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Sample records for granular jet formation

  1. Role of air in granular jet formation.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Gabriel; Bergmann, Raymond; van der Meer, Devaraj; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-07-01

    A steel ball impacting on a bed of very loose, fine sand results in a surprisingly vigorous jet which shoots up from the surface of the sand [D. Lohse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 198003 (2004)10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.198003]. When the ambient pressure p is reduced, the jet is found to be less vigorous [R. Royer, Nature Phys. 1, 164 (2005)10.1038/nphys175]. In this Letter we show that p also affects the rate of penetration of the ball: Higher pressure increases the rate of penetration, which makes the cavity created by the ball close deeper into the sand bed, where the hydrostatic pressure is stronger, thereby producing a more energetic collapse and jetting. The origin of the deeper penetration under normal ambient pressure is found to lie in the extra sand fluidization caused by the air flow induced by the falling ball.

  2. Role of Air in Granular Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Gabriel; Bergmann, Raymond; van der Meer, Devaraj; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-07-01

    A steel ball impacting on a bed of very loose, fine sand results in a surprisingly vigorous jet which shoots up from the surface of the sand [D. Lohse , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 198003 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.198003]. When the ambient pressure p is reduced, the jet is found to be less vigorous [R. Royer , Nature Phys. 1, 164 (2005)1745-248110.1038/nphys175]. In this Letter we show that p also affects the rate of penetration of the ball: Higher pressure increases the rate of penetration, which makes the cavity created by the ball close deeper into the sand bed, where the hydrostatic pressure is stronger, thereby producing a more energetic collapse and jetting. The origin of the deeper penetration under normal ambient pressure is found to lie in the extra sand fluidization caused by the air flow induced by the falling ball.

  3. The role of air in granular jet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Devaraj; Bergmann, Raymond; Caballero, Gabriel; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-11-01

    A steel ball impacting on a bed of very loose, fine sand results in a surprisingly vigorous jet which shoots out from the surface of the sand. When the ambient pressure is reduced, the jet is found to be less vigorous, which suggests that air should play an important role in the mechanism of jet formation. In our impact experiments it was found that the penetration depth of the ball strongly decreases with decreasing pressure, whereas all other results are consistent with the gravitational collapse of the cavity that is created upon impact. This limits the influence of air to the stage of void formation, in which the cavity is created by a balance of the initial potential energy of the sphere and the dissipation due to the drag the ball experiences when penetrating into the sand.

  4. Formation of granular jets observed by high-speed x-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, J.R.; Corwin, E.I.; Flior, A.; Cordero, M.L.; Rivers, M.; Eng, P.; Jaeger, H.M.

    2010-07-20

    When a heavy sphere is dropped onto a bed of loose, fine sand, a remarkable phenomenon occurs: a large, focused jet of sand shoots upwards. Although similar looking jets are observed on impact in fluid systems, they are held together by surface tension. Surprisingly, the granular jet exists in the absence of both surface tension and cohesion, thus fluid jet models are of limited use. Previous work proposed that the jet is created solely by the gravity-driven collapse of a void left by the sphere's descent through the pack. Here we present experimental evidence that granular jets are instead driven by a more complex process involving the interaction between the sand and interstitial air. Using high-speed X-ray radiography, and high-speed digital video, we observe the formation of the jet both inside and above the bed. We find that what previously was thought of as a single jet in fact consists of two components: a wispy, thin jet that varies little with pressure followed by a thick air-pressure-driven jet. This is further evidence that qualitatively new phenomena in granular systems can emerge as a function of air pressure. Our results highlight the importance of the dynamic coupling between gas and granule motion.

  5. High-Speed X-ray Investigation of Granular Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, John; Corwin, Eric; Flior, Andrew; Conyers, Bryan; Cordero, Maria-Luisa; Rivers, Mark; Eng, Peter; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2006-03-01

    When a heavy sphere is dropped onto a bed of loose, fine sand, a large, focused jet of sand shoots upward. Experiments at reduced air pressure reveal that the jet in fact consists of two components: a wispy, thin jet that varies little with pressure followed by a thick air-pressure-driven jet. To observe the initial stages of jet formation inside the granular bed, we employed x-ray radiography using the high-intensity beams available at the Advanced Photon Source. This technique allowed us to image the motion of the sphere and the evolution of the void left behind it at frame rates up to 6600 frames per second. The x-ray movies reveal that gravity-driven collapse produces the initial, thin jet, while the compression of an air pocket trapped below the surface drives up the thick jet. We also find that the interstitial air alters the compressibility of the sand bed. In vacuum a visible compaction front precedes the ball, while at atmospheric pressure the sand flows out of the way of the ball, behaving more like an incompressible fluid. Thoroddsen, S. T. and Shen, A. Q. Phys. Fluids 13, 4-6 (2001). Lohse, D. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004). Royer, J. et al. Nature Physics, December 2005.

  6. Subharmonic instability of a self-organized granular jet

    PubMed Central

    Kollmer, J. E.; Pöschel, T.

    2016-01-01

    Downhill flows of granular matter colliding in the lowest point of a valley, may induce a self-organized jet. By means of a quasi two-dimensional experiment where fine grained sand flows in a vertically sinusoidally agitated cylinder, we show that the emergent jet, that is, a sheet of ejecta, does not follow the frequency of agitation but reveals subharmonic response. The order of the subharmonics is a complex function of the parameters of driving. PMID:27001207

  7. Subharmonic instability of a self-organized granular jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmer, J. E.; Pöschel, T.

    2016-03-01

    Downhill flows of granular matter colliding in the lowest point of a valley, may induce a self-organized jet. By means of a quasi two-dimensional experiment where fine grained sand flows in a vertically sinusoidally agitated cylinder, we show that the emergent jet, that is, a sheet of ejecta, does not follow the frequency of agitation but reveals subharmonic response. The order of the subharmonics is a complex function of the parameters of driving.

  8. Craters and Granular Jets Generated by Underground Cavity Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranca-Ramos, F. E.; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Pacheco-Vázquez, F.

    2015-07-01

    We study experimentally the cratering process due to the explosion and collapse of a pressurized air cavity inside a sand bed. The process starts when the cavity breaks and the liberated air then rises through the overlying granular layer and produces a violent eruption; it depressurizes the cavity and, as the gas is released, the sand sinks under gravity, generating a crater. We find that the crater dimensions are totally determined by the cavity volume; the pressure does not affect the morphology because the air is expelled vertically during the eruption. In contrast with impact craters, the rim is flat and, regardless of the cavity shape, it evolves into a circle as the cavity depth increases or if the chamber is located deep enough inside the bed, which could explain why most of the subsidence craters observed in nature are circular. Moreover, for shallow spherical cavities, a collimated jet emerges from the collision of sand avalanches that converge concentrically at the bottom of the depression, revealing that collapse under gravity is the main mechanism driving the jet formation.

  9. Craters and Granular Jets Generated by Underground Cavity Collapse.

    PubMed

    Loranca-Ramos, F E; Carrillo-Estrada, J L; Pacheco-Vázquez, F

    2015-07-10

    We study experimentally the cratering process due to the explosion and collapse of a pressurized air cavity inside a sand bed. The process starts when the cavity breaks and the liberated air then rises through the overlying granular layer and produces a violent eruption; it depressurizes the cavity and, as the gas is released, the sand sinks under gravity, generating a crater. We find that the crater dimensions are totally determined by the cavity volume; the pressure does not affect the morphology because the air is expelled vertically during the eruption. In contrast with impact craters, the rim is flat and, regardless of the cavity shape, it evolves into a circle as the cavity depth increases or if the chamber is located deep enough inside the bed, which could explain why most of the subsidence craters observed in nature are circular. Moreover, for shallow spherical cavities, a collimated jet emerges from the collision of sand avalanches that converge concentrically at the bottom of the depression, revealing that collapse under gravity is the main mechanism driving the jet formation. PMID:26207506

  10. Formation mechanism of shock-induced particle jetting.

    PubMed

    Xue, K; Sun, L; Bai, C

    2016-08-01

    The shock dissemination of granular rings or shells is characterized by the formation of coherent particle jets that have different dimensions from those associated with the constituent grains. In order to identify the mechanisms governing the formation of particle jets, we carry out the simulations of the shock dispersal of quasi-two-dimensional particle rings based on the discrete-element method. The evolution of the particle velocities and contact forces on the time scales ranging from microseconds to milliseconds reveals a two-stage development of particle jets before they are expelled from the outer surface. Much effort is made to understand the particle agglomeration around the inner surface that initiates the jet formation. The shock interaction with the innermost particle layers generates a heterogeneous network of force chains with clusters of strong contacts regularly spaced around the inner surface. Momentum alongside the stresses is primarily transmitted along the strong force chains. Therefore, the clustering of strong force chains renders the agglomeration of fast-moving particles connected by strong force chains. The fast-moving particle clusters subsequently evolve into the incipient particle jets. The following competition among the incipient jets that undergo unbalanced growth leads to substantial elimination of the minor jets and the significant multiplication of the major jets, the number of jets thus varying with time. Moreover, the number of jets is found to increase with the strength of the shock loading due to an increased number of jets surviving the retarding effect of major jets. PMID:27627376

  11. Formation mechanism of shock-induced particle jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, K.; Sun, L.; Bai, C.

    2016-08-01

    The shock dissemination of granular rings or shells is characterized by the formation of coherent particle jets that have different dimensions from those associated with the constituent grains. In order to identify the mechanisms governing the formation of particle jets, we carry out the simulations of the shock dispersal of quasi-two-dimensional particle rings based on the discrete-element method. The evolution of the particle velocities and contact forces on the time scales ranging from microseconds to milliseconds reveals a two-stage development of particle jets before they are expelled from the outer surface. Much effort is made to understand the particle agglomeration around the inner surface that initiates the jet formation. The shock interaction with the innermost particle layers generates a heterogeneous network of force chains with clusters of strong contacts regularly spaced around the inner surface. Momentum alongside the stresses is primarily transmitted along the strong force chains. Therefore, the clustering of strong force chains renders the agglomeration of fast-moving particles connected by strong force chains. The fast-moving particle clusters subsequently evolve into the incipient particle jets. The following competition among the incipient jets that undergo unbalanced growth leads to substantial elimination of the minor jets and the significant multiplication of the major jets, the number of jets thus varying with time. Moreover, the number of jets is found to increase with the strength of the shock loading due to an increased number of jets surviving the retarding effect of major jets.

  12. Contraction of an inviscid swirling liquid jet: Comparison with results for a rotating granular jet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, P. D.; Kubitschek, J. P.

    2007-11-01

    In honor of the tercentenary of Leonhard Euler, we report a new solution of the Euler equations for the shape of an inviscid rotating liquid jet emanating from a tube of inner radius R0 aligned with gravity. Jet contraction is dependent on the exit swirl parameter χ0 = R0 φ0/U0 where φ0 and U0 are the uniform rotation rate and axial velocity of the liquid at the exit. The results reveal that rotation reduces the rate of jet contraction. In the limit χ0-> 0 one recovers the contraction profile for a non-rotating jet and the limit χ0->∞ gives a jet of constant radius. In contrast, experiments and a kinematic model for a rotating non-cohesive granular jet show that it expands rather than contracts when a certain small angular velocity is exceeded. The blossoming profiles are parabolic in nature. The model predicts a jet of uniform radius for χ0-> 0 and a jet with an initially horizontal trajectory in the limit χ0->∞.

  13. The formation of interstellar jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Canto, J.; Rozyczka, M.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of interstellar jets by convergence of supersonic conical flows and the further dynamical evolution of these jets are investigated theoretically by means of numerical simulations. The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. Strong radiative cooling is shown to result in jets with Mach numbers 2.5-29 propagating to lengths 50-100 times their original widths, with condensation of swept-up interstellar matter at Mach 5 or greater. The characteristics of so-called molecular outflows are well reproduced by the simulations of low-Mach-number and quasi-adiabatic jets.

  14. Jet-Induced Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W; Fragile, C; Anninos, P; Murray, S

    2003-12-16

    Jets from radio galaxies can have dramatic effects on the medium through which they propagate. We review observational evidence for jet-induced star formation in low ('FR-I') and high ('FR-II') luminosity radio galaxies, at low and high redshifts respectively. We then discuss numerical simulations which are aimed to explain a jet-induced starburst ('Minkowski's Object') in the nearby FR-I type radio galaxy NGC 541. We conclude that jets can induce star formation in moderately dense (10 cm{sup -3}), warm (10{sup 4} K) gas; that this may be more common in the dense environments of forming, active galaxies; and that this may provide a mechanism for 'positive' feedback from AGN in the galaxy formation process.

  15. Still water: dead zones and collimated ejecta from the impact of granular jets.

    PubMed

    Ellowitz, Jake; Turlier, Hervé; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Zhang, Wendy W; Nagel, Sidney R

    2013-10-18

    When a dense granular jet hits a target, it forms a large dead zone and ejects a highly collimated conical sheet with a well-defined opening angle. Using experiments, simulations, and continuum modeling, we find that this opening angle is insensitive to the precise target shape and the dissipation mechanisms in the flow. We show that this surprising insensitivity arises because dense granular jet impact, though highly dissipative, is nonetheless controlled by the limit of perfect fluid flow.

  16. Profiles of flow discharged from vertical rotating pipes: A contrast between inviscid liquid and granular jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, P. D.; Kubitschek, J. P.; Medina, A.

    2008-11-01

    The stability of viscous rotating liquid columns and their application to rotating viscous liquid jets aligned under gravity is reviewed. Experiments on stable viscous fluid flow discharged from rotating vertical pipes exhibit very weak contraction. We present an elementary liquid jet analysis to understand this phenomenon. Indeed, our inviscid model of a slender rotating inviscid liquid jet shows that rotation suppresses contraction. Next we study the comparable problem for granular flow. Our model for noncohesive granular flow emanating from a vertical pipe rotating about its central axis, valid for sufficiently large rotation rate, shows that the granular profiles blossom rather than contract. The profiles of both the liquid and granular jets depend on the same dimensionless parameters—an exit Froude number Fr0 and an exit swirl parameter χ0. The limitations of both models are discussed. Experimental data for granular jet profiles compare well with the collision-free granular flow model in its range of applicability. A criterion for the rotation rate at which particles adjacent to the inner wall of the rotating pipe cease to flow is also given and compared to experiment.

  17. Solid-particle jet formation under shock-wave acceleration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, V; Saurel, R; Jourdan, G; Houas, L

    2013-12-01

    When solid particles are impulsively dispersed by a shock wave, they develop a spatial distribution which takes the form of particle jets whose selection mechanism is still unidentified. The aim of the present experimental work is to study particle dispersal with fingering effects in an original quasi-two-dimensional experiment facility in order to accurately extract information. Shock and blast waves are generated in the carrier gas at the center of a granular medium ring initially confined inside a Hele-Shaw cell and impulsively accelerated. With the present experimental setup, the particle jet formation is clearly observed. From fast flow visualizations, we notice, in all instances, that the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. This point has not been observed in three-dimensional experiments. We highlight that the number of jets is unsteady and decreases with time. For a fixed configuration, considering the very early times following the initial acceleration, the jet size selection is independent of the particle diameter. Moreover, the influence of the initial overpressure and the material density on the particle jet formation have been studied. It is shown that the wave number of particle jets increases with the overpressure and with the decrease of the material density. The normalized number of jets as a function of the initial ring acceleration shows a power law valid for all studied configurations involving various initial pressure ratios, particle sizes, and particle materials. PMID:24483561

  18. Solid-particle jet formation under shock-wave acceleration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, V; Saurel, R; Jourdan, G; Houas, L

    2013-12-01

    When solid particles are impulsively dispersed by a shock wave, they develop a spatial distribution which takes the form of particle jets whose selection mechanism is still unidentified. The aim of the present experimental work is to study particle dispersal with fingering effects in an original quasi-two-dimensional experiment facility in order to accurately extract information. Shock and blast waves are generated in the carrier gas at the center of a granular medium ring initially confined inside a Hele-Shaw cell and impulsively accelerated. With the present experimental setup, the particle jet formation is clearly observed. From fast flow visualizations, we notice, in all instances, that the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. This point has not been observed in three-dimensional experiments. We highlight that the number of jets is unsteady and decreases with time. For a fixed configuration, considering the very early times following the initial acceleration, the jet size selection is independent of the particle diameter. Moreover, the influence of the initial overpressure and the material density on the particle jet formation have been studied. It is shown that the wave number of particle jets increases with the overpressure and with the decrease of the material density. The normalized number of jets as a function of the initial ring acceleration shows a power law valid for all studied configurations involving various initial pressure ratios, particle sizes, and particle materials.

  19. Pattern formation in wet granular matter under vertical vibrations.

    PubMed

    Butzhammer, Lorenz; Völkel, Simeon; Rehberg, Ingo; Huang, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Experiments on a thin layer of cohesive wet granular matter under vertical vibrations reveal kink-separated domains that collide with the container at different phases. Due to the strong cohesion arising from the formation of liquid bridges between adjacent particles, the domains move collectively upon vibrations. Depending on the periodicity of this collective motion, the kink fronts may propagate, couple with each other, and form rotating spiral patterns in the case of period tripling or stay as standing wave patterns in the case of period doubling. Moreover, both patterns may coexist with granular "gas bubbles"-phase separation into a liquidlike and a gaslike state. Stability diagrams for the instabilities measured with various granular layer mass m and container height H are presented. The onsets for both types of patterns and their dependency on m and H can be quantitatively captured with a model considering the granular layer as a single particle colliding completely inelastically with the container. PMID:26274155

  20. Dynamics of crater formations in immersed granular materials.

    PubMed

    Varas, Germán; Vidal, Valérie; Géminard, Jean-Christophe

    2009-02-01

    We report the formation of a crater at the free surface of an immersed granular bed, locally crossed by an ascending gas flow. In two dimensions, the crater consists of two piles which develop around the location of the gas emission. We observe that the typical size of the crater increases logarithmically with time, independently of the gas emission dynamics. We describe the related granular flows and give an account of the influence of the experimental parameters, especially of the grain size and of the gas flow.

  1. Pattern formation during mixing and segregation of flowing granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Shattuck, Mark

    1996-02-01

    Powder mixing plays an important role in a number of industries ranging from pharmaceuticals and food to ceramics and mining. Avalanches provide a mechanism for the stretching and folding needed to mix granular solids. However, unlike fluids, when particles dissimilar in size, density, or shape flow, they can spontaneously demix or segregate. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we track the transport of granular solids in a slowly rotating tube both with and without segregation effects. Compared with experiments in a 2-dimensional rotating disk partially filled with colored particles, the mixing kinematics and the granular pattern formation in a tube are changed by an axial flow instability. From simple physical principles we argue how size and density segregation mechanisms can be made to cancel, allowing good mixing of dissimilar particles, and we show experiments verifying this. Further experiments isolate the axial transport in the slowly rotating tube. Axial transport can appear faster with segregation than without.

  2. Two-Dimensional Experiment on the Jet Formation during Dispersal of Solid Particles by Shock Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V.; Jourdan, G.; Mariani, C.; Saurel, R.; Loraud, J.-C.; Houas, L.; Lapébie, E.; Munier, L.; Osmont, A.

    For several years, investigations have been achieved to determine the physical mechanism which governs particle jet formation induced by the dispersion of a granular medium exposed to an impulsive pressure load, i.e. by a shock or a blast wave. This kind of such physical mechanism is observed during explosions or in nature as volcanic eruptions [1].

  3. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  4. Astrophysical Jet Formation in a Laboratory Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemo, Aaron; Brookhart, Matthew; Clark, Mike; Wallace, John; Forest, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Astrophysical jets are commonly associated with accreting bodies such as active galactic nuclei (AGN), binary systems, and protostars. These plasma jets are formed due to interactions between the magnetic field of the accreting body and the conducting accretion material. Observational limitations prevent a detailed understanding of the mechanism which launches the jets. Utilizing existing equipment associated with the Line-Tied Reconnection Experiment (LTRX) we have created a new experiment to simulate astrophysical jet formation in a laboratory environment. In contrast to similar experiments, our jets are long-lived, encompass a large volume, and undergo quasi-equilibrium evolution. We have obtained initial results from a high-speed camera showing the evolution of plasma jets in our experiment under varying current levels and field strengths. Future work will include utilization of scanning probes to measure plasma characteristics such as temperature, density, and magnetic field. Supported by DOE.

  5. Formation and inflammation of a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghoniem, A. F.; Chen, D. Y.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation and inflammation of a planar, turbulent jet in an incompressible medium is modeled numerically by the use of the random vortex method amended by a flame propagation algorithm. The results demonstrate the dominant influence of turbulent eddies and their interactions upon the development of the jet. Its growth is shown to consist of three stages: formation of small eddies, pairing of eddies with the same sign of circulation, and pairing of eddies of opposite signs. On this basis a number of features of the jet mechanism are revealed, namely penetration, engulfment, entrainment, and intermittency. Two cases of inflammation are considered. In one, the jet is ignited at the center of the orifice, the solution tracing its own inflammation. In the other, combustion is initiated across its full cross section, the results modeling the action of a turbulent torch as it spreads the flame into the combustible surroundings. In both cases the flow field is still dominated by the turbulent eddies and their interactions. However, the coherence among them is encumbered as a consequence of expansion due to the exothermicity of the combustion process.

  6. Rotations and pattern formation in granular materials under loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady V.; Esin, Maxim; Hassan, Ghulam M.; MacNish, Cara

    2015-10-01

    Shear band formation and evolution is a predominant mechanism of deformation patterning in granular materials. Independent rotations of separate particles can affect the pattern formation by adding the effect of rotational degrees of freedom to the mechanism of instability. We conducted 2D physical modelling where the particles are represented by smooth steel discs. We use the digital image correlation in order to recover both displacement and independent rotation fields in the model. We performed model calibration and determine the values of mechanical parameters needed for a DEM numerical modelling. Both mono- and polydisperse particle assemblies are used. During the loading, the deformation pattern undergoes stages of shear band formation followed by its dissolution due to recompaction and particle rearrangement with the subsequent formation of multiple shear bands merging into a single one and the final dissolution. We show that while the average (over the assembly) values of the angles of disc rotations are insignificantly different from zero, the particle rotations exhibit clustering at the mesoscale (sizes larger than the particles but smaller than the whole assembly): monodisperse assemblies produce vertical columns of particles rotating the same direction; polydisperse assemblies 2D form clusters of particles with alternating rotations. Thus, particle rotations produce a structure on their own, a structure different form the ones formed by particle displacements and force chains. This can give a rise to moment chains. These emerging mesoscopic structures - not observable at the macroscale - indicate hidden aspects of 'Cosserat behaviour' of the particles.

  7. String Mechanism for Relativistic Jet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyadechkin, S. A.; Semenov, V. S.; Punsly, B.; Biernat, H. K.

    Here we present our latest studies of relativistic jet formation in the vicinity of a rotating black hole where the reconnection process has been taken into account. In order to simplify the problem, we use Lagrangian formalism and develop a method which enables us to consider a magnetized plasma as a set of magnetic flux tubes [5,6]. Within the limits of the Lagrangian approach, we perform numerical simulations of the flux tube (nonlinear string) behavior which clearly demonstrates the process of relativistic jet formation in the form of outgoing torsional nonlinear aves. It turns out that the jet is produced deep inside the ergosphere where the flux tube takes away spinning energy from the black hole due to the nonlocal Penrose process [2]. This is similar to the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism to some extent [8], however, the string mechanism is essentially time dependent. It is shown that the leading part of the accreting tube gains negative energy and therefore has to stay in the ergosphere forever. Simultaneously, another part of the tube propagates along the spinning axis away from the hole with nearly the speed of light. As a result, the tube is continuously stretching and our mechanism is essentially time dependent. Obviously, such process cannot last infinitely long and we have to take into account the reconnection process. Due to reconnection, the topology of the flux tube is changed and it gives rise to a plasmoid creation which propagates along spin axis of the hole with relativistic speed carrying off the energy and angular momentum away from the black hole.

  8. Model of Blue Jet Formation and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, Gennadiy; Shneider, Mikhail; Mokrov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Upward-propagating luminous flashes above thunderstorms were discovered two decades ago. They were named blue jets (BJ) due to primarily blue color. It is broadly accepted that BJ are produced by a lightning leader running upward in the nonuniform atmosphere. It is also suggested that formation of a leader is governed by the contraction of the current of a streamer flash into a small radius channel. The paper presents results of simulations of the current contraction in the air as a function of the pressure, and convective heat removal time. It was shown that transition to the contracted state occurs in hysteresis mode in which contracted and diffusive stable states exist simultaneously. The critical current for the phase transition was obtained. Similarity methods were applied to the simulations of the critical contraction current, along with chosen observations of BJ, to study BJ formation and propagation in the atmosphere.

  9. GRMHD Simulations of Jet Formation with RAISHIN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Hartmann, D. H.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new three dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) code, RAISHIN, using a conservative, high-resolution shock capturing scheme. Numerical fluxes are calculated using the Harten, Lax, & van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver scheme. The flux-interpolated, constrained transport scheme is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. We describe code performance on some test problems in both special and general relativity. Our new GRMHD code has proven to be accurate to second order and has successfully passed several numerical test problems including highly relativistic and magnetized tests in both special and general relativity. We have performed several simulations of non-rotating and rotating black hole systems with a geometrically thin accretion disk. The simulations show the formation of jets driven by the Lorentz force and the gas pressure. It appears that the rotating black hole creates an additional faster, and more collimated outflow inside a broader, slower outflow that is also generated by the rotating accretion disk around a non-rotating black hole. The kinematic jet structure could thus be a sensitive function of black hole rotation.

  10. The formation of small scale granularities in latex particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukoski, C. F.; Saville, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A series of latices were synthesized using emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene and sodium styrene sulfonic acid. The final latex particles display an internal granular structure which can be ascribed to the primary particles present in the early stages of particle growth. In these systems, the primary particles appear to have maintained their integrity during the swelling and growth stage.

  11. Inert plug formation in the DDT of granular energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    A mechanism is proposed to explain the {open_quotes}plugs{close_quotes} that have been observed in deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) of granular explosives. Numerical simulations are performed that demonstrate the proposed mechanism. Observed trends are reproduced. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Dilute wet granular particles: Nonequilibrium dynamics and structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Stephan; Aspelmeier, Timo; Zippelius, Annette; Roeller, Klaus; Fingerle, Axel; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2009-09-01

    We investigate a gas of wet granular particles covered by a thin liquid film. The dynamic evolution is governed by two-particle interactions, which are mainly due to interfacial forces in contrast to dry granular gases. When two wet grains collide, a capillary bridge is formed and stays intact up to a certain distance of withdrawal when the bridge ruptures, dissipating a fixed amount of energy. A freely cooling system is shown to undergo a nonequilibrium dynamic phase transition from a state with mainly single particles and fast cooling to a state with growing aggregates such that bridge rupture becomes a rare event and cooling is slow. In the early stage of cluster growth, aggregation is a self-similar process with a fractal dimension of the aggregates approximately equal to Df≈2 . At later times, a percolating cluster is observed which ultimately absorbs all the particles. The final cluster is compact on large length scales, but fractal with Df≈2 on small length scales.

  13. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting

    2014-06-16

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  14. Size limits the formation of liquid jets during bubble bursting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji San; Weon, Byung Mook; Park, Su Ji; Je, Jung Ho; Fezzaa, Kamel; Lee, Wah-Keat

    2011-01-01

    A bubble reaching an air–liquid interface usually bursts and forms a liquid jet. Jetting is relevant to climate and health as it is a source of aerosol droplets from breaking waves. Jetting has been observed for large bubbles with radii of R≫100 μm. However, few studies have been devoted to small bubbles (R<100 μm) despite the entrainment of a large number of such bubbles in sea water. Here we show that jet formation is inhibited by bubble size; a jet is not formed during bursting for bubbles smaller than a critical size. Using ultrafast X-ray and optical imaging methods, we build a phase diagram for jetting and the absence of jetting. Our results demonstrate that jetting in bubble bursting is analogous to pinching-off in liquid coalescence. The coalescence mechanism for bubble bursting may be useful in preventing jet formation in industry and improving climate models concerning aerosol production. PMID:21694715

  15. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  16. Spray formation processes of impinging jet injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Ryan, H. M.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    A study examining impinging liquid jets has been underway to determine physical mechanisms responsible for combustion instabilities in liquid bi-propellant rocket engines. Primary atomization has been identified as an important process. Measurements of atomization length, wave structure, and drop size and velocity distribution were made under various ambient conditions. Test parameters included geometric effects and flow effects. It was observed that pre-impingement jet conditions, specifically whether they were laminar or turbulent, had the major effect on primary atomization. Comparison of the measurements with results from a two dimensional linear aerodynamic stability model of a thinning, viscous sheet were made. Measured turbulent impinging jet characteristics were contrary to model predictions; the structure of waves generated near the point of jet impingement were dependent primarily on jet diameter and independent of jet velocity. It has been postulated that these impact waves are related to pressure and momentum fluctuations near the impingement region and control the eventual disintegration of the liquid sheet into ligaments. Examination of the temporal characteristics of primary atomization (ligament shedding frequency) strongly suggests that the periodic nature of primary atomization is a key process in combustion instability.

  17. Spray formation processes of impinging jet injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Ryan, H. M.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.

    1993-11-01

    A study examining impinging liquid jets has been underway to determine physical mechanisms responsible for combustion instabilities in liquid bi-propellant rocket engines. Primary atomization has been identified as an important process. Measurements of atomization length, wave structure, and drop size and velocity distribution were made under various ambient conditions. Test parameters included geometric effects and flow effects. It was observed that pre-impingement jet conditions, specifically whether they were laminar or turbulent, had the major effect on primary atomization. Comparison of the measurements with results from a two dimensional linear aerodynamic stability model of a thinning, viscous sheet were made. Measured turbulent impinging jet characteristics were contrary to model predictions; the structure of waves generated near the point of jet impingement were dependent primarily on jet diameter and independent of jet velocity. It has been postulated that these impact waves are related to pressure and momentum fluctuations near the impingement region and control the eventual disintegration of the liquid sheet into ligaments. Examination of the temporal characteristics of primary atomization (ligament shedding frequency) strongly suggests that the periodic nature of primary atomization is a key process in combustion instability.

  18. Aerobic granular sludge formation for high strength agro-based wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Ujang, Zaini; Yahya, Adibah

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment. PMID:21524907

  19. Granular-front formation in free-surface flow of concentrated suspensions.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Cabrera, Miguel; Wittel, Falk K; Kaitna, Roland; Mendoza, Miller; Wu, Wei; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-11-01

    A granular front emerges whenever the free-surface flow of a concentrated suspension spontaneously alters its internal structure, exhibiting a higher concentration of particles close to its front. This is a common and yet unexplained phenomenon, which is usually believed to be the result of fluid convection in combination with particle size segregation. However, suspensions composed of uniformly sized particles also develop a granular front. Within a large rotating drum, a stationary recirculating avalanche is generated. The flowing material is a mixture of a viscoplastic fluid obtained from a kaolin-water dispersion with spherical ceramic particles denser than the fluid. The goal is to mimic the composition of many common granular-fluid materials, such as fresh concrete or debris flow. In these materials, granular and fluid phases have the natural tendency to separate due to particle settling. However, through the shearing caused by the rotation of the drum, a reorganization of the phases is induced, leading to the formation of a granular front. By tuning the particle concentration and the drum velocity, it is possible to control this phenomenon. The setting is reproduced in a numerical environment, where the fluid is solved by a lattice-Boltzmann method, and the particles are explicitly represented using the discrete element method. The simulations confirm the findings of the experiments, and provide insight into the internal mechanisms. Comparing the time scale of particle settling with the one of particle recirculation, a nondimensional number is defined, and is found to be effective in predicting the formation of a granular front. PMID:26651686

  20. Granular-front formation in free-surface flow of concentrated suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Cabrera, Miguel; Wittel, Falk K.; Kaitna, Roland; Mendoza, Miller; Wu, Wei; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-11-01

    A granular front emerges whenever the free-surface flow of a concentrated suspension spontaneously alters its internal structure, exhibiting a higher concentration of particles close to its front. This is a common and yet unexplained phenomenon, which is usually believed to be the result of fluid convection in combination with particle size segregation. However, suspensions composed of uniformly sized particles also develop a granular front. Within a large rotating drum, a stationary recirculating avalanche is generated. The flowing material is a mixture of a viscoplastic fluid obtained from a kaolin-water dispersion with spherical ceramic particles denser than the fluid. The goal is to mimic the composition of many common granular-fluid materials, such as fresh concrete or debris flow. In these materials, granular and fluid phases have the natural tendency to separate due to particle settling. However, through the shearing caused by the rotation of the drum, a reorganization of the phases is induced, leading to the formation of a granular front. By tuning the particle concentration and the drum velocity, it is possible to control this phenomenon. The setting is reproduced in a numerical environment, where the fluid is solved by a lattice-Boltzmann method, and the particles are explicitly represented using the discrete element method. The simulations confirm the findings of the experiments, and provide insight into the internal mechanisms. Comparing the time scale of particle settling with the one of particle recirculation, a nondimensional number is defined, and is found to be effective in predicting the formation of a granular front.

  1. The jet model of chondrule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, K.

    We estimate the size range of particles that are ejected from a protostellar accretion disk by a protostellar jet. An n-body code is used to determine the subsequent motion of the ejected particles, where the particles are subject to two forces: the gravitational attraction from the protostar; and the gas drag from the halo gas of the accretion disk.

  2. Modeling Jet and Outflow Feedback during Star Cluster Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Schrön, Martin; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ~1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ~1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ~ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  3. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    SciTech Connect

    Federrath, Christoph; Schrön, Martin; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  4. Granular assembly of alpha-synuclein leading to the accelerated amyloid fibril formation with shear stress.

    PubMed

    Bhak, Ghibom; Lee, Jung-Ho; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Paik, Seung R

    2009-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein participates in the Lewy body formation of Parkinson's disease. Elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanism of the amyloid fibril formation is crucial not only to develop a controlling strategy toward the disease, but also to apply the protein fibrils for future biotechnology. Discernable homogeneous granules of alpha-synuclein composed of approximately 11 monomers in average were isolated in the middle of a lag phase during the in vitro fibrillation process. They were demonstrated to experience almost instantaneous fibrillation during a single 12-min centrifugal membrane-filtration at 14,000 x g. The granular assembly leading to the drastically accelerated fibril formation was demonstrated to be a result of the physical influence of shear force imposed on the preformed granular structures by either centrifugal filtration or rheometer. Structural rearrangement of the preformed oligomomeric structures is attributable for the suprastructure formation in which the granules act as a growing unit for the fibril formation. To parallel the prevailing notion of nucleation-dependent amyloidosis, we propose a double-concerted fibrillation model as one of the mechanisms to explain the in vitro fibrillation of alpha-synuclein, in which two consecutive concerted associations of monomers and subsequent oligomeric granular species are responsible for the eventual amyloid fibril formation. PMID:19137068

  5. Pattern formation in a sandpile of ternary granular mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, Michiko; Suetsugu, Yuki; Hiroshige, Ryoma; Hirano, Takeru; Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2015-06-01

    Pattern formation in a sandpile is investigated by pouring a ternary mixture of grains into a vertical narrow cell. Size segregation in avalanches causes the formation of patterns. Four kinds of patterns emerge: stratification, segregation, upper stratification-lower segregation, and upper segregation-lower stratification. A phase diagram is constructed in a parameter space of θ11/θ33 and θ22/θ33 , where θ11,θ22 , and θ33 are the repose angles of small, intermediate, and large grains, respectively. To qualitatively understand pattern formation, a phenomenological model based on a roll-or-stay rule is proposed. A similar pattern formation is found in a numerical simulation of the phenomenological model. These results suggest that the ratios of the repose angles of three kinds of grains are important for pattern formation in a sandpile.

  6. Pattern formation in a sandpile of ternary granular mixtures.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Michiko; Suetsugu, Yuki; Hiroshige, Ryoma; Hirano, Takeru; Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2015-06-01

    Pattern formation in a sandpile is investigated by pouring a ternary mixture of grains into a vertical narrow cell. Size segregation in avalanches causes the formation of patterns. Four kinds of patterns emerge: stratification, segregation, upper stratification-lower segregation, and upper segregation-lower stratification. A phase diagram is constructed in a parameter space of θ(11)/θ(33) and θ(22)/θ(33), where θ(11),θ(22), and θ(33) are the repose angles of small, intermediate, and large grains, respectively. To qualitatively understand pattern formation, a phenomenological model based on a roll-or-stay rule is proposed. A similar pattern formation is found in a numerical simulation of the phenomenological model. These results suggest that the ratios of the repose angles of three kinds of grains are important for pattern formation in a sandpile. PMID:26172703

  7. Granular Shear Zone Formation: Acoustic Emission Measurements and Fiber-bundle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani

    2013-04-01

    We couple the acoustic emissions method with conceptual models of granular material behavior for investigation of granular shear zone formation and to assess eminence of landslide hazard. When granular materials are mechanically loaded or sheared, they tend to produce discrete events of force network restructuring, and frictional interaction at grain contacts. Such abrupt perturbations within the granular lattice release part of the elastic energy stored in the strained material. Elastic waves generated by such events can be measured as acoustic emissions (AE) and may be used as surrogates for intermittent structural transitions associated with shear zone formation. To experimentally investigate the connection between granular shearing and acoustic signals we performed an array of strain-controlled shear-frame tests using glass beads. AE were measured with two different systems operating at two frequency ranges. High temporal resolution measurements of the shear stresses revealed the presence of small fluctuations typically associated with low-frequency (< 20 kHz) acoustic bursts. Shear stress jumps and linked acoustic signals give account of discrete events of grain network rearrangements and obey characteristic exponential frequency-size distributions. We found that statistical features of force jumps and AE events depend on mechanical boundary conditions and evolve during the straining process. Activity characteristics of high-frequency (> 30 kHz) AE events is linked to friction between grains. To interpret failure associated AE signals, we adapted a conceptual fiber-bundle model (FBM) that describes some of the salient statistical features of failure and associated energy production. Using FBMs for the abrupt mechanical response of the granular medium and an associated grain and force chain AE generation model provides us with a full description of the mechanical-acoustical granular shearing process. Highly resolved AE may serve as a diagnostic tool not only

  8. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  9. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  10. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  11. AGN feedback and jet-induced star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé, Q.; Salomé, P.; Combes, F.; Hamer, S.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the impact of the AGN in radio galaxies on star formation along the radio jet. Our main goal was to determine whether star formation is more efficient in the shocked region along the jet. A first large scale work based on IRAM-30m CO observations of 3C 285 and Minkowski's Object has shown the star-forming spots located a few tens of kpc along the radio jet appears to form stars at least as efficiently as typical spiral galaxies or even boosted. This result supports the AGN positive feedback scenario. On the opposite, a small scale multi-wavelength analysis of the northern filaments of Centaurus A tends to quench star formation in the filaments, maybe due to the AGN negative feedback.

  12. Granular Formation during Apoptosis in Blastocystis sp. Exposed to Metronidazole (MTZ)

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kumar; Tan, Tian Chye

    2016-01-01

    The role and function of the granular life cycle stage in Blastocystis sp, remains uncertain despite suggestions being made that the granules are metabolic, reproductive and lipid in nature. This present study aims to understand granular formation by triggering apoptosis in Blastocystis sp. by treating them with metronidazole (MTZ). Blastocystis sp.cultures of 4 sub-types namely 1, 2, 3 and 5 when treated with 0.01 and 0.0001 mg/ml of metronidazole (MTZ) respectively showed many of the parasites to be both viable and apoptotic (VA). Treated subtype 3 isolates exhibited the highest number of granular forms i.e. 88% (p<0.001) (0.0001 mg/ml) and 69% (p<0.01) (0.01 mg/ml) respectively at the 72 h in in vitro culture compared to other subtypes. These VA forms showed distinct granules using acridine orange (AO) and 4’,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining with a mean per cell ranging from 5 in ST 5 to as high as 16 in ST 3. These forms showed intact mitochondria in both viable apoptotic (VA) and viable non-apoptotic (VNA) cells with a pattern of accumulation of lipid droplets corresponding to viable cells. Granular VA forms looked ultra-structurally different with prominent presence of mitochondria-like organelle (MLO) and a changed mitochondrial trans-membrane potential with thicker membrane and a highly convoluted inner membrane than the less dense non-viable apoptotic (NVA) cells. This suggests that granular formation during apoptosis is a self-regulatory mechanism to produce higher number of viable cells in response to treatment. This study directs the need to search novel chemotherapeutic approaches by incorporating these findings when developing drugs against the emerging Blastocystis sp. infections. PMID:27471855

  13. Granular Formation during Apoptosis in Blastocystis sp. Exposed to Metronidazole (MTZ).

    PubMed

    Dhurga, Devi Balkrishnan; Suresh, Kumar; Tan, Tian Chye

    2016-01-01

    The role and function of the granular life cycle stage in Blastocystis sp, remains uncertain despite suggestions being made that the granules are metabolic, reproductive and lipid in nature. This present study aims to understand granular formation by triggering apoptosis in Blastocystis sp. by treating them with metronidazole (MTZ). Blastocystis sp.cultures of 4 sub-types namely 1, 2, 3 and 5 when treated with 0.01 and 0.0001 mg/ml of metronidazole (MTZ) respectively showed many of the parasites to be both viable and apoptotic (VA). Treated subtype 3 isolates exhibited the highest number of granular forms i.e. 88% (p<0.001) (0.0001 mg/ml) and 69% (p<0.01) (0.01 mg/ml) respectively at the 72 h in in vitro culture compared to other subtypes. These VA forms showed distinct granules using acridine orange (AO) and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining with a mean per cell ranging from 5 in ST 5 to as high as 16 in ST 3. These forms showed intact mitochondria in both viable apoptotic (VA) and viable non-apoptotic (VNA) cells with a pattern of accumulation of lipid droplets corresponding to viable cells. Granular VA forms looked ultra-structurally different with prominent presence of mitochondria-like organelle (MLO) and a changed mitochondrial trans-membrane potential with thicker membrane and a highly convoluted inner membrane than the less dense non-viable apoptotic (NVA) cells. This suggests that granular formation during apoptosis is a self-regulatory mechanism to produce higher number of viable cells in response to treatment. This study directs the need to search novel chemotherapeutic approaches by incorporating these findings when developing drugs against the emerging Blastocystis sp. infections. PMID:27471855

  14. Prediction of Hot Tear Formation in Vertical DC Casting of Aluminum Billets Using a Granular Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Drezet, J.-M.; Phillion, A. B.; Rappaz, M.

    2013-09-01

    A coupled hydromechanical granular model aimed at predicting hot tear formation and stress-strain behavior in metallic alloys during solidification is applied to the semicontinuous direct chill casting of aluminum alloy round billets. This granular model consists of four separate three-dimensional (3D) modules: (I) a solidification module that is used for generating the solid-liquid geometry at a given solid fraction, (II) a fluid flow module that is used to calculate the solidification shrinkage and deformation-induced pressure drop within the intergranular liquid, (III) a semisolid deformation module that is based on a combined finite element/discrete element method and simulates the rheological behavior of the granular structure, and (IV) a failure module that simulates crack initiation and propagation. To investigate hot tearing, the granular model has been applied to a representative volume within the direct chill cast billet that is located at the bottom of the liquid sump, and it reveals that semisolid deformations imposed on the mushy zone open the liquid channels due to localization of the deformation at grains boundaries. At a low casting speed, only individual pores are able to form in the widest channels because liquid feeding remains efficient. However, as the casting speed increases, the flow of liquid required to compensate for solidification shrinkage also increases and as a result the pores propagate and coalesce to form a centerline crack.

  15. Formation of periodic and localized patterns in an oscillating granular layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Bar Ilan Univ.; Univ. of California at San Diego

    1998-02-01

    A simple phenomenological model for pattern formation in a vertically vibrated layer of granular particles is proposed. This model exhibits a variety of stable cellular patterns including standing rolls and squares as well as localized excitations (oscillons and worms), similar to recent experimental observations (Umbanhowar et al., 1996). The model is an order parameter equation for the parametrically excited waves coupled to the mass conservation law. The structure and dynamics of the solutions resemble closely the properties of patterns observed in the experiments.

  16. Formation and Destruction of Jets in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kylafix, N. D.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Christodoulou, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Neutron-star and black-hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) exhibit radio jets, whose properties depend on the X-ray spectral state e.nd history of the source. In particular, black-hole XRBs emit compact, 8teady radio jets when they are in the so-called hard state. These jets become eruptive as the sources move toward the soft state, disappear in the soft state, and then re-appear when the sources return to the hard state. The jets from neutron-star X-ray binaries are typically weaker radio emitters than the black-hole ones at the same X-ray luminosity and in some cases radio emission is detected in the soft state. Aims. Significant phenomenology has been developed to describe the spectral states of neutron-star and black-hole XRBs, and there is general agreement about the type of the accretion disk around the compact object in the various spectral states. We investigate whether the phenomenology describing the X-ray emission on one hand and the jet appearance and disappearance on the other can be put together in a consistent physical picture. Methods. We consider the so-called Poynting-Robertson cosmic battery (PRCB), which has been shown to explain in a natural way the formation of magnetic fields in the disks of AGNs and the ejection of jets. We investigate whether the PRCB can also explain the [ormation, destruction, and variability or jets in XRBs. Results. We find excellent agreement between the conditions under which the PRCB is efficient (i.e., the type of the accretion disk) and the emission or destruction of the r.adio jet. Conclusions. The disk-jet connection in XRBs can be explained in a natural way using the PRCB.

  17. Model of coarsening and vortex formation in vibrated granular rods.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego

    2003-02-01

    Neicu et al. observed experimentally spontaneous formation of the long-range orientational order and large-scale vortices in a system of vibrated macroscopic rods. We propose a phenomenological theory of this phenomenon based on a coupled system of equations for local rods density and tilt. The density evolution is described by the modified Cahn-Hilliard equation, while the tilt is described by the Ginzburg-Landau type equation. Our analysis shows that, in accordance with the Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, islands of the ordered phase appear spontaneously and grow due to coarsening. The generic vortex solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau equation for the tilt correspond to the vortical motion of the rods around the cores which are located near the centers of the islands.

  18. The formation of granular fronts in debris flow - A combined experimental-numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Cabrera, Miguel; Wittel, Falk K.; Kaitna, Roland; Mendoza, Miller; Wu, Wei; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-04-01

    Granular fronts are amongst the most spectacular features of debris flows, and are also one of the reasons why such events are associated with a strong destructive power. They are usually believed to be the result of the convective mechanism of the debris flow, combined with internal size segregation of the grains. However, the knowledge about the conditions leading to the formation of a granular front is not up to date. We present a combined study with experimental and numerical features that aims at providing insight into the phenomenon. A stationary, long-lived avalanche is created within a rotating drum. In order to mimic the composition of an actual debris flow, the material is composed by a mixture of a plastic fluid, obtained with water and kaolin powder, and a collection of monodisperse spherical particles heavier than the fluid. Tuning the material properties and the drum settings, we are able to reproduce and control the formation of a granular front. To gain insight into the internal mechanism, the same scenario is replicated in a numerical environment, using a coupling technique between a discrete solver for the particles, the Discrete Element Method, and a continuum solver for the plastic fluid, the Lattice-Boltzmann Method. The simulations compare well with the experiments, and show the internal reorganization of the material transport. The formation of a granular front is shown to be favored by a higher drum rotational speed, which in turn forces a higher shear rate on the particles, breaks their internal organization, and contrasts their natural tendency to settle. Starting from dimensional analysis, we generalize the obtained results and are able to draw implications for debris flow research.

  19. Liquid Jet Formation in Laser-Induced Forward Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasz, C. Frederik

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a direct-write technique capable of printing precise patterns of a wide variety of materials. In this process, a laser pulse is focused through a transparent support and absorbed in a thin donor film, propelling material onto an adjacent acceptor substrate. For fluid materials, this transfer occurs through the formation of a narrow liquid jet, which eventually pinches off due to surface tension. This thesis examines in detail the fluid mechanics of the jet formation process occurring in LIFT. The main focus is on a variant of LIFT known as blister-actuated LIFT (BA-LIFT), in which the laser pulse is absorbed in an ink-coated polymer layer, rapidly deforming it locally into a blister to induce liquid jet formation. The early-time response of a fluid layer to a deforming boundary is analyzed with a domain perturbation method and potential-flow simulations, revealing scalings for energy and momentum transfer to the fluid and providing physical insight on how and why a jet forms in BA-LIFT. The remaining chapters explore more complex applications and modifications of LIFT. One is the possibility of high-repetition rate printing and limits on time delay and separation between pulses imposed by a tilting effect found for adjacent jets. Another examines a focusing effect achieved by perturbing the interface with ring-shaped disturbances. The third contains an experimental study of LIFT using a silver paste as the donor material instead of a Newtonian liquid. The transfer mechanism is significantly different, although with repeated pulses at one location, a focusing effect is again observed. All three of these chapters investigate how perturbations to the interface can strongly influence the jet formation process.

  20. The Formation of Relativistic Jets from Kerr Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Hardee, P.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed the first fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) simulation for Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes with a free falling corona and thin accretion disk. The initial simulation results with a Schwarzschild metric show that a jet is created as in the previous axisymmetric simulations with mirror symmetry at the equator. However, the time to form the jet is slightly longer than in the 2-D axisymmetric simulation. We expect that the dynamics of jet formation are modified due to the additional freedom in the azimuth dimension without axisymmetry with respect to the Z axis and reflection symmetry respect to the equatorial plane. The jet which is initially formed due to the twisted magnetic fields and shocks becomes a wind at the later time. The wind flows out with a much wider angle than the initial jet. The twisted magnetic fields at the earlier time were untwisted and less pinched. The accretion disk became thicker than the initial condition. Further simulations with initial perturbations will provide insights for accretion dynamics with instabilities such as magneto-rotational instability (MRI) and accretion-eject instability (AEI). These instabilities may contribute to variabilities observed in microquasars and AGN jets.

  1. GRMHD Simulations of Jet Formation with a New Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) code by using a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The numerical fluxes are calculated using the HLL approximate Riemann solver scheme. The flux-interpolated, constrained transport scheme is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. Various one-dimensional test problems in both special and general relativity show significant improvements over our previous model. We have performed simulations of jet formations from a geometrically thin accretion disk near both nonrotating and rotating black holes. The new simulation results show that the jet is formed in the same manner as in previous work and propagates outward. In the rotating black hole cases, jets form much closer to the black hole's ergosphere and the magnetic field is strongly twisted due the frame-dragging effect. As the magnetic field strength becomes weaker, a larger amount of matter is launched with the jet. On the other hand, when the magnetic field strength becomes stronger, the jet has less matter and becomes poynting-flux dominated. We will also discuss how the jet properties depend on the rotation of a black hole.

  2. Effects of density, velocity gradient, and compressibility on side-jet formation in round jets with variable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Akinori

    2013-11-01

    When a low density gas compared with the ambient gas is discharged from a round nozzle, side jets that are radial ejections of jet fluid are generated at the initial region of the jet. The density ratio between the jet fluid and the ambient fluid is a main parameter for the side-jet formation. Since the side-jet formation is also related to the instability of shear layer, it depends on the velocity gradient of the shear layer in the jet. The velocity gradient is evaluated by a ratio of the momentum thickness and the nozzle diameter at the nozzle exit. Compressibility suppresses the instability and the generation of the side jets. The compressibility is evaluated by a Mach number, which is a ratio defined by an issuing velocity of the jet and a sound velocity in the ambient fluid. Influence of these three parameters on the side-jet formation was examined experimentally. The density ratio and momentum thickness ratio were varied from 0.14 to 1.53, and from 14 to 155, respectively. The Mach number was varied to 0.7. Existence of side jets was confirmed by flow visualization using a laser sheet. Domains for the side-jet formation by the density ratio, the momentum thickness ratio, and the Mach number were determined.

  3. BATHYMETRIC IRREGULARITIES, JET FORMATION, AND SUBSEQUENT MIXING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well known that bathymetric contours influence and steer currents and that irregularities in bathymetry contribute to the formation of aquatic non-buoyant jets and buoyant plumes. For example, bathymetric irregularities can channel flow through canyons or accelerate flow ov...

  4. Mechanisms for axial band formation in a rotating drum of granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newey, Michael K.

    We study granular particles, like sand or glass beads, that are mixed in a partially filled, horizontal, cylindrical drum. When the drum is rotated, it is observed that there is a flowing layer of grains on the free surface of the granular medium. In addition, if the particles have different sizes, spatial segregation of the particles by size is observed. This segregation occurs in two phases. During the first phase, called radial segregation, the smaller particles form a radial core. In the second, called axial segregation, particles segregate into alternating bands along the axis of the drum. We perform a detailed study of the characteristics of the flow to determine the physical mechanisms driving axial segregation. We characterize the top surface of the flowing layer by tracking particles using a high speed camera. We then extract average quantities such as velocity and diffusion. The average velocities show surprising behavior: Particles in small particle bands have a higher downhill flow velocity than particles in large particle bands. We also observe that there is a pattern of sideways velocity as a function of position down the flow. Particles flow into small particle bands in the middle of the flow but flow out of small particle bands at the bottom. We present the framework for a new model based on our experimentally observed results. We explain the axial band formation in terms of the observed surface flow patterns. We show how two physical processes could contribute to the band formation: (A) Accelerating granular material does not necessarily collide while decelerating granular material requires collisions. (B) Different size particles flow at different velocities. Our framework connects differences in flow velocities on the surface of the drum with the radial segregation in the bulk of the drum. We compare these results to current models, including models by Savage, Zik, Aranson, and Elperin. We test the general model assumption that the particles

  5. Laser-induced jet formation in liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasz, Frederik; Arnold, Craig

    2014-11-01

    The absorption of a focused laser pulse in a liquid film generates a cavitation bubble on which a narrow jet can form. This is the basis of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), a versatile printing technique that offers an alternative to inkjet printing. We study the influence of the fluid properties and laser pulse energy on jet formation using numerical simulations and time-resolved imaging. At low energies, surface tension causes the jet to retract without transferring a drop, and at high energies, the bubble breaks up into a splashing spray. We explore the parameter space of Weber number, Ohnesorge number, and ratio of film thickness to maximum bubble radius, revealing regions where uniform drops are transferred.

  6. Formation of jets and water clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Y.; Showman, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations show that Jupiter exhibits multiple banded zonal jet structures. These banded jets correlate with dark and bright clouds, often called "belts" and "zones". The mechanisms that produce these banded zonal jets and clouds are poorly understood. Our previous studies showed that the latent heat released by condensation of water vapor could produce equatorial superrotation along with multiple zonal jets in the mid-to-high latitudes. However, that previous work assumed complete and instant removal of condensate and therefore could not predict the cloud formation. Here we present an improved 3D Jupiter model to investigate some effects of cloud microphysics on large-scale dynamics using a closed water cycle that includes condensation, three-dimensional advection of cloud material by the large-scale circulation, evaporation and sedimentation. We use a simplified Betts-Miller scheme to relax the temperature and water vapor towards moist adiabat and saturation profile respectively when atmospheric columns become conditionally unstable, and apply a dry convective adjustment scheme in region deeper than the cloud base to mix heat and tracers. We further assume that the liquid particles are well mixed within the clouds during condensation. Other physics parameterizations included in our model are the bottom drag and internal heat flux as well as the Newtonian heating. We find that the active water cycle can produce numerous convective storms and multiple banded jets with equatorial superrotation. However the clouds are sporadic and not coherent with the jet structures. Here we will discuss the jet-forming mechanism compared to our previous studies and cloud morphologies under the influence of large-scale dynamics.

  7. Multi-jets formation using laser forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, Emeric; Rapp, Ludovic; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia; Delaporte, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of multi-jets formation in liquid films has been investigated using the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique. This technique allows the deposition of micrometer-sized droplets with a high spatial resolution from a donor substrate to a receiver substrate. The donor was a silver nanoparticles ink-coated substrate. The interaction of the laser pulse with the donor ink layer generates an expanding bubble in the liquid which propels a jet towards the receiver. Silver lines have already been printed by depositing overlapping droplets in a “low speed” process. In order to increase the throughput, it is necessary to decrease the time between the depositions of two droplets. By scanning the beam of a high repetition rate UV picosecond laser (343 nm; 30 ps; 500 kHz) with a galvanometric mirror, successive pulses are focused on the silver nanoparticles ink-coated donor substrate. The shape and dynamics of single jets and adjacent jets have been investigated by means of a time-resolved imaging technique. By varying the distance between the laser spots, different behaviours were observed and compared to the printed droplets. A spacing of 25 μm between laser spots was found to generate both stable jets and well-controlled, reproducible droplets at high speed.

  8. Deflagration-to-detonation in granular HMX: Ignition, kinetics, and shock formation

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.M.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.

    1993-06-01

    Experimental studies and analysis of the deflagration-to detonation transition (DDT) in granular HMX are continued. Experiments performed using a direct-gasless igniter exhibit the same phenomenology as those ignited with a piston. Simple kinetics and mechanics describe the formation of the {approximately}100% TMD plug in terms of competing pressurization processes. A mass-conservation analysis of the experimentally observed structures shows how the low velocities characteristic of convective burning are amplified to shock-wave velocities through non-convective processes.

  9. VLBA Reveals Formation Region of Giant Cosmic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    Astronomers have gained their first glimpse of the mysterious region near a black hole at the heart of a distant galaxy, where a powerful stream of subatomic particles spewing outward at nearly the speed of light is formed into a beam, or jet, that then goes nearly straight for thousands of light-years. The astronomers used radio telescopes in Europe and the U.S., including the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most detailed images ever of the center of the galaxy M87, some 50 million light-years away. "This is the first time anyone has seen the region in which a cosmic jet is formed into a narrow beam," said Bill Junor of the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. "We had always speculated that the jet had to be made by some mechanism relatively near the black hole, but as we looked closer and closer to the center, we kept seeing an already-formed beam. That was becoming embarrassing, because we were running out of places to put the formation mechanism that we knew had to be there." Junor, along with John Biretta and Mario Livio of the Space Telescope Science Institute, in Baltimore, MD, now have shown that M87's jet is formed within a few tenths of a light-year of the galaxy's core, presumed to be a black hole three billion times more massive than the sun. In the formation region, the jet is seen opening widely, at an angle of about 60 degrees, nearest the black hole, but is squeezed down to only 6 degrees a few light-years away. "The 60-degree angle of the inner part of M87's jet is the widest such angle yet seen in any jet in the universe," said Junor. "We found this by being able to see the jet to within a few hundredths of a light-year of the galaxy's core -- an unprecedented level of detail." The scientists reported their findings in the October 28 issue of the journal Nature. At the center of M87, material being drawn inward by the strong gravitation of the black hole is formed into a rapidly-spinning flat

  10. Jet formation in cerium metal to examine material strength

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B. J. Cherne, F. J.; Prime, M. B.; Yeager, J. D.; Ramos, K. J.; Hooks, D. E.; Cooley, J. C.; Dimonte, G.; Fezzaa, K.; Iverson, A. J.; Carlson, C. A.

    2015-11-21

    Examining the evolution of material properties at extreme conditions advances our understanding of numerous high-pressure phenomena from natural events like meteorite impacts to general solid mechanics and fluid flow behavior. Recent advances in synchrotron diagnostics coupled with dynamic compression platforms have introduced new possibilities for examining in-situ, spatially resolved material response with nanosecond time resolution. In this work, we examined jet formation from a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cerium initially shocked into a transient, high-pressure phase, and then released to a low-pressure, higher-temperature state. Cerium's rich phase diagram allows us to study the yield stress following a shock induced solid-solid phase transition. X-ray imaging was used to obtain images of jet formation and evolution with 2–3 μm spatial resolution. From these images, an analytic method was used to estimate the post-shock yield stress, and these results were compared to continuum calculations that incorporated an experimentally validated equation-of-state (EOS) for cerium coupled with a deviatoric strength model. Reasonable agreement was observed between the calculations and the data illustrating the sensitivity of jet formation on the yield stress values. The data and analysis shown here provide insight into material strength during dynamic loading which is expected to aid in the development of strength aware multi-phase EOS required to predict the response of matter at extreme conditions.

  11. Explaining formation of Astronomical Jets using Dynamic Universe Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical jets are observed from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such jet is explained using SITA simulations of Dynamic Universe Model. For this purpose the path traced by a test neutron is calculated and depicted using a set up of one densemass of the mass equivalent to mass of Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. Five different kinds of theoretical simulations gave positive results The path travelled by this test neutron was found to be an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center. This is another result from Dynamic Universe Model. It solves new problems like a. Variable Mass Rocket Trajectory Problem b. Explaining Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations c. Astronomical jets observed from Milkyway Center d. Prediction of Blue shifted Galaxies e. Explaining Pioneer Anomaly f. Prediction of New Horizons satellite trajectory etc. Dynamic Universe Model never reduces to General relativity on any condition. It uses a different type of mathematics based on Newtonian physics. This mathematics used here is simple and straightforward. As there are no differential equations present in Dynamic Universe Model, the set of equations give single solution in x y z Cartesian coordinates for every point mass for every time step

  12. WAVE PROPAGATION AND JET FORMATION IN THE CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Heggland, L.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; De Pontieu, B.

    2011-12-20

    We present the results of numerical simulations of wave propagation and jet formation in solar atmosphere models with different magnetic field configurations. The presence in the chromosphere of waves with periods longer than the acoustic cutoff period has been ascribed to either strong inclined magnetic fields, or changes in the radiative relaxation time. Our simulations include a sophisticated treatment of radiative losses, as well as fields with different strengths and inclinations. Using Fourier and wavelet analysis techniques, we investigate the periodicity of the waves that travel through the chromosphere. We find that the velocity signal is dominated by waves with periods around 5 minutes in regions of strong, inclined field, including at the edges of strong flux tubes where the field expands, whereas 3 minute waves dominate in regions of weak or vertically oriented fields. Our results show that the field inclination is very important for long-period wave propagation, whereas variations in the radiative relaxation time have little effect. Furthermore, we find that atmospheric conditions can vary significantly on timescales of a few minutes, meaning that a Fourier analysis of wave propagation can be misleading. Wavelet techniques take variations with time into account and are more suitable analysis tools. Finally, we investigate the properties of jets formed by the propagating waves once they reach the transition region, and find systematic differences between the jets in inclined-field regions and those in vertical field regions, in agreement with observations of dynamic fibrils.

  13. Experimental study on the signs of particulate structures formation in annular geometry of rapid granular shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritvanen, J.; Jalali, P.

    2009-06-01

    Rapid granular shear flow is a classical example in granular materials which exhibits both fluid-like and solid-like behaviors. Another interesting feature of rapid granular shear flows is the formation of ordered structures upon shearing. Certain amount of granular material, with uniform size distribution, is required to be loaded in the container in order to shear it under stable conditions. This work concerns the experimental study of rapid granular shear flows in annular Couette geometry. The flow is induced by continuous rotation of the plate over the top of the granular bed in an annulus. The compressive pressure, driving torque, instantaneous bed height from three symmetric locations and rotational speed of the shearing plate are measured. The annulus has a capacity of up to 15 kg of spherical steel balls of 3 mm in diameter. Rapid shear flow experiments are performed in one compressive force and rotation rate. The sensitivity of fluctuations is then investigated by different means through monodisperse packing. In this work, we present the results of the experiments showing how the flow properties depend on the amount of loaded granular material which is varied by small amounts between different experiments. The flow can exist in stable (fixed behavior) and unstable (time-dependent behavior) regimes as a function of the loaded material. We present the characteristics of flow to detect the formation of any additional structured layer in the annulus. As a result, an evolution graph for the bed height has been obtained as material is gradually added. This graph shows how the bed height grows when material increases. Using these results, the structure inside the medium can be estimated at extreme stable and unstable conditions.

  14. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation: Merging Jets and the Ultimate Jet Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey B. Parker and John A. Krommes

    2013-01-30

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. It is shown that for statisti- cally averaged equations of quasigeostrophic turbulence on a beta plane, zonal flows and inhomoge- neous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a jet drilling an H I cloud: Shock induced formation of molecular clouds and jet breakup

    SciTech Connect

    Asahina, Yuta; Ogawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    The formation mechanism of the jet-aligned CO clouds found by NANTEN CO observations is studied by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations taking into account the cooling of the interstellar medium. Motivated by the association of the CO clouds with the enhancement of H I gas density, we carried out MHD simulations of the propagation of a supersonic jet injected into the dense H I gas. We found that the H I gas compressed by the bow shock ahead of the jet is cooled down by growth of the cooling instability triggered by the density enhancement. As a result, a cold dense sheath is formed around the interface between the jet and the H I gas. The radial speed of the cold, dense gas in the sheath is a few km s{sup –1} almost independent of the jet speed. Molecular clouds can be formed in this region. Since the dense sheath wrapping the jet reflects waves generated in the cocoon, the jet is strongly perturbed by the vortices of the warm gas in the cocoon, which breaks up the jet and forms a secondary shock in the H I-cavity drilled by the jet. The particle acceleration at the shock can be the origin of radio and X-ray filaments observed near the eastern edge of the W50 nebula surrounding the galactic jet source SS433.

  16. Relativistic Jet Properties of GeV-TeV Blazars and Possible Implications for the Jet Formation, Composition, and Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Liang, En-Wei; Sun, Xiao Na

    We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) fits to a sample of GeV-TeV flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and compare the jet properties between FSRQs and BL Lacs. We show that the SEDs can be fit with the single-zone leptonic model, and both the minimum and broken Lorentz factors of relativistic electrons can be constrained, with medians of gamma_{min}˜ 48 and gamma_b˜ 240. No statistical difference on the Doppler factors between the FSRQs and BL Lacs is found. Assuming that the jet power is carried by electron-proton pairs, the magnetic field, and the radiation field, we calculate the powers of these components and the total jet power (P_jet) based on our fitting results, hence derive the radiation efficiency and magnetization parameter of the jets. It is found that the FSRQ jets are dominated by the Poynting flux and have a high radiation efficiency, whereas the BL Lac jets are dominated by particles and have a lower radiation efficiency than FSRQs. Interestingly, different from BL Lacs, P_jet of FSRQs are proportional to their central black hole (BH) masses. Measuring the jet production and radiation rates per central BH mass with P_jet/L_Edd and P_r/L_Edd, we find P_r/L_Edd~ (P_jet/L_Edd)({1.24±) 0.16} for FSRQs and P_r/L_Edd~ (P_jet/L_Edd)({0.85±) 0.09} for BL Lacs. The distribution of P_jet/L_Edd of FSRQs is in a narrow range, whereas it varies over several orders of magnitude for BL Lacs. These results likely suggest that the essential difference of FSRQs and BL Lacs may be due to the different jet production mechanisms. The dominating formation mechanism of FSRQ jets may be the BZ process. BL Lac jets may be produced via the BP and/or BZ processes, depending on structures and accretion rates of accretion disks. P_jet is correlated with the cavity kinetic power L_kin for our blazar sample. The magnetic field energy in the jets may provide the cavity kinetic energy for FSRQs and the kinetic energy of cold protons in the jets may be crucial for

  17. Chondrule Formation via Impact Jetting Triggered by Planetary Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Chondrules are one of the most primitive elements that can serve as a fundamental clue to the origin of our solar system. We investigate a formation scenario of chondrules that involves planetesimal collisions and the resultant impact jetting. Planetesimal collisions are the main agent to regulate planetary accretion that leads to the formation of terrestrial planets and cores of gas giants. The key component of this scenario is that ejected materials can melt when the impact velocity between colliding planetesimals exceeds about 2.5 km s‑1. Previous simulations have shown that the process is efficient enough to reproduce the primordial abundance of chondrules. We examine this scenario carefully by performing semi-analytical calculations that are developed based on the results of direct N-body simulations. As found in the previous work, we confirm that planetesimal collisions that occur during planetary accretion can play an important role in forming chondrules. This arises because protoplanet–planetesimal collisions can achieve an impact velocity of about 2.5 km s‑1 or higher, as protoplanets approach the isolation mass (Mp,iso). Assuming that the ejected mass is a fraction (Fch) of the colliding planetesimals’ mass, we show that the resultant abundance of chondrules is expressed well by FchMp,iso, as long as the formation of protoplanets is completed within a given disk lifetime. We perform a parameter study and examine how the abundance of chondrules and the timing of their formation change. We find that the impact jetting scenario generally works reasonably well for a certain range of parameters, while more dedicated work would be needed to include other physical processes that are neglected in this work and to examine their effects on chondrule formation.

  18. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  19. Effects of Gravity on Bubble Formation in an Annular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepp, R. A.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the bubble formation in an annular jet were studied. The experiments were conducted in the 2.2-second drop tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Terrestrial gravity experiments were conducted at the Fluid Dynamics Research Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma. Stainless steel tubing with inner diameters of 1/8" (gas inner annulus) and 5/16" (liquid outer annulus) served as the injector. A rectangular test section, 6" x 6" x 14" tall, made out of half-inch thick Lexan was used. Images of the annular jet were acquired using a high-speed camera. The effects of gravity and varying liquid and gas flow rates on bubble size, wavelength, and breakup length were documented. In general, the bubble diameter was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity for varying Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16 and 5 - 11) and liquid flow rates (1.5 ft/s - 3.0 ft/s). The wavelength was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity, but remained constant for varying Weber numbers. For low Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16), the breakup length in microgravity was significantly higher than in terrestrial gravity. Comparison with linear stability analysis showed estimated bubble sizes within 9% of experimental bubble sizes. Bubble size compared to other terrestrial gravity experiments with same flow conditions showed distinct differences in bubble size, which displayed the importance of injector geometry on bubble formation.

  20. Condensation in CO2 free jet expansions. I - Dimer formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfeld, W. G.; Hudson, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the kinetics of CO2 dimer formation in the adiabatically expanding core of a free jet expansion has been carried out. The theoretical analysis is based on dimer formation by an efficient termolecular process and dimer destruction by bimolecular collisions. Account is taken of the expected variation of the specific heat ratio during the expansion and of the effective increase in the termolecular collision rate at low temperatures due to the presence of loosely bound orbiting pairs. Experimental dimer concentrations were measured mass spectrometrically by forming a molecular beam from the expanded gas mixture after the onset of molecular flow. Observed dimer concentrations, for a range of pre-expansion conditions of 400 to 900 torr pressure and room temperature, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis, provided that account is taken of the effect of loosely bound orbiting pairs at low temperatures.

  1. Star formation efficiency along the radio jet in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé, Q.; Salomé, P.; Combes, F.; Hamer, S.; Heywood, I.

    2016-02-01

    NGC 5128 (also known as Centaurus A) is the most nearby powerful AGN, widely studied at all wavelengths. Molecular gas has been found in the halo at a distance of ~ 20 kpc from the galaxy center, associated with H i shells, through CO line detection at SEST (Charmandaris et al. 2000, A&A, 356, L1). The molecular gas lies inside some IR and UV bright star-forming filaments that have recently been observed in the direction of the radio jets. These archival data from GALEX (FUV) and Herschel (IR) show that there is dust and very weak star formation (a few 10-5-10-4M⊙ yr-1) on scales of hundreds of parsecs. NGC 5128 is thus a perfect target for detailed studies of the star formation processes at the interface of the jet/gas interaction. On top of analysing combined archival data, we have performed searches of HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) emission with ATCA at the interaction of the northern filaments and the northern H i shell of Centaurus A. Measuring the dense gas is another indicator of star formation efficiency inside the filaments. However, we only derived upper limits L'HCN < 1.6×103 K km s-1 pc2 and L'HCO < 1.6×103 K km s-1 pc2 at 3σ in the synthesised beam of 3.1''. Compared with the CO luminosity, this lead to a dense-to-molecular gas fraction < 23%. We also compared the CO masses with the star formation rate estimates in order to measure a star formation efficiency. Using a standard conversion factor leads to long depletion times (7 Gyr). We then corrected the mass estimates from metallicity effect by using gas-to-dust mass ratio as a proxy. From MUSE data, we estimated the metallicity spread (0.4-0.8Z⊙) in an other region of the filament, that corresponds to gas-to-dust ratios of ~200-400. Assuming the same metallicity range in the CO-detected part of the filament, the CO/H2 conversion ratio is corrected for low metallicity by a factor between 1.4 and 3.2. Such a low-metallicity correction leads to even more massive clouds with higher depletion times (16

  2. The formation of turbulent vortex rings by synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. M.; Dawson, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    An investigation is made into the mechanism of pinch-off for turbulent vortex rings formed by a synthetic jet using time resolved particle image velocimetry measurements in air. During formation, measurements of the material acceleration field show a trailing pressure maximum (TPM) forms behind the vortex core. The adverse pressure gradient behind this TPM inhibits vorticity transport into the ring and the TPM is spatially coincident with the termination of vorticity flux into a control volume moving with the ring. A Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) analysis is shown to be in agreement with the role of the TPM in pinch-off and in identifying the vortex ring before separation. The LCS analysis provides physical insights which form the basis of a revised model of pinch-off, based on kinematics, which predicts the time of formation (formation number) well for the present dataset. The delivery of impulse to the vortex ring is also considered. Two equally important mechanisms are shown to play a role: a material flux and a vortex force. In the case of long maximum stroke ratio, it is demonstrated that a vortex force continues to deliver impulse to the ring after the material flux is terminated at pinch-off and that this contribution may be substantial. This shows that the pinch-off and separation process cannot be considered impulse invariant, which has important implications for unsteady propulsion, present models of vortex ring formation, and existing explanations for vortex ring pinch-off.

  3. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Saikaly, Pascal E.

    2016-06-01

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment.

  4. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Saikaly, Pascal E.

    2016-01-01

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment. PMID:27319320

  5. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-01-01

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment.

  6. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-01-01

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment. PMID:27319320

  7. Observation of cloud formation caused by low-level jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J.; McCormick, M. P.; Lei, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of analyses performed on high-resolution remotely-sensed and in situ atmospheric measurements of the boundary layer and lower atmosphere centered over the northeast coast of the Hampton Roads body of water in southeast Virginia. This region is adjacent to the confluence of the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean where often times, low-level jets (LLJs) are found in the boundary layer during summer months. An East Hampton Roads Aerosol Flux (EHRAF) campaign, was conducted from the campus of Hampton University (HU) to examine small-scale aerosol transport using aerosol, Raman, and Doppler lidars, as well as rawindsondes over a one-week period in May 2014 . LLJs were observed from evening of 20 May to the morning of 21 May, and were found to lead to cloud formation. In this paper, the cloud formation caused by LLJs is analyzed using data that includes high-resolution profiles of: aerosol backscatter, turbulence structure, temperature, wind speed and direction, and water vapor. It is found that enhanced nighttime turbulence triggered by LLJs causes the aerosol and water vapor content of boundary layer to be lifted up forming a well-mixed region. We show that this region contains the cloud condensation nuclei that are very important for the formation of clouds.

  8. Experimental evidence of multimaterial jet formation with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaï, Ph.; Stenz, C.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Juha, L.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Kmetik, V.; Ullschmied, J.; Kalal, M.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Pisarczyk, P.; Tabakhoff, E.

    2010-11-01

    Laser-produced multimaterial jets have been investigated at the Prague Asterix Laser System laser [K. Jungwirth et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)]. The method of jet production is based on the laser-plasma ablation process and proved to be easy to set up and robust. The possibility of multimaterial laboratory jet production is demonstrated and complex hydrodynamic flows in the jet body are obtained. Two complementary diagnostics in the optical ray and x-ray ranges provide detailed information about jet characteristics. The latter are in agreement with estimates and two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulation results. The experiment provides a proof of principle that a velocity field could be produced and controlled in the jet body. It opens a possibility of astrophysical jet structure modeling in laboratory.

  9. Experimental evidence of multimaterial jet formation with lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaie, Ph.; Stenz, C.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Juha, L.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Kmetik, V.; Ullschmied, J.; Kalal, M.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Rezac, K.; Pisarczyk, P.; Tabakhoff, E.

    2010-11-15

    Laser-produced multimaterial jets have been investigated at the Prague Asterix Laser System laser [K. Jungwirth et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)]. The method of jet production is based on the laser-plasma ablation process and proved to be easy to set up and robust. The possibility of multimaterial laboratory jet production is demonstrated and complex hydrodynamic flows in the jet body are obtained. Two complementary diagnostics in the optical ray and x-ray ranges provide detailed information about jet characteristics. The latter are in agreement with estimates and two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulation results. The experiment provides a proof of principle that a velocity field could be produced and controlled in the jet body. It opens a possibility of astrophysical jet structure modeling in laboratory.

  10. The Effect of Jetting Parameters on the Performance of Droplet Formation for Ink-Jet Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Heinzl et al. (1985) reports that experiments in ink-jets to produce drawings or signals occurred as early as 1930. Various companies such as IBM and Pitney-Bowes have conducted extensive studies on these devices for many years. Many such reports are available in such journals as the IBM Journal of Research and Development. While numerous articles have been published on the jetting characteristics of ink and water, the literature is rather limited on fluids such as waxes (Gao & Sonin 1994) or non-water based fluids (Passow, et al. 1993). This present study extends the knowledge base to determine the performance of molten waxes in "ink-jet" type printers for rapid prototyping. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the droplet formation of a drop-on-demand ink-jet type nozzle system for rapid prototyping.

  11. STEADY TWIN-JETS ORIENTATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR FORMATION MECHANISM

    SciTech Connect

    Soker, Noam; Mcley, Liron E-mail: lironmc@tx.technion.ac.il

    2013-08-01

    We compare the structures of the jets of the pre-planetary nebulae (pre-PNe) CRL618 and the young stellar object (YSO) NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2 and propose that in both cases the jets are launched near periastron passages of a highly eccentric binary system. The pre-PN CRL618 has two ''twin-jets'' on each side, where by ''twin-jets'' we refer to a structure where one side is composed of two very close and narrow jets that were launched at the same time. We analyze the position-velocity diagram of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2, and find that it also has the twin-jet structure. In both systems, the orientation of the two twin-jets does not change with time. By comparing these two seemingly different objects, we speculate that the constant relative direction of the two twin-jets is fixed by the direction of a highly eccentric orbit of a binary star. For example, a double-arm spiral structure in the accretion disk induced by the companion might lead to the launching of the twin-jets. We predict the presence of a low-mass stellar companion in CRL618 that accretes mass and launches the jets, and a substellar (a planet of a brown dwarf) companion to the YSO NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2 that perturbed the accretion disk. In both cases the orbit has a high eccentricity.

  12. Analysis of microstructure-dependent shock dissipation and hot-spot formation in granular metalized explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2016-07-01

    Variations in the microstructure of granular explosives (i.e., particle packing density, size, shape, and composition) can affect their shock sensitivity by altering thermomechanical fields at the particle-scale during pore collapse within shocks. If the deformation rate is fast, hot-spots can form, ignite, and interact, resulting in burn at the macro-scale. In this study, a two-dimensional finite and discrete element technique is used to simulate and examine shock-induced dissipation and hot-spot formation within low density explosives (68%-84% theoretical maximum density (TMD)) consisting of large ensembles of HMX (C4H8N8O8) and aluminum (Al) particles (size ˜ 60 -360 μm). Emphasis is placed on identifying how the inclusion of Al influences effective shock dissipation and hot-spot fields relative to equivalent ensembles of neat/pure HMX for shocks that are sufficiently strong to eliminate porosity. Spatially distributed hot-spot fields are characterized by their number density and area fraction enabling their dynamics to be described in terms of nucleation, growth, and agglomeration-dominated phases with increasing shock strength. For fixed shock particle speed, predictions indicate that decreasing packing density enhances shock dissipation and hot-spot formation, and that the inclusion of Al increases dissipation relative to neat HMX by pressure enhanced compaction resulting in fewer but larger HMX hot-spots. Ensembles having bimodal particle sizes are shown to significantly affect hot-spot dynamics by altering the spatial distribution of hot-spots behind shocks.

  13. Jet induced star formation in centrally dominant galaxies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.

    1993-01-01

    Using U-I CCD color maps of two centrally dominant cluster galaxies, we find unusual color structures which may be due to star formation which has been induced by their radio sources. These objects, located in the clusters A1795 and A2597, have blue central colors to radii of 20 kpc, spatially extended emission-line structures, and powerful radio sources. They reside at the centers of cooling flows with mass-accretion rates which are estimated to be approximately greater than 300 solar mass/yr. The regions of bluest local color are superposed on or along their radio-source structures. Our observations suggest that the radio sources associated with these objects may be inducing massive star formation in their central 20 kpc. The star formation may be the result of the radio plasma interacting with the warm emission-line gas and dense, x-ray emitting filaments similar to those recently discovered in two other clusters with the ROSAT Observatory. Since radio jets are likely to be transient, this may help to explain the scatter in the correlations between color and mass-accretion rate, although other factors may also contribute. Alternatively, scattered radiation from a hidden active nucleus or recent mergers may be responsible for the color structure. The color and radio properties of these objects are qualitatively similar but smaller in luminosity and spatial extent to those found in high redshift radio galaxies. Our observations of galaxies at z approximately = 0.06-0.1 show that processes similar to 'the alignment effect' found in high redshift radio galaxies occur at more recent epochs.

  14. Electron dynamics and plasma jet formation in a helium atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jet

    SciTech Connect

    Algwari, Q. Th.; O'Connell, D.

    2011-09-19

    The excitation dynamics within the main plasma production region and the plasma jets of a kHz atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet operated in helium was investigated. Within the dielectric tube, the plasma ignites as a streamer-type discharge. Plasma jets are emitted from both the powered and grounded electrode end; their dynamics are compared and contrasted. Ignition of these jets are quite different; the jet emitted from the powered electrode is ignited with a slight time delay to plasma ignition inside the dielectric tube, while breakdown of the jet at the grounded electrode end is from charging of the dielectric and is therefore dependent on plasma production and transport within the dielectric tube. Present streamer theories can explain these dynamics.

  15. Ion-induced Aerosol-formation By Jet Aircraft: Implications For Contrail- and Cloud-formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichkorn, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Arnold, F.

    Jet aircraft produced gaseous ions so called chemiions (CI) may promote the forma- tion of volatile aerosol particles (VAP). VAP are potentially important by acting as water vapor condensation nuclei in contrail- and perhaps even cloud-formation. This ion-induced VAP-formation proceeds via the formation of cluster ions which are suf- ficiently large to form stable VAP upon neutralisation by ion-ion recombination. Here we report the first measurements of large cluster ions in sulfur-poor and -rich exhaust plumes of jet aircraft in flight equipped with modern and old engines. Measurements were performed in the wake of an Airbus A340, a Boeing B707 and the German Re- search Aircraft ATTAS. Our measurements suggest that ion induced VAP-formation takes place and that gaseous sulphuric acid and gaseous low volatility organic com- pounds are involved. For modern engines burning fuel with a typical mean fuel sulfur content sulphuric acid seems to be the most abundant condensate in a contrail-free exhaust-plume.

  16. LH launcher Arcs Formation and Detection on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Yu. F.; Challis, C. D.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.

    2011-12-23

    Mechanisms of arc formation have been analyzed and the critical electric fields for the multipactor effect calculated, compared to the experimental values and found to be within the normal operational space of the LH system on JET. It has been shown that the characteristic electron energy (20-1000)eV for the highest multipactor resonances (N = 4-9) are within the limits of secondary electron yield above 1 required for multipactoring. Electrons with these energies provide the highest gas desorption efficiency when hitting the waveguide walls. The effect of higher waveguide modes and magnetic field on the multipactor was also considered. The distribution function for electrons accelerated by LH waves in front of the launcher has been calculated. The field emission currents have been estimated and found to be small. It is proposed that emission of Fel5, 16 lines, which can be obtained with improved diagnostics, could be used to detect arcs that are missed by a protection system based on the reflected power. The reliability and time response of these signals are discussed. A similar technique based on the observation of the emission of low ionized atoms can be used for a fast detection of other undesirable events to avoid sputtering or melting of the plasma facing components such as RF antenna. These techniques are especially powerful if they are based on emission uniquely associated with specific locations and components.

  17. Experimental study of ice lens formation using fine granular materials under terrestrial and martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruya, T.; Rempel, A. W.; Kurita, K.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed exploration of Mars has yielded a range of direct and indirect evidence for the distribution of ice. Significantly, direct observations of segregated ice (i.e. sediment free) were obtained by Phoenix lander. This segregated ice most likely originated as an ice lens, which formed by the migration and solidification of unfrozen water. Unfrozen water that is adsorbed to particle surfaces and confined to capillary regions remains in the liquid state below the normal melting temperature. This water is known to migrate in frozen materials and form ice lenses. Zent et al. (2012) developed a numerical model for ice lens formation (Rempel et al. 2004) and demonstrated that the nucleation of ice lenses at the Phoenix landing site was possible in the recent past. However, many questions remain regarding the detailed conditions of ice lens nucleation and growth, even in the terrestrial environment. Further experimental checks of numerical models are especially needed. Here, we describe laboratory investigations of ice lens behavior under both terrestrial conditions and with experimental conditions approaching those in the martian environment. We have performed a series of step-freezing experiments in fine, granular materials to observe the initiation and growth of ice lenses. Our experiments reveal clear and systematic relationships between ice-lens behavior and the imposed cooling temperature and host particle size. We compared our experimental results to numerical predictions from a model of ice lens formation (Rempel et al. 2004) that was applied to our experimental conditions. We find that the trend is consistent between the experiment and model, however, there are important quantitative differences. Most notably, modeled ice-lens nucleation occurred more quickly and enabled ice lenses to grow larger than occurred during our experiments. We infer that some additional mechanisms must be responsible for restricting the formation and growth of ice lenses. Further

  18. Jet-induced star formation by accreting black holes: impact on stellar, galaxy, and cosmic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, Igor Felix

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that relativistic jets trigger star formation along their axis has been found associated to low redshift and high redshift accreting supermassive black holes. However, the physical processes by which jet-cloud interaction may trigger star formation has so far not been elucidated. To gain insight into this potentially important star formation mechanism during reionization, when microquasars were form prolifically before AGN, our international team is carrying out a muliwavelength study of a microquasar jet-induced star formation region in the Milky Way using data from space missions (Chandra, Integral, ISO, Herschel) and from the ground (at cm and mm wavelengths with the VLA and IRAM, and IR with Gemini and VLT). I will show that this relative nearby star forming region is an ideal laboratory to test models of jet-induced star formation elsewhere in the universe.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Studies for Soot Formation in Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames of Jet A-1 and Synthetic Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffaripour, Meghdad

    In the present doctoral thesis, fundamental experimental and numerical studies are conducted for the laminar, atmospheric pressure, sooting, coflow diffusion flames of Jet A-1 and synthetic jet fuels. The first part of this thesis presents a comparative experimental study for Jet A-1, which is a widely used petroleum-based fuel, and four synthetically produced alternative jet fuels. The main goals of this part of the thesis are to compare the soot emission levels of the alternative fuels to those of a standard fuel, Jet A-1, and to determine the effect of fuel chemical composition on soot formation characteristics. To achieve these goals, experimental measurements are constructed and performed for flame temperature, soot concentration, soot particle size, and soot aggregate structure in the flames of pre-vaporized jet fuels. The results show that a considerable reduction in soot production, compared to the standard fuel, can be obtained by using synthetic fuels which will help in addressing future regulations. A strong correlation between the aromatic content of the fuels and the soot concentration levels in the flames is observed. The second part of this thesis presents the development and experimental validation of a fully-coupled soot formation model for laminar coflow jet fuel diffusion flames. The model is coupled to a detailed kinetic mechanism to predict the chemical structure of the flames and soot precursor concentrations. This model also provides information on size and morphology of soot particles. The flames of a three-component surrogate for Jet A-1, a three-component surrogate for a synthetic jet fuel, and pure n-decane are simulated using this model. Concentrations of major gaseous species and flame temperatures are well predicted by the model. Soot volume fractions are predicted reasonably well everywhere in the flame, except near the flame centerline where soot concentrations are underpredicted by a factor of up to five. There is an excellent

  20. On the mechanism of blue jet formation and propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Y. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

    2006-12-01

    A new model of blue jets is proposed. A blue jet consists of an upward propagating leader whose top part is seen on photos as a ``trunk of a tree'', and is capped at the top side of the leader by its streamer zone. The latter is shown as tall and narrow branches of ``the tree''. It is shown that blue jet streamers can be sustained by relatively moderate cloud charges due to upward transfer of the high thundercloud potential by the leader. The streamer length is estimated along with the height at which the streamers can reach the ionosphere. The propagation of a streamer in the atmosphere of exponentially falling density N is computed. It is found that the critical external field ES required for unlimited streamer growth satisfies the similarity law ES/N ~ const. Shortcomings of the existing blue jet models are discussed.

  1. Mechanisms of jet formation on the giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Schneider, T.

    2009-12-01

    The giant planet atmospheres exhibit alternating prograde (eastward) and retrograde (westward) jets of different speeds and widths, with an equatorial jet that is prograde on Jupiter and Saturn and retrograde on Uranus and Neptune (Porco et al. 2003, Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2003, Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2007, Hammel et al. 2001, Sromovsky et al. 2001). The jets are variously thought to be driven by differential radiative heating of the upper atmosphere or by intrinsic heat fluxes emanating from the deep interior (Williams 2003, Busse 1976, Heimpel et al. 2005, Aurnou et al. 2007). But existing models cannot account for the different flow configurations on the giant planets in an energetically consistent manner (Heimpel and Aurnou 2007, Aurnou et al. 2007). Here we use simulations with a three-dimensional general circulation model to show that the different flow configurations can be reproduced by mechanisms universal across the giant planets if differences in their radiative heating and intrinsic heat fluxes are taken into account. Whether the equatorial jet is prograde or retrograde depends on whether the deep intrinsic heat fluxes are strong enough that convection penetrates into the upper atmosphere and excites strong equatorial Rossby waves there. The different speeds and widths of the off-equatorial jets depend, among other factors, on the differential radiative heating of the atmosphere and the altitude of the jets. The simulations make predictions about as-yet unobserved aspects of the flow and temperature structures of the giant planets.

  2. Influence of low atomic number plasma component on the formation of laser-produced plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2010-11-15

    The results of investigations are presented that are connected with a very simple method of plasma jet formation, which consists in irradiating a massive planar target made of material with relatively high atomic number by a partly defocused laser beam. This brief communication is aimed at investigations of interaction of axially symmetrical light (plastic-CH) plasma with heavy (copper) plasma. It demonstrates that a relatively thin plastic plasma envelope can compress the Cu plasma and control the Cu-jet formation.

  3. Numerical Study on GRB-Jet Formation in Collapsars

    SciTech Connect

    Nagataki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Rohta; Mizuta, Akira; Takiwaki, Tomoya; /Tokyo U.

    2006-08-22

    Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are performed using the ZEUS-2D code to investigate the dynamics of a collapsar that generates a GRB jet, taking account of realistic equation of state, neutrino cooling and heating processes, magnetic fields, and gravitational force from the central black hole and self gravity. It is found that neutrino heating processes are not so efficient to launch a jet in this study. It is also found that a jet is launched mainly by B{sub {phi}} fields that are amplified by the winding-up effect. However, since the ratio of total energy relative to the rest mass energy in the jet is not so high as several hundred, we conclude that the jets seen in this study are not be a GRB jet. This result suggests that general relativistic effects, which are not included in this study, will be important to generate a GRB jet. Also, the accretion disk with magnetic fields may still play an important role to launch a GRB jet, although a simulation for much longer physical time {approx} 10-100 s is required to confirm this effect. It is shown that considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized in the accretion disk. Thus there will be a possibility for the accretion disk to supply sufficient amount of {sup 56}Ni required to explain the luminosity of a hypernova. Also, it is shown that neutron-rich matter due to electron captures with high entropy per baryon is ejected along the polar axis. Moreover, it is found that the electron fraction becomes larger than 0.5 around the polar axis near the black hole by {nu}{sub e} capture at the region. Thus there will be a possibility that r-process and r/p-process nucleosynthesis occur at these regions. Finally, much neutrons will be ejected from the jet, which suggests that signals from the neutron decays may be observed as the delayed bump of the light curve of the afterglow or gamma-rays.

  4. 3D Effects in the Formation of Zonal Jets Through Inverse Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Showman, A. P.

    2006-09-01

    The atmospheric zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn are characterized by the broad, prograde, equatorial jet and the narrower, higher-latitude jets that alternate between prograde and retrograde. The question of what controls the widths and directions of those jets remains a major unsolved problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. Past studies have shown that, in shallow flows on a rotating sphere, small random vortices can undergo inverse cascade to form zonal jets with a characteristic width called the Rhines scale. Most of the studies to date use 2D non-divergent or shallow-water models in studying this zonal jet formation mechanism. However, in the parameter ranges representative of the Jovian conditions, the flows produced by 2D non-divergent models are typically dominated by strong circumpolar jets, and the shallow-water models produce a robust retrograde equatorial jet. These models' apparent inabilities in reproducing some key Jovian jet features may suggest the importance of 3D effects in controlling the jets' large-scale horizontal structures. To date, Kitamura and Matsuda (Fluid Dynamics Research, 34, 33-57, 2004) is the only published study that analyzes the 3D effects in the zonalization of fine-scale random turbulence through the inverse cascade. Their two-layer primitive equation simulations of free-evolving flows resulted in circumpolar jet dominated flows, although slower mid-latitude jets are also present. Our study is a significant extension over that by Kitamura and Matsuda and includes substantially more layers to study the zonalization process to more fully resolve relevant 3D effects in the inverse cascade. We test the flow behavior's dependence on the deformation radius and the resulting vertical structures in both spherical and beta-plane geometries. Our study uses the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model (Dowling et al, Icarus, 32, 221-238., 1998). The research is supported by a NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant to APS.

  5. 3D Effects in the Formation of Zonal Jets Through Inverse Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Showman, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    The atmospheric zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn are characterized by the broad, prograde, equatorial jet and the narrower, higher-latitude jets that alternate between prograde and retrograde. The question of what controls the widths and directions of those jets remains a major unsolved problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. Past studies have shown that, in shallow flows on a rotating sphere, small random vortices can undergo inverse cascade to form zonal jets with a characteristic width called the Rhines scale. Most of the studies to date use 2D non-divergent or shallow-water models in studying this zonal jet formation mechanism. However, in the parameter ranges representative of the Jovian conditions, the flows produced by 2D non- divergent models are typically dominated by strong circumpolar jets, and the shallow-water models produce a robust retrograde equatorial jet. These models' apparent inabilities in reproducing some key Jovian jet features may suggest the importance of 3D effects in controlling the jets' large-scale horizontal structures. To date, Kitamura and Matsuda (Fluid Dynamics Research, 34, 33-57, 2004) is the only published study that analyzes the 3D effects in the zonalization of fine-scale random turbulence through the inverse cascade. Their two-layer primitive equation simulations of free-evolving flows resulted in circumpolar jet dominated flows, although slower mid-latitude jets are also present. Our study is a significant extension over that by Kitamura and Matsuda and includes substantially more layers to study the zonalization process to more fully resolve relevant 3D effects in the inverse cascade. We test the flow behavior's dependence on the deformation radius and the resulting vertical structures in both spherical and beta-plane geometries. Our study uses the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model (Dowling et al, Icarus, 32, 221-238., 1998). The research is supported by a NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant to APS.

  6. Connections Between Jet Formation and Multiwavelength Spectral Evolution in Black Hole Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakemci, Emrah; Chun, Yoon-Young; Dincer, Tolga; Buxton, Michelle; Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations are the key to understand conditions of jet formation in Galactic black hole transient (GBHT) systems. By studying radio and optical-infrared evolution of such systems during outburst decays, the compact jet formation can be traced. Comparing this with X-ray spectral and timing evolution we can obtain physical and geometrical conditions for jet formation, and study the contribution of jets to X-ray emission. In this work, first X-ray evolution - jet relation for XTE J1752-223 will be discussed. This source had very good coverage in X-rays, optical, infrared and radio. A long exposure with INTEGRAL also allowed us to study gamma-ray behavior after the jet turns on. We will also show results from the analysis of data from GX 339-4 in the hard state with SUZAKU at low flux levels. The fits to iron line fluorescence emission show that the inner disk radius increases by a factor of greater than 27 with respect to radii in bright states. This result, along with other disk radius measurements in the hard state will be discussed within the context of conditions for launching and sustaining jets.

  7. Self-assembly and the Formation of Structure in Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Particle systems self-assemble in ways that are sensitive to their environments. Proteins fold, polymers crosslink, and molecular systems form crystals. Granular materials, unlike proteins, polymers or molecules, are not sensitive to temperature, and will only form new structures when they are driven. This raises the question of how a granular state depends on the preparation protocol, and an even more basic question of what is needed to specify a granular state. I will focus on granular systems near jamming, where key state variables include the density and stresses. Systems of frictionless grains follow the Liu-Nagel1 scenario of jamming, with a lowest packing fraction, ϕJ, such that any system with ϕ <ϕJ is unjammed, and all isotopic states (shear stress τ = 0) are jammed for ϕ >ϕJ . For frictional grains the picture changes. For a given ϕ in the range ϕS < ϕ <ϕJ , it is possible to have stress-free (unjammed) states, highly anisotropic fragile states, and robustly jammed states. The fragile and strongly jammed states form spontaneously in response to shear. By inference, ϕ is not a state variable, but recent experiments2 indicate that the non-rattler fraction, fNR is. In ϕS < ϕ <ϕJ , the system response is inherently non-linear; under cyclic shear, the system self-organizes to new steady states via a process that resembles thermal activation, with shear stress replacing energy3. The activation is provided by shear strain. We observe similar relaxation under cyclic compression. An important question is, what is (are) the organizing principle(s) which govern jamming by shear, and systematic reorganization under cyclic driving. NSF grants DMR1206351 and DMS1248071, NASA grant NNX10AU10G, and ARO grant W911NF-1-11-0110

  8. Introduction: Undergraduate research with examples from pattern formation, mixing, and granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollub, Jerry P.

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate research, often in collaboration with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty members, has many advantages for all participants. The students mature quickly in this environment and gain important information needed for career choices; the more experienced researchers can multiply their productivity through these collaborations and gain experience in the arts of teaching. I will briefly describe several examples of student projects in the area of hydrodynamic stability, mixing, and granular flow.

  9. GRMHD Simulations of Jet Formation with a Newly-Developed GRMHD Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code by using a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The numerical fluxes are calculated using the HLL approximate Riemann solver scheme. The flux-CT scheme is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. Various 1-dimensional test problems show significant improvements over our previous GRMHD code. We have performed simulations of jet formations from a geometrically thin accretion disk near a non-rotating and a rotating black hole. The new simulation results show that the jet is formed by the same manner as in previous works and propagates outward. As the magnetic field strength becomes weaker, larger amount of matter launches with the jet. On the other hand when the magnetic field strength becomes stronger, the jet has less-matter and becomes poynting flux dominated. We will also discuss how the jet properties depend on the rotation of a black hole.

  10. Formation and post-formation dynamics of bacterial biofilm streamers as highly viscous liquid jets

    PubMed Central

    Das, Siddhartha; Kumar, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently reported that in presence of low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) transport, preformed bacterial biofilms, several hours after their formation, may degenerate in form of filamentous structures, known as streamers. In this work, we explain that such streamers form as the highly viscous liquid states of the intrinsically viscoelastic biofilms. Such “viscous liquid” state can be hypothesized by noting that the time of appearance of the streamers is substantially larger than the viscoelastic relaxation time scale of the biofilms, and this appearance is explained by the inability of a viscous liquid to withstand external shear. Further, by identifying the post formation dynamics of the streamers as that of a viscous liquid jet in a surrounding flow field, we can interpret several unexplained issues associated with the post-formation dynamics of streamers, such as the clogging of the flow passage or the exponential time growth of streamer dimensions. Overall our manuscript provides a biophysical basis for understanding the evolution of biofilm streamers in creeping flows. PMID:25410423

  11. Studying the Dynamics of Non-stationary Jet Streams Formation in the Northern Hemisphere Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emtsev, Sergey; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we investigate dynamics of non-stationary jets formation in troposphere by means of mesoscale simulations in the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, analyzing jet streams that affected the territory of Belarus over the time period of 2010-2012. For that purpose, we perform modeling on domains with 5 km, 3 km and 1 km grid steps and 35 vertical coordinate levels with an upper boundary of 10 hPa. We focus our attention to identification of basic regularities in formation, movements and transformations of jet streams, as well as to analysis of their characteristic features, geographical position and underlying atmospheric processes and their classification. On the basis of these regularities, we define basic meteorological parameters that can be used to directly or indirectly (as well as qualitatively and quantitatively) identify the presence of jet streams in the specific region of troposphere, and also to determine their localization, stage of development and other characteristics. Furthermore, we estimate energetic parameters of the identified jet streams and their impact on synoptic situation in the surrounding region. Analyzing meteorological fields obtained from satellite observations, we elaborate a methodology of operational detection and localization of non-stationary jet streams from satellite data. Validation of WRF modeling results with these data proves that mesoscale simulations with WRF are able to provide quite successful forecasts of non-stationary tropospheric jet streams occurrence and also determination of their localization and main characteristics up to 3 days in advance.

  12. Experimental evidence for collisional shock formation via two obliquely merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, Elizabeth C. Adams, Colin S.; Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C. Dunn, John P.; Miguel Holgado, A.; Gilmore, Mark A.

    2014-05-15

    We report spatially resolved measurements of the oblique merging of two supersonic laboratory plasma jets. The jets are formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns using injected argon, and have electron density ∼10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, electron temperature ≈1.4 eV, ionization fraction near unity, and velocity ≈40 km/s just prior to merging. The jet merging produces a few-cm-thick stagnation layer, as observed in both fast-framing camera images and multi-chord interferometer data, consistent with collisional shock formation [E. C. Merritt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 085003 (2013)].

  13. Modeling of the merging, liner formation, implosion of hypervelocity plasma jets for the PLX- α project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassibry, Jason; Hsu, Scott; Schillo, Kevin; Samulyak, Roman; Stoltz, Peter; Beckwith, Kris

    2015-11-01

    A suite of numerical tools will support the conical and 4 π plasma-liner-formation experiments for the PLX- α project. A new Lagrangian particles (LP) method will provide detailed studies of the merging of plasma jets and plasma-liner formation/convergence. A 3d smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code will simulate conical (up to 9 jets) and 4 π spherical (up to 60 jets) liner formation and implosion. Both LP and SPH will use the same tabular EOS generated by Propaceos, thermal conductivity, optically thin radiation and physical viscosity models. With LP and SPH,the major objectives are to study Mach-number degradation during jet merging, provide RMS amplitude and wave number of the liner nonuniformity at the leading edge, and develop scaling laws for ram pressure and liner uniformity as a function of jet parameters. USIM, a 3D multi-fluid plasma code, will be used to perform 1D and 2D simulations of plasma-jet-driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF) to identify initial conditions in which the ``liner gain'' exceeds unity. A brief overview of the modeling program will be provided. Results from SPH modeling to support the PLX- α experimental design will also be presented, including preliminary ram-pressure scaling and non-uniformity characterization.

  14. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  15. Interaction between phosphorus removal and hybrid granular sludge formation under low hydraulic selection pressure at alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lang, Longqi; Wan, Junfeng; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid granular sludge (HGS) formation and its performances on phosphorus removal were investigated in a sequencing batch airlift reactor. Under conditions of low superficial air velocity (SAV = 0.68 cm s(-1)) and relatively long settling time (15-30 min), aerobic granules appeared and coexisted with bio-flocs after 120 days operation. At the stable phase, 54% of total suspended solid (m/m) was granular sludge with the two typical sizes (D(mean) = 1.77 ± 0.33 and 0.89 ± 0.11 mm) in the reactor, where the settling velocity was 98.7 ± 12.4 and 37.8 ± 0.9 m h(-1) for the big and small granules. With progressive extension of anaerobic time from 15 to 60 min before aerobic condition per cycle during the whole experiment, the HGS system can be maintained at a high total phosphorus removal efficiency (ca. 99%) since Day-270. The phosphorus content (wt %) in biomass was respectively 9.54 ± 0.29, 7.60 ± 0.48 and 6.15 ± 0.59 for the big granules, small granules and flocs.

  16. A comparative study of abiological granular sludge (ABGS) formation in different processes for zinc removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chai, Liyuan; Yan, Xu; Li, Qingzhu; Yang, Bentao; Wang, Qingwei

    2014-11-01

    Abiological granular sludge (ABGS) formation is a potential and facile strategy for improving sludge settling performance during zinc removal from wastewater using chemical precipitation. In this study, the effect of pH, seed dosage, and flocculant dosage on ABGS formation and treated water quality was investigated. Results show that settling velocity of ABGS can reach up to 4.00 cm/s under optimal conditions, e.g., pH of 9.0, zinc oxide (ZnO) seeds dosage of 1.5 g/l, and polyacrylamide (PAM) dosage of 10 mg/l. More importantly, ABGS formation mechanism was investigated in NaOH precipitation process and compared with that in bio-polymer ferric sulfate (BPFS)-NaOH precipitation process regarding their sludge structure and composition. In the NaOH precipitation process, ABGS formation depends on some attractions between particles, such as van der Waals attraction and bridging attraction. However, during the BPFS-NaOH sludge formation process, steric repulsion becomes dominant due to the adsorption of BPFS on ZnO seeds. This repulsion further causes extremely loose structure and poor settling performance of BPFS-NaOH sludge.

  17. Formation of a rotating jet during the filament eruption on 2013 April 10-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B.; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Joshi, N. C.; Uddin, W.

    2015-07-01

    We analyse multiwavelength and multiviewpoint observations of a helically twisted plasma jet formed during a confined filament eruption on 2013 April 10-11. Given a rather large-scale event with its high spatial and temporal resolution observations, it allows us to clearly understand some new physical details about the formation and triggering mechanism of twisting jet. We identify a pre-existing flux rope associated with a sinistral filament, which was observed several days before the event. The confined eruption of the filament within a null-point topology, also known as an Eiffel tower (or inverted-Y) magnetic field configuration results in the formation of a twisted jet after the magnetic reconnection near a null point. The sign of helicity in the jet is found to be the same as that of the sign of helicity in the filament. Untwisting motion of the reconnected magnetic field lines gives rise to the accelerating plasma along the jet axis. The event clearly shows the twist injection from the pre-eruptive magnetic field to the jet.

  18. Effects of basin bottom slope on jet hydrodynamics and river mouth bar formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Robles, A. M.; Ortega-Sánchez, M.; Losada, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    River mouth bars are strategic morphological units primarily responsible for the development of entire deltaic systems. This paper addresses the role of receiving basin slope in the hydrodynamics of an exiting sediment-laden turbulent jet and in resulting mouth bar morphodynamics. We use Delft3D, a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic numerical model, along with a theoretical formulation to reproduce the physics of the problem, characterized by a fluvially dominated inlet free of waves and tides. We propose an updated theoretical model with a slope-dependent entrainment coefficient, showing that the rate at which ambient fluid is incorporated into a jet increases with higher basin slopes. Transient results reveal that the magnitude of a basin slope can alter the stability of a jet, favoring the formation of an unstable meandering jet. While a stable jet gives rise to "middle-ground" bars accompanied by diverging channels, a "lunate" mouth bar results from unstable jets. Additional morphodynamic simulations demonstrate that the time required for mouth bar stagnation in its final position increases linearly with the basin slope. In contrast, the distance at which the mouth bar eventually forms decreases until reaching an asymptotic value for slopes higher than 2%. Moreover, the basin slope highly influences sedimentary processes responsible for bar formation: for milder slopes, progradation processes prevail, while in steeper basins aggradation is more relevant. Finally, the minimum relative water depth over a bar crest that forces the flow to bifurcate around a fully developed bar decreases with the basin slope.

  19. Drop impact into a deep pool: vortex shedding and jet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Agbaglah, G.; Thoraval, M. -J.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Zhang, L. V.; Fezzaa, K.; Deegan, R. D.

    2015-02-01

    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on a deep pool. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates an axisymmetric sheet-like jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are transitions in the multiplicity of jets as the experimental parameters are varied. Here, we use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the transition from impacts that produce a single jet to those that produce two jets. Using high-speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet. Using numerical simulations we develop a phase diagram for this transition and show that the capillary number is the most appropriate order parameter for the transition.

  20. CONSTRAINTS ON JET FORMATION MECHANISMS WITH THE MOST ENERGETIC GIANT OUTBURSTS IN MS 0735+7421

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shuangliang; Cao Xinwu E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-07-01

    Giant X-ray cavities lie in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) locating in central galaxies of clusters, which are estimated to have stored 10{sup 55}-10{sup 62} erg of energy. Most of these cavities are thought to be inflated by jets of AGNs on a timescale of {approx}> 10{sup 7} years. The jets can be either powered by rotating black holes or the accretion disks surrounding black holes, or both. The observations of giant X-ray cavities can therefore be used to constrain jet formation mechanisms. In this work, we choose the most energetic cavity, MS 0735+7421, with stored energy {approx}10{sup 62} erg, to constrain the jet formation mechanisms and the evolution of the central massive black hole in this source. The bolometric luminosity of the AGN in this cavity is {approx}10{sup -5} L{sub Edd}, however, the mean power of the jet required to inflate the cavity is estimated as {approx}0.02L{sub Edd}, which implies that the source has previously experienced strong outbursts. During outbursts, the jet power and the mass accretion rate should be significantly higher than its present values. We construct an accretion disk model in which the angular momentum and energy carried away by jets are properly included to calculate the spin and mass evolution of the massive black hole. In our calculations, different jet formation mechanisms are employed, and we find that the jets generated with the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism are unable to produce the giant cavity with {approx}10{sup 62} erg in this source. Only the jets accelerated with a combination of the Blandford-Payne and BZ mechanisms can successfully inflate such a giant cavity if the magnetic pressure is close to equipartition with the total (radiation+gas) pressure of the accretion disk. For a dynamo-generated magnetic field in the disk, such an energetic giant cavity can be inflated by the magnetically driven jets only if the initial black hole spin parameter a{sub 0} {approx}> 0.95. Our calculations show that the

  1. The boreal springtime formation of the Somali Jet: dynamics of its seasonal evolution and diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, E. E.; Cook, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    While the Somali Jet has been widely studied during the boreal summer months (JJAS), the early stages of the jet's formation in April and May are not as well documented or understood. Riddle and Cook (2008) noted that starting in mid-April, a strong southerly cross-equatorial jet is present at 925 hPa along the coast of East Africa. This preliminary stage in the development of the Somali Jet is distinct from the fully-formed Somali Jet in that 1) it is confined to a narrow region along the coast and 2) it consists solely of a meridional branch which terminates over the Horn of Africa. In this study, we examine the dynamics associated with the springtime jet's seasonal evolution and diurnal cycle using the NCEP II reanalysis and a high-resolution regional model simulation. A momentum budget analysis based on the NCEP II climatology shows that the cross-equatorial flow along the east African coast is governed by the large-scale pressure difference between northern and southern hemispheres over the Arabian Sea basin. This north-south pressure gradient becomes positive in early March and increases gradually throughout the boreal spring, primarily due to strong surface heating over the Asian landmass to the north, and cooling over southern Africa. However, the springtime coastal jet does not acquire a jet-like structure until mid-April when the zonal land/sea pressure gradient between the Indian Ocean and the African continent disappears, eliminating the previously strong zonal (onshore) component to the flow. The zonal branch of the Somali jet forms over the Arabian Sea in June, when depressions over India and Africa merge to form the zonal monsoon trough. The timing of the zonal branch formation is coincident with the onset of the Indian monsoon. The diurnal cycle of the springtime Somali Jet is examined using a high resolution regional climate model and found to be controlled primarily by day/night changes in surface friction. This study provides a physical

  2. Constraints on Jet Formation Mechanisms with the Most Energetic Giant Outbursts in MS 0735+7421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang-Liang; Cao, Xinwu

    2012-07-01

    Giant X-ray cavities lie in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) locating in central galaxies of clusters, which are estimated to have stored 1055-1062 erg of energy. Most of these cavities are thought to be inflated by jets of AGNs on a timescale of >~ 107 years. The jets can be either powered by rotating black holes or the accretion disks surrounding black holes, or both. The observations of giant X-ray cavities can therefore be used to constrain jet formation mechanisms. In this work, we choose the most energetic cavity, MS 0735+7421, with stored energy ~1062 erg, to constrain the jet formation mechanisms and the evolution of the central massive black hole in this source. The bolometric luminosity of the AGN in this cavity is ~10-5 L Edd, however, the mean power of the jet required to inflate the cavity is estimated as ~0.02L Edd, which implies that the source has previously experienced strong outbursts. During outbursts, the jet power and the mass accretion rate should be significantly higher than its present values. We construct an accretion disk model in which the angular momentum and energy carried away by jets are properly included to calculate the spin and mass evolution of the massive black hole. In our calculations, different jet formation mechanisms are employed, and we find that the jets generated with the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism are unable to produce the giant cavity with ~1062 erg in this source. Only the jets accelerated with a combination of the Blandford-Payne and BZ mechanisms can successfully inflate such a giant cavity if the magnetic pressure is close to equipartition with the total (radiation+gas) pressure of the accretion disk. For a dynamo-generated magnetic field in the disk, such an energetic giant cavity can be inflated by the magnetically driven jets only if the initial black hole spin parameter a 0 >~ 0.95. Our calculations show that the final spin parameter a of the black hole is always ~0.9-0.998 for all the computational

  3. Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, B; Ciardi, A; Nakatsutsumi, M; Vinci, T; Béard, J; Bonito, R; Billette, J; Borghesi, M; Burkley, Z; Chen, S N; Cowan, T E; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Higginson, D P; Kroll, F; Pikuz, S A; Naughton, K; Romagnani, L; Riconda, C; Revet, G; Riquier, R; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Skobelev, I Yu; Faenov, A Ya; Soloviev, A; Huarte-Espinosa, M; Frank, A; Portugall, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2014-10-17

    Although bipolar jets are seen emerging from a wide variety of astrophysical systems, the issue of their formation and morphology beyond their launching is still under study. Our scaled laboratory experiments, representative of young stellar object outflows, reveal that stable and narrow collimation of the entire flow can result from the presence of a poloidal magnetic field whose strength is consistent with observations. The laboratory plasma becomes focused with an interior cavity. This gives rise to a standing conical shock from which the jet emerges. Following simulations of the process at the full astrophysical scale, we conclude that it can also explain recently discovered x-ray emission features observed in low-density regions at the base of protostellar jets, such as the well-studied jet HH 154. PMID:25324383

  4. Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, B; Ciardi, A; Nakatsutsumi, M; Vinci, T; Béard, J; Bonito, R; Billette, J; Borghesi, M; Burkley, Z; Chen, S N; Cowan, T E; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Higginson, D P; Kroll, F; Pikuz, S A; Naughton, K; Romagnani, L; Riconda, C; Revet, G; Riquier, R; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Skobelev, I Yu; Faenov, A Ya; Soloviev, A; Huarte-Espinosa, M; Frank, A; Portugall, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2014-10-17

    Although bipolar jets are seen emerging from a wide variety of astrophysical systems, the issue of their formation and morphology beyond their launching is still under study. Our scaled laboratory experiments, representative of young stellar object outflows, reveal that stable and narrow collimation of the entire flow can result from the presence of a poloidal magnetic field whose strength is consistent with observations. The laboratory plasma becomes focused with an interior cavity. This gives rise to a standing conical shock from which the jet emerges. Following simulations of the process at the full astrophysical scale, we conclude that it can also explain recently discovered x-ray emission features observed in low-density regions at the base of protostellar jets, such as the well-studied jet HH 154.

  5. Formation of Martian araneiforms by gas-driven erosion of granular material

    SciTech Connect

    S. de Villiers; A. Nermoen; B. Jamtveit; J. Mathiesen; P. Meakin; S. C. Werner

    2012-07-01

    Sublimation at the lower surface of a seasonal sheet of translucent CO2 ice at high southern latitudes during the Martian spring, and rapid outflow of the CO2 gas generated in this manner through holes in the ice, has been proposed as the origin of dendritic 100 m-1 km scale branched channels known as spiders or araneiforms and dark dust fans deposited on top of the ice. We show that patterns very similar to araneiforms are formed in a Hele-Shaw cell filled with an unconsolidated granular material by slowly deforming the upper wall upward and allowing it to return rapidly to its original position to drive air and entrained particles through a small hole in the upper wall. Straight, braided and quasiperiodic oscillating channels, unlike meandering channels on Earth were also formed.

  6. Formation and mechanics of granular waves in gravity and shallow overland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römkens, Mathias J. M.; Suryadevara, Madhu R.; Prasad, Shyam N.

    2010-05-01

    Sediment transport in overland flow is a highly complex process involving many properties relative to the flow regime characteristics, soil surface conditions, and type of sediment. From a practical standpoint, most sediment transport studies are concerned with developing relationships of rates of sediment movement under different hydraulic regimes in channel flow for use in soil erosion and sediment transport prediction models. Relatively few studies have focused on the more basic aspects of sediment movement in which particle-to-particle, particle-to-boundary, and particle-to-fluid interactions determine in an important way the nature of the movement. Our experimental work under highly controlled experimental conditions with both gravity flow of granular material (glass beads) in air and sediment transport (sand particles and glass beads) in shallow overland flow have shown that sediment movement is not a simple phenomenon solely determined by flow rates on a proportional basis, but that it is represented by a highly structured and organized regime determined by sedimentary fluid mechanical principles which yield very characteristic waves during transport. In the gravity flow case involving granular chute flow, two-dimensional grain waves developed into the rolling and saltating moving grain mass at certain grain concentrations. This phenomenon appeared to be related to an energy exchange process as a result of collisions between moving grain particles that led to reduced kinetic velocities. As a result, particle concentration differences in the direction of flow developed that were noted as denser zones. In these zones, particles dropped out at the upstream part of these denser zones to resume their accelerating motion once they reached the downstream part of the zone until, during the next collision event, the process is repeated. Thus a periodic granular wave structure evolved. Depending on the addition rate, the granular flow regime may be a fluidized

  7. On plasma jet formation in vacuum arc with composite cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, D. L.; Barengolts, S. A.; Uimanov, I. V.; Tsventoukh, M. M.; Savkin, K. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the computer modeling of vacuum arc with composite multicomponent cathode. This arc is typical for certain kind of ion sources, plasma generator and vacuum interrupters. The described hybrid model treats the electrons as an inertialess fluid and ions as macroparticles. The macroparticle dynamic is calculated with the use of particle-incell method. Ion-ion Coulomb collision is considered with the use of Monte Carlo method. The model can simulate vacuum arc as a whole including separate cathode plasma jets, mixing zone, and common plasma column. The dependence of ion angular current distribution on the cathode composition reproduced with the help of developed model agrees well with experimental results.

  8. A Theory for the Formation and Equilibration of Equatorial Deep Jets from Stratified Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Farrell, B.

    2014-12-01

    Equatorial deep jets (EDJs) are persistent, equatorially-trapped zonal jets found between ~500-2000m depth within one degree of the equator in all ocean basins. EDJs have a baroclinic vertical structure characterized by 'stacked' eastward and westward jets oscillating in the vertical with a wavelength of ~500m and amplitudes on the order of 10 cm/s. The spatial structure of the EDJs is strikingly different from that of other geophysical zonal jets such as ocean striations and Jupiter's banded winds, which are not equatorially trapped and are often considered to be essentially barotropic. It is now well-understood that barotropic zonal jets emerge spontaneously from an instability of differentially-rotating turbulence (Constantinou et al. 2014). In contrast, existing theories for EDJs have been based on quite different dynamics, such as interference of equatorially-trapped waves (Wunsch 1977, McCreary 1984) and instability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves (Hua et al. 2008, Eden et al. 2008). In this work, we propose a new theory for the formation and maintenance of EDJs in which EDJs develop spontaneously from stratified turbulence. Using the stochastically-forced Boussinesq model (Smith 2001, Smith & Waleffe 2002), we show that stacked jets form spontaneously from turbulence due to spectrally-nonlocal interactions between internal gravity waves and the zonal mean flow, and that jet formation can be captured using the mean-field (or 'quasilinear') approximation to the dynamics. Using mean field dynamics and an associated second-order statistical closure theory (stochastic structural stability theory, Farrell & Ioannou 2003), we explain how the vertical scale of the EDJs is selected, as well as the role of differential rotation in determining their meridional structure.

  9. Large format ink-jet poster production: a case report.

    PubMed

    Harris, R

    1998-03-01

    To complement the services offered by the Medical Illustration Department of Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, we decided to look at the possibility of producing posters using the ink-jet process. Our designers wanted to use the full scope of their computers and software to expand their design talents. The method of cutting and pasting sheets of paper onto card seemed old fashioned and denied clients the benefit of the exciting techniques that have become available. After seeking sponsorship, a drug company gave 8000 Pounds towards setting up the department's poster printing service. A Kodak DS1000 printer was installed together with Posterjet and Posterworks software and we went into production, servicing not only our hospital but others in the area who gave their support for the service. High quality photographic reproduction was achieved and clients and consultants were very pleased with the results. The designers were happy that their skills were being used and interest in this and other services in the department have increased. The resulting increased income has helped finance other projects. The printer has enabled us also to see output proofs before sending work off to be offset printed--a very useful tool and a cost-saving process.

  10. Relativistic jet properties of GeV-TeV blazars and possible implications for the jet formation, composition, and cavity kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jin; Lu, Ye; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Sun, Xiao-Na; Liang, En-Wei; Lu, Rui-Jing E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn

    2014-06-20

    We fit the spectral energy distributions of a GeV-TeV flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) sample with the leptonic model. Their γ{sub min} of the relativistic electron distributions, which significantly affect the estimate of the jet properties, are constrained, with a typical value of ∼48. Their jet power, magnetized parameter, radiation efficiency, and jet production and radiation rates per central black hole (BH) mass are derived and compared with those of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. We show that the FSRQ jets may be dominated by the Poynting flux and have a high radiation efficiency, whereas the BL Lac object jets are likely dominated by particles and have a lower radiation efficiency than FSRQs. Being different from BL Lac objects, the jet powers of FSRQs are proportional to their central BH masses. The jet production and radiation rates of the FSRQs distribute in narrow ranges and are correlated with each other, whereas no similar feature is found for the BL Lac objects. We also show that the jet power is correlated with the cavity kinetic power: the magnetic field energy in the jets may provide the cavity kinetic energy of FSRQs, and the kinetic energy of cold protons in the jets may be crucial for the cavity kinetic energy of BL Lac objects. We suggest that the dominating formation mechanism of FSRQ jets may be the Blandford-Znajek process, but BL Lac object jets may be produced via the Blandford-Payne and/or Blandford-Znajek processes, depending on the structures and accretion rates of accretion disks.

  11. Formation of NOx precursors during Chinese pulverized coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-ren Bao; Jin-cao Zhang; Fan Li; Li-ping Chang

    2007-08-15

    The formation of NOx precursors (HCN and NH{sub 3}) from the pyrolysis of several Chinese pulverized coals in an arc plasma jet was investigated through both thermodynamic analysis of the C-H-O-N system and experiments. Results of thermodynamic analysis show that the dominant N-containing gaseous species is HCN together with a small amount of ammonia above the temperature of 2000 K. The increase of H content advances the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3}, but the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are decreased with a high concentration of O in the system. These results are accordant with the experimental data. The increasing of input power promotes the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} from coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet. Tar-N is not formed during the process. The yield of HCN changes insignificantly with the changing of the residence time of coal particles in the reactor, but that of NH{sub 3} decreases as residence times increase because of the relative instability at high temperature. Adsorption and gasification of CO{sub 2} on the coal surface also can restrain the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} compare to the results in an Ar plasma jet. Yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are sensitive to the coal feeding rate, indicating that NOx precursors could interact with the nascent char to form other N-containing species. The formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} during coal pyrolysis in a H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet are not dependent on coal rank. The N-containing gaseous species is released faster than others in the volatiles during coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet, and the final nitrogen content in the char is lower than that in the parent coal, which it is independent of coal type. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. In-situ formation and immobilization of biogenic nanopalladium into anaerobic granular sludge enhances azo dyes degradation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangchun; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Hengduo

    2015-07-01

    Azo dyes are toxic and recalcitrant wastewater pollutants. An innovative technology based on biogenic nanopalladium (Bio-Pd) supported anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was developed for azo dyes reduction. In-situ formation of Bio-Pd in the AGS was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The Pd associated AGS (Pd-AGS) showed enhanced decolorization rates to the three azo dyes of Congo Red, Evans Blue and Orange II, with the degradation kinetic constants increased by 2.3-10 fold compared to the control AGS in the presence of electron donor formate. Impacts of different electron donors on Orange II decolorization were further investigated. Results showed that formic acid, formate, acetate, glucose, ethanol and lactate could serve as electron and hydrogen donors to stimulate Orange II decolorization by the Pd-AGS, and their activities followed the order: formic acid > formate > ethanol > glucose > lactate > acetate. Most of the Bio-Pd was bound with microbes in the AGS with a small fraction in the extracellular polymer substances (EPS). Transmission Electronic Microscopy analysis revealed that the Bio-Pd formed in the periplasmic space, cytoplasm and on the cell walls of bacteria. This study provides a new concept for azo dye reduction, which couples sludge microbial degradation ability with Bio-Pd catalytic ability via in-situ formation and immobilization of Bio-Pd into AGS, and offers an alternative for the current azo dye treatment technology.

  13. In-situ formation and immobilization of biogenic nanopalladium into anaerobic granular sludge enhances azo dyes degradation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangchun; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Hengduo

    2015-07-01

    Azo dyes are toxic and recalcitrant wastewater pollutants. An innovative technology based on biogenic nanopalladium (Bio-Pd) supported anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was developed for azo dyes reduction. In-situ formation of Bio-Pd in the AGS was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The Pd associated AGS (Pd-AGS) showed enhanced decolorization rates to the three azo dyes of Congo Red, Evans Blue and Orange II, with the degradation kinetic constants increased by 2.3-10 fold compared to the control AGS in the presence of electron donor formate. Impacts of different electron donors on Orange II decolorization were further investigated. Results showed that formic acid, formate, acetate, glucose, ethanol and lactate could serve as electron and hydrogen donors to stimulate Orange II decolorization by the Pd-AGS, and their activities followed the order: formic acid > formate > ethanol > glucose > lactate > acetate. Most of the Bio-Pd was bound with microbes in the AGS with a small fraction in the extracellular polymer substances (EPS). Transmission Electronic Microscopy analysis revealed that the Bio-Pd formed in the periplasmic space, cytoplasm and on the cell walls of bacteria. This study provides a new concept for azo dye reduction, which couples sludge microbial degradation ability with Bio-Pd catalytic ability via in-situ formation and immobilization of Bio-Pd into AGS, and offers an alternative for the current azo dye treatment technology. PMID:25912251

  14. JET FORMATION FROM MASSIVE YOUNG STARS: MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS VERSUS RADIATION PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Bhargav; Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian; Beuther, Henrik E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2011-11-20

    Observations indicate that outflows from massive young stars are more collimated during their early evolution compared to later stages. Our paper investigates various physical processes that impact the outflow dynamics, i.e., its acceleration and collimation. We perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations particularly considering the radiation pressure exerted by the star and the disk. We have modified the PLUTO code to include radiative forces in the line-driving approximation. We launch the outflow from the innermost disk region (r < 50 AU) by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. In order to disentangle MHD effects from radiative forces, we start the simulation in pure MHD and later switch on the radiation force. We perform a parameter study considering different stellar masses (thus luminosity), magnetic flux, and line-force strength. For our reference simulation-assuming a 30 M{sub Sun} star-we find substantial de-collimation of 35% due to radiation forces. The opening angle increases from 20 Degree-Sign to 32 Degree-Sign for stellar masses from 20 M{sub Sun} to 60 M{sub Sun }. A small change in the line-force parameter {alpha} from 0.60 to 0.55 changes the opening angle by {approx}8 Degree-Sign . We find that it is mainly the stellar radiation that affects the jet dynamics. Unless the disk extends very close to the star, its force is too small to have much impact. Essentially, our parameter runs with different stellar masses can be understood as a proxy for the time evolution of the star-outflow system. Thus, we have shown that when the stellar mass (thus luminosity) increases with age, the outflows become less collimated.

  15. The mechanism of liquid metal jet formation in the cathode spot of vacuum arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M.; Mesyats, G. A.; Uimanov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically studied the dynamics of molten metal during crater formation in the cathode spot of vacuum arc discharge. At the initial stage, a liquid-metal ridge is formed around the crater. This process has been numerically simulated in the framework of the two-dimensional axisymmetric heat and mass transfer problem in the approximation of viscous incompressible liquid. At a more developed stage, the motion of liquid metal loses axial symmetry, which corresponds to a tendency toward jet formation. The development of azimuthal instabilities of the ridge is analyzed in terms of dispersion relations for surface waves. It is shown that maximum increments correspond to instability of the Rayleigh-Plateau type. Estimations of the time of formation of liquid metal jets and their probable number are obtained.

  16. Evolution of Fine-scale Penumbral Magnetic Structure and Formation of Penumbral Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Rempel, M.; Winebarger, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sunspot penumbra consists of spines (more vertical field) and penumbral filaments (interspines). Spines are outward extension of umbra. Penumbral filaments are recently found, both in observations and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, to be magnetized stretched granule-like convective cells, with strong upflows near the head that continues along the central axis with weakening strength of the flow. Strong downflows are found at the tails of filaments and weak downflows along the sides of it. These lateral downflows often contain opposite polarity magnetic field to that of spines; most strongly near the heads of filaments. In spite of this advancement in understanding of small-scale structure of sunspot penumbra, how the filaments and spines evolve and interact remains uncertain. Penumbral jets, bright, transient features, seen in the chromosphere, are one of several dynamic events in sunspot penumbra. It has been proposed that these penumbral microjets result from component (acute angle) reconnection of the magnetic field in spines with that in interspines and could contribute to transition-region and coronal heating above sunspots. In a recent investigation, it was proposed that the jets form as a result of reconnection between the opposite polarity field at edges of filaments with spine field, and it was found that these jets do not significantly directly heat the corona above sunspots. We discuss how the proposed formation of penumbral jets is integral to the formation mechanism of penumbral filaments and spines, and may explain why penumbral jets are few and far between. We also point out that the generation of the penumbral jets could indirectly drive coronal heating via generation of MHD waves or braiding of the magnetic field.

  17. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  18. The formation and stretching of bi-material shaped charge jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, John Philip; Smith, Frank Thomas; White, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    The equations for the formation of a bi-material jet from a laminated shaped charge liner are presented. A coupled pair of boundary-value problems is then established for an idealised stretching jet in cases where the outer material occupies a hollow uniform cylinder surrounding the inner material in the uniform hollow. This is done first where the materials are inviscid fluids. Making the assumption that the axial velocity in each part of the jet is the same and linearly decreasing from the front to the rear of the composite jet, solutions for the pressure field in each part are obtained. The problem is then reformulated where the two materials are both perfectly plastic solids but with differing densities and yield strengths. The equations of plastic flow (Levy-Mises with von-Mises yield criterion) are solved for each material to derive the stress field in both parts of the jet. These analytical solutions offer a basis for future stability and target penetration studies.

  19. Gas Cloud Accretion onto the SMBH SgrA* and Formation of Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    A dense gas cloud is rapidly approaching the Galactic supermassive black hole (SMBH) SgrA^*, and will be ~ 2,200 Schwarzschild radii from the SMBH at the pericenter of its eccentric orbit in Sep 2013. The cloud is expected to be disrupted by instabilities and tidal forces, and the cloud fragments accrete onto the SMBH on the dynamical timescale of several days to several weeks, suggesting a jet formation in 2013. So we are carrying out daily monitoring observations of SgrA^* in near-infrared and radio wavelengths, and we propose quick follow-up observations with Subaru/Gemini. Br-gamma line emission maps obtained with Gemini/NIFS will be used to fine tune our 3D simulation to estimate how much mass is, and when the fragment is accreted onto the SMBH. Polarimetric signals from a jet taken with Subaru/HiCIAO will be compared with the finely tuned simulation to understand the timescale of a jet formation, and to investigate the correlation between the accreted mass of the cloud fragment and a luminosity of a newly-formed jet. Spectroscopic and imaging observations from 1.6 - 11 mum (Subaru/IRCS, COMICS) will also be conducted to understand processes responsible for near to mid-infrared emission during the accretion event.

  20. The formation of interstellar jets by the convergence of supersonic conical flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canto, J.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Rozyczka, M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of a stellar wind with a nonuniform environment leads, under the assumption of steady state, to the formation of an ovoidal cavity with acute ending tips. The stellar wind recollected by the walls of the cavity ends up being deposited at the tips. Here, it is shown that this focusing effect leads to the formation of a narrow cylindrical stream or 'jet' of reshocked stellar wind matter moving directly away from the star with a large velocity. A 'typical' T Tauri star may produce jets with densities of 1000-10,000/cu cm, velocities about 100 km/s, widths about 0.00001-0.001 pc over a length of 0.001-0.01 pc. The opening angles are 7 deg or less.

  1. High Resolution Simulations of Tearing and Flux-Rope Formation in Active Region Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyper, P. F.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of coronal jets increasingly suggest that local fragmentation and the generation of small-scale structure plays an important role in the dynamics of these events. In the magnetically closed corona, jets most often occur near active regions and are associated with an embedded-bipole topology consisting of a 3D magnetic null point atop a domed fan separatrix surface at the base of a coronal loop. Impulsive reconnection in the vicinity of the null point between the magnetic fluxes inside and outside the dome launches the jet along the loop. Wyper & Pontin 2014 showed that the 3D current layers that facilitate such reconnection are explosively unstable to tearing, generating complex flux-rope structures. Utilizing the adaptive mesh capabilities of the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver, we investigate the generation of such fine-scale structure in high-resolution simulations of active-region jets. We observe the formation of multiple flux-rope structures forming across the fan separatrix surface and discuss the photospheric signatures of these flux ropes and the associated local topology change. We also introduce a new way of identifying such flux ropes in the magnetic field, based on structures observed in the magnetic squashing factor calculated on the photosphere. By tracking the position and number of new null points produced by the fragmentation, we also show that the formation of flux ropes can occur away from the main null region on the flanks of the separatrix dome and that the jet curtain has a highly complex magnetic structure. This work was funded through an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program and by NASA's Living With a Star TR&T program.

  2. Self-consistent modeling of jet formation process in the nanosecond laser pulse regime

    SciTech Connect

    Mezel, C.; Hallo, L.; Breil, J.; Souquet, A.; Guillemot, F.; Hebert, D.

    2009-12-15

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a direct printing technique. Because of its high application potential, interest continues to increase. LIFT is routinely used in printing, spray generation and thermal-spike sputtering. Biological material such as cells and proteins have already been transferred successfully for the creation of biological microarrays. Recently, modeling has been used to explain parts of the ejection transfer process. No global modeling strategy is currently available. In this paper, a hydrodynamic code is utilized to model the jet formation process and estimate the constraints obeyed by the bioelements during the transfer. A self-consistent model that includes laser energy absorption, plasma formation via ablation, and hydrodynamic processes is proposed and confirmed with experimental results. Fundamental physical mechanisms via one-dimensional modeling are presented. Two-dimensional (2D) simplified solutions of the jet formation model equations are proposed. Predicted results of the model are jet existence and its velocity. The 2D simulation results are in good agreement with a simple model presented by a previous investigator.

  3. Liquid phase products and solid deposit formation from thermally stressed model jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between solid deposit formation and liquid degradation product concentration was studied for the high temperature (400 C) stressing of three hydrocarbon model fuels. A Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester was used to simulate actual engine fuel system conditions. The effects of fuel type, dissolved oxygen concentration, and hot surface contact time (reaction time) were studied. Effects of reaction time and removal of dissolved oxygen on deposit formation were found to be different for n-dodecane and for 2-ethylnaphthalene. When ten percent tetralin is added to n-dodecane to give a simpler model of an actual jet fuel, the tetralin inhibits both the deposit formation and the degradation of n-dodecane. For 2-ethylnaphthalene primary product analyses indicate a possible self-inhibition at long reaction times of the secondary reactions which form the deposit precursors. The mechanism of the primary breakdown of these fuels is suggested and the primary products which participate in these precursor-forming reactions are identified. Some implications of the results to the thermal degradation of real jet fuels are given.

  4. Instabilities and drop formation in cylindrical liquid jets in reduced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. P. R.; Osborne, B. P.; Stoltzfus, J. M.; Howes, T.; Steinberg, T. A.

    2002-10-01

    The effects of convective and absolute instabilities on the formation of drops formed from cylindrical liquid jets of glycerol/water issuing into still air were investigated. Medium-duration reduced gravity tests were conducted aboard NASA's KC-135 and compared to similar tests performed under normal gravity conditions to aid in understanding the drop formation process. In reduced gravity, the Rayleigh-Chandrasekhar Equation was found to accurately predict the transition between a region of absolute and convective instability as defined by a critical Weber number. Observations of the physics of the jet, its breakup, and subsequent drop dynamics under both gravity conditions and the effects of the two instabilities on these processes are presented. All the normal gravity liquid jets investigated, in regions of convective or absolute instability, were subject to significant stretching effects, which affected the subsequent drop and associated geometry and dynamics. These effects were not displayed in reduced gravity and, therefore, the liquid jets would form drops which took longer to form (reduction in drop frequency), larger in size, and more spherical (surface tension effects). Most observed changes, in regions of either absolute or convective instabilities, were due to a reduction in the buoyancy force and an increased importance of the surface tension force acting on the liquid contained in the jet or formed drop. Reduced gravity environments allow better investigations to be performed into the physics of liquid jets, subsequently formed drops, and the effects of instabilities on these systems. In reduced gravity, drops form up to three times more slowly and as a consequence are up to three times larger in volume in the theoretical absolute instability region than in the theoretical convective instability region. This difference was not seen in the corresponding normal gravity tests due to the masking effects of gravity. A drop is shown to be able to form and

  5. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Jet Formation with a Thin Keplerian Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Shinji; Hardee, Philip; Gerald, J. Fishman

    2006-01-01

    We have performed several simulations of black hole systems (non-rotating, black hole spin parameter a = 0.0 and rapidly rotating, a = 0.95) with a geometrically thin Keplerian disk using the newly developed RAISHIN code. The simulation results show the formation of jets driven by the Lorentz force and the gas pressure gradient. The jets have mildly relativistic speed (greater than or equal to 0.4 c). The matter is continuously supplied from the accretion disk and the jet propagates outward until each applicable terminal simulation time (non-rotating: t/tau S = 275 and rotating: t/tau S = 200, tau s equivalent to r(sub s/c). It appears that a rotating black hole creates an additional, faster, and more collimated inner outflow (greater than or equal to 0.5 c) formed and accelerated by the twisted magnetic field resulting from frame-dragging in the black hole ergosphere. This new result indicates that jet kinematic structure depends on black hole rotation.

  6. Skewness and shock formation in laboratory-scale supersonic jet data.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Atchley, Anthony A

    2013-06-01

    Spatial properties of noise statistics near unheated, laboratory-scale supersonic jets yield insights into source characteristics and near-field shock formation. Primary findings are (1) waveforms with positive pressure skewness radiate from the source with a directivity upstream of maximum overall level and (2) skewness of the time derivative of the pressure waveforms increases significantly with range, indicating formation of shocks during propagation. These results corroborate findings of a previous study involving full-scale engine data. Further, a comparison of ideally and over-expanded laboratory data show that while derivative skewness maps are similar, waveform skewness maps are substantially different for the two cases. PMID:23742445

  7. Star Formation Suppression Due to Jet Feedback in Radio Galaxies with Shocked Warm Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Ogle, Patrick M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N.

    2016-07-01

    We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and infrared colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ˜3–6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest that this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H2 emission, suggesting that while injected turbulence likely impacts star formation, the process is not purely parameterized by the amount of mechanical energy dissipated into the ISM. Radio galaxies with shocked warm molecular gas cover a wide range in SFR–stellar mass space, indicating that these galaxies are in a variety of evolutionary states, from actively star-forming and gas-rich to quiescent and gas-poor. SFR suppression appears to have the largest impact on the evolution of galaxies that are moderately gas-rich.

  8. Newly-Developed 3D GRMHD Code and its Application to Jet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code by using a conservative, high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The numerical fluxes are calculated using the HLL approximate Riemann solver scheme. The flux-interpolated constrained transport scheme is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. We have performed various 1-dimensional test problems in both special and general relativity by using several reconstruction methods and found that the new 3D GRMHD code shows substantial improvements over our previous model. The . preliminary results show the jet formations from a geometrically thin accretion disk near a non-rotating and a rotating black hole. We will discuss the jet properties depended on the rotation of a black hole and the magnetic field strength.

  9. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling.

    PubMed

    Mézel, C; Souquet, A; Hallo, L; Guillemot, F

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  10. Ion acceleration and plasma jet formation in ultra-thin foils undergoing expansion and relativistic transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, M.; Gray, R. J.; Powell, H. W.; MacLellan, D. A.; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B.; Stockhausen, L. C.; Hicks, G. S.; Dover, N. P.; Rusby, D. R.; Carroll, D. C.; Padda, H.; Torres, R.; Kar, S.; Clarke, R. J.; Musgrave, I. O.; Najmudin, Z.; Borghesi, M.; Neely, D.; McKenna, P.

    2016-09-01

    At sufficiently high laser intensities, the rapid heating to relativistic velocities and resulting decompression of plasma electrons in an ultra-thin target foil can result in the target becoming relativistically transparent to the laser light during the interaction. Ion acceleration in this regime is strongly affected by the transition from an opaque to a relativistically transparent plasma. By spatially resolving the laser-accelerated proton beam at near-normal laser incidence and at an incidence angle of 30°, we identify characteristic features both experimentally and in particle-in-cell simulations which are consistent with the onset of three distinct ion acceleration mechanisms: sheath acceleration; radiation pressure acceleration; and transparency-enhanced acceleration. The latter mechanism occurs late in the interaction and is mediated by the formation of a plasma jet extending into the expanding ion population. The effect of laser incident angle on the plasma jet is explored.

  11. A PHYSICAL LINK BETWEEN JET FORMATION AND HOT PLASMA IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Wang Dingxiong; Cao Xinwu; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: dxwang@hust.edu.cn E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-06-10

    Recent observations suggest that in black hole X-ray binaries jet/outflow formation is related to the hot plasma in the vicinity of the black hole, either in the form of an advection-dominated accretion flow at low accretion rates or in a disk corona at high accretion rates. We test the viability of this scenario for supermassive black holes using two samples of active galactic nuclei distinguished by the presence (radio-strong) and absence (radio-weak) of well-collimated, relativistic jets. Each is centered on a narrow range of black hole mass but spans a very broad range of Eddington ratios, effectively simulating in a statistical manner the behavior of a single black hole evolving across a wide spread in accretion states. Unlike the relationship between the radio and optical luminosity, which shows an abrupt break between high- and low-luminosity sources at an Eddington ratio of {approx}1%, the radio emission-a measure of the jet power-varies continuously with the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosity, roughly as L{sub R} {proportional_to} L{sub X}{sup 0.6-0.75}. This relation, which holds for both radio-weak and radio-strong active galaxies, is similar to the one seen in X-ray binaries. Jet/outflow formation appears to be closely linked to the conditions that give rise to the hot, optically thin coronal emission associated with accretion flows, both in the regime of low and high accretion rates.

  12. Jet-induced star formation in 3C 285 and Minkowski's Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé, Q.; Salomé, P.; Combes, F.

    2015-02-01

    How efficiently star formation proceeds in galaxies is still an open question. Recent studies suggest that active galactic nucleus (AGN) can regulate the gas accretion and thus slow down star formation (negative feedback). However, evidence of AGN positive feedback has also been observed in a few radio galaxies (e.g. Centaurus A, Minkowski's Object, 3C 285, and the higher redshift 4C 41.17). Here we present CO observations of 3C 285 and Minkowski's Object, which are examples of jet-induced star formation. A spot (named 3C 285/09.6 in the present paper) aligned with the 3C 285 radio jet at a projected distance of ~70 kpc from the galaxy centre shows star formation that is detected in optical emission. Minkowski's Object is located along the jet of NGC 541 and also shows star formation. Knowing the distribution of molecular gas along the jets is a way to study the physical processes at play in the AGN interaction with the intergalactic medium. We observed CO lines in 3C 285, NGC 541, 3C 285/09.6, and Minkowski's Object with the IRAM 30 m telescope. In the central galaxies, the spectra present a double-horn profile, typical of a rotation pattern, from which we are able to estimate the molecular gas density profile of the galaxy. The molecular gas appears to be in a compact reservoir, which could be evidence of an early phase of the gas accretion after a recent merger event in 3C 285. No kinematic signature of a molecular outflow is detected by the 30 m telescope. Interestingly, 3C 285/09.6 and Minkowski's Object are not detected in CO. The cold gas mass upper limits are consistent with a star formation induced by the compression of dense ambient material by the jet. The depletion time scales in 3C 285/09.6 and Minkowski's Object are of the order of and even shorter than what is found in 3C 285, NGC 541, and local spiral galaxies (109 yr). The upper limit of the molecular gas surface density in 3C 285/09.6 at least follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law if the emitting region

  13. The Enigmatic Longevity of Granular Materials on Mars: The Case for Geologically Episodic Dune Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    Martian sand dunes are concentrated in vast sand seas in the circumpolar belt of the planet's northern hemisphere, but they are also pervasive over the whole planet. Their occurrence is to be expected on a super-arid planetary surface subjected to boundary layer drag from a continually active atmosphere. Whilst their occurrence is to be expected, their survival is enigmatic. But the enigma only arises if the martian system is considered similar to Earth's --where sand is moved highly frequently, more or less on a seasonal basis. Experimentally it is readily demonstrated that active sand will soon wear down to small grains and eventually diminish to below the critical sand size required to sustain dune formation. According to conventional wisdom, sand moves at higher speeds on Mars than on Earth, and if it were to move as frequently as it does on Earth, then the dune-forming sand population should have long since disappeared, given the great longevity of the martian aeolian system (Sagan coined the term "kamikaze" grains to express this disappearance). No supply of sand could keep pace with this depletion, especially in light of the fact that Mars does not have very active weathering, nor significant crustal differentiation. On Earth, plate tectonics, magmatic activity, and general crustal differentiation over geological time have produced great concentrations of quartz crystals in the continental crustal masses. Not only are these quartz grains chemically and mechanically resilient, they are about the right size for being transported by either wind or water. Add to this, the geologically recent contribution of glacial grinding, and it is easy to see why there are dune field on Earth. So what are the martian dunes composed of, and how does the material survive the eons of attrition? In addition to experimental demonstrations of sand comminution in laboratory aeolian simulations, the problem can be approached from first principles. Sagan showed that by simple

  14. Thermodynamic study on the formation of acetylene during coal pyrolysis in the arc plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, W.; Li, F.; Cai, G.; Lu, Y.; Chang, L.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the principle of minimizing the Gibbs free energy, the composition of C-H-O-N-S equilibrium system about acetylene formation during the pyrolysis in arc plasma jet for four kinds of different rank-ordered coals such as Datong, Xianfeng, Yangcheng, and Luan was analyzed and calculated. The results indicated that hydrogen, as the reactive atmosphere, was beneficial to the acetylene formation. The coal ranks and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur in coal all could obviously affect the acetylene yield. The mole fraction of acetylene is the maximum when the ratio value of atom H/C was 2. The content of oxygen was related to the acetylene yield, but it does not compete with CO formation. These agreed with the experimental results, and they could help to select the coal type for the production of acetylene through plasma pyrolysis process.

  15. Simulation of Plasma Jet Merger and Liner Formation within the PLX- α Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samulyak, Roman; Chen, Hsin-Chiang; Shih, Wen; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Detailed numerical studies of the propagation and merger of high Mach number argon plasma jets and the formation of plasma liners have been performed using the newly developed method of Lagrangian particles (LP). The LP method significantly improves accuracy and mathematical rigor of common particle-based numerical methods such as smooth particle hydrodynamics while preserving their main advantages compared to grid-based methods. A brief overview of the LP method will be presented. The Lagrangian particle code implements main relevant physics models such as an equation of state for argon undergoing atomic physics transformation, radiation losses in thin optical limit, and heat conduction. Simulations of the merger of two plasma jets are compared with experimental data from past PLX experiments. Simulations quantify the effect of oblique shock waves, ionization, and radiation processes on the jet merger process. Results of preliminary simulations of future PLX- alpha experiments involving the ~ π / 2 -solid-angle plasma-liner configuration with 9 guns will also be presented. Partially supported by ARPA-E's ALPHA program.

  16. MHD simulations of protostellar jets: formation and stability of shock diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    The early stages of a star birth are characterised by a variety of mass ejection phenomena, including outflows and collimated jets, that are strongly related with the accretion process developed in the context of the star-disc interaction. After been ejected, jets move through the ambient medium, interacting and producing shocks and complex structures that are observed at different wavelength bands. In particular, X-ray observations show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary and have been interpreted as shock diamonds. We aim at investigating the physical properties of the shocked plasma and the role of the magnetic field on the collimation performing 2.5D MHD simulations, including the effects of the thermal conduction and the radiative losses. We modelled the propagation of a jet ramming with a supersonic speed into an initially isothermal and homogeneous magnetized medium. We studied the physics that guides the formation of a stationary shock (for instance a shock diamond) and compared the results with observations, via the emission measure distribution vs. temperature and the luminosity synthesised from the simulations.

  17. Measurements and Modeling of Soot Formation and Radiation in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, Li; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. A compact, self-contained drop rig is used for microgravity experiments in the 2.2-second drop tower facility at NASA Lewis Research Center. On modeling, we have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed Beta-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude- Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H20 and C02. It is shown that when compared to results from true spectral integration, the Rosseland mean absorption coefficient can provide reasonably accurate predictions for the type of flames studied. The soot formation model proposed by Moss, Syed, and Stewart seems to produce better fits to experimental data and more physically sound than the simpler model by Khan et al. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar

  18. Modeling of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendl, M. C.; Hochstein, J. I.; Sasmal, G. P.

    1991-01-01

    Flow patterns predicted by a computational model of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment are presented and comparison is made to patterns predicted by experimentally based correlations. The configuration studied is an idealization of a forthcoming flight experiment to examine cryogenic propellant management issues. A transitional version of the ECLIPSE code used as a computational tool for the analyses is described. It is shown that computationally predicted flow patterns are in qualitative agreement with the correlation-based predictions, and some details of the predicted flow fields are given.

  19. GRMHD Simulations of Jet Formation with a Newly-Developed GRMHD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Hardee, P.; Fishman, G. J.

    We have developed a new three dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) code, RAISHIN, using a conservative, high-resolution shock capturing scheme. Numerical fluxes are calculated using the Harten, Lax, & van Leer (HLL) approximate Rie- mann solver scheme. The flux-interpolated, constrained transport scheme is used to maintain a divergence-free magnetic field. We describe the code performance on some test problems in both special and general relativity. Our new GRMHD code has proven to be accurate to the second order and has successfully passed several numerical test problems including highly rel- ativistic and magnetized tests in both special and general relativity. We have performed several simulations of black hole systems (non-rotating, black hole spin parameter a = 0.0 and rapidly rotating, a = 0.95) with a geometrically thin Keplerian disk. The simulation results show the formation of jets driven by the Lorentz force and the gas pressure gradient. The jets have mildly relativistic speed ( 0.4 c). The matter is continuously supplied from the accretion disk and the jet propagates outward until each applicable terminal simulation time (non-rotating: t/τS = 275 and rotating: t/τS = 200, τS ≡ rS /c). It appears that a rotating black hole creates an additional, faster, and more collimated matter-dominated inner outflow ( 0.5 c) formed and accelerated by the twisted magnetic field resulting from frame-dragging in the black hole ergosphere. This result indicates that jet kinematic structure depends on black hole rotation and on the initial magnetic field configuration and strength.

  20. THE JET/COUNTERJET INFRARED SYMMETRY OF HH 34 AND THE SIZE OF THE JET FORMATION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Lora, V.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    2011-04-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC images of the HH 34 outflow. These are the first images that detect both the knots along the southern jet and the northern counterjet (the counterjet knots were only detected previously in a long-slit spectrum). This result removes the problem of the apparent coexistence of a large-scale symmetry (at distances of up to {approx}1 pc) and a complete lack of symmetry close to the source (at distances of {approx}10{sup 17} cm) for this outflow. We present a quantitative evaluation of the newly found symmetry between the HH 34 jet and counterjet, and show that the observed degree of symmetry implies that the jet production region has a characteristic size <2.8 AU. This is the strongest constraint yet derived for the size of the region in which HH jets are produced.

  1. Shaking of pyroclastic cones and the formation of granular flows on their flanks: Results from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, B.; Romano, G. P.; Ventura, G.

    2015-11-01

    We have carried out laboratory experiments to study the generation of granular flows on the slopes of pyroclastic cones that are experiencing volcanic tremor or tectonic earthquakes. These experiments are inspired by the occurrence of granular flows on the flanks of Mount Vesuvius during its 1944 eruption. Our laboratory model consists of sand cones built around a vibrating tube which represents a volcanic conduit with erupting magma inside. A video camera allows the study of the granular flow inception, movement and deposition. Although the collapse of the entire cone is obtained at a specific resonance frequency, single granular flows can be generated by all the vibration frequencies (1-16 Hz) and all the vibration amplitudes (0.5-1.5 mm) that our experimental apparatus has allowed us to adopt. We believe that this is due to the fact that the energy threshold to trigger the flows is small in value. Therefore, if this is true in nature as well, shaken pyroclastic cones are always potentially dangerous because they can easily generate flows that can strike the surrounding areas.

  2. Model of blue jet formation and propagation in the nonuniform atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.; Mokrov, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    About two decades ago, researchers discovered upward propagating flashes of light originating above thunderstorms. Due to their distinctive, principally blue color, they were named "blue jets" (BJ). The broadly accepted production mechanism of a BJ is through a lightning leader which rises through the nonuniform atmosphere. Specifically, the formation of the initial lightning leader is thought to be governed by the contraction of the current of a streamer flash into a small radius channel. This paper presents results of simulations of the current contraction in the air as a function of both the pressure and convective heat removal time. We have shown that transitions to the contracted state occur in a hysteresis mode that allows both contracted and diffusive states to coexist. We have obtained the critical current for this phase transition and studied the formation and propagation of BJs in the atmosphere through a combination of quantitative models and existing observations of BJs that combine optical images with the data of the electric current carried by the jets.

  3. Effects of real viscosity on plasma liner formation and implosion from supersonic plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillo, Kevin; Cassibry, Jason; Hsu, Scott; PLX-Alpha Team

    2015-11-01

    The PLX- α project endeavors to study plasma liner formation and implosion by merging of a spherical array of plasma jets as a candidate standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is being used to model the liner formation and implosion processes. SPH is a meshless Lagrangian method to simulate fluid flows by dividing a fluid into a set of particles and using a summation interpolant function to calculate the properties and gradients for each of these particles. The SPH code was used to simulate test cases in which the number of plasma guns and initial conditions for the plasma were varied. Linear stabilizations were observed, but the possibility exists that this stabilization was due to the implementation of artificial viscosity in the code. A real viscosity model was added to our SPHC model using the Braginskii ion viscosity. Preliminary results for test cases that incorporate real viscosity are presented.

  4. Detailed modeling analysis for soot formation and radiation in microgravity gas jet diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, LI; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation heat transfer in combustion systems has been receiving increasing interest. In the case of hydrocarbon fuels, a significant portion of the radiation comes from soot particles, justifying the need for detailed soot formation model and radiation transfer calculations. For laminar gas jet diffusion flames, results from this project (4/1/91 8/22/95) and another NASA study show that flame shape, soot concentration, and radiation heat fluxes are substantially different under microgravity conditions. Our emphasis is on including detailed soot transport models and a detailed solution for radiation heat transfer, and on coupling them with the flame structure calculations. In this paper, we will discuss the following three specific areas: (1) Comparing two existing soot formation models, and identifying possible improvements; (2) A simple yet reasonably accurate approach to calculating total radiative properties and/or fluxes over the spectral range; and (3) Investigating the convergence of iterations between the flame structure solver and the radiation heat transfer solver.

  5. Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless shock formation via head-on merging of two laboratory supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Hsu, S. C.

    2013-08-15

    We describe numerical simulations, using the particle-in-cell (PIC) and hybrid-PIC code lsp[T. P. Hughes et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 110401 (1999)], of the head-on merging of two laboratory supersonic plasma jets. The goals of these experiments are to form and study astrophysically relevant collisionless shocks in the laboratory. Using the plasma jet initial conditions (density ∼10{sup 14}–10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}, temperature ∼ few eV, and propagation speed ∼20–150 km/s), large-scale simulations of jet propagation demonstrate that interactions between the two jets are essentially collisionless at the merge region. In highly resolved one- and two-dimensional simulations, we show that collisionless shocks are generated by the merging jets when immersed in applied magnetic fields (B∼0.1–1 T). At expected plasma jet speeds of up to 150 km/s, our simulations do not give rise to unmagnetized collisionless shocks, which require much higher velocities. The orientation of the magnetic field and the axial and transverse density gradients of the jets have a strong effect on the nature of the interaction. We compare some of our simulation results with those of previously published PIC simulation studies of collisionless shock formation.

  6. Granular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valance, Alexandre; Louge, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Granular media play a major role in geophysics and industrial processes. Their interactions are complicated by relatively small-scale separation between individual particles and system size, by the presence of other interpenetrating phases such as water or air, by the large number of grains involved in realistic applications, and by the importance of microscopic contact forces, such as solid friction, which are challenging to measure or control. Yet significant progress has been made in the last two decades toward the understanding of granular media, thanks to the curiosity of physicists and engineers. This thematic issue gathers contributions from researchers dealing with diverse aspects of granular mechanics, from static assemblies to flowing suspensions, and from theory to natural phenomena. These review articles illustrate rather different approaches to these complicated systems.

  7. Complete multiwavelength evolution of Galactic black hole transients during outburst decay. I. Conditions for 'compact' jet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, E.; Dinçer, T.; Chun, Y. Y.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    2013-12-20

    Compact, steady jets are observed in the near infrared and radio bands in the hard state of Galactic black hole transients as their luminosity decreases and the source moves toward a quiescent state. Recent radio observations indicate that the jets turn off completely in the soft state; therefore, multiwavelength monitoring of black hole transients is essential to probe the formation of jets. In this work, we conducted a systematic study of all black hole transients with near infrared and radio coverage during their outburst decays. We characterized the timescales of changes in X-ray spectral and temporal properties and also in near infrared and/or in radio emission. We confirmed that state transitions occur in black hole transients at a very similar fraction of their respective Eddington luminosities. We also found that the near infrared flux increase that could be due to the formation of a compact jet is delayed by a time period of days with respect to the formation of a corona. Finally, we found a threshold disk Eddington luminosity fraction for the compact jets to form. We explain these results with a model such that the increase in the near infrared flux corresponds to a transition from a patchy, small-scale height corona along with an optically thin outflow to a large-scale height corona that allows for collimation of a steady compact jet. We discuss the timescale of jet formation in terms of transport of magnetic fields from the outer parts of the disk, and we also consider two alternative explanations for the multiwavelength emission: hot inner accretion flows and irradiation.

  8. Effects of fluid properties and laser fluence on jet formation during laser direct writing of glycerol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jingyuan; Huang, Yong; Xu, Changxue; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2012-10-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) has been widely studied to print various structures. It is important to investigate the jet and droplet formation process under different LIFT operating conditions. The resulting knowledge will help to better control the resulting printing quality and feature resolution. This study aims to better understand the effects of fluid properties and laser fluence on the jet formation process using time resolved imaging analysis during LIFT of glycerol solutions. It is found that if the laser fluence is too low and/or the glycerol concentration is too high, it is less likely for a bubble to fully form and/or grow before it diminishes. If the laser fluence is too high and/or the glycerol concentration is too low, it is also difficult to form a well-developed jet since dramatic bubble expansion may lead to a bulgy shape and even splashing. Only under certain combinations of glycerol concentration and laser fluence, can a well-defined jet form. When a jetting fluid is given, its jettability (J) can be characterized as the inverse of the Ohnesorge number. It is observed that a good jet forms at 0.86 ≤ J ≤ 2.49 (corresponding to 75%-85% glycerol solutions) when the laser fluence is 717 ± 45 mJ/cm2.

  9. Subsurface Explosions in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shuyue; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations of coupled gas-granular flows are used to study properties of shock formation and propagation in media, such as sand or regolith on the moon, asteroids, or comets. The simulations were performed with a multidimensional fully compressible model, GRAF, which solves two sets of coupled Navier-Stokes equations, one for the gas and one for the granular medium. The specific case discussed here is for a subsurface explosion in a granular medium initiated by an equivalent of 200g of TNT in depths ranging from 0.1m to 3m. The background conditions of 100K, 10 Pa and loose initial particle volume fraction of 25% are consistent with an event on a comet. The initial blast creates a cavity as a granular shock expands outwards. Since the gas-phase shock propagates faster than the granular shock in loose, granular material, some gas and particles are ejected before the granular shock arrives. When the granular shock reaches the surface, a cap-like structure forms. This cap breaks and may fall back on the surface and in this process, relatively dense particle clusters form. At lower temperatures, the explosion timescales are increased and entrained particles are more densely packed.

  10. Modeling of plasma jet production from rail and coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner formation*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. J.; Faehl, R. J.; Kirikpatrick, R. C.; Witherspoon, D.; Cassibry, J.

    2010-11-01

    We study the generation of plasma jets for forming imploding plasma liners using an enhanced version of the ePLAS implicit/hybrid model.^1 Typically, the jets are partially ionized D or Ar gases, in initial 3-10 cm long slugs at 10^16-10^18 electron/cm^3, accelerated for microseconds along 15-30 cm rail or coaxial guns with a 1 cm inter-electrode gap and driven by magnetic fields of a few Tesla. We re-examine the B-field penetration mechanisms that can be active in such wall-connected plasmas,^2 including erosion and EMHD influences, which can subsequently impact plasma liner formation and implosion. For the background and emitted plasma components we discuss optimized PIC and fluid modeling techniques, and the use of implicit fields and hybridized electrons to speed simulation. The plasmas are relatively cold (˜3 eV), so results with fixed atomic Z are compared to those from a simple analytic EOS, and allowing radiative heat loss from the plasma. The use of PIC ions is explored to extract large mean-free-path kinetic effects. 1. R. J. Mason and C. Cranfill, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 45 (1986) 2. R. Mason, et al., Phys. Fluids B, 5, 1115 (1993). [4pt] *Research supported in part by USDOE Grant DE-SC0004207.

  11. Visualization of the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition in electrostatic atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Yuanping Wang, Junfeng Zuo, Ziwen; Fan, Yajun

    2015-11-15

    A detailed experimental study on the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition from a capillary is reported. By means of high-speed microscopy, special attention has been paid to the dynamics of the liquid thread and satellite droplets in the dripping mode, and a method for calculating the surface charge on the satellite droplet is proposed. Jet transition behavior based on the electric Bond number has been visualized, droplet sizes and velocities are measured to obtain the ejection characteristic of the spray plume, and the charge and hydrodynamic relaxation are linked to give explanations for ejection dynamics with different properties. The results show that the relative length is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic relaxation time. The magnitude of the electric field strength dominates the behavior of coalescence and noncoalescence, with the charge relationship between the satellite droplet and the main droplet being clear for every noncoalescence movement. Ejection mode transitions mainly depend on the magnitude of the electric Bond number, and the meniscus dynamics is determined by the ratio of the charge relaxation time to the hydrodynamic relaxation time.

  12. Model of Blue Jet Formation and Propagation in the Nonuniform Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M.; Mokrov, M.; Milikh, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is broadly accepted that Blue Jets are produced by a lightning leader running upward in the nonuniform atmosphere. In turn, the formation of a leader is governed by contraction of the current of a streamer flash into a small radius channel, followed by the gas heating to the characteristic temperature of an arc discharge [Bazelyan et al., 2007]. The objective of this work is to develop the current contraction model which addresses the question how leader develops in thundercloud and propagates upward in the nonuniform atmosphere. It was shown that the contraction occurs in the hysteresis, or "hard-mode', while the critical current for the transition from the diffuse to contracted state increases when the atmospheric pressure drops. Therefore, in the discharge that occurs in the nonuniform atmosphere, the contracted and diffuse states could coexist in the current flowing along the density gradient. This may explain the observed termination of the giant blue jet leader at an altitude of about 50 km [Neubert et al., 2011]. In addition we took into account stabilization effect of transverse convective cooling (atmospheric winds). Bazelyan, E.M. et al., (2007), J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 40, 4134-4144. Neubert, T. et al., (2011), J. Geophys. Res., 116, A12329, doi:10.1029/2011JA016928.

  13. Numerical simulations of adiabatic axisymmetric accretion flow. I - A new mechanism for the formation of jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryxell, B. A.; Taam, Ronald E.; Mcmillan, S. L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the uniform axisymmetric flow past a gravitating sphere have been studied. It is found that the structure of the flow is extremely sensitive to the boundary condition at the surface of the gravitating object. For the case in which the boundary is totally absorbing, a steady state flow is reached. However, for a boundary which is not totally absorbing, steady state flows are not obtained. The morphology of the flow is also sensitive to the Mach number at infinity and to the ratio of the free-fall velocity at the surface of the gravitating object to the flow velocity at inifinity. A new mechanism for the formation of jets is identified in which a fraction of the accretion energy is tapped to drive an anisotropic supersonic outflow with collimation provided by a combination of the inertia of matter which surrounds the beam and the development of multiple shock structures.

  14. Lidar remote sensing of cloud formation caused by low-level jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jia; Felton, Melvin; Lei, Liqiao; McCormick, M. Patrick; Delgado, Ruben; St. Pé, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    In May 2014, the East Hampton Roads Aerosol Flux campaign was conducted at Hampton University to examine small-scale aerosol transport using aerosol, Raman, and Doppler lidars and rawindsonde launches. We present the results of analyses performed on these high-resolution planetary boundary layer and lower atmospheric measurements, with a focus on the low-level jets (LLJs) that form in this region during spring and summer. We present a detailed case study of a LLJ lasting from evening of 20 May to morning of 21 May using vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter, wind speed and direction, water vapor mixing ratio, temperature, and turbulence structure. We show with higher resolution than in previous studies that enhanced nighttime turbulence triggered by LLJs can cause the aerosol and water vapor content of the boundary layer to be transported vertically and form a well-mixed region containing the cloud condensation nuclei that are necessary for cloud formation.

  15. Hydrodynamic Suppression of Soot Formation in Laminar Coflowing Jet Diffusion Flames. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Effects of flow (hydrodynamic) properties on limiting conditions for soot-free laminar non-premixed hydrocarbon/air flames (called laminar soot-point conditions) were studied, emphasizing non-buoyant laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames. Effects of air/fuel-stream velocity ratios were of particular interest; therefore, the experiments were carried out at reduced pressures to minimize effects of flow acceleration due to the intrusion of buoyancy. Test conditions included reactant temperatures of 300 K; ambient pressures of 3.7-49 8 kPa; methane-, acetylene-, ethylene-, propane-, and methane-fueled flames burning in coflowing air with fuel-port diameters of 1.7, 3.2, and 6.4 mm, fuel jet Reynolds numbers of 18-121; air coflow velocities of 0-6 m/s; and air/fuel-stream velocity ratios of 0.003-70. Measurements included laminar soot-point flame lengths, laminar soot-point fuel flow rates, and laminar liftoff conditions. The measurements show that laminar soot-point flame lengths and fuel flow rates can be increased, broadening the range of fuel flow rates where the flames remain soot free, by increasing air/fuel-stream velocity ratios. The mechanism of this effect involves the magnitude and direction of flow velocities relative to the flame sheet where increased air/fuel-stream velocity ratios cause progressive reduction of flame residence times in the fuel-rich soot-formation region. The range of soot-free conditions is limited by both liftoff, particularly at low pressures, and the intrusion of effects of buoyancy on effective air/fuel-stream velocity ratios, particularly at high pressures. Effective correlations of laminar soot- and smoke-point flame lengths were also found in terms of a corrected fuel flow rate parameter, based on simplified analysis of laminar jet diffusion flame structure. The results show that laminar smoke-point flame lengths in coflowing air environments are roughly twice as long as soot-free (blue) flames under comparable conditions due to

  16. Impulsive dispersion of a granular layer by a weak blast wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V.; Saurel, R.; Jourdan, G.; Houas, L.

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion of particles by blast or shock waves induces the formation of coherent structures taking the shape of particle jets. In the present study, a blast wave, issued from an open shock tube, is generated at the center of a granular ring initially confined in a Hele-Shaw cell. With the present experimental setup, solid particle jet formation is clearly observed in a quasi-two-dimensional configuration. In all instances, the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. Furthermore, thanks to the two-dimensional experimental configuration, a general study of the main parameters involved in these types of flows can be performed. Among them, the particle diameter, the density of the particles, the initial size of the ring, the shape of the overpressure generated and the surface friction of the Hele-Shaw cell are investigated. Empirical relationships are deduced from experimental results.

  17. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, J. O.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    We present findings from an experimental study of laser-induced cavitation within a liquid drop coated with a granular material, commonly referred to as "armored droplets" or "liquid marbles." The cavitation event follows the formation of plasma after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from the spaces between particles on the surface of the drop. These fine jets break up into droplets with a relatively narrow diameter range, on the order of 10 μm.

  18. Ground vortex formation for uniform and nonuniform jets impinging on a ground plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Cavage, William M.

    1992-08-01

    An experimental investigation of the impingement of a single circular jet on a ground plane in a cross flow is presented. This geometry is a simplified model of the interaction of propulsive jet exhaust from a V/STOL aircraft with the ground in forward flight. Variation of observed ground vortex size with cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio is consistent with previous observations.

  19. FAST X-RAY/IR CROSS-CORRELATIONS AND RELATIVISTIC JET FORMATION IN GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2013-10-01

    We present cross-correlation analyses of simultaneous X-ray and near-infrared (near-IR) observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 during relativistic jet-producing epochs (X-ray class α and β). While previous studies have linked the large amplitude IR flares and X-ray behaviors to jet formation in these states, our new analyses are sensitive to much lower amplitude IR variability, providing more sensitive probes of the jet formation process. The X-ray to IR cross-correlation function (CCF) shows significant correlations that vary in form between the different X-ray states. During low/hard dips in both classes, we find no significant X-ray/IR correlation. During high-variability epochs, we find consistently significant correlations in both α and β classes, but with strong differences in the CCF structure. The high variability α CCF shows strong anti-correlation between X-ray/IR, with the X-ray preceding the IR by ∼13 ± 2 s. The high variability β state shows a time-variable CCF structure, which is statistically significant but without a clearly consistent lag. Our simulated IR light curves, designed to match the observed CCFs, show variably flickering IR emission during the class β high-variability epoch, while class α can be fit by IR flickering with frequencies in the range 0.1-0.3 Hz, strengthening ∼10 s after every X-ray subflare. We interpret these features in the context of the X-ray-emitting accretion disk and IR emission from relativistic jet formation in GRS 1915+105, concluding that the CCF analysis places the origin in a synchrotron-emitting relativistic compact jet at a distance from the compact object of ∼0.02 AU.

  20. Large eddy simulation of soot formation in a turbulent non-premixed jet flame

    SciTech Connect

    El-Asrag, Hossam; Menon, Suresh

    2009-02-15

    A recently developed subgrid model for soot dynamics [H. El-Asrag, T. Lu, C.K. Law, S. Menon, Combust. Flame 150 (2007) 108-126] is used to study the soot formation in a non-premixed turbulent flame. The model allows coupling between reaction, diffusion and soot (including soot diffusion and thermophoretic forces) processes in the subgrid domain without requiring ad hoc filtering or model parameter adjustments. The combined model includes the entire process, from the initial phase, when the soot nucleus diameter is much smaller than the mean free path, to the final phase, after coagulation and aggregation, where it can be considered in the continuum regime. A relatively detailed but reduced kinetics for ethylene-air is used to simulate an experimentally studied non-premixed ethylene/air jet diffusion flame. Acetylene is used as a soot precursor species. The soot volume fraction order of magnitude, the location of its maxima, and the soot particle size distribution are all captured reasonably. Along the centerline, an initial region dominated by nucleation and surface growth is established followed by an oxidation region. The diffusion effect is found to be most important in the nucleation regime, while the thermophoretic forces become more influential downstream of the potential core in the oxidation zone. The particle size distribution shows a log-normal distribution in the nucleation region, and a more Gaussian like distribution further downstream. Limitations of the current approach and possible solution strategies are also discussed. (author)

  1. Analytical study of mechanisms for nitric oxide formation during combustion of methane in a jet-stirred combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The role of chemical kinetics in the formation of nitric oxide during the combustion of methane was examined analytically by means of a detailed chemical mechanism for the oxidation of methane, for the reaction between hydrocarbon fragments, and for the formation of nitric oxide. By comparing predicted nitric oxide levels with values reported in the literature from jet-stirred combuster experiments, it was determined that the nitric oxide levels observed in fuel-rich flames cannot be described by a mechanism in which the rate of nitric oxide formation is controlled solely by the kinetics of oxygen atom formation. A proposed mechanism for the formation of nitric oxide in methane-rich flames reproduces the observed levels. The oxidation of hydrogen cyanide appears to be an important factor in nitric oxide formation.

  2. Impact conditions required for formation of melt by jetting in silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the process of jetting which occurs when particles collide at oblique angles may produce melt at much lower velocities than are required for melt production in head-on collisions. The minimum velocities of impact required for jetting in aluminum, bronzitite, dunite, and quartz are calculated by the method of shock polars. The analysis, which depends on stated assumptions about attained pressures and the occurrence of jetting, uses shock-velocity particle-velocity equations of state with three shock regimes. The treatment indicates that jetting should arise in bronzitite, dunite, and quartz at relative velocities as low as 1-2 km/sec. At such velocities material which passes near the stagnation point in the jet-forming region is subjected to sufficiently high pressures so that it is probably melted.

  3. Jamming in Granular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian

    2008-10-01

    Granular materials exist all around us, from the formation of sand dunes and collapse of seemingly stable grain silos, to the mixing of pharmaceuticals and other industrial materials. The behavior of these ``fluids'' though poorly understood. Their flow can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems, including granular flows, and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. We present experiments on quasi-static shear and free-surface granular flows under the influence of external vibrations. By using photoelastic grains, we are able to measure particle trajectories and the local force network in these 2D flows. We find that during shear, sufficient shaking weakens the strong force network and reduces the amount of flow driven by sidewalls. We vibrate either the driving wall (sidewall forcing) or the entire shearing zone (bulk forcing). For sidewall forcing, flow behavior is controlled by vibration amplitude in particular and slipping of force chains at the boundary. In a rotating drum geometry, we find that small vibration leads to strengthening of the pile while larger vibrations induce failure as might be expected. This behavior is strongly history dependent and sufficient vibration erases the memory of the pile.

  4. Detailed modeling of soot formation and turbulence-radiation interactions in turbulent jet flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Ranjan S.

    Detailed radiation modeling of turbulent sooting flames faces a number of challenges. Principal among these have been been a lack of good models for predicting soot formation and effective means to capture turbulence-chemistry interactions in soot subprocesses. Uncertainties in measurement and prediction of soot properties has also been a problem. Radiative heat transfer becomes important in combustion environments due to the very high temperatures encountered and has not yet been studied in sufficient detail in the case of luminous (i.e., sooting) flames. A comprehensive approach for modeling turbulent reacting flows, including detailed chemistry, radiation and soot models with detailed closures for turbulence-chemistry interactions (TCI) and turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI) is developed in this work. A review of up-to-date literature on turbulent combustion modeling, turbulence-radiation interactions and soot modeling is given. A transported probability density function (PDF) approach is used to model turbulence-chemistry interactions and extended to include soot formation. Nongray gas and soot radiation is modeled using a photon Monte Carlo (PMC) method coupled with the PDF method. Soot formation is modeled based on the method of moments (MOM) approach with interpolative closure. Optimal soot submodel parameters are identified based on comparison of model predictions with experimental data from various laminar premixed and (opposed) diffusion flames. These parameters (including gas-phase chemistry) are applied to turbulent flames without further "tuning." Six turbulent jet flames with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15000, varying fuel types---pure ethylene, 90% methane-10% ethylene blend and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream from 21%O2 (air) to 55%O 2, are simulated. The predicted soot volume fractions, temperature and radiative wall fluxes (when available) are compared with experiments. All the simulations are carried out with

  5. Numerical Study of Gamma-Ray Burst Jet Formation in Collapsars

    SciTech Connect

    Nagataki, S.; Takahashi, R.; Mizuta, A.; Takiwaki, T.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /Tokyo U.

    2007-06-08

    Two-dimensional MHD simulations are performed using the ZEUS-2D code to investigate the dynamics of a collapsar that generates a GRB jet, taking account of realistic equation of state, neutrino cooling and heating processes, magnetic fields, and gravitational force from the central black hole and self-gravity. It is found that neutrino heating processes are not efficient enough to launch a jet in this study. It is also found that a jet is launched mainly by B{sub {phi}} fields that are amplified by the winding-up effect. However, since the ratio of total energy relative to the rest-mass energy in the jet is not as high as several hundred, we conclude that the jets seen in this study are not GRB jets. This result suggests that general relativistic effects will be important to generating a GRB jet. Also, the accretion disk with magnetic fields may still play an important role in launching a GRB jet, although a simulation for much longer physical time ({approx}10-100 s) is required to confirm this effect. It is shown that a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized in the accretion disk. Thus, there will be a possibility for the accretion disk to supply the sufficient amount of {sup 56}Ni required to explain the luminosity of a hypernova. Also, it is shown that neutron-rich matter due to electron captures with high entropy per baryon is ejected along the polar axis. Thus, there will be a possibility that r-process nucleosynthesis occurs at such a region. Finally, many neutrons will be ejected from the jet, which suggests that signals from the neutron decays may be observed as the delayed bump of the light curve of the afterglow or gamma rays.

  6. Labyrinthine granular landscapes.

    PubMed

    Caps, H; Vandewalle, N

    2001-11-01

    We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density n(k) of "defects" as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power-law behavior of n(k) is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from two to one. The presence of two asymptotic values of n(k) implies the irreversibility of the labyrinthic formation process.

  7. Formation of the compact jets in the black hole GX 339-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, S.; Aussel, H.; Broderick, J. W.; Chanial, P.; Coriat, M.; Maury, A. J.; Buxton, M. M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Markoff, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Bailyn, C. D.; Brocksopp, C.; Fender, R. P.; Petrucci, P. O.; Cadolle-Bel, M.; Calvelo, D.; Harvey-Smith, L.

    2013-04-01

    Galactic black hole binaries produce powerful outflows which emit over almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we report the first detection with the Herschel observatory of a variable far-infrared source associated with the compact jets of the black hole transient GX 339-4 during the decay of its recent 2010-2011 outburst, after the transition to the hard state. We also outline the results of very sensitive radio observations conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, along with a series of near-infrared, optical (OIR) and X-ray observations, allowing for the first time the re-ignition of the compact jets to be observed over a wide range of wavelengths. The compact jets first turn on at radio frequencies with an optically thin spectrum that later evolves to an optically thick synchrotron emission. An OIR reflare is observed about 10 d after the onset of radio and hard X-ray emission, likely reflecting the necessary time to build up enough density, as well as to have acceleration (e.g. through shocks) along an extended region in the jets. The Herschel measurements are consistent with an extrapolation of the radio inverted power-law spectrum, but they highlight a more complex radio to OIR spectral energy distribution for the jets.

  8. Droplet impact on deep liquid pools: Rayleigh jet to formation of secondary droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Orozco, Eduardo; Davanlou, Ashkan; Choudhury, Pretam K.; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-11-01

    The impact of droplets on a deep pool has applications in cleaning up oil spills, spray cooling, painting, inkjet printing, and forensic analysis, relying on the changes in properties such as viscosity, interfacial tension, and density. Despite the exhaustive research on different aspects of droplet impact, it is not clear how liquid properties can affect the instabilities leading to Rayleigh jet breakup and number of daughter drops formed after its pinch-off. In this article, through systematic experiments we investigate the droplet impact phenomena by varying viscosity and surface tension of liquids as well as impact speeds. Further, using numerical simulations, we show that Rayleigh-Plateau instability is influenced by these parameters, and capillary time scale is the appropriate scale to normalize the breakup time. Based on Ohnesorge number (Oh) and impact Weber number (We), a regime map for no breakup, Rayleigh jet breakup, and crown splash is suggested. Interestingly, crown splash is observed to occur at all Ohnesorge numbers; however, at high Oh, a large portion of kinetic energy is dissipated, and thus the Rayleigh jet is suppressed regardless of high impact velocity. The normalized required time for the Rayleigh jet to reach its peak varies linearly with the critical height of the jet.

  9. Ignition kernel formation and lift-off behaviour of jet-in-hot-coflow flames

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenhof, E.; Tummers, M.J.; van Veen, E.H.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2010-06-15

    The stabilisation region of turbulent non-premixed flames of natural gas mixtures burning in a hot and diluted coflow is studied by recording the flame luminescence with an intensified high-speed camera. The flame base is found to behave fundamentally differently from that of a conventional lifted jet flame in a cold air coflow. Whereas the latter flame has a sharp interface that moves up and down, ignition kernels are continuously being formed in the jet-in-hot-coflow flames, growing in size while being convected downstream. To study the lift-off height effectively given these highly variable flame structures, a new definition of lift-off height is introduced. An important parameter determining lift-off height is the mean ignition frequency density in the flame stabilisation region. An increase in coflow temperature and the addition of small quantities of higher alkanes both increase ignition frequencies, and decrease the distance between the jet exit and the location where the first ignition kernels appear. Both mechanisms lower the lift-off height. An increase in jet Reynolds number initially leads to a significant decrease of the location where ignition first occurs. Higher jet Reynolds numbers (above 5000) do not strongly alter the location of first ignition but hamper the growth of flame pockets and reduce ignition frequencies in flames with lower coflow temperatures, leading to larger lift-off heights. (author)

  10. Droplet impact on deep liquid pools: Rayleigh jet to formation of secondary droplets.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Orozco, Eduardo; Davanlou, Ashkan; Choudhury, Pretam K; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-11-01

    The impact of droplets on a deep pool has applications in cleaning up oil spills, spray cooling, painting, inkjet printing, and forensic analysis, relying on the changes in properties such as viscosity, interfacial tension, and density. Despite the exhaustive research on different aspects of droplet impact, it is not clear how liquid properties can affect the instabilities leading to Rayleigh jet breakup and number of daughter drops formed after its pinch-off. In this article, through systematic experiments we investigate the droplet impact phenomena by varying viscosity and surface tension of liquids as well as impact speeds. Further, using numerical simulations, we show that Rayleigh-Plateau instability is influenced by these parameters, and capillary time scale is the appropriate scale to normalize the breakup time. Based on Ohnesorge number (Oh) and impact Weber number (We), a regime map for no breakup, Rayleigh jet breakup, and crown splash is suggested. Interestingly, crown splash is observed to occur at all Ohnesorge numbers; however, at high Oh, a large portion of kinetic energy is dissipated, and thus the Rayleigh jet is suppressed regardless of high impact velocity. The normalized required time for the Rayleigh jet to reach its peak varies linearly with the critical height of the jet. PMID:26651794

  11. Survey on granularity clustering.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shifei; Du, Mingjing; Zhu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of uncertain artificial intelligent and the arrival of big data era, conventional clustering analysis and granular computing fail to satisfy the requirements of intelligent information processing in this new case. There is the essential relationship between granular computing and clustering analysis, so some researchers try to combine granular computing with clustering analysis. In the idea of granularity, the researchers expand the researches in clustering analysis and look for the best clustering results with the help of the basic theories and methods of granular computing. Granularity clustering method which is proposed and studied has attracted more and more attention. This paper firstly summarizes the background of granularity clustering and the intrinsic connection between granular computing and clustering analysis, and then mainly reviews the research status and various methods of granularity clustering. Finally, we analyze existing problem and propose further research.

  12. Near-field shock formation in noise propagation from a high-power jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Downing, J Micah; James, Michael M; McKinley, Richard L; McKinley, Robert C; Wall, Alan T

    2013-02-01

    Noise measurements near the F-35A Joint Strike Fighter at military power are analyzed via spatial maps of overall and band pressure levels and skewness. Relative constancy of the pressure waveform skewness reveals that waveform asymmetry, characteristic of supersonic jets, is a source phenomenon originating farther upstream than the maximum overall level. Conversely, growth of the skewness of the time derivative with distance indicates that acoustic shocks largely form through the course of near-field propagation and are not generated explicitly by a source mechanism. These results potentially counter previous arguments that jet "crackle" is a source phenomenon.

  13. Near-field shock formation in noise propagation from a high-power jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Downing, J Micah; James, Michael M; McKinley, Richard L; McKinley, Robert C; Wall, Alan T

    2013-02-01

    Noise measurements near the F-35A Joint Strike Fighter at military power are analyzed via spatial maps of overall and band pressure levels and skewness. Relative constancy of the pressure waveform skewness reveals that waveform asymmetry, characteristic of supersonic jets, is a source phenomenon originating farther upstream than the maximum overall level. Conversely, growth of the skewness of the time derivative with distance indicates that acoustic shocks largely form through the course of near-field propagation and are not generated explicitly by a source mechanism. These results potentially counter previous arguments that jet "crackle" is a source phenomenon. PMID:23363199

  14. Experimental and analytical study of nitric oxide formation during combustion of propane in a jet-stirred combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.; Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    A jet-stirred combustor, constructed of castable zirconia and with an Inconel injector, was used to study nitric oxide formation in propane-air combustion with residence times in the range from 3.2 to 3.3 msec and equivalence ratios varying from 0.7 to 1.4. Measurements were made of combustor operating temperature and of nitric oxide concentration. Maximum nitric oxide concentrations of the order of 55 ppm were found in the range of equivalence ratio from 1.0 to 1.1. A finite-rate chemical kinetic mechanism for propane combustion and nitric oxide formation was assembled by coupling an existing propane oxidation mechanism with the Zeldovich reactions and reactions of molecular nitrogen with hydrocarbon fragments. Analytical studies using this mechanism in a computer simulation of the experimental conditions revealed that the hydrocarbon-fragment-nitrogen reactions play a significant role in nitric oxide formation during fuel-rich combustion.

  15. Plasma-Jet-Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF): Physics and Design for a Plasma Liner Formation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Spherically imploding plasma liners are a potential standoff compression driver for magneto-inertial fusion, which is a hybrid of and operates in an intermediate density between those of magnetic and inertial fusion. We propose to use an array of merging supersonic plasma jets to form a spherically imploding plasma liner. The jets are to be formed by pulsed coaxial guns with contoured electrodes that are placed sufficiently far from the location of target compression such that no hardware is repetitively destroyed. As such, the repetition rate can be higher (e.g., 1 Hz) and ultimately the power-plant economics can be more attractive than most other MIF approaches. During the R&D phase, a high experimental shot rate at reasonably low cost (e.g., < 1 k/shot) may be achieved with excellent diagnostic access, thus enabling a rapid learning rate. After some background on PJMIF and its prospects for reactor-relevant energy gain, this poster describes the physics objectives and design of a proposed 60-gun plasma-liner-formation experiment, which will provide experimental data on: (i) scaling of peak liner ram pressure versus initial jet parameters, (ii) liner non-uniformity characterization and control, and (iii) control of liner profiles for eventual gain optimization.

  16. Formation of a Micropinch and Generation of Multiply Charged Ions at the Front of a Current-Carrying Plasma Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Zverev, E.A.; Krasov, V.I.; Krinberg, I.A.; Papernyi, V.L.

    2005-10-15

    The formation of a neck in the cathode plasma jet in the initial stage of a low-voltage vacuum spark is investigated experimentally and theoretically. X-ray bursts corresponding to an electron temperature of 150-300 eV are detected. With the use of a pinhole camera, it is found that an emitting region less than 1 mm in size is located near the cathode. The free expansion of a current-carrying cathode plasma jet with a current growing in accordance with the experimentally observed time dependence is simulated using a hydrodynamic model. It is shown that the neck forms at the front of the plasma jet due to the plasma compression by the magnetic self-field. In the constriction region, the plasma is rapidly heated and multiply charged ions are generated. The calculated spatial and temporal variations in the electron temperature and average ion charge are close to the measured dependences over a wide range of the discharge parameters.

  17. Formation of jets in Comet 19P/Borrelly by subsurface geysers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelle, R.V.; Soderblom, L.A.; Jokipii, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of the inner coma of Comet 19P/Borrelly with the camera on the Deep Space 1 spacecraft revealed several highly collimated dust jets emanating from the nucleus. The observed jets can be produced by acceleration of evolved gas from a subsurface cavity through a narrow orifice to the surface. As long as the cavity is larger than the orifice, the pressure in the cavity will be greater than the ambient pressure in the coma and the flow from the geyser will be supersonic. The gas flow becomes collimated as the sound speed is approached and dust entrainment in the gas flow creates the observed jets. Outside the cavity, the expanding gas loses its collimated character, but the density drops rapidly decoupling the dust and gas, allowing the dust to continue in a collimated beam. The hypothesis proposed here can explain the jets seen in the inner coma of Comet 1P/Halley as well, and may be a primary mechanism for cometary activity. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking.

    PubMed

    Kenar, James A; Compton, David L; Little, Jeanette A; Peterson, Steve C

    2016-04-20

    Amylose-ligand inclusion complexes represent an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose from high amylose maize starch. To overcome this problem a lipophilic ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, was prepared and complexed with amylose via excess steam jet cooking. Jet-cooking octadecyl ferulate and high amylose starch gave an amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complex in 51.0% isolated yield. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that a 61 V-type inclusion complex was formed. Amylose and extraction assays showed the complex to be enriched in amylose (91.9±4.3%) and contain 70.6±5.6mgg(-1) octadecyl ferulate, although, minor hydrolysis (∼4%) of the octadecyl ferulate was observed under the excess steam jet-cooking conditions utilized. This study demonstrates that steam jet cooking is a rapid and scalable process in which to prepare amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complexes. PMID:26876851

  19. Counter-propagating plasma jet collision and shock formation on a compact current driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Collins, G. W.; Zick, T.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we report on the ability of a compact current driver yielding 250 kA in 150 ns to produce counter-propagating plasma flows. The flows were produced by two vertically-opposed conical wire arrays separated by 1 cm, each comprised of 8 wires. With this array configuration, we were able to produce two supersonic plasma jets with velocities on the order of 100-200 km/s that propagate towards each other and collide. Aluminum wires were tested first; we observed a shock wave forming at the collision region that remained stationary for an extended period of time (∼50 ns) using optical probing diagnostics and Extreme Ultraviolet imaging. After this period, a bow shock is formed that propagates at 20 km/s towards the cathode of the array, likely due to small differences in the density and/or speed of the jets. The inter-jet ion mean free path was estimated to be larger than the shock scale length for aluminum, indicating that the shock is not mediated by collisions, but possibly by a magnetic field, whose potential sources are also discussed. Radiative cooling and density contrast between the jets were found to be important in the shock wave dynamics. We studied the importance of these effects by colliding jets of two different materials, using aluminum in one and copper in the other. In this configuration, the bow shock was observed to collapse into a thin shell and then to fragment, forming clumpy features. Simultaneously, the tip of the bow shock is seen to narrow as the bow shock moves at a similar speed observed in the Al-Al case. We discuss the similarity criteria for scaling astrophysical objects to the laboratory, finding that the dimensionless numbers are promising.

  20. Enhanced formation of aerobic granular sludge with yellow earth as nucleating agent in a sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Q. L.; Zhang, S. L.; Zou, Z. C.; Wang, H. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced formation of aerobic granulation was investigated by adding yellow earth as a nucleating agent in a sequencing batch reactor with a constant setting time of 10 min. As a result, granules with an average diameter over 1 mm were obtained on the 4th day. The mature granules behaved better than the seed sludge in the water content, specific gravity, sludge volume index, settling velocity, and specific oxygen uptake rate. The yellow earth stimulated the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances, especially proteins. Both chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen had a removal rate over 90%, and more than 80% of the total inorganic nitrogen was removed even under aeration conditions due to simultaneous denitrification. The enhancement effects of the yellow earth might be based on the unique physicochemical characteristics and short settling time. A settling time of 10 min or more turned out not to be a prerequisite for a rapid granulation process.

  1. Granular temperature field of monodisperse granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Shepley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For dry granular flows as well as solid-fluid mixtures such as debris avalanches, the momentum transfer is carried by frictional and collisional stresses. The latter may be described by the granular temperature, which provides a measure of the energy contained within the fluctuating nature of the granular motion. Thus, granular temperature can be used as a valuable means to infer the ability of a granular system to flow. Granular materials are known for the difficulties they pose in obtaining accurate microscale laboratory measurements. This is why many theories, such as the kinetic theory of granular gases, are primarily compared to numerical simulations. However, thanks to recent advancements in optical techniques along with high-speed recording systems, experimentalists are now able to obtain robust measurements of granular temperature. At present, the role of granular temperature in granular flows still entails conjecture. As a consequence, it is extremely important to provide experimental data against which theories and simulations can be judged. This investigation focuses on dry granular flows of sand and spherical beads performed on a simple inclined chute geometry. Fluctuation velocity, granular temperature and velocity patterns are obtained by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow behaviour is probed for different spatial (interrogation sizes) and temporal (frame rates) resolutions. Through the variation of these parameters an attempt to demonstrate the consistency of the degree of unsteadiness within the flow is made. In many studies a uniform stationary flow state is usually sought or preferably assumed for the simplicity it provides in the calculations. If one tries to measure microscale fields such as granular temperature, this assumption may be inappropriate. Thus, a proper definition of the flow regime should be made in order to estimate the correct flow properties. In addition, PIV analysis is compared against particle tracking velocimetry

  2. Formation of a White-Light Jet Within a Quadrupolar Magnetic Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Boris; Koutchmy, Serge; Tavabi, Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We analyze multi-wavelength and multi-viewpoint observations of a large-scale event viewed on 7 April 2011, originating from an active-region complex. The activity leads to a white-light jet being formed in the outer corona. The topology and evolution of the coronal structures were imaged in high resolution using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). In addition, large field-of-view images of the corona were obtained using the Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope onboard the PRoject for Onboard Autonomy (PROBA2) microsatellite, providing evidence for the connectivity of the coronal structures with outer coronal features that were imaged with the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 on the S olar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The data sets reveal an Eiffel-tower type jet configuration extending into a narrow jet in the outer corona. The event starts from the growth of a dark area in the central part of the structure. The darkening was also observed in projection on the disk by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft from a different point of view. We assume that the dark volume in the corona descends from a coronal cavity of a flux rope that moved up higher in the corona but still failed to erupt. The quadrupolar magnetic configuration corresponds to a saddle-like shape of the dark volume and provides a possibility for the plasma to escape along the open field lines into the outer corona, forming the white-light jet.

  3. Suppression of Soot Formation and Shapes of Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than practical turbulent flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Finally, laminar diffusion flame shapes have been of interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they involve a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame shape predictions. Motivated by these observations, the shapes of round hydrocarbon-fueled laminar jet diffusion flames were considered, emphasizing conditions where effects of buoyancy are small because most practical flames are not buoyant. Earlier studies of shapes of hydrocarbon-fueled nonbuoyant laminar jet diffusion flames considered combustion in still air and have shown that flames at the laminar smoke point are roughly twice as long as corresponding soot-free (blue) flames and have developed simple ways to estimate their shapes. Corresponding studies of hydrocarbon-fueled weakly-buoyant laminar jet diffusion flames in coflowing air have also been reported. These studies were limited to soot-containing flames at laminar smoke point conditions and also developed simple ways to estimate their shapes but the behavior of corresponding soot-free flames has not been addressed. This is unfortunate because ways of selecting flame flow properties to reduce soot concentrations are of great interest; in addition, soot-free flames are fundamentally important because they are much more computationally tractable than corresponding soot-containing flames. Thus, the objectives of the present investigation were to observe the shapes of weakly-buoyant laminar jet diffusion flames at both soot-free and smoke point conditions and to use the results to evaluate simplified flame shape models. The present discussion is brief.

  4. High-resolution observations of tungsten liner collapse and early jet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Winer, K.A.; Breithaupt, R.D.; Muelder, S.A.; Baum, D.W.

    1996-07-01

    High-resolution photography of collapsing tungsten-lined shaped charges has revealed surface texturing both similar to and strikingly different from that previously observed during copper liner collapse. The behavior of three types of tungsten-lined shaped charges, with different liner designs and high explosives but with similar tungsten processing, were characterized by image-converter camera and fast- framing camera photography, and flash x-ray radiography. 120-mm- diameter, trumpet-shaped Octol charges produced surface blistering near the base of the tungsten liner, probably due to inhomogeneities near the liner-explosive interface resulting from cast loading. 148- mm-diameter, quasi-conical LX-14 charges produced smooth shocked- surface texture similar to that observed in conical, copper-lined LX- 14 (Viper) charges. 81-mm-diameter, conical LX-20 charges produced severe radial texturing throughout the collapsing tungsten liner, which transitioned to azimuthal banding on the jet surface. For each type of charge, obscuring debris from the tungsten jet tip prevented clear imaging of the jet surface at late time. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Simulations of the Formation and Hydrodynamic Penetration of Micro-Shaped Charge Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Najjar, Fady M.; Szuck, Matthew; Glumac, Nick

    2011-11-01

    An explosively formed shape charge jet can be generated by the action of a detonation in explosive charge that surrounds a hollow cone of metal, embedded in the explosive, that collapses the cone on the central axis in order to form a forward-going jet of metal. We discuss the results of a series of multi-material simulations for very small charges and cones, for which the thickness of the metal (copper) cone is less than 1/100th of an inch. We look at the ability of these micro-shaped charge jets ability to penetrate aluminum target blocks and compare against experiment. We examine the effects of shape defects in the cone liner and how they affect the penetration depth. The LLNL multi-physics hydrodynamic code ALE3D is used to carry out the simulations. DSS, MS and NG were supported by AFRL/RW AF FA8651-10-1-0004. FMN's work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-491793.

  6. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of soot formation and transport in a temporally evolving nonpremixed ethylene jet flame

    SciTech Connect

    Lignell, David O.; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Smith, Philip J.

    2008-10-15

    Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of soot formation with complex chemistry is presented. The simulation consists of a temporally evolving, planar, nonpremixed ethylene jet flame with a validated, 19-species reduced mechanism. A four-step, three-moment, semiempirical soot model is employed. Previous two-dimensional decaying turbulence simulations have shown the importance of multidimensional flame dynamical effects on soot concentration [D.O. Lignell, J.H. Chen, P.J. Smith, T. Lu, C.K. Law, Combust. Flame 151 (1-2) (2007) 2-28]. It was shown that flame curvature strongly impacts the diffusive motion of the flame relative to soot (which is essentially convected with the flow), resulting in soot being differentially transported toward or away from the flame zone. The proximity of the soot to the flame directly influences soot reactivity and radiative properties. Here, the analysis is extended to three dimensions in a temporal jet configuration with mean shear. Results show that similar local flame dynamic effects of strain and curvature are important, but that enhanced turbulent mixing of fuel and oxidizer streams has a first-order effect on transport of soot toward flame zones. Soot modeling in turbulent flames is a challenge due to the complexity of soot formation and transport processes and the lack of detailed experimental soot-flame-flow structural data. The present direct numerical simulation provides the first step toward providing such data. (author)

  7. Observation of micropinch formation in cathode jet of a low-power laser-induced vacuum discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, I. V.; Paperny, V. L.; Korobkin, Yu. V.; Podviaznikov, V. A.; Rupasov, A. A.; Chevokin, V. K.; Shikanov, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The report presents the results from experimental investigation of micropinch formation in the plasma of a vacuum discharge induced by a 6 ns laser pulse of energy J = 0.5-200 mJ (at a storage voltage from 4 to 15 kV and the discharge current range of 6-26 kA, respectively). The discharge gap images were obtained using a pinhole camera in the EUV and soft X-ray ranges of 15-73 eV and 80-284 eV energy. It is shown that micropinch formation in the plasma cathode jet occurs, mainly, in the matter evaporated by the laser pulse at the discharge ignition near the moment when the current derivative reaches the maximum. It is found that the cathode jet may consist of several pinched areas, and each of them has its own structure, and the improvement of the discharge and laser radiation parameters allows us to reach a stable single pinching of plasma. The parameters of the micropinch (the plasma compression ratio, size, and position of the emitting area in the interelectrode gap) as well as the current flow through the interelectrode gap, at the given storage voltage, are completely governed by the laser radiation characteristics.

  8. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  9. Preliminary Numerical Simulations of Nozzle Formation in the Host Rock of Supersonic Volcanic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohletz, K. H.; Ogden, D. E.; Glatzmaier, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Recognizing the difficulty in quantitatively predicting how a vent changes during an explosive eruption, Kieffer (Kieffer, S.W., Rev. Geophys. 27, 1989) developed the theory of fluid dynamic nozzles for volcanism, utilizing a highly developed predictive scheme used extensively in aerodynamics for design of jet and rocket nozzles. Kieffer's work shows that explosive eruptions involve flow from sub to supersonic conditions through the vent and that these conditions control the erosion of the vent to nozzle shapes and sizes that maximize mass flux. The question remains how to predict the failure and erosion of vent host rocks by a high-speed, multiphase, compressible fluid that represents an eruption column. Clearly, in order to have a quantitative model of vent dynamics one needs a robust computational method for a turbulent, compressible, multiphase fluid. Here we present preliminary simulations of fluid flowing from a high-pressure reservoir through an eroding conduit and into the atmosphere. The eruptive fluid is modeled as an ideal gas, the host rock as a simple incompressible fluid with sandstone properties. Although these simulations do not yet include the multiphase dynamics of the eruptive fluid or the solid mechanics of the host rock, the evolution of the host rock into a supersonic nozzle is clearly seen. Our simulations show shock fronts both above the conduit, where the gas has expanded into the atmosphere, and within the conduit itself, thereby influencing the dynamics of the jet decompression.

  10. Formation of bipolar radio jets and lobes from accretion disk around forming blackhole at the center of protogalaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Y.; Matsumoto, R.; Hirose, S.; Shibata, K.

    We propose that radio jets and lobes from QSO's are 'magnetic bipolar jets from forming blackholes', physically analogous to those of star-formation bipolar flows, but with very much greater energy due to very much greater depth in gravitational potential. We perform 2.5D MHD simulations for the situation in which the condensing mass of the accretion disk associated with the blackhole brought the magnetic flux with it, deforming the magnetic field into an hourglass shape. The differential rotation of the disk rotating at its neck continuously produces magnetic twists and sends them out in the form of nonlinear torsional Alfven waves to the bipolar directions. The gas of the disk atmosphere and the halo is accelerated helically when these nonlinear torsional Alfven waves (NTAWs) propagate through them. These NTAWs, at the same time, dynamically pinch the initially hourglass-shaped field into a collimated rod-shaped structure, and in some cases cause helical instability to make it into a winding structure.

  11. Formation of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films from Colloidal Nanocrystal Dispersions via Aerosol-Jet Printing and Compaction.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryce A; Mahajan, Ankit; Smeaton, Michelle A; Holgate, Collin S; Aydil, Eray S; Francis, Lorraine F

    2015-06-01

    A three-step method to create dense polycrystalline semiconductor thin films from nanocrystal liquid dispersions is described. First, suitable substrates are coated with nanocrystals using aerosol-jet printing. Second, the porous nanocrystal coatings are compacted using a weighted roller or a hydraulic press to increase the coating density. Finally, the resulting coating is annealed for grain growth. The approach is demonstrated for making polycrystalline films of copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS), a new solar absorber composed of earth-abundant elements. The range of coating morphologies accessible through aerosol-jet printing is examined and their formation mechanisms are revealed. Crack-free albeit porous films are obtained if most of the solvent in the aerosolized dispersion droplets containing the nanocrystals evaporates before they impinge on the substrate. In this case, nanocrystals agglomerate in flight and arrive at the substrate as solid spherical agglomerates. These porous coatings are mechanically compacted, and the density of the coating increases with compaction pressure. Dense coatings annealed in sulfur produce large-grain (>1 μm) polycrystalline CZTS films with microstructure suitable for thin-film solar cells. PMID:25989610

  12. An experimental study of multiple zonal jet formation in rotating, thermally driven convective flows on a topographic beta-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Jacoby, T. N. L.; Rogberg, P. H. T.; Wordsworth, R. D.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Miki-Yamazaki, K.; Young, R. M. B.; Sommeria, J.; Didelle, H.; Viboud, S.

    2015-08-01

    A series of rotating, thermal convection experiments were carried out on the Coriolis platform in Grenoble, France, to investigate the formation and energetics of systems of zonal jets through nonlinear eddy/wave-zonal flow interactions on a topographic β-plane. The latter was produced by a combination of a rigid, conically sloping bottom and the rotational deformation of the free upper surface. Convection was driven by a system of electrical heaters laid under the (thermally conducting) sloping bottom and led to the production of intense, convective vortices. These were observed to grow in size as each experiment proceeded and led to the development of weak but clear azimuthal jet-like flows, with a radial scale that varied according to the rotation speed of the platform. Detailed analyses reveal that the kinetic energy-weighted radial wavenumber of the zonal jets, kJy, scales quite closely either with the Rhines wavenumber as kJy ≃ 2(βT/2urms)1/2, where urms is the rms total or eddy velocity and βT is the vorticity gradient produced by the sloping topography, or the anisotropy wavenumber as k J y ≃ 1 . 25 ( βT 3 / ɛ ) 1 / 5 , where ɛ is the upscale turbulent energy transfer rate. Jets are primarily produced by the direct quasi-linear action of horizontal Reynolds stresses produced by trains of topographic Rossby waves. The nonlinear production rate of zonal kinetic energy is found to be strongly unsteady, however, with fluctuations of order 10-100 times the amplitude of the mean production rate for all cases considered. The time scale of such fluctuations is found to scale consistently with either an inertial time scale, τ p ˜ 1 . / √{ u r m s β T } , or the Ekman spin-down time scale. Kinetic energy spectra show some evidence for a k-5/3 inertial subrange in the isotropic component, suggestive of a classical Kolmogorov-Batchelor-Kraichnan upscale energy cascade and a steeper spectrum in the zonal mean flow, though not as steep as k-5, as

  13. Study of the conditions necessary for propane-jet freezing of fresh biological tissues without detectable ice formation.

    PubMed

    Haggis, G H

    1986-09-01

    The performance of a commercial double-propane-jet freezer (Balzers QFD 101) has been assessed, for rapid freezing of fresh tissues in freeze-etch work. Samples of diaphragm muscle and intestinal villi were frozen between copper sheets, with a spacer to give 20-30 microns thickness of tissue. Fracture cuts were made with the Balzers BAF 400 freeze-etch microtome within 5-10 microns of a freezing face (i.e. a tissue face in contact with the copper sheets of the frozen sandwich). After some modifications to the QFD 101, replicas showing no evidence of ice were obtained of muscle cells, although for intestinal epithelial cells some evidence of ice formation was found. Infiltration with 5% glycerol or dimethylsulphoxide improves the depth of good freezing. Results and problems arising from such infiltration are briefly discussed. PMID:3537302

  14. Stationary Zonal Flows during the Formation of the Edge Transport Barrier in the JET Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, J C; Delabie, E; Meyer, H; Maggi, C F; Meneses, L; Poli, E; Jet Contributors

    2016-02-12

    High spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi≈0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E×B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-mode transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.

  15. Stationary Zonal Flows during the Formation of the Edge Transport Barrier in the JET Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Delabie, E.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; Meneses, L.; Poli, E.; JET Contributors; EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB, United Kingdom

    2016-02-01

    High spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi≈0.4 -0.8 , consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E ×B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L -H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H -mode transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L -H transition.

  16. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; Meneses, L.; Poli, E.; Delabie, E.

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge Er. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge Er well with a wave number krρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-mode transition, while belowmore » the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less

  17. Period Tripling Causes Rotating Spirals in Agitated Wet Granular Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Rehberg, Ingo

    2011-07-01

    Pattern formation of a thin layer of vertically agitated wet granular matter is investigated experimentally. Rotating spirals with three arms, which correspond to the kinks between regions with different colliding phases, are the dominating pattern. This preferred number of arms corresponds to period tripling of the agitated granular layer, unlike predominantly subharmonic Faraday crispations in dry granular matter. The chirality of the spatiotemporal pattern corresponds to the rotation direction of the spirals.

  18. Wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g. food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, construction, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g. the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

  19. Jet formation driven by the expansion of magnetic bridges between the ergosphere and the disk around a rapidly rotating black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Shinji; Kudoh, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2006-08-15

    We report two-dimensional numerical results of jet formation driven by a magnetic field due to a current loop near a rapidly rotating black hole. We initially set the current loop along the intersection of the equatorial plane and the surface of the ergosphere around the black hole. In such magnetic configurations, there are magnetic flux tubes which bridge the region between the ergosphere and the corotating disk. The magnetic flux tube, which we call a 'magnetic bridge', is twisted rapidly by the plasma in the ergosphere due to the frame-dragging effect. The magnetic pressure of the magnetic flux tube increases and the strong magnetic pressure blows off the plasma near the ergosphere to form outflow. The outflow is pinched by the magnetic tension of the magnetic flux tube. Then, eventually, the jet is formed. That is, the magnetic bridges cannot be stationary, and they expand explosively to form a jet. The parameter survey of the background pressure shows that the radius of the collimated jet depends on the gas pressure of the corona. However, this does not mean the gas pressure collimates the jet. The gas pressure decelerates the jet and the pinch effect by the magnetic field becomes significant.

  20. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of environmental barrier coatings for the inhibition of solid deposit formation from heated jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Arun Ram

    Solid deposit formation from jet fuel compromises the fuel handling system of an aviation turbine engine and increases the maintenance downtime of an aircraft. The deposit formation process depends upon the composition of the fuel, the nature of metal surfaces that come in contact with the heated fuel and the operating conditions of the engine. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of substrate surfaces on the amount and nature of solid deposits in the intermediate regime where both autoxidation and pyrolysis play an important role in deposit formation. A particular focus has been directed to examining the effectiveness of barrier coatings produced by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on metal surfaces for inhibiting the solid deposit formation from jet fuel degradation. In the first part of the experimental study, a commercial Jet-A sample was stressed in a flow reactor on seven different metal surfaces: AISI316, AISI 321, AISI 304, AISI 347, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Inconel 750X and FecrAlloy. Examination of deposits by thermal and microscopic analysis shows that the solid deposit formation is influenced by the interaction of organosulfur compounds and autoxidation products with the metal surfaces. The nature of metal sulfides was predicted by Fe-Ni-S ternary phase diagram. Thermal stressing on uncoated surfaces produced coke deposits with varying degree of structural order. They are hydrogen-rich and structurally disordered deposits, spherulitic deposits, small carbon particles with relatively ordered structures and large platelets of ordered carbon structures formed by metal catalysis. In the second part of the study, environmental barrier coatings were deposited on tube surfaces to inhibit solid deposit formation from the heated fuel. A new CVD system was configured by the proper choice of components for mass flow, pressure and temperature control in the reactor. A bubbler was designed to deliver the precursor into the reactor

  1. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use. PMID:24415802

  2. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  3. Granular transport in driven granular gas.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, M; Opsomer, E; Vandewalle, N; Ludewig, F

    2015-02-01

    We numerically and theoretically investigate the behavior of a granular gas driven by asymmetric plates. The injection of energy in the dissipative system differs from one side to the opposite one. We prove that the dynamical clustering which is expected for such a system is affected by the asymmetry. As a consequence, the cluster position can be fully controlled. This property could lead to various applications in the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environment. Moreover, the dynamical cluster is characterized by natural oscillations which are also captured by a model. These oscillations are mainly related to the cluster size, thus providing an original way to probe the clustering behavior.

  4. Oblique impact of dense granular sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellowitz, Jake; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2013-11-01

    Motivated by experiments showing impacts of granular jets with non-circular cross sections produce thin ejecta sheets with anisotropic shapes, we study what happens when two sheets containing densely packed, rigid grains traveling at the same speed collide asymmetrically. Discrete particle simulations and a continuum frictional fluid model yield the same steady-state solution of two exit streams emerging from incident streams. When the incident angle Δθ is less than Δθc =120° +/-10° , the exit streams' angles differ from that measured in water sheet experiments. Below Δθc , the exit angles from granular and water sheet impacts agree. This correspondence is surprising because 2D Euler jet impact, the idealization relevant for both situations, is ill posed: a generic Δθ value permits a continuous family of solutions. Our finding that granular and water sheet impacts evolve into the same member of the solution family suggests previous proposals that perturbations such as viscous drag, surface tension or air entrapment select the actual outcome are not correct. Currently at Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

  5. A reexamination of the formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.M.; Hanson, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    With the end of World War II, it became apparent that a study should be undertaken to identify the factors controlling the production of aircraft condensation trails (contrails). This early work provided a theoretical prediction of T{sub c}, the critical temperature at which the values of the relative humidity and pressure are such that the formation of the contrail phenomenon will occur. As empirical data were obtained, the general agreement at increased altitude was not precise and several studies were made to obtain both theoretical and empirical fits that would provide a {open_quotes}yes/no{close_quotes} decision. These modifications did allow a better decision for the formation of contrails but were found to be increasingly inaccurate at greater altitudes. This study provides an improved algorithm that yields a theoretical prediction that is in general agreement with the available empirical data at all altitudes. It demonstrates that there is a need for additional effort in the identification and precision of relative humidity and pressure that are input to this computation. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  6. On granular elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049

  7. Particle Deposition in Granular Media

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, C.

    1992-01-01

    Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

  8. Congenital granular cell epulis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

    2014-01-01

    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  9. Gravity and Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, R. P.; Hovell, Daniel; Kondic, Lou; Tennakoon, Sarath; Veje, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We describe experiments that probe a number of different types of granular flow where either gravity is effectively eliminated or it is modulated in time. These experiments include the shaking of granular materials both vertically and horizontally, and the shearing of a 2D granular material. For the shaken system, we identify interesting dynamical phenomena and relate them to standard simple friction models. An interesting application of this set of experiments is to the mixing of dissimilar materials. For the sheared system we identify a new kind of dynamical phase transition.

  10. Soot formation and radiation in turbulent jet diffusion flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, LI; Sun, Jun; Greenberg, Paul S.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1993-01-01

    Most practical combustion processes, as well as fires and explosions, exhibit some characteristics of turbulent diffusion flames. For hydrocarbon fuels, the presence of soot particles significantly increases the level of radiative heat transfer from flames. In some cases, flame radiation can reach up to 75 percent of the heat release by combustion. Laminar diffusion flame results show that radiation becomes stronger under reduced gravity conditions. Therefore, detailed soot formation and radiation must be included in the flame structure analysis. A study of sooting turbulent diffusion flames under reduced-gravity conditions will not only provide necessary information for such practical issues as spacecraft fire safety, but also develop better understanding of fundamentals for diffusion combustion. In this paper, a summary of the work to date and of future plans is reported.

  11. AGN jet power, formation of X-ray cavities, and FR I/II dichotomy in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the ability of jets in active galactic nuclei to break out of the ambient gas with sufficiently large advance velocities. Using observationally estimated jet power, we analyze 28 bright elliptical galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters. Because the gas density profiles in the innermost regions of galaxies have not been resolved so far, we consider two extreme cases for temperature and density profiles. We also follow two types of evolution for the jet cocoons: being driven by the pressure inside the cocoon [Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I], and being driven by the jet momentum (FR type II). Our main result is that regardless of the assumed form of the density profiles, jets with observed powers of ≲1044 erg s-1 are not powerful enough to evolve as FR II sources. Instead, they evolve as FR I sources and appear to be decelerated below the buoyant velocities of the cocoons when jets were propagating through the central dense regions of the host galaxies. This explains why FR I sources are more frequent than FR II sources in clusters. Furthermore, we predict the sizes of X-ray cavities from the observed jet powers and compare them with the observed ones-they are consistent within a factor of two if the FR I type evolution is realized. Finally, we find that the jets with a power ≳1044 erg s-1 are less affected by the ambient medium, and some of them, but not all, could serve as precursors of the FR II sources.

  12. A numerical investigation on the vortex formation and flow separation of the oscillatory flow in jet pumps.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; van der Meer, Theo H; Wilcox, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through a tapered cylindrical tube section (jet pump) placed in a larger outer tube. Due to the shape of the jet pump, an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic end effects will exist which will cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur that can be used to cancel Gedeon streaming in a closed-loop thermoacoustic device. The performance of two jet pump geometries with different taper angles is investigated. A specific time-domain impedance boundary condition is implemented in order to simulate traveling acoustic wave conditions. It is shown that by scaling the acoustic displacement amplitude to the jet pump dimensions, similar minor losses are observed independent of the jet pump geometry. Four different flow regimes are distinguished and the observed flow phenomena are related to the jet pump performance. The simulated jet pump performance is compared to an existing quasi-steady approximation which is shown to only be valid for small displacement amplitudes compared to the jet pump length. PMID:25920825

  13. Dynamics of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    1996-01-01

    Granular materials exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior, much of which is poorly understood. Fractal-like stress chains, convection, a variety of wave dynamics, including waves which resemble capillary waves, l/f noise, and fractional Brownian motion provide examples. Work beginning at Duke will focus on gravity driven convection, mixing and gravitational collapse. Although granular materials consist of collections of interacting particles, there are important differences between the dynamics of a collections of grains and the dynamics of a collections of molecules. In particular, the ergodic hypothesis is generally invalid for granular materials, so that ordinary statistical physics does not apply. In the absence of a steady energy input, granular materials undergo a rapid collapse which is strongly influenced by the presence of gravity. Fluctuations on laboratory scales in such quantities as the stress can be very large-as much as an order of magnitude greater than the mean.

  14. Jet formation in spallation of metal film from substrate under action of femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Inogamov, N. A.; Zhakhovskii, V. V.; Khokhlov, V. A.

    2015-01-15

    It is well known that during ablation by an ultrashort laser pulse, the main contribution to ablation of the substance is determined not by evaporation, but by the thermomechanical spallation of the substance. For identical metals and pulse parameters, the type of spallation is determined by film thickness d{sub f}. An important gauge is metal heating depth d{sub T} at the two-temperature stage, at which electron temperature is higher than ion temperature. We compare cases with d{sub f} < d{sub T} (thin film) and d{sub f} ≫ d{sub T} (bulk target). Radius R{sub L} of the spot of heating by an optical laser is the next (after d{sub f}) important geometrical parameter. The morphology of film bulging in cases where d{sub f} < d{sub T} on the substrate (blistering) changes upon a change in radius R{sub L} in the range from diffraction limit R{sub L} ∼ λ to high values of R{sub L} ≫ λ, where λ ∼ 1 μm is the wavelength of optical laser radiation. When d{sub f} < d{sub T}, R{sub L} ∼ λ, and F{sub abs} > F{sub m}, gold film deposited on the glass target acquires a cupola-shaped blister with a miniature frozen nanojet in the form of a tip on the circular top of the cupola (F{sub abs} and F{sub m} are the absorbed energy and the melting threshold of the film per unit surface area of the film). A new physical mechanism leading to the formation of the nanojet is proposed.

  15. Influence of Geometry and Flow Variation on Jet Mixing and NO Formation in a Model Staged Combustor Mixer with Eight Orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelsen, G. S.; Sowa, W. A.; Hatch, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of non-reacting parametric experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of geometric and flow variations on mixing of cold jets in an axis-symmetric, heated cross flow. The confined, cylindrical geometries tested represent the quick mix region of a Rich-Burn/Quick-Mix/Lean-Burn (RQL) combustor. The experiments show that orifice geometry and jet to mainstream momentum-flux ratio significantly impact the mixing characteristic of jets in a cylindrical cross stream. A computational code was used to extrapolate the results of the non-reacting experiments to reacting conditions in order to examine the nitric oxide (NO) formation potential of the configurations examined. The results show that the rate of NO formation is highest immediately downstream of the injection plane. For a given momentum-flux ratio, the orifice geometry that mixes effectively in both the immediate vicinity of the injection plane, and in the wall regions at downstream locations, has the potential to produce the lowest NO emissions. The results suggest that further study may not necessarily lead to a universal guideline for designing a low NO mixer. Instead, an assessment of each application may be required to determine the optimum combination of momentum-flux ratio and orifice geometry to minimize NO formation. Experiments at reacting conditions are needed to verify the present results.

  16. Direct evidence of stationary zonal flows and critical gradient behavior for Er during formation of the edge pedestal in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, Jon

    2015-11-01

    High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  17. An Experimental and Computational Study on Soot Formation in a Coflow Jet Flame Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Bin; Cao, Su; Giassi, Davide; Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Smooke, Mitchell D.; Long, Marshall B.

    2014-01-01

    Upon the completion of the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) in March 2012, a comprehensive and unique set of microgravity coflow diffusion flame data was obtained. This data covers a range of conditions from weak flames near extinction to strong, highly sooting flames, and enabled the study of gravitational effects on phenomena such as liftoff, blowout and soot formation. The microgravity experiment was carried out in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on board the International Space Station (ISS), while the normal gravity experiment was performed at Yale utilizing a copy of the flight hardware. Computational simulations of microgravity and normal gravity flames were also carried out to facilitate understanding of the experimental observations. This paper focuses on the different sooting behaviors of CH4 coflow jet flames in microgravity and normal gravity. The unique set of data serves as an excellent test case for developing more accurate computational models.Experimentally, the flame shape and size, lift-off height, and soot temperature were determined from line-of-sight flame emission images taken with a color digital camera. Soot volume fraction was determined by performing an absolute light calibration using the incandescence from a flame-heated thermocouple. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the chemically reacting flow, and the soot evolution was modeled by the sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretized on an axisymmetric computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting system of fully coupled, highly nonlinear equations was solved by a damped, modified Newtons method. The microgravity sooting flames were found to have lower soot temperatures and higher volume fraction than their normal gravity counterparts. The soot distribution tends to shift from the centerline of the flame to the wings from normal gravity to

  18. Building designed granular towers one drop at a time.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Julien; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2011-11-11

    A dense granular suspension dripping on an imbibing surface is observed to give rise to slender mechanically stable structures that we call granular towers. Successive drops of grain-liquid mixtures are shown to solidify rapidly upon contact with a liquid absorbing substrate. A balance of excess liquid flux and drainage rate is found to capture the typical growth and height of the towers. The tower width is captured by the Weber number, which gives the relative importance of inertia and capillary forces. Various symmetric, smooth, corrugated, zigzag, and chiral structures are observed by varying the impact velocity and the flux rate from droplet to jetting regime.

  19. The Rayleigh-Plateau instability and jet formation during the extrusion of liquid metal from craters in a vacuum arc cathode spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Zubarev, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the displacement of molten metal from a crater being formed on the cathode during the operation of a vacuum arc under the pressure of the cathode plasma and formulate a criterion for the formation of a thin ridge of expelled liquid metal (a sheet-like jet) at the crater edge. When the ridge height is substantially greater than its thickness, conditions arise for the development of the Rayleigh-Plateau capillary instability, which breaks the axial symmetry of the problem. Estimates are presented, which suggest that this instability is responsible for the breakup of the liquid ridge into jets, which play an important role in the self-sustained operation of a discharge.

  20. Multiple granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Jones, J K; Kuo, T T; Griffiths, C M; Itharat, S

    1980-10-01

    Eleven cases of granular cell tumor were reviewed. In two of the cases multiple sites of involvement were seen. The tumor occurred in the oral cavity in both of these cases and each was initially wrongly diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The most common site was the subcutaneous tissue (nine patients) and the tongue was involved in three cases. In one patient the parotid gland was involved. Eight of the patients were females and three were males; seven were black and four were white. The importance of differentiating between squamous cell carcinoma and granular cell tumor is stressed, as is the need for a simple wide surgical excision. PMID:7421377

  1. Pollutant formation in fuel lean recirculating flows. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report; [in an Opposed Reacting Jet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schefer, R. W.; Sawyer, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An opposed reacting jet combustor (ORJ) was tested at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. A premixed propane/air stream was stabilized by a counterflowing jet of the same reactants. The resulting intensely mixed zone of partially reacted combustion products produced stable combustion at equivalence ratios as low as 0.45. Measurements are presented for main stream velocities of 7.74 and 13.6 m/sec with an opposed jet velocity of 96 m/sec, inlet air temperatures from 300 to 600 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.45 to 0.625. Fuel lean premixed combustion was an effective method of achieving low NOx emissions and high combustion efficiencies simultaneously. Under conditions promoting lower flame temperature, NO2 constituted up to 100 percent of the total NOx. At higher temperatures this percentage decreased to a minimum of 50 percent.

  2. Discrete blasts in granular material yield two-stage process of cavitation and granular fountaining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Robin; White, James; Dürig, Tobi; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    A discrete blast within granular material, such as a single subterranean explosion within a debris-filled diatreme structure, is typically considered to produce a single uprush of material. Our experiments demonstrate that apparent "debris jet deposits" can be formed by a two-stage process of cavitation and subsequent granular fountaining. Bench-scale experiments reported here demonstrate that for a range of overpressures and depths, individual, discrete, buried gas blasts open space and expel particles from the blast site in two largely decoupled stages. Expanding gas initially pierces material nearest the blast source to open a cavity above it; then a fountain of grains rises from the source into the cavity. This staged motion dynamically segregates source grains from host-material grains, and the rates of cavity opening vs. fountain rise show a power-law decay relationship with initial pressure. Our experimental analysis has implications for maar-diatreme systems, field-scale detonation experiments, and underground nuclear testing.

  3. Discrete blasts in granular material yield two-stage process of cavitation and granular fountaining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Robin G.; White, James D. L.; Dürig, Tobi; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    A discrete blast within granular material, such as a single subterranean explosion within a debris-filled diatreme structure, is typically considered to produce a single uprush of material. Our experiments demonstrate that apparent "debris jet deposits" can be formed by a two-stage process of cavitation and subsequent granular fountaining. Bench-scale experiments reported here demonstrate that for a range of overpressures and depths, individual, discrete, buried gas blasts open space and expel particles from the blast site in two largely decoupled stages. Expanding gas initially pierces material nearest the blast source to open a cavity above it; then a fountain of grains rises from the source into the cavity. This staged motion dynamically segregates source grains from host-material grains, and the rates of cavity opening versus fountain rise show a power law decay relationship with initial pressure. Our experimental analysis has implications for maar-diatreme systems, field-scale detonation experiments, and underground nuclear testing.

  4. Jet shielding of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to develop a validated first principle analysis for predicting the jet noise reduction achieved by shielding one jet exhaust flow with a second, closely spaced, identical jet flow. A generalized fuel jet noise analytical model was formulated in which the acoustic radiation from a source jet propagates through the velocity and temperature discontinuity of the adjacent shielding jet. Input variables to the prediction procedure include jet Mach number, spacing, temperature, diameter, and source frequency. Refraction, diffraction, and reflection effects, which control the dual jet directivity pattern, are incorporated in the theory. The analysis calculates the difference in sound pressure level between the dual jet configuration and the radiation field based on superimposing two independent jet noise directivity patterns. Jet shielding was found experimentally to reduce noise levels in the common plane of the dual jet system relative to the noise generated by two independent jets.

  5. Dynamics of Sheared Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondic, Lou; Utter, Brian; Behringer, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    characterize the transition region in an earth-bound experiment. In the DE modeling, we analyze dynamics of a sheared granular system in Couette geometry in two (2D) and three (3D) space dimensions. Here, the idea is to both better understand what we might encounter in a reduced-g environment, and at a deeper level to deduce the physics of sheared systems in a density regime that has not been addressed by past experiments or simulations. One aspect of the simulations addresses sheared 2D system in zero-g environment. For low volume fractions, the expected dynamics of this type of system is relatively well understood. However, as the volume fraction is increased, the system undergoes a phase transition, as explained above. The DES concentrate on the evolution of the system as the solid volume fraction is slowly increased, and in particular on the behavior of very dense systems. For these configurations, the simulations show that polydispersity of the sheared particles is a crucial factor that determines the system response. Figures 1 and 2 below, that present the total force on each grain, show that even relatively small (10 %) nonuniformity of the size of the grains (expected in typical experiments) may lead to significant modifications of the system properties, such as velocity profiles, temperature, force propagation, and formation shear bands. The simulations are extended in a few other directions, in order to provide additional insight to the experimental system analyzed above. In one direction, both gravity, and driving due to vibrations are included. These simulations allow for predictions on the driving regime that is required in the experiments in order to analyze the jamming transition. Furthermore, direct comparison of experiments and DES will allow for verification of the modeling assumptions. We have also extended our modeling efforts to 3D. The (preliminary) results of these simulations of an annular system in zero-g environment will conclude the presentation.

  6. Effects of the nozzle design on the properties of plasma jet and formation of YSZ coatings under low pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chengqi; Gao, Yang; Yang, Deming; Fu, Yingqing

    2016-06-01

    How to control the quality of the coatings has become a major problem during the plasma spraying. Because nozzle contour has a great influence on the characteristic of the plasma jet, two kinds of plasma torches equipped with a standard cylindrical nozzle and a converging-diverging nozzle are designed for low pressure plasma spraying(LPPS) and very low pressure plasma spraying(VLPPS). Yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) coatings are obtained in the reducing pressure environment. The properties of the plasma jet without or with powder injection are analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy, and the electron temperature is calculated based on the ratio of the relative intensity of two Ar I spectral lines. The results show that some of the YSZ powder can be vaporized in the low pressure enlarged plasma jet, and the long anode nozzle may improve the characteristics of the plasma jet. The coatings deposited by LPPS are mainly composed of the equiaxed grains and while the unmelted powder particles and large scalar pores appear in the coatings made by VLPPS. The long anode nozzle could improve the melting of the powders and deposition efficiency, and enhance the coatings' hardness. At the same time, the long anode nozzle could lead to a decrease in the overspray phenomenon. Through the comparison of the two different size's nozzle, the long anode is much more suitable for making the YSZ coatings.

  7. The Physics of Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, Haye; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2005-01-01

    This new reference provides quick access to the current level of knowledge, containing high-level review articles covering recent developments in the field of granular media from the viewpoints of applied, experimental, and theoretical physics. The authors represent different directions of research in the field, with their contributions covering: static properties of granular materials sand piles and avalanches vibration-induced patterns segregation flowing granular matter cohesive granular matter pastes charged granular matter friction and traffic flow. A concluding chapter discusses computational aspects. In short, a must-have for advanced researchers and specialists as well as a useful starting point for anyone entering this rapidly expanding field.

  8. Challenges in Predicting Planetary Granular Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    Through the course of human history, our needs in agriculture, habitat construction, and resource extraction have driven us to gain more experience working with the granular materials of planet Earth than with any other type of substance in nature, with the possible exception being water. Furthermore, throughout the past two centuries we have seen a dramatic and ever growing interest among scientists and engineers to understand and predict both its static and rheological properties. Ironically, however, despite this wealth of experience we still do not have a fundamental understanding of the complex physical phenomena that emerge even as just ordinary sand is shaken, squeezed or poured. As humanity is now reaching outward through the solar system, not only robotic ally but also with our immediate human presence, the need to understand and predict granular mechanics has taken on a new dimension. We must learn to farm, build and mine the regoliths of other planets where the environmental conditions are different than on Earth, and we are rapidly discovering that the effects of these environmental conditions are not trivial. Some of the relevant environmental features include the regolith formation processes throughout a planet's geologic and hydrologic history, the unknown mixtures of volatiles residing within the soil, the relative strength of gravitation, d the atm9spheric pressure and its seasonal variations. The need to work with soils outside our terrestrial experience base provides us with both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to learn how to extrapolate our experience into these new planetary conditions, enabling the engineering decisions that are needed right now as we take the next few steps in solar system exploration. The opportunity is to use these new planetary environments as laboratories that will help us to see granular mechanics in new ways, to challenge our assumptions, and to help us finally unravel the elusive physics that lie

  9. Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.

  10. Siegel FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of Granular-Giant-Magnetoresistance (G-GMR) DiagnosES/ED Wigner's-Disease/.../Spinodal-Decomposition in ``Super''Alloys Generic Endemic Extant in: Nuclear-Reactors/ Petrochemical-Plants/Jet/ Missile-Engines/...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Ace; Wigner-Weinberg, Eugene-Alvin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig Sidney; ORNL/Wigner/Weinberg/Siegel/Hollifeld/Yu/... Collaboration; ANL/Fermi/Wigner/Arrott/Weeks/Bader/Freeman/Sinha/Palazlotti/Nichols/Petersen/Rosner/Zimmer/... Collaboration; BNL/Chudahri/Damask/Dienes/Emery/Goldberg/Bak//Bari/Lofaro/... Collaboration; LLNL-LANL/Hecker/Tatro/Meara/Isbell/Wilkins/YFreund/Yudof/Dynes/Yang/... Collaboration; WestinKLouse/EPRI/PSEG/IAEA/ABB/Rickover/Nine/Carter/Starr/Stern/Hamilton/Richards/Lawes/OGrady/Izzo Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Siegel[APS Shock-Physics Mtg., Chicago(11)] carbides solid-state chemistry[PSS (a)11,45(72); Semis. & Insuls. 5: 39,47,62 (79)], following: Weinberg-Siegel-Loretto-Hargraves-Savage-Westwood-Seitz-Overhauser-..., FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of G-GMR[JMMM 7, 312(78); Google: ``If LEAKS Could KILL Ana Mayo''] identifIED/IES GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT domination of old/new (so mis-called) ``super''alloys': nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe/Co-based (so mis-called) ''super''alloys (182/82; Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-Stainless-Steels,...,690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms!!!): THERMAL: Wigner's-disease(WD physics) [J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]/ Ostwald-ripening

  11. Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field: recent results and new exeprimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Tommaso; Revet, Guilhem; Higginson, Drew; Béard, Jérome; Burdonov, K.; Chen, Sophia; Khagani, D.; Khiar, B.; Naughton, K.; Pikuz, S.; Riconda, Caterina; Riquier, R.; Soloviev, A.; Willi, O.; Portugall, O.; Pépin, Henry; Ciardi, Andrea; Fuchs, Julien; Albertazzi, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Accretion shocks in Young Stellar Objects (YSO) are a subject of great interest in astrophysics; they exhibit intense magnetic activity and are surrounded by an accretion disk from which matter falls down onto the stellar surface in the form of columns following the magnetic lines (B ~ kG) at the free-fall velocity (100-500 km/s). As a column impacts the stellar surface, a radiative shock is created which heats up the infalling flow. As a consequence, a new reverse shock forms and some oscillations are expected in the emitted radiation as a proof of this periodic dynamic, but no periodicity has yet been detected in observations.To understand the reasons for this apparent inconsistency, we have recently developped an experimental setup [B. Albertazzi et al. Science 346, 325 (2014)] in which a plasma flow (generated by a high energy laser: 1013 W/cm2 - 0.6 ns pulse) is confined inside a poloidal magnetic field (20 T). This jet has an aspect ratio >10, a temperature of tens of eV, an electron density of 1018 cm-3 and propagates at 700 km/s as show by our previous numerical work [A. Ciardi et al. Physical Review Letters, 110 (2013)]. To investigate the accretion dynamics, the jet acts as the accretion column and hits a secondary target acting as the stellar surface. We will present the recent results on generation and dynamics of the jet and the new experimental results of this configuration, namely of a supersonic reverse shock traveling within the accretion column with a speed of 100 km/s, representing a Mach number of ~ 30, and the observation of increased density structures along the edges of the interaction. This will be discussed in the light of 3D-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations which parametric variations allow to understand how the various plasma parameters affect the accretion.

  12. Observed transition from Richtmyer-Meshkov jet formation through feedout oscillations to Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a laser target

    SciTech Connect

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Nikitin, S. P.; Oh, J.; Metzler, N.

    2012-10-15

    Experimental study of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution triggered by a laser-driven shock wave breakout at the free rippled rear surface of a plastic target is reported. At sub-megabar shock pressure, planar jets manifesting the development of the Richtmyer-Meshkov-type instability in a non-accelerated target are observed. As the shock pressure exceeds 1 Mbar, an oscillatory rippled expansion wave is observed, followed by the 'feedout' of the rear-surface perturbations to the ablation front and the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which breaks up the accelerated target.

  13. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets - Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    Current driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur in extragalactic jets for estimated values of the carried currents. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities. The relativistic double-layer-emitted electron and ion beams drive plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  14. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets: Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    For estimated values of the currents carried by extragalactic jets, current-driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities, the relativistic double-layer-emitted electron, and ion beams driving plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  15. Influence of atmospheric waves on the formation and the maintenance of the subtropical jet during the Northern Hemisphere winter—A new method for analyzing the responses to specific forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yuhji

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces a new analysis method that can isolate the responses to specific forcings within meteorological data. By using the zonal mean primitive equations on the sphere, it is possible to break down the meridional circulation, the acceleration of zonal wind, temperature change, and surface pressure change into their individual contributions, which are directly associated with various forcings. This analysis technique can be applied to a wide range of problems relating to climate and its variability. To demonstrate the application of the technique, the formation and maintenance of the subtropical jet during the Northern Hemisphere winter are examined. It is found that atmospheric waves play a crucial role in both the climatological maintenance and the day-to-day (and month-to-month) variabilities of the jet. While stationary waves are the dominant catalyst for maintaining the jet in its climatological state, synoptic waves play an important role in generating the month-to-month variability of the jet.

  16. Water Fountains in the Sky: Streaming Water Jets from Aging Star Provide Clues to Planetary-Nebula Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found that an aging star is spewing narrow, rotating streams of water molecules into space, like a jerking garden hose that has escaped its owner's grasp. The discovery may help resolve a longstanding mystery about how the stunningly beautiful objects called planetary nebulae are formed. Artist's Conception of W43A. Artist's conception of W43A, with the aging star surrounded by a disk of material and a precessing, twisted jet of molecules streaming away from it in two directions. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. The astronomers used the VLBA, operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, to study a star called W43A. W43A is about 8,500 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Aquila, the eagle. This star has come to the end of its normal lifetime and, astronomers believe, is about to start forming a planetary nebula, a shell of brightly glowing gas lit by the hot ember into which the star will collapse. "A prime mystery about planetary nebulae is that many are not spherical even though the star from which they are ejected is a sphere," said Phillip Diamond, director of the MERLIN radio observatory at Jodrell Bank in England, and one of the researchers using the VLBA. "The spinning jets of water molecules we found coming from this star may be one mechanism for producing the structures seen in many planetary nebulae," he added. The research team, led by Hiroshi Imai of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory (now at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, based in the Netherlands), also includes Kumiko Obara of the Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory and Kagoshima University; Toshihiro Omodaka, also of Kagoshima University; and Tetsuo Sasao of the Japanese National Astronomical Observatory. The scientists reported their findings in the June 20 issue of the scientific journal Nature. As stars similar to our Sun

  17. Formation of single pinched plasma point in the cathode plasma jet of a multipicosecond laser-triggered vacuum discharge.

    PubMed

    Moorti, A; Naik, P A; Gupta, P D; Bhat, R K

    2008-09-01

    Characteristics of cathode plasma jet pinching and x-ray emission from a multipicosecond laser-triggered vacuum discharge are presented. Discharge was created in between a planar Al cathode and a conical point-tip Ti anode (separation: 2-15 mm, circuit inductance of approximately 0.53 microH, peak discharge current of approximately 3 kA, and rise time of approximately 400 ns). For anode-cathode separation of approximately 13.5 mm, only a single pinched plasma point was formed in the cathode plasma jet at a distance of approximately 9.5 mm from the cathode. Quantitative analysis of the x-ray signals recorded using a pin diode with different filters and viewing different regions of the discharge, shows soft ( approximately keV photon energy) x-ray emission from the plasma point with a flux of approximately (3-5)x10(10) photons/sr, and multi-keV x-ray emission from the Ti anode with Kalpha ( approximately 4.51 keV) photon flux of approximately 10(10) photons/sr. PMID:19044407

  18. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Foltz, Benjamin; Mahler, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum, we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion.

  19. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Mahler, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum , we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion. Supported by NSF CBET Award 1067598.

  20. Entangled granular media.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Franklin, Scott V; Hu, David L; Goldman, Daniel I

    2012-05-18

    We study the geometrically induced cohesion of ensembles of granular "u particles" that mechanically entangle through particle interpenetration. We vary the length-to-width ratio l/w of the u particles and form them into freestanding vertical columns. In a laboratory experiment, we monitor the response of the columns to sinusoidal vibration (with peak acceleration Γ). Column collapse occurs in a characteristic time τ which follows the relation τ∝exp(Γ/Δ). Δ resembles an activation energy and is maximal at intermediate l/w. A simulation reveals that optimal strength results from competition between packing and entanglement.

  1. Fuzzy jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  2. Fuzzy jets

    DOE PAGES

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Here, collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet taggingmore » variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.« less

  3. Rotating plasma jets in the photospheric intergranular lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmerer, Birgit; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Muthsam, Herbert; Piantschitsch, Isabell; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz

    2016-07-01

    High resolution simulations and observations of the solar photosphere reveal the population of small granular cells with diameters less than 600 km. However, the underlying mechanisms of their generation are still unclear. Simulations show that the majority of small granules may not result from fragmentation of larger granular cells but instead evolve and dissolve in the intergranular lanes. We study the dynamics of these granular cells in high resolution simulations. We found that the small granules show a jet-like behavior with strong horizontal and vertical vortex motions. A newly developed algorithm that tracks the evolution of the 3D plasma cells in the convection zone and lower photosphere shows strong vertical vorticity within the small granular cells. The rotating plasma jets, which are visible as small granules, may generate magnetized vortex flows and torsional Alfvén waves observed at upper layers and hence can play a distinct role in the energy supply to the chromosphere and corona.

  4. Nitric oxide formation in a lean, premixed-prevaporized jet A/air flame tube: An experimental and analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Bianco, Jean; Deur, John M.; Ghorashi, Bahman

    1992-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was performed on a lean, premixed-prevaporized Jet A/air flame tube. The NO(x) emissions were measured in a flame tube apparatus at inlet temperatures ranging from 755 to 866 K (900 to 1100 F), pressures from 10 to 15 atm, and equivalence ratios from 0.37 to 0.62. The data were then used in regressing an equation to predict the NO(x) production levels in combustors of similar design. Through an evaluation of parameters it was found that NO(x) is dependent on adiabatic flame temperature and combustion residence time, yet independent of pressure and inlet air temperature for the range of conditions studied. This equation was then applied to experimental data that were obtained from the literature, and a good correlation was achieved.

  5. Sequential plug formation, disintegration by Vulcanian explosions, and the generation of granular Pyroclastic Density Currents at Tungurahua volcano (2013-2014), Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Minard L.; Steele, Alexander L.; Bernard, Benjamin; Mothes, Patricia A.; Vallejo, Silvia X.; Douillet, Guilhem A.; Ramón, Patricio A.; Aguaiza, Santiago X.; Ruiz, Mario C.

    2015-11-01

    Following 84 years of repose, Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador initiated its present eruptive episode in October 1999, but its PDC activity only began in July 2006. A period of highly energetic Vulcanian eruptions started in 2012, those of 14 July 2013, 18 October 2013, and 1 February 2014 being the most important. These eruptions were well-monitored by a 5-station broadband seismic and acoustic array. Repeated repose intervals of ~ 3.5 months between Vulcanian events (VEI ~ 2) suggest that gases in the ascending juvenile magma experienced sequential pressurization cycles, as magma of preceding eruptive events solidified to form plugs that sealed the conduit. Every 34 months plug failure occurred, abrupt decompression followed, and the resulting Vulcanian explosions are associated with the highest seismic and acoustic energies ever registered anywhere. Small to moderate-sized PDC flows associated with the explosions and fountain collapses were generated and traveled ≤ 7 km down the steep N, NW, and W flanks of Tungurahua's cone at velocities of 11 to 18 m/s, although a small lateral blast and its PDC were clocked at 33 m/s descending the N flank. The explosive fragmentation of the plugs (a dense microcrystalline andesite) and the juvenile magma (a vesiculated glassy andesite) comprise the principal rock fragments of the PDC deposits. Each deposit typically consisting of two layers; a thin upper layer of large segregated and abraded clasts with few fines and a thicker lower layer that is fines-rich with few large clasts. Many deposits were studied and photographed within a few days of their formation, which are presented.

  6. Structural characterization of submerged granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, Z. M.; Šćepanović, J. R.; Lončarević, I.; Budinski-Petković, Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Belić, A.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration on microstructural properties of granular packings through experimental studies of spherical granular materials saturated within fluids of varying density. We characterize the local organization of spheres in terms of contact connectivity, distribution of the Delaunay free volumes, and the shape factor (parameter of nonsphericity) of the Voronoï polygons. The shape factor gives a clear physical picture of the competition between less and more ordered domains of particles in experimentally obtained packings. As the effective gravity increases, the probability distribution of the shape factor becomes narrower and more localized around the lowest values of the shape factor corresponding to regular hexagon. It is found that curves of the pore distributions are asymmetric with a long tail on the right-hand side, which progressively reduces while the effective gravity gets stronger for lower densities of interstitial fluid. We show that the distribution of local areas (Voronoï cells) broadens with decreasing value of the effective gravity due to the formation of lose structures such as large pores and chainlike structures (arches or bridges). Our results should be particularly helpful in testing the newly developed simulation techniques involving liquid-related forces associated with immersed granular particles.

  7. Interacting jets from binary protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, G. C.; Lery, T.; O'Sullivan, S.; Spicer, D.; Bacciotti, F.; Rosen, A.

    2008-02-01

    Aims: We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. Methods: We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. Results: We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. Conclusions: While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly parallel, as in most observed cases, we show that the magnetic field can help the collimation and refocusing of both of the two jets.

  8. Comparison of Mesomechanical and Continuum Granular Flow Models for Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, D. R.

    2006-07-28

    Constitutive models for the shear strength of ceramics undergoing fracture are needed for modeling long rod and shaped-charge jet penetration events in ceramic armor. The ceramic material ahead of the penetrator has been observed to be finely comminuted material that flows around the nose of the eroding penetrator (Shockey et al.). The most-used continuum models are of the Drucker-Prager type with an upper cutoff, or of the Mohr-Coulomb type with strain rate dependence and strain softening. A disadvantage of such models is that they have an unclear connection to the actual microscopic processes of granular flow and comminution. An alternate approach is to use mesomechanical models that describe the dynamics of the granular flow, as well as containing a description of the granular comminution and resultant material softening. However, a disadvantage of the mesomechanical models is that they are computationally more burdensome to apply. In the present paper, we compare the behaviors of a mesomechanical model, FRAGBED2, with the Walker and Johnson-Holmquist continuum models, where the granular material is subjected to simple strain histories under various confining pressures and strain rates. We conclude that the mesomechanical model can provide valuable input to the continuum models, both in interpretation of the continuum models' parameters and in suggesting their range of applicability.

  9. Equation of state of wet granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerle, A.; Herminghaus, S.

    2008-01-01

    An expression for the near-contact pair correlation function of D -dimensional weakly polydisperse hard spheres is presented, which arises from elementary free-volume arguments. Its derivative at contact agrees very well with our simulations for D=2 . For jammed states, the expression predicts that the number of exact contacts is equal to 2D, in agreement with established simulations. When the particles are wetted, they interact by the formation and rupture of liquid capillary bridges. Since formation and rupture events of capillary bonds are well separated in configuration space, the interaction is hysteretic with a characteristic energy loss Ecb . The pair correlation is strongly affected by this capillary interaction depending on the liquid-bond status of neighboring particles. A theory is derived for the nonequilibrium probability currents of the capillary interaction which determines the pair correlation function near contact. This finally yields an analytic expression for the equation of state, P=P(N/V,T) , of wet granular matter for D=2 , valid in the complete density range from gas to jamming. Driven wet granular matter exhibits a van der Waals-like unstable branch at granular temperatures Tgranular droplets reported for the free cooling of one-dimensional wet granular matter [A. Fingerle and S. Herminghaus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 078001 (2006)], and extends the effect to higher dimensional systems. Since the limiting case of sticky bonds, Ecb≫T , is of relevance for aggregation in general, simulations have been performed which show very good

  10. Particle Deposition in Granular Media. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, C.

    1992-12-31

    Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

  11. Granular Materials Research at NASA-Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Daidzic, Nihad; Green, Robert D.; Nakagawa, Masami; Nayagam, Vedha; Rame, Enrique; Wilkinson, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of granular materials research at NASA-Glenn. The topics include: 1) Impulse dispersion of a tapered granular chain; 2) High Speed Digital Images of Tapered Chain Dynamics; 3) Impulse Dispersion; 4) Three Dimensional Granular Bed Experimental Setup; 5) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluid Flow in Porous Media; and 6) Net Charge on Granular Materials (NCharG).

  12. Correlating shaped charge performance with processing conditions and microstructure of an aluminum alloy 1100 liner enabled by a new method to arrest nascent jet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, James Eric

    Aluminum-lined shaped charges are used in special applications where jet and / or slug residue in the target is undesired. The three different microstructures of the aluminum liners studied herein resulted from three different manufacturing interpretations of the same design. One interpretation was completely machining the liners from best available annealed round stock. The second was to cold-forge the liners from annealed round-stock in an open-die forge to near-final dimensions, and then machine the liners to the final dimensions. The third variant in this study was to use the above forged liner, but with annealing after the machining. These three manufacturing choices resulted in significant variations in shaped charge performance. The goal of this research was to clarify the relationships between the liner metal microstructure and properties, and the corresponding shaped charge dynamic flow behavior. What began as an investigation into user-reported performance problems associated inherently with liner manufacturing processes and resultant microstructure, resolved into new understandings of the relationships between aluminum liner microstructure and shaped charge collapse kinetics. This understanding was achieved through an extensive literature review and the comprehensive characterization of the material properties of three variants of an 1100 aluminum shaped charge liner with a focus on collapse and nascent jet formation. The machined liner had a microstructure with large millimeter-sized grains and fine particles aligned in bands parallel to the charge axis. The forged liner microstructure consisted of very small one micrometer-sized (1 mum) subgrains and fine particles aligned largely in bands elongated parallel to the liner contour. The annealed liner was characterized by ten micrometer (10 mum) sized equiaxed grains with residual fine particles in the forged alignment. This characterization was enabled by the development, execution and validation of a

  13. Granular temperature profiles in three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, R. D.; Huntley, J. M.; Parker, D. J.

    2001-06-01

    The motion of grains in a three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular bed has been measured using the technique of positron emission particle tracking, to provide three-dimensional packing fraction and granular temperature distributions. The mean square fluctuation velocity about the mean was calculated through analysis of the short time mean squared displacement behavior, allowing measurement of the granular temperature at packing fractions of up to {eta}{similar_to}0.15. The scaling relationship between the granular temperature, the number of layers of grains, and the base velocity was determined. Deviations between the observed scaling exponents and those predicted by recent theories are attributed to the influence of dissipative grain-sidewall collisions.

  14. Water Jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  15. Cosmic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The evidence that active galactic nuclei produce collimated plasma jets is summarised. The strongest radio galaxies are probably energised by relativistic plasma jets generated by spinning black holes interacting with magnetic fields attached to infalling matter. Such objects can produce e(+)-e(-) plasma, and may be relevant to the acceleration of the highest-energy cosmic ray primaries. Small-scale counterparts of the jet phenomenon within our own galaxy are briefly reviewed.

  16. Granularity analysis for mathematical proofs.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Marvin R G

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical proofs generally allow for various levels of detail and conciseness, such that they can be adapted for a particular audience or purpose. Using automated reasoning approaches for teaching proof construction in mathematics presupposes that the step size of proofs in such a system is appropriate within the teaching context. This work proposes a framework that supports the granularity analysis of mathematical proofs, to be used in the automated assessment of students' proof attempts and for the presentation of hints and solutions at a suitable pace. Models for granularity are represented by classifiers, which can be generated by hand or inferred from a corpus of sample judgments via machine-learning techniques. This latter procedure is studied by modeling granularity judgments from four experts. The results provide support for the granularity of assertion-level proofs but also illustrate a degree of subjectivity in assessing step size.

  17. Intermittency in dilute granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenxuan; Zhang, Qiang; Wylie, Jonathan J.

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we show that dilute granular systems can exhibit a type of intermittency that has no analogue in gas dynamics. We consider a simple system in which a very dilute set of granular particles falls under gravity through a nozzle. This setting is analogous to the classical problem of high-speed nozzle flow in the study of compressible gases. It is well known that very dilute granular systems exhibit behavior qualitatively similar to gases, and that gas flowing through a nozzle does not exhibit intermittency. Nevertheless, we show that the intermittency in dilute granular nozzle flows can occur and corresponds to complicated transitions between supersonic and subsonic regimes. We also provide detailed explanations of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.

  18. Process for producing granular diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, W.D.

    1988-05-17

    A process for the production of solid granular diammonium phosphate is described comprising: reacting anhydrous ammonia with phosphoric acid in a reactor to form a partially reacted slurry of monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate; pumping the slurry to a granulator-reactor and further reacting the slurry with anhydrous ammonia to form a solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture having a particle range size consisting of undersize, oversize and product; drying the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture in a dryer; dividing the dried solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture being discharged from the dryer into a first portion and a second portion; diverting and feeding the first portion of the dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture back to the granulator-reactor; feeding the second portion of dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture to a classifying means consisting of a set of screens including an oversize screen and a product screen set to a narrow size separation to separate the mixture of the solid granular diammonium phosphate into undersize, oversize and product solid granular diammonium phosphate; milling the oversize granular diammonium phosphate; recycling to the granular-reactor the milled oversized granular diammonium phosphate and the undersized granular particles obtained during the classifying of the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture; and collecting the desired product granular particle thereby enhancing the production of a narrow range of granular diammonium phosphate particle size distribution within a broad range of particle size distribution.

  19. Lyapunov spectrum of granular gases

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Sean; Mareschal, Michel

    2001-06-01

    We calculate and study the Lyapunov spectrum of a granular gas maintained in a steady state by an isokinetic thermostat. Considering restitution coefficients greater than unity allows us to show that the spectra change smoothly and continuously at equilibrium. The shearing instability of the granular gas, however, provokes an abrupt change in the structure of the spectrum. The relationship between various physically relevant quantities and the energy dissipation rate differs from previously studied nonequilibrium steady states.

  20. Continuum modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staron, L.; Lagrée, P.-Y.

    2011-10-01

    The continuum modelling of transient granular flows is of primary importance in the context of predicting the behaviour of many natural systems involving granular matter. In this perspective, the granular column collapse experiment provides an interesting benchmark due to its challenging complexity (Lajeunesse et al 2004, Lube et al 2004), and form a trying test for candidate rheological models. In this contribution, we present 2D continuum simulations of granular column collapse using Navier-Stokes solver Gerris (Popinet 2003). The rheology implemented to model the granular media is the so-called μ(I)-rheology, relating the frictional properties and the viscosity of the material to the pressure and shear rate. In addition, discrete simulations using the Contact Dynamics method are performed for systematic comparison between the granular flow dynamics and its continuum counterpart (Staron & Hinch 2005). We find a good agreement, recovering the shape of the flow in the course of time as well as experimental scaling laws for the run-out. A systematic underestimation of the latter is nevertheless observed, and discussed in terms of physical and numerical modeling.

  1. Formation and propagation of laser-driven plasma jets in an ambient medium studied with X-ray radiography and optical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Dizière, A.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Pikuz, S.; Koenig, M.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we present experimental results obtained on the LULI2000 laser facility regarding structure and dynamics of astrophysical jets propagating in interstellar medium. The jets, generated by using a cone-shaped target, propagate in a nitrogen gas that mimics the interstellar medium. X-ray radiography as well as optical diagnostics were used to probe both high and low density regions. In this paper, we show how collimation of the jets evolves with the gas density.

  2. MODELING THE ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A GRANULAR GRAPHITE-PACKED REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive reactor model was developed for the electrolytic dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) at a granular-graphite cathode. The reactor model describes the dynamic processes of TCE dechlorination and adsorption, and the formation and dechlorination of all the major...

  3. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Infrared absorption imaging of 2D supersonic jet expansions: Free expansion, cluster formation, and shock wave patterns.

    PubMed

    Zischang, Julia; Suhm, Martin A

    2013-07-14

    N2O/He gas mixtures are expanded through a 10 × 0.5 mm(2) slit nozzle and imaged by direct absorption vibrational spectroscopy, employing a HgCdTe focal plane array detector after interferometric modulation. N2O cluster formation in the free supersonic expansion is visualized. The expansion structure behind the frontal shock is investigated as a function of background pressure. At high pressures, a sequence of stationary density peaks along a narrow directed flow channel is characterized. The potential of the technique for the elucidation of aggregation mechanisms is emphasized.

  5. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  6. Granular chaos and mixing: Whirled in a grain of sand

    SciTech Connect

    Shinbrot, Troy

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we overview examples of chaos in granular flows. We begin by reviewing several remarkable behaviors that have intrigued researchers over the past few decades, and we then focus on three areas in which chaos plays an intrinsic role in granular behavior. First, we discuss pattern formation in vibrated beds, which we show is a direct result of chaotic scattering combined with dynamical dissipation. Next, we consider stick-slip motion, which involves chaotic scattering on the micro-scale, and which results in complex and as yet unexplained peculiarities on the macro-scale. Finally, we examine granular mixing, which we show combines micro-scale chaotic scattering and macro-scale stick-slip motion into behaviors that are well described by dynamical systems tools, such as iterative mappings.

  7. Segregation of granular mixtures in a spherical tumbler.

    PubMed

    Finger, Tilo; von Rüling, Florian; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Bence; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Segregation of polydisperse granular materials in rotating containers is a ubiquitous but still not satisfactorily understood phenomenon. This study describes axial segregation of bidisperse granular mixtures of glass beads in a spherical container, rotating about its horizontal axis. Depending on the filling fraction of the mixer and on the composition of the mixture, qualitatively different spontaneously formed patterns are observed. For technical applications, the well-localized segregated bands allow a convenient separation of individual components of the mixtures. It is particularly surprising that the initial compositions of the granular mixtures have a fundamental influence on the location of the segregated bands. This evidences a collective pattern forming mechanism. The spontaneous formation of these bands cannot simply be traced back to individual particle dynamics. Existing models for segregation in spherical mixers are critically examined and extensions are suggested.

  8. Segregation of granular mixtures in a spherical tumbler.

    PubMed

    Finger, Tilo; von Rüling, Florian; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Bence; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Segregation of polydisperse granular materials in rotating containers is a ubiquitous but still not satisfactorily understood phenomenon. This study describes axial segregation of bidisperse granular mixtures of glass beads in a spherical container, rotating about its horizontal axis. Depending on the filling fraction of the mixer and on the composition of the mixture, qualitatively different spontaneously formed patterns are observed. For technical applications, the well-localized segregated bands allow a convenient separation of individual components of the mixtures. It is particularly surprising that the initial compositions of the granular mixtures have a fundamental influence on the location of the segregated bands. This evidences a collective pattern forming mechanism. The spontaneous formation of these bands cannot simply be traced back to individual particle dynamics. Existing models for segregation in spherical mixers are critically examined and extensions are suggested. PMID:27078432

  9. Shear strength of vibrated granular/granular-fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Herman, Ralph; Foltz, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of dense granular materials can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. We present experiments on shear strength of granular and granular-water mixtures under the influence of external vibrations, one parameter that leads to unjamming. We use low vibration (< 1g) and slow shear and measure avalanching statistics in a rotating drum and the torque required to move a stirrer through a sand/water mixture. We find that external vibration (i) increases granular strength at small vibrations in the dry system, (ii) removes history dependence (memory), and (iii) decreases shear strength at all accessible saturation levels in the sand-fluid system. Additionally, shear strength is found to be smallest for both dry and completely saturated mixtures. Additional ongoing experiments probe beyond a dimensionless acceleration of 1 and explore jamming and surface chemistry effects in the avalanching flow of granular/fluid mixtures.

  10. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; Strous, M; Chandran, K; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation staining. The volume fraction occupied by precipitates was determined by computed tomography scanning. PHREEQC was used to estimate potential formation of precipitates to determine a density of the inorganic fraction. Densities of bacteria were investigated by Percoll density centrifugation. The volume fractions were then coupled with the corresponding densities and the total density of a granule was calculated. The sensitivity of the density of the entire granule on the corresponding settling velocity was evaluated by changing the volume fractions of precipitates or bacteria in a settling model. Results from granules originating from a Nereda reactor for simultaneous phosphate COD and nitrogen removal revealed that phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) had a higher density than glycogen-accumulating organisms leading to significantly higher settling velocities for PAO-dominated granules explaining earlier observations of the segregation of the granular sludge bed inside reactors. The model showed that a small increase in the volume fraction of precipitates (1-5 %) strongly increased the granular density and thereby the settling velocity. For nitritation-anammox granular sludge, mainly granular diameter and not density differences are causing a segregation of the biomass in the bed. PMID:23064481

  11. Three-phase fracturing in granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James; Sandnes, Bjornar

    2015-04-01

    There exist numerous geo-engineering scenarios involving the invasion of a gas into a water-saturated porous medium: in fracking, this may occur during the fracking process itself or during subsequent gas penetration into propant beds; the process is also at the heart of carbon dioxide sequestration. We use a bed of water-saturated glass beads confined within a Hele-Shaw cell as a model system to illuminate these processes. Depending on packing density, injection rate and other factors, air injected into this system may invade in a broad variety of patterns, including viscous fingering, capillary invasion, bubble formation and fracturing. Here we focus primarily on the latter case. Fracturing is observed when air is injected into a loosely packed bed of unconsolidated granular material. Our approach allows us to image the complete fracture pattern as it forms, and as such to study both the topographical properties of the resulting pattern (fracture density, braching frequency etc) and the dynamics of its growth. We present an overview of the fracturing phenomenon within the context of pattern formation in granular fluids as a whole. We discuss how fracturing arises from an interplay between frictional, capillary and viscous forces, and demonstrate the influence of various parameters on the result.

  12. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  13. Jet formation in GRBs: a semi-analytic model of MHD flow in Kerr geometry with realistic plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Globus, Noemie; Levinson, Amir

    2014-11-20

    We construct a semi-analytic model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in Kerr geometry that incorporates energy loading via neutrino annihilation on magnetic field lines threading the horizon. We compute the structure of the double-flow established in the magnetisphere for a wide range of energy injection rates and identify the different operation regimes. At low injection rates, the outflow is powered by the spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, whereas at high injection rates, it is driven by the pressure of the plasma deposited on magnetic field lines. In the intermediate regime, both processes contribute to the outflow formation. The parameter that quantifies the load is the ratio of the net power injected below the stagnation radius and the maximum power that can be extracted magnetically from the black hole.

  14. Shock Loading of Granular Ni/Al Composites. Part 1. Mechanics of Loading

    DOE PAGES

    Cherukara, Mathew J.; Germann, Timothy C.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-10-16

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the thermomechanical response under shock loading of a granular material consisting of laminated Ni/Al grains. We observe two regimes: At low piston velocities (up ≲ 1km/s), the shock wave is diffuse, and the width of the shock front decreases with increasing piston velocity. Beyond a critical shock strength, however, the width remains relatively constant at approximately the mean grain radius. This change in behavior follows from an evolution of the mechanism of compaction with increasing insult strength. Furthermore, the mechanism evolves from plastic deformation-mediated pore collapse for relatively weak shocks, to solid extrusion andmore » fluid ejecta filling pores ahead of the shock front at intermediate strengths, and finally to atomic jetting into the pore for very strong shocks (up ≳ 2 km/s). High-energy fluid ejecta into pores leads to the formation of flow vorticity and can result in a large fraction of the input energy localizing into translational kinetic energy components including the formation of hot spots. This has implications for the mechanical mixing of Ni and Al in these reactive composites.« less

  15. Shock Loading of Granular Ni/Al Composites. Part 1. Mechanics of Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Cherukara, Mathew J.; Germann, Timothy C.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-10-16

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the thermomechanical response under shock loading of a granular material consisting of laminated Ni/Al grains. We observe two regimes: At low piston velocities (up ≲ 1km/s), the shock wave is diffuse, and the width of the shock front decreases with increasing piston velocity. Beyond a critical shock strength, however, the width remains relatively constant at approximately the mean grain radius. This change in behavior follows from an evolution of the mechanism of compaction with increasing insult strength. Furthermore, the mechanism evolves from plastic deformation-mediated pore collapse for relatively weak shocks, to solid extrusion and fluid ejecta filling pores ahead of the shock front at intermediate strengths, and finally to atomic jetting into the pore for very strong shocks (up ≳ 2 km/s). High-energy fluid ejecta into pores leads to the formation of flow vorticity and can result in a large fraction of the input energy localizing into translational kinetic energy components including the formation of hot spots. This has implications for the mechanical mixing of Ni and Al in these reactive composites.

  16. Global hydromagnetic simulations of a planet embedded in a dead zone: Gap opening, gas accretion, and formation of a protoplanetary jet

    SciTech Connect

    Gressel, O.; Nelson, R. P.; Turner, N. J.; Ziegler, U. E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk E-mail: uziegler@aip.de

    2013-12-10

    We present global hydrodynamic (HD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with mesh refinement of accreting planets embedded in protoplanetary disks (PPDs). The magnetized disk includes Ohmic resistivity that depends on the overlying mass column, leading to turbulent surface layers and a dead zone near the midplane. The main results are: (1) the accretion flow in the Hill sphere is intrinsically three-dimensional for HD and MHD models. Net inflow toward the planet is dominated by high-latitude flows. A circumplanetary disk (CPD) forms. Its midplane flows outward in a pattern whose details differ between models. (2) The opening of a gap magnetically couples and ignites the dead zone near the planet, leading to stochastic accretion, a quasi-turbulent flow in the Hill sphere, and a CPD whose structure displays high levels of variability. (3) Advection of magnetized gas onto the rotating CPD generates helical fields that launch magnetocentrifugally driven outflows. During one specific epoch, a highly collimated, one-sided jet is observed. (4) The CPD's surface density is ∼30 g cm{sup −2}, small enough for significant ionization and turbulence to develop. (5) The accretion rate onto the planet in the MHD simulation reaches a steady value 8 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ⊕} yr{sup –1} and is similar in the viscous HD runs. Our results suggest that gas accretion onto a forming giant planet within a magnetized PPD with a dead zone allows rapid growth from Saturnian to Jovian masses. As well as being relevant for giant planet formation, these results have important implications for the formation of regular satellites around gas giant planets.

  17. Jamming in Vibrated Granular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian

    2009-03-01

    Granular materials exist all around us, from avalanches in nature to the mixing of pharmaceuticals, yet the behavior of these``fluids'' is poorly understood. Their flow can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems, including granular flows, and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. I'll present experiments on quasi-static shear and free-surface granular flows under the influence of external vibrations. By using photoelastic grains, we are able to measure both particle trajectories and the local force network in these 2D flows. We find through particle tracking that dense granular flow is composed of comparable contributions from the mean flow, affine, and non-affine deformations. During shear, sufficient external vibration weakens the strong force network and reduces the amount of flow driven by sidewalls. In a rotating drum geometry, large vibrations induce failure as might be expected, while small vibration leads to strengthening of the pile. The avalanching behavior is also strongly history dependent, as evident when the rotating drum is driven in an oscillatory motion, and we find that sufficient vibration erases the memory of the pile. These results point to the central role of the mobilization of friction in quasi-static granular flow.

  18. Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics of thermal collapse in a freely cooling granular gas.

    PubMed

    Kolvin, Itamar; Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch

    2010-08-01

    We show that, in dimension higher than one, heat diffusion and viscosity cannot arrest thermal collapse in a freely evolving dilute granular gas, even in the absence of gravity. Thermal collapse involves a finite-time blowup of the gas density. It was predicted earlier in ideal, Euler hydrodynamics of dilute granular gases in the absence of gravity, and in nonideal, Navier-Stokes granular hydrodynamics in the presence of gravity. We determine, analytically and numerically, the dynamic scaling laws that characterize the gas flow close to collapse. We also investigate bifurcations of a freely evolving dilute granular gas in circular and wedge-shaped containers. Our results imply that, in general, thermal collapse can only be arrested when the gas density becomes comparable with the close-packing density of grains. This provides a natural explanation to the formation of densely packed clusters of particles in a variety of initially dilute granular flows.

  19. Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics of thermal collapse in a freely cooling granular gas.

    PubMed

    Kolvin, Itamar; Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch

    2010-08-01

    We show that, in dimension higher than one, heat diffusion and viscosity cannot arrest thermal collapse in a freely evolving dilute granular gas, even in the absence of gravity. Thermal collapse involves a finite-time blowup of the gas density. It was predicted earlier in ideal, Euler hydrodynamics of dilute granular gases in the absence of gravity, and in nonideal, Navier-Stokes granular hydrodynamics in the presence of gravity. We determine, analytically and numerically, the dynamic scaling laws that characterize the gas flow close to collapse. We also investigate bifurcations of a freely evolving dilute granular gas in circular and wedge-shaped containers. Our results imply that, in general, thermal collapse can only be arrested when the gas density becomes comparable with the close-packing density of grains. This provides a natural explanation to the formation of densely packed clusters of particles in a variety of initially dilute granular flows. PMID:20866801

  20. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results.

  1. Hierarchical Structures in Granular Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gutiérrez, J.; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Granular matter, under the proper conditions of vibration, exhibits a behavior that closely resembles that of gases, liquids or solids. In a vibrated mix of glass particles and magnetic steel particles, it is also possible to observe aggregation phenomena, as well as, processes of reconstruction of the generated clusters. In this work we discuss the effects of the so called granular temperature on the evolution of the agglomerates generated by the magnetic interactions. On the basis of a fractal analysis and the measured mass distribution, we analyze experimental results on the static structural aspects of the aggregates originated by two methods we call: granular diffusion limited aggregation (GDLA) and growth limited by concentration (GLC).

  2. Granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Johnsen, Oistein; Flekkoey, Eirik G.; Maaloey, Knut Joergen; Toussaint, Renaud

    2009-06-18

    A granular instability driven by gravity is studied experimentally and numerically. The instability arises as grains fall in a closed Hele-Shaw cell where a layer of dense granular material is positioned above a layer of air. The initially flat front defined by the grains subsequently develops into a pattern of falling granular fingers separated by rising bubbles of air. A transient coarsening of the front is observed right from the start by a finger merging process. The coarsening is later stabilized by new fingers growing from the center of the rising bubbles. The structures are quantified by means of Fourier analysis and quantitative agreement between experiment and computation is shown. This analysis also reveals scale invariance of the flow structures under overall change of spatial scale.

  3. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-12

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results. PMID:26919014

  4. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  5. Jets in black-hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    I will review selected aspects of observations and theory of jets in black-hole binaries. The radio and gamma-ray emission of jets differs significantly between the low and high-mass X-ray binaries, which appears to be due jet-wind interaction (in particular, formation of recollimation shocks) in the latter. Also, both radio and X-ray emission of the jets can be significantly absorbed in the stellar wind of the donors in high-mass binaries. I will also review the theory of radiative processes in jets, their contributions to broad-band spectra, estimates of the jet power, the role of black-hole spin in powering jets, and the possibility that the base of the jet is the main source of X-ray emission (the lamppost model).

  6. Density waves in granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Flekkøy, E.; Nagel, K.; Peng, G.; Ristow, G.

    Ample experimental evidence has shown the existence of spontaneous density waves in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that these density fluctuations follow a 1/f spectrum. We compare this behaviour to deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. We also present Lattice Gas and Boltzmann Lattice Models which reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.

  7. DUNE - a granular flow code

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, D M; Cottom, T L; Bateson, W B

    2004-11-23

    DUNE was designed to accurately model the spectrum of granular. Granular flow encompasses the motions of discrete particles. The particles are macroscopic in that there is no Brownian motion. The flow can be thought of as a dispersed phase (the particles) interacting with a fluid phase (air or water). Validation of the physical models proceeds in tandem with simple experimental confirmation. The current development team is working toward the goal of building a flexible architecture where existing technologies can easily be integrated to further the capability of the simulation. We describe the DUNE architecture in some detail using physics models appropriate for an imploding liner experiment.

  8. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  9. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  10. Size segregation in a granular bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. N.; Vriend, N. M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of particle-size segregation in an upslope propagating granular bore. A bidisperse mixture of particles, initially normally graded, flows down an inclined chute and impacts with a closed end. This impact causes the formation of a shock in flow thickness, known as a granular bore, to travel upslope, leaving behind a thick deposit. This deposit imprints the local segregated state featuring both pure and mixed regions of particles as a function of downstream position. The particle-size distribution through the depth is characterized by a thin purely small-particle layer at the base, a significant linear transition region, and a thick constant mixed-particle layer below the surface, in contrast to previously observed S-shaped steady-state concentration profiles. The experimental observations agree with recent progress that upward and downward segregation of large and small particles respectively is asymmetric. We incorporate the three-layer, experimentally observed, size-distribution profile into a depth-averaged segregation model to modify it accordingly. Numerical solutions of this model are able to match our experimental results and therefore motivate the use of a more general particle-size distribution profile.

  11. Granular physics in low-gravity enviroments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Maciel, A.; Heredia, L.; Richeri, P.; Nesmachnow, S.

    2011-10-01

    The granular media are formed by a set of macroscopic objects (named grains) which interact through temporal or permanent contacts. Several processes has been identified which require a full understanding, like: grain blocking, formation of arcs, size segregation, response to shakes and impacts, etc. These processes has been studied experimentally in the laboratory, and, in the last decades, numerically. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulate the mechanical behavior in a media formed by a set of particles which interact through their contact points. We describe the implementation of DEM for the study of several relevant processes in minor bodies of the Solar System. We present the results of simulations of the process of size segregation in low-gravity environments, the so-called Brazil nut effect, in the cases of Eros and Itokawa. The segregation of particles with different densities is also analyzed, with the application to the case of P/Hartley 2. The surface shaking in these different gravity environments could produce the ejection of particles from the surface at very low relative velocities. The shaking that cause the above processes is due to impacts or explosions like the release of energy by the liberation of internal stresses or the reaccommodation of material. We run simulations of the passage of seismic wave produced at impact through a granular media.

  12. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured, Hyperluminous Quasars at Redshifts ∼ 0.5–3. I. ALMA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, M.; Kimball, A. E.; Blain, A.; Whittle, M.; Wilkes, B.; Stern, D.; Condon, J.; Kim, M.; Assef, R. J.; Tsai, C.-W.; Efstathiou, A.; Jones, S.; Eisenhardt, P.; Bridge, C.; Wu, J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Jones, K.; Jarrett, T.; Smith, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm (345 GHz) data for 49 high-redshift (0.47 < z < 2.85), luminous (11.7\\lt {log}({L}{{bol}}/{L}ȯ )\\lt 14.2) radio-powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs), obtained to constrain cool dust emission from starbursts concurrent with highly obscured radiative-mode black hole (BH) accretion in massive galaxies that possess a small radio jet. The sample was selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with extremely steep (red) mid-infrared colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 μm, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios, consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7\\lt {log}({P}\\text{3.0 GHz}/{{{W}} {Hz}}-1)\\lt 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 < log(MBH/M⊙) < 10.2. The rest-frame 1–5 μm spectral energy distributions are very similar to the “Hot DOGs” (hot dust-obscured galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estimated for the ALMA-detected sources are 9.9 < log (MISM/M⊙) < 11.75 assuming a dust temperature of 30 K. The cool dust emission is consistent with star formation rates reaching several thousand M⊙ yr‑1, depending on the assumed dust temperature, but we cannot rule out the alternative that the AGN powers all the emission in some cases. Our best constrained source has radiative transfer solutions with approximately equal contributions from an obscured AGN and a young (10–15 Myr) compact starburst.

  13. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured, Hyperluminous Quasars at Redshifts ˜ 0.5-3. I. ALMA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, M.; Kimball, A. E.; Blain, A.; Whittle, M.; Wilkes, B.; Stern, D.; Condon, J.; Kim, M.; Assef, R. J.; Tsai, C.-W.; Efstathiou, A.; Jones, S.; Eisenhardt, P.; Bridge, C.; Wu, J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Jones, K.; Jarrett, T.; Smith, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm (345 GHz) data for 49 high-redshift (0.47 < z < 2.85), luminous (11.7\\lt {log}({L}{{bol}}/{L}⊙ )\\lt 14.2) radio-powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs), obtained to constrain cool dust emission from starbursts concurrent with highly obscured radiative-mode black hole (BH) accretion in massive galaxies that possess a small radio jet. The sample was selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with extremely steep (red) mid-infrared colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 μm, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios, consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7\\lt {log}({P}\\text{3.0 GHz}/{{{W}} {Hz}}-1)\\lt 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 < log(MBH/M⊙) < 10.2. The rest-frame 1-5 μm spectral energy distributions are very similar to the “Hot DOGs” (hot dust-obscured galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estimated for the ALMA-detected sources are 9.9 < log (MISM/M⊙) < 11.75 assuming a dust temperature of 30 K. The cool dust emission is consistent with star formation rates reaching several thousand M⊙ yr-1, depending on the assumed dust temperature, but we cannot rule out the alternative that the AGN powers all the emission in some cases. Our best constrained source has radiative transfer solutions with approximately equal contributions from an obscured AGN and a young (10-15 Myr) compact starburst.

  14. Fluctuations in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Daniel W.; Behringer, R. P.; Veje, C. T.

    1999-09-01

    Dense slowly evolving or static granular materials exhibit strong force fluctuations even though the spatial disorder of the grains is relatively weak. Typically, forces are carried preferentially along a network of "force chains." These consist of linearly aligned grains with larger-than-average force. A growing body of work has explored the nature of these fluctuations. We first briefly review recent work concerning stress fluctuations. We then focus on a series of experiments in both two- and three-dimension [(2D) and (3D)] to characterize force fluctuations in slowly sheared systems. Both sets of experiments show strong temporal fluctuations in the local stress/force; the length scales of these fluctuations extend up to 102 grains. In 2D, we use photoelastic disks that permit visualization of the internal force structure. From this we can make comparisons to recent models and calculations that predict the distributions of forces. Typically, these models indicate that the distributions should fall off exponentially at large force. We find in the experiments that the force distributions change systematically as we change the mean packing fraction, γ. For γ's typical of dense packings of nondeformable grains, we see distributions that are consistent with an exponential decrease at large forces. For both lower and higher γ, the observed force distributions appear to differ from this prediction, with a more Gaussian distribution at larger γ and perhaps a power law at lower γ. For high γ, the distributions differ from this prediction because the grains begin to deform, allowing more grains to carry the applied force, and causing the distributions to have a local maximum at nonzero force. It is less clear why the distributions differ from the models at lower γ. An exploration in γ has led to the discovery of an interesting continuous or "critical" transition (the strengthening/softening transition) in which the mean stress is the order parameter, and the mean

  15. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Kye-Si Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-06-15

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  16. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    DOE PAGES

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rathermore » than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.« less

  17. Micromechanical aspects of granular ratcheting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando; Galindo-Torres, Sergio-Andres; Wang, Yucang

    2009-06-01

    The existence of granular ratcheting as a long-time behavior in granular materials is still under discussion in the scientific and engineering community. This behavior refers to the constant accumulation of permanent deformation per cycle, when the granular sample is subjected to loading-unloading stress cycles with amplitudes well bellow the yield limit. Ratcheting regimes are observed in both numerical and physical experiments. There is no controversy about the existence of ratcheting when the stress amplitudes reach the yield criterion. However, it is not clear whether this effect persists for loading amplitudes well bellow the yield limit, or whether there is a certain regime where no accumulation of deformation occurs. Early numerical simulations suggested that ratcheting may persist for extremely small loading amplitudes (Alonso-Marroquin and H. J. Herrmann, Rev. Lett. 92 5 (2004) 054301). More recent investigations drive to the conclusion that ratcheting at low stress amplitudes may be strongly influenced by the selection of the contact force (McNamara et al.. Phys. Rev. E 77 (3) (2008) 31304). Here we present a numerical investigation of the dependence of granular ratcheting on contact force in a packing of spheres using the Cundall-Strack model and the McNamara correction to the contact force. We conclude that ratcheting for spherical particles is strongly influenced by the McNamara correction. The question of the existence of genuine ratcheting for small cycles for non-spherical particles is still unsolved.

  18. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rather than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.

  19. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Costes, Nicholas C.; Porter, Ronald F.

    1996-01-01

    The constitutive behavior of uncemented granular materials such as strength, stiffness, and localization of deformations are to a large extend derived from interparticle friction transmitted between solid particles and particle groups. Interparticle forces are highly dependent on gravitational body forces. At very low effective confining pressures, the true nature of the Mohr envelope, which defines the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soils, as well as the relative contribution of each of non-frictional components to soil's shear strength cannot be evaluated in terrestrial laboratories. Because of the impossibility of eliminating gravitational body forces on earth, the weight of soil grains develops interparticle compressive stresses which mask true soil constitutive behavior even in the smallest samples of models. Therefore the microgravity environment induced by near-earth orbits of spacecraft provides unique experimental opportunities for testing theories related to the mechanical behavior of terrestrial granular materials. Such materials may include cohesionless soils, industrial powders, crushed coal, etc. This paper will describe the microgravity experiment, 'Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)', scheduled to be flown on Space Shuttle-MIR missions. The paper will describe the experiment's hardware, instrumentation, specimen preparation procedures, testing procedures in flight, as well as a brief summary of the post-mission analysis. It is expected that the experimental results will significantly improve the understanding of the behavior of granular materials under very low effective stress levels.

  20. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts Jim Reilly and Bornie Dunbar are going through the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment procedures as they are expected to run in flight; to gain experience with the experiment equipment and to test the clarity and language of the procedures as written.

  1. Mechanics of granular materials (MGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Costes, Nicholas C.; Porter, Ronald F.

    1996-07-01

    The constitutive behavior of uncemented granular materials such as strength, stiffness, and localization of deformations are to a large extent derived from interparticle friction transmitted between solid particles and particle groups. Interparticle forces are highly dependent on gravitational body forces. At very low effective confining pressures, the true nature of the Mohr envelope, which defines the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soils, as well as the relative contribution of each of non-frictional components to soil's shear strength cannot be evaluated in terrestrial laboratories. Because of the impossibility of eliminating gravitational body forces on earth, the weight of soil grains develops interparticle compressive stresses which mask true soil constitutive behavior even in the smallest samples of models. Therefore the microgravity environment induced by near-earth orbits of spacecraft provides unique experimental opportunities for testing theories related to the mechanical behavior of terrestrial granular materials. Such materials may include cohesionless soils, industrial powders, crushed coal, etc. This paper will describe the microgravity experiment, 'Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)', scheduled to be flown on Space Shuttle-MIR missions. The paper will describe the experiment's hardware, instrumentation, specimen preparation procedures, testing procedures in flight, as well as a brief summary of the post-mission analysis. It is expected that the experimental results will significantly improve the understanding of the behavior of granular materials under very low effective stress levels.

  2. Granular flows in volcanic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, Lucia

    2006-11-01

    Volcaniclastic flows, which include from sediment-water to dry granular flow, are multiphase-system flows that involve some combination of solid, liquid and air. Their behavior in response to applied shear stress is a function of the proportion of these components, grain-size distribution and finally the physical and chemical properties of the solid components. They are generically classified as non-newtonian fluid, from pseudoplasic to dilatant with yield value (generically defined as Bingham fluid). Rheologic threshold can be defined on the base of grain-size distribution. Granular flows (i.e. debris avalanches originated from volcanic collapses) generally contain less than 10 percent in vol. of interstitial fluids which do not constitute a continuous phase in transporting solid fragments. Different mechanisms of granular fluidization have been achieved for such type of flows and particles collision/friction are dominant mechanisms acting during transport. For granular flows less than 1 km3 in volume, the mobility is not directly related with the mass volume and their runout depends on grain-size distribution, clast composition, and type of sliding surface. Textural and morphological characteristics of particles at different flow depths and their variation down-flow are important indicator of the mechanism of emplacement, which can vary from friction to collision-dominated regime. Several examples from Mexican active volcanoes will be here presented.

  3. An infrequent histopathological subtype of ameloblastoma: Adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid

    PubMed Central

    Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Gholami, Mahdi; Eshghpour, Majid; Mehri, Tahere

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid is a rare odontogenic tumor. Granular cell ameloblastoma also is a less common histological subtype of ameloblastoma. In this report, the patient was a 31-year-old male. The lesion was located in the right mandible and was unicystic with well-defined borders. The tumor tissue was showing a combination of follicular, plexiform, and desmoplastic patterns of ameloblastoma with wide areas of granular cells, fibrous stroma, glandular pattern, and dentinoid calcified. Very few cases of distinct forms of ameloblastoma that show the formation of dentinoid has been reported. However, there are no cases of adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid reported.

  4. An infrequent histopathological subtype of ameloblastoma: Adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid.

    PubMed

    Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Gholami, Mahdi; Eshghpour, Majid; Mehri, Tahere

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid is a rare odontogenic tumor. Granular cell ameloblastoma also is a less common histological subtype of ameloblastoma. In this report, the patient was a 31-year-old male. The lesion was located in the right mandible and was unicystic with well-defined borders. The tumor tissue was showing a combination of follicular, plexiform, and desmoplastic patterns of ameloblastoma with wide areas of granular cells, fibrous stroma, glandular pattern, and dentinoid calcified. Very few cases of distinct forms of ameloblastoma that show the formation of dentinoid has been reported. However, there are no cases of adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid reported. PMID:27605998

  5. An infrequent histopathological subtype of ameloblastoma: Adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid

    PubMed Central

    Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Gholami, Mahdi; Eshghpour, Majid; Mehri, Tahere

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid is a rare odontogenic tumor. Granular cell ameloblastoma also is a less common histological subtype of ameloblastoma. In this report, the patient was a 31-year-old male. The lesion was located in the right mandible and was unicystic with well-defined borders. The tumor tissue was showing a combination of follicular, plexiform, and desmoplastic patterns of ameloblastoma with wide areas of granular cells, fibrous stroma, glandular pattern, and dentinoid calcified. Very few cases of distinct forms of ameloblastoma that show the formation of dentinoid has been reported. However, there are no cases of adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid reported. PMID:27605998

  6. Particle deposition in granular media: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, Chi

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics on particle deposition in granular media. The six topics discussed are: experimental determination of initial collection efficiency in granular beds - an assessment of the effect of instrument sensitivity and the extent of particle bounce-off; deposition of polydispersed aerosols in granular media; in situ observation of aerosol deposition in a two-dimensional model filter; solid velocity in cross-flow granular moving bed; aerosol deposition in granular moving bed; and aerosol deposition in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. (LSP)

  7. Microscopic evidence of grain boundary moisture during granular salt reconsolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2015-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and a seal system component. Salt formation pressures will promote reconsolidation of granular salt, eventually resulting in low permeabilities, comparable to native salt. Understanding the consolidation processes, dependent on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature, is important for demonstrating sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is achieved by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. When present, fluid assists in grain boundary processes and recrystallization. Fluid inclusions are typically found in abundance within bedded salt crystal structure and along grain boundaries, but are rarely observed internal to domal salt grains. We have observed fluid canals and evidence of moisture along grain boundaries in domal salt. In this research, we investigate grain boundary moisture in granular salt that has been reconsolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Avery Island was used to create cylindrical samples, vented and unvented, which were reconsolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. Unvented reconsolidation retains essentially all the grain boundary moisture as found ubiquitously on scanning electron photomicrographs of consolidated samples which revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of canals from residual moisture. This contrasts significantly with the vented samples, which had virtually no grain boundary moisture after consolidation. Microstructural techniques include scanning electron, stereo-dynascopic, and optical microscopy. The observations will be used

  8. Granular Segregation Driven by Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, C.; Zuriguel, I.; Garcimartín, A.; Mullin, T.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C . All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  9. Granular segregation driven by particle interactions.

    PubMed

    Lozano, C; Zuriguel, I; Garcimartín, A; Mullin, T

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C. All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  10. [Jet lag].

    PubMed

    Lagarde, D; Doireau, P

    1997-01-01

    Desynchronization of circadian rhythmicity resulting from rapid travel through at least four time zones leads to symptoms known in everyday English as jet-lag. The most detrimental effect of jet-lag is fatigue with poor alertness and psychomotor performance. Severity is subject to individual variation in susceptibility (morning/evening typology, age,...) and environmental factors (direction of travel, number of time zones crossed, psychosocial environment...). Many measures used to prevent or reduce jet lag are inappropriate or ineffective and some may even be dangerous, such as use of melatonin. One of the most reliable preventive techniques consists of reinforcing social synchronizers by maintaining exposure to sunlight and social activity. Only two drugs currently available on the market can be recommended, i.e. non-benzodiazepinic hypnotics which induce high quality sleep to allow quick recovery and a new time-release caffeine agent which has been shown to prolong psychomotor performance.

  11. Synthetic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milanovic, Ivana M.

    2003-01-01

    Current investigation of synthetic jets and synthetic jets in cross-flow examined the effects of orifice geometry and dimensions, momentum-flux ratio, cluster of orifices, pitch and yaw angles as well as streamwise development of the flow field. This comprehensive study provided much needed experimental information related to the various control strategies. The results of the current investigation on isolated and clustered synthetic jets with and without cross-flow will be further analyzed and documented in detail. Presentations at national conferences and publication of peer- reviewed journal articles are also expected. Projected publications will present both the mean and turbulent properties of the flow field, comparisons made with the data available in an open literature, as well as recommendations for the future work.

  12. Electrochemical and Crystallographic Aspects of Lead Granular Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Nebojša D.; Ivanović, Evica R.; Branković, Goran; Lačnjevac, Uroš Č.; Stevanović, Sanja I.; Stevanović, Jasmina S.; Pavlović, Miomir G.

    2015-08-01

    Lead granules synthesized by the potentiostatic regime of electrolysis were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy technique. Effect of the different parameters of electrolysis, such as solution composition, overpotential of electrodeposition, and quantity of the electricity, on lead granular growth has been systematically investigated. Aside from the electrochemical aspects of lead granular growth, crystallographic aspects of the obtained granules were also analyzed. In the dependence of the electrodeposition conditions, granules of various shapes were obtained. The granules, such as octahedrons and hexagons, as well as many various types of twinned particles: single-twinned, multiply-twinned, lamellar-twinned, and many other complicated shapes denoted as polyparticles, were synthesized through regulation of the parameters of electrolysis. Increasing both the concentration of Pb2+ ions and overpotential of the electrodeposition favored the formation of more complicated forms. Formation of granules of specified crystallographic characteristics was also correlated with the basic principle of metal electrocrystallization.

  13. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  14. ELLERMAN BOMBS WITH JETS: CAUSE AND EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Scullion, E.; Gallagher, P.; Doyle, J. G.; Shelyag, S.

    2015-05-20

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5–10 km s{sup −1}, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s{sup −1}. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  15. Ellerman Bombs with Jets: Cause and Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Scullion, E.; Doyle, J. G.; Shelyag, S.; Gallagher, P.

    2015-05-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5-10 km s-1, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s-1. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  16. Free cooling of the one-dimensional wet granular gas.

    PubMed

    Zaburdaev, V Yu; Brinkmann, M; Herminghaus, S

    2006-07-01

    The free cooling behavior of a wet granular gas is studied in one dimension. We employ a particularly simple model system in which the interaction of wet grains is characterized by a fixed energy loss assigned to each collision. Macroscopic laws of energy dissipation and cluster formation are studied on the basis of numerical simulations and mean-field analytical calculations. We find a number of remarkable scaling properties which may shed light on earlier unexplained results for related systems.

  17. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Dynamics of formation of the liquid-drop phase of laser erosion jets near the surfaces of metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. K.; Kontsevoi, V. L.; Puzyrev, M. V.

    1995-03-01

    An investigation was made of laser erosion jets formed at 0.1-1.5 mm above the surfaces of Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, and Zn targets. A neodymium laser emitting rectangular pulses of 400 μs duration and of energy up to 400 J was used. The diameters, as well as the number density and volume fraction of the metal particles present in the jet, were measured. An analysis of the results showed that the metal liquid drops broke up near the surface and experienced additional evaporation because of their motion opposite to the laser beam.

  18. Shear deformation in granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardenhagen, S.G.; Brackbill, J.U.; Sulsky, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    An investigation into the properties of granular materials is undertaken via numerical simulation. These simulations highlight that frictional contact, a defining characteristic of dry granular materials, and interfacial debonding, an expected deformation mode in plastic bonded explosives, must be properly modeled. Frictional contact and debonding algorithms have been implemented into FLIP, a particle in cell code, and are described. Frictionless and frictional contact are simulated, with attention paid to energy and momentum conservation. Debonding is simulated, with attention paid to the interfacial debonding speed. A first step toward calculations of shear deformation in plastic bonded explosives is made. Simulations are performed on the scale of the grains where experimental data is difficult to obtain. Two characteristics of deformation are found, namely the intermittent binding of grains when rotation and translation are insufficient to accommodate deformation, and the role of the binder as a lubricant in force chains.

  19. Dilatancy in slow granular flows.

    PubMed

    Kabla, Alexandre J; Senden, Tim J

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected. PMID:19658906

  20. Dilatancy in Slow Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, Alexandre J.; Senden, Tim J.

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected.

  1. Electrification of Shaken Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Onur; Nordsiek, Freja; Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Granular charging of particle laden flows are widespread and has long been observed. Volcanic ash clouds, desert sandstorms, dust devils, thunderstorms and snowstorms all undergo electrification at large scale. However the mechanism by which such processes occur, is not yet well understood. We confine granular particles to an oscillating cylindrical chamber which is enclosed and sealed by two conducting plates. The primary measurement obtained is the voltage between the two plates. We find that collective effects occurring in the bulk of the material play a significant role in the electrification process. We extend the previous results by the addition of photodectection capabilities to the experimental chamber. We present simultaneous measurements of voltage and light emission.

  2. Studies of elasticity, sound propagation and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Makse, Hernan A.; Johnson, David L.

    2014-09-03

    This is the final report describing the results of DOE Grant # DE-FG02-03ER15458 with original termination date of April 31, 2013, which has been extended to April 31, 2014. The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical and experimental understanding of sound propagation, elasticity and dissipation in granular materials. The topic is relevant for the efficient production of hydrocarbon and for identifying and characterizing the underground formation for storage of either CO2 or nuclear waste material. Furthermore, understanding the basic properties of acoustic propagation in granular media is of importance not only to the energy industry, but also to the pharmaceutical, chemical and agricultural industries. We employ a set of experimental, theoretical and computational tools to develop a study of acoustics and dissipation in granular media. These include the concept effective mass of granular media, normal modes analysis, statistical mechanics frameworks and numerical simulations based on Discrete Element Methods. Effective mass measurements allow us to study the mechanisms of the elastic response and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media. We perform experiments and simulations under varying conditions, including humidity and vacuum, and different interparticle force-laws to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of damping and acoustic propagation in granular media. A theoretical statistical approach studies the necessary phase space of configurations in pressure, volume fraction to classify granular materials.

  3. Electron transport in granular metals.

    PubMed

    Altland, Alexander; Glazman, Leonid I; Kamenev, Alex

    2004-01-16

    We consider thermodynamic and transport properties of a long granular array with strongly connected grains (intergrain conductance g>1). We find that the system's conductance and differential capacitance exhibits activated behavior, approximately exp([-T(*)/T]. The gap T(*) represents the energy needed to create a long single-electron charge soliton propagating through the array. This scale is parametrically larger than the energy at which conventional perturbation theory breaks down.

  4. Detailed Jet Dynamics in a Collapsing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed visualizations of the micro-jet forming inside an aspherically collapsing cavitation bubble near a free surface. The high-quality visualizations of large and strongly deformed bubbles disclose so far unseen features of the dynamics inside the bubble, such as a mushroom-like flattened jet-tip, crown formation and micro-droplets. We also find that jetting near a free surface reduces the collapse time relative to the Rayleigh time.

  5. Dynamic compaction of granular materials

    PubMed Central

    Favrie, N.; Gavrilyuk, S.

    2013-01-01

    An Eulerian hyperbolic multiphase flow model for dynamic and irreversible compaction of granular materials is constructed. The reversible model is first constructed on the basis of the classical Hertz theory. The irreversible model is then derived in accordance with the following two basic principles. First, the entropy inequality is satisfied by the model. Second, the corresponding ‘intergranular stress’ coming from elastic energy owing to contact between grains decreases in time (the granular media behave as Maxwell-type materials). The irreversible model admits an equilibrium state corresponding to von Mises-type yield limit. The yield limit depends on the volume fraction of the solid. The sound velocity at the yield surface is smaller than that in the reversible model. The last one is smaller than the sound velocity in the irreversible model. Such an embedded model structure assures a thermodynamically correct formulation of the model of granular materials. The model is validated on quasi-static experiments on loading–unloading cycles. The experimentally observed hysteresis phenomena were numerically confirmed with a good accuracy by the proposed model. PMID:24353466

  6. Bipedal locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, Mark; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel

    Bipedal walking, locomotion characterized by alternating swing and double support phase, is well studied on ground where feet do not penetrate the substrate. On granular media like sand however, intrusion and extrusion phases also occur. In these phases, relative motion of the two feet requires that one or both feet slip through the material, degrading performance. To study walking in these phases, we designed and studied a planarized bipedal robot (1.6 kg, 42 cm) that walked in a fluidized bed of poppy seeds. We also simulated the robot in a multibody software environment (Chrono) using granular resistive force theory (RFT) to calculate foot forces. In experiment and simulation, the robot experienced slip during the intrusion phase, with the experiment presenting additional slip due to motor control error during the double support phase. This exaggerated slip gave insight (through analysis of ground reaction forces in simulation) into how slip occurs when relative motion exists between the two feet in the granular media, where the foot with higher relative drag forces (from its instantaneous orientation, rotation, relative direction of motion, and depth) remains stationary. With this relationship, we generated walking gaits for the robot to walk with minimal slip.

  7. Modelling of the material transport and layer formation in the divertor of JET: Comparison of ITER-like wall with full carbon wall conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, A.; Matveev, D.; Borodin, D.; Airila, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Groth, M.; Wiesen, S.; Widdowson, A.; Beal, J.; Esser, H. G.; Likonen, J.; Bekris, N.; Ding, R.

    2015-08-01

    Impurity transport within the inner JET divertor has been modelled with ERO to estimate the transport to and the resulting deposition at remote areas. Various parametric studies involving divertor plasma conditions and strike point position have been performed. In JET-ILW (beryllium main chamber and tungsten divertor) beryllium, flowing from the main chamber into the divertor and then effectively reflected at the tungsten divertor tiles, is transported to remote areas. The tungsten flux to remote areas in L-Mode is in comparison to the beryllium flux negligible due to small sputtering. However, tungsten is sputtered during ELMs in H-Mode conditions. Nevertheless, depending on the plasma conditions, strike point position and the location of the remote area, the maximum resulting tungsten flux to remote areas is at least ∼3 times lower than the corresponding beryllium flux. Modelled beryllium and tungsten deposition on a rotating collector probe located below tile 5 is in good agreement with measurements if the beryllium influx into the inner divertor is assumed to be in the range of 0.1% relative to the deuterium ion flux and erosion due to fast charge exchange neutrals is considered. Comparison between JET-ILW and JET-C is presented.

  8. Turbulent Jets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, B. H.; Rosen, P. A.; Foster, J. M.; Perry, T. S.; Steinkamp, M. J.; Robey, H. F.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Gittings, M. L.; Coker, R. F.; Keiter, P. A.; Knauer, J. P.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Sinars, D. B.; Campbell, R. B.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2003-10-01

    Over the last few years we have fielded numerous supersonic jet experiments on the NOVA and OMEGA lasers and Sandia's pulsed-power Z-machine in a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Atomic Weapons Establishment, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory. These experiments are being conducted to help validate our radiation-hydrodynamic codes, especially the newly developing ASC codes. One of the outstanding questions is whether these types of jets should turn turbulent given their high Reynolds number. Recently we have modified our experiments to have more Kelvin-Helmholtz shear, run much later in time and therefore have a better chance of going turbulent. In order to diagnose these large (several mm) jets at very late times ( 1000 ns) we are developing point-projection imaging on both the OMEGA laser, the Sandia Z-Machine, and ultimately at NIF. Since these jets have similar Euler numbers to jets theorized to be produced in supernovae explosions, we are also collaborating with the astrophysics community to help in the validation of their new codes. This poster will present a review of the laser and pulsed-power experiments and a comparison of the data to simulations by the codes from the various laboratories. We will show results of simulations wherein these jets turn highly 3-dimensional and show characteristics of turbulence. With the new data, we hope to be able to validate the sub-grid-scale turbulent mix models (e. g. BHR) that are being incorporated into our codes.*This work is performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics under Contract No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, Sandia National Laboratories under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000, the Office of Naval Research, and the NASA Astrophysical Theory Grant.

  9. The contribution of exopolysaccharides induced struvites accumulation to ammonium adsorption in aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y M; Bassin, J P; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-03-15

    Aerobic granular sludge from a lab-scale reactor with simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes exhibited significant amount of ammonium adsorption (1.5 mg NH4+-N/g TSS at an ammonium concentration of 30 mg N/L). Potassium release accompanied ammonium adsorption, indicating an ion exchange process. The existence of potassium magnesium phosphate (K-struvite) as one of potassium sources in the granular sludge was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Artificially prepared K-struvite was indeed shown to adsorb ammonium. Alginate-like exopolysaccharides were isolated and their inducement for struvite formation was investigated as well. Potassium magnesium phosphate proved to be a major factor for ammonium adsorption on the granular sludge. Struvites (potassium/ammonium magnesium phosphate) accumulate in aerobic granular sludge due to inducing of precipitation by alginate-like exopolysaccharides.

  10. FNA of thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Harp, Eric; Caraway, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Granular cell tumor rarely occurs in the thyroid. This case report describes the cytologic features of a granular cell tumor seen in a fine needle aspirate obtained from a 27-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging thyroid nodule. The aspirate showed single as well as syncytial clusters of cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis in this case included granular cell tumor, Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm, and a histiocytic reparative process. Immunohistochemical studies, including S-100 protein and CD68, performed on a cell block preparation were helpful in supporting the diagnosis.

  11. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  12. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  13. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-12-25

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93-106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100-200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake and

  14. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93–106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100–200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake

  15. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-12-25

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93-106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100-200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake and

  16. Jammed Clusters and Non-locality in Dense Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, Prashidha; Rognon, Pierre

    We investigate the micro-mechanisms underpinning dense granular flow behaviour from a series of DEM simulations of pure shear flows of dry grains. We observe the development of transient clusters of jammed particles within the flow. Typical size of such clusters is found to scale with the inertial number with a power law that is similar to the scaling of shear-rate profile relaxation lengths observed previously. Based on the simple argument that transient clusters of size l exist in the dense flow regime, the formulation of steady state condition for non-homogeneous shear flow results in a general non-local relation, which is similar in form to the non-local relation conjectured for soft glassy flows. These findings suggest the formation of jammed clusters to be the key micro-mechanism underpinning non-local behaviour in dense granular flows. Particles and Grains Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

  17. Weak and compact radio emission in early massive star formation regions: an ionized jet toward G11.11–0.12P1

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P.; McCoy, M.; Kurtz, S.; Loinard, L.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Araya, E. D.; Cesaroni, R.; Ellingsen, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    We report 1.3 cm and 6 cm continuum observations toward the massive proto-stellar candidate G11.11–0.12P1 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We detect a string of four unresolved radio continuum sources coincident with the mid-infrared source in G11P1. The continuum sources have positive spectral indices consistent with a thermal (free-free) ionized jet. The most likely origins of the ionized gas are shocks due to the interaction of a stellar wind with the surrounding high-density material. We also present NIR United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) archival data that show an extended structure detected only at K band (2.2 μm), which is oriented perpendicular to the jet, and that may be scattered light from a circumstellar disk around the massive protostar. Our observations plus the UKIRT archival data thus provide new evidence that a disk/jet system is present in the massive proto-stellar candidate located in the G11.11–0.12P1 core.

  18. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih

    2016-04-01

    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  19. Jets and Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Stephen D.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Scholtz, Jakub

    2013-03-01

    This Letter applies the concept of “jets,” as constructed from calorimeter cell four-vectors, to jets composed (primarily) of photons (or leptons). Thus jets become a superset of both traditional objects such as QCD jets, photons, and electrons, and more unconventional objects such as photon jets and electron jets, defined as collinear photons and electrons, respectively. Since standard objects such as single photons become a subset of jets in this approach, standard jet substructure techniques are incorporated into the photon finder toolbox. Using a (reasonably) realistic calorimeter model we demonstrate that, for a single photon identification efficiency of 80% or above, the use of jet substructure techniques reduces the number of QCD jets faking photons by factors of 2.5 to 4. Depending on the topology of the photon jets, the substructure variables reduce the number of photon jets faking single photons by factors of 10 to 103 at a single photon identification efficiency of 80%.

  20. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

  1. Compaction Waves in Granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kober; R. Menikoff

    1999-01-01

    Piston driven compaction waves in granular HMX are simulated with a two-dimensional continuum mechanics code in which individual grains are resolved. The constitutive properties of the grains are modeled with a hydrostatic pressure and a simple elastic-plastic model for the shear stress. Parameters are chosen to correspond to inert HMX. For a tightly packed random grain distribution (with initial porosity of 19%) we varied the piston velocity to obtain weak partly compacted waves and stronger fully compacted waves. The average stress and wave speed are compatible with the porous Hugoniot locus for uni- axial strain. However, the heterogeneities give rise to stress concentrations, which lead to localized plastic flow. For weak waves, plastic deformation is the dominant dissipative mechanism and leads to dispersed waves that spread out in time. In addition to dispersion, the granular heterogeneities give rise to subgrain spatial variation in the thermodynamic variables. The peaks in the temperature fluctuations, known as hot spots, are in the range such that they are the critical factor for initiation sensitivity.

  2. Extensional Rheology of Granular Staples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Collections of U-shaped granular materials (e.g. staples) show a surprising resistance to being pulled apart. We conduct extensional stress-strain experiments on staple piles with vary arm/spine (barb) ratio. The elongation is not smooth, with the pile growing in bursts, reminiscent of intruder motion through ordinary and rod-like granular materials. The force-distance curve shows a power-law scaling, consistent with previous intruder experiments. Surprisingly, there is significant plastic creep of the pile as particles rearrange slightly in response to the increasing force. There is a broad distribution of yield forces that does not seem to evolve as the pile lengthens, suggesting that each yield event is independent of the pile's history. The distribution of yield forces can be interpreted in the context of a Weibullian weakest-link theory that predicts the maximum pile strength to decrease sharply with increasing pile length. From this interpretation arise length and force scales that may be used to characterize the sample. This research supported in part by the NSF (CBET-#1133722) and ACS-PRF (#51438-UR10).

  3. Granular media in transformation: dynamics and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre; Sauret, Alban; SVI, CNRS/Saint-Gobain Team

    2015-11-01

    Sintering, glass melting and other industrially relevant processes turn batches of grains into continuous end products. Such processes involve complex and mostly misunderstood chemical and physical transformations of the granular packing. Affecting the contact network, physicochemical reactions entail mechanical rearrangements. But such reorganizations may also trigger new potential reactions. Granular reactive systems are strongly coupled and need investigations for achieving industrial optimizations. This study is focused on how transformations appearing on its components affect the response of the granular packing. Inert brass disks and grains undergoing well-known transformations like volume decrease are mixed and then confined in a vertical 2D cell. While the system reacts, the granular packing is regularly photographed with a high-resolution camera. Events largely distributed both spatially and temporally occur around reactive grains. Thanks to image processing, this reorganization process is then analyzed. Spatial and temporal amplitudes of events are quantified as well as their local and global impacts on the granular structure.

  4. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  5. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  6. Visualizing 3D fracture morphology in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Recent work has pointed to the importance of capillary forces in some relevant regimes of fracturing of granular materials (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011), leading to the term hydro-capillary fracturing (Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these experimental and computational investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a 3D granular bed, and control the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We determine the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system, and elucidate different regimes of the invasion pattern. We present result for the 3D morphology of the invasion, with particular emphasis on the fracturing regime.

  7. Visualizing 3D Fracture Morphology in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbe, M. J.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Recent work has pointed to the importance of capillary forces in some relevant regimes of fracturing of granular materials (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011), leading to the term hydro-capillary fracturing (Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these experimental and computational investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a 3D granular bed, and control the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We determine the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system, and elucidate different regimes of the invasion pattern. We present result for the 3D morphology of the invasion, with particular emphasis on the fracturing regime.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran

  9. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  10. Compression of granular pillars with constant width at top and bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Yuka; Rieser, Jennifer; Gollub, Jerry; Durian, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    Granular media display both elastic and plastic behavior, including the formation of shear bands under extreme loading. In this study, we performed two-dimensional granular pillar compression experiments and tracked of grain- and macro- scale flows via video imaging and force measurement. Especially we focus on the condition that the top and bottom widths of the granular pillars are constrained to avoid free expansion along the contact edge. This causes more energy to be stored elastically deep inside of the pillars, which gives rise to a different kind of shear banding than for free top/bottom widths. Furthermore we tried several series of experiments with different elastic/frictional particles and also ordered/disordered systems. We demonstrate how the micro properties and packing structure contribute to the formation of shear band to discuss the mechanical failure in disordered packing.

  11. Microgravity experiments on a granular gas of elongated grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, K.; Trittel, T.; Kornek, U.; Höme, S.; Will, K.; Strachauer, U.; Stannarius, R.

    2013-06-01

    Granular gases represent well-suited systems to investigate statistical granular dynamics. The literature comprises numerous investigations of ensembles of spherical or irregularly shaped grains. Mainly computer models, analytical theories and experiments restricted to two dimensions were reported. In three-dimensions, the gaseous state can only be maintained by strong external excitation, e. g. vibrations or electro-magnetic fields, or in microgravity. A steady state, where the dynamics of a weakly disturbed granular gas are governed by particle-particle collisions, is hard to realize with spherical grains due to clustering. We present the first study of a granular gas of elongated cylinders in three dimensions. The mean free path is considerably reduced with respect to spheres at comparable filling fractions. The particles can be tracked in 3D over a sequence of frames. In a homogeneous steady state, we find non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a lack of equipartition of kinetic energy. We discuss the relations between energy input and vibrating plate accelerations. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editors, the PDF file of this article has been updated to amend some references present in the PDF file submitted to AIP Publishing. The references affected are listed here:[1] (c) K. Nichol and K. E. Daniels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 018001 (2012); [11] (e) P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1993); [17] (b) K. Harth, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 144102 (2013).A LaTeX processing error resulted in changes to the authors reference formatting, which was not detected prior to publication. Due apologies are given to the authors for this oversight. The updated article PDF was published on 12 August 2013.

  12. Impact in dense granular suspensions: crucial role of dilatancy and pore pressure feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Yoel; Soundar Jerome, J. John; Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Duchemin, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the impact of a rigid sphere onto a granular paste made of non-buoyant glass beads mixed with a liquid under gravity. We show that the initial volume fraction of the granular packing has a critical influence on the impact behavior. For loose packing, the ball sinks in the granular medium as in a liquid, giving rise to a collapsing cavity and a central jet as observed with fine powders in air. By contrast, for dense packing, the ball stops as soon as it hits the surface and its kinetic energy is almost instantly dissipated. We interpret this ``liquid-solid'' transition as the volume fraction change by a coupling between dilatancy effects and the liquid pore pressure during the impact. Dynamic pore pressure measurements and a simple diphasic model taking into account dilatancy support this mechanism. Our results show that ``shear-thickening-like'' phenomena in granular suspensions can arise from transient diphasic coupling rather than from the intrinsic rheology of the material. This work was supported by ANR through the program No. ANR-11-JS09-005-01.

  13. Microstructural observations of reconsolidated granular salt to 250°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2014-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and as a seal system component. Granular salt is expected to reconsolidate to a low permeability condition because of external pressure from the surrounding salt formation. Understanding the consolidation processes--known to depend on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature--is important for predicting achievement of sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is accomplished by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities of less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. We investigate the micro-mechanisms operative in granular salt that has been consolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. These conditions would occur proximal to heat-generating canisters. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was used to create cylindrical samples which were consolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. From samples consolidated to fractional densities of 86% and 97% polished thin sections, etched cleavage chips, and fragments were fabricated. Microstructural techniques included scanning electron and optical microscopy. Microstructure of undeformed mine-run salt was compared to the deformed granular salt. Observed deformation mechanisms include glide, cross slip, climb, fluid-assisted creep, pressure-solution redeposition, and annealing. Documentation of operative deformation mechanisms within the consolidating granular salt, particularly at grain boundaries, is essential to establish effects of moisture, stress, and temperature. Future work will include characterization of pore structures. Information gleaned in these studies supports evaluation of a constitutive model for

  14. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  15. Granular gases under extreme driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  16. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the inflowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. This paper presents work since then on a continuous filtration system. The continuous filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized-bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solids feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized-bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

  17. Reduction of bromate by granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kirisits, M.J.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Kruithof, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Ozonation of waters containing bromide can lead to the formation of bromate, a probable human carcinogen. Since bromate will be regulated at 10 {micro}g/L by the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule, there is considerable interest in finding a suitable method of bromate reduction. Granular activated carbon (GAC) can be used to chemically reduce bromate to bromide, but interference from organic matter and anions present in natural water render this process inefficient. In an effort to improve bromate reduction by GAC, several modifications were made to the GAC filtration process. The use of a biologically active carbon (BAC) filter ahead of a fresh GAC filter with and without preozonation, to remove the biodegradable organic matter, did not substantially improve the bromate removal of the GAC filter. The use of the BAC filter for biological bromate reduction proved to be the most encouraging experiment. By lowering the dissolved oxygen in the influent to the BAC from 8.0 mg/L to 2.0 mg/L, the percent bromate removal increased from 42% to 61%.

  18. Advanced granular-type perpendicular recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Migaku; Saito, Shin

    We introduce our recent experimental results for three blocked layers for currently used perpendicular recording media; a recording layer (RL: for recording), a soft magnetic underlayer (SUL: magnetic flux path in writing), and a nonmagnetic intermediate layer (NMIL: underlayer of RL and separation layer between RL and SUL). For the NMIL, uniaxial crystallographic symmetry is an essential requirement for suppression of variant growth of magnetic grains in granular-type RL. From this view point, AlN with wurtzite structure and materials with pseudo-hcp structure, which means fcc structure with stacking faults, were found to be effective. For the SUL, disordered hcp CoIr with negative Ku were found to well suppress both spike noise and track erasure due to a wide distribution of magnetic flux under the return yoke in writing and formation of a Neel wall instead of a Bloch wall in the SUL. For the RL, positive-/negative- Ku stacked media with incoherent switching mode was found to be effective in order to solve the recent write-ability problem for high Ku RL material with high thermal stability. Applying all these items, an advanced medium concept with the stacking structure of "CoPtCr-oxide/CoIr-oxide/CoIr/pseudo-hcp nonmagnetic layer/substrate" is very promising from the view point of (1) switching field reduction of a RL with high Ku material, (2) conventional amorphous SUL free, and (3) conventional NMIL free.

  19. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  20. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Andrew F.; Richards, Kelvin J.

    2011-09-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on timescales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  1. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  6. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy....

  7. Simulations of Slowly Precessing Molecular Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, A.; Smith, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Molecular jets are frequently associated with the star formation process, and so examining simulated jets for molecular emission can help to answer questions related to the energy budget for the jets, the nature of the ambient medium and the evolution of the underlying source. Previously, we have simulated 3D molecular jets and examined them for the effects of the jet-to-ambient density, rapid mass flux changes, and the angle of a fast precessing jet. Here, we extend the work on precessing jets by slowing the rate of the precession to one turn in a jet axis crossing time (for our small grid, this is about 400 years). In one of the two simulations presented here, we removed the pulsation that had been present in all of our previous molecular jet simulations. We will show simulated images in some molelcular hydrogen and CO emission lines, some sample position velocity and velocity channel maps from both simulations. We also analyse the simulations for the mass-velocity and intensity-velocity relationships. This work has been done with the support of PPARC and the Cosmogrid project, funded under PRTLI through the Irish Higher Education Authority.

  8. Accretion flows govern black hole jet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koljonen, K.; Russell, D.; Fernández Ontiveros, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Russell, T.; Curran, P.; Soria, R.; Markoff, S.; van der Horst, A.; Casella, P.

    2015-07-01

    The process of jet formation in accreting black holes, and the conditions under which it occurs is currently hotly debated, with competing models predicting the jet power to be governed by black hole spin, the magnetic field strength, the location of the jet base, the mass accretion rate and/or the properties of the inner accretion flow. We present new results that show empirical correlations between the accretion flow properties and the spectral energy distribution of the jets launched from accreting black holes. The X-ray power law is directly related to the particle energy distribution in the hot accretion flow. We find that the photon index of this power law correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum emitted near the jet base, and the jet luminosity up to the break frequency. The observed correlations can be explained by the energy distribution of electrons in the hot accretion flow being subsequently channeled into the jet. These correlations represent a new inflow--outflow connection in accreting black holes, and demonstrate that the spectral properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions in the inner accretion flow, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin.

  9. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  10. Impact compaction of a granular material

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modeling.

  11. Flow induction by rotary jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garris, Charles A.; Foa, Joseph V.

    Theoretical analyses of generalized flow induction were carried out which showed that the least dissipative mode of flow induction is the cryptosteady mode. Studies were carried out on the energetics of vortex formation showing that in pulsatile thrust augmentors, considerable energy is carried away as kinetic energy of rotation. Parametric studies were conducted on rotary-jet thrust augmentation yielding a best thrust augmentation of 1.97. Theoretical and experimental studies on the utilization of propagating stall were conducted. The promise of eliminating moving parts for the rotary-jet thrust augmentor was explored and parametric testing was conducted to establish conditions for obtaining stall. Experiments showed, however, that stall is relatively difficult to obtain in configurations compatible with the rotary jet thrust augmentor.

  12. Axisymmetric instability in a thinning electrified jet.

    PubMed

    Dharmansh; Chokshi, Paresh

    2016-04-01

    The axisymmetric stability of an electrified jet is analyzed under electrospinning conditions using the linear stability theory. The fluid is considered Newtonian with a finite electrical conductivity, modeled as a leaky dielectric medium. While the previous studies impose axisymmetric disturbances on a cylindrical jet of uniform radius, referred to as the base state, in the present study the actual thinning jet profile, obtained as the steady-state solution of the one-dimensional slender filament model, is treated as the base state. The analysis takes into account the role of variation in the jet variables like radius, velocity, electric field, and surface charge density along the thinning jet in the stability behavior. The eigenspectrum of the axisymmetric disturbance growth rate is constructed from the linearized disturbance equations discretized using the Chebyshev collocation method. The most unstable growth rate for the thinning jet is significantly different from that for the uniform radius jet. For the same electrospinning conditions, while the uniform radius jet is predicted to be highly unstable, the thinning jet profile is found to be unstable but with a relatively very low growth rate. The stabilizing role of the thinning jet is attributed to the variation in the surface charge density as well as the extensional deformation rate in the fluid ignored in the uniform radius jet analysis. The dominant mode for the thinning jet is an oscillatory conducting mode driven by the field-charge coupling. The disturbance energy balance finds the electric force to be the dominant force responsible for the disturbance growth, potentially leading to bead formation along the fiber. The role of various material and process parameters in the stability behavior is also investigated.

  13. Axisymmetric instability in a thinning electrified jet.

    PubMed

    Dharmansh; Chokshi, Paresh

    2016-04-01

    The axisymmetric stability of an electrified jet is analyzed under electrospinning conditions using the linear stability theory. The fluid is considered Newtonian with a finite electrical conductivity, modeled as a leaky dielectric medium. While the previous studies impose axisymmetric disturbances on a cylindrical jet of uniform radius, referred to as the base state, in the present study the actual thinning jet profile, obtained as the steady-state solution of the one-dimensional slender filament model, is treated as the base state. The analysis takes into account the role of variation in the jet variables like radius, velocity, electric field, and surface charge density along the thinning jet in the stability behavior. The eigenspectrum of the axisymmetric disturbance growth rate is constructed from the linearized disturbance equations discretized using the Chebyshev collocation method. The most unstable growth rate for the thinning jet is significantly different from that for the uniform radius jet. For the same electrospinning conditions, while the uniform radius jet is predicted to be highly unstable, the thinning jet profile is found to be unstable but with a relatively very low growth rate. The stabilizing role of the thinning jet is attributed to the variation in the surface charge density as well as the extensional deformation rate in the fluid ignored in the uniform radius jet analysis. The dominant mode for the thinning jet is an oscillatory conducting mode driven by the field-charge coupling. The disturbance energy balance finds the electric force to be the dominant force responsible for the disturbance growth, potentially leading to bead formation along the fiber. The role of various material and process parameters in the stability behavior is also investigated. PMID:27176407

  14. Axisymmetric instability in a thinning electrified jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmansh; Chokshi, Paresh

    2016-04-01

    The axisymmetric stability of an electrified jet is analyzed under electrospinning conditions using the linear stability theory. The fluid is considered Newtonian with a finite electrical conductivity, modeled as a leaky dielectric medium. While the previous studies impose axisymmetric disturbances on a cylindrical jet of uniform radius, referred to as the base state, in the present study the actual thinning jet profile, obtained as the steady-state solution of the one-dimensional slender filament model, is treated as the base state. The analysis takes into account the role of variation in the jet variables like radius, velocity, electric field, and surface charge density along the thinning jet in the stability behavior. The eigenspectrum of the axisymmetric disturbance growth rate is constructed from the linearized disturbance equations discretized using the Chebyshev collocation method. The most unstable growth rate for the thinning jet is significantly different from that for the uniform radius jet. For the same electrospinning conditions, while the uniform radius jet is predicted to be highly unstable, the thinning jet profile is found to be unstable but with a relatively very low growth rate. The stabilizing role of the thinning jet is attributed to the variation in the surface charge density as well as the extensional deformation rate in the fluid ignored in the uniform radius jet analysis. The dominant mode for the thinning jet is an oscillatory conducting mode driven by the field-charge coupling. The disturbance energy balance finds the electric force to be the dominant force responsible for the disturbance growth, potentially leading to bead formation along the fiber. The role of various material and process parameters in the stability behavior is also investigated.

  15. Penetration of Granular Projectiles into a Water Target

    PubMed Central

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The penetration of low-speed projectiles into a water target has been studied in the last several years to understand the physics behind the formation and collapse of cavities. In such studies, the projectiles employed were solid bodies or liquid drops. Here we report similar impact experiments using granular projectiles, with the aim to investigate how the morphology of the cavities is determined by the balance between the dynamic pressure exerted by the fluid and the cohesive strength of the impactors. From the results we present and discuss in this manuscript, we speculate on the dynamics of meteorite disintegration in the atmosphere of our planet. PMID:25342448

  16. Force and Flow Transition in Plowed Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2010-09-01

    We use plate drag to study the response of granular media to localized forcing as a function of volume fraction ϕ. A bifurcation in the force and flow occurs at the onset of dilatancy ϕc. Below ϕc rapid fluctuations in the drag force FD are observed. Above ϕc fluctuations in FD are periodic and increase in magnitude with ϕ. Velocity field measurements indicate that the bifurcation in FD results from the formation of stable shear bands above ϕc which are created and destroyed periodically during drag. A friction-based wedge flow model captures the dynamics for ϕ>ϕc.

  17. Penetration of granular projectiles into a water target.

    PubMed

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Carrillo-Estrada, J L; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2014-01-01

    The penetration of low-speed projectiles into a water target has been studied in the last several years to understand the physics behind the formation and collapse of cavities. In such studies, the projectiles employed were solid bodies or liquid drops. Here we report similar impact experiments using granular projectiles, with the aim to investigate how the morphology of the cavities is determined by the balance between the dynamic pressure exerted by the fluid and the cohesive strength of the impactors. From the results we present and discuss in this manuscript, we speculate on the dynamics of meteorite disintegration in the atmosphere of our planet. PMID:25342448

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-11-01

    inelasticity of inter-grain encounters—as velocity independent is inconsistent with the mechanical point of view. An asymptotic expression for the impact velocity dependence of ɛ is therefore derived for visco-elastic spheres. The important inelastic Boltzmann equation is introduced in part II and the associated velocity distribution characterized for a force-free medium (so-called free cooling regime). Transport processes can then be analyzed in part III at the single particle level, and part IV from a more macroscopic viewpoint. The corresponding Chapman Enskog-like hydrodynamic approach is worked out in detail, in a clear fashion. Finally, the tendency of granular gases to develop instabilities is illustrated in part V where the hydrodynamic picture plays a pivotal role. This book clearly sets the stage. For the sake of simplicity, the authors have discarded some subtle points, such as the open questions underlying the hydrodynamic description (why include the temperature among the hydrodynamic modes, and what about the separation of space and time scales between kinetic and hydrodynamic excitations?). Such omissions are understandable. To a certain extent however, the scope of the book is centered on previous work by the authors, and I have a few regrets. Special emphasis is put on the (variable ɛ) visco-elastic model, which enhances the technical difficulty of the presentation. On the other hand, the important physical effects including scaling laws, hydrodynamic behaviour and structure formation, can be understood in two steps, from the results derived within the much simpler constant ɛ model, allowing subsequently \\varepsilon to depend on the granular temperature. The authors justify their choice with the inconsistency of the constant ɛ route. The improvements brought by the visco-elastic model remain to be assessed, since the rotational degrees of freedom, discarded in the book, play an important role and require due consideration of both tangential and normal

  19. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of combustion jet ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Ghoniem, A. F.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    A combustion jet ignition system was developed to generate turbulent jets of combustion products containing free radicals and to discharge them as ignition sources into a combustible medium. In order to understand the ignition and the inflammation processes caused by combustion jets, the studies of the fluid mechanical properties of turbulent jets with and without combustion were conducted theoretically and experimentally. Experiments using a specially designed igniter, with a prechamber to build up and control the stagnation pressure upstream of the orifice, were conducted to investigate the formation processes of turbulent jets of combustion products. The penetration speed of combustion jets has been found to be constant initially and then decreases monotonically as turbulent jets of combustion products travel closer to the wall. This initial penetration speed to combustion jets is proportional to the initial stagnation pressure upstream of the orifice for the same stoichiometric mixture. Computer simulations by Chorin's Random Vortex Method implemented with the flame propagation algorithm for the theoretical model of turbulent jets with and without combustion were performed to study the turbulent jet flow field. In the formation processes of the turbulent jets, the large-scale eddy structure of turbulence, the so-called coherent structure, dominates the entrainment and mixing processes. The large-scale eddy structure of turbulent jets in this study is constructed by a series of vortex pairs, which are organized in the form of a staggered array of vortex clouds generating local recirculation flow patterns.

  1. Modeling of solvent evaporation from polymer jets in electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Fa; Salkovskiy, Yury; Dzenis, Yuris A.

    2011-05-01

    Solvent evaporation plays a critical role in nanofiber formation in electrospinning. Here, we present a nonlinear mass diffusion-transfer model describing the drying process in dilute polymer solution jets. The model is used to predict transient solvent concentration profiles in polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) jets with the initial radii ranging from 50 μm down to 100 nm. Numerical simulations demonstrate high transient inhomogeneity of solvent concentration over the jet cross-section in microscopic jets. The degree of inhomogeneity decreases for finer, submicron jets. The simulated jet drying time decreases rapidly with the decreasing initial jet radius, from seconds for microjets to single milliseconds for nanojets. The results demonstrate the need for further improved coupled multiphysics models of electrospinning jets.

  2. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  3. Granular crystals: Nonlinear dynamics meets materials engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    In this article, the freedom to choose the size, stiffness, and spatial distribution of macroscopic particles in a lattice makes granular crystals easily tailored building blocks for shock-absorbing materials, sound-focusing devices, acoustic switches, and other exotica.

  4. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.

  5. Noise induces rare events in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard M.

    2016-09-01

    The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below. We use techniques from the theory of rare events to compute the mean transition time for breaking to occur. This requires the introduction of a two-component reaction coordinate.

  6. Two phase granular transport in cylindrical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Monem; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut-Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally study the granular transport properties of a gas/liquid interface as it progresses trough a horizontal capillary tube, filled with a mixture of water and a sedimented granular layer.The displacement dynamics of such dense mixtures exhibit a rheology determined by the frictional interactions between the individual grains, capillary thresholds and the viscous interactions. By direct imaging and pressure measurements we observe different transport regimes as the pumping rate is varied. We classify these regimes according to the observed predominance of frictional or viscous interactions in a phase diagram. For the frictional regime the granular material is not transported out of the tube but structured in a pattern, characterized by its series of granular plugs and gaps. with the pressure signal displaying intermittent stick-slip behavior.

  7. Granular materials under vibration and thermal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke

    We report flow rate measurement of granular materials from a lab size silo with and without sinusoidal vibration, and the flows from a jammed container under mechanical shocks. We also report the investigation of fragility in granular materials using controlled cyclic temperature variation, or thermal cycling that induces microscopic changes in the size of the grains and the container. When placed under sinusoidal vibration, the flow rate or flux from an unjammed container decreases with the peak velocity of the vibration, and becomes a constant at the highest peak velocities. The flux under vibration follows a 5/2 power scaling rule to corrected orifice diameter, the same scaling rule that is also observed in the absence of vibration. Under vibration, granular flux is no greater than the flux without vibration. Density dilution of granular packs under vibration is likely the cause for such reduced flux, and can be described by a model based on energy balance at the vibrating boundary. The eventual saturation of flux at the highest peak velocities signifies a possible transition from granular fluid to granular gas, as the density decreases and inter-grain interaction changes. Brief flows can be initiated from a jammed container using mechanical impacts. The number of grains flowing out of the container as well as the duration of these flows follows an almost exponential decay distribution. The probability that a flow can be initiated by an impact increases with impact intensity and ratio the diameters of the orifice and the grain. The possible container size and filling depth dependence are also discussed. For the thermal cycling measurement, data show that the packing fraction of granular samples increases under thermal cycles regardless of the relative thermal expansions of the grains or the container. A heavy intruder, when passing a density threshold, sinks in a granular pile under thermal cycles. The results show that the bulk property of granular materials

  8. Jet Reconstruction and Calibration in the ATLAS Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen Roca, Sigrid

    2006-10-27

    Many physics studies in ATLAS require precise reconstruction and calibration of particle jet kinematics. Among these are the reconstruction of the top quark mass, the search for the Higgs boson, and possible supersymmetric particles. The ATLAS calorimeter system has been designed to meet these requirements across a wide acceptance in pseudorapidity (|{eta}|<5). Different calorimeter technologies are applied in different rapidity regions to optimize the performance with respect to coverage, containment, highest possible spatial granularity, and the best possible energy resolution, in the difficult and changing experimental conditions characteristic for each of these regions.In this talk we briefly illustrate the ATLAS calorimeter features most relevant for the jet measurement. The general approach to calorimeter jet calibration is two-fold. First, the jet signal shape is used to correct for detector effects such as non-compensation and energy losses in inactive materials. This followed by corrections for biases introduced by the jet clustering algorithms and effects from the collision physics environment. We intend to discuss this calibration procedure and the different strategies available to implement it, in the context of the evaluation of the jet reconstruction performance for various available jet clustering algorithms, including a fixed cone and the Kt algorithm. A focus in this discussion is on the expected initial run condition at ATLAS start-up.

  9. The Giant Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.; Arnone, E.; Zanotti, F.; Cummer, S.; Li, J.; Füllekrug, M.; van der Velde, O.

    2012-04-01

    Thunderstorm clouds may discharge directly to the ionosphere in spectacular luminous jets - the longest electric discharges on our planet. The electric properties of jets, such as their polarity, conductivity, and currents, have been predicted by models, but are poorly characterized by measurements. Here we present an analysis of the first gigantic jet that with certainty has a positive polarity. The jet region in the mesosphere was illuminated by an unusual sprite discharge generated by a positive cloud-to-ground lightning flash shortly after the onset of the jet. The sprite appeared with elements in a ring at ~40 km distance around the jet, the elements pointing curving away from the jet. This suggests that the field close the jet partially cancels the field driving the sprite. From a simple model of the event we conclude that a substantial portion of the positive cloud potential must be carried to ~50 km altitude, which is also consistent with the observed channel expansion and the electromagnetic radiation associated with the jet. It is further shown that blue jets are likely to substantially modify the free electron content in the lower ionosphere because of increased electron attachment driven by the jet electric field. The model further makes clear the relationship between jets, gigantic jets, and sprites. This is the first time that sprites are used for sounding the properties of the mesosphere. The observations presented here will allow evaluation of theories for jet and gigantic jet generation and of their influence on the atmosphere-ionosphere system.

  10. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  11. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  12. Underwater operation of a DBD plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John E.; Weatherford, Brandon; Gillman, Eric; Yee, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    A plasma jet produced in water using a submerged ac excited electrode in a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge configuration was studied. Plasma jet formation was found to occur only while the source was submerged. Plasma jet operation was characterized with and without gas flow. It was found that over 60% of the discharge power was deposited into the water and did not vary appreciably with excitation frequency. Presumably the remaining power fraction went into excitation, ionization and local electrode heating. Emission spectra of the jet revealed nitrogen, hydrogen, hydroxyl and oxygen emission lines. Operation of the plasma jet in water containing the oxidation-reduction indicator methylene blue dye resulted in a marked clearing of the water as observed visually and with a spectrophotometer, suggesting plasma-induced chemical reactivity.

  13. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  14. Supersonic gas jets for laser-plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Schmid, K; Veisz, L

    2012-05-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of De Laval nozzles, which are ideal for gas jet generation in a wide variety of experiments. Scaling behavior of parameters especially relevant to laser-plasma experiments as jet collimation, sharpness of the jet edges and Mach number of the resulting jet is studied and several scaling laws are given. Special attention is paid to the problem of the generation of microscopic supersonic jets with diameters as small as 150 μm. In this regime, boundary layers dominate the flow formation and have to be included in the analysis.

  15. Sedimentation of granular columns in the viscous and weakly inertial regimes.

    PubMed

    Chraïbi, Hamza; Amarouchene, Yacine

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the dynamics of granular columns of point particles that interact via long-range hydrodynamic interactions and fall under the action of gravity. We investigate the influence of inertia using the Green's function for the Oseen equation. The initial conditions (density and aspect ratio) are systematically varied. Our results suggest that universal self-similar laws may be sufficient to characterize the temporal and structural evolution of the granular columns. A characteristic time above which an instability is triggered (which may enable the formation of clusters) is also retrieved and discussed. PMID:24229164

  16. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-..beta.. and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1/sup +/ cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 ..mu..m nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML(/sup 3/H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide.

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  18. Smarticles: smart, active granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, Will; Pazouki, Arman; Negrut, Dan; Goldman, Daniel

    We investigate a granular medium composed of smart, active particles, or ``smarticles''. Previously, we discovered that ensembles of ``u''-shaped particles exhibited geometrically-induced cohesion by mechanically entangling via particle interpenetration [Gravish et al., PRL, 2012]; the strength and/or extent of entanglement could be varied by changing particle level entanglement by changes in arm-to-base length of the u-particle. Since changing this parameter on demand is inconvenient, we develop a power-autonomous programmable robot composed of two motors and three links with an on-board microcontroller. This smarticle can be activated to change its configuration (specified by its two joint angles) through audio communication. To complement these experiments, since study large ensembles of smarticles is cost and labor prohibitive, we also develop a simulated smarticle in the Chrono multibody simulation environment. We systematically study ensemble cohesiveness and compaction as a function of shape changes of the smarticles. We find that suitable activation of smarticles allows ensembles to become cohesive to ``grip'' rigid objects and lose cohesion to release on command. Work supported by ARO.

  19. Physicochemical properties of granular and non-granular cationic starches prepared under ultra high pressure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoon-Je; Choi, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Wooki; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Granular and non-granular cationic starches were prepared through the reaction of tapioca and corn starches with 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETMAC) using conventional and ultra high pressure (UHP)-assisted reactions. The cationic starches were characterized with respect to morphology, degree of substitution (DS), FT-IR, (13)C NMR, X-ray diffraction pattern, solubility and swelling power, pasting viscosity, and flocculating activity. Non-granular (relative to granular) cationic starches possessed higher DS values. While DS values of non-granular cationic starches were lower for UHP-assisted (relative to conventional) reaction, granular cationic starches did not differ for both reactions. For flocculation activity, granular cationic starches with lower solubility and higher swelling power were higher than non-granular counterparts with reversed patterns in solubility and swelling power, regardless of conventional and UHP-assisted reactions. Overall results suggested that flocculation activity of cationic starches may be directly associated with their swelling powers (relative to DS values).

  20. Control of jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    To investigate the possibility of active control of jet noise, knowledge of the noise generation mechanisms in natural jets is essential. Once these mechanisms are determined, active control can be used to manipulate the noise production processes. We investigated the evolution of the flow fields and the acoustic fields of rectangular and circular jets. A predominant flapping mode was found in the supersonic rectangular jets. We hope to increase the spreading of supersonic jets by active control of the flapping mode found in rectangular supersonic jets.

  1. Minimal mass transfer across dolomitic granular fault cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Andrea; Primavera, Paolo; Soligo, Michele; Tuccimei, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The role of chemical changes and mass transfer in the formation of granular fault cores across carbonate strata is still unclear. Thirteen granular fault cores across strata of dolostone from Sperlonga, central Italy, are analyzed by chemical and physical methods. The analyzed faults are reverse or transpressional, up to about 1 m thick, and flanked by a host rock affected by a widely developed solution cleavage. Grain size distributions of fault core rocks are determined by a sieving procedure for grains larger than 63 μm. Mechanisms of grain comminution are inferred by microscopic analyses on a set of thin sections obtained from epoxy-impregnated fault rock samples. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in the fault cores and in the adjacent host rock are determined by titrimetry. Results show that both the breccia and the gouge forming the fault cores show little evidence for mass transfer, regardless of the fault type and grain size distribution of fault rocks. We interpret these results as chiefly the effect, within the fault core, of a strongly reduced permeability, which impeded significant mass transfer processes through solute transport. It follows that grain comminution occurred mostly by brittle processes such as crushing and abrasive wear. Previous work suggests that these results are rather generalizable; some exceptions, however, compel further research on the role of circulating fluids and mass transfer in the formation of carbonate fault rocks.

  2. Granular chains with soft boundaries: Slowing the transition to quasiequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Przedborski, Michelle; Harroun, Thad A; Sen, Surajit

    2015-04-01

    We present here a detailed numerical study of the dynamical behavior of "soft" uncompressed grains in a granular chain where the grains interact via the intrinsically nonlinear Hertz force. It is well known that such a chain supports the formation of solitary waves (SWs). Here, however, the system response to the material properties of the grains and boundaries is explored further. In particular, we examine the details of the transition of the system from a SW phase to an equilibrium-like (or quasiequilibrium) phase, and for this reason we ignore the effects of dissipation in this study. We find that the soft walls slow the reflection of SWs at the boundaries of the system, which in turn slows the journey to quasiequilibrium. Moreover, the increased grain-wall compression as the boundaries are softened results in fewer average grain-grain contacts at any given time in the quasiequilibrium phase. These effects lead to increased kinetic energy fluctuations in the short term in softer systems. We conclude with a toy model that exploits the results of soft-wall systems. This toy model supports the formation of breather-like entities and may therefore be useful for localizing energy in desired places in the granular chain.

  3. Granular segregation in quasi-2d rectangular bin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharat, Sandip H.; Khakhar, D. V.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments are carried out in quasi two-dimensional rectangular bin (two vertical glass plate separated by a gap of 10 mm) to study the effect of feed composition on segregation of granular mixtures during heap formation by intermittent feeding. The stainless steel (SS 316) balls of different sizes (1 and 2 mm) are used as model granular materials. The heap is formed by repeatedly pouring a fixed mass of the mixture. Each feeding results in the formation of a layer of the mixture on the surface of the heap. Results presented here are for binary mixtures with different size and equal density. Profiles of the number fraction of big particles along the flow direction averaged across the depth of the layer are plotted. In each layer formed by a pouring, segregation results in the small particles being deposited first. Thus, the small particles are concentrated in the upper part of the layer and the large particles in the lower part with a mixed region between the two. The extent of segregation is found to increase with decrease in concentration of big particles in the mixture.

  4. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single

  5. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This reports describes experiments conducted at the High-Speed Jet Facility at the University of Southern California on supersonic jets. The goal of the study was to develop methods for controlling the noise emitted from supersonic jets by passive and/or active means. Work by Seiner et al (1991) indicates that eddy Mach wave radiation is the dominant noise source in a heated high speed jet. Eddy Mach radiation is caused by turbulent eddies traveling at supersonic speed in the shear layer of the jet. The convection velocity of the eddies decays with increasing distance from the nozzle exit due to the mixing of the jet stream with the ambient fluid. Once the convection speed reaches subsonic velocities, eddy Mach wave radiation ceases. To control noise, a rapid decay of the convection velocity is desired. This may be accomplished by enhanced mixing in the jet. In this study, small aspect ratio rectangular jet nozzles were tested. A flapping mode was noticed in the jets. By amplifying screech components of the jets and destabilizing the jet columns with a collar device, the flapping mode was excited. The result was a rapid decay of the jet velocity. A reduction in eddy Mach radiation in rectangular supersonic jets may be achieved with this device.

  6. Control of jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    This reports describes experiments conducted at the High-Speed Jet Facility at the University of Southern California on supersonic jets. The goal of the study was to develop methods for controlling the noise emitted from supersonic jets by passive and/or active means. Work by Seiner et al (1991) indicates that eddy Mach wave radiation is the dominant noise source in a heated high speed jet. Eddy Mach radiation is caused by turbulent eddies traveling at supersonic speed in the shear layer of the jet. The convection velocity of the eddies decays with increasing distance from the nozzle exit due to the mixing of the jet stream with the ambient fluid. Once the convection speed reaches subsonic velocities, eddy Mach wave radiation ceases. To control noise, a rapid decay of the convection velocity is desired. This may be accomplished by enhanced mixing in the jet. In this study, small aspect ratio rectangular jet nozzles were tested. A flapping mode was noticed in the jets. By amplifying screech components of the jets and destabilizing the jet columns with a collar device, the flapping mode was excited. The result was a rapid decay of the jet velocity. A reduction in eddy Mach radiation in rectangular supersonic jets may be achieved with this device.

  7. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  8. QUASI-STATIC MODEL OF MAGNETICALLY COLLIMATED JETS AND RADIO LOBES. II. JET STRUCTURE AND STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Fowler, T. Kenneth; Hooper, E. Bickford; McClenaghan, Joseph; Lin, Zhihong

    2015-11-10

    This is the second in a series of companion papers showing that when an efficient dynamo can be maintained by accretion disks around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, it can lead to the formation of a powerful, magnetically driven, and mediated helix that could explain both the observed radio jet/lobe structures and ultimately the enormous power inferred from the observed ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. In the first paper, we showed self-consistently that minimizing viscous dissipation in the disk naturally leads to jets of maximum power with boundary conditions known to yield jets as a low-density, magnetically collimated tower, consistent with observational constraints of wire-like currents at distances far from the black hole. In this paper we show that these magnetic towers remain collimated as they grow in length at nonrelativistic velocities. Differences with relativistic jet models are explained by three-dimensional magnetic structures derived from a detailed examination of stability properties of the tower model, including a broad diffuse pinch with current profiles predicted by a detailed jet solution outside the collimated central column treated as an electric circuit. We justify our model in part by the derived jet dimensions in reasonable agreement with observations. Using these jet properties, we also discuss the implications for relativistic particle acceleration in nonrelativistically moving jets. The appendices justify the low jet densities yielding our results and speculate how to reconcile our nonrelativistic treatment with general relativistic MHD simulations.

  9. Granular Materials and Risks in ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilki8nson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today s massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  10. Granular Materials and Risks In ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today's massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  11. A Void Diffusion Model of Granular Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Jayanta; Vieth, Paul

    2009-03-01

    In an earlier paper^1 we derived a nonlinear diffusion equation to describe the dynamics in granular flow based on a Diffusion Void Model (DVM). The equation was successfully used to describe the flow of a homogeneous granular material through the hole of a container under gravity. It also properly described similar flow in the presence of a flat horizontal barrier placed above the hole. Recently, however, we have found out that the above nonlinear equation does not lead to correct static equilibrium. For example, the stability of the free surface of a granular aggregate cannot be described by the equation. The equation also fails to describe, say, how an unstable vertical column of a granular material will change to a stable λ-shaped pile at the angle of repose. In this paper work we derive an equation using an appropriate current density of voids that can explain all the observed dynamical characteristics of a simple granular state. ^1Jayanta K. Rudra and D. C. Hong, Phys. Rev. E47, R1459(1993).

  12. Reversibility in locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, William; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A recent study of a self-deforming robot [Hatton et al., PRL, 2013] demonstrated that slow movement in dry granular media resembles locomotion in low Re fluids, in part because inertia is dominated by friction. The study indicated that granular swimming was kinematically reversible, a surprise because yielding in granular flow is irreversible. To investigate if reciprocal motions lead to net displacements in granular swimmers, in laboratory experiments, we study the locomotion of a robotic ``scallop'' consisting of a square body with two flipper-like limbs controlled to flap forward and backward symmetrically (a flap cycle). The body is constrained by linear bearings to allow motion in only one dimension. We vary the the flapping frequency f, the body/flipper burial depth d, and the number of flaps N in a deep bed of 6 mm diameter plastic spheres. Over a range of f and d, the N = 1 cycle produces net translation of the body; however for large N, a cycle produces no net translation. We conclude that symmetric strokes in granular swimming are irreversible at the onset of self-deformation, but become asymptotically reversible. work supported by NSF and ARL.

  13. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  14. Analysis of laser-produces jets from locally heated targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Holger; Robinson, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Recent simulations showed that it might be possible to produce a jet by locally heating a foil target with a high intensity laser, so as to produce a single blast wave which then drives jet formation. In contrast to many earlier experimental setups, the jets in this configuration are formed by a two stage process similar to that thought to be responsible for jets from young stellar objects. As the blast wave expands into the ambient medium it creates an inverse conical density structure. This inverse cone focuses the flow into a conically converging flow which then turns into a narrow jet. The realisation of this two step process in an experiment could make it possible to study the formation of stellar jets in the laboratory. We present new results investigating the criteria that lead to the creation of the inverse conical structure and the subsequent jet formation. The localised heating necessary for driving the jet is achieved by guiding the electrons in self generated magnetic fields at resistivity gradients. We present simulations demonstrating the geometries that lead to the localised heating suitable for jet formation. This work is funded by the European Research Council, grant STRUCMAGFAST (ERC-StG-2012).

  15. Jets of incipient liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A. V.; Mazheiko, N. A.; Skripov, V. P.

    2000-05-01

    Jets of incipient water escaping into the atmosphere through a short channel are photographed. In some experiments. complete disintegration of the jet is observed. The relationship of this phenomenon with intense volume incipience is considered. The role of the Coanda effect upon complete opening of the jet is revealed. Measurement results of the recoil force R of the jets of incipient liquids are presented. Cases of negative thrust caused by the Coanda effect are noted. Generalization of experimental data is proposed.

  16. Jets in AGN at extremely high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, Leonid I.; Frey, Sándor; Paragi, Zsolt

    2015-03-01

    The jet phenomenon is a trademark of active galactic nuclei (AGN). In most general terms, the current understanding of this phenomenon explains the jet appearance by effects of relativistic plasma physics. The fundamental source of energy that feeds the plasma flow is believed to be the gravitational field of a central supermassive black hole. While the mechanism of energy transfer and a multitude of effects controlling the plasma flow are yet to be understood, major properties of jets are strikingly similar in a broad range of scales from stellar to galactic. They are supposed to be controlled by a limited number of physical parameters, such as the mass of a central black hole and its spin, magnetic field induction and accretion rate. In a very simplified sense, these parameters define the formation of a typical core-jet structure observed at radio wavelengths in the region of the innermost central tens of parsecs in AGN. These core-jet structures are studied in the radio domain by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) with milli- and sub-milliarcsecond angular resolution. Such structures are detectable at a broad range of redshifts. If observed at a fixed wavelength, a typical core-jet AGN morphology would appear as having a steep-spectrum jet fading away with the increasing redshift while a flat-spectrum core becoming more dominant. If core-jet AGN constitute the same population of objects throughout the redshift space, the apparent ``prominence'' of jets at higher redshifts must decrease (Gurvits 1999): well pronounced jets at high z must appear less frequent than at low z.

  17. A NUMERICAL MODEL OF STANDARD TO BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.

    2013-06-01

    We report on three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of the formation of jets produced during the emergence and eruption of solar magnetic fields. The interaction between an emerging and an ambient magnetic field in the solar atmosphere leads to (external) reconnection and the formation of ''standard'' jets with an inverse Y-shaped configuration. Eventually, low-atmosphere (internal) reconnection of sheared fieldlines in the emerging flux region produces an erupting magnetic flux rope and a reconnection jet underneath it. The erupting plasma blows out the ambient field and, moreover, it unwinds as it is ejected into the outer solar atmosphere. The fast emission of the cool material that erupts together with the hot outflows due to external/internal reconnection form a wider ''blowout'' jet. We show the transition from ''standard'' to ''blowout'' jets and report on their 3D structure. The physical plasma properties of the jets are consistent with observational studies.

  18. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  19. Impact compaction of a granular material

    DOE PAGES

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequentlymore » used for computational modeling.« less

  20. Shock waves in a dilute granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Ansumali, Santosh; Alam, Meheboob

    2014-12-01

    We study the evolution of shock waves in a dilute granular gas which is modelled using three variants of hydrodynamic equations: Euler, 10-moment and 14-moment models. The one-dimensional shock-wave problem is formulated and the resulting equations are solved numerically using a relaxation-type scheme. Focusing on the specific case of blast waves, the results on the density, the granular temperature, the skew temperature, the heat flux and the fourth moment are compared among three models. We find that the shock profiles are smoother for the 14-moment model compared to those predicted by the standard Euler equations. A shock-splitting phenomenon is observed in the skew granular temperature profiles for a blast wave.

  1. Convection in vibrated annular granular beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, R. D.; Martin, T. W.; Krouskop, P. E.; Talbot, J.; Huntley, J. M.; Parker, D. J.

    2005-06-01

    The response to vibration of a granular bed, consisting of a standard cylindrical geometry but with the addition of a dissipative cylindrical inner wall, has been investigated both experimentally (using positron emission particle tracking) and numerically (using hard sphere molecular dynamics simulation). The packing fraction profiles and granular temperature distributions (in both vertical and horizontal directions) were determined as a function of height and distance from the axis. The two sets of results were in reasonable agreement. The molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the behavior of the granular bed in the inner wall-outer wall coefficient of restitution phase space. It was observed that one could control the direction of the toroidal convection rolls by manipulating the relative dissipation at the inner and outer walls via the coefficients of restitution, and with several layers of grains it was seen that double convection rolls could also be formed, a result that was subsequently confirmed experimentally.

  2. Granular statistical mechanics - a personal perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, R.; Edwards, S. F.

    2014-10-01

    The science of granular matter has expanded from an activity for specialised engineering applications to a fundamental field in its own right. This has been accompanied by an explosion of research and literature, which cannot be reviewed in one paper. A key to progress in this field is the formulation of a statistical mechanical formalism that could help develop equations of state and constitutive relations. This paper aims at reviewing some milestones in this direction. An essential basic step toward the development of any static and quasi-static theory of granular matter is a systematic and useful method to quantify the grain-scale structure and we start with a review of such a method. We then review and discuss the ongoing attempt to construct a statistical mechanical theory of granular systems. Along the way, we will clarify a number of misconceptions in the field, as well as highlight several outstanding problems.

  3. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations. PMID:27176375

  4. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  5. Ultrasound features of orbital granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Bernadete; Miller, Neil R; Eberhart, Charles G; Dibernardo, Cathy W

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the echographic characteristics of a rare orbital granular cell tumor and correlate these findings with histopathology. A 56-year-old woman presented with proptosis. Complete ophthalmic and ultrasound examinations were performed. Ultrasound revealed an oval, well-outlined orbital mass in the intraconal space with low-medium reflectivity and regular internal structure. An orbitotomy with complete excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic evaluation showed sheets and nests of cells with abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm in a uniform distribution throughout the lesion. The echographic characteristics correlated well with the morphologic surgical findings and the histologic architecture. This is the first report describing the echographic characteristics of orbital granular cell tumor.

  6. Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

    2012-08-01

    Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (ΩP) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

  7. Numerical investigations on flow dynamics of prismatic granular materials using the discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, W.; Weatherley, D.; Wruck, B.; Chitombo, G. P.

    2012-04-01

    The flow dynamics of granular materials is of broad interest in both the geosciences (e.g. landslides, fault zone evolution, and brecchia pipe formation) and many engineering disciplines (e.g chemical engineering, food sciences, pharmaceuticals and materials science). At the interface between natural and human-induced granular media flow, current underground mass-mining methods are trending towards the induced failure and subsequent gravitational flow of large volumes of broken rock, a method known as cave mining. Cave mining relies upon the undercutting of a large ore body, inducement of fragmentation of the rock and subsequent extraction of ore from below, via hopper-like outlets. Design of such mines currently relies upon a simplified kinematic theory of granular flow in hoppers, known as the ellipsoid theory of mass movement. This theory assumes that the zone of moving material grows as an ellipsoid above the outlet of the silo. The boundary of the movement zone is a shear band and internal to the movement zone, the granular material is assumed to have a uniformly high bulk porosity compared with surrounding stagnant regions. There is however, increasing anecdotal evidence and field measurements suggesting this theory fails to capture the full complexity of granular material flow within cave mines. Given the practical challenges obstructing direct measurement of movement both in laboratory experiments and in-situ, the Discrete Element Method (DEM [1]) is a popular alternative to investigate granular media flow. Small-scale DEM studies (c.f. [3] and references therein) have confirmed that movement within DEM silo flow models matches that predicted by ellipsoid theory, at least for mono-disperse granular material freely outflowing at a constant rate. A major draw-back of these small-scale DEM studies is that the initial bulk porosity of the simulated granular material is significantly higher than that of broken, prismatic rock. In this investigation, more

  8. Preliminary Results of a Microgravity Investigation to Measure Net Charge on Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hansen, Bonnie L.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the electrostatic charge on granular materials has typically been limited to materials with diameters on the order of 10 microns and below due to high settling velocities of larger particles. High settling velocities limit both the time and the acceptable uncertainty with which a measurement can be made. A prototype device has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to measure coulombic charge on individual particles of granular materials that are 50 to 500 microns in diameter. This device, a novel extension of Millikan's classic oil drop experiment, utilizes the NASA GRC 2.2 second drop tower to extend the range of electrostatic charge measurements to accommodate moderate size granular materials. A dielectric material with a nominal grain diameter between 1.06 and 250 microns was tribocharged using a dry gas jet, suspended in a 5x10x10 cm enclosure during a 2.2 second period of microgravity and exposed to a known electric field. The response was recorded on video and post processed to allow tracking of individual particles. By determining the particle trajectory and velocity, estimates of the coulombic charge were made. Over 30 drops were performed using this technique and the analysis showed that first order approximations of coulombic charge could successfully be obtained, with the mean charge of 3.4E-14 coulombs measured for F-75 Ottawa quartz sand. Additionally, the measured charge showed a near-Gaussian distribution, with a standard deviation of 2.14E -14 coulombs.

  9. Characterizing the rheology of fluidized granular matter.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Kenneth W; Villa, Umberto; Newey, Mike; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    In this study we characterize the rheology of fluidized granular matter subject to secondary forcing. Our approach consists of first fluidizing granular matter in a drum half filled with grains via simple rotation and then superimposing oscillatory shear perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. The response of the system is mostly linear, with a phase lag between the grain motion and the oscillatory forcing. The rheology of the system can be well characterized by the GDR MiDi model if the system is forced with slow oscillations. The model breaks down when the forcing time scale becomes comparable to the characteristic time for energy dissipation in the flow. PMID:24125256

  10. Cluster Instability in Freely Evolving Granular Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. Javier

    A granular medium is formed by a large number of macroscopic particles or grains. Here large must be understood at a macroscopic level, i.e. a few thousands or even a few hundreds is already a large number in the present context, as compared with molecular systems which contain a number of atoms or molecules of the order of the Avogadro number. In this lecture, we will restrict ourselves to dry granular systems in which there is not any other fluid around the grains. Also, electrical effects are not considered. Under these circumstances, the grain-grain interaction can be taken as purely repulsive with no attractive part.

  11. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L.I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J.S. . E-mail: jmeyer@mps.ohio-state.edu

    2006-11-15

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g >> 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T {sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  12. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L. I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. zu Koln; Univ. Minnesota; Ohio State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T{sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  13. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Dingxin; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Guijie; Sun, Lingyu

    2016-02-01

    The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ˜ 95% (88% ˜ 98%) of the incident peak force (energy) under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ˜ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  14. Characterizing the rheology of fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Kenneth W.; Villa, Umberto; Newey, Mike; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    In this study we characterize the rheology of fluidized granular matter subject to secondary forcing. Our approach consists of first fluidizing granular matter in a drum half filled with grains via simple rotation and then superimposing oscillatory shear perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. The response of the system is mostly linear, with a phase lag between the grain motion and the oscillatory forcing. The rheology of the system can be well characterized by the GDR MiDi model if the system is forced with slow oscillations. The model breaks down when the forcing time scale becomes comparable to the characteristic time for energy dissipation in the flow.

  15. How granularity issues concern biomedical ontology integration.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; Boeker, Martin; Stenzhorn, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The application of upper ontologies has been repeatedly advocated for supporting interoperability between domain ontologies in order to facilitate shared data use both within and across disciplines. We have developed BioTop as a top-domain ontology to integrate more specialized ontologies in the biomolecular and biomedical domain. In this paper, we report on concrete integration problems of this ontology with the domain-independent Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) concerning the issue of fiat and aggregated objects in the context of different granularity levels. We conclude that the third BFO level must be ignored in order not to obviate cross-granularity integration.

  16. Two scenarios for avalanche dynamics in inclined granular layers.

    PubMed

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Halsey, Thomas C; Ecke, Robert E

    2005-05-27

    We report experimental measurements of avalanche behavior of thin granular layers on an inclined plane for low volume flow rate. The dynamical properties of avalanches were quantitatively and qualitatively different for smooth glass beads compared to irregular granular materials such as sand. Two scenarios for granular avalanches on an incline are identified, and a theoretical explanation for these different scenarios is developed based on a depth-averaged approach that takes into account the differing rheologies of the granular materials.

  17. Homogeneous reactive kinetics applied to granular HNS (hexanitrostilbene). [Hexanitrostilbene; superdetonation waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, M.E.; Setchell, R.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) is a granular explosive that has been studied in a variety of grain sizes and porosities. One of the formulations, a very fine grained HNS (1 to 2 ..mu..m, specific surface area about 8 m/sup 2//g, 8% porosity, reference density 1600 kg/m/sup 3/), is a candidate for slapper-detonator application. In reported observations of shock growth-to-detonation, involving shock pressures below 7 GPa, this particular grade of HNS displayed characteristics usually identified with homogeneous explosives. In particular, instead of the typical growth behavior observed in many granular explosives, there is evidence for the formation of superdetonation waves. In the past, models of reactive flow in granular explosives have focused on the formation and subsequent thermal explosion of hot spots, followed by grain burning. The granular structure of the explosive ensures that heterogeneous heating will occur, typically by void collapse. In the limit as grain size, and consequently void size, decreases, we expect that the variation in temperature caused by heterogeneous heating will become smaller (void collapse less effective in creating local hot spots), and thermal transport more effective (surface area/volume of hot spots increases). For the proposed HNS application, it was perceived that a simple homogeneous model, where the reactant is uniformly shock heated and reacts by thermal explosion, might capture the principal features of the shock initiation behavior. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Jets at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-08-01

    Recent jet results in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV from the CDF experiment at the Tevatron are presented. The jet inclusive cross section is compared to next-to-leading order QCD prediction in different rapidity regions. The b-jet inclusive cross section is measured exploiting the long lifetime and large mass of B-hadrons. Jet shapes, W+jets and W/Z+photon cross sections are also measured and compared to expectations from QCD production.

  19. Protostellar Jets: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, B. F.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Opher, R.

    1998-11-01

    Numerical simulations of astrophysical jets have been made in order to study their collimation and internal structure. Recently Ouyed & Pudritz (1997) did numerical simulations of axi-simetric magnetocentrifugal jets from a keplerian acretion disk employing the eulerian finite difference code Zeus-2D. During their simulation, it was raised a steady state jet confirming a lot of results of the MHD winds steady state theory. Following this scenario we did tridimensional numerial simulations of this model allowing the jet, after a perturbation, evolve into a not steady state producing the helical features observed in some protostellar jets.

  20. The Dynamics of Baroclinic Zonal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple alternating zonal jets are a ubiquitous feature of planetary atmospheres and oceans. However, most studies to date have focused on the special case of barotropic jets. Here, the dynamics of freely evolving baroclinic jets are investigated using a two-layer quasigeostrophic annulus model with sloping topography. In a suite of 15 numerical simulations, the baroclinic Rossby radius and baroclinic Rhines scale are sampled by varying the stratification and root-mean-square eddy velocity, respectively. Small-scale eddies in the initial state evolve through geostrophic turbulence and accelerate zonally as they grow in horizontal scale, first isotropically and then anisotropically. This process leads ultimately to the formation of jets, which take about 2500 rotation periods to equilibrate. The kinetic energy spectrum of the equilibrated baroclinic zonal flow steepens from a -3 power law at small scales to a -5 power law near the jet scale. The conditions most favorable for producing multiple alternating baroclinic jets are large baroclinic Rossby radius (i.e., strong stratification) and small baroclinic Rhines scale (i.e., weak root-mean-square eddy velocity). The baroclinic jet width is diagnosed objectively and found to be 2.2-2.8 times larger than the baroclinic Rhines scale, with a best estimate of 2.5 times larger. This finding suggests that Rossby wave motions must be moving at speeds of approximately 6 times the turbulent eddy velocity in order to be capable of arresting the isotropic inverse energy cascade.

  1. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy (53 FR 33163... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  2. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  3. Numerical Simulations of Plasma Jets for PLX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Messer, S.; Case, A.; Phillips, M.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Welch, D.; Thoma, C.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S.; Thompson, J. R.; Kim, J. S.; Macfarlane, J.; Golovkin, I.

    2011-10-01

    Two and three-dimensional simulations are performed using the hybrid particle-in-cell code LSP to study liner formation for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX). These include studies of plasma transport within small parallel-plate MiniRailguns, issues related to detachment of the jet from the nozzle, and the subsequent propagation of single jets in Cartesian coordinates. Merging of plasma jets is studied mainly in cylindrical coordinates at present. Varied number of railguns (or jets) are used in this study with initial velocity of 50-100 km/s, initial argon number density of 1016 cm-3 to 1017 cm-3, and initial temperature of ~3 eV. The effects on liner formation from jet initial profiles (density, velocity and temperature distribution) are studied to explore behavior. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental data from merging jet experiments currently being conducted at HyperV using 1cm bore MiniRailguns. The LSP code is used to perform the simulations using improved fluid algorithms and equation-of-state models from Voss and atomic data from Prism. Work supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Work supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.

  4. [Fe II] jets from intermediate-mass protostars in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan; Bally, John

    2016-09-01

    We present new HST/WFC3-IR narrowband [Fe II] images of protostellar jets in the Carina Nebula. Combined with 5 previously published sources, we have a sample of 18 jets and 2 HH objects. All of the jets we targeted with WFC3 show bright infrared [Fe II] emission, and a few Hα candidate jets are confirmed as collimated outflows based on the morphology of their [Fe II] emission. Continuum-subtracted images clearly separate jet emission from the adjacent ionization front, providing a better tracer of the collimated jet than Hα and allowing us to connect these jets with their embedded driving sources. The [Fe II] 1.64 μm/Hα flux ratio measured in the jets is ≳ 5 times larger than in the adjacent ionization fronts. The low-ionization jet core requires high densities to shield Fe+ against further ionization by the FUV radiation from O-type stars in the H II region. High jet densities imply high mass-loss rates, consistent with the intermediate-mass driving sources we identify for 13 jets. The remaining jets emerge from opaque globules that obscure emission from the protostar. In many respects, the HH jets in Carina look like a scaled-up version of the jets driven by low-mass protostars. Altogether, these observations suggest that [Fe II] emission is a reliable tracer of dense, irradiated jets driven by intermediate-mass protostars. We argue that highly collimated outflows are common to more massive protostars, and that they suggest the outflow physics inferred for low-mass stars formation scales up to at least ˜8 M⊙.

  5. Recovery of palladium(II) by methanogenic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Pat-Espadas, Aurora M; Field, James A; Otero-Gonzalez, Lila; Razo-Flores, Elías; Cervantes, Francisco J; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-02-01

    This is the first report that demonstrates the ability of anaerobic methanogenic granular sludge to reduce Pd(II) to Pd(0). Different electron donors were evaluated for their effectiveness in promoting Pd reduction. Formate and H2 fostered both chemically and biologically mediated Pd reduction. Ethanol only promoted the reduction of Pd(II) under biotic conditions and the reduction was likely mediated by H2 released from ethanol fermentation. No reduction was observed in biotic or abiotic assays with all other substrates tested (acetate, lactate and pyruvate) although a large fraction of the total Pd was removed from the liquid medium likely due to biosorption. Pd(II) displayed severe inhibition towards acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as indicated by 50% inhibiting concentrations as low as 0.96 and 2.7 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained indicate the potential of utilizing anaerobic granular sludge bioreactor technology as a practical and promising option for Pd(II) reduction and recovery offering advantages over pure cultures.

  6. Numerical simulation of subaqueous chute flows of granular materials.

    PubMed

    Varsakelis, C; Papalexandris, M V

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report on numerical studies of unsteady, gravity-driven flow of a subaqueous erodible granular bed on an inclined plane. According to our simulations, the evolution of the flow can be partitioned in three phases. In the first phase, due to the onset of an interfacial instability, the material interface deforms into a series of long waves. In the second phase, these waves are transformed to skewed vortex ripples that grow in time and eventually coalesce. The computed wavelengths of these ripples are in good agreement with previously reported experimental measurements. In the third phase of the flow evolution, the high fluid velocities wash out the vortex ripples and a layer of rapidly moving particles is formed at the material interface. The predicted granular velocities comprise two segments: a concave one at the vicinity of the material interface, where the maximum is attained, followed by a slightly convex one, where they decrease monotonically to zero. The same trend has been reported in experimental results for the corresponding steady flows. Finally, we investigate via a parametric study the effect of the configuration stresses, which represent contact forces between grains. As it turns out, such stresses have a stabilizing effect, in the sense that increasing their magnitude inhibits the formation of vortex ripples. PMID:25985944

  7. Flow and fracture in water-saturated, unconstrained granular beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas, Germán; Ramos, Gabriel; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Vidal, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    The injection of gas in a liquid-saturated granular bed gives rise to a wide variety of invasion patterns. Many studies have focused on constrained porous media, in which the grains are fixed in the bed and only the interstitial fluid flows when the gas invades the system. With a free upper boundary, however, the grains can be entrained by the ascending gas or fluid motion, and the competition between the upward motion of grains and sedimentation leads to new patterns. We propose a brief review of the experimental investigation of the dynamics of air rising through a water-saturated, unconstrained granular bed, in both two and three dimensions. After describing the invasion pattern at short and long time, a tentative regime-diagram is proposed. We report original results showing a dependence of the fluidized zone shape, at long times, on the injection flow rate and grain size. A method based on image analysis makes it possible to detect not only the fluidized zone profile in the stationary regime, but also to follow the transient dynamics of its formation. Finally, we describe the degassing dynamics inside the fluidized zone, in the stationary regime. Depending on the experimental conditions, regular bubbling, continuous degassing, intermittent regime or even spontaneous flow-to-fracture transition are observed.

  8. Experimental studies on the kinematics of cutting in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, T. G.; Saldana, C.; Yadav, S.; Du, F.

    2013-06-01

    Slow flow in granular materials is characterized by high solid fraction and sustained inter-particle interaction. The kinematics of trawling or cutting is encountered in processes such as locomotion of organisms in sand; trawl gear movement on a soil deposit; plow movement; movement of rovers, earth moving equipment etc. Additionally, this configuration is very akin to shallow drilling configuration encountered in the mining and petroleum industries. An experimental study has been made in order to understand velocity and deformation fields in cutting of a model rounded sand. Under nominal plane strain conditions, sand is subjected to orthogonal cutting at different tool-rake angles. High-resolution optical images of the region of cutting were obtained during the flow of the granular ensemble around the tool. Interesting kinematics underlying the formation of a chip and the evolution of the deformation field is seen in these experiments. These images are also analyzed using a PIV algorithm and detailed information of the deformation parameters such as velocity, strain rate and volume change is obtained.

  9. Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-04-01

    We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ϕ. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ϕc, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ϕ<ϕc FD increases monotonically with displacement and is independent of drag velocity for the range of velocities examined (<10 cm/s). For ϕ>ϕc, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ϕ>ϕc increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ϕ>ϕc are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ϕ>ϕc the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ϕ<ϕc the shear strain is not localized, the shear band fluctuates in space and time, and the average shear increases monotonically with displacement. Laser speckle measurements made at the granular surface ahead of the plate reveal that for ϕ<ϕc particles are in motion far from the intruder and shearing region. For ϕ>ϕc, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region.

  10. Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-04-01

    We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ϕ. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ϕc, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ϕ <ϕc FD increases monotonically with displacement and is independent of drag velocity for the range of velocities examined (<10 cm/s). For ϕ >ϕc, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ϕ >ϕc increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ϕ >ϕc are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ϕ >ϕc the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ϕ <ϕc the shear strain is not localized, the shear band fluctuates in space and time, and the average shear increases monotonically with displacement. Laser speckle measurements made at the granular surface ahead of the plate reveal that for ϕ <ϕc particles are in motion far from the intruder and shearing region. For ϕ >ϕc, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region.

  11. CONTROL OF INTERFACIAL DUST CAKE TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY OF MOVING BED GRANULAR FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Gerald M. Colver

    2002-10-31

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of moving bed granular filters for gas cleaning at high temperatures and pressures. A second objective is to better understand dust capture interfacial phenomena and cake formation in moving bed filters. The experimental bed tested in the present study has several unique design features configured as cold flow, axially symmetric, counter-current flow to simulate a filter operating at high temperatures (1088 K) and elevated pressures (10 atmospheres). The granular filter is evaluated in two separate performance studies: (1) optimization of particle collection efficiency and bed pressure drop in a factorial study at near-atmospheric operating pressures through appropriate use of granular bed materials, particle sizes, and feed rates; and (2) high temperature and high pressure model simulation conducted at above-atmospheric pressures and room temperature utilizing dust and granular flow rates, granular size, system pressure, and superficial velocity. The factorial study involves a composite design of 16 near-atmospheric tests, while the model simulation study is comprised of 7 above-atmospheric tests. Similarity rules were validated in tests at four different mass dust ratios and showed nearly constant collection efficiencies ({approx} 99.5 {+-} 0.3%) for operating pressures of 160 kPa gage (23.2 psig) at room temperature (20 C), which simulates the hydrodynamic conditions expected for typical gasification streams (1088 K, 10 atmospheres). An important outcome from the near-atmospheric pressure studies are relationships developed using central composite design between the independent variables, superficial velocity (0.16-0.22 m/s), dust feed rate (0.08-0.74 kg/hr), and granular flow rate (3.32-15.4 kg/hr). These operating equations were optimized in contour plots for bed conditions that simultaneously satisfy low-pressure drop and high particle collection efficiency.

  12. Singular Jets and Bubbles in Drop Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Denis; Josserand, Christophe; Bonn, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    We show that when water droplets gently impact on a hydrophobic surface, the droplet shoots out a violent jet, the velocity of which can be up to 40 times the drop impact speed. As a function of the impact velocity, two different hydrodynamic singularities are found that correspond to the collapse of the air cavity formed by the deformation of the drop at impact. It is the collapse that subsequently leads to the jet formation. We show that the divergence of the jet velocity can be understood using simple scaling arguments. In addition, we find that very large air bubbles can remain trapped in the drops. The surprising occurrence of the bubbles for low-speed impact is connected with the nature of the singularities, and can have important consequences for drop deposition, e.g., in ink-jet printing.

  13. A computational investigation of impulsive and pulsed starting annular jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad Mohamed Refaat

    2011-12-01

    A computational study is carried out on low Reynolds number impulsive and pulsating annular jets. This work is inspired by the biological flow of marine life that uses jet propulsion for self maneuver. Marine life such as squids and jellyfish propel themselves by discharging a water jet followed by a refilling phase. The discharging portion is a starting jet, i.e. the releasing of a moving fluid into a quiescent fluid, while the refilling phase can be viewed as an inflow jet. The combined jets will be called fully oscillating jets. Although fully oscillating jets have been indirectly examined experimentally, they have never been studied computationally. This dissertation is divided into three investigations that examine the starting jet, inflow jet, and fully oscillating jet based on the resultant force (i.e. either thrust or suction force) at the annulus exit plane, jet efficiency, and vortex dynamics. Furthermore, each of the following three performance criterion is examined under various velocity imposed boundaries (i.e. impulsive, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed jets), ambient pressure, and blocking ratios. An axisymmetric, incompressible and unsteady Navier Stokes numerical model was used to implement the analysis. The model was validated against theoretical and experimental results, where both result types bounded the computational results of this endeavor. In addition, numerical verification was carried out on each of the three investigations ensuring grid and time independent results. Several substantial outcomes were drawn from the results of the three investigations. The numerical results confirmed previously published experimental data regarding the universal dimensionless time scale (i.e. vortex formation number) of optimal vortex ring development triggered by starting jets. Moreover, the computational results showed evidence that the vortex formation number was not affected by ambient pressure nor blocking ratio. The computational results also

  14. Long-term impact of anaerobic reaction time on the performance and granular characteristics of granular denitrifying biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Guo, Gang; Wang, Hong; Stephenson, Tom; Guo, Jianhua; Ye, Liu

    2013-09-15

    Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus (P) from wastewater is successfully and widely practiced in systems employing both granular sludge technology and enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) processes; however, the key parameter, anaerobic reaction time (AnRT), has not been thoroughly investigated. Successful EBPR is highly dependent on an appropriate AnRT, which induces carbon and polyphosphate metabolism by phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). Therefore, the long-term impact of AnRT on denitrifying P removal performance and granular characteristics was investigated in three identical granular sludge sequencing batch reactors with AnRTs of 90 (R1), 120 (R2) and 150 min (R3). The microbial community structures and anaerobic stoichiometric parameters related to various AnRTs were monitored over time. Free nitrite acid (FNA) accumulation (e.g., 0.0008-0.0016 mg HNO2-N/L) occurred frequently owing to incomplete denitrification in the adaptation period, especially in R3, which influenced the anaerobic/anoxic intracellular intermediate metabolites and activities of intracellular enzymes negatively, resulting in lower levels of poly-P and reduced activity of polyphosphate kinase. As a result, the Accumulibacter-PAOs population decreased from 51 ± 2.5% to 43 ± 2.1% when AnRT was extended from 90 to 150 min, leading to decreased denitrifying P removal performance. Additionally, frequent exposure of microorganisms to the FNA accumulation and anaerobic endogenous conditions in excess AnRT cases (e.g., 150 min) stimulated increased extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production by microorganisms, resulting in enhanced granular formation and larger granules (size of 0.6-1.2 mm), but decreasing anaerobic PHA synthesis and glycogen hydrolysis. Phosphorus removal capacity was mediated to some extent by EPS adsorption in granular sludge systems that possessed more EPS, longer AnRT and relatively higher GAOs.

  15. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOEpatents

    McIlwain, Michael E.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Golenko, Zsolt; Wittstein, Alan D.

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  16. Dimpling in loose granular sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Dimpling is the name given to the centimetre-scale collapse of granular deposits covering the interior of alteration shelters in semi-arid badlands. The development of micro-collapses is favoured by the stable conditions found in these shelters, where they are safe from water flows, rain impact, and animal or human traffic. The floor of these shelters is usually covered by several centimetres of sandy sediment resulting from the alteration of the rocky substratum and characterised by apparently very low density and high porosity. We have observed that the dimpling phenomenon does not depend on the mineralogy of the sands and occurs in dry conditions. The dimples are the shapes resulting from this process and are fragile, conical depressions ranging from 1 to 12 cm in diameter. They are generally over 3 cm in depth, depending on the depth of the sandy layer. The dimples can be classified into three groups by diameter (Ø): Ø≤1cm, 1cm≤Ø≤10 cm and Ø≥10 cm. These three morphometrical ranges suggest three evolutionary stages of the shapes. The main mechanisms of evolution are the coalescence of neighbouring dimples and the accommodation of the lateral walls towards more open, stable shapes. In this process, the slope of the dimple walls decreases to the angle of equilibrium, or internal friction angle of the sediment, when they acquire a more stable, dense structure. This evolution occurs naturally over several months. The process begins when sufficient sediment with low apparent density accumulates. This takes place by vertical accretion of particles from the shelter walls, which pile up in a stack-of-cards type structure. The increase in weight of the sediment column causes punctual micro-collapses when the limit of the sediment's self-supporting capacity is reached. The process is gravitational. Thermal variations can also condition the structural instability of the sediment due to the dilation-retraction changes undergone by the sediment grains. We can

  17. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Joe

    2014-03-01

    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  18. Drag on intruder in dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hu; Bares, Jonathan; Wang, Dong; Behringer, Robert

    2015-11-01

    We perform an experimental study on an intruder dragged at a constant force in a quasi-statically cyclic-sheared granular medium. A Teflon disk is embedded in a layer of bidisperse photoelastic disks. The granular medium is contained in a horizontal square cell, which can be deformed into a parallelogram with the same area to produce simple shear. We find that the forward motion of the intruder happens at the fragile state during shear reversals, while only reversible affine motion could be found at the Jammed state. There is a burst of non-affine motion for the granular particles at each shear reversal. For a range of packing fractions, the cumulative intruder displacement shows a linear increase proportional to the number of cycles of shear. To explain the behavior of intruder motion, we analyze the coordination number, density, affine and non-affine motion of disk-granular system variations as the shear strain. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant No. DMR1206351, NASA Grant No. NNX15AD38G and the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  20. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  1. Motile Fluids: Granular, Colloidal and Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-03-01

    My talk will present our recent results from theory, simulation and experiment on flocking, swarming and instabilities in diverse realizations of active systems. The findings I will report include: flocking at a distance in vibrated granular monolayers; the active hydrodynamics of self-propelled solids; clusters, asters and oscillations in colloidal chemotaxis. Supported by a J C Bose Fellowship.

  2. Granular Gas in a Periodic Lattice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorbolo, S.; Brandenbourger, M.; Damanet, F.; Dister, H.; Ludewig, F.; Terwagne, D.; Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2011-01-01

    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration [image omitted] of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low…

  3. On jet substructure methods for signal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Powling, Alexander; Siodmok, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    We carry out simple analytical calculations and Monte Carlo studies to better understand the impact of QCD radiation on some well-known jet substructure methods for jets arising from the decay of boosted Higgs bosons. Understanding differences between taggers for these signal jets assumes particular significance in situations where they perform similarly on QCD background jets. As an explicit example of this we compare the Y-splitter method to the more recently proposed Y-pruning technique. We demonstrate how the insight we gain can be used to significantly improve the performance of Y-splitter by combining it with trimming and show that this combination outperforms the other taggers studied here, at high p T . We also make analytical estimates for optimal parameter values, for a range of methods and compare to results from Monte Carlo studies.

  4. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  5. Granular Mechanics in the Asteroid Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Paul; Swift, M. R.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    We study the granular mechanics properties of asteroid regolith and of asteroids modeled as gravitational aggregates using soft-sphere molecular simulation codes. For definiteness we assume parameters similar to the asteroid Itokawa, for which we have detailed observational data. Essential questions that can be studied using the techniques of granular mechanics are why large blocks dominate 80% of the surface of Itokawa and why the remaining 20% is uniformly covered with smaller particles, indicating global segregation mechanisms at work on this body. The prime energy source proposed for the segregation of granular materials on asteroids has been seismic shaking due to hypervelocity impacts with asteroids much smaller than the target body. We analyze the detailed mechanics of segregation physics in the asteroid environment due to such interactions. First we analyze the so-called Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), which preferentially causes larger particles to rise to the highest potential energy in a granular material. We note that the regions of highest potential on Itokawa are dominated by larger blocks, while the potential lows are dominated by smaller blocks. We verify and characterise the BNE effect in an asteroid environment under a variety of boundary and shaking conditions. We also extend our analyses to a global-scale simulation of aggregates, modeling the response of self-gravitating granules of a mixture of sizes to impacts. Analysis of such global-scale systems show additional mechanics that may account for the exposure of large blocks on the surface. Specifically we find that hypervelocity impacts are more effective in removing and transporting smaller regolith, exposing sub-surface larger blocks that might otherwise be covered in finer grained material. We discuss the scaling of granular mechanics effects from local regolith to global aggregate scale.

  6. Supporting user-defined granularities in a spatiotemporal conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatri, V.; Ram, S.; Snodgrass, R.T.; O'Brien, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Granularities are integral to spatial and temporal data. A large number of applications require storage of facts along with their temporal and spatial context, which needs to be expressed in terms of appropriate granularities. For many real-world applications, a single granularity in the database is insufficient. In order to support any type of spatial or temporal reasoning, the semantics related to granularities needs to be embedded in the database. Specifying granularities related to facts is an important part of conceptual database design because under-specifying the granularity can restrict an application, affect the relative ordering of events and impact the topological relationships. Closely related to granularities is indeterminacy, i.e., an occurrence time or location associated with a fact that is not known exactly. In this paper, we present an ontology for spatial granularities that is a natural analog of temporal granularities. We propose an upward-compatible, annotation-based spatiotemporal conceptual model that can comprehensively capture the semantics related to spatial and temporal granularities, and indeterminacy without requiring new spatiotemporal constructs. We specify the formal semantics of this spatiotemporal conceptual model via translation to a conventional conceptual model. To underscore the practical focus of our approach, we describe an on-going case study. We apply our approach to a hydrogeologic application at the United States Geologic Survey and demonstrate that our proposed granularity-based spatiotemporal conceptual model is straightforward to use and is comprehensive.

  7. Implementation And Performance of the ATLAS Second Level Jet Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Conde Muino, Patricia; Aracena, I.; Brelier, B.; Cranmer, K.; Delsart, P.A.; Dufour, M.A.; Eckweiler, S.; Ferland, J.; Idarraga, J.; Johns, K.; LeCompte, T.; Potter, C.; Robertson, S.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Segura, E.; Silverstein, D.; Vachon, B.; /McGill U.

    2011-11-09

    ATLAS is one of the four major LHC experiments, designed to cover a wide range of physics topics. In order to cope with a rate of 40MHz and 25 interactions per bunch crossing, the ATLAS trigger system is divided in three different levels. The jet selection starts at first level with dedicated processors that search for high E{sub T} hadronic energy depositions. At the LVL2, the jet signatures are verified with the execution of a dedicated, fast jet reconstruction algorithm, followed by a calibration algorithm. Three possible granularities have been proposed and are being evaluated: cell based (standard), energy sums calculated at each Front-End Board and the use of the LVL1 Trigger Towers. In this presentation, the design and implementation of the jet trigger of ATLAS will be discussed in detail, emphasazing the major difficulties of each selection step. The performance of the jet algorithm, including timing, efficiencies and rates will also be shown, with detailed comparisons of the different unpacking modes.

  8. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  9. Transition to a labyrinthine phase in a driven granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merminod, Simon; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Labyrinthine patterns arise in two-dimensional physical systems submitted to competing interactions, in fields ranging from solid-state physics to hydrodynamics. For systems of interacting particles, labyrinthine and stripe phases were studied in the context of colloidal particles confined into a monolayer, both numerically by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally using superparamagnetic particles. Here we report an experimental observation of a labyrinthine phase in an out-of-equilibrium system constituted of macroscopic particles. Once sufficiently magnetized, they organize into short chains of particles in contact and randomly orientated. We characterize the transition from a granular gas state towards a solid labyrinthine phase, as a function of the ratio of the interaction strength to the kinetic agitation. The spatial local structure is analyzed by means of accurate particle tracking. Moreover, we explain the formation of these chains using a simple model.

  10. Simulating Granular Materials Using a 3D Voronoi Subdivision Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our world is full of many different types of granular materials. This includes materials such as silt, sand, and gravel and have various sizes and properties. It is of interest to simulate and visualize granular media as it can provide additional analysis and insight into geologic events such as landslides or debris flows. Unfortunately, this can be a computationally complex problem due to the large amount of physical interaction between granular materials. To help alleviate this problem, we have developed a method to represent granular media using a technique called a 3D Voronoi Subdivision Tree. The idea behind our method is to take a convex terrain volume and use a subdivision tree to build smaller, granular subpieces contained within the volume. We use a 3D Voronoi subdivision technique to create smaller granular convex cells and then store them in the tree. The tree is dynamic and adaptive as it only represents individual granular media when they are needed. In addition, as each of the granular subpieces are created, we can also store attributes of that granular material in the tree node. This ensures a diversity of granular materials contained within the volume. In order to maintain performance during simulation, we can dynamically replace parts of the granular volume with smaller granular subpieces just by traversing the tree. In essence, this allows for many different granular materials to be represented within the volume while reducing computational complexity. As such, this helps with simulation performance so that focus can be placed on simulation analysis. We feel our method is helpful for simulating geologic events with granular materials and will assist geoscientists in understanding them.

  11. Hotspots, Jets and Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the nature of `hotspots' and `jet knots' in the kpc-scale structures of powerful radio galaxies and their relationship to jet-environment interactions. I describe evidence for interaction between the jets of FRI sources and their local environments, and discuss its relationship to particle acceleration, but the main focus of the paper is the hotspots of FRIIs and on new observational evidence on the nature of the particle acceleration associated with them.

  12. Characteristics of polar coronal hole jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekhar, K.; Bemporad, A.; Banerjee, D.; Gupta, G. R.; Teriaca, L.

    2014-01-01

    Context. High spatial- and temporal-resolution images of coronal hole regions show a dynamical environment where mass flows and jets are frequently observed. These jets are believed to be important for the coronal heating and the acceleration of the fast solar wind. Aims: We studied the dynamics of two jets seen in a polar coronal hole with a combination of imaging from EIS and XRT onboard Hinode. We observed drift motions related to the evolution and formation of these small-scale jets, which we tried to model as well. Methods: Stack plots were used to find the drift and flow speeds of the jets. A toymodel was developed by assuming that the observed jet is generated by a sequence of single reconnection events where single unresolved blobs of plasma are ejected along open field lines, then expand and fall back along the same path, following a simple ballistic motion. Results: We found observational evidence that supports the idea that polar jets are very likely produced by multiple small-scale reconnections occurring at different times in different locations. These eject plasma blobs that flow up and down with a motion very similar to a simple ballistic motion. The associated drift speed of the first jet is estimated to be ≈27 km s-1. The average outward speed of the first jet is ≈171 km s-1, well below the escape speed, hence if simple ballistic motion is considered, the plasma will not escape the Sun. The second jet was observed in the south polar coronal hole with three XRT filters, namely, C-poly, Al-poly, and Al-mesh filters. Many small-scale (≈3″-5″) fast (≈200-300 km s-1) ejections of plasma were observed on the same day; they propagated outwards. We observed that the stronger jet drifted at all altitudes along the jet with the same drift speed of ≃7 km s-1. We also observed that the bright point associated with the first jet is a part of sigmoid structure. The time of appearance of the sigmoid and that of the ejection of plasma from the bright

  13. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  14. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of Accumulibacter phosphatis-enriched floccular and granular biofilm.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jeremy J; Dutilh, Bas E; Skennerton, Connor T; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, forming diverse adherent microbial communities that perform a plethora of functions. Here we operated two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors enriched with Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Reactors formed two distinct biofilms, one floccular biofilm, consisting of small, loose, microbial aggregates, and one granular biofilm, forming larger, dense, spherical aggregates. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, we investigated the proteomic differences between these two biofilm communities, identifying a total of 2022 unique proteins. To understand biofilm differences, we compared protein abundances that were statistically enriched in both biofilm states. Floccular biofilms were enriched with pathogenic secretion systems suggesting a highly competitive microbial community. Comparatively, granular biofilms revealed a high-stress environment with evidence of nutrient starvation, phage predation pressure, and increased extracellular polymeric substance and cell lysis. Granular biofilms were enriched in outer membrane transport proteins to scavenge the extracellular milieu for amino acids and other metabolites, likely released through cell lysis, to supplement metabolic pathways. This study provides the first detailed proteomic comparison between Accumulibacter-enriched floccular and granular biofilm communities, proposes a conceptual model for the granule biofilm, and offers novel insights into granule biofilm formation and stability.

  16. Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of Accumulibacter phosphatis-enriched floccular and granular biofilm.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jeremy J; Dutilh, Bas E; Skennerton, Connor T; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, forming diverse adherent microbial communities that perform a plethora of functions. Here we operated two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors enriched with Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Reactors formed two distinct biofilms, one floccular biofilm, consisting of small, loose, microbial aggregates, and one granular biofilm, forming larger, dense, spherical aggregates. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, we investigated the proteomic differences between these two biofilm communities, identifying a total of 2022 unique proteins. To understand biofilm differences, we compared protein abundances that were statistically enriched in both biofilm states. Floccular biofilms were enriched with pathogenic secretion systems suggesting a highly competitive microbial community. Comparatively, granular biofilms revealed a high-stress environment with evidence of nutrient starvation, phage predation pressure, and increased extracellular polymeric substance and cell lysis. Granular biofilms were enriched in outer membrane transport proteins to scavenge the extracellular milieu for amino acids and other metabolites, likely released through cell lysis, to supplement metabolic pathways. This study provides the first detailed proteomic comparison between Accumulibacter-enriched floccular and granular biofilm communities, proposes a conceptual model for the granule biofilm, and offers novel insights into granule biofilm formation and stability. PMID:26279094

  17. Numerical and experimental study of rotating jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungwon; Che, Zhizhao; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir

    2015-11-01

    Rotating jets are investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. The experiments are performed on a rotating jet rig and the effects of a range of parameters controlling the liquid jet are investigated, e.g. jet flow rate, rotation speed, jet diameter, etc. Different regimes of the jet morphology are identified, and the dependence on several dimensionless numbers is studied, e.g. Reynolds number, Weber number, etc. The breakup process of droplets is visualized through high speed imaging. Full three-dimensional direct numerical simulations are performed using BLUE, a massively parallel two-phase flow code. The novel interface algorithms in BLUE track the gas-liquid interface through a wide dynamic range including ligament formation, break up and rupture. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  18. Control of flames by tangential jet actuators in oxy-fuel burners

    SciTech Connect

    Boushaki, Toufik; Sautet, Jean-Charles; Labegorre, Bernard

    2009-11-15

    The active control of oxy-fuel flames from burners with separated jets is investigated. The control system consists of four small jet actuators, placed tangential to the exit of the main jets to generate a swirling flow. These actuators are able to modify the flow structure and to act on mixing between the reactants and consequently on the flame behavior. The burner (25 kW) is composed of separated jets, one jet of natural gas and one or two jets of pure oxygen. Experiments are conducted with three burner configurations, according to the number of jets, the jet exit velocities, and the separation distance between the jets. OH chemiluminescence measurements, particle image velocimetry, and measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are used to characterize the flow and the flame structure. Results show that the small jet actuators have a significant influence on the behavior of jets and the flame characteristics, particularly in the stabilization zone. It is shown that the control leads to a decrease in lift-off heights and to better stability of the flame. The use of jet actuators induces high jet spreading and an increase in turbulence intensity, which improves the mixing between the reactants and the surrounding fluid. Pollutant measurements show important results in terms of NO{sub x} reductions (up to 60%), in particular for low swirl intensity. The burner parameters, such as the number of jets and the spacing between the jets, also impact the flame behavior and NO{sub x} formation. (author)

  19. Granular controls of hillslope deformation and creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Ortiz, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment transport on hillslopes has been described as "creep", and has been modeled as a "diffusive" process by invoking random disturbance of soil in the presence of a gradient. In this framework, physical and biological agents are envisioned to cause dilation of the soil that is greatest at the surface and decays with depth. Thus, there is a kind of internal energy of the sediment that allows flow, even below the angle of repose. This transport has not yet been connected, however, to the more general phenomenon of creep in disordered, particulate systems. Work in such "soft matter" materials has shown that disordered solids are fragile, and may deform slowly by localized particle rearrangement under static loads much smaller than the yield stress at which fluid-like flow occurs. The transition from creep to granular flow has not been thoroughly examined. Here we use particle dynamics simulations to examine creep and granular flow dynamics and the transition between them, and to test the ability of a granular physics model to describe observations of hillslope soil creep. We employ a well-developed discrete element model, with frictional and over-damped interactions among grains to approximate the conditions of earth hillslopes. Transient and equilibrium particle dynamics are described for a range of inclination angles that transit the angle of repose. We verify that sub-threshold creep occurs, even in the absence of internal energy, and describe its dynamic signature. Moreover, simulations show that the transition from creeping to a sustained granular flow is continuous as the angle of repose is crossed. We then perturb the granular system with acoustic vibrations, to directly compare the model with previously-reported laboratory experiments of acoustically-driven hillslope transport. We test the ability of the model to reproduce the heuristic nonlinear hillslope flux law. Results reveal that the bulk movement of hillslope sediment over long timescales may be

  20. Numerical studies of solar chromospheric jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Haruhisa

    2016-03-01

    The solar chromospheric jet is one of the most characteristic structures near the solar surface. The quantitative understanding of chromospheric jets is of substantial importance for not only the partially ionized phenomena in the chromosphere but also the energy input and dissipation processes in the corona. In this dissertation, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated using the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We newly develop a numerical code for the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the comprehensive modeling of solar atmosphere. Because the solar chromosphere is highly nonlinear, magnetic pressure dominated, and turbulent, a robust and high-resolution numerical scheme is required. In Chapter 2, we propose a new algorithm for the simulation of magnetohydrodynamics. Through the test problems and accuracy analyses, the proposed scheme is proved to satisfy the requirements. In Chapter 3, the effect of the non-local radiation energy transport, Spitzer-type thermal conduction, latent heat of partial ionization and molecule formation, and gravity are implemented to the magnetohydrodynamic code. The numerical schemes for the radiation transport and thermal conduction is carefully chosen in a view of the efficiency and compatibility with the parallel computation. Based on the developed radiation magnetohydrodynamic code, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated. In Chapter 4, we investigate the dependence of chromospheric jets on the coronal temperature in the two-dimensional simulations. Various scale of chromospheric jets with the parabolic trajectory are found with the maximum height of 2–8 Mm, lifetime of 2–7 min, maximum upward velocity of 10– 50 km/s, and deceleration of 100–350 m/s2. We find that chromospheric jets are more elongated under the cool corona and shorter under the hot corona. We also find that the pressure gradient force caused by the periodic shock waves accelerates