A low background liquid argon detector has been developed for sensitive measurements of the beta radioactive ^39Ar in argon from underground sources. The measurement is motivated by the need to improve on earlier studies that showed no sign of ^39Ar in certain sources of underground argon, but with a limited sensitivity of ˜ 5% relative to ^39Ar in atmospheric argon[1]. We will report preliminary measurements taken with the low background detector that was commissioned and operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) in Virginia. A combination of passive and active background reduction techniques resulted in a very low background and a null result with sensitivity to ^39Ar less than 1% of atmospheric. The results confirm that underground argon is well suited for direct detection of dark matter WIMPs. [4pt] [1] D. Acosta-Kane et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 587:46 (2008)

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1991-05-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mvkiss smolts during the 1990 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was similar to 1987 and 1988, drought years, but considerably less than 1989, a near normal flow year. Trapping effort was the same during the four years. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was similar to 1988 and 1989. Wild steelhead trout catch was greater than in any previous year. Chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was slightly less than in 1987 or 1988 and considerably higher than in 1989. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was 3 to 26 times greater than in previous years. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 to 11 times greater than in previous years. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were recovered at the three dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary dams). Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap was 64.4% for chinook salmon, 83.1% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 79.0% for wild steelhead trout. Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish PIT-tagged at the Clearwater River trap was 54.6% for chinook salmon, 77.6% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 70.4% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time (days) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that a two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 2.2 times for PIT-tagged chinook salmon released from the Snake River trap and 1.8 times for chinook salmon released from the Clearwater River trap. A two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 3.1 times for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead trout released from the Snake River trap

  2. ANNs pinpoint underground distribution faults

    SciTech Connect

    Glinkowski, M.T.; Wang, N.C.

    1995-10-01

    Many offline fault location techniques in power distribution circuits involve patrolling along the lines or cables. In overhead distribution lines, most of the failures can be located quickly by visual inspection without the aid of special equipment. However, locating a fault in underground cable systems is more difficult. It involves additional equipment (e.g., thumpers, radars, etc.) to transform the invisibility of the cable into other forms of signals, such as acoustic sound and electromagnetic pulses. Trained operators must carry the equipment above the ground, follow the path of the signal, and draw lines on their maps in order to locate the fault. Sometimes, even smelling the burnt cable faults is a way of detecting the problem. These techniques are time consuming, not always reliable, and, as in the case of high-voltage dc thumpers, can cause additional damage to the healthy parts of the cable circuit. Online fault location in power networks that involve interconnected lines (cables) and multiterminal sources continues receiving great attention, with limited success in techniques that would provide simple and practical solutions. This article features a new online fault location technique that: uses the pattern recognition feature of artificial neural networks (ANNs); utilizes new capabilities of modern protective relaying hardware. The output of the neural network can be graphically displayed as a simple three-dimensional (3-D) chart that can provide an operator with an instantaneous indication of the location of the fault.

  3. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.O.; Alton, A.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Kendziora, C.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  4. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  5. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  6. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  7. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  8. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    PubMed

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  9. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where...

  11. Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  12. Chemical composition and origin of black patinas on granite.

    PubMed

    Silva, Benita; Aira, Noelia; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; Prieto, Beatriz

    2009-12-15

    Black patinas from the surfaces of granite outcrops (including some with engravings) and granite buildings were analysed. Rock samples were also taken from areas of the same surfaces where there were no black patinas. The constituent elements of the granite rocks, elements of essentially biological origin (C, N, H) and other minor elements, including some typical from pollution, were all determined. The ratios between the concentrations of each element in the patinas and in the corresponding rock samples without patina were calculated in order to determine which elements form the patinas. The data were then examined by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal components analysis to establish the factors that determine the differences between samples. It was found that the elements that differentiate the patinas from the samples of rock without patina are those unrelated to granite, which indicates that, at least from a geochemical point of view, the rocky substrate does not affect patina formation. In all patinas analysed, the concentrations of carbon were higher than in the corresponding samples without patina; there were also relatively higher concentrations of sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, calcium, etc. in some patinas, depending on the situation of the outcrop or monument.

  13. Detail of typical subdeck of granite pier showing humanscale arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of typical subdeck of granite pier showing human-scale arched openings in pies. Note remnants of fender system. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. Flow Chart for Mineral Separation from Granitic Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mursky, Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Provided is a flow chart for the separation and purification of major, minor, and accessory minerals from granitic rocks. With careful use of heavy liquids, and a Franz Isodynamic Magnetic Separator, it is possible to obtain mineral concentrates with a purity of 95 percent or better. (Author/RH)

  15. Erosion over time on severely disturbed granitic soils: a model

    Treesearch

    W. F. Megahan

    1974-01-01

    A negative exponential equation containing three parameters was derived to describe time trends in surface erosion on severely disturbed soils. Data from four different studies of surface erosion on roads constructed from the granitic materials found in the Idaho Batholith were used to develop equation parameters. The evidence suggests that surface "armoring...

  16. Lithological strength but chemical weakness controls granitic tor formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeven, A. P.; Goodfellow, B. W.; Skelton, A.; Jansson, K. N.; Hättestrand, C.

    2010-12-01

    The origins of tors have long inspired wonder and are usually attributed to differential weathering according to variations in bedrock joint spacing and/or initial regolith depths. In this study, we investigate the origins of granitic tors in the Cairngorm Mountains, NE Scotland. Specifically, we examine whether: (i) joint spacing correlates with bedrock chemistry, mineralogy, or texture, and (ii) tor size correlates with any of these lithological attributes and/or topographic parameters such as slope, surface curvature, and tor position. Presently, our results indicate that: (i) bedrock joint spacing increases with feldspar crystal size, (ii) tor dimensions increase with joint spacing, particularly along the axis perpendicular to the regional foliation, and (iii) there is a strong positive correlation between joint spacing and tor volume. In addition, the largest tors occur where granite contains comparatively moderate quantities of biotite. If more biotite is present, then grusification, largely driven by the oxidation of Fe in biotite, proceeds too rapidly for large tors to form. Conversely, in granites containing lower quantities of biotite, it appears that the potential for differential weathering between exposed and regolith-covered bedrock is insufficient to produce large tors. Both lithological strength and chemical weakness therefore contribute to granitic tor formation.

  17. 16. Detail showing roller nest between granite pier cap and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail showing roller nest between granite pier cap and moveable end of truss at east end of main spans. View to southeast. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  18. Granite School District's Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance Program in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Judy

    This paper discusses the development of the Utah Model for Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance, and specifically, its application in the Granite School Districts Guidance Program. This model adopted the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC) competencies as its desired program content, which focuses on student outcomes.…

  19. Electrical properties of granite with implications for the lower crust.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olhoeft, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical properties of granite appear to be dominantly controlled by the amount of free water in the granite and by temperature. Minor contributions to the electrical properties are provided by hydrostatic and lithostatic pressure, structurally bound water, oxygen fugacity, and other parameters. The effect of sulphur fugacity may be important but is experimentally unconfirmed. In addition to changing the magnitude of electrical properties, the amount and chemistry of water in granite significantly changes the temperature dependence of the electrical properties. With increasing temperature, changes in water content retain large, but lessened, effects on electrical properties. Near room temperature, a monolayer of water will decrease the electrical resistivity by an order of magnitude. Several weight-percent water may decrease the electrical resistivity by as much as nine orders of magnitude and decrease the thermal activation energy by a factor of five. At elevated temperatures just below granitic melting, a few weight-percent water may still decrease the resistivity by as much as 3 orders of magnitude and the activation energy by a factor of two.-Author

  20. 74. The Butte Water Company Building (124 Weat Granite) was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. The Butte Water Company Building (124 Weat Granite) was built in 1907 for the Montana Independant Telephone Company, which occupied it until 1918. Since then, it has been occupied by the Butte Water Company, and has not been altered substantially. It was designed by George H. Shanley. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. Flow Chart for Mineral Separation from Granitic Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mursky, Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Provided is a flow chart for the separation and purification of major, minor, and accessory minerals from granitic rocks. With careful use of heavy liquids, and a Franz Isodynamic Magnetic Separator, it is possible to obtain mineral concentrates with a purity of 95 percent or better. (Author/RH)

  2. Monte Carlo simulations for generic granite repository studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Shaoping; Lee, Joon H; Wang, Yifeng

    2010-12-08

    In a collaborative study between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the DOE-NE Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign project, we have conducted preliminary system-level analyses to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A general modeling framework consisting of a near- and a far-field submodel for a granite GDSE was developed. A representative far-field transport model for a generic granite repository was merged with an integrated systems (GoldSim) near-field model. Integrated Monte Carlo model runs with the combined near- and farfield transport models were performed, and the parameter sensitivities were evaluated for the combined system. In addition, a sub-set of radionuclides that are potentially important to repository performance were identified and evaluated for a series of model runs. The analyses were conducted with different waste inventory scenarios. Analyses were also conducted for different repository radionuelide release scenarios. While the results to date are for a generic granite repository, the work establishes the method to be used in the future to provide guidance on the development of strategy for long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a granite repository.

  3. Detail of west span showing connection of superstructure to granite ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of west span showing connection of superstructure to granite pier at low tide. Photograph articulates subdeck support members. View southeast - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 8. Granite quay wall at foot of Pier 10 (west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Granite quay wall at foot of Pier 10 (west end), view to north, at low tide. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., floor or walls in any underground work area for more than a 24-hour period; or (ii) The history of the... inches (304.8 mm) ±0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor or walls in any underground work area... equipped with explosion-doors or a weak-wall having an area at least equivalent to the cross-sectional...

  6. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  7. System for remote control of underground device

    DOEpatents

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  8. The density of dry and hydrous granitic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfait, W. J.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Seifert, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Perrillat, J.

    2011-12-01

    Large volumes of granitic magmas form through partial melting of the lower crust and are subsequently emplaced in the higher crustal levels [1]. In addition, granite-like liquids may form through partial melting of subducted sediments [2] or as an end-product of magmatic differentiation [3]. Moreover, water rich magmas of granitic composition are a major source of explosive volcanism. The physical properties of granitic melts, and particularly their density, are key controls on the migration rate and emplacement depth of granitic intrusions. However, because of the high viscosity of granitic liquids, density and compressibility measurements with the sink/float method and sound velocity measurements are challenging. As a result, the density and compressibility of dry and volatile-bearing granitic liquids is poorly constrained, particularly for the pressure-temperature conditions relevant for their formation and emplacement. In this study, we present in situ experimental data on the density of dry and hydrous haplogranitic melts (5 and 10 wt% water) at pressure and temperature conditions relevant for the crust and the subducting slab (1.0-2.7 GPa, 1350-1720 K). The experiments were performed with a panoramic Paris-Edinburgh press installed at the ID27 beamline of ESRF. The samples were contained in a cylindrical diamond capsule, capped with a platinum disk on either side, surrounded by hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and placed inside a graphite heater and boron epoxy gasket. Pressure and temperature were determined from the X-ray diffraction patterns of hBN and platinum using the double-isochore method [4]. The density of the melts was determined from the X-ray absorption contrast between the sample and the diamond capsule (Mo edge, 20 keV). The molten state of the sample at the condition of the density measurements was verified by X-ray diffraction. The run products were analyzed by electron microprobe and infrared spectroscopy to verify the chemical composition and

  9. Riftogenic A-type granites of the Polar Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udoratina, Oksana; Kulikova, Ksenia; Shuysky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    There are granitoids-markers of the riftogenic geodynamic setting in the Polar Urals. Isotope-geochronological and petrographic-petrogeochemical data on granitoids indicate the post-collisional conditions of their formation. Granitoids along with other alkaline massifs North Urals mark rifting in this part of the Urals. These granitoids formed after the collision peak of Timanides formation, after 520 Ma in the absolute chronology, when the intensity of magmatism fell sharply and only small volumes of rhyolite and A-type granites were formed. Granitoid massifs occur within the Northern Urals fragment of the Central Ural uplift composed of preuralide complexes. According to the recent data (U-Pb, SIMS) for single zircon the granitoids of the massifs (hereinafter Ma): Syadatayakhinsky (516±2, 503±6.3), Ochetinsky (500±5), Ingilorsky (487.3±6.9, 503±5), the northern part of Gerdizsky (496.2±7.1), Marunkeu Ridge (495±2.4) and part of massifs of kharbeysky complex of Laptayugansky and Evyugansky domes (497±3 and 487.1±2.1) were formed in the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician time. Within rare metal ore deposits of Taykeyusky ore unit, except for older granitoids with ages 600-560-540 Ma, the granitoids occur with the following ages: Longotyugansky (512±8, 482±8, 511±11), Taykeusky (513±3.4, 518.6±3.9, 477±12), Ust-Mramorny (516±16). There are the following situation localization of granites in the area of the Central Urals uplift: 1) in Ochetinsky and Syadatayakhinsky blocks without significant tectonic deformations among greenschist metamorphites; 2) in the areas of intense tectonic transformations (Longotyugansky, Taykeusky, Ust-Mramorny), but also among greenschist metamorphites; 3) in highly metamorphized rocks (Marunkeu Ridge, Ingilorsky, Gerdizsky, small bodies of Kharbeysky complex). Granitoids differ by the material and structural-textural features of the rocks. Some are massive with preserved granite fabric (1), the other have clearly expressed

  10. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by <500 m. Hence, the valley patterns in and around the Cairngorms have persisted through >1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  11. ASTEROIDAL GRANITE-LIKE MAGMATISM 4.53 GYR AGO

    SciTech Connect

    Terada, Kentaro; Bischoff, Addi

    2009-07-10

    Constraining the timescales for the evolution of planetary bodies in our solar system is essential for a complete understanding of planet-forming processes. However, frequent collisions between planetesimals in the early solar system obscured and destroyed much of the primitive features of the old, first-generation planetary bodies. The presence of differentiated, achondritic clasts in brecciated chondrites and of chondritic fragments in achondritic breccias clearly witness multiple processes such as metamorphism, magmatism, fragmentation, mixing, and reaccretion. Here, we report the results of ion microprobe Pb-Pb dating of a granite-like fragment found in a meteorite, the LL3-6 ordinary chondrite regolith breccia Adzhi-Bogdo. Eight spot analyses of two phosphate grains and other co-genetic phases of the granitoid give a Pb-Pb isochron age of 4.48 {+-} 0.12 billion years (95% confidence) and a model age of 4.53 {+-} 0.03 billion years (1{sigma}), respectively. These ages represent the crystallization age of a parental granite-like magma that is significantly older than those of terrestrial (4.00-4.40 Gyr) and lunar granites (3.88-4.32 Gyr) indicating that the clast in Adzhi-Bogdo is the oldest known granitoid in the solar system. This is the first evidence that granite-like formation is not only a common process on Earth, but also occurred on primitive asteroids in the early solar system 4.53 Gyr ago. Thus, the discovery of granite magmatism recorded in a brecciated meteorite provides an innovative idea within the framework of scenarios for the formation and evolution of planetary bodies and possibly exoplanetary bodies.

  12. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by <500 m. Hence, the valley patterns in and around the Cairngorms have persisted through >1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  13. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  14. In situ diffusion experiment in granite: phase I.

    PubMed

    Vilks, P; Cramer, J J; Jensen, M; Miller, N H; Miller, H G; Stanchell, F W

    2003-03-01

    A program of in situ experiments, supported by laboratory studies, was initiated to study diffusion in sparsely fractured rock (SFR), with a goal of developing an understanding of diffusion processes within intact crystalline rock. Phase I of the in situ diffusion experiment was started in 1996, with the purpose of developing a methodology for estimating diffusion parameter values. Four in situ diffusion experiments, using a conservative iodide tracer, were performed in highly stressed SFR at a depth of 450 m in the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The experiments, performed over a 2 year period, yielded rock permeability estimates of 2 x 10(-21) m(2) and effective diffusion coefficients varying from 2.1 x 10(-14) to 1.9 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, which were estimated using the MOTIF code. The in situ diffusion profiles reveal a characteristic "dog leg" pattern, with iodide concentrations decreasing rapidly within a centimeter of the open borehole wall. It is hypothesized that this is an artifact of local stress redistribution and creation of a zone of increased constrictivity close to the borehole wall. A comparison of estimated in situ and laboratory diffusivities and permeabilities provides evidence that the physical properties of rock samples removed from high-stress regimes change. As a result of the lessons learnt during Phase I, a Phase II in situ program has been initiated to improve our general understanding of diffusion in SFR.

  15. Frogs report: Friends of Granite, Winter 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FROGS reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller (Geology, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, tel. 615-322-2986) about your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  16. CAVSIM. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A., Thorsness, C.B. )

    1989-03-03

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  17. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  18. Granite-migmatite genetic link: the example of the Manaslu granite and Tibetan Slab migmatites in central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbey, P.; Brouand, M.; Le Fort, P.; Pêcher, A.

    1996-07-01

    In central Nepal, the Tibetan Slab is made up of biotite-gneisses (metapelites and metagreywackes), orthogneisses (metagranites) and migmatites. Melanosomes are generally biotite-(± muscovite)-bearing, but locally they may be tourmaline-rich when associated with boron-rich granitic material. Leucosomes occur as lenses conformable with the foliation, veins, patches, or as fillings in shear zones and extensional structures. Field relationships, and mineralogical and chemical data show that three processes may have contributed to the formation of the Tibetan Slab leucosomes: metamorphic differentiation or disequilibrium partial melting (low-Zr tonalitic leucosomes), in-situ equilibrium partial melting (high-Zr leucosomes and some granitic leucosomes) and injection of externally-derived melts (most granitic and some tonalitic leucosomes). The Manaslu pluton belongs to the High Himalayan leucogranite belt and was emplaced at the top of the Tibetan Slab. It corresponds to a muscovite-biotite leucogranite that has been assumed to derive from melting of the Tibetan Slab gneisses (Formation I). Phase relationships, a more magnesian chemistry of the ferromagnesian minerals from the Tibetan-Slab migmatites as compared to the Manaslu leucogranite, the microtextures of accessory phases, and trace-element compositions (lower U, Li, F and higher Sr, Eu, Y, Yb contents in the migmatite leucosomes) show that the in situ Himalayan migmatites, at the crustal level presently exposed, have not been produced under the same P-T-XH 2O conditions as the Manaslu leucogranite magma. While the Formation I was the probable source for the Manaslu granite, migmatites within the formation are not the remanants of a melting process from which the Manaslu granite was derived. Both the Tibetan Slab migmatites and the Manaslu leucogranite may be considered as evidence of dehydration and melting at deeper crustal levels, and of percolation of melts and hydrothermal fluids through the crust.

  19. Exploring rock fissures: does a specialized root morphology explain endemism on granite outcrops?

    PubMed Central

    Poot, Pieter; Hopper, Stephen D.; van Diggelen, Josepha M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Worldwide, many plant species are confined to open, shallow-soil, rocky habitats. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this habitat specificity, none has been convincing. We suggest that the high level of endemism on shallow soils is related to the edaphic specialization needed to survive in these often extremely drought-prone habitats. Previous research has shown that species endemic to ironstone communities in SW Australia have a specialized root morphology that enhances their chance to access fissures in the underlying rock. Here we test the generality of these findings for species that are confined to a shallow-soil habitat that is of much greater global significance: granite outcrops. Methods We compared temporal and spatial root growth and allocation of three endemic woody perennials of SW Australian granite outcrop communities with those of congeners occurring on nearby deeper soils. Seedlings of all species were grown in 1·2 m long custom-made containers with a transparent bottom that allowed monitoring of root growth over time. Key Results The granite outcrop endemics mostly differed in a predictable way from their congeners from deeper soils. They generally invested a larger portion of their biomass in roots, distributed their roots faster and more evenly over the container and had a lower specific root length. In different species pairs the outcrop endemics achieved their apparent advantage by a different combination of the aforementioned traits. Conclusions Our results are consistent with earlier work, indicating that species restricted to different types of drought-prone shallow-soil communities have undergone similar selection pressures. Although adaptive in their own habitat in terms of obtaining access to fissures in the underlying rock, these root system traits are likely to be maladaptive in deeper soil habitats. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for the narrow endemism of many shallow

  20. Exploring rock fissures: does a specialized root morphology explain endemism on granite outcrops?

    PubMed

    Poot, Pieter; Hopper, Stephen D; van Diggelen, Josepha M H

    2012-07-01

    Worldwide, many plant species are confined to open, shallow-soil, rocky habitats. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this habitat specificity, none has been convincing. We suggest that the high level of endemism on shallow soils is related to the edaphic specialization needed to survive in these often extremely drought-prone habitats. Previous research has shown that species endemic to ironstone communities in SW Australia have a specialized root morphology that enhances their chance to access fissures in the underlying rock. Here we test the generality of these findings for species that are confined to a shallow-soil habitat that is of much greater global significance: granite outcrops. We compared temporal and spatial root growth and allocation of three endemic woody perennials of SW Australian granite outcrop communities with those of congeners occurring on nearby deeper soils. Seedlings of all species were grown in 1·2 m long custom-made containers with a transparent bottom that allowed monitoring of root growth over time. The granite outcrop endemics mostly differed in a predictable way from their congeners from deeper soils. They generally invested a larger portion of their biomass in roots, distributed their roots faster and more evenly over the container and had a lower specific root length. In different species pairs the outcrop endemics achieved their apparent advantage by a different combination of the aforementioned traits. Our results are consistent with earlier work, indicating that species restricted to different types of drought-prone shallow-soil communities have undergone similar selection pressures. Although adaptive in their own habitat in terms of obtaining access to fissures in the underlying rock, these root system traits are likely to be maladaptive in deeper soil habitats. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for the narrow endemism of many shallow-soil endemics.

  1. Geostatistical Hydrogeochemical 3d Model for KŁODZKO Underground Water Intake Area Parameters of Underground Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents the first stage of research on a geostatistical hydrogeochemical 3D model dedicated to the horizontal and vertical spatial and time variation in the topographical, hydrological and quality parameters of underground water in the Kłodzko water intake area. The research covers the period 1977-2012. For this purpose various thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude and longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e., the underground water quality parameters in the Kłodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. The data were subjected to spatial analyses using statistical methods. The input for the studies was the chemical determination of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area in different periods of time. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977-1999, 1977-2011) and the latest data (collected in November 2011 and in January 2012) were analyzed. First, the underground water intake area with 22 wells was investigated. Then in order to assess the current quality of the underground water, 14 wells out of the 22 wells were selected for further chemical analyses and a collection siphon wall was included. Recently, three new piezometers were installed in the water intake area and so new water samples were taken, whereby the databases were supplemented with new chemical determinations. The variation in the topographical parameter (terrain elevation) and in the hydrogeological parameters: water abstraction level Z (with and without the land layout being taken into account) and the depth of occurrence of the water table, was examined. Subsequently, the variation in quality parameters was studied on the basis of data coming from 22 wells, then 14 wells and finally from 14 wells and 3 piezometers. The variation in: Fe, Mn, ammonium

  2. Subsolidus physical and chemical mixing of granite and gabbro during mylonitization, South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachel Walcott, C.; Craw, Dave

    1993-12-01

    At Dromedary Massif, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, a suite of coarse-grained granite dykes cross-cuts a gabbro pluton which has been partially metamorphosed at amphibolite facies. During regional deformation, strain has been inhomogeneously distributed through the gabbro pluton and has been concentrated in granite dykes. In zones of relatively high strain, the granite dykes have developed a mylonitic fabric. A high strain gradient between granitic mylonite and metagabbroic host rock has induced isochemical mylonitization of the margin of the host. This grain size reduction allowed chemical diffusion between granitic and metagabbroic mylonites, resulting in a marginal zone of biotite-rich mylonite with intermediate composition. Biotite-rich mylonite decoupled from metagabbroic mylonite and flowed with granitic mylonite. Continued folding and transposition of granitic mylonite and biotite-rich mylonite has produced compositionally banded mylonite zones through thorough and irreversible mixing of the two lithologies.

  3. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  4. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  5. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  6. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall be...

  8. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam Juvenile Fish Facility (LGR) was characterized by water temperatures, total flows and spill that were below the five year average, low levels of debris, and increased smolt collection numbers compared to 2002 with the exception of unclipped sockeye/kokanee. There were 6,183,825 juvenile salmonids collected. Of these, 6,054,167 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,957,885 by barge and 96,282 by truck. An additional 102,340 fish were bypassed back to the river, primarily due to research projects with another 62,122 bypassed through the PIT-tag bypass system. According to the PTAGIS database, 152,268 PIT-tagged fish were detected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, Smolt Monitoring Staff recorded 345 PIT-tagged raceway and sample mortalities. Of the 6,183,825 total fish collected, 113,290 were PIT-tagged or radio tagged and 380 were sacrificed by researchers. The collection included 836,885 fish that had hatchery marks other than clipped fins (elastomer, freeze brands or Coded Wire Tags). An estimated 54,857 incidental fish were collected with an additional 8,730 adult salmonids removed from the separator.

  9. Geomechanical Evaluation of Derinkuyu Antique Underground City and its Implications in Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydan, Ömer; Ulusay, Reşat

    2013-07-01

    Derinkuyu Underground City, located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey, is an important structure not only for its antique and archaeological characteristics, but also as a structure in terms of the long-term stability of underground rock structures excavated by mankind. The authors carried out some observational, experimental and theoretical rock mechanics studies in the region from 1996 in the context of a research project supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of Derinkuyu Underground City, and these studies are still continuing. In addition to the monitoring of the environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture and air pressure, they also installed acoustic emission (AE) and electrical potential (EP) measurement systems to monitor the behaviour and response of the surrounding rock at the fifth and seventh floors of the underground city. In this article, the geology, seismicity and state of stress of the Cappadocia Region, climatic conditions in the underground city and its vicinity, short- and long-term behaviours of the surrounding rock, its index and mechanical properties, and effects of water content and freezing-thawing processes were investigated. The stability of Derinkuyu Underground City was also evaluated using theoretical and numerical methods, and the results were presented. Furthermore, its implications in modern geoengineering are also discussed.

  10. Thermal properties of Central Aare granite for temperatures up to 500°C: Irreversible changes due to thermal crack formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Michael A.; Ammann, Jens; Rossi, Edoardo; Madonna, Claudio; Höser, Dragana; Rudolf von Rohr, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of Central Aare granite are reported in the temperature range from 25°C to 500°C. Each rock sample underwent three consecutive heating and cooling cycles. Significant irreversible changes in the properties due to thermal crack formation could be observed. After the first thermal cycle, both thermal diffusivity and conductivity dropped to about 75% of the initial value at room temperature, whereas the heat capacity did not show an irreversible decay. For subsequent thermal cycles, no further permanent changes of the investigated properties could be observed. From the conducted measurements, accurate correlations are derived, offering a platform for precise high-temperature experiments and other research on Central Aare granite and similar granitic rocks. The report shows that the assumption of constant thermal properties leads to significant inaccuracies at elevated temperatures, especially if thermal cycles are present.

  11. Thematic mapping of likely target areas for the occurence of cassiterite in the Serra do Mocambo (GO) granitic massifs using LANDSAT 2 digital imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeidofilho, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of LANDSAT/MSS images, enhanced by computer derived techniques, as essential tools in mineral research was investigated and the Serra do Mocambo granitic massif was used as illustration. Given the peculiar factors founded in this area, orbital imagery permitted the delineation of potential target areas of mineralization occurrences, associated to albitized/greisenized types. Follow up prospection for primary tin deposits in this granitic massif should be restricted to the delineated areas which are less than 5% of the total superficial area of the massif.

  12. A-type granite and the Red Sea opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; DeBari, S.; Peterman, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Miocene-Oligocene A-type granite intrudes the eastern side of the Red Sea margin within the zone of extension from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia south to Yemen. The intrusions developed in the early stages of continental extension as Arabia began to move slowly away from Africa (around 30-20 Ma). Within the narrow zone of extension silicic magmas formed dikes, sills, small plutons and extrusive equivalents. In the Jabal Tirf area of Saudi Arabia these rocks occur in an elongate zone consisting of late Precambrian basement to the east, which is gradually invaded by mafic dikes. The number of dikes increases westward until an igneous complex is produced parallel to the present Red Sea axis. The Jabal Tirf igneous complex consists of diabase and rhyolite-granophyre sills (20-24 Ma). Although these are intrusine intrusive rocks their textures indicate shallow depths of intrusion (< 1 km). To the south, in the Yemen, contemporaneous with alkali basaltic eruptions (26-30 Ma) and later silicic eruptions, small plutons, dikes, and stocks of alkali granite invaded thick (1500 m) volcanic series, at various levels and times. Erosion within the uplifted margin of Yemen suggests that the maximum depth of intrusion was less than 1-2 km. Granophyric intrusions (20-30 Ma) within mafic dike swarms similar to the Jabal Tirf complex are present along the western edge of the Yemen volcanic plateau, marking a north-south zone of continental extension. The alkali granites of Yemen consist primarily of perthitic feldspar and quartz with some minor alkali amphiboles and acmite. These granites represent water-poor, hypersolvus magmas generated from parent alkali basalt magmas. The granophyric, two-feldspar granites associated with the mafic dike swarms and layered gabbros formed by fractional crystallization from tholeiitic basalt parent developed in the early stages of extension. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of these rocks and their bulk chemistry indicate that production of peralkaline and

  13. Scaling minerals from deep-seated granitic geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Norio

    2016-04-01

    To promote geothermal energy use and sustainable production, the information of scaling situation from deep-seated geothermal reservoir is important. In Japan, at the Kakkonda geothermal field, Iwate prefecture, north-eastern of Japan, there is 80MW geothermal power plant using about 300 degree C fluid from the reservoir at the boundary between Quaternary Kakkonda granite and Pre-Tertiary formations about 3km depth and more deep-seated reservoir survey was carried out by NEDO. Then, to understand the mechanism of deep-seated reservoir, we survey the metal sulphide minerals deposited at production wellhead and pipeline and compare with the brine And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock. In Kakkonda geothermal system, the scales are classified into two types based on sulphide mineralogy, which are Pb-Zn rich type and Cu rich type. Pb-Zn rich scales, for example galena (PbS) and Sphalerite (ZnS), are found in Well-19 located at the marginal part of the Kakkonda granite And Cu-rich scales, for example chalcocite (Cu2S), loellingite (FeAs2) and native antimony (Sb), are found in Well-13, located at the central part of the Kakkonda granite. And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth about 500 degree C, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock near Well-19 is rich in Pb and Zn and similar composition as the Well-19 scale. Therefore, deep reservoir of Kakkonda field evolves with mixing the fluid of shallow reservoir and the brine of occurred in the Quaternary Kakkonda granite. Then, the existence of both Pb-Zn rich scale and Cu rich scale is a characteristic feature of Kakkonda geothermal and this fact suggest to have similar zoning as found in Porphyry Copper Zoning. On progress of production the fluids from deep reservoir continue to be suffered by the fluid of shallow reservoir and meteoritic water. With temperature of production well decreasing and chemical composition changed, silica precipitation decreased and the metal sulfide mineral

  14. A-type granite and the Red Sea opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Robert G.; DeBari, Susan; Peterman, Zell

    1992-03-01

    Miocene-Oligocene A-type granite intrudes the eastern side of the Red Sea margin within the zone of extension from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia south to Yemen. The intrusions developed in the early stages of continental extension as Arabia began to move slowly away from Africa (around 30-20 Ma). Within the narrow zone of extension silicic magmas formed dikes, sills, small plutons and extrusive equivalents. In the Jabal Tirf area of Saudi Arabia these rocks occur in an elongate zone consisting of late Precambrian basement to the east, which is gradually invaded by mafic dikes. The number of dikes increases westward until an igneous complex is produced parallel to the present Red Sea axis. The Jabal Tirf igneous complex consists of diabase and rhyolite-granophyre sills (20-24 Ma). Although these are intrusine intrusive rocks their textures indicate shallow depths of intrusion (< 1 km). To the south, in the Yemen, contemporaneous with alkali basaltic eruptions (26-30 Ma) and later silicic eruptions, small plutons, dikes, and stocks of alkali granite invaded thick (1500 m) volcanic series, at various levels and times. Erosion within the uplifted margin of Yemen suggests that the maximum depth of intrusion was less than 1-2 km. Granophyric intrusions (20-30 Ma) within mafic dike swarms similar to the Jabal Tirf complex are present along the western edge of the Yemen volcanic plateau, marking a north-south zone of continental extension. The alkali granites of Yemen consist primarily of perthitic feldspar and quartz with some minor alkali amphiboles and acmite. These granites represent water-poor, hypersolvus magmas generated from parent alkali basalt magmas. The granophyric, two-feldspar granites associated with the mafic dike swarms and layered gabbros formed by fractional crystallization from tholeiitic basalt parent developed in the early stages of extension. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of these rocks and their bulk chemistry indicate that production of peralkaline and

  15. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1999-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris.

  16. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2001-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris.

  17. FROGS (Friends of Granites) Report, summer 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoreo, J. J.; Wickham, Stephen M.; Miller, Calvin

    This is the second Eos-published FROGS Report. Our purpose is to disseminate information and stimulate thinking concerning felsic magmatism in general and granitoids in particular. We intend to publish semiannually information about events and publications that are relevant to the study of felsic rocks, brief updates on research being done by granitoid researchers, and commentaries on important new and/or controversial themes. FROGS Reports is critically dependent upon response by those with an interest in research on felsic rocks. Please keep me (Calvin Miller, 6028B, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville TN 37235) informed about upcoming or recent conferences, major publications, etc. Also, send me your suggestions for topics for (and/or volunteer to write) pertinent commentaries for FROGS Reports.

  18. FROGS (Friends of Granite) Report Winter 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The purpose of FROGS reports is to disseminate information and stimulate thinking about felsic magmatism granitoids in particular. We publish semiannually, as part of VGP News, brief updates from investigators whose current research concerns felsic magmatism, information about events and publications that are relevant to granitoids, and commentaries on new and controversial themes. FROGS Reports is critically dependent on response from people interested in these topics. Please keep me (Calvin Miller, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235) informed about upcoming or recent conferences, major publications, and your own research. Also, please send me your suggestions for topics for pertinent commentaries for FROGS reports (or volunteer to write one yourself!).

  19. Gamma-ray spectrometry of granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermann, Jessica Derkacz; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; Cury, Leonardo Fadel; da Silveira, Claudinei Taborda

    2016-09-01

    The Paranaguá Terrane, located in the coastal portion of the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo in Southern Brazil is a crustal segment constituted mainly by an igneous complex, with a variety of granitic rocks inserted into the Serra do Mar ridge. The average altitude is approximately 1200 m above sea level, with peaks of up to 1800 m. Due to the difficulty of accessing the area, a shortage of outcrops and the thick weathering mantle, this terrane is understudied. This research aims to evaluate the gamma-ray spectrometry data of the granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, in correspondence with the geological, petrographical, lithogeochemical, relief and mass movement information available in the literature. Aerogeophysical data were acquired along north-south lines spaced at 500 m, with a mean terrain clearance of 100 m. These data cover potassium (K, %), equivalent in thorium (eTh, ppm) and equivalent in uranium (eU, ppm). After performing a critical analysis of the data, basic (K, eU, eTh) and ternary (R-K/G-eTh/B-eU) maps were generated and then superimposed on the digital elevation model (DEM). The investigation of the radionuclide mobility across the relief and weathering mantle consisted of an analysis of the schematic profiles of elevation related with each radionuclide; a comparison of the K, eU and eTh maps with their 3D correspondents; and the study of mass movements registered in the region. A statistical comparison of lithogeochemical (K, U, Th) and geophysical (K, eU, eTh) data showed consistency in all the granitic suites studied (Morro Inglês, Rio do Poço and Canavieiras-Estrela). Through gamma-ray spectrometry, it was possible to establish relationships between scars (from mass movements) and the gamma-ray responses as well as the radionuclide mobility and the relief and to map the granitic bodies.

  20. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke

    The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured during 2 weeks at an underground station in central Stockholm. The instrument, an automatic TEOM monitor (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance), was placed on the platform in the centre of the station. During weekdays between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 470 and 260 μg/ m3, respectively. These levels are a factor 5 and 10 times higher than the corresponding values measured in one of the busiest streets in central Stockholm. The concentrations in the underground followed closely the train traffic intensity. The levels were very similar from one day to the next. During Saturdays and Sundays the levels decreased slightly due to less frequent train passages. Additional measurements were performed right after the tunnel had been washed. Tunnel walls and railway tracks between the platforms of the underground system were washed using water. Only a slight reduction of the PM 10 levels (approximately 13%) could be observed during a few days after the water treatment. For PM 2.5 the reduction was even less, about 10% lower levels could be seen. This might indicate that particles from tunnel walls and tracks make only a minor contribution to the observed levels. These results confirm earlier unpublished measurements showing high levels of PM in the underground of Stockholm. Substantially, elevated particle exposure levels have also been reported in several earlier studies in the underground of London, UK.

  1. Parameters of Seismic Velocities and their Relationship to the Geomechanical Characteristic of the Podlesí Granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, M.; Novakova, L.; Sosna, K.; Najser, J.; Novak, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the Czech Republic, the optimal rock environment for geological waste disposal is granite. The ongoing research aims to analyze and evaluate rock matrix properties across a range of granites within the Czech Republic. Thegeophysical, physical, and geomechanical parameters of the Podlesí granites in the western part of the Krušné hory Mts., near the village of Potůčky are analyzed in the presented study. The samples were collected at depths of between 35 and 105 metres. Seismic P-wave and S-wave velocities were measured using ultrasonic scanning. The samples were water-saturated, unsaturated, and dried. The measured data were used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus, dynamic shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio. The deformational characteristics of the rock were specified from uniaxial loading. The shear and longitudinal deformation of each sample was measured using a resistive strain gauge fixed directly on the sample. Intermittent loading of the symplex proceeded using a uniform gradient of axial stress of 1 MPa.s-1. Static Young's and shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio were calculated. All the obtained data demonstrate a correlation between the properties of the granite and depth within the borehole. P-wave velocities do not show any anisotropy in the studied samples, their velocities vary from 4.15 km.s-1 to 6.03 km.s-1 while S-wave velocities vary from 2.74 km.s-1 to 3.63 km.s-1. The highest velocities were measured in the saturated samples while the lowest velocities were measured in the dried samples. Dynamic Young's modulus varies from 42.5 GPa to 83.9 GPa while static Younǵs modulus varies from 31.4 GPa to 57.1 GPa. Dynamic Young's modulus is approximately 44% higher than static Young's modulus. Dynamic and static shear moduli show a similar relationship. Dynamic shear modulus varies from 19.0 GPa to 34.5 GPa whist static shear modulus varies from 13.0 GPa to 23.4 GPa. Poisson's ratio between 0.16 and 0.25 was measured. The porosity of the studied

  2. IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential of Hydrothermal Aquifer, Radiothermal Granite and Warm Spring Targets in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Muller, Mark; Fullea, Javier; Vozar, Jan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Farrell, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is an academic-government-industry, collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. With the exception of Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, hosting geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly-defined potential, rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any major Irish shear zones/faults might host a geothermal aquifer at depth is also unknown, although clusters of warm-springs in the vicinity of two major shear zones are promising. IRETHERM's objectives over a four-year period are to: (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid, gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type" geothermal targets with a systematic program of electromagnetic surveys (MT, CSEM) across ten target areas. During 2012, IRETHERM collected over 220 MT/AMT sites in the investigation of a range of different geothermal target types. Here we present preliminary electrical resistivity modelling results for each target investigated and discuss the implications of the models for geothermal energy potential: 1. Rathlin Basin The only sedimentary strata

  3. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°С and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15

  4. Sequence of mineral assemblages in differentiated granitic pegmatites.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The sequence of mineral assemblages in internally zoned granitic pegmatites recognized by Cameron et al. (1949) is modified here to account for an observed vertical component, especially in feldspar compositions, in addition to the recognized outer contact-to-inner core differentiation process, and the importance of primary lithium minerals other than spodumene, such as petalite. The zonal patterns of 11 well-known granitic pegmatites are consistent with this revised sequence, with additional explanations for the repeated monomineralic zones of quartz or pollucite, etc. The crystallization history of zoned pegmatites is described in general terms, beginning with the magmatic crystallization which produces the outer zones. Aqueous fluid is exsolved continuously from the magma as relatively anhydrous phases precipitate, and plays an important role in the formation of the inner zones; its evolution is thought to be a major cause of pegmatite differentiation.-J.E.S.

  5. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10/sup 0/C) or 90/sup 0/C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90/sup 0/C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared.

  6. Natural radioactivity levels of granites used in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, E; Altinsoy, N; Orgün, Y

    2012-08-01

    Thirty granite samples commonly used in Turkey were surveyed for natural radioactivity. Concentrations of natural radionuclides in all samples were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy with hyper-pure germanium detector. The activity concentrations measured for (226)Ra and (232)Th ranged from 0.7±0.1 to 186±1 Bq kg(-1), and from 0.5±0.1 to 249±2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations obtained for (40)K varied from minimum detectable activity (0.4 Bq kg(-1)) to 1935±11 Bq kg(-1). The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (H(ex)) and the annual effective dose equivalent were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values. Granite samples were also analysed mineralogically. It was observed that the presence of large amount orthoclase and radiogenic accessory minerals are the sources of high activity concentration levels.

  7. Rapakivi granites in the geological history of the earth. Part 1, magmatic associations with rapakivi granites: Age, geochemistry, and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    Rapakivi granites characteristic practically of all old platforms are greatly variable in age and irregularly distributed over the globe. Four types of magmatic associations, which include rapakivi granites, are represented by anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite, anorthosite-mangerite-rapakivi-peralkaline granite, gabbro-rapakivi granite-foidite, and rapakivi granite-shoshonite rock series. Granitoids of these associations used to be divided into the following three groups: (1) classical rapakivi granites from magmatic associations of the first three types, which correspond to subalkaline high-K and high-Fe reduced A2-type granites exemplifying the plumasitic trend of evolution; (2) peralkaline granites of the second magmatic association representing the highly differentiated A1-type reduced granites of Na-series, which are extremely enriched in incompatible elements and show the agpaitic trend of evolution; and (3) subalkaline oxidized granites of the fourth magmatic association ranging in composition from potassic A2-type granites to S-granites. Magmatic complexes including rapakivi granites originated during the geochronological interval that spanned three supercontinental cycles 2.7-1.8, 1.8-1.0 and 1.0-0.55 Ga ago. The onset and end of each cycle constrained the assembly periods of supercontinents and the formation epochs of predominantly anorthosite-charnockite complexes of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite magmatic association. Peak of the respective magmatism at the time of Grenvillian Orogeny signified the transition from the tectonics of small lithospheric plates to the subsequent plate tectonics of the current type. The outburst of rapakivi granite magmatism was typical of the second cycle exclusively. The anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite magmatic series associated with this magmatism originated in back-arc settings, if we consider the latter in a broad sense as corresponding to the rear parts of

  8. Modeling Biogeochemical Reactive Transport in Fractured Granites: Implications for the Performance of a Deep Geological Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinero, J.; Samper, J.; Pedersen, K.; Puigdomenech, I.

    2003-12-01

    Several countries around the world are considering deep repositories in fractured granitic formations for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Evaluating the long term safety of such repositories requires sound conceptual and numerical models which are being developed from data and knowledge gained from in situ experiments carried out at deep underground laboratories such as that of Žsp” in Sweden. One of the key aspects for performance assessment concerns to groundwater redox conditions because: (a) the presence of oxygen will affect to the corrosion of canisters, (b) possible production of hydrogen sulphide from sulphate reduction will also have a negative effect on these metallic containers, and (c) several long-lived radionuclides are much more soluble and mobile under oxidizing conditions. Several projects have been performed at Žsp” to investigate different aspects of the groundwater redox evolution. The vast amount of in situ-generated information has been used in this work to set up coupled hydrobiogeochemical models. Numerical models account for saturated groundwater flow, solute transport by advection, dispersion and molecular diffusion, geochemical reactions involving both the liquid and solid phases, and microbially-catallyzed processes. For the Žsp” site, modelling results provide quantitative support for the following conclusions. (A) At the operational phase of the repository, shallow fresh groundwater could reach the depth of the underground facility. Shallow groundwaters loose dissolved oxygen during the infiltration through soil layers and then, respiration of dissolved organic matter is induced along the flow paths through the reduction of Fe(III)-bearing minerals of the fracture zones. Microbial anaerobic respiration of DOC provides additional reducing capacity at the depth of the tunnel. (B) After repository closure, atmospheric oxygen will remain trapped within the tunnel. Abiotic consumption of this oxygen has been

  9. 76. The Silver Bow County Courthouse, 19101912, at West Granite ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. The Silver Bow County Courthouse, 1910-1912, at West Granite and Montana Streets, was designed by Link and Haire. The building has a dressed sandstone foundation, brick walls, and sandstone trim, parapet and columns. It was used as a barracks for the State militia when the city was placed under martial law following the dynamiting of the Old Miners' Union Hall in September, 1914. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. Rheology of Granitic Magmas During Ascent and Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petford, Nick

    Considerable progress has been made over the past decade in understanding the static rheological properties of granitic magmas in the continental crust. Changes in H2O content, CO2 content, and oxidation state of the interstitial melt phase have been identified as important compositional factors governing the rheodynamic behavior of the solid/fluid mixture. Although the strengths of granitic magmas over the crystallization interval are still poorly constrained, theoretical investigations suggest that during magma ascent, yield strengths of the order of 9 kPa are required to completely retard the upward flow in meter-wide conduits. In low Bagnold number magma suspensions with moderate crystal contents (solidosities 0.1 0.3), viscous fluctuations may lead to flow differentiation by shear-enhanced diffusion. AMS and microstructural studies support the idea that granite plutons are intruded as crystal-poor liquids ( 50%), with fabric and foliation development restricted to the final stages of emplacement. If so, then these fabrics contain no information on the ascent (vertical transport) history of the magma. Deformation of a magmatic mush during pluton emplacement can enhance significantly the pressure gradient in the melt, resulting in a range of local macroscopic flow structures, including layering, crystal alignment, and other mechanical instabilities such as shear zones. As the suspension viscosity varies with stress rate, it is not clear how the timing of proposed rheological transitions formulated from simple equations for static magma suspensions applies to mixtures undergoing shear. New theories of magmas as multiphase flows are required if the full complexity of granitic magma rheology is to be resolved.

  11. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some

  12. Lower granite GIS data description and collection guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.L.; Evans, B.J.; Perry, E.M.

    1995-12-01

    The Lower Granite Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) Walla Walla District and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of the project is to use GIS technology to analyze impacts of the drawdown mitigation option on the physical and biological environment of the Lower Granite Reservoir. The drawdown mitigation option is based on the hypothesis that faster juvenile salmon travel to the ocean would result in higher juvenile survival and greater smolt-to-adult return ratios; to accomplish this, reservoir elevations would be lowered to increase channel velocities. Altering the elevation of the reservoirs on the Snake River is expected to have a variety of impacts to the Physical environment including changes to water velocity, temperature, dissolved gases, and turbidity. The GIS was developed to evaluate these changes and the resulting impacts on the anadromous and resident fish of the Snake River, as well as other aquatic organisms and terrestrial wildlife residing in the adjacent riparian areas. The Lower Granite GIS was developed using commercial hardware and software and is supported by a commercial relational database. Much of the initial system development involved collecting and incorporating data describing the river channel characteristics, hydrologic properties, and aquatic ecology. Potentially meaningful data for the Lower Granite GIS were identified and an extensive data search was performed. Data were obtained from scientists who are analyzing the habitats, limnology, and hydrology of the Snake River. The next six sections of this document describe the bathymetry, fish abundance, substrate, sediment chemistry, and channel hydrology data.

  13. Static and kinetic friction of granite at high normal stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Frictional sliding on ground surfaces of granite, angle of sliding planes 30?? and 45??, was investigated as a function of confining pressure. Over the normal stress range of 2-12 kb, the static frictional shear stress ??s follows the relationship ??s = 0??5 + 0?? ??n and the kinetic frictional shear stress ??k was calculated to be ??k = 0??25 + 0??47 ??n. ?? 1970.

  14. Getting granite dikes out of the source region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Allan M.

    1995-01-01

    Whether a dike can propagate far from a magma reservoir depends upon the competition between the rate at which propagation widens the dike and the rate at which freezing constricts the aperture available for magma flow. Various formulations are developed for a viscous fluid at temperature T(sub m) intruding a growing crack in an elastic solid. The initial solid temperature equals T(sub m) at the source and decreases linearly with distance from the source. If T(sub m) is the unique freezing temperature of the fluid, dike growth is initially self-similar and an essentially exact solution is obtained; if T(sub m) is above the solidus temperature, the solution is approximate but is designed to overestimate the distance the dike may propagate. The ability of a dike to survive thermally depends primarily upon a single parameter that is a measure of the ratio of the dike frozen margin thickness to elastic thickness. Perhaps more intuitively, one may define a minimum distance from the essentially solid reservoir wall to the point at which the host rock temperature drops below the solidus, necessary for dikes to propagate far into subsolidus rock. It is concluded that for reasonable material properties and source conditions, most basalt dikes will have little difficulty leaving the source region, but most rhyolite dikes will be halted by freezing soon after the magma encounters rock at temperatures below the magma solidus. While these results can explain why granitic dikes are common near granitic plutons but rare elsewhere, the potentially large variation in magmatic systems makes it premature to rule out the possibility that most granites are transported through the crust in dikes. Nonetheless, these results highlight difficulties with such proposals and suggest that it may also be premature to rule out the possibility that most granite plutons ascend as more equidimensional bodies.

  15. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Ross, Doug; Morrill, Charles

    1998-12-01

    The 1998 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by relatively moderate spring flows and spill, moderate levels of debris, cool spring, warm summer and fall water temperatures, and increased chinook numbers, particularly wild subyearling chinook collected and transported. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database on fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  16. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Witalis, Shirley; Morrill, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows, extensive spill, cool spring and early summer water temperatures and comparatively low numbers of fish, particularly yearling chinook. The Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program is designed to provide a consistent, real-time database of fish passage and document the migrational characteristics of the many stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin.

  17. Remote-controlled underground mining system. Project status report, July 1, 1983-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haspert, J.C.

    1983-10-04

    A pilot hole drilling rig and a full bore drilling rig were designed with their support hardware. Over 150 underground mining operations were contacted for interest in a field research program with the equipment: about 10 percent replied but were reluctant to participate because of the depressed coal market and the forbidding cost of equipment research in a new mining system. (LTW)

  18. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  19. Design criteria for an underground lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siekmeier, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Underground excavation and construction techniques have been well developed terrestrially and provide an attractive option for lunar mining and habitat construction. The lunar mine, processing facilities and habitats could be located beneath the lunar surface in basaltic rock that would protect the crew and equipment from the hazardous surface environment. A terrestrial-like atmosphere would be created within the underground structures allowing more conventional technologies to be utilized. In addition, the basalt would likely contain higher quality mineral deposits than the regolith (lunar soil) since the minerals in the regolith have been degraded by meteorite bombardment. The conditions that would affect the design of an underground lunar mine are described and a lunar rock mass rated to assess its quality using terrestrial rock mass classification systems. Design criteria are established and a construction scenario proposed. Parameters having the greatest effect on stability are identified based on distinct element computer modeling and terrestrial experience.

  20. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Germata, Daniel Thomas

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.